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Sample records for capreolus capreolus seedbed

  1. Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns in a boreal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnell, J.D.C.; Nijhuis, P.G.T.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Andersen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Bed-site selection by 19 radio-collared roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns from seven family groups was studied during June-July 1998 in southeastern Norway. The habitat consisted of small agricultural fields surrounded by industrially exploited boreal forest. Within the forest, fawns selected

  2. Identification of a novel Mannheimia granulomatis lineage from pathological lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Eight atypical Mannheimia isolates were isolated from lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Traditional classification based on morphologic and physiologic traits showed that they belong to a distinct biogroup (taxon) within genus Mannheimia. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested...... that the isolates should be classified as M. granulomatis, although the presence of distinct traits justified their classification into a separate biogroup within this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences from two roe deer isolates and 41 other Mannheimia strains supported that the roe deer...

  3. [Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer.

  4. Blood plasma proteins and protein fractions in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L.

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    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate some selected biochemical blood parameters in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.. The experiment covered 15 from 2 to 3-year-old bucks from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The animals were shot by individual hunters on the shooting grounds during the hunting season of 2008/2009 (in the accordance with the Journal of Laws No 48. The material for the research was blood plasma obtained after centrifuging full, nonhemolyzed blood. The blood was collected from the zygomatic vein directly to the test tubes with EDTA and transported in cooling conditions to the laboratory. After transporting the samples of blood to a certified analytical laboratory, the following elements of the obtained blood plasma were examined: ceruloplasmin . using turbidimetric method; transferrin . using immunoturbimetric method; troponin- using a third generation assay on an Elecsys; total protein, albumin, globulin . using spectrophotometric method and total iron . using colorimetric method. The results were statistically analyzed, i.e. the correlation between the parameters was measured by means of Pearsonfs correlation coefficient. The analysis of the results revealed a number of statistically significant relations between the parameters under the investigation, especially among the compounds directly responsible for metabolism of iron and copper. A statistically important positive correlation was observed between ceruloplasmin and ferritin (r = 0.563; P.0.05 and a negative one between transferrin and troponin (r = -0.609; P.0.05. Moreover, the content of transferrin . an iron-binding protein . was 0.17 g/l, while the concentration of iron was 58 ƒĘmol/l. The content of ceruloplasmin . a protein responsible for metabolism of copper . was very low (0.036 g/l. The level of proteins in the blood plasma of the animals under the research was approximately 72 g/l, with the share of albumins about 46%. The albumin-globulin ratio was 0.86.

  5. Early developed section of the jaw as an index of prenatal growth conditions in adult roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that conditions in early life have important consequences for ultimate body size and fitness. Skeletal parts are often used as retrospective indices of body size and growth constraints because of their resistance to seasonal variation in resource availability. Yet, slow......-maturing bones are poor predictors of resource limitations during early development, as later benign conditions may lead to compensatory growth. We analysed the temporal growth dynamics of different sections of the lower jaw of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and found that the medioanterior section of the lower...... post partum and, as such, potentially leaves a fingerprint of prenatal growth conditions that is evident even in adult individuals. This supports earlier findings in ungulates of a shift in skeletal growth spurts after weaning, and suggests that the choice of skeletal index for population and cohort...

  6. Hoof Growth Rates of the European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus for Dating the Hoof’s Isotopic Archive

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    Benjamin D. Hafner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hooves preserve the isotopic information laid down during their growth and may be used for reconstruction of animal feeding history. To assign certain positions along hooves to corresponding times, growth rates are required. Hoof growth rates are known for domestic animals; however, they cannot be obtained easily in wild animals. We estimated the hoof growth rate of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. by using the immediate drop in δ13C along the hoof as a tag that is assigned to the date of maize (Zea mays L. harvest. Keratin samples were taken each mm along 17 hooves and analyzed for their δ13C. A linear regression between (1 time differences of expected maize harvest to animal death and (2 distances between the points of the δ13C drop to the periople yielded the growth rate. Mean hoof growth rate was 0.122 mm/day (95% CI 0.014 mm/day and 0.365%/day (±0.026%/day of the hoof length and within the range of domestic animals. The method may be applied to determine growth rates of other incrementally growing tissues. Our estimated growth rate fosters dating isotopic information in hooves, facilitating research on feed resources and space use of roe deer.

  7. Detection and molecular characterization of the mosquito-borne filarial nematode Setaria tundra in Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

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    Heidi Larsen Enemark

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer were found free in the peritoneal cavity. The worms were identified as S. tundra by morphological examination and/or molecular typing of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cox1 genes, which showed 99.1–99.8% identity to previously published S. tundra isolates from Europe. Roe deer are generally considered as asymptomatic carriers and their numbers in Denmark have increased significantly in recent decades. In light of climatic changes which result in warmer, more humid weather in Scandinavia greater numbers of mosquitoes and, especially, improved conditions for development of parasite larvae in the mosquito vectors are expected, which may lead to increasing prevalence of S. tundra. Monitoring of this vector-borne parasite may thus be needed in order to enhance the knowledge of factors promoting its expansion and prevalence as well as predicting disease outbreaks.

  8. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

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    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  9. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) in Germany.

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    Kauffmann, Melanie; Rehbein, Steffen; Hamel, Dietmar; Lutz, Walburga; Heddergott, Mike; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2017-02-01

    Infections with the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. can cause febrile disease in several mammalian species, including humans. Wild ruminants in Europe are suggested to serve as reservoir hosts for particular strains or species of these pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon orientalis) in Germany, and the diversity and host association of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia species. From 2009 to 2010, 364 spleen samples from 153 roe deer, 43 fallow deer and 168 mouflon from 13 locations in Germany were tested for DNA of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. by real-time PCR or conventional PCR, respectively. Variants of A. phagocytophilum were investigated with a nested PCR targeting the partial 16S rRNA gene, and species of piroplasms were identified by sequencing. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in 303 (83.2%) samples: roe deer, 96.1% (147/153); fallow deer, 72.1% (31/43); and mouflon, 74.4% (125/168). Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA-PCR products revealed the presence of nine different genetic variants. DNA of Babesia spp. was found in 113 (31.0%) samples: roe deer, 62.8% (96/153); fallow deer, 16.3% (6/43); and mouflon, 6.5% (11/168). Babesia capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1 (referred to also as B. venatorum), B. odocoilei-like and a Theileria species were identified. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. were detected in 30.0% of the animals which were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and/or Babesia spp. Roe deer had a significantly higher percentage of co-infections (60.8%), followed by fallow deer (14.0%) and mouflon (6.5%). Thus, the results suggest that roe deer plays a key role in the endemic cycles of the pathogens investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa excreta on alanine aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

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    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the analysis of Cd impact on the total activity (nM pyruvic acid/ml s of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2 nitrogen metabolism and the content (mg/ml of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves subject, which dominated in the research area (natural floodplain oak with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts Cd(NO32 in the concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.50 g/m2, equivalent to Cd in 1, 5 and 10 doses of MAC. The content of doses of MAC of Cd (5 mg/kg soil was taken into account during introduction. We observed the inhibition of the activity of ALT 3–4 times (with adding the Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС compared to controls (area without pollution of Cd and excreta of mammals. This stress reaction took place in the protein complex as well. Thus, albumin content was equal to 72% and 80% (with Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (the area without pollution and excretory functions of mammals. It proved nonspecific response to stress. Using excreta of Capreolus capreolus L. and Sus scrofa L. shows the reduction of Cd effects and increasing the metabolic activity of ALT by 41% and 105%, respectively (with adding of Cd 1 MAC compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 1 MAC. The effect of Cd 5 MAC is offset (only with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 5 MAC. Normalization of the albumin content (with adding of Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (сontrol of Cd at a dose 1 MAC and сontrol of Cd at a dose 5 MAC with using of excreta of C. capreolus was observed. In conditions of Cd at a doze 10 MAC the ALT activity was reduced 2 times with the introduction of excreta of C. capreolus as S. scrofa compared to control (Cd at a dose 10 MAC. The introduction of excreta of S. scrofa compared with C. capreolus restored the albumin content by 10% to the control. Thus, the feasibility of using different biological

  11. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

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    Mateja Pate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis. In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

  12. Struttura e dinamica di popolazione del Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus nella Riserva Naturale Bosco di Vanzago

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    F. Sotti

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La ricerca effettuata sulla popolazione di Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus nella Riserva Naturale Bosco di Vanzago aveva lo scopo di approfondire le conoscenze sulla struttura e sulla dinamica di una popolazione d'ambiente planiziale che vive in condizioni del tutto peculiari: origine da un numero limitato di fondatori, isolamento, assenza di predatori naturali, elevata densità. Dal 1984 la popolazione è stata monitorata mediante censimenti in battuta e da punti di vantaggio, dai quali è stata ricavata una stima della dimensione della stessa pari a 54 individui nel 2003. La struttura di popolazione ed i parametri demografici sono stati rilevati dal 1994 anche mediante osservazioni dirette, effettuate percorrendo settimanalmente un tracciato standard finalizzato a coprire l'intera area di studio. La popolazione è risultata significativamente sbilanciata a favore delle femmine con una sex-ratio, nell'ultimo biennio, pari a 1,4 (Χ² = 49,36; g.l. = 1; P < 0,0001. La classe d'età degli adulti (maggiori di 2 anni è stata la più rappresentata (50,2%, mentre quella dei giovani la meno numerosa (23,6%. Per stimare l'andamento della popolazione nel tempo, sono stati elaborati i parametri demografici per effettuare delle simulazioni di vitalità (PVA utilizzando il software Vortex 8.21. Nonostante l'elevata densità di caprioli all'interno dell'area di studio, sia in assenza sia in presenza di depressione da inbreeding e considerando la riproduzione indipendente dalla densità, la popolazione nei successivi 30 anni non andrebbe incontro ad una diminuzione significativa del numero né della probabilità di sopravvivenza che, in entrambi i casi, si manterrebbe attorno al 99%. Nel caso in cui esistesse, invece, una correlazione tra successo riproduttivo e densità, si assisterebbe ad un sensibile decremento sia nei livelli di popolazione (inferiore alle cinque unità dopo trent'anni sia nella probabilità di sopravvivenza (ridotta al 20% dopo

  13. Taux d'abroutissement, indicateur de la charge et du régime alimentaire des ongulés sauvages en milieu tempéré et/ou tropical : cas du chevreuil (Capreolus capreolus L.

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    Kaposo, LM.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Taux d'abroutissement, indicateur de la charge et du régime alimentaire des ongulés sauvages en milieu tempéré et/ou tropical : cas du chevreuil (Capreolus capreolus L.. The grazing habitat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. had been surveyed during spring, summer and automn seasons of 1988 in Lauzelle Woods using 24 enclosed and unenclosed areas in order to measure the degree of stress on the vegetation exerted by the animal and to establish its alimentary regime. In general, in the woods the availability of the vegetation was sufficient for the roe deer and hence they do not exert any stress on the vegetation. Nevertheless, they exert some stress on some vegetation that had low rate of regrowth. The examination of the chemical composition of the fecal matter revealed that the vegetation of Lauzelle Woods provided a good quality forage with 21 % crude protein.

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of four Sarcocystis spp., including Sarcocystis linearis n. sp., from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Italy.

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    Gjerde, Bjørn; Giacomelli, Stefano; Bianchi, Alessandro; Bertoletti, Irene; Mondani, Hajime; Gibelli, Lucia Rita

    2017-04-01

    Fresh (frozen/thawed) muscle samples from four 2-12-year-old roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the Sondrio province in north-eastern Italy were examined under a dissecting microscope, and about 180 sarcocysts were isolated and identified to morphological type in wet mounts by light microscopy (LM). Seventy-seven of these sarcocysts were subsequently examined by molecular methods, comprising polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) of all isolates, as well as PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the complete18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of two isolates of each species found. By LM, three major sarcocyst types were recognised: spindle-shaped sarcocysts, 0.5-3 mm long, either with no clearly recognisable protrusions (thin-walled) or with finger-like protrusions (thick-walled); and slender, thread-like sarcocysts, 2-3 mm long, with hair-like protrusions. Sequencing of cox1 revealed that the sarcocysts belonged to four different species. Those with no visible protrusions either belonged to Sarcocystis gracilis (n = 24) or to a Sarcocystis taeniata-like species (n = 19), whereas those with finger- and hair-like protrusions belonged to Sarcocystis silva (n = 27) and Sarcocystis capreolicanis (n = 7), respectively. The 19 cox1 sequences of the S. taeniata-like species, comprising five haplotypes, differed from each other at 0-16 of 1038 nucleotide positions (98.5-100% identity). They differed from 25 previous cox1 sequences of S. taeniata from moose and sika deer (with 98.0-100% intraspecific identity), at 33-43 nucleotide positions (95.9-96.8% interspecific identity), and there were 20 fixed nucleotide differences between the two populations. In the phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 sequences, the two populations formed two separate monophyletic clusters. The S. taeniata-like species in roe deer was therefore considered to represent a separate species, which was named

  15. Assessing regional variation of environmental fluoride concentrations in Western Germany by analysis of antler fluoride content in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

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    Kierdorf, U.; Kierdorf, H. [University of Giessen, Giessen (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    To assess regional variation in ambient fluoride levels, the fluoride content of 188 antlers of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) killed between 1990 and 1999 in 14 areas of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany were analyzed. Individual antler fluoride concentrations ranged between 113 and 11,995 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, and sample means differed significantly (p {lt} 0.0001) among the study areas. Low average concentrations (geometric means of 262 and 277 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, respectively) were found in antler samples from two control areas, located quite remote to major fluoride emission sources. The highest geometric mean fluoride content (1,677 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash) was recorded for an antler sample from a study area exposed to fluoride emissions from an aluminium smelter and two mineral coal-fired power stations. In eight antlers obtained from roe deer living in the direct vicinity of the aluminium smelter, fluoride values ranged between 2,067 and 11,995 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, thereby demonstrating the strong impact of this emission source on its surroundings. The study showed that by analyzing antler fluoride concentrations, large-scale surveys of environmental contamination by fluoride can be performed in a standardized and cost-effective way in areas inhabited by deer. Due to its rather narrow home range, abundance, and high adaptability, the roe deer is particularly suited for such studies.

  16. The influence of lipid compounds on the content of fluorides in antlers and cranial bones of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.).

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    Sobota, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Fluorine is a lipophilic element and for this reason lipids play a significant role in the accumulation and metabolism of fluorides in organs and bodily fluids. One of the places where interactions between fluorides and lipids can be observed are bones and antlers of deer. Even though the overall content of fluorides and lipid compounds in bones has repeatedly been analysed, we still know little about their interactions in antlers which are shed every year. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the total content of total lipids and five most important fatty acids, linoleic acid (C 18:2 delta 9.12), oleic acid (C 18:1 delta 9), palmitic acid (C 16:0), stearic acid (C 18:0), and eicosadienoic acid (C 20:2 delta 11.14), and the content of fluorides in cranial bones and antlers of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.). The content of fluorides in antlers and cranial bones of roe deer was measured with an ion-selective electrode, total lipids were determined with a spectrophotometric method, and fatty acids were identified with gas chromatography and an internal standard (heptadecanoic acid C 17:0). The mean amount of fluorides in antlers and cranial bones was 0.0004 mg/g (SD: 0.10718) and 0.0004 mg/g (SD: 0.14988), respectively. The mean content of lipids in antlers and cranial bones was 64.63736 mg/g (SD: 17.62648) and 73.03208 mg/g (SD: 22.69000), respectively. In older animals, a tendency for fluorides to accumulate in antlers and frontal bones may be the reason why antlers appear less impressive, i.e. undergo involution.

  17. Struttura di popolazione del Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus in relazione a habitat, densità e rischio predatorio

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    Laura Bontardelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus population structure in relation to habitat, density and predation risk We compared sex and age structure of three roe deer Capreolus capreolus populations living under different condition of habitat, population density and risk of predation. A first population inhabited a 230 km² mountainous area from 800 and 2.000 m a.s.l. in the northern Apennines ("Parco del Gigante", population A. This area is covered by oak and beech woods, shrubs, grasslands and prairies and hosts two wolf packs. The second population was living in a hilly rural area ("Parco regionale dei Boschi di Carrega", population B of about 1600 hectares, characterised by oak and chestnut woods broken by meadows and winter wheat crops; no large carnivores were present. The third population occurred in an enclosure of about 68 hectares ("Oasi WWF Bosco di Vanzago", population C, in the Po Plain; this area is covered by deciduous mixed woods broken by crops and meadows without large carnivores. We monitored the first population since 1996 to 1998, while 2nd and 3rd was studied from 1993 to 1996. Densities were estimated by drive censuses; sex and age classes (young: <1 year old; subadult: 1-2 years; adult: >2 years were assessed by vantage-point counts, from November to February. Population density was 10 ind/km² in A study area, 40-50 ind/km² in B and 38-45 ind/km² in C. Population structure varied among the three study areas: young class was more represented in B, in spite of high population density, sub-adult class in C. Adults were prevailing in all three populations (more than 60% with the higher percentage in the C study area (70.6%. Sex ratio was equal only in B study area, while was in behalf of female in A and C populations. It seems that population structure depended on by all considered factors, even if in different way; it is problematic to individuate the

  18. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus.

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    Zhipeng Li

    Full Text Available The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus. The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera. The phyla Firmicutes (51.2% and Bacteroidetes (39.4% were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01 different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004. These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY

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    I. Pisano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  20. Genotyping of Capreolus pygargus fossil DNA from Denisova cave reveals phylogenetic relationships between ancient and modern populations.

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    Nadezhda V Vorobieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extant roe deer (Capreolus Gray, 1821 includes two species: the European roe deer (C. capreolus and the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus that are distinguished by morphological and karyotypical differences. The Siberian roe deer occupies a vast area of Asia and is considerably less studied than the European roe deer. Modern systematics of the Siberian roe deer remain controversial with 4 morphological subspecies. Roe deer fossilized bones are quite abundant in Denisova cave (Altai Mountains, South Siberia, where dozens of both extant and extinct mammalian species from modern Holocene to Middle Pleistocene have been retrieved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed a 629 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region from ancient bones of 10 Holocene and four Pleistocene Siberian roe deer from Denisova cave as well as 37 modern specimen belonging to populations from Altai, Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Yakutia, Novosibirsk region and the Russian Far East. Genealogical reconstructions indicated that most Holocene haplotypes were probably ancestral for modern roe deer populations of Western Siberia and Tian Shan. One of the Pleistocene haplotypes was possibly ancestral for modern Yakutian populations, and two extinct Pleistocene haplotypes were close to modern roe deer from Tian Shan and Yakutia. Most modern geographical populations (except for West Siberian Plains are heterogeneous and there is some tentative evidence for structure. However, we did not find any distinct phylogenetic signal characterizing particular subspecies in either modern or ancient samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from both ancient and modern samples of Siberian roe deer shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of roe deer. Our data indicate that during the last 50,000 years multiple replacements of populations of the Siberian roe deer took place in the Altai Mountains correlating with climatic changes. The Siberian

  1. Reconstruction of the putative cervidae ancestral karyotype by chromosome painting of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) with dromedary probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyeva, P V; Trifonov, V A; Kulemzina, A I; Graphodatsky, A S

    2010-06-01

    The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is one of a few deer species presumably preserving the ancestral cervid karyotype. The comparative genomic data of the Siberian roe deer are critical for our understanding of the karyotypic relationships within artiodactyls. We have established chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) by cross-species chromosome painting with dromedary chromosome-specific painting probes. Dromedary chromosome paints detected 53 autosomal homologies in the genome of the Siberian roe deer. The identification of chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and cattle resulted from previously detected cattle-dromedary homologies. We have found 8 chromosomal rearrangements (6 fissions in the Siberian roe deer, 1 fission in the cattle and 1 inversion on the CPY11) that have separated the karyotypes of the cattle and the Siberian roe deer. The inversion on CPY11 might be an apomorphic trait of cervids, since we detected its presence in the gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Thus our data further prove the scenario of chromosomal rearrangements that was previously proposed and add some new data. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Transcription of a protein-coding gene on B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most eukaryotic species represent stable karyotypes with a particular diploid number. B chromosomes are additional to standard karyotypes and may vary in size, number and morphology even between cells of the same individual. For many years it was generally believed that B chromosomes found in some plant, animal and fungi species lacked active genes. Recently, molecular cytogenetic studies showed the presence of additional copies of protein-coding genes on B chromosomes. However, the transcriptional activity of these genes remained elusive. We studied karyotypes of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) that possess up to 14 B chromosomes to investigate the presence and expression of genes on supernumerary chromosomes. Results Here, we describe a 2 Mbp region homologous to cattle chromosome 3 and containing TNNI3K (partial), FPGT, LRRIQ3 and a large gene-sparse segment on B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer. The presence of the copy of the autosomal region was demonstrated by B-specific cDNA analysis, PCR assisted mapping, cattle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone localization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). By comparative analysis of B-specific and non-B chromosomal sequences we discovered some B chromosome-specific mutations in protein-coding genes, which further enabled the detection of a FPGT-TNNI3K transcript expressed from duplicated genes located on B chromosomes in roe deer fibroblasts. Conclusions Discovery of a large autosomal segment in all B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer further corroborates the view of an autosomal origin for these elements. Detection of a B-derived transcript in fibroblasts implies that the protein coding sequences located on Bs are not fully inactivated. The origin, evolution and effect on host of B chromosomal genes seem to be similar to autosomal segmental duplications, which reinforces the view that supernumerary chromosomal elements might play an important role in genome

  3. Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

  4. Cephenemyiosis, an emergent myiasis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Arias María; Gerardo, Pajares; Natividad, Díez-Baños; Ana, Pérez-Creo; Alberto, Prieto; Pablo, Díez-Baños; Patrocinio, Morrondo

    2016-12-01

    Cephenemyia stimulator larvae cause a specific myiasis in roe deer, which is widely distributed in Europe. In Spain, this parasite was detected by the first time in 2005, coinciding with a high mortality of this ruminant especially in northwest of the country. The aim of this study was to analyse the results obtained by necropsy and ELISA to elucidate when the first infestation by C. stimulator in roe deer from northwestern Spain occurred, as well as to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors on the prevalence and intensity of infestation. During 1994-2000, none seropositive roe deer was observed by ELISA. However, from 2007 to 2014, 38 % of animals were seropositive. The results of the necropsy pointed that prevalence and intensity of infestation had increased over the years. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of animals harbouring C. stimulator larvae and seroprevalence values. This significant correlation was also observed between the seroprevalence and mean intensity of infestation. Adult roe deer showed higher prevalence and intensity of infestation than younger reaching statistical significance. It is also detected that the prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in males than in females although the mean number of larvae found in females were higher than in males. The combined use of direct and indirect techniques demonstrated a high prevalence of C. stimulator infestation in roe deer in the northwest of Spain, which certainly highlights the importance of this myiasis during the last years.

  5. A First Attempt at Modelling Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus Distributions Over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil S Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of roe deer can be an important component within ecological and epidemiological systems contributing to the risk and spread of a range of vector-borne diseases. Deer are important hosts for many vectors, and may therefore serve as a focal point or attractant for vectors or may themselves act as a reservoir for vector-borne disease. Three spatial modelling techniques were used to generate an ensemble model describing the proportion of suitable roe deer habitat within recorded distributions for Europe as identified from diverse sources. The resulting model is therefore an index of presence, which may be useful in supporting the modelling of vector-borne disease across Europe.

  6. Caratteristiche dei segni di marcatura territoriale nel capriolo, Capreolus capreolus L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Sorino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I maschi maturi di capriolo sono territoriali dagli inizi della primavera (aprile fino all?epoca degli amori, tardo agosto ? inizio settembre. Durante il periodo territoriale, i maschi eseguono due tipi di marcatura olfattiva a significato territoriale: le raspate e i fregoni. Le prime sono effettuate con le ghiandole site tra le dita delle zampe anteriori, i secondi con le ghiandole poste alla base dei palchi. Nel presente contributo si riportano alcuni risultati preliminari sull?abbondanza relativa dei due tipi di marcatura in due habitat alpini con differente copertura vegetazionale, per stabilire se questa influenzi la scelta del tipo di marcatura. L?area di studio è situata nella Val Chisone (Alpi nord ? occidentali ed è compresa tra i 1800 e i 1900 metri di quota con una superficie di 238,5 ha. L?area è caratterizzata da un pascolo di 96,5 ha (pari al 40,5% dell?area e da un lariceto di 142 ha (pari al 59,5% dell?area. Lo studio è stato effettuato nel periodo estivo nell?arco del triennio 2001-2003. I segni territoriali sono stati rilevati in aree di forma quadrata con lati di 15 metri (225 m² campionate con un metodo di randomizzazione. In ogni area campione si è valutato il numero, le dimensioni e la densità dei segni di marcatura nonché il tipo di stratificazione vegetazionale (arborea, arbustiva, erbacea, le classi percentuali di copertura, il numero di piante marcate e quelle potenzialmente marcabili. Per valutare l?esistenza di correlazione tra i segni di marcatura e i diversi parametri ambientali misurati si sono utilizzati dei test di Spearman. Sono stati rilevati 52 fregoni (x = 3,71; SE = 0,90 e 24 raspate (x = 1,71; SE = 0,57. Il 68% dei fregoni è stato rilevato in aree campione con una densità di alberelli inferiore a 3,1 alberelli/10 m², mentre il 100% delle raspate è stato rinvenuto in aree campione con una densità di alberelli inferiore a 2,2 alberelli/10 m². In ogni area campione il numero di fregoni è positivamente correlato al numero di alberelli (rs = 0,921 p<0,001, mentre il numero di raspate diminuisce in maniera statisticamente significativa al diminuire del numero di alberelli (rs = -0,814 p<0,001. Entrambi i tipi di marcatura si rinvengono con maggiore frequenza nelle aree con struttura vegetazionale più aperta, in cui la densità degli alberelli è inferiore a 4 alberelli/10 mq. Sia la dimensione di ogni singola raspata che la distanza tra queste sono correlate negativamente alla densità degli alberelli, per cui sembra che, almeno per questo segno di marcatura, l?attività di marcatura sia distribuita in maniera omogenea.

  7. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    Tavernier, Paul; Sys, Stanislas U.; De Clercq, Kris; De Leeuw, Ilse; Caij, Anne Brigitte; De Baere, Miet; De Regge, Nick; Fretin, David; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Heyman, Paul; Vanrompay, Daisy; Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle; Suin, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas.Materials and methods: Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent.Results and dis...

  8. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Paul; Sys, Stanislas U; De Clercq, Kris; De Leeuw, Ilse; Caij, Anne Brigitte; De Baere, Miet; De Regge, Nick; Fretin, David; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Heyman, Paul; Vanrompay, Daisy; Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle; Suin, Vanessa; Brochier, Bernard; Dobly, Alexandre; De Craeye, Stéphane; Roelandt, Sophie; Goossens, Els; Roels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%), Toxoplasma gondii (43.2%) and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%), the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%), tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%), Neospora caninum (4.8%), and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%). The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%), and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%). No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year) was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females). Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species.

  9. Amino acids content and basic chemical composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) meat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cygan-Szczegielniak, D; Janicki, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of roe deer meat considering the animals' sex and age and to estimate the content of amino acids in the meat from two selected groups of the animals, i.e...

  10. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tavernier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Materials and methods: Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190 were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. Results and discussion: High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (43.2% and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%, the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%, tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%, Neospora caninum (4.8%, and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%. The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%, bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%, and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%. No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females. Conclusions: Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species.

  11. First Record of Setaria Tundra in Danish Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Oksanen, A.

    2011-01-01

    No previous finds of the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra have been reported from Denmark, although it was described decades ago in Swedish and Norwegian reindeer as well as in roe deer from Germany, Bulgaria and more recently also from Italy and Finland. Setaria spp. are usually ...... and thereby larger numbers of mosquitoes, it is important to monitor this vector-borne parasite. This will not only increase the understanding of factors promoting its expansion but also help to predict disease outbreaks....... considered harmless inhabitants of the abdominal cavity of ungulates causing only focal areas of mild chronic peritonitis. However, in recent years S. tundra has been associated with an emerging epidemic disease resulting in severe morbidity and mortality for both reindeer and moose in Finland. The Danish......, and may be connected to the spreading of this parasite. In reindeer heavy worm burdens of S. tundra have been found to cause severe peritonitis and negatively affect body condition score. Thus in the light of the possible climatic changes which could result in warmer, more humid weather in Scandinavia...

  12. Srna obična (Capreolus capreolus) - od uzgoja do visokovrijedne namirnice

    OpenAIRE

    Konjević, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Prirodni uzgoj srneće divljači osigurava respektabilnu masu visokovrijednih namirnica godišnje. S obzirom na specifičnosti prirodnog uzgoja divljači, kvaliteta mesa srna nalazi se pod utjecajem brojnih endogenih i egzogenih čimbenika na koje je teško utjecati. Iz toga se razloga naglasak stavlja na postupak s divljači po odstrjelu u cilju poboljšanja i što boljeg očuvanja divljačine te osiguravanja što boljeg higijenskog statusa mesa. U ovome radu iznijet je čitav niz čimbenika na koje treba ...

  13. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due...

  14. Temporal patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) at sites with wildlife warning reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerle, Jim-Lino; Kröschel, Max; Hagen, Robert; Storch, Ilse; Suchant, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    Every year, there are millions of documented vehicle collisions involving cervids across Europe and North America. While temporal patterns in collision occurrence are relatively well described, few studies have targeted deer behaviour as a critical component of collision prevention. In this study, we investigated weekly and daily patterns in road crossing behaviour in roe deer. Using road crossing events and movement data obtained from GPS telemetry, we employed mixed-effect models to explain frequency and timing of crossings at five road segments by a number of predictors including traffic volume, deer movement activity and the presence of wildlife warning reflectors. We analysed 13,689 road crossing events by 32 study animals. Individual variation in crossing frequency was high but daily patterns in crossing events were highly consistent among animals. Variation in the intensity of movement activity on a daily and seasonal scale was the main driver of road crossing behaviour. The seasonal variation in crossing frequency reflected differences in movement activity throughout the reproductive cycle, while daily variation in the probability to cross exhibited a clear nocturnal emphasis and reflected crepuscular activity peaks. The frequency of road crossings increased as a function of road density in the home-range, while traffic volume only exerted marginal effects. Movement activity of roe deer in our study coincided with commuter traffic mainly in the early morning and late afternoon during winter and during periods of high spatial activity such as the rut. Both timing and frequency of crossing events remained unchanged in the presence of reflectors. Our results emphasise the importance of behavioural studies for understanding roe deer vehicle-collision patterns and thus provide important information for collision prevention. We suggest that mitigation of collision risk should focus on strategic seasonal measures and animal warning systems targeting drivers. PMID:28953951

  15. The diet of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the forest ecosystems of Zhytomirske Polesie of the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnov Volodymyr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The botanical composition of the European roe deer diet in the radioactively contaminated forest ecosystems of Zhytomirske Polesie of the Ukraine was investigated. Deer were caught monthly over a two–year period on three plots in forest habitats typical for Zhytomirske Polesie (fresh and moist mixed coniferous forests and mixed broadleaved forests. An analysis of the stomach contents of hunted deer showed that they consumed leafy as well as leafless stems, grasses, fruits and mushrooms depending on the season and availability of forest plants. Each season was characterized by one major dietary component. In the spring, the main component of the deer diet was the stems of woody plants. 44 species of vascular plants (3% of the natural flora of the region were identified in the roe deer diet including 41 species of Magnoliophyta, of which 34 species of Magnoliopsida and 7 species of Liliopsida, 2 species of Polipodiophyta and one species of Pinophyta. Species such as aspen (Populus tremula, oak (Quercus robur, blackberry (Rubus nessensis and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus were consumed year-round.

  16. Examination of the nasal botfly (Cephenemyia stimulator, Clark, 1815 in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, Linnaeus, 1758, in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Pinnyey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined roe deer in the southern part of Hungary, in different habitats, in the last two hunting seasons. The subject of the examination was the nasal botfly (Cephenemyia stimulator larvae in the roe deer. We examined to what extent the larva influences key parameters of the roe deer. We researched the skulls of roe deer and we found the different developmental instar larvae. We collected all possible data about these roe deer: the age, the body weight, the condition, the sex and the trophy (antler weight in case of the bucks. We analyzed and classified the collected and calculated data and specified the typical indicators of parasitology, e.g. the number of infected roe deer, the proportion of infected roe deer, the number of larvae, the parasitism, the prevalence, the mean intensity.

  17. Influence of age and sex on the CLA and other fatty acids content in roe deer meat (Capreolus capreolus L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cygan-Szczegielniak, Dorota; Janicki, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    Meat is an important source of animal protein but, at the same time, it includes saturated fatty acids, which makes it a potential cause of different cardiovascular diseases and still little is known...

  18. Estudio sobre la infestación por larvas de Cephenemyia stimulator (díptero: Oestridae) en corzos (Capreolus capreolus) del norte de España

    OpenAIRE

    Pajares Bernaldo de Quirós, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Entre los años 2012 y 2014 se realizó la necropsia de 98 corzos capturados en diferentes localidades del NO de España. Se recogieron datos referentes al sexo, edad, así como al entorno de procedencia (fecha, localidad, provincia, etc). Mediante necropsia, que es el procedimiento de referencia, se observaron elevadas prevalencias e intensidades de infestación por larvas de Cephenemyia stimulator, lo que, confirma la importancia que ha adquirido esta miasis en los últimos años. El sexo y la eda...

  19. Conceptus-endometrial interactions and reproductive hormone profiles during embryonic diapause and reactivation of the blastocyst in the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Lambert

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Roe deer blastocysts exhibit obligate embryonic diapause between early August and late December. The blastocyst then expands and elongates rapidly before implantation. The objective of this study was to ascertain the cues for reactivation of the diapausing blastocyst. Blood samples and reproductive tracts were collected from roe does during diapause, blastocyst expansion and subsequent implantation. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17/3, progesterone and prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Luteal progesterone release was determined following in vitro incubation. Conceptuses and endometrial tissue were cultured with 3H-leucine for 24 hours to measure de novo synthesis of secretory proteins. Endometrial secretory proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results showed that peripheral progesterone concentrations declined by 55% just prior to expansion and did not rise until a 3-fold increase after implantation. Luteal progesterone release remained constant until expansion when it declined by 50% before increasing 2-fold at elongation and implantation. Concentrations of oestradiol-17/3 remained at a consistently low level during diapause and expansion until a 30-fold increase at elongation with concentrations remaining elevated after implantation. Plasma prolactin levels remained at basal concentrations during late diapause and then increased marginally at reactivation before decreasing again at elongation and implantation. Incorporation of radiolabel into both conceptus and endometrial secretory proteins was low during diapause, but incorporation in the conceptus increased 4¬fold at expansion and by 24-fold at the expanded trophoblast stage. Incorporation into endometrial secretoty proteins remained constant until the expanded trophoblast stage and implantation when a 2-fold increase was recorded. Furthermore, the profile of endometrial secretory proteins was constant during diapause and expansion but changed qualitatively following implantation. These data indicate that both endometrial protein synthesis and sectetion did not change during late diapause and early expansion. The increase in conceptus protein synthesis not only precedes that of the endometrium but consistently low luteal progesterone release, peripheral progesterone and oestradioi-17/J concentrations at early expansion suggests that reactivation is not in response to a maternal uterine trigger.

  20. Selezione invernale dell'habitat e densità del cervo (Cervus elaphus) e del capriolo (Capreolus capreolus) nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo

    OpenAIRE

    Latini, R; Pizzol, I.; Ferrera, G.; Kleuser, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo è stata studiata la selezione dell'habitat invernale di cervo e capriolo da aprile a maggio del 2000 e del 2002, in un'area caratterizzata da boschi di faggio, rimboschimenti a pino nero e pascoli. È stata utilizzata la tecnica del pellet group count, su transetti lineari larghi 2 metri, individuati ogni 100 m di quota, lungo le isoipse da 1350 a 1950 m s.l.m. Sono stati percorsi 61 km ed è stata campionata un'area di 12 ha. Per ogni gruppo d...

  1. Forensic analysis of bone in Regio antebrachii of deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in order to determine origin of animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are frequent cases of poaching in which it is necessary to determine to which animal species the prey belonged on the basis of morphological characteristics of the bone. In this case, the Department of Forensic Medicine received material for giving an expert opinion on the left and right forearm (radius and ulna and twelve pieces of the ribs. The ribs were completely broken, so in order to identify the bones as belonging to a particular animal species, only the radius and ulna were used. Forensic analysis was perfomed by comparing the osteological features of the delivered bones with those of museum specimens of deer and sheep bones. The forearm (ossa antebrachii of the deer is slender and thin, and it is massive and heavier in sheep. There are two interosseus spaces (spatium interosseum antebrachii of the forearm in the deer and only one in the sheep. The olecranon tuber (tuber olecrani of the sheep is triangular in shape, and in deer it is divided into cranial and caudal prominences. The radial tuberosity (tuberositas radii of the sheep is better defined. Based on morphological characteristics of the disputed bones we found that the submitted material originated from a doe.

  2. Diet composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa volcanic zone (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work outlines the results of a study on the food consumed by roe deer carried out in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone, where 49 roe deer were reintroduced from 1995 to 1998. This is a protected area of about 12,000 ha, in which oak and beech forests predominate. Faecal analysis was chosen as the most appropriate method for sampling diet composition despite the scarcity of faecal samples encountered from 1998 to 2001 (n=30. A total of 7,500 epidermal fragments were identified from these samples. Results showed that ivy (Hedera helix and bramble (Rubus sp. formed the bulk of the diet (23% and 21%, respectively. Woody species also formed an important part, reaching 33% of total fragments. Herbs and grasses were only notable in the spring-summer period. Some major vegetation components such as beech (Fagus sylvatica were rarely consumed by deer.

    [fr]
    Voici le résultat d'une étude sur l'alimentation du chevreuil dans le Parc Naturel de la Zone Volcanique de la Garrotxa, où 49 individus furent introduits entre 1995 et 1998. Il s'agit d'un espace protégé de 12 000 ha environ, dominé par les forêts de chênes et de hêtres. Malgré le nombre très bas d'excréments rencontrés entre 1998 et 2001 (n=30, leur analyse nous a paru la meilleure méthode pour tester la composition de l'alimentation. À partir de ces échantillons, nous avons identifié 7 500 fragments d'épiderme. Les résultats nous montrent que le lierre (Hedera helix et la ronce (Rubus sp. sont l'alimentation principale (23 et 21% respectivement. Toutefois, les espèces ligneuses sont également à considérer, puisqu'elles forment 33% des fragments totaux. Les herbes et les graminées s'avèrent importantes au cours du printemps-été. Il est à noter que les principaux composants de la végétation tel le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica étaient très rarement consommés.
    [es]
    Se exponen los resultados de un estudio de la alimentación del corzo llevado a cabo en el Parque Natural de la Zona Volcánica de la Garrotxa, donde 49 corzos fueron reintroducidos desde 1995 hasta 1998. Este área protegida comprende unas 12.000 ha con predominio de bosques de roble y haya. El análisis de heces fue considerado como el método más apropiado para determinar la composición de la dieta, a pesar de la escasez de muestras fecales halladas desde 1998 a 2001 (n=30. A partir de dichas muestras fueron identificados un total de 7.500 fragmentos epidérmicos. Los resultados muestran que la hiedra (Hedera helix y la zarza (Rubus sp. forman el grueso de la dieta (23% y 21%, respectivamente. Las especies leñosas forman también una parte importante, alcanzando el 33% del total de los fragmentos epidérmicos. Las herbáceas sólo fueron importantes en el periodo primavera-verano. Algunos componentes mayoritarios de la vegetación, como el haya (Fagus sylvatica, fueron raramente consumidos.

  3. Influence of Seedbed type and Crop Density on the yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan during 1999 and 2000 second cropping seasons (August - October) to assess the effects of two seedbed types (raised seedbed and no tillage) and four crop densities (4,000,000; 1,000,000; 444,444 and 250,000 plants ha-1 ...

  4. Moral regeneration: Seedbeds for civic virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet G.J. Meiring

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking his cue from a recent report by the US National Council on Civil Society, the author discusses a number of “seedbeds of civic virtue” that may play a role in the much needed moral regeneration of South African society. The “seedbeds” are (1 family, (2 the local community, (3 faith communities, (4 voluntary civil organizations, (5 arts and art institutions, (6 education, (7 business, labour and economic institu-tions, (8 the media, (9 government, (10 the nation. The “rainbow nation”, the author contends, has in recent times lost some of its colour, but if the different partners in the quest for moral regeneration take hands, the colours of the rainbow may return.

  5. Development and validation of a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the identification and quantification of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in food to detect food adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Mayer, Walter; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2015-07-01

    In order to protect the consumer from meat adulteration it is necessary to identify and quantify the meat content in foodstuffs. Game meat is particularly susceptible for fraudulent labeling since it is more valuable than meat from domestic animals. The paper presents a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the quantitative determination of roe deer in meat products. The assay developed does not show cross-reactivity with 23 animal and 43 plant species tested and is therefore specific for roe deer. The amplification efficiency determined by analyzing serially diluted roe deer DNA extracts was found to be 93.9%. For quantifying the roe deer content in % (w/w), a reference system based on the myostatin gene was used. The quantification strategy was validated by determining the roe deer content in model meat mixtures and a model sausage. In addition, the real-time PCR assay was applied to the analysis of commercially available meat products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years, with a possible role of a grey wolf (Canis lupus) as definitive host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    after almost two decades could be a mere coincidence, but can also explain the introduction of this parasite during wolf introduction. Domestic dogs, in the other hand, could play a role in transmission of T. o. krabbei in that area, but this has yet to be tested. Deer infections with T. o. krabbei were...... oxidase I (cox1) gene. Shortly after this discovery, a wolf died in a nearby locality and worms T. o. krabbei was recovered from its intestine, and the diagnosis was based on morphology of the rostellar-hooks and molecular typing of the cox1 gene. By phylogenetic analysis, the Danish roe deer and wolf...... isolates were clearly grouped together with other isolates of T. o. krabbei from wolves in Finnoscandinavia. In mainland Europe, T. o. krabbei is primarily a parasite of wolves and this individual wolf has probably travelled around 800 km before it died. This unexpected reappearance of a wolf in Denmark...

  8. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years, with a possible role of a grey wolf (Canis lupus) as definitive host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth

    . In mainland Europe, T. o. krabbei is primarily a parasite of wolves6,7. The unexpected reappearance of a wolf in Denmark in 2012 after almost two decades of absence could be a mere coincidence, but may also explain the introduction of this parasite along with the wolf. Domestic dogs, on the other hand, could...... of the cox1 gene5. Shortly after this discovery, a wolf died in a nearby locality, and worms of T. o. krabbei were recovered from its intestine. By phylogenetic analysis, the Danish roe deer and wolf isolates were clearly grouped together with other isolates of T. o. krabbei from wolves in Finnoscandinavia...

  9. Comparative characteristics of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi and finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in order to determine animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determining which animal species the bones, on the basis of mor­phological characteristics, belong to, is one of the most commonly used in forensic cases (poaching, fraud, theft, counterfeiting of food of animal origin.For identification of metacarpal bones (Ossa metacarpi as well as finger articles (Ossa digitorum pedis seu phalanges digitorum there were used distal parts of front limb bones, taken from 6 roe deers and 7 sheep. Afer the separation from the soft tissues, the bones were boiled in an autoclave, and for bleaching and degreasing they were kept in 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The bones were air dried, and then photographed. In roe deer, there are four developed metacarpal bones: the second, the third, the fourth and the fifth. The third and the fourth mrtacarpal bones form one bone, named the main metacarpal bone. The second and the fifth metacarpal bones are connected by con­nective tissue to distal parts of the third and the fourth metacarpal bones. In sheep, there are three developed metacarpal bones: the third, the fourth and the fifth. The thord and the fourth metacarpal bones are, as in roe deer, grown together along the entire length, forming in that way one single bone - the main metacarpal bone. On the distal part of front limb in roe deer there are four fingers, and in sheep two. In roe deer the second, the third, the fourth and the fifth finger are developed, and in sheep, the third and the fourth. Each finger of front limbs, both in roe deer and in sheep, consists of three articles: Phalanx proximalis, Phalanx media i Phalanx distalis. In the case of certain bone missing, a roe deer can be distinguished from a sheep on the basis of the tird article of the third and fourth finger, which is of characteristic appearance. Plantar edge in roe deer is peaked, and in sheep it is blunt. The method of determining which animal species the bones, on the basis of mor­phological characteristics of roe deer and sheep, belong to, is one of the most reliable and most commonly used in forensic cases.

  10. Selezione invernale dell'habitat e densità del cervo (Cervus elaphus e del capriolo (Capreolus capreolus nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Latini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo è stata studiata la selezione dell'habitat invernale di cervo e capriolo da aprile a maggio del 2000 e del 2002, in un'area caratterizzata da boschi di faggio, rimboschimenti a pino nero e pascoli. È stata utilizzata la tecnica del pellet group count, su transetti lineari larghi 2 metri, individuati ogni 100 m di quota, lungo le isoipse da 1350 a 1950 m s.l.m. Sono stati percorsi 61 km ed è stata campionata un'area di 12 ha. Per ogni gruppo di escrementi (1583 per il cervo e 946 per il capriolo sono state rilevate l'altitudine, la pendenza, l'esposizione e il tipo di vegetazione. È stato assunto che tutti gli habitat fossero ugualmente disponibili ed accessibili e che le disponibilita fossero conosciute (Alldredge et al., 1998. I dati raccolti sono stati elaborati applicando il test del Χ², la statistica di Bonferroni (Neu et al., 1974 e l'indice Jacobs (Jacobs, 1974. Il cervo ha selezionato aree comprese tra 1300 e 1500 m s.l.m. (p<0.01, un range altimetrico più ristretto rispetto al capriolo che seleziona anche le quote piu elevate, comprese cioè tra 1300 e 1700 m s.l.m. (p<0.01. Entrambi i cervidi selezionano le zone più scoscese (21°-60° (p<0.01: Il cervo seleziona le classi d'esposizione comprese tra sud-est ed ovest (p<0.01, mentre il capriolo i versanti sud-ovest e ovest (p<0.01. Entrambe le specie preferiscono ambienti di transizione ed evitano le zone di bosco maturo ed i pascoli d'alta quota (p<0.01. Utilizzando il tasso di defecazione è stata calcolata la densità delle due specie (Mayle, 1999 che è risultata di 2.7 cervi/100 ha e 1.0 caprioli/100 ha. Le due specie selezionano le stesse risorse, suggerendo, così come riscontrato da altri autori (Welch, 1989, una convergenza per quanto riguarda l'uso invernale dell'habitat. La scelta d'aree poste a quote medio-basse, di zone scoscese e di versanti meridionali potrebbe essere legata alla minore altezza e persistenza del manto nevoso (Mysterud et al., 1997. La scelta di aree ecotonali e zone di bosco con soprassuolo forestale articolato potrebbe essere messo in relazione sia al più elevato valore trofico di questi habitat, sia alla maggiore disponibilità di siti di riparo. I risultati trovano riscontro in uno studio analogo condotto nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Pedrotti & Mustoni, 1994 e rappresentano il primo contributo alla conoscenza di queste due popolazioni all'interno del Parco a 30 anni dalla loro reintroduzione.

  11. Modelli di valutazione ambientale per i Bovidi (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra e i Cervidi (Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oppio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La conservazione delle popolazioni di stambecco ha grande rilevanza a livello italiano ed europeo, a causa della distribuzione concentrata in poche aree, mentre le consistenti popolazioni di camoscio hanno importanza economica e gestionale. L?espansione dell?areale di distribuzione dei cervidi in territorio alpino, è un fenomeno ormai consolidato e legato all?abbandono dei territori collinari e montani ma anche alle reintroduzioni e alle azioni di tutela nei confronti delle specie. I modelli d?idoneità ambientale rappresentano un efficace strumento per il confronto a livello qualitativo (numero di specie e quantitativo (abbondanza delle popolazioni tra l?attuale popolamento faunistico dei territori alpini e la loro situazione potenziale. Il Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso si estende per oltre 700 km² sul territorio di Piemonte e di Valle d?Aosta; gli affioramenti rocciosi ne occupano il 37.0%, la vegetazione rada il 20.1% e le praterie sommitali e le brughiere il 17.3%. L?analisi ambientale del Parco è stata effettuata mediante Arcview 3.2 per Windows misurando il valore di 20 variabili ambientali (Corine Land Cover III Liv., 27 fisiche (DTM e 17 di complessità paesaggistica in 2925 Unità Campione di 0,5 km di lato. Per la formulazione dei modelli relativi alla distribuzione (presenza/assenza dello stambecco sono stati utilizzati i dati dei censimenti (1999 effettuati nel Parco; per il camoscio ed il capriolo sono stati utilizzati i dati rilevati nelle province di Vercelli e Biella (1997 e in quella di Verbania (1999, mentre per il cervo sono stati utilizzati quelli relativi alla sola provincia di Verbania (1999. I modelli sono stati formulati mediante Analisi di Funzione Discriminante (Magnusson, 1983; Massolo & Meriggi, 1995 e Analisi di Regressione Logistica (Norusis, 1994. Per lo stambecco i dati sono stati suddivisi in due sets, di cui uno utilizzato per la formulazione del modello e l?altro per la sua validazione. Mediante un test del chi-quadrato sono state confrontate le percentuali di casi classificati nei due sets. Per le altre specie i modelli formulati sono stati applicati al territorio del parco e la validità dei modelli è stata valutata dalla percentuale di casi originali riclassificati correttamente. Per i bovidi il modello a maggior capacità predittiva è stato quello discriminante (classificazioni corrette: 73.0% per stambecco e 82.8% per camoscio. La non significatività del test Χ² (P=0.470 indica che non esistono differenze significative tra la distribuzione reale dello stambecco e quella ottenuta dal modello. L'81.1% del territorio del Parco è idoneo al camoscio alpino e l'area vocata include il 93.6% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Per il capriolo il modello logistico è stato quello a maggior capacità predittiva (88.1% dei casi originali classificati correttamente, individuando il 50.7% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Anche per il cervo quello logistico è preferibile per la maggiore percentuale di casi totali classificati correttamente (AFD: 74.9%; ARL: 76.0%.

  12. Teaching of Science Through the Seedbed of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pedraza, L. A.; Salinas Barreto, L. F.

    2017-07-01

    This astronomy seedbed seeks for different methodologies for the development of lifelong learning; this seedbed works through three lines of field that are: rocketry (work different models to reach an advanced machinery), paper models of probes and space vehicles (looking for the representation of the mechanism and its operation), comets (the study of movement in our solar system). In light of the above this seedbed will achieve a breakthrough in science thanks to this learning based on field projects, with different methodologies of study. For this reason we took into account the design and modeling of structures for the explanation of astronomical trends. Taking into account a school curriculum with research activities in astronomy, astrophysics and aerospace science-oriented from the basic knowledge of astronomy, such as the modeling of the motion of the planets, the model of an immediately propulsion rocket and the representation of the functioning of a black hole. The advances were: in rocketry on February 18 2012, in the municipality of "Villa de Leyva", in honor of the 100th anniversary of the founder of the Dominicans of St Catherine of Siena, was launched a pilot of solid fuel rocket with a payload that reached a height of a thousand meters. The modeling on paper in 2015, in the seedbed of astronomy were different models of rockets, spacecraft and satellites. In order to be able to explain in a simple and didactic way the advances in astronomy of these technological mechanism. Since 2015 the observation camp has taken place using telescopes Smith Cassegrain type. This equipment allow investigators to get photos using color filters, which demonstrate the process of this great event.

  13. Seedbed based on IoT: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kalathas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN and the Internet of Things (IOT are widely used in providing decision support systems which solve many problems in the real-world. This paper presents IoT as the best way to solve the agricultural problems, related to seedbed resources optimization, decision making support and seed breeding monitoring. This case study provides real-time information about the seedbed that will help agriculturists make the right decisions during the seed breeding procedure. Using the basic principles of Internet and WSN technology, precision agriculture systems based on the Internet of Things (IoT technology are explained in detail, especially in network architecture, hardware architecture and software process control of the precision seed breeding monitoring system. The implemented automation system monitors data from the sensors in a feedback loop which activates the control devices based on threshold value. The implementation of WSN in seedbed monitoring (SM will optimize the control of air temperature and humidity, soil humidity, air capacity, luminance while it will minimize the time of seed breeding and it will also maximize the number of seeds which become plants ready for transplantation.

  14. The role of the starfish (Asterias rubens L.) predation in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seedbed stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüera García, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mussel beds are an important ecological component in the Wadden Sea. Mussels’ offspring settle massively in new suitable areas, forming seedbeds that may disappear again within months. The probability of a seedbed to survive the first winter is defined as seedbed

  15. Germination and seedling establishment of spiny hopsage in response to planting date and seedbed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Marshall R. Haferkamp; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Reestablishment of spiny hopsrge (Grayia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) in the shrub steppe requires development of appropriate seeding technology. We examined the effect of planting date and seedbed environment on germination and seedling establishment of 2 seed sources at 2 southwestern Idaho sites. Seedbeds were prepared by rototilling. In 1987-88, seeds...

  16. Effect of stale seedbed preparations and subsequent weed control in lettuce (cv. Iceboll) on weed densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, M.M.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bleeker, P.O.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of stale seedbed preparations and several weed control methods on the emergence of weeds in lettuce were studied. The specific goal was to evaluate the use of a stale seedbed in combination with chemical or mechanical weed control methods in the field. Depending on location and year,

  17. Karacaların (C. capreolus Av Değerlerinin Farklı Sistemlerce Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Urošević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, avlanan karacaların değerkendirilmesindeki en iyi metodun belirlenmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaçla, Sırbistan av sahasında 2009-2010 yıllarında avlanmış 192 karacanın av formları kullanılmıştır. Avlanan hayvanların boynuz kütleleri ile CIC (Uluslararası Av ve Yaban Hayatı Koruma Konseyi değeri arasındaki korelasyon kadar boynuzun kütlesi ve hacmi arasındaki korelasyon ile bu iki değişkenin boynuzların ortalama uzunlukları ve boynuz estetik unsurlarının boynuz değerinin tespitinde iyi bir belirteç olup olmadığı da araştırıldı. Mümkün olduğu durumlarda, avcı için hangi modelin daha avantajlı olduğunun belirlenmesi için eski ve yeni sisteme göre boynuzun ticari değeri ile aynı boynuzun bu iki sisteme göre maliyet-fiyat karşılaştırması da yapıldı. Sonuçlar, boynuzun kütlesinin değerlendilidiği çoğu durumda, CIC sistemindeki boynuz hacim puanlarına göre değerlendirilmesinin iyi bir indikatör olduğunu göstermiştir. Böylece, karaca boynuzlarının değerini belirleyen hacmi ve diğer belirleyicileri arasında, ağırlığa oranla daha güçlü korelasyon olduğundan, avcılık esnasında, boynuzların büyüklüğüne odaklanılması gerektiği söylenebilir.

  18. Effect of some detergents, humate, and composition of seedbed on crop of tomato plants in a hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminka, A. Z.; Gracz-Nalepka, M.; Lukasiewicz, B.; Sobolewicz, E.; Turkiewicz, I. T.

    1978-01-01

    It is established that single detergent doses distinctly stimulate vegetative development of plants in the initial stage when humates are available. When detergents are applied every four weeks in a hydroponic culture, in which the seedbed does not contain active humates, the crop is reduced by 50%. This adverse effect does not occur when the seedbed is a mixture of brown coal and peat.

  19. The effects of seedbed types on yam-minisetts yield: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of seedbed types on yields of yam-minisetts were studied in field trials at the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Research farm in 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons. The results indicated that the raised flattened top beds improved yam minisett emergence count by 22%, establishment by 23%, total tuber number ...

  20. Identity, experiences and challenges of a research seedbed for public health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Ríos, Jennifer Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The experience, history, culture, difficulties and challenges of a seedbed for public health research and epidemiology in Colombia are presented. Methods: An ethnographic study was carried out with the participation of students and teachers linked to the social structure and evolution of the seedbed. Participant observation and documental analysis were used as technical instruments for the description of the experience, and triangulation of the information was made by the researchers. Three categories emerged, namely: identity, significant learning and challenges. Results: The Seedbed of Research for Public Health and Epidemiology is an open space for students with open mind. It is interested in preparing research leaders with academic excellence, social responsibility and human quality. It enables comprehensive learning and training; reflection and respectful criticism; the ability to share and stimulus to creativity and being. It articulates processes of research training, formative research, journal clubs, film forums, seminars and cultural activities. Conclusions: The seedbed allows an early contact of the student with research processes. It uses an alternative and creative model that stimulates interest in science and intellectual cultivation. The leading role of students in their training processes is to be emphasized.

  1. Identification of optimum seedbed preparation and establishment using soil structural visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Brian S.

    2008-01-01

    A key aspect of the condition of soil as a medium for growing plants is the soil physical environment under which germination, growth and establishment occur. Crucially this affects factors such as water content, oxygen availability and soil strength. The dynamics of soil physical properties, and in particular soil structure, of a range of soils and how they relate to plant establishment are considered in this thesis. By engineering a variety of seedbeds and contrasting soil structures using ...

  2. ROOTING OF MINICUTTINGS AND MANAGED PRODUCTIVITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR MINISTRAINS GROWN IN LIFTED SEEDBEDS AND TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987552The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs to the family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone                                                                      gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and four from the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100% of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  3. Behavior of different potato genotypes in seedbeds to blight (Alternaria solani Sor. diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novisel Veitía Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of variantees IBP-10, IBP-27, the varieties ‘Diacol capiro’, ‘Desirée’ and Solanum chacoense species was evaluated in seedbed in front of Early blight diseases. Artificial inoculation with micelial homogenized of CCIBP-As4 isolated obtained at the Phytopathology laboratory from the Instituto de Biotecnología de las Plantas. The number and weight of tubers was also evaluated in the studied genotypes. It was observed differential behavior in the intensity of the affectations caused by the disease in the evaluated genotypes. An increase in the intensity of the affectations from 50 days the plants had sprouted was observed. It was realized that the ‘Diacol capiro’ variety presented greater number of tubers but their weight was lower. The IBP-10 reached superior values in both variables with respect to the variety ‘Desirée’. Key words: early selection, intensity of attack, variants

  4. The statistical support in the research projects, university-community. Reflections of an Experience with Seedbeds of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Yaneth Gómez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Connect Academy with research , is one of the current demands of the University institutions and society. It is expected that the teaching and research are activities articulated , since when teachers are actively involved in it, it can induce students to a critical and reflective atmosphere, moreover, when research is carried out in your environment, student appropriates the reality that surrounds it. The article seeks to encourage the reflection of the importance of linking research projects at universities connected in a practical manner with the objectives of a sector of the community and where the seedbeds of researchmake an active part of the project, thus strengthens the triad University- Community - Research. The type of analysis is exploratory descriptive in order to characterize and understand issues of interest around the experiences of the seedbeds of researchand their experiences. Methodologically, the planning and development it is focused on three moments: information and documentation, statistical design of the proposal, development and application. This project enabled the breakdown of classical roles between teachers and students, generating greater confidence and dynamism to the proposed activities. Were strengthened processes of teaching and learning between the seedbeds, strengthening research, argumentative, communicative and social competences.

  5. Controlling the Seedbeds of Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Cavalcante, Solange C.; Marais, Ben J.; Thim, Sok; Martinson, Neil A.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a critical opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programs focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programs that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control may continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly utilized tool that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the current epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. This paper outlines challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provides pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. It further advocates for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed global focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics, and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems, community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programs. PMID:26515679

  6. Pestivirus Exposure in Free-living and Captive Deer in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krametter, Reinhild; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Loitsch, Angelika

    2004-01-01

    During the hunting season of 2001–02, blood and spleen samples from 59 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 77 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), four fallow deer (Dama dama), and five chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were collected from nine hunting districts (n=133) and one deer farm (n=12) in southern Austria...

  7. The use of a motorway wildlife overpass by large mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieren, van S.E.; Worm, P.B.

    2001-01-01

    We studied how mammals used a wildlife overpass across a motorway in central Netherlands using track counts in 1989, 1994 and 1995. Throughout the study the overpass was used most frequently by red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and, less often, by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus),

  8. eland (taurotragus oryx) and black wildebeest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of about one week from the start to the end of the lactation period, which lasted eight months. The first sample in ... first three days of lactation only about 50 mi. of milk could be obtained with each attempt, which precluded a .... Artificial rearing of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and observations on their behaviour. Int. Zoo ...

  9. Regeneration of mixed deciduous forest in a Dutch forest-heathland, following a reduction of ungulate densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Slim, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The conversion of single-species coniferous forest stands into mixed stands by promoting the natural regeneration of indigenous broadleaved tree species was studied in a forest-heathland on the Veluwe, in the central part of the Netherlands. Red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

  10. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florine Degrune

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops (Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum below the seedbed (15–20 cm. Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional

  11. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Colinet, Gilles; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hartmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage) either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops ( Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum ) below the seedbed (15-20 cm). Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional tillage, whereas

  12. Evaluation of the establishment of lowland and upland switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) varieties under different tillage and seedbed conditions in northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, A.; Venturi, P.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Information is needed on potential biomass crops for marginal lands in southern Europe. The objective of this study was to investigate switchgrass establishment in four seedbed preparation treatments (sowing, rolling before sowing, rolling before and after sowing and no till) for two varieties

  13. Wpływ niektórych detergentów i humianu oraz rodzaju ściółek na plon pomidorów w uprawie hydroponicznej [Effects of some detergents, humate and composition of the seedbed on the crop of tomato plants in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that in the initial stage, single doses of detergents have distinctly stimulated the vegetative development of plants when humates are available. When detergents were applied every four weeks in the hydroponic culture in which the seedbed does not contain active humates, the crop decreases by 50%. This negative effect does not appear when the seedbed is a mixture of brown coal with peat.

  14. Plastic response by a small cervid to supplemental feeding in winter across a wide environmental gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ossi, F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hebblewhite, M.; Morellet, N.; Ranc, N.; Sandfort, R.; Kroeschel, M.; Kjellander, P.; Mysterud, A.; Linnell, J. D. C.; Heurich, M.; Soennichsen, L.; Šustr, Pavel; Berger, A.; Rocca, M.; Urbano, F.; Cagnacci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku e01629. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : deer capreolus-capreolus * white-tailed deer * home-range size * moose alces-alces * roe deer * climate - change * habitat selection * red deer * seasonal migration * snow-cover * artificial feeding * climate behavioral responses * climate change * roe deer * winter severity * ungulate management Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  15. EIA-CES Rehabilitation Engineering Seedbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Velásquez Gómez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La discapacidad es una interacción entre los estados de salud (enfermedades, lesiones, entre otros y los factores contextuales (factores ambientales y personales. En el semillero de Ingeniería de Rehabilitación de la Universidad EIA se evalúan usuarios en situación de discapacidad para realizarles productos de apoyo a la medida. Este semillero es voluntario y cuenta con recursos económicos limitados. Se caracteriza por tratar cada caso individualmente y no generalizar, ya que se tiene claro que cada persona tiene sus particularidades, así tengan el mismo diagnóstico, buscando satisfacer las necesidades que cada paciente tenga. Para la fabricación de los productos de apoyo se desarrolló un protocolo que busca que el producto final cumpla con los criterios de usabilidad (Facilidad de aprendizaje, eficiencia, entre otros.

  16. Barrier effects on vertebrate distribution caused by a motorway crossing through fragmented forest landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellería, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the effects of a 25–year–old motorway on the distribution of five vertebrates inhabiting a fragmented forest landscape and differing in their ability to move across linear infrastructures. We found clear evidence of barrier effects on the distribution of the forest lizard Psammodromus algirus. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was also unequally distributed on both sides of the motorway, but this could also be due, at least in part, to fragmentation. The eyed lizard (Timon lepidus, that can move through open fields, showed no evidence of barrier effects. The distribution of two small birds (Erithacus rubecula and Phylloscopus bonelli was unaffected by the motorway. Our results show that a motorway may severely restrict the distribution of species which can withstand high levels of forest fragmentation but show limited dispersal ability, highlighting the role of linear infrastructures in shaping species’ ranges at regional scales.

  17. Functional responses of human hunters to their prey - why harvest statistics may not always reflect changes in prey population abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard; Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    Harvest records are often assumed to offer an indirect measure of population abundance in huntable species. However, this requires population density changes are reflected in comparable linear changes in harvest rates. We tested this assumption for common snipe Gallinago gallinago, common wood...... species. Relationships between the annual kill and population abundance were complex and incorporation of hunting legislation changes improved optimal model fits between harvest statistics and count data. Consideration of the validity of the underlying assumptions is necessary before harvest records...... pigeon Columba palumbus, coot Fulica atra, grey partridge Perdix perdix, roe deer Capreolus capreolus and brown hare Lepus europaeus in Denmark. If we consider hunting a form of predator-prey interaction, the annual kill can be viewed as a predator functional response to prey population size. Convergence...

  18. Diagnostic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene allow discrimination between cattle, sheep, goat, roe buck and deer by PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenig Bertram

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative to direct DNA sequencing of PCR products, random PCR-RFLP is an efficient technique to discriminate between species. The PCR-RFLP-method is an inexpensive tool in forensic science, even if the template is degraded or contains only traces of DNA from various species. Results Interspecies-specific DNA sequence polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were analyzed using PCR-RFLP technology to determine the source (i.e., species of blood traces obtained from a leaf. Conclusions The method presented can be used for the discrimination of cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, goat (Capra hircus, roe buck (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus.

  19. Antler growth in male roe deer in field hunting grounds in Vojvodina: Effect of age on trophy value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gačić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antler growth in male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L was studied on the representative sample consisting of 546 trophies (227 from Bačka and 319 from Banat hunted in the period 19982005. No significant differences in antler characters and trophy values were noted between Bačka and Banat (except weight of antlers for 5 year old males, and the data for both regions were pooled. Antler growth is a curvilinear function of age. Mean values of length, weight and volume of antlers, and total trophy score varied significantly between the males in different age groups. The study results prove that in Vojvodina field hunting grounds, healthy males attain the culmination in antler growth and trophy value at the age of six years but already after the age of seven years, they show the first sign of old age and decline.

  20. Presence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates from game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt-Samoraj, A; Syczyło, K; Szczerba-Turek, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Jabłoński, A; Łabuć, S; Pajdak, J; Oshakbaeva, N; Szweda, W

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the presence of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. Strains belonging to biotype 1A do not possess pYV plasmids, often harbour the ystB gene and usually lack the ail gene, which is the main virulence marker for Y. enterocolitica. The simultaneous presence of ail and ystB is uncommon. In this study, 21/218 (9.6%) biotype 1A Y. enterocolitica isolates from rectal swabs of wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 18), red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 2) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 1) in Poland harboured both ail and ystB genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks.

  2. Aplicación de microsatélites diseñados para el Ciervo de cola blanca, renos y bóvidos a ocho especies de Cervidae neotropicales (Géneros: Odocoileus, Mazama, Blastoceros, Ozotoceros, Hippocamelus y Pudu : Niveles de variabilidad genética, heterogeneidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los niveles de variabilidad genética en 8 especies de Cervidae neotropicales procedentes de varios países Latinoamericanos mediante la utilización de 10 marcadores microsatélites (Cervid 1, Cervid 3, NVHRT 16, NVHRT 30, NVHRT 71, NVHRT 73, TGLA337, IDVGA 55, FCB 193 y BOVIRBP. Las especies analizadas fueron concretamente Odocoileus virginianus (Colombia, Venezuela y Guatemala, Mazama americana (Bolivia, Guyana francesa, Colombia, Perú, Paraguay, M. gouzaoubira (Bolivia, Guyana francesa y Paraguay, M. rufina (Ecuador, Colombia, Blastoceros dichotomus (Bolivia, Paraguay, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Bolivia, Hippocamelus antisensis (Argentina, y Pudu mephistopholes (Perú, Colombia. De modo comparativo se analizaron los niveles de diversidad genética de 4 especies de Cerviadae euroasiáticos (Cervus elaphus, Cervus nippon, Capreolus capreolus y Capreolus pygargus. Los géneros Odocoileus y Mazama fueron los que presentaron unos niveles
    de variabilidad genética más elevados (H=0.7056+0.2037 y H=0.7962+0.2357.

  3. Interrelationships of Dictyocaulus spp. in Wild Ruminants with Morphological Description of Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from Red Deer, Cervus elaphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyziel, Anna M; Laskowski, Zdzisław; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Höglund, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Lungworms from the genus Dictyocaulus cause parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis) characterized by coughing and severe lung pathology in both domestic and wild ruminants. In this study we investigated the interrelationships of Dictyocaulus spp. from European bison (Bison bonasus L.), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus) by nucleotide sequence analysis spanning the 18S RNA gene (small subunit [SSU]) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions of the ribosomal gene array as well as the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Molecular analyses of sequence data obtained partly with novel primers from between 10 and 50 specimens from each host were carried out. Bayesian inference analysis revealed that each host species was infected with different genotypes. Analysis of cox1 sequence data showed a diverse genetic background and high evolutionary potential of Dictyocaulus taxa. Data from lungworms of European bison revealed a distinct genotype of Dictyocaulus viviparus, whereas Dictyocaulus capreolus was only found in roe deer. In contrast, red deer were infected with a taxon with unique SSU, ITS2, and cox1 sequences. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel genotype from red deer, which differs significantly from the National Center for Biotechnology Information reference sequence of Dictyocaulus eckerti. The molecular evidence was consistent with a morphological study with description and imaging of Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. recovered from red deer. Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. can be distinguished from D. eckerti on the basis of the absence of cervical papillae, the occurrence of a single ring of 4 symmetrical submedian cephalic papillae, length of the tail in females, morphometry of the female reproductive system, and measurements of gubernacula in males. In conclusion, our findings further strengthen the idea that the genetic complexity and diversity among Dictyocaulus lungworms infecting wildlife ruminants is larger

  4. Review of evaluations of crushing results for the seedbed preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Anisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the work results of tillage operations today only inaccurate parameters are available which cannot be readily measured. Thus, evaluating and comparing the work results of machines and developing suitable sensors are difficult. At the Technical University of Dresden, till 1990, research projects for determining aggregate size composition of soil have been done. Based on this work, this study will show suggestions for measuring, displaying and evaluation of soil crushing results depending on tillage work conditions.

  5. Seedbed treatment with direct heat from burning stubble and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Un semis de 1m2 ayant une histoire de humectage était exposé à la chaleur de chaume brûlant et mis à l'essai pour le fongus du sol, le humectage et la croissance à venir de jeunes tomates. Pour le but de comparaison un semis trempé de formol: eau (7:1) mélangé et un semis non-traité étaient également étudiés.

  6. Seedbed treatment with direct heat from burning stubble and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    off was 0, 0.65 and 55.88 per cent, respectively, on the heated, formalin-treated and untreated beds. Tomato seedling growth (seedling height, fresh and dry weights) was significantly greater on the heated bed than on the unheated bed. Higher ...

  7. A century of progress in weed control in hardwood seedbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now...

  8. Estimation of Correlation between the Number of Individuals and Biogenic Capacity of the Hunting Terrain 54 Padureni, Forest District Lunca Timişului, for 13 Hunting Species in 2007-2011 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the EU is imposing a special attention to hunting animals populations. The aim of thepresent paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13th species, in the period2007-2011, in the hunting terrain 54 Padureni, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of11,963ha. The paper shows that form the 13th species studied 5 were not identified on this hunting terrain Red Deer(Cervus elaphus L., Wildcat (Felis silvestres L, European Pine Marten (Martes martes L., Least Weasel (Mustelanivolis L. Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica L.. For the other species identified the individuals number evolutiondemonstrated that there is a god correlation between the number of individuals and it-s biogenic capacity. Also thepaper recommends a special attention to natural selection and the efficient use of artificial selection, especially forthe following 3 species: Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L. and Common Pheasant(Phasianus colchicus L..

  9. An investigation of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) scavenging, scattering, and removal of deer remains: forensic implications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alexandria; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Stillman, Richard; Smith, Martin J; Korstjens, Amanda H

    2015-01-01

    Within northwest Europe, especially the United Kingdom, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Eurasian Badger (Meles meles) are the largest wild scavengers capable of modifying a set of remains through scavenging. Knowledge of region-specific and species-typical scavenging behaviors of scavengers within the crime scene area and surroundings can aid in more efficient and accurate interpretations. The scavenging behaviors of captive and wild foxes and badgers were recorded and compared through actualistic methods and direct observation. The scavenging by wild foxes and badgers of surface-deposited baits and whole deer (Cervus nippon; Capreolus capreolus) in a woodland was observed and analyzed. Wild foxes were found to scavenge deer more frequently than badgers. The scavenging of deer remains by foxes was also compared with forensic cases. The scavenging pattern and recovery distances of deer and human remains scavenged by foxes were similar but were potentially affected by the condition and deposition of a body, and the presence of clothing. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Automatic detection of animals in mowing operations using thermal cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Villa-Henriksen, Andrés; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix) or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus) and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  11. Monoterpene effect on feeding choice by deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; De Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Labbé, Alice; Rosolowski, Dimitri; Martin, Jean-Louis; Fritz, Hervé

    2002-12-01

    A previous study showed that Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) consumption was negatively correlated with monoterpene content in western redcedar (Thuja plicata). To test whether these monoterpenes were deterrent to Sitka black-tailed deer, we performed feeding choice experiments with four hydrocarbon (sabinene, myrcene, alpha-pinene, and d + l-limonene) and one oxygenated (alpha,beta-thujone) monoterpene solution at their highest natural concentration in western redcedar foliage. To test whether deer response was species specific, we ran similar experiments on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). In all experiments, monoterpenes were repellent. Solutions with alpha,beta-thujone, the major monoterpene in redcedar leaves, were the most repellent of the solutions tested. We then analyzed how black-tailed and roe deer responded to (1) an increase in concentration of the monoterpenes with the weakest repellent effects (hydrocarbon monoterpenes) and (2) a decrease in concentration of the monoterpene with strongest effect (alpha,beta-thujone). Repellency tended to increase with concentration for hydrocarbon monoterpenes, but remained strong for alpha,beta-thujone. As wild deer regularly feed on plants containing monoterpenes, this raises the question as to how the animals deal with these molecules.

  12. The link between behavioural type and natal dispersal propensity reveals a dispersal syndrome in a large herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeffe, L.; Morellet, N.; Bonnot, N.; Gaillard, J. M.; Cargnelutti, B.; Verheyden-Tixier, H.; Vanpé, C.; Coulon, A.; Clobert, J.; Bon, R.; Hewison, A. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    When individuals disperse, they modify the physical and social composition of their reproductive environment, potentially impacting their fitness. The choice an individual makes between dispersal and philopatry is thus critical, hence a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the decision to leave the natal area is crucial. We explored how combinations of behavioural (exploration, mobility, activity and stress response) and morphological (body mass) traits measured prior to dispersal were linked to the subsequent dispersal decision in 77 roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns. Using an unusually detailed multi-trait approach, we identified two independent behavioural continuums related to dispersal. First, a continuum of energetic expenditure contrasted individuals of low mobility, low variability in head activity and low body temperature with those that displayed opposite traits. Second, a continuum of neophobia contrasted individuals that explored more prior to dispersal and were more tolerant of capture with those that displayed opposite traits. While accounting for possible confounding effects of condition-dependence (body mass), we showed that future dispersers were less neophobic and had higher energetic budgets than future philopatric individuals, providing strong support for a dispersal syndrome in this species. PMID:25030983

  13. Yew (Taxus intoxication in free-ranging cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Handeland

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants, including deer species (cervids have incorrectly been regarded as refractory to yew (Taxus intoxication. This assumption has been based upon anecdotal observations of individual deer browsing on yew over time without apparent adverse effect. A single case of yew intoxication was reported in a free-ranging Norwegian moose (Alces alces in 2008. The current report describes five additional cases of yew toxicosis in moose, seven in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and two in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus, all in Norway. The animals were found dead during the winter, close to or within gardens containing yew plants showing signs of browsing. Gross findings included lung congestion and edema, thoracic and pericardial effusion, bilateral heart dilatation, epi- and endocardial hemorrhage, and enlarged (congested spleen. Yew plant remnants were detected in the rumen of all animals with the exception of a single moose. Histology revealed multifocal acute myocardial degeneration and necrosis with hemorrhage in roe deer, but not in the two other species. A qualitative high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry analysis was used to tentatively identify five major Taxus alkaloids (taxines in crude yew extracts and in heart and liver samples from the moose cases. All five major taxines were detected with good signal/noise ratio in tissue samples from the four moose with visible ruminal yew content, whereas lower levels of taxines were detected in the moose without visible ruminal yew content. Possible differences in interspecies tolerance to taxines and role of individual protective adaptation are discussed.

  14. Relationships between browsing damage and the species dominance by the highly food-attractive and less food-attractive trees

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    Petr Čermák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses data on the browsing damage to Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus spp., Tilia cordata and Fagus sylvatica. Field research was carried out in the period 2007–2010 and analysed data came from 33 transects at 10 localities with the various abundance of game in the CR (everywhere Capreolus capreolus, on several plots also Cervus elaphus, Ovis musimon or Dama dama. Trees were monitored up to a height of 150 cm in natural regeneration under stands and in plantations and the occurrence was noted of new browsing damage. Differences between the percentage of damaged individuals of the given species of a food-attractive species (A. p., C. b., F. e. and the percentage of damaged individuals of all tree species on a transect as well as the proportion of these parameters correlate negatively with the given species dominance and thus, they appear to be suitable parameters for the analysis of relationships between the damage intensity and dominance. The higher the percentage proportions of highly food-attractive species and the lower the percentage of less-attractive species, the lower the relative intensity of damage to highly food-attractive species. At the same time, the higher the percentage proportion of highly food-attractive species and the lower the percentage of less-attractive species then the lower a difference between damage to less food-attractive species and all species.

  15. Population density and phenotypic attributes influence the level of nematode parasitism in roe deer.

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    Body, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-01

    The impact of parasites on population dynamics is well documented, but less is known on how host population density affects parasite spread. This relationship is difficult to assess because of confounding effects of social structure, population density, and environmental conditions that lead to biased among-population comparisons. Here, we analyzed the infestation by two groups of nematodes (gastro-intestinal (GI) strongyles and Trichuris) in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of Trois Fontaines (France) between 1997 and 2007. During this period, we experimentally manipulated population density through changes in removals. Using measures collected on 297 individuals, we quantified the impact of density on parasite spread after taking into account possible influences of date, age, sex, body mass, and weather conditions. The prevalence and abundance of eggs of both parasites in females were positively related to roe deer density, except Trichuris in adult females. We also found a negative relationship between parasitism and body mass, and strong age and sex-dependent patterns of parasitism. Prime-age adults were less often parasitized and had lower fecal egg counts than fawns or old individuals, and males were more heavily and more often infected than females. Trichuris parasites were not affected by weather, whereas GI strongyles were less present after dry and hot summers. In the range of observed densities, the observed effect of density likely involves a variation of the exposure rate, as opposed to variation in host susceptibility.

  16. LiDAR Remote Sensing of Forest Structure and GPS Telemetry Data Provide Insights on Winter Habitat Selection of European Roe Deer

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    Michael Ewald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of GPS-Telemetry and resource selection functions is widely used to analyze animal habitat selection. Rapid large-scale assessment of vegetation structure allows bridging the requirements of habitat selection studies on grain size and extent, particularly in forest habitats. For roe deer, the cold period in winter forces individuals to optimize their trade off in searching for food and shelter. We analyzed the winter habitat selection of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a montane forest landscape combining estimates of vegetation cover in three different height strata, derived from high resolution airborne Laser-scanning (LiDAR, Light detection and ranging, and activity data from GPS telemetry. Specifically, we tested the influence of temperature, snow height, and wind speed on site selection, differentiating between active and resting animals using mixed-effects conditional logistic regression models in a case-control design. Site selection was best explained by temperature deviations from hourly means, snow height, and activity status of the animals. Roe deer tended to use forests of high canopy cover more frequently with decreasing temperature, and when snow height exceeded 0.6 m. Active animals preferred lower canopy cover, but higher understory cover. Our approach demonstrates the potential of LiDAR measures for studying fine scale habitat selection in complex three-dimensional habitats, such as forests.

  17. Ticks and bacterial tick-borne pathogens in Piemonte region, Northwest Italy.

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    Pistone, Dario; Pajoro, Massimo; Novakova, Eva; Vicari, Nadia; Gaiardelli, Cesare; Viganò, Roberto; Luzzago, Camilla; Montagna, Matteo; Lanfranchi, Paolo

    2017-11-30

    A molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens was carried out in engorged and in questing ticks collected in Verbano Cusio Ossola county, Piemonte region, Italy. Engorged ticks were removed from wild and domestic animal hosts. The most abundant and common tick species in the area was Ixodes ricinus (192 adults, 907 nymphs). Few individuals of Ixodes hexagonus (15) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (7) were found among the ticks removed from domestic animals (46 examined ticks). The presence of Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, Francisella tularensis and Coxiella burnetii was evaluated by PCR and sequencing in 392 individuals of I. ricinus (adult and nymphal stages) and 22 individuals of the two other tick species. Five Borrelia species (i.e. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae), proved or suspected to cause clinical manifestations of Lyme disease in humans, showed 10.5 and 2.2% combined prevalence in questing and engorged I. ricinus, respectively. In addition, two species of rickettsiae (R. helvetica and R. monacensis) were identified and reported with 14.5 and 24.8% overall prevalence in questing and in engorged ticks. The prevalence of F. tularensis in the ticks collected on two wild ungulate species (Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus) was 5.7%. This work provided further data and broadened our knowledge on bacterial pathogens present in ticks in Northwest Italy.

  18. Long-term viral serology of semi-free-living and captive ungulates.

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    Frölich, K; Flach, E J

    1998-06-01

    Between 1973 and 1994, blood samples were collected at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park (UK) from three ungulate species kept in enclosures, including 28 European bison (Bison bonasus), 37 scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), and 49 Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), and also from 144 semi-free-living Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis). These samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against three bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-like strains, three alpha-herpesvirus strains, enzootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) of deer, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3), and enzootic bovine leucosis virus (EBLV). Thirty-three individuals (13.1%) had antibodies to one or more of the three BVDV-like viruses, with titers ranging from 1:5 to 1:16, and 17 individuals (6.6%) were positive for antibodies to one or more of the three alpha-herpesviruses, with titers between 1:4 and 1:80. The highest titers and greatest proportion of seropositivity were against SH9/11, a recently isolated cytopathogenic pestivirus from wild roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). There were no positive reactors to BRSV and EHDV, and there was only one BAV-3 positive reactor, a scimitar-horned oryx, and one EBLV reactor, a European bison. There is no serologic evidence that semi-free-ranging Chinese water deer are important reservoirs or transmitters of the viral diseases investigated.

  19. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

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    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis transmission risk: its dependence on host population dynamics and climate effects.

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    Palo, R Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a human disease caused by a flavivirus that is spread by ticks (Ixodes ricinus). In 2011 and 2012, the highest TBE incidence ever was recorded in Sweden. It has been proposed that warmer spring temperatures result in higher survival of ticks and thus high incidence of TBE. Here, analyses were done of time series of TBE for 1976-2011 in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), mean summer temperatures, and yearly number of harvested European hare (Lepus europeaus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the County of Stockholm, the area with most TBE cases in recent years in Sweden. The results show that the winter NAO index or winter temperature has no significant effect on the variation in wildlife numbers harvested or TBE cases over time. Mean summer temperature above 12°C had a slight effect, but a multivariate model revealed that only the numbers of European hare and red fox remained in the model and explained 64.4% of the variation in TBE cases. Ticks do not seem to be as sensitive to climate variations as anticipated, even though that summer temperature has increased by 2°C during the time period studied here. Instead, TBE cases seem to be more dependent on host population dynamics than on climate factors.

  1. Scale-dependent diversity effects of seed dispersal by a wild herbivore in fragmented grasslands.

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    Auffret, Alistair G; Plue, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal limitation between habitat fragments is a known driver of landscape-scale biodiversity loss. In Europe, agricultural intensification during the twentieth century resulted in losses of both grassland habitat and traditional grassland seed dispersal vectors such as livestock. During the same period, populations of large wild herbivores have increased in the landscape. Usually studied in woodland ecosystems, these animals are found to disperse seeds from grasslands and other open habitats. We studied endozoochorous seed dispersal by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in fragmented grasslands and grassland remnants, comparing dispersed subcommunities of plant species to those in the established vegetation and the seed bank. A total of 652 seedlings of 67 species emerged from 219 samples of roe deer dung. This included many grassland species, and several local grassland specialists. Dispersal had potentially different effects on diversity at different spatial scales. Almost all sites received seeds of species not observed in the vegetation or seed bank at that site, suggesting that local diversity might not be dispersal limited. This pattern was less evident at the landscape scale, where fewer new species were introduced. Nonetheless, long-distance dispersal by large wild herbivores might still provide connectivity between fragmented habitats within a landscape in the areas in which they are active. Finally, as only a subset of the available species were found to disperse in space as well as time, the danger of future biodiversity loss might still exist in many isolated grassland habitats.

  2. Identification of a novel species of papillomavirus in giraffe lesions using nanopore sequencing.

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    Vanmechelen, Bert; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Rector, Annabel; Van den Oord, Joost J; Laenen, Lies; Vergote, Valentijn; Maes, Piet

    2017-03-01

    Papillomaviridae form a large family of viruses that are known to infect a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, birds and fish. Infections usually give rise to minor skin lesions but can in some cases lead to the development of malignant neoplasia. In this study, we identified a novel species of papillomavirus (PV), isolated from warts of four giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). The sequence of the L1 gene was determined and found to be identical for all isolates. Using nanopore sequencing, the full sequence of the PV genome could be determined. The coding region of the genome was found to contain seven open reading frames (ORF), encoding the early proteins E1, E2 and E5-E7 as well as the late proteins L1 and L2. In addition to these ORFs, a region located within the E2 gene is thought, based on sequence similarities to other papillomaviruses, to encode an E4 protein, although no start codon could be identified. Based on the sequence of the L1 gene, this novel PV was found to be most similar to Capreolus capreolus papillomavirus 1 (CcaPV1), with 67.96% nucleotide identity. We therefore suggest that the virus identified here is given the name Giraffa camelopardalis papillomavirus 1 (GcPV1) and is classified as a novel species within the genus Deltapapillomavirus, in line with the current guidelines for the nomenclature and classification of PVs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening of the Cervidae family in Poland for Mycoplasma species

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    Dudek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several Mycoplasma species can cause severe diseases in ruminant hosts, some of which are the diseases listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. The role of the Cervidae family in carrying and transmitting ruminant mycoplasma infections in Poland is unknown. Material and Methods: Antibody and antigen detection tests for the main mycoplasma species that can affect wild ruminants were performed on 237 samples (serum, nasal swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung collected from 161 animals during 2011-2014. The samples were obtained from a cull of healthy population of deer which included: 96 red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus, 19 fallow deer (Dama dama, and 46 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. Results: Serological screening tests revealed positive reactions to Mycoplasma bovis in one sample and to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae in three samples; however, these three samples were negative by immunoblotting. Other antibody and antigen detection tests demonstrated negative results. Conclusion: Currently wild cervids in Poland do not play a significant role in transmitting mycoplasma infections to domestic animals, but they remain a potential risk.

  4. Cytogenetic description of the Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Artiodactyla, Cervidae).

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    Fiorillo, Bruno Ferreto; Sarria-Perea, Javier Adolfo; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2013-01-01

    The Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Cuvier, 1817) is a small to medium-sized deer from the Amazon rainforest and ecotones. The first karyotype described was 2n=67 to 69 + 2-7 B and FN= 69-72, in which all chromosomes were acrocentric and the X chromosome was the only submetacentric chromosome. However, important aspects of the species chromosome evolution were not resolved because of the lack of information on chromosome banding. The G-banding pattern of Mazama nemorivaga karyotype showed the presence of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system as a product of an X-autosome tandem fusion, which results in a basic 2n=68, FN=70 in females and 2n= 69, FN=70 in males. The fact that this karyotype only differs from that of Capreolus capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771; 2n=70, FN=72+B) by X-autosome tandem fusion may corroborate the basal condition of Mazama nemorivaga and its proximity to the ancestral karyotype of the American Odocoileini. A derived karyotype 2n=67, XY1Y2, FN=70 + 3B from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (the western Amazon) may be evidence of differentiation between western and eastern populations.

  5. Cytogenetic description of the Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Artiodactyla, Cervidae

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    Bruno Ferreto Fiorillo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian brown brocket Mazama nemorivaga (Cuvier, 1817 is a small to medium-sized deer from the Amazon rainforest and ecotones. The first karyotype described was 2n=67 to 69 + 2-7 B and FN= 69-72, in which all chromosomes were acrocentric and the X chromosome was the only submetacentric chromosome. However, important aspects of the species chromosome evolution were not resolved because of the lack of information on chromosome banding. The G-banding pattern of M. nemorivaga karyotype showed the presence of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system as a product of an X-autosome tandem fusion, which results in a basic 2n=68, FN=70 in females and 2n= 69, FN=70 in males. The fact that this karyotype only differs from that of Capreolus capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771; 2n=70, FN=72+B by X-autosome tandem fusion may corroborate the basal condition of M. nemorivaga and its proximity to the ancestral karyotype of the American Odocoileini. A derived karyotype 2n=67, XY1Y2, FN=70 + 3B from the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (the western Amazon may be evidence of differentiation between western and eastern populations.

  6. [Genetic variability in Neotropical deer genera (Mammalia: Cervidae) according to DNA microsatellite loci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Martinez-Agüero, María; Alvarez, Diana; Goodman, Simon

    2009-09-01

    Species conservation programs are highly based on analyses of population genetics. We compared eight Neotropical Cervidae (Mazama americana, M. gouzaoubira, M. rufina, Odocoileus virginianus, Hippocamelus antisensis, Pudu mephistopholes, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Blastoceros dichotomus) and some European and Asian Cervidae (Cervus elaphus, C. nippon, Capreolus capreolus, C. pygargus and Dama dama). The European species C. elaphus was our standard for a high degree of genetic variability: we used a Scottish population originated in the mix of diverse Western European subspecies. On the contrary, Cervus nippon (a population from Scotland with a founder effect) was our standard for a depauperated population. The M. americana, M. gouzaoubira and O. virginianus samples had high diversity values close to our C. elaphus population (H = 0.64, 0.70 and 0.61, respectively), while M. rufina was very low, close to C. nippon. Several sample sets of Mazama and Odocoileus yielded a homozygote excess, probably due to the Wahlund (subdivison) effect. There was no evidence of recent bottleneck events.

  7. Serologic and Molecular Survey of Hepatitis E Virus in German Deer Populations.

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    Neumann, Stephan; Hackl, Sybille S; Piepenschneider, Meike; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Dremsek, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes a usually self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. The virus is endemic in developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and is responsible for sporadic cases in industrialized countries. In western Europe, an increasing number of autochthonous cases have been associated with zoonotic transmissions of HEV from domestic and wild animals. In Germany, animal reservoirs for HEV have been mainly assigned to domestic pigs and wild boars. To investigate the potential role of deer as a reservoir of HEV, we surveyed HEV-specific antibodies and RNA in deer samples from geographic regions in Germany. We sampled red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during active surveillance in three forest districts in northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Additionally, archived samples of red, roe, and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in 2000-01 in German national parks, were included in the study. Antibody prevalence ranged from 2-3.3% in red deer to 5.4-6.8% in roe deer. Viral RNA was detected in red deer and fallow deer at prevalences of 2.0-6.6% and 4.3%, respectively. The investigation confirmed the presence of HEV infections in three deer species in Germany. Red, roe, and fallow deer should be further monitored to assess their role as hosts and potential reservoirs of HEV in Germany.

  8. Temporal stability in the genetic structure of Sarcoptes scabiei under the host-taxon law: empirical evidences from wildlife-derived Sarcoptes mite in Asturias, Spain

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    Rossi Luca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicitly, parasite molecular studies assume temporal genetic stability. In this study we tested, for the first time to our knowledge, the extent of changes in genetic diversity and structure of Sarcoptes mite populations from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica in Asturias (Spain, using one multiplex of 9 microsatellite markers and Sarcoptes samples from sympatric Pyrenean chamois, red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Results The analysis of an 11-years interval period found little change in the genetic diversity (allelic diversity, and observed and expected heterozygosity. The temporal stability in the genetic diversity was confirmed by population structure analysis, which was not significantly variable over time. Population structure analysis revealed temporal stability in the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes mite under the host-taxon law (herbivore derived- and carnivore derived-Sarcoptes mite among the sympatric wild animals from Asturias. Conclusions The confirmation of parasite temporal genetic stability is of vital interest to allow generalizations to be made, which have further implications regarding the genetic structure, epidemiology and monitoring protocols of the ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite. This could eventually be applied to other parasite species.

  9. Range expansion of Ixodes ricinus to higher altitude, and co-infestation of small rodents with Dermacentor marginatus in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

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    Martello, Elisa; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ragagli, Charlotte; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Selmi, Marco; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Tomassone, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Immature ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from small rodents (Apodemus spp. and Myodes glareolus), in the Northern Apennines, Italy, at an altitude up to 1650 m above sea level (a.s.l.), from 2009 through 2012. While D. marginatus had been found at the same location in studies carried out in 1994, I. ricinus was very rare or absent. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) of infestation by I. ricinus larvae on Apodemus spp. was 54.4% (47.5, 61.2), and it was greater than prevalence of D. marginatus larvae on the same hosts (23.3%, 17.8, 29.5). The mean (standard deviation) numbers of I. ricinus and D. marginatus larvae per individual Apodemus spp. were similar: 2.3 (4.1) and 2.1 (9.8), respectively. The monthly infestation pattern of the two tick species on Apodemus spp. were different. I. ricinus larvae were more frequent in June and September, than in July-August. I. ricinus nymphs were generally rare, and were most frequently found in July. The prevalence of D. marginatus larvae peaked in July-August, whereas nymphs were mostly active in August-September. Increasing population densities of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and increasing temperatures, in the last decades, in the Apennine area might have contributed to the observed range expansion of I. ricinus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

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    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  11. First report of Echinococcus granulosus G8 in Eurasia and a reappraisal of the phylogenetic relationships of 'genotypes' G5-G10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Valdmann, H; Saarma, U

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the presence of the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in wild ungulates in Estonia, genetically characterized E. granulosus isolates using mitochondrial gene sequences and used the sequence data, together with those available in a public database, to infer the phylogenic relationships of E. granulosus 'genotypes' G5-G10. While 0.8% of the 2038 moose (Alces alces) examined were found to be infected with E. granulosus, the parasite was not detected in other wild ungulates, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus: 1044 specimens examined) and wild boar (Sus scrofa: 442 specimens). Genetic analyses of concatenated atp6, nad1 and cox1 gene (1028 bp) sequences revealed that 2 novel E. granulosus haplotypes, namely E8 (11 samples: 69%) and E10 (5 samples: 31%), grouped with E. granulosus G8 and G10, respectively, are present in Estonia. This is the first record of an E. granulosus G8 in Eurasia. Phylogenetic analyses, using 4 different methods, demonstrated with considerable statistical support that E. granulosus G6/7 forms a subgroup together with G10, whereas G8 is a sister taxon to G6/7-G10.

  12. Browsed twig environmental DNA: diagnostic PCR to identify ungulate species.

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    Nichols, Ruth V; Königsson, Helena; Danell, Kjell; Spong, Göran

    2012-11-01

    Ungulate browsing can have a strong effect on ecological processes by affecting plant community structure and composition, with cascading effects on nutrient cycling and animal communities. However, in the absence of direct observations of foraging, species-specific foraging behaviours are difficult to quantify. We therefore know relatively little about foraging competition and species-specific browsing patterns in systems with several browsers. However, during browsing, a small amount of saliva containing buccal cells is deposited at the bite site, providing a source of environmental DNA (eDNA) that can be used for species identification. Here, we describe extraction and PCR protocols for a browser species diagnostic kit. Species-specific primers for mitochondrial DNA were optimized and validated using twigs browsed by captive animals. A time series showed that about 50% of the samples will amplify up to 12 weeks after the browsing event and that some samples amplify up to 24 weeks after browsing (12.5%). Applied to samples of natural browsing from an area where moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Cervus dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) are sympatric, amplification success reached 75%. This method promises to greatly improve our understanding of multispecies browsing systems without the need for direct observations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Variabilidad genética en géneros de ciervos neotropicales (Mammalia: Cervidae según loci microsatelitales

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    Manuel Ruiz-García

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de conservación de especies se apoyan fuertemente en estudios de genética poblacional. En el presente estudio, reportamos diversos análisis genéticopoblacionales en ocho especies de cérvidos neotropicales (Mazama americana, M. gouzaoubira, M. rufina, Odocoileus virginianus, Hippocamelus antisensis, Pudu mephistopholes, Ozotoceros bezoarticus y Blastoceros dichotomus y, adicionalmente, en varias especies de cérvidos europeos y asiáticos (Cervus elaphus, C. nippon, Capreolus capreolus, C. pygargus and Dama dama. Una de esas especies europeas, la población de Cervus elaphus en Escocia, fue tomada como una población con un grado muy elevado de diversidad genética ya que proviene del cruce de diferentes grupos de ciervos rojos procedentes de diversas subespecies de la Europa continental. Desde una perspectiva de una diversidad genética depauperada, se tomó el nivel encontrado en una población de ciervos sika (Cervus nippon en Escocia, que prácticamente no mostró variabilidad a nivel molecular. Respecto a esos dos casos que consideramos como de elevada y escasa variabilidad genética, encontramos que las poblaciones analizadas de Mazama americana, M. gouzaoubira y Odocoileus virginianus estuvieron cerca del límite máximo encontrado para el ciervo rojo escocés (H=0.64, 0.70 y 0.61, respectivamente, mientras que M. rufina mostró el más bajo grado de variabilidad genética de las especies neotropicales, cercano al extremo mínimo presentado por C. nippon. Algunas de las muestras de Mazama y de Odocoileus, tomadas a nivel macrogeográfico, mostraron un exceso de homocigotos debido, probablemente, a la existencia de efecto Wahlund (efecto de subdivisión. Ninguna de las especies analizadas parece haber atravesado un cuello de botella reciente.Genetic variability in Neotropical deer genera (Mammalia: Cervidae according to DNA microsatellite loci. Species conservation programs are highly based on analyses of population

  14. Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins

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    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  15. Group dynamics and landscape features constrain the exploration of herds in fusion-fission societies: the case of European roe deer.

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    Olivier Pays

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of movement studies, the constraints that grouping imposes on movement decisions remain essentially unexplored, even for highly social species. Such constraints could be key, however, to understanding the dynamics and spatial organisation of species living in group fusion-fission systems. We investigated the winter movements (speed and diffusion coefficient of groups of free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, in an agricultural landscape characterised by a mosaic of food and foodless patches. Most groups were short-lived units that merged and split up frequently during the course of a day. Deer groups decreased their speed and diffusion rate in areas where food patches were abundant, as well as when travelling close to main roads and crest lines and far from forests. While accounting for these behavioural adjustments to habitat features, our study revealed some constraints imposed by group foraging: large groups reached the limit of their diffusion rate faster than small groups. The ability of individuals to move rapidly to new foraging locations following patch depression thus decreases with group size. Our results highlight the importance of considering both habitat heterogeneity and group dynamics when predicting the movements of individuals in group fusion-fission societies. Further, we provide empirical evidence that group cohesion can restrain movement and, therefore, the speed at which group members can explore their environment. When maintaining cohesion reduces foraging gains because of movement constraints, leaving the group may become a fitness-rewarding decision, especially when individuals can join other groups located nearby, which would tend to maintain highly dynamical group fusion-fission systems. Our findings also provide the basis for new hypotheses explaining a broad range of ecological patterns, such as the broader diet and longer residency time reported for larger herbivore groups.

  16. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland

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    Beata Wodecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] and [i]Borrelia[/i] species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of [i]Borrelia[/i] species, the blood-meal of 325 [i]I. ricinus[/i] ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%[i] I. ricinus[/i] individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86% samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i], red fox ([i]Vulpes vulpes[/i], red deer ([i]Cervus elaphus[/i] and roe deer ([i]Capreolus capreolus[/i]. Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all [i]Borrelia[/i] species transmitted by [i]I. ricinus [/i]in Europe, including [i]B. miyamotoi[/i] and 3 genetic variants of [i]B. garinii[/i]. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato were identified – B. [i]garinii [/i]and B. [i]afzelii[/i], and B. [i]miyamotoi,[/i] which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  17. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Håkan; Eklund, Ann; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves' choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population.

  18. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

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    John Odden

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed.

  19. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy.

  20. Climate, season, and social status modulate the functional response of an efficient stalking predator: the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Andersen, Reidar

    2009-07-01

    1. Predation plays a major role in shaping the structure and dynamics of ecological communities, and the functional response of a predator is of crucial importance to the dynamics of any predator-prey system by linking the trophic levels. For large mammals, there is a dearth of field studies documenting functional responses, and observations at low prey density are particularly scarce. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding about how variables such as season, social status and climate modulate the functional response curves. 2. We analysed kill rate data collected over a 10-year period based on radio-marked lynx (Lynx lynx) mainly preying on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) along a steep prey density gradient in south-eastern Norway. 3. The asymptotic kill rate was reached at a very low prey density for both solitary individuals and family groups (i.e. females with their dependent kittens), indicative of an efficient predator. This highlights the importance of understanding the interplay between predator and prey at low prey densities. 4. A purely prey-dependent functional response was a poor descriptor of the data, as the curve was strongly modulated by season and differences between lynx of different social status. In addition, there was a clear effect of abiotic climatic factors (indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation) on observed kill rates in the more snow-rich portion of our study area. 5. Our analysis suggests that simple functional response curves might be poor descriptors of predator consumption rates in complex natural system, and that auxiliary factors are likely to induce complexity into any predator-prey systems that would not be captured by simple deterministic approaches.

  1. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

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    Elisa Belotti

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx, more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy.

  2. Automatic Detection of Animals in Mowing Operations Using Thermal Cameras

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    Ole Green

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  3. Multilevel D-loop PCR identification of hunting game

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    V. Parkanyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The control region of mtDNA (D-loop was used for hair samples of the five hunting game species identification: red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama, mouflon (Ovis aries musimon, and wild boar (Sus scrofa. For D-loop multilevel PCR detection scheme was applied in six primers (CE CVZV 1 = 5′-GATCACGAGCTTGATCACCA-3′; CE CVZV 2 = 5′-AGGAGTGGGCGATTTTAGGT-3′; DD CVZV 3 = 5′-CGCGTGAAACCAACAACCCGC-3′; DD CVZV 4 = 5′-CCGGGTCGGGGCCTTAGACG-3′; SSW CVZV 5 = 5′-ACACGTGCGTACACGCGCATA-3′; SSW CVZV 6 = 5′-GGTGCCTGCT T TCGTAGCACG-3′ designed to identify unknown biological samples of the hunting game animals. The PCR reaction volume was 25 μl at conditions 95 °C for 2 min, 94 °C for 30 s, 60 °C for 30 s, 72 °C for 30 s, 35 cycles, with last extension at 72 °C for 10 min. D-loop mtDNA amplicons of the game animals are characterized with specific PCR product sizes depending on species: red deer = 163 bp and 140 bp, fallow deer = 280 bp and 138 bp, roe deer = 303 bp, 280 bp, 160 bp and 138 bp, mouflon = 299 bp and 178 bp, wild boar = 137 bp and 229 bp.

  4. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  5. Testing Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses in a habitat suitability gradient for roe deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Virgós, Emilio; Lara-Romero, Carlos; Lozano, Jorge; Barja, Isabel; Cuadra, Felipe S.; Puerta, Marisa

    2013-11-01

    According to the Cort-Fitness Hypothesis, higher stress levels (glucocorticoids) in vertebrates are correlated to lower fitness. However, recent studies have failed to validate this hypothesis. A proposed wider framework suggests that reproduction can be perceived as an overload adds up to other environmental challenges that individuals must adjust to. In this case, elevated glucocorticoids could help individuals to allocate resources to reproduction without comprising other functions, leading to the expectation of a positive cort-fitness relationship. This has been proposed as the Cort-Adaptation Hypothesis. Stress levels result from a complex interaction between the environment and the neuroendocrine system of animals. Accounting for physiological functions involved in how animals cope with their environment would help to clarify the relationship between glucocorticoids and animal performance. We used roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) inhabiting diverse habitats in the Iberian Peninsula to: i) test the Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses by indexing fitness using a comprehensive physiological approach which takes into account fundamental physiological functions and their trade-offs; and ii) evaluate the link between primary productivity and individuals' condition in a seasonal environment. We evaluated spatial and temporal variation in stress levels, reproductive hormone levels, nutritional status and immune function from fecal samples collected in 2010. Lower stress levels were related to better condition in non-reproductive seasons but not to higher primary productivity. In contrast, stress levels were always positively related to reproductive condition, which was better in most productive habitats. Summer and winter were the less productive seasons and the more challenging for the species in the habitat gradient studied. In winter, reproductive condition traded off against immune function being biased toward immune function in less productive habitats. In

  6. Determinants of tick-borne encephalitis in counties of southern Germany, 2001-2008

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    Kiffner Christian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE virus can cause severe symptoms in humans. The incidence of this vector-borne pathogen in humans is characterised by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. To explain the variation in reported human TBE cases per county in southern Germany, we designed a time-lagged, spatially-explicit model that incorporates ecological, environmental, and climatic factors. Results We fitted a logistic regression model to the annual counts of reported human TBE cases in each of 140 counties over an eight year period. The model controlled for spatial autocorrelation and unexplained temporal variation. The occurrence of human TBE was found to be positively correlated with the proportions of broad-leafed, mixed and coniferous forest cover. An index of forest fragmentation was negatively correlated with TBE incidence, suggesting that infection risk is higher in fragmented landscapes. The results contradict previous evidence regarding the relevance of a specific spring-time temperature regime for TBE epidemiology. Hunting bag data of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the previous year was positively correlated with human TBE incidence, and hunting bag density of red fox (Vulpes vulpes and red deer (Cervus elaphus in the previous year were negatively correlated with human TBE incidence. Conclusions Our approach suggests that a combination of landscape and climatic variables as well as host-species dynamics influence TBE infection risk in humans. The model was unable to explain some of the temporal variation, specifically the high counts in 2005 and 2006. Factors such as the exposure of humans to infected ticks and forest rodent population dynamics, for which we have no data, are likely to be explanatory factors. Such information is required to identify the determinants of TBE more reliably. Having records of TBE infection sites at a finer scale would also be necessary.

  7. Serological survey of Coxiella burnetii at the wildlife-livestock interface in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Cabezón, Óscar; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2016-04-27

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease Q fever. Both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiology of C. burnetii infection. In order to investigate the significance of the ruminant host community in the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees, Northeastern Spain, in the epidemiology of Q fever, a serological survey was performed on samples from 599 wild and 353 sympatric domestic ruminants. Specific antibodies against C. burnetii were detected with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Domestic sheep showed the highest prevalence (12.7 %, CI 95 % 8.6-16.9), followed by European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) with a 6.8 % prevalence (CI 95 % 1.6-12.1), red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 2.4 % (CI 95 % 0-5.6), and cattle with a prevalence of 1.1 % (CI 95 % 0-3.2). No positive domestic goats, fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) were detected. Sheep flock prevalence was 75 % (nine of the 12 sheep flocks sampled were positive, within-flock prevalence ranging from 11.1 to 25.0 %), whereas cattle herd prevalence was 11.1 % (one out of the nine cattle herds sampled was positive, within-herd prevalence of 10.0 %. Both domestic and wild ruminants from the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees were exposed to C. burnetii. The higher seroprevalence in sheep and its relative abundance suggest that this species may have a major contribution to the ecology of C. burnetii. Conversely, wild ruminants do not seem to represent a relevant host community for C. burnetii maintenance in the Eastern Pyrenees.

  8. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

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    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal.

  9. Traffic mortality of four ungulate species in southern Finland

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    Milla Niemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ungulate–vehicle collisions are intensively studied in many countries. However, limited knowledge exists on how many animals struck actually die due to collisions and whether differences in traffic mortality occur between species living in the same area. In this study, we estimated a kill rate (the proportion of individuals killed/struck and, in relation to their winter population sizes, the collision and traffic mortality rates for four ungulate species (moose Alces alces, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, and fallow deer Dama dama. We used an unofficial collision register collected between 2001 and 2012 (a total of 12 years by voluntary hunters from the Hyvinkää Game Management Area (323 km2 located in southern Finland. The population estimates used were based on annual snow track censuses. A total of 497 ungulates were involved in collisions during the study period. Of these, 76% were killed directly or put down afterwards. Roe deer had the highest kill rate; 95% of struck individuals died. White-tailed deer had the highest collision and traffic mortality rates (8.0% and 6.5% of the winter population, respectively, followed by moose (6.5 % and 4.5%, roe deer (3.9% and 3.7%, and fallow deer (3.2% and 2.1%. As we found the collision and traffic mortality rates to be unequal between species, we recommend separately reporting all ungulate species when compiling collision statistics. We additionally suggest that local managers should be aware of ungulate collision and traffic mortality rates in their areas and should use this knowledge when planning annual harvest.

  10. Determination of the parameters of the parasitic stage in Ixodes ricinus females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Buczek, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a tick commonly found on human and animals and of great medical and veterinary importance. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters of different stages of feeding in Ixodes ricinus females. 229 Ixodes ricinus females were collected from 102 animals--roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) culled in southern and south-eastern Poland in 2002. Each female was weighed and the length and width of the scutum as well as the width of the idiosoma were measured. 20 tick females were collected from vegetation growing in the region and analysed in order to compare the changes in the parameters studied to those exhibited by unengorged specimens. Three groups were identified on the basis of female body weight; group I consisted of 52 females in feeding phase I with body weight in the range of 0.0003-0.0043 g (mean 0.0019 g), group II comprised 150 females in feeding phase II with weight in the range of 0.0017-0.3075 g (mean 0.0263 g), and group III consisted of 27 females in feeding phase III with weight in the range of 0.0904-0.3122 g (mean 0.1913 g). Indices characterizing the various feeding phases, such as body index, scutal index, alloscutal index, growth index, engorgement index I and II, and the relative body mass index, were determined. The investigations demonstrated that the values of the morphometric traits in feeding phase I, II and III differe in I. ricinus females. The values of the morphometric features and indices can be helpful in identification of the parasitic stage of I. ricinus females removed from host skin, and assessment of the risk of infection of the host with various parasites injected with tick saliva at the respective feeding phases.

  11. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open

  12. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed.

  13. Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevřelová Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus. The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7% of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%.

  14. Adhesion of human and animal Escherichia coli strains in association with their virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes.

  15. Germination, survival, and first-year growth of black cherry under various seedbed and supplemental treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold J. Huntzinger

    1964-01-01

    In Pennsylvania and New York there are 2,350,000 acres of plantable land that could be utilized for growing timber for future needs. Much of this plantable land lies on the Allegheny Plateau - a region that is eminently suited to growing black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). On the Allegheny National Forest alone, 26,000 acres are classed as...

  16. Effect of seedbed preparation on natural reproduction of spruce and hemlock under dense shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Davis; Arthur C. Hart

    1961-01-01

    The cutting practices commonly recommended for spruce-fir stands in the Northeast involve uneven-aged management. The success of this type of management is predicated upon stand structures that have a range of size classes from seedlings to mature trees in intimate mixture. This kind of stand structure requires a continuous supply of reproduction of desirable species....

  17. Experimental education of Astronomy across the seedbeds of investigation in sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, E.

    2009-05-01

    In Colombia, the geographic situation help us in the moment of make academic work of astronomic observation, due to the opportunity of look almost the totality of the nocturnal sky in the hemispheres north and south in on night generating the possibility of make easy our labor as educators and to the astronomy and the related science with the students learn and the socialize in fundamental areas as mathematics, physic, chemistry, biology, art, technology, geography and history between others fundamental areas. In our presentation will be show the results of 3 years of in which we the students of primary and high school studies as a descriptive study of these research. we need economic help for the aid to this event.

  18. Litter as seedbed: interactions between the soil, seedlings and litter of kauri (Agathis australis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, E.

    2006-01-01

    Plants have important impacts upon soil processes such as nutrient mineralisation and organic matter dynamics. They might even enhance their own fitness by improving soil quality or by making the soil less favourable for competing species. In the latter strategy, tannins in plant foliage might be

  19. Predicting germination in semi-arid wildland seedbeds. I. Thermal germination models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer K. Rawlins; Bruce A. Roundy; Scott M. Davis; Dennis. Eggett

    2011-01-01

    The key to stopping high-frequency or catastrophic wildfires in the western U.S.A. is the successful restoration of burned lands to functional plant communities. Developing models of seedling establishment for invasive and native species will help in the selection of species for restoration projects that are able to establish and compete with invasive species given the...

  20. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland) and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and lynx (Lynx lynx), the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades. PMID:22233771

  1. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes and lynx (Lynx lynx, the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades.

  2. Un progetto per l'attivazione di Agenda 21 Locale: monitoraggio della mammalofauna nell'area del Parco Regionale del Monte Cucco (Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mazzei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nell?ambito del progetto ?Attivazione Agenda 21 Locale? finalizzato alla realizzazione di studi per la certificazione e contabilizzazione ambientale, nel Parco Regionale del Monte Cucco, si è dato il via, a partire dal novembre del 2001, ad un?indagine di tipo qualitativo, mirata alla caratterizzazione dell?area Parco per quel che riguarda la presenza di specie di Mammiferi appenninici di interesse conservazionistico e naturalistico. Nel periodo che va dall?8 febbraio 2002 al 5 ottobre dello stesso anno, sono stati effettuati 16 transetti faunistici, distribuiti nell?arco delle quattro stagioni. Sono stati raccolti indici di presenza di 11 specie di Mammiferi appartenenti agli ordini degli Artiodattili, Carnivori, Lagomorfi, Insettivori e Roditori e i relativi IKA (indici chilometrici di abbondanza. I dati raccolti unitamente ad una ricognizione bibliografica, mirata a reperire informazioni pregresse e aggiornate sulla teriofauna locale, attraverso inoltre, l?effettuazione di interviste e il coinvolgimento della popolazione locale, hanno portato alla definizione di una Check-list della Mammalofauna del Parco, rappresentativa per il 56% di quella della Regione. La ricerca ha permesso di confermare per l?area la presenza del Lupo (Canis lupus e di evidenziare l?espansione a Sud del Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus. Parte integrante del progetto ?Cucco 21? era la definizione di proposte gestionali volte a migliorare il rapporto uomo-ambiente, laddove fossero state individuate situazioni di criticità oggettive o potenziali, in un?ottica di conservazione della risorsa naturale e di sviluppo delle attività antropiche. Significativi a tale proposito sono stati il caso del Cinghiale (Sus scrofa con l?osservazione del danno alle fitocenosi, soprattutto ai prati e pascoli cacuminali e del Capriolo. Per quest?ultima specie in funzione della sua espansione verso la parte meridionale del Parco, sono state avanzate delle

  3. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

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    Shangying YU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques, olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden. These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator, prey, and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards, we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans, feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment, eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors, cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration, followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more

  4. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

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    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  5. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  6. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  7. Why is tick-borne encephalitis increasing? A review of the key factors causing the increasing incidence of human TBE in Swedena

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    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The highest annual incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE in Sweden ever recorded by the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI occurred last year, 2011. The number of TBE cases recorded during 2012 up to 6th August 2012 indicates that the incidence for 2012 could exceed that of 2011. In this review of the ecology and epidemiology of TBE in Sweden our main aim is to analyse the possible reasons behind the gradually increasing incidence of human TBE during the last 20 years. The main TBE virus (TBEV vector to humans in Sweden is the nymphal stage of the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The main mode of transmission and maintenance of TBEV in the tick population is considered to be when infective nymphs co-feed with uninfected but infectible larvae on rodents. In most locations the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus is the main host for the reproducing adult I. ricinus ticks. The high number of roe deer for more than three decades has resulted in a very large tick population. Deer numbers have, however, gradually declined from the early 1990s to the present. This decline in roe deer numbers most likely made the populations of small rodents, which are reservoir-competent for TBEV, gradually more important as hosts for the immature ticks. Consequently, the abundance of TBEV-infected ticks has increased. Two harsh winters in 2009–2011 caused a more abrupt decline in roe deer numbers. This likely forced a substantial proportion of the “host-seeking” ticks to feed on bank voles (Myodes glareolus, which at that time suddenly had become very numerous, rather than on roe deer. Thus, the bank vole population peak in 2010 most likely caused many tick larvae to feed on reservoir-competent rodents. This presumably resulted in increased transmission of TBEV among ticks and therefore increased the density of infected ticks the following year. The unusually warm, humid weather and the prolonged vegetation period in 2011 permitted

  8. Why is tick-borne encephalitis increasing? A review of the key factors causing the increasing incidence of human TBE in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Hjertqvist, Marika; Bergström, Tomas; Lundkvist, Ake

    2012-08-31

    The highest annual incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden ever recorded by the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI) occurred last year, 2011. The number of TBE cases recorded during 2012 up to 6th August 2012 indicates that the incidence for 2012 could exceed that of 2011. In this review of the ecology and epidemiology of TBE in Sweden our main aim is to analyse the possible reasons behind the gradually increasing incidence of human TBE during the last 20 years. The main TBE virus (TBEV) vector to humans in Sweden is the nymphal stage of the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The main mode of transmission and maintenance of TBEV in the tick population is considered to be when infective nymphs co-feed with uninfected but infectible larvae on rodents. In most locations the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus is the main host for the reproducing adult I. ricinus ticks. The high number of roe deer for more than three decades has resulted in a very large tick population. Deer numbers have, however, gradually declined from the early 1990s to the present. This decline in roe deer numbers most likely made the populations of small rodents, which are reservoir-competent for TBEV, gradually more important as hosts for the immature ticks. Consequently, the abundance of TBEV-infected ticks has increased. Two harsh winters in 2009-2011 caused a more abrupt decline in roe deer numbers. This likely forced a substantial proportion of the "host-seeking" ticks to feed on bank voles (Myodes glareolus), which at that time suddenly had become very numerous, rather than on roe deer. Thus, the bank vole population peak in 2010 most likely caused many tick larvae to feed on reservoir-competent rodents. This presumably resulted in increased transmission of TBEV among ticks and therefore increased the density of infected ticks the following year. The unusually warm, humid weather and the prolonged vegetation period in 2011 permitted nymphs and adult ticks to

  9. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  10. A framework for modelling range shifts and migrations: asking when, whither, whether and will it return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurarie, Eliezer; Cagnacci, Francesca; Peters, Wibke; Fleming, Christen H; Calabrese, Justin M; Mueller, Thomas; Fagan, William F

    2017-07-01

    Many animals undertake movements that are longer scaled and more directed than their typical home ranging behaviour. These movements include seasonal migrations (e.g. between breeding and feeding grounds), natal dispersal, nomadic range shifts and responses to local environmental disruptions. While various heuristic tools exist for identifying range shifts and migrations, none explicitly model the movement of the animals within a statistical framework that facilitates quantitative comparisons. We present the mechanistic range shift analysis (MRSA), a method to estimate a suite of range shift parameters: times of initiation, duration of transitions, centroids and areas of respective ranges. The method can take the autocorrelation and irregular sampling that is characteristic of much movement data into account. The mechanistic parameters suggest an intuitive measure, the range shift index, for the extent of a range shift. The likelihood based estimation further allows for statistical tests of several relevant hypotheses, including a range shift test, a stopover test and a site fidelity test. The analysis tools are provided in an R package (marcher). We applied the MRSA to a population of GPS tracked roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the Italian Alps between 2005 and 2008. With respect to seasonal migration, this population is extremely variable and difficult to classify. Using the MRSA, we were able to quantify the behaviours across the population and among individuals across years, identifying extents, durations and locations of seasonal range shifts, including cases that would have been ambiguous to detect using existing tools. The strongest patterns were differences across years: many animals simply did not perform a seasonal migration to wintering grounds during the mild winter of 2006-2007, even though some of these same animals did move extensively in other, harsher winters. For seasonal migrants, however, site fidelity across years was extremely high, even

  11. Seasonality, weather and climate affect home range size in roe deer across a wide latitudinal gradient within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellet, Nicolas; Bonenfant, Christophe; Börger, Luca; Ossi, Federico; Cagnacci, Francesca; Heurich, Marco; Kjellander, Petter; Linnell, John D C; Nicoloso, Sandro; Sustr, Pavel; Urbano, Ferdinando; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-11-01

    1. Because many large mammal species have wide geographical ranges, spatially distant populations may be confronted with different sets of environmental conditions. Investigating how home range (HR) size varies across environmental gradients should yield a better understanding of the factors affecting large mammal ecology. 2. We evaluated how HR size of a large herbivore, the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), varies in relation to seasonality, latitude (climate), weather, plant productivity and landscape features across its geographical range in Western Europe. As roe deer are income breeders, expected to adjust HR size continuously to temporal variation in food resources and energetic requirements, our baseline prediction was for HR size to decrease with proxies of resource availability. 3. We used GPS locations of roe deer collected from seven study sites (EURODEER collaborative project) to estimate fixed-kernel HR size at weekly and monthly temporal scales. We performed an unusually comprehensive analysis of variation in HR size among and within populations over time across the geographical range of a single species using generalized additive mixed models and linear mixed models, respectively. 4. Among populations, HR size decreased with increasing values for proxies of forage abundance, but increased with increases in seasonality, stochastic variation of temperature, latitude and snow cover. Within populations, roe deer HR size varied over time in relation to seasonality and proxies of forage abundance in a consistent way across the seven populations. Thus, our findings were broadly consistent across the distributional range of this species, demonstrating a strong and ubiquitous link between the amplitude and timing of environmental seasonality and HR size at the continental scale. 5. Overall, the variability in average HR size of roe deer across Europe reflects the interaction among local weather, climate and seasonality, providing valuable insight into the

  12. Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Opiyo, Francis EO; Ekaya, Wellington N; Nyariki, Dickson M; Mureithi, Stephen Mwangi

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to me...

  13. Of the Helmholtz Club, South-Californian seedbed for visual and cognitive neuroscience, and its patron Francis Crick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicardi, Christine

    2014-03-01

    Taking up the view that semi-institutional gatherings such as clubs, societies, research schools, have been instrumental in creating sheltered spaces from which many a 20th-century project-driven interdisciplinary research programme could develop and become established within the institutions of science, the paper explores the history of one such gathering from its inception in the early 1980s into the 2000s, the Helmholtz Club, which brought together scientists from such various research fields as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, psychophysics, computer science and engineering, who all had an interest in the study of the visual system and of higher cognitive functions relying on visual perception such as visual consciousness. It argues that British molecular biologist turned South Californian neuroscientist Francis Crick had an early and lasting influence over the Helmholtz Club of which he was a founding pillar, and that from its inception, the club served as a constitutive element in his long-term plans for a neuroscience of vision and of cognition. Further, it argues that in this role, the Helmholtz Club served many purposes, the primary of which was to be a social forum for interdisciplinary discussion, where 'discussion' was not mere talk but was imbued with an epistemic value and as such, carefully cultivated. Finally, it questions what counts as 'doing science' and in turn, definitions of success and failure-and provides some material evidence towards re-appraising the successfulness of Crick's contribution to the neurosciences. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting germination in semi-arid wildland seedbeds II. Field validation of wet thermal-time models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer K. Rawlins; Bruce A. Roundy; Dennis Eggett; Nathan. Cline

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction of germination for species used for semi-arid land revegetation would support selection of plant materials for specific climatic conditions and sites. Wet thermal-time models predict germination time by summing progress toward germination subpopulation percentages as a function of temperature across intermittent wet periods or within singular wet...

  15. Successes and failures in controlling weeds in hardwood seedbeds at the Arkansas Forestry Commission Baucum Forest Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan Murray

    2009-01-01

    Fumigation with methyl bromide is essential in the production of hardwood seedlings in nurseries in the southern United States. However, the proposed rules under the 2008 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Mitigation will further restrict the use of methyl bromide for nursery use.

  16. Wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) and other British mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahay, R J; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. The European badger (Meles meles) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the UK and New Zealand respectively. The risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. In the UK, surveys by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) have identified M. bovis infection in deer (Cervus sp., Capreolus sp., Dama sp.), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mink (Mustela vison), feral ferret (Mustela furo), mole (Talpa europaea), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and feral cat (Felis catus). However, the potential contribution to cattle herd breakdowns, of reservoirs of M. bovis infection in mammals other than the badger is poorly understood and is the subject of current research. In contrast, M. bovis infection in the badger has been the subject of a long term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park in South-West England, where the prevalence and distribution of infection in a wild population has been intensively monitored. The pattern of infection in the population and potential risks to cattle, are profoundly influenced by badger social organization and behaviour. The pattern of land use and cattle farming practices in the UK brings badgers into close contact with domestic animals and provides conditions that may enhance the likelihood of disease transfer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  17. The ungulates of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jia-yan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Presently, thirty five species of ungulates occur in northern China. Some species are threatened or endangered. There are three species of Equidae (E. przewalskii, E. hemionus, E. kiang, one of Suidae (Sus scrofa, one of Camelidae (Camelus bactrianus, 14 species of Cervidae (with the genera Moschus, Elaphus, Cervus, Elaphurus, Alces, Rangifer, Capreolus and 16 species of Bovidae (within the genera Bos, Gazella, Procapra, Pantholops, Saiga, Nemorhaedus, Capricornis, Budorcas, Capra, Pseudois, Ovis. They inhabit different biotopes, i.e. temperate mountain forest and steppe, temperate desert and semi-desert, and vast alpine ranges. Ungulate fossils are widespread in China evidencing that Asia was an evolutionary centre for some ungulates. Although new data have been gathered through research efforts in China since 1949 it is a fact that some ungulate species have suffered serious population set-backs and some have become endangered or even extinct. Detailed studies of ungulate populations and protection of habitats are now most important future research needs.

  18. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-27

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management.

  19. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Gli Ungulati in Italia: status, gestione e ricerca scientifica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Apollonio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ungulates in Italy: status, management and scientific research Ungulates in Italy have experienced in the last decade a further increase of their distribution and, possibly, consistence. This trend has been very obvious in the central and northern part of Italy, on the contrary, in south Italy the increase of ungulates populations is quite slow if any. A partial exception is Sardinia where Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus has been reintroduced into the four provinces of the island. In this frame the relevance of the increase of ungulates for the increase of wolves (Canis lupus in Italy must be emphasized. Ungulates management has also experienced a general development in the last decade, even if deep differences between south and central-north Italy still persist. Well conducted reintroductions have allowed to fill many gaps in the species distribution. Ungulates hunting bags size, suggest an increased importance of ungulates in the hunting activities in Italy. Selective hunting with rifles on cervids and bovids was established in wide areas of north and central Italy, mainly as consequence of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus widespread presence. Wild boar (Sus scrofa hunting still represents a problem for ungulate management in Italy. Almost 50% of the provinces where wild boar is hunted does not collect hunting bag statistics, and only 35% of them try to roughly estimate the consistence of the populations. The traditional dogs hunting of wild boar has expanded to areas where wild boar was recently and illegally reintroduced, as south Italy and the Alps region, and this is a serious problem for the development of a more rational and correct hunting practices. New possibilities of hunting management of red deer in central Italy, and in the future of alpine ibex (Capra ibex, are to be considered. An increase of the presence of trained wildlife

  1. Status sulle conoscenze dei mammiferi molisani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Norante

    2003-10-01

    reintrodotta. Dubbie le segnalazioni passate, i montanari la ricordano come ?Lupo cerviero? ma si è potuto trattare anche di felini di specie diversa, forse allevati da aristocratici. Sus scrofa (del quale è in programma uno studio sui mantelli per verificarne la variabilità, Cervus elaphus e Capreolus capreolus sono presenti con nuclei alloctoni reintrodotti. Presente anche Dama dama. Rupicapra pyrenaica distribuito in origine sulle Mainarde, risulta abbondante in tutta la fascia di rispetto al PNA e spesso è stato osservato a distanza, nei territori di Scapoli, Montaquila, Rocchetta, Cerro al Volturno. Per quanto riguarda i micromammiferi è in corso un censimento basato su trappolaggi e raccolta borre.

  2. Climate-mediated shifts in Neandertal subsistence behaviors at Pech de l'Azé IV and Roc de Marsal (Dordogne Valley, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W; Turq, Alain; Sandgathe, Dennis; McPherron, Shannon J P; Dibble, Harold

    2016-07-01

    Neandertals disappeared from Europe just after 40,000 years ago. Some hypotheses ascribe this to numerous population crashes associated with glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene. The goal of this paper is to test the hypothesis that glacial periods stressed Neandertal populations. If cold climates stressed Neandertals, their subsistence behaviors may have changed-requiring intensified use of prey through more extensive nutrient extraction from faunal carcasses. To test this, an analysis of Neandertal butchering was conducted on medium sized bovid/cervid remains composed of predominately red deer (Cervus elaphus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), and roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) deposited during global warm and cold phases from two French sites: Pech de l'Azé IV (Pech IV, Bordes' excavation) and Roc de Marsal (RDM). Analysis of surface modification on high survival long bones and proximal and middle phalanges demonstrates that skeletal elements excavated from the cold levels (RDM Level 4, Pech IV Level I2) at each cave have more cut marks and percussion marks than elements from the warm levels (RDM Level 9, Pech IV Level Y-Z) after controlling for fragment size. At both sites, epiphyseal fragments are rare, and although this pattern can result from carnivore consumption, carnivore tooth marks are almost nonexistent (Neandertal survival strategy, and epiphyses were more intensively percussed in cold levels than in warm levels at both RDM and Pech IV. The exploitation of low marrow yield elements such as phalanges does not show a consistent pattern relating to climate, but may have been a general Neandertal behavioral characteristic, suggesting that these hominids were regularly on the edge of sufficient nutrient availability even during interglacials. Overall, the faunal assemblages from Roc de Marsal and Pech IV provide some support for the hypothesis that Neandertals were processing faunal remains more heavily during glacial periods, suggesting a response to

  3. Ridging, a Mechanized Alternative to Mounding for Yam and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... A cassava seedbed preparation field study was established at Fumesua in the forest and Ejura ... A similar study was conducted on yam seedbed preparation in 2003/2004, with a 23 factorial design.

  4. Growth in fossil and extant deer and implications for body size and life history evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Christian; Scheyer, Torsten M; Lister, Adrian M; Azorit, Concepcion; de Vos, John; Schlingemann, Margaretha A J; Rössner, Gertrud E; Monaghan, Nigel T; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2015-02-14

    Body size variation within clades of mammals is widespread, but the developmental and life-history mechanisms by which this variation is achieved are poorly understood, especially in extinct forms. An illustrative case study is that of the dwarfed morphotypes of Candiacervus from the Pleistocene of Crete versus the giant deer Megaloceros giganteus, both in a clade together with Dama dama among extant species. Histological analyses of long bones and teeth in a phylogenetic context have been shown to provide reliable estimates of growth and life history patterns in extant and extinct mammals. Similarity of bone tissue types across the eight species examined indicates a comparable mode of growth in deer, with long bones mainly possessing primary plexiform fibrolamellar bone. Low absolute growth rates characterize dwarf Candiacervus sp. II and C. ropalophorus compared to Megaloceros giganteus displaying high rates, whereas Dama dama is characterized by intermediate to low growth rates. The lowest recorded rates are those of the Miocene small stem cervid Procervulus praelucidus. Skeletal maturity estimates indicate late attainment in sampled Candiacervus and Procervulus praelucidus. Tooth cementum analysis of first molars of two senile Megaloceros giganteus specimens revealed ages of 16 and 19 years whereas two old dwarf Candiacervus specimens gave ages of 12 and 18 years. There is a rich histological record of growth across deer species recorded in long bones and teeth, which can be used to understand ontogenetic patterns within species and phylogenetic ones across species. Growth rates sensu Sander & Tückmantel plotted against the anteroposterior bone diameter as a proxy for body mass indicate three groups: one with high growth rates including Megaloceros, Cervus, Alces, and Dama; an intermediate group with Capreolus and Muntiacus; and a group showing low growth rates, including dwarf Candiacervus and Procervulus. Dwarf Candiacervus, in an allometric context, show an

  5. Contrasting origin of B chromosomes in two cervids (Siberian roe deer and grey brocket deer) unravelled by chromosome-specific DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makunin, Alexey I; Kichigin, Ilya G; Larkin, Denis M; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Proskuryakova, Anastasiya A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina N; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Trifonov, Vladimir A

    2016-08-11

    B chromosomes are dispensable and variable karyotypic elements found in some species of animals, plants and fungi. They often originate from duplications and translocations of host genomic regions or result from hybridization. In most species, little is known about their DNA content. Here we perform high-throughput sequencing and analysis of B chromosomes of roe deer and brocket deer, the only representatives of Cetartiodactyla known to have B chromosomes. In this study we developed an approach to identify genomic regions present on chromosomes by high-throughput sequencing of DNA generated from flow-sorted chromosomes using degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed PCR. Application of this method on small cattle autosomes revealed a previously described KIT gene region translocation associated with colour sidedness. Implementing this approach to B chromosomes from two cervid species, Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira), revealed dramatically different genetic content: roe deer B chromosomes consisted of two duplicated genomic regions (a total of 1.42-1.98 Mbp) involving three genes, while grey brocket deer B chromosomes contained 26 duplicated regions (a total of 8.28-9.31 Mbp) with 34 complete and 21 partial genes, including KIT and RET protooncogenes, previously found on supernumerary chromosomes in canids. Sequence variation analysis of roe deer B chromosomes revealed a high frequency of mutations and increased heterozygosity due to either amplification within B chromosomes or divergence between different Bs. In contrast, grey brocket deer B chromosomes were found to be more homogeneous and resembled autosomes in patterns of sequence variation. Similar tendencies were observed in repetitive DNA composition. Our data demonstrate independent origins of B chromosomes in the grey brocket and roe deer. We hypothesize that the B chromosomes of these two cervid species represent different stages of B chromosome sequences evolution

  6. Zoogeografia storica e attuale dei carnivori e degli ungulati italiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2003-10-01

    L., 1758 Dama dama (L., 1758 Cervus elaphus L., 1758 Capreolus capreolus (L., 1758 Rupicapra pyrenaica Bonaparte, 1845 Rupicapra rupicapra (L., 1758 Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Capra ibex L., 1758 Ovis orientalis Gmelin, 1774

  7. A procedure for forecasting western larch seed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur L. Roe

    1966-01-01

    Successful regeneration depends upon good coordination between seed production and seedbed preparation. To aid forest managers in scheduling seedbed preparation, a simple sequential sampling plan for estimating potential cone crops as much as a year in advance of the seed fall was developed and is described herein. With advance knowledge of the cone crop prospects, the...

  8. Results from six Pinus taeda nursery trials with the herbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pendimethalin is used by some nursery managers to control weeds in Eucalyptus and Pinus seedbeds and cutting beds of Pinus. Six trials were implemented in open-rooted seedbeds to test the response of Pinus taeda to postemergence (to the crop) applications of 2.2 kg ha–1 active ingredient of pendimethalin (the ...

  9. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.

    2004-06-01

    winters that coincided with high population density (Tavecchia et al., 2005. The significant interaction between age and time may have been responsible for maintaining differences among cohorts in demographic parameters such as survival (Tavecchia et al., 2005. In turtles, Rivalan et al. (pers. comm. found evidence of a typical cost of reproduction in which the number of reproductive seasons in an individual’s lifetime was inversely related to the extent of reproductive investment in a given season. By statistically accounting for loss of tags in these turtles, which can be substantial and thus may potentially bias state–transition probabilities, the authors discovered that fitness was roughly equivalent for all females, regardless of how often they attempted to breed. The studies by Tavecchia et al. (2005 and Rivalan et al. (pers. comm. illustrate the benefits of using multi–state models in accounting for recapture/re– sighting probabilities. The pattern of senescence in wild populations was a focus of the work by Catchpole et al. (2004 and Gaillard et al. (2004. In the well–studied red deer (Cervus elaphus of Rum, senility was suggested by a survival probability that declined with age among the oldest age classes in both males and females, although there was little evidence for age–dependent survival among the younger age classes (Catchpole et al., 2004. As in many species, some animals dispersed from the study area, and notably Catchpole et al. (2004 accounted for dispersal in their estimates of age–dependent survival. In a comparative study of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, Gaillard et al. (2004 combined traditional mark–recapture analysis with the commonly used Gompertz and Weibull models to describe senescence patterns. They found that senescence in these species can be generally described by the Gompertz model, a result likely to be of interest to researchers working on senescence in a variety of taxa. Both studies

  10. The importance of ecological constraints on the control of multi-species treeline dynamics in eastern Nunavik, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour-Tremblay, Geneviève; De Vriendt, Laurent; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    Treelines are temperature-sensitive ecotones that should be able to expand in response to global warming; however, they are also controlled by ecological constraints. These constraints can create bottlenecks for tree regeneration, hindering treeline advances. Near Kangiqsualujjuaq (Nunavik, subarctic Québec), previous studies suggested successful recruitment of Larix laricina above the altitudinal treeline, while Picea mariana establishment remains scarce. We studied regeneration of both species to identify factors responsible for such contrasting responses. • We measured seeds and wings to evaluate species dispersal potential. We compared seed viability and tolerance to shrub leachates with germination trials. To evaluate seedbed preferences, we compared seedling occurrence on the different seedbeds with seedbed relative abundance in the field. • Seed germination was similar between L. laricina and P. mariana, whereas dispersal potential was higher for the latter. Germination of P. mariana seeds was more strongly inhibited by shrub leachates than were L. laricina seeds. In the field, we found only a few Picea seedlings, but numerous seedlings of Larix had established disproportionally on several seedbeds. While Betula glandulosa, mosses, and Vaccinium uliginosim impeded Larix establishment, numerous seedlings were found on lichens, mineral soil, and liverworts. The low occurrence of suitable seedbeds for Picea, mainly mineral soil, could explain the seedling scarcity of this species. • This study highlighted that allelopathy and unsuitable seedbeds could contribute to regeneration failure of P. mariana in eastern Nunavik and emphasizes the need to consider ecological preferences of species before predicting treeline expansion under a warmer climate.

  11. Comparative effect of ridge furrow and zero tillage on cowpea at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trials were carried out to compare effect of different seedbeds on cowpea at Abeokuta and Akure in different microclimates of Nigeria. The values of selected soil physical properties, plant nutrient status and growth and yield of cowpea given by zero tillage, manual clearing, ridge top, ridge side, ridge base, and furrow were ...

  12. Tillage Effect on Soil Moisture Storage and Wheat Yield on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effectiveness of tillage on draining excess soil water. To this effect treatments, i.e., 'flat seedbed, 'traditional drainage system' (Shurube), 'broadbed and furrow with 100 cm (BBF-100 cm)' and 'broadbed and furrow with 80cm'(BBF 80 cm) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications on 6 m ...

  13. Duff mound consumption and cambium injury for centuries-old western larch from prescribed burning in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...

  14. Italian ryegrass as a perennial fodder crop. | C.A.H. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) may be re-established from seedfall if the appropriate management practices are applied, and may thus function as a perennial fodder crop. Annual seedbed preparation and seeding are eliminated in this way. Keywords: botany; fodder; grasses; italian ryegrass; lolium multiflorum; ...

  15. Severe burning treatment tested on lowland pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; E. B. Moore

    1953-01-01

    Since the prescribed use of fire is a fairly new silvicultural technique for preparing seedbeds for pine in the New Jersey pine region, it has been used rather cautiously. Burning treatments have been made in the winter, when periodic light fires can be easily controlled. The treatments have been used almost exclusively on upland sites.

  16. Social Capital and Education: Implications for Student and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly work on student and school performance poses a variety of explanations for observed variations. One explanation receiving too little attention is social capital, an intangible resource argued to grow out of social relations and social structure. The seedbed of social capital is argued to reside with John Dewey, who in 1900 used the term…

  17. Two Years Necessary for Successful Natural Seeding in Nonbrushy Black Spruce Bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry; Arthur E. Elling

    1978-01-01

    Natural seeding in a strip-cut black spruce bog was adequate, averaging 1,800 stems per acre and 80 percent milacre stocking. natural seeding in a completely cut bog was inadequate, averaging 630 stems per acre and 40 percent milacre stocking. Slash was removed to expose sphagnum seedbeds in both cases. Progressive cutting every other year is recommended.

  18. Investigation of chemical-free nutrient removal and recovery from CO2-rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Elsie M; Rezania, Babak; Ciçek, Nazim

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of a bench-scale system for removal and recovery of phosphorus (P) as struvite from CO2-rich wastewater was tested. A continuous 12 L reactor system combining a fluidized seedbed and aeration for pH increase was developed and tested using synthetic feed. For a 100 mL min(-1) influent rate, an aeration and recycle rate combination of 7 L min(-1) and 700 mL min(-1) was sufficient for increasing and maintaining the reactor pH from 6.7 to between 7.6 and 8.0. Significant P removal was achieved in 6 h runs without a seedbed (91-92%), while neither the struvite nor sand seedbeds improved P removal (91-96%). Struvite was recovered in all runs, with additional calcium (Ca) precipitation in the seedbed runs. Reactor operation was possible for an extended period of time, up to 46 h without any major adjustment during long-term run. The average P removal was 88%, and precipitate collected after 24 h was found to be mainly struvite, while the final precipitate had a Ca: total phosphorus molar ratio of 0.56 and also contained calcite. This study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of an aerated crystallization reactor system for chemical-free struvite removal and recovery from CO2-rich wastewater such as stored livestock manure.

  19. Research and breeding for mechanical culture of rice in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten H.

    1967-01-01

    Ten Have described the results of research on cultural practices and breeding work, on the very heavy clay soils of the Prince Bernhard Polder and the Wageningen Project during the years 1952 to 1965. The chapters are: Introduction, Surface and underground drainage, Tillage and seedbed preparation,

  20. Seeding black cherry in regeneration cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold J. Huntzinger

    1967-01-01

    Small seedbeds were established on three newly cutover areas on the Allegheny National Forest. Site preparation, protection from animals, and season of sowing were studied. It was not necessary to prepare the site or to provide protection to obtain good germination. Seedlings exposed to deer browsing were severely limited in height growth. Best height growth on the...

  1. A furrow-seeder for the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond E. Graber; Donald F. Thompson; Donald F. Thompson

    1969-01-01

    Furrow-seeding techniques seem to offer the best means of providing desired conditions at reasonable cost (Croker 1967). A tractor-drawn furrow-seeder prepares a mineral seedbed, sows and covers the seed, and can be maneuvered so as to leave some existing vegetation between furrows for shade. Since no commercial equipment was suitable for use under typical northeastern...

  2. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  3. Disturbance From the Initial Harvest Implementing Uneven-Aged Silviculture in a Pine-Hardwood Stand in Southwestern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Paul A. Murphy

    1999-01-01

    Logging disturbance is important in uneven-aged stands because harvests are frequent, merchantable trees are retained, and regeneration may be present. Logging disturbance was monitored during the establishment of a study testing the application of uneven-aged silvicufture in an irregularly aged, pine-hardwood stand. Disturbances were: (1) seedbed conditions...

  4. Calibrating the Truax Rough Rider seed drill for restoration plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren St. John; Brent Cornforth; Boyd Simonson; Dan Ogle; Derek Tilley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a step-by-step approach to calibrating the Truax Rough Rider range drill, a relatively new, state-of-the-art rangeland drill. To achieve the desired outcome of a seeding project, an important step following proper weed control and seedbed preparation is the calibration of the seeding equipment to ensure the recommended...

  5. A Loblolly Pine Management Guide: Natural Regeneration of Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Boyd Edwards

    1987-01-01

    For many landowners, low cost makes natural regeneration an attractive alternative to planting when loblolly pine stands are harvested. Clearcutting, seed-tree, shelterwood, and selection methods can be used. Keys to success are a suitable seedbed.an adequate seed supply, sufficient moisture. and freedom from excessive competition.

  6. Lessons from historical rangeland revegetation for today's restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy

    1999-01-01

    Rangeland revegetation in the Western United States historically was applied at a large scale for soil conservation and forage production purposes. Principles of revegetation that have developed over years of research include matching site potential and plant materials adaption, use of appropriate seedbed preparation and sowing techniques, and development of large...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 5, No 22 (2006), The effects of seedbed types on yam-minisetts yield: A case study of Ushongo local government area of Benue state of Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 77 (2012), The effects of the seeds of Galeopsis ladanum on fattening performance in quails and occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in rats, Abstract PDF.

  8. Nursery practices, seedling sizes, and field performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William I. Stein

    1988-01-01

    Highlights are presented from a large cooperative study to determine the combined effects of nursery cultural practices on the initial size and subsequent field performance of 2+0 Douglas-fir seedlings. The study involved seven sources of stock produced in three different nurseries and field plantings made over 3 years on 28 sites in southwestern Oregon. Seedbed...

  9. Winter feeding activity of the common starfish (Asterias rubens L.): The role of temperature and shading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüera García, A.; Trommelen, M.A.; Burrows, F.; Jansen, J.M.; Schellekens, T.; Smaal, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the Wadden Sea common starfish is an important predator of mussel beds which in turn are relevant ecological and economic resource. To improve the management of mussel seedbeds, knowledge is required on over winter predation, a factor affecting mussel survival. The aim of this study was to assess

  10. Effects of prescribed fire on wildlife and wildlife habitat in selected ecosystems of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; L. Mike Conner; Paul A. Brewer; Paulette Ford; Jonathan Haufler; Andrea Litt; Ronald E. Masters; Laura R. Mitchell; Jane Park

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is applied widely as a management tool in North America to meet various objectives such as reducing fuel loads and fuel continuity, returning fire to an ecosystem, enhancing wildlife habitats, improving forage, preparing seedbeds, improving watershed conditions, enhancing nutrient cycling, controlling exotic weeds, and enhancing resilience from...

  11. Regeneration after 8 years in artificial canopy gaps in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a study of regeneration of Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forest in S.E. Australia in artificially created canopy gaps (0.01¿2 ha) and clearfelled coupes (4¿27 ha) with different seedbed treatments. Treatments were applied in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Our results are based on

  12. Puddling against dry plowing for lowland rice culture in Surinam : effect on soil and plant, and interactions with irrigation and nitrogen dressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltema, W.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of tillage on rice grown on heavy Surinam clay soils was investigated in pot and field trials. Included were interactions with seed rate, nitrogen dressing and distribution, water management, and variety. Four procedures for tilled layer and seedbed preparation were studied

  13. The effect of asphalt and wax emulsions on moisture changes in slash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Murphy; Charles W. Philpot; Morris J. Garber

    1969-01-01

    Disposal of logging slash is one of the forest manager's biggest problems. If slash is not disposed of, a serious fire hazard may result, and regeneration may be prevented because of an inadequate seedbed or resistance to planting. Foresters can dispose of slash by burning or by generally more expensive mechanical methods such as chipping. Over much of the West,...

  14. Ideal Sowing Depth for Sweetgum Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1967-01-01

    This paper reports the sowing depths from which sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings can emerge under near ideal conditions. Little is known about the seedbed conditions required for successful direct seeding of sweetgum, and the information presented here will be useful in planning field trials.

  15. Grass seeding and soil erosion in a steep, logged area in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Helvey; W.B. Fowler

    1979-01-01

    This case study tested the common belief that grass seeding is needed to prevent erosion after areas are clearcut in the Blue Mountains. Changes in the soil surface height at about 500 points each in a seedbed and an unseeded area were measured on four dates covering a 20-month period. Average vertical displacement was not consistently related to seeding nor to degree...

  16. Organic manures and grasslands | AW | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the nitrogen balance in fertile, highly stocked grassland, the author discusses the improvement of less productive grasslands in lower rainfall areas. Suggested measures for improvement include subsoiling, surface treatment for better water penetration and seedbed preparation. The introduction of legumes ...

  17. Porównawcze badania nad występowaniem bakterii w hydroponicznych uprawach sałaty (Lactuca sativa L. z azotanowaą i amonową formą azotu w pożywce [Comparative studies on the occurrence of bacteria in hydroponic cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. enriched with nitrate or ammonia forms of nitrogen in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska-Gołąb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment demonstrated the greatest number of bacteria on the surface of roots immersed in nutrient solution, next on the epidermis of the parts of roots remaining in the air space above the nutrient solution and on the roots growing in the seed-bed; a smaller number in the seed-bed itself and the smallest number in the nutrient solution. The population of bacteria consisted of up to 90% short rod of bacilli. The total number of bacteria in hydroponic culture with ammonium was higher than in that with nitrate. As a rule the bacteria belonging to the separate physiological groups, participating in nitrogen metabolism (ammonifying, proteolytic, proteinizing, denitrifying and oligonitrophilic bacteria appeared to be more numerus in the culture with ammonium than in that with nitrate. The growth of plants in hydroponic culture with ammonium was weaker than in that with nitrate.

  18. Semilleros de investigación en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de Santa Marta (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Suárez Colorado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to explore the research of the seedbed group, examining the imaginary concept students have in relation with the undergraduate training program at the university. Initially, the semantic universe on research seedbeds group is recognized through the technique of free association; after, these ones were evaluated through a structured interview in order to know the reasons why they can be assigned for seedbeds groups. Finally, based on students’ consideration; emotional skills, social and scientific competences were investigated, which every researcher must open in their field of exercise. In this research paper, 72 students from seedbeds group of Colombian public university participated. The results are presented under a descriptive - exploratory model and they include the approach of the complementarities. Resumen El presente artículo de investigación tiene como fin la exploración al interior de los semilleros de investigación, indagando en el imaginario que tienen los estudiantes sobre el programa de formación en el pregrado universitario. Inicialmente, se reconoce el universo semántico sobre semilleros de investigación a través de la técnica de asociación libre; luego, se examinan, por medio de una entrevista estructurada, los motivos para estar adscritos a semilleros; por último, a consideración de los estudiantes, se indagan las habilidades emocionales, competencias sociales y científicas que debe desplegar un investigador en su campo de ejercicio. En este estudio, participaron 72 estudiantes del programa semilleros de una universidad pública de Colombia. Los resultados son presentados bajo un modelo descriptivo-exploratorio e incluyen el enfoque de la complementariedad.

  19. Yield response of Bambara groundnut to plant population and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-04-22

    Apr 22, 2001 ... The experiment was designed with three seedbed types split-plot; flat, ridge and furrow in the main plots and bambara groundnut population densities (9, 13, 22 and 66 plants m-2) in the sub plots. At 63 days after sowing (DAS), leaf area index (LAI) was highest for 66 plants m-2 and/or when planted on the ...

  20. A reassessment of the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus following recent advances in field and molecular studies

    OpenAIRE

    Traoré, O.; Pinel Galzi, Agnès; Sorho, F.; Sarra, S.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Kanyeka, Z.; Séré, Y.; Konaté, G.; Fargette, Denis

    2009-01-01

    The available knowledge on the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is reassessed in the light of major advances in field and molecular studies of the disease it causes in rice. Previously undescribed means of transmission by mammals and through leaf contact have been discovered recently. Several agricultural practices, including the use of seedbed nurseries, have also contributed to a massive build-up of RYMV inoculum. Phytosanitation is now known to be critical to reduce disease ...

  1. Labelling, Deviance and Media

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Labelling theory is a perspective that emerged as a distinctive approach to criminology during the 1960s, and was a major seedbed of the radical and critical perspectives that became prominent in the 1970s. It represented the highpoint of an epistemological shift within the social sciences away from positivism – which had dominated criminological enquiry since the late-1800s – and toward an altogether more relativistic stance on the categories and concepts of crime and control. It inspired a ...

  2. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  3. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  4. Minimal Technologies Application Project: Planning and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Intensive and continuous tactical training during the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany has caused the loss of vegetative ground cover and has accelerated soil erosion rates, resulting in extensive environmental damage, safety hazards, and unrealistic training habitats. The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate revegetation procedures for establishing adequate vegetative cover to control erosion at minimal costs and disruption to training activities. This project involved the development and installation of 12 revegetation procedures that combined four seedbed preparation methods and seeding options with three site-closure periods. In March 1987, the four seedbed preparation/seeding options and closure periods were selected, a study site design and location chosen, and specifications for the revegetation procedures developed. A German rehabilitation contractor attempted the specified seedbed preparation and seeding on the 13.5-ha site in June, but abnormally high rainfall, usually wet site conditions, and lack of adequate equipment prevented the contractor from completing six of the 12 planned procedures. Planning and execution of the project has nonetheless provided valuable information on the importance and use of soil analytical results, seed availability and cost data, contractor equipment requirements, and time required for planning future revegetation efforts. Continued monitoring of vegetative ground cover at the site for the next two years, combined with cost information, will provide necessary data to determine which of the six revegetation procedures is the most effective. These data will be used in planning future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  5. [Light and temperature and their effects on photosynthesis characteristics of stereoscopic cultivation in Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-long; Cui, Xiu-ming; Lan, Lei; Chen, Wei-dong; Li, Rui-bo; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    Light intensity, gas temperature, soil temperature and gas exchange parameters were determined of three years old Panax notoginseng planted on different layers seedbed and different location (left, middle, right) of the same layer in greenhouse. Result show that diurnal variation of light intensity, gas temperature and soil temperature showed that upper layer > middle layer > lower layer; different locations of the same layer showed that light intensity of upper layer was not different among different locations; light intensity of middle and lower layer in right and left were the same, and significantly higher than those in the middle position; the gas temperature of each layer all with less different of each location; soil temperature of 12 cm depth is the lowest, and was gradually increased to the upper and lower surface; net photosynthetic efficiency of P. notoginseng showed that upper layer > middle layer > lower layer; there were significant correlation between soil temperature, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and photosynthetic rate were correlated with light intensity significantly; transpiration rates had notable correlation with light intensity and gas temperature. All above indicated that net photosynthesis rate of P. notoginseng was affected by light intensity directly, gas temperature and soil temperature indirectly. Inconclusion, stereoscopic cultivation of P. notoginseng was practicable in present study. The planting quality of P. notoginseng under stereoscopic cultivation could be improved by ameliorate the structure of seedbed to enhance the light intensity of middle and lower layer. Increase the thickness of the seedbed to decrease the temperature difference of soil. Further the management of ventilation facilities of greenhouse to control the gas temperature.

  6. ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS E PRODUTIVIDADE DE MINICEPAS DE CEDRO AUSTRALIANO MANEJADAS EM CANALETÕES E TUBETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs tothe family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and fourfrom the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100 % of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  7. Solarization of nursery soil induces production of fruit bodies of mushrooms and enhances growth of tropi-cal forest tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find out the effect of soil solarization on microbial population and its effect on growth of two species of tropical forest trees. For this purpose, solar heating of nursery seedbeds (1 x 5m was done during April- May 2009 for one month, by application of a thin clear sheet of polyethylene. The top soil (5 inches consists of a mix of loam soil, sand and farm yard manure in 2:1:0.5 ratios (v/v. Temperature variations were recorded daily for a period of one month, at 2 depths, (5 cm and 10 cm. Maximum differences in temperature between solar treatment and control was recorded as high as 12.1° C at 5 cm and 9.1° C at 10 cm depth. After one month, population of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and nematodes were completely eliminated from upper 5 cm depth, although population of AM fungi, bacteria and Trichoderma were reduced, but not completely eliminated. Seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. were raised through seeds on treated and control beds. After three months, the production of fruit bodies of mushrooms, namely Amanita populiphila Tullos & E. Moses, Lepiota longicauda Henn. and Scleroderma sp. were observed. It was noticed that these mushrooms only appeared on treated soil with white mycelial growth in rhizosphere under fruit bodies. Lepiota longicauda produced the maximum number of fruit bodies on teak seedbeds followed by Scleroderma sp. on G. arborea seedbeds. Due to solar heating there was 23.9% increase in plant height and 22.1% increase in collar diameter of G. arborea seedlings, where as 17.4% increase in plant height and 9.8% increase in collar diameter in case of T. grandis, as compared to control seedlings.

  8. Solarization of nursery soil induces production of fruit bodies of mushrooms and enhances growth of tropical forest tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find out the effect of soil solarization on microbial population and its effect on growth of two species of tropical forest trees. For this purpose, solar heating of nursery seedbeds (1 x 5m was done during April- May 2009 for one month, by application of a thin clear sheet of polyethylene. The top soil (5 inches consists of a mix of loam soil, sand and farm yard manure in 2:1:0.5 ratios (v/v. Temperature variations were recorded daily for a period of one month, at 2 depths, (5 cm and 10 cm. Maximum differences in temperature between solar treatment and control was recorded as high as 12.1° C at 5 cm and 9.1° C at 10 cm depth. After one month, population of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and nematodes were completely eliminated from upper 5 cm depth, although population of AM fungi, bacteria and Trichoderma were reduced, but not completely eliminated. Seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. were raised through seeds on treated and control beds. After three months, the production of fruit bodies of mushrooms, namely Amanita populiphila Tullos & E. Moses, Lepiota longicauda Henn. and Scleroderma sp. were observed. It was noticed that these mushrooms only appeared on treated soil with white mycelial growth in rhizosphere under fruit bodies. Lepiota longicauda produced the maximum number of fruit bodies on teak seedbeds followed by Scleroderma sp. on G. arborea seedbeds. Due to solar heating there was 23.9% increase in plant height and 22.1% increase in collar diameter of G. arborea seedlings, where as 17.4% increase in plant height and 9.8% increase in collar diameter in case of T. grandis, as compared to control seedlings.

  9. [Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, G.W.

    1996-01-27

    This quarterly report describes work on Task 1: Field test and sell prototype to Ellis Equipment, Ltd; Task 2: Design, build, and field test two prototypes; and Task 3: Produce and sell Pegasus to farmers. The equipment has been built to shred stalks, deeply till the soil, and prepare seedbeds for cotton plants. The equipment has been field tested in Australia and is currently being field tested in California and Arizona. Unexpected problems appeared with hard dry soils and this report describes improvements made.

  10. Predicting soil workability and fragmentation in tillage: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Lamandé, Mathieu; Edwards, Gareth T. C.

    2017-01-01

    . A reliable evaluation of soil workability implies a distinctive definition of the critical water content (wet and dry limits) for tillage. In this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the methods for determining soil workability, and the effects of soil properties and tillage systems on soil......Soil workability and friability are required parameters to consider when creating suitable seedbeds for crop establishment and growth. Knowledge of soil workability is important for scheduling tillage operations and for reducing the risk of tillage-induced structural degradation of soils...... workability as part of a decision support system for tillage operations....

  11. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004–2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3–4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0–1 and the 0–3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0–3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell

  12. Combining ability of tropical maize lines for seed quality and agronomic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moterle, L M; Braccini, A L; Scapim, C A; Pinto, R J B; Gonçalves, L S A; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Silva, T R C

    2011-09-30

    Studies of genetic effects of early selection of maize based on seed quality traits are rare, especially those that use materials from different heterotic groups. These studies are also useful in tropical environments and for the advancement of sustainable agriculture with cropping during seasons not commonly used for cultivation. We estimated, through diallel crosses, the predominant genetic effects on the expression of agronomic traits and seed quality and on the general combining ability of nine maize lines from commercial hybrids and the specific combining ability of hybrid combinations among them. In the evaluation of seed quality, seven tests were used: first count and final count of seed germination, seedling vigor classification, cold tolerance, seedling emergence rate in a sand seedbed, speed of emergence in a sand seedbed, and speed of emergence index. Plant height, first ear height and grain yield were the estimated agronomic traits. In the diallel analysis, method 3 (model I) proposed by Griffing was used. There was a greater significance of non-additive genetic effects in the genetic control of seed quality of the various lines. The Flash, Dekalb 350 and P 30F80 lines combined high seed quality and high grain yield. For growth during the normal planting season, the combinations CD 3121-1 x P 30F80, Speed x CD 3121-2, Dow 8330 x AG 8080 and Dekalb 350 x CD 3121-2 were the most promising for both seed quality and agronomic traits.

  13. Viabilidade do sistema de produção de mudas em bandejas em três cultivares de cebola Viability of onion seedling production on polyestyrene trays in three cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Yamamoto Reghin

    2007-08-01

    cultivo da cebola em um mercado cada vez mais competitivo.The present trial was realized in Ponta Grossa (PR and aimed to evaluate the viability of onion seedling production in polyestyrene trays, compared to conventional system on seedbed, using three cultivars The experimental design used was a randomized block with three replications. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme 3x3, being three seedlings type (from trays with 200 and 288 cells and from seedbed, and three cultivars (Mercedes, Bola Precoce and Crioula. Seedlings production on trays were realized under protected cultivation and seedlings from seedbeds produced in the field. Seeds were sowed in May,15th. At 57 days the seedlings were evaluated and then transplanted in plots with four rows and plants arranged in 0,40x0,08m, with 312.500 plants.ha-1. The harvest was realized according to the plant maturation stage. Bulbs were dried and then yield were evaluated. The production cost and seedlings viability were calculated. It was observed the seedlings from trays were superior when compared to seedlings from seedbed, mainly those from 200 cells.This higher seedling quality reflected on later performance obtaining the highest yield from trays of 200 cells. It was intermediary with 288 trays and lower from seedbed seedling. It was observed low seedling useful from seedbed during the selection process (50%. In the case of hybrid the cost of seedling production in seedbed was high, almost comparable to seedling production of open pollinated cultivars on trays of 288 cells. The best cultivars were Crioula and Mercedes. Seedlings production on trays mainly on 200 cells showed viability and represents an important alternative to increase onion yield in a competitive market.

  14. Sistemas de preparo do solo em relação à produção e à erosão Tillage practices in relation to crop yield and soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Quintiliano A. Marques

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam os resultados obtidos, desde 1944, com os diversos sistemas de preparo do solo, na produção e na erosão, nos principais tipos de solo do Estado de São Paulo, com as culturas de milho, algodão e soja. Com base nos dados de produção obtidos, conclui-se que, de modo geral, não há vantagens em se fazerem duas arações em vez de uma única, a menos que o terreno esteja muito praguejado de ervas daninhas de extirpação difícil, como os casos da tiririca e grama-sêda. O preparo do solo com arado comum é superior aos demais sistemas, ou sejam, subsuperfície, grade, sulcos e enxada. Relativamente à erosão, verifica-se que quanto maior a desagregação da terra e que quanto menor a quantidade de resíduos vegetais deixados na superfície, tanto maior será o prejuízo por erosão; no preparo do solo com apenas uma aração e no preparo com arado de subsuperfície conseguem-se reduzir, substancialmente, as perdas de terra por erosão, em relação, respectivamente, ao preparo do solo com duas arações e ao preparo do solo com arado comum de aiveca.In this paper the authors present the results on yield and soil losses obtained when different methods of seedbed preparation were experimentally compared on the main soil types of the state of São Paulo for the corn, cotton, and soybean crops. Based on the yield data it is concluded that there was no advantage in performing two plowings instead of one, unless the land was infested with weeds difficult to extirpate, such as nutgrass and Bermuda grass. For seedbed preparation the conventional plowing method was superior to subsurface plowing, disk harrowing, furrowing only along the rows, and hocing. Treatments that promoted the greatest soil breaking or left the smallest amount of crop residues on the soil surface, induced the biggest erosion. Seedbed preparation by plowing or subsurface plowing reduced substantially the soil losses caused by erosion when

  15. Long-term perspective changes in winter wheat crop production technology

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    Adam Harasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of 10 factors related to the environment, crop management and organisation on yields of commercially grown winter wheat was investigated at Błonie-Topola experiment farm over the years 1980-2007. From among the factors under investigation, yields of winter wheat were negatively affected by delayed seeding and excessively high seeding rates. Trends of grain yields, value of the preceding crops, NPK fertilization, percent of cereals in total cropland, labour consumption of crop production were also investigated. Due to changes in farming conditions (discontinuing of livestock production, employment reduction, increase of cereals in total cropland there was a tendency for the seedbed value to deteriorate and for potassium and phosphorus fertilization level to decrease. However, due to increased nitrogen rates and correctly applied other elements of crop management it was possible to obtain satisfactory yields of winter wheat.

  16. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    for optimal friability. There is a strong need to get more detailed knowledge about effects of soil water content on soil friability and especially to be able to quantify the least limiting water range for soil friability and therefore soil tillage. A strong relationship between organic matter and friability...... has been found but it is not possible to identify a specific lower critical level of organic matter across soil types. Sustainable management of soil requires continuous and adequate inputs of organic matter to sustain or improve soil friability. Intensive tillage and traffic in unfavorable conditions...... threatens soil friability and may initiate a vicious cycle where increasingly higher intensity of tillage is needed to produce a proper seedbed....

  17. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany))

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  18. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany)

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  19. Temperature and water pressure head effects on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite of isoxaflutole in a loamy soil under two tillage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alletto, Lionel [Universite de Toulouse - Ecole d' ingenieurs de Purpan, Agronomy Department, 75, voie du TOEC BP 57 611, 31 076 Toulouse Cedex 3 (France); UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: lionel.alletto@purpan.fr; Benoit, Pierre [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: benoit@grignon.inra.fr; Bergheaud, Valerie [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: bergheau@grignon.inra.fr; Coquet, Yves [UMR 1091 INRA/AgroParisTech Environment and Arable Crops, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique/Institut National des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l' Environnement, BP 01, 78 850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: Yves.Coquet@agroparistech.fr

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature and water pressure head on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) of isoxaflutole during 84 d in samples collected in a loamy soil under conventional (CT) and conservation (MT) tillage systems. Soil temperature was the major factor controlling DKN degradation in the two tillage systems. The shortest half-lives (T{sub 1/2}) were measured in the seedbed samples under MT at 25 deg. C and -33 cm water pressure head. We found that mouldboard ploughing under CT was responsible for the spatial variability of herbicide degradation properties, whereas under MT herbicide degradation was associated to the vertical distribution of organic matter. - Tillage practices influence the spatial variability of diketonitrile degradation in soil and its sensitivity to pedoclimatic conditions.

  20. STUDY OF OPPORTUNITIES OF USE OF COMPOSTS CUNICOLES FOR THE ABOVEGROUND PRODUCTION OF TOMATO PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the potential valorization of composts exhausted cunicoles for aboveground vegetable plants. In a device complete random block with three repetitions, five composts in a pure state or in mixture and a witness are tested under tomato in seedbed except ground. They got results enable us to confirm that the composts are mature. As a whole, they have availability out of high water and a content of relatively weak air, whereas the substrates containing the peat-compost mixtures have physical properties close to the standards retained in Tunisia. The vegetative behavior of these plants with respect to the variation of the composition and the average size of the particles of the substrates shows a sensitivity of the seedlings to these parameters to the beginning of their growth. Majority of the mixtures containing peat-compost gave seedlings of quality, healthy, and homogeneous. The composts prepare well with a partial use in except ground.

  1. STUDY OF OPPORTUNITIES OF USE OF COMPOSTS CUNICOLES FOR THE ABOVEGROUND PRODUCTION OF TOMATO PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the potential valorization of composts exhausted cunicoles for aboveground vegetable plants. In a device complete random block with three repetitions, five composts in a pure state or in mixture and a witness are tested under tomato in seedbed except ground. They got results enable us to confirm that the composts are mature. As a whole, they have availability out of high water and a content of relatively weak air, whereas the substrates containing the peat-compost mixtures have physical properties close to the standards retained in Tunisia. The vegetative behavior of these plants with respect to the variation of the composition and the average size of the particles of the substrates shows a sensitivity of the seedlings to these parameters to the beginning of their growth. Majority of the mixtures containing peat-compost gave seedlings of quality, healthy, and homogeneous. The composts prepare well with a partial use in except ground.

  2. Following of erosive wash of soil in variants with different intercrops

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    Barbora Badalíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot experiment established in a sugar beet growing region the erosive washing away of soil was studied in the years 2006 to 2008. The area is located at an altitude of 246 m with the long-term mean precipitation of 500 mm and the mean annual temperature of 8.4 °C. The soils are classified as Chernozem, moderately heavy, loamy, with a good supply of nutrients, humus content of 2.30 % and an alkaline soil reaction. Slope gradient is 12 %, exposition is NE. To study the role of intercrops in erosion control, three variants were established after the harvest of the main crop, two variants with different intercrops and one (control with no intercrop. These were Variant 1 with Secale cereale L. var. multicaule METZG. ex ALEF., a non-freezing intercrop, Variant 2 with cluster mallow (Malva verticillata L., a freezing intercrop, and a control variant with no intercrop. In Variant 1 Secale cereale L. var. multicaule was desiccated with the herbicide Roundup in early spring. All the variants involved maize as the main crop. In variants 1 and 2, maize was sown in intercrop residues after seedbed preparation by Vario and a compactor. In Variant 3 maize was sown after conventional seedbed preparation. For assessment of soil conditions soil samples were taken to determine soil physical and chemical properties and water content in the soil. Soil loss by erosion was determined using specially-designed pockets. Erosive washing away of soil was monitored during the entire growing season of maize. The variants in which intercrops were used were found very effective in soil erosion control. In Variant 3 (control without surface crop residues, the washing away of soil was recorded with each heavy torrential rain. During the all years the total amount of soil loss by erosion in this treatment was 2.25 t . ha−1.

  3. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

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    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  4. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

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    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  5. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

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    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  6. CONTROLE DE TOMBAMENTO EM SEMENTES DE EUCALIPTO MEDIANTE PULVERIZAÇÕES COM FUNGICIDAS DAMPING OFF CONTROL IN EUCALYPTUS NURSERIES BY FUNGICIDE SPRAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Ney de Macedo Lima

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O incremento do reflorestamento e florestamento mediante o estímulo fiscal aumentou consideravelmente o plantio do eucalipto no Brasil, criando a necessidade de se produzir mudas em grande quantidades. Freqüentemente a ocorrência de tombamento de mudas, em pré ou pós-emergência, afetam os cronogramas de plantio, acarretando a morte de milhares de plântulas. No presente trabalho procurou-se verificar o efeito de sete fungicidas, aplicados em pulverizaçao a alto volume, no controle do tombamento causado por Cylindroctadium sp. e Fusarium sp. em mudas E. saligna Sm. nas sementeiras. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. As sementes foram desinfectadas com Neantina seco a 0,3% e o leito da sementeira foi tratado com Brometo de metila (40ml/m² e depois inoculado com Cylindroctadium sp Fusarium sp. em meio de fubá-areia. Observou-se que os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle do tombamento foram Arasan — 75 a 0,3%, Cupravit azul a 0,4% e Miltox a 0,35% enquanto que o Batasan a 0,15% foi o mais fitotóxico. As plântulas apresentaram melhor aspecto vegetativo nas parcelas tratadas com Ferradol a 0,25%. A elevada densidade de semeadura (50g/m² e a ocorrência de tempo húmido e chuvoso parecem ter concorrido grandemente para a severa incidência do tombamento.

    The increment of the growth of tree conservation by means of official incentive, greatly intensified the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil, creating the necessity of producing seedlings in great quantities. Frequently the incidence of damping - off in the seedbed, in pre or post-emergence, affect the chronogram of planting, causing death of thousands of plantules. In the present experiment, it was attempted to determine the effect of seven fungicides, applied by spray at high volume, on the control of

  7. Changes to infiltration and soil loss rates during the growing season under conventional and conservation tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Gergely; Madarász, Balázs; Szabó, Judit; Tóth, Adrienn; Zacháry, Dóra; Szalai, Zoltán; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine how infiltration and soil erosion rates vary in field plots under conventional and conservation tillage practices during the growing season: i.) in April while the soil was under green cover; ii.) in May when the soil was a bare seed bed; iii.) in October when the soil was covered in stubble after harvest. At each time, five different rainfall intensities were applied to the plots and the infiltration rate calculated as function of rainfall intensity. The highest infiltration rates were observed on the plot under conservation tillage when it was under the cover crop. Comparing these infiltration rates with those at other times, important differences can be seen. When the soil was prepared as a seedbed, higher infiltration rates occurred when rainfall intensities were less than 80 mm/h. However, when the rainfall intensities were more than 80 mm/h, water infiltration rates were higher when the soil was covered in stubble. This means that natural pore forming processes can be more effective at improving soil drainage potential than temporary improvements created by soil tillage operations. Different methods were used to assess the soil erosion potential. Independently of the method used to calculate soil erodibility, it is obvious that the soil is most vulnerable when prepared as a seedbed. In addition, the highest resistance against soil erosion was observed when the soil was covered with crops. A method of calculating the sediment transporting capacity of runoff found no significant difference between conservation and conventional tillage systems. This contrasts with the Universal Soil Loss Equation method, which indicated differences between the two tillage systems substantial at each time of observation. The lowest difference (less than two times) was when the soil was covered in stubble, which matches with literature data. Overall, conservation tillage resulted in much lower soil erodibility values for the

  8. Soil tillage influences on nitrogen conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenberg, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    1998-12-31

    This thesis is focused on tillage effects with the emphasis on the risks of nitrogen leaching. Tillage operations strongly control the soil environment by altering the soil geometry. In addition, tillage determines the placement of crop residues. These effects influence many physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and thereby the conditions for crop growth and the risk of nitrogen leaching. Results presented showed that when seedbed preparation was omitted, the lack of a firm seedbed bottom caused poor crop establishment under dry weather conditions. Poor crop establishment may result in low nitrogen use efficiency and thus increase the risk of leaching. It was also shown that it is possible to establish a ryegrass catch crop by undersowing in autumn-sown cereals in spring. Both soil structure and soil microbial processes changed when annual tillage practices were altered. On a weak-structured clay soil, cultivation to 12 cm instead of mouldboard ploughing to 20-25 cm improved soil structure and increased the microbial activity in the upper 12 cm. There was also an increase in yields, which promoted a better nitrogen utilization. However, an increase in potential nitrogen turnover may lead to a higher risk of nitrogen leaching. When a sandy soil was stubble cultivated or mouldboard ploughed soon after harvest in early autumn, soil mineral nitrogen content and nitrate leaching were higher than if it was ploughed in late autumn or in spring. Nitrogen mineralization was favoured by the higher soil temperatures early in autumn. Nitrate leaching was estimated by sampling of soil water with ceramic suction cups. Incorporation or removal of straw did not affect the soil nitrogen content or leaching rates. At late ploughing, the effect of a ryegrass catch crop on nitrate leaching was small. There is a need to obtain more data on both short-term and long-term effects of different tillage systems on nitrogen mineralization and immobilization in various field

  9. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  10. Urban Agriculture, Commons and Urban Policies: Scaling up Local Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available May urban agriculture be the cornerstone that helps reconfigure more sustainable cities and if so, under which conditions? And if so, what type of urban agriculture? Such are the two issues underlying this article. Why not counteracting urban sprawl by fostering what could be called “rural sprawl”, by introducing nature and rural characteristics such as farming within the city, in its interstitial areas and wastelands? In this perspective, urban agriculture becomes a common good, bringing people together and reshaping the whole urban fabric that would eventually propose a radical remaking of the urban. Urban agriculture lends particularly well to long-lasting urban policies, especially those turning environmental “bads”—such as brownfields and wastelands—into environmental “goods” and urban amenities. Urban agriculture in interstitial abandoned urban areas may be one of cities’ main seedbeds of creative innovation. It is all about the right to decide and the power to create, renewing and deepening what Henri Lefebvre called The Right to the City.

  11. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  12. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water, hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campesina, a community of Carmen Pampa, Township Coroico. The aim of this study was to biologically control the "damping off", they found two genera that cause damping off in seedbed of coffee: Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.To determine the percentage of growth and control in the culture medium, we used the method of counting quarters, where they gave the mycelial growth of antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp., And the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. Statistically there was a highly significant difference in the variable growth rate of Trichoderma sp. on pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. at 3, 6 and 9 days that announces the time factor and treatments are interdependent. The control variable showed a highly significant difference in the time factor and treatment, but the interaction shows no significant difference this makes known factors that are independent, so the fungus Trichoderma sp. not depend on time in treatment, thus showing its inhibitory power to Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp .. This test gives references that there is antagonistic fungus control on the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.

  13. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  14. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  15. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp. plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled machinery traffic (WCT, controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1 and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS precision auto steer (CT2. Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 µm in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  16. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  17. Winter rape. The handbook for professionals; Winterraps. Das Handbuch fuer Profis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, O. [Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeinen Pflanzenbau/Oekologischen Landbau; Friedt, W. (eds.) [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Pflanzenzuechtung, IFZ

    2007-07-01

    Winter rape is a successive culture from the unloved step-child to an efficient and productive oil fruit with manifold possibilities of application. The handbook under consideration describes all relevant fundamentals of a successful cultivation of rape from preparation of the seed-bed up to sowing and harvest. Furthermore, problems of agricultural hygiene and plant protection are described. The storage and competent marketing are special challenges of each plant manager. The reader gains an insight into the entire application and use of winter rape in the range of food and non-food materials: to rape oil as an example for human range and in different possibilities of technical utilizations such as biofuel and machine oil. Furthermore, the use of winter rape as animal food is described. This book contains a lot of information about economical factors, performance of winter rape for the crop rotation and hints according to an optimization of the cultivation process. This book is an actual and valuable source for farmers, consultants as well as students and pupils.

  18. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  19. Searching for a New Way of Thinking Society for Today — Noospheric Social Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolayevitch Bobkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Obviously, we face an economic crisis that dominates the headlines of daily newspapers, academic journals and features as the title of TV-and-radio casts alike. And, not withstanding political differences, there is widespread consensus that the economic crisis is only the tip of an iceberg. However, there is little readiness to go beyond the inherited fundamental assumptions of a “modern industrial capitalist market society”. The article argues that all the categories are increasingly under threat. The social quality, the quality of life and the noosphere paradigm of global social development offer space for considerations that question societal developments not only on the phenomenological level. Instead, the authors ventilate gnoseological, ontological and axiological prerequisites of sustainable global social development. The noosphere paradigm is enriched with the theories of social quality and the quality of life, thus contributing to the wider and diverse debates on what can be called people's humanistic socialism. In view of the complexity of the impending transition from the present to a future global society with people’s humanistic socialism, it is necessary to plan it thoroughly, beginning with the support of the processes and institutions that currently provide a seedbed; developing new transformational forms of the future features of global society has to go hand in hand with this. It makes sense to carry on with the conceptualization of questions bearing on the formation of nooshpheric social quality and its design.

  20. Comparison Between Direct-seeding and Transplanting of Rice in Mazandaran Province: Weed Competition, Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate rice competition ability against weeds in direct-seeding and transplanting systems afield experiment was conducted at Mahmud Abad region of Mazandaran province on 2011 growing season. Experimental treatments were studied in a split plot factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Direct-seeding and transplanting of rice in wet seedbed were the main plots and three rice cultivars under two weed management systems (weed free and weed infested were arranged in sub plots. Results showed there was no significant yield difference in both system of rice planting under weed free condition, but yield loss due to weed interference in direct-seeding and transplanting of rice were 66% and 14% respectively.Line 843 which showed high competition ability in transplanting of rice, encountered with low ability due to weed pressure derivedweek early vigor but our traditional cultivar (Tarom Deilamani has acceptable competition ability and better yield sustainabilitythan improved cultivar (Khazar and line 843 in direct seeding system. Cultivars competitiveness could be attributed to more height, higher growth rate in early season, panicle number and higher dry weight of rice. Also in direct seeding related traits to the early vigor was more important than others. Results revealed that direct seeding integrated with weed control could be a good strategy for reducing costs of rice production. In such a system seedling early growth has important role in weed suppression.

  1. Recent developments in the VACIS gamma radiography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Payne, Jay; Snell, Michael

    1998-12-01

    The VACIS-I prototype system, which has been used at U.S.- Mexico POEs for cargo truck and railroad freight-car inspections, has served as a seedbed for other vehicle inspection systems that are cost-effective, transportable, high- speed, reliable, and utilize very low level radiation exposure. The STAR (stolen automobile recovery) system has been developed and successfully tested at Miami, Florida. Its status and further developmental possibilities are discussed. VACIS-II, the high-resolution (0.5 inches versus 2 inches for VACIS-I) system that scans the entire cargo truck, including the van, is capable of conducting normal as well as oblique scans in 1 1/2 minutes. Railroad VACIS, dubbed SENTINEL, which will scan railroad cars entering the U.S. at about 5 mph is now under development. It has the option of utilizing a Co-60 source for inspecting heavier cargoes. In addition, MOBILE VACIS is in the planning stage. As presently envisioned, it will be mounted on a small vehicle with an extendable detector tower and deployable gamma-ray source to scan a suspect vehicle, either a passenger car or cargo truck, for contraband. The state of development of these systems, as well as some of the options and concerns, are presented.

  2. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  3. Sensor and control for consistent seed drill coulter depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Nørremark, Michael; Green, Ole

    2016-01-01

    by a sub-millimetre accurate positioning system (iGPS, Nikon Metrology NV, Belgium) mounted on the drill coulter. At a drill coulter depth of 55 mm and controlled by an ordinary fixed spring loaded down force only, the change in soil resistance decreased the mean depth by 23 mm. By dynamically controlling...... of a drill coulter, providing sensor feedback to a control system via an electro hydraulic actuator that delivers an even coulter depth. The results showed a strong correlation between the angle of the coulter and the coulter depth under static (R^2=0.9996) and dynamic (R^2=0.987) operations, verified...... the spring loaded down force based on the angle sensor, the mean depth was independent of the seedbed change, from sand to gravel. The PID controller was superior because it providing a mean depth deviation from the target depth of -0.17 mm and +0.08 mm for sand and gravel, respectively. The most cost...

  4. Effective roughness modelling as a tool for soil moisture retrieval from C- and L-band SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lievens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture retrieval from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR using state-of-the-art back-scatter models is not fully operational at present, mainly due to difficulties involved in the parameterisation of soil surface roughness. Recently, increasing interest has been drawn to the use of calibrated or effective roughness parameters, as they circumvent issues known to the parameterisation of field-measured roughness. This paper analyses effective roughness parameters derived from C- and L-band SAR observations over a large number of agricultural seedbed sites in Europe. It shows that param-eters may largely differ between SAR acquisitions, as they are related to the observed backscatter coefficients and variations in the local incidence angle. Therefore, a statistical model is developed that allows for estimating effective roughness parameters from microwave backscatter observations. Subsequently, these parameters can be propagated through the Integral Equation Model (IEM for soil moisture retrieval. It is shown that fairly accurate soil moisture results are obtained both at C- and L-band, with an RMSE ranging between 4 vol% and 6.5 vol%.

  5. Eliciting reflections on caring theory in elderly caring practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabeth Ranheim, Albertine; Kärner, Anita; Berterö, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Caring theories are the description and conceptualization of the care that is given in caring practise by nurses and other professional caregivers with the aim of verbalizing and communicating caring phenomena. Intermittently, a theory –practice gap is given expression- that theory does not go along with clinical practice in caring. The aim of this study was an investigation into the possible disparity between theory and practice in caring by analysing nurses’ lived experience of the understanding of caring theory in practice in the context of municipal elderly care. Hermeneutical phenomenology was the research approach used to explore the lived experience of caring science theories in caring practice from the perspective of 12 nurses working in municipal care for elderly. The findings shows that the nurses Impulsively described their experience of detachment to caring theory, but when describing their caring intentions, the relationship to theory became apparent, and even confirmed their practice. As such, a seedbed exists for caring theory to be reflected on and cultivated in caring praxis. However, as the nurses describe, the caring theory must be sensitive enough for the nursing practitioners to accept. The gap revealed itself on an organisational level, as the nurses’ commission in municipal care did not correspond with their caring intention. We believe it is important to seriously consider what we want to achieve as a caring profession. We have to reflect on our responsibility as culture carriers and knowledge developers. We must make the disparate forces of intention and organisation become one intertwining force. PMID:21866232

  6. TRAFFIC CONTROL WITH AUTOPILOT AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO DECREASE SOIL COMPACTION IN SUGARCANE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Charlles Mendes de Sousa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Control the machinery traffic through autopilot and use the combined spacing of two rows are possible solutions to mitigate soil compaction problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate traffic control using autopilot in order to soften the problem of soil compaction in mechanically-harvested sugarcane areas. The study was conducted in two experimental areas belonging to Usina Santa Fe, in New Europe, São Paulo, Brazil. The design was a randomized block design, with 3 treatments: T1 = sugarcane planted in single spacing and without autopilot (1.50 m; T2 = sugarcane planted in single line spacing and managed on autopilot; T3 = sugarcane planted under combined spacing of two rows (1.50 × 0.90 m and managed with autopilot, with 4 replications. Was collected samples in the wheel row (WR and the seedbed (SB, which was located next to the plant row to, in layers from 0.00 to 0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m. It was observed that the seed bed area showed higher porosity in the treatments with autopilot in the second year of evaluation. There were no differences in pore sizes and shapes between the treatments in the two years studied. The large and complex pores were observed to be reduced in the second evaluation year.

  7. Prediction of Soil Fragmentation During Tillage Operation Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sedghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suitable soil structure is important for crop growth. One of the main characteristics of soil structure is the size of soil aggregates. There are several ways of showing the stability of soil aggregates, among which the determination of the median weight diameter of soil aggregates is the most common method. In this paper, a method based on adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was used to describe the soil fragmentation for seedbed preparation with combination of primary and secondary tillage implements including subsoiler, moldboard plow and disk harrow. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is a suitable approach to solving non-linear problems. ANFIS is a combination of fuzzy inference system (FIS and an artificial neural network (ANN method and it uses the ability of both models. In this study, the model inputs included “soil moisture content”, “tractor forward speed”and “working depth”. The performance of the model was evaluated using the statistical parameters of root mean square error (RMSE, percentage of relative error (ε, mean absolute error (MAE and the coefficient of determination (R2. These parameters were determined as 0.135, 3.6%, 0.122 and 0.981, respectively. For the evaluation of the ANFIS model, the predicted data using this model were compared to the data of artificial neural network model. The simulation results by ANFIS model showed to be closer to the actual data compared with those made by the artificial neural network model.

  8. Use of first ratoon as categorized seed of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Jorge Suárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained on commercial seedbeds of Factory Ofelina (Panamá are presented. Were you sampled 289.55 ha in 13 fields planted with ten varieties in plant cane, ratoon and second shoot those who underwent first molecular diagnosis (PCR for stunting diseases shoot and leaf scald, then staining was performed vascular xylem vessels with safranin whose purpose was to determine the percentage of functional vessels. The molecular diagnosis offered the 49 and 6 % of the samples had the presence of bacteria Leifsonia xyli (subsp xyli and Xanthomonas albilineans (Ashby Dowson respectively, while 92.7 % of the area evaluat- ed showed values ​​ higher than 85 % functionality xylem vessels. In Cuba the total cost of production of regis- tered seed II hovers around $ 8 188 724.2, using the 20 % of ratoon in the country would save approximately $ 1 066 370.7. The use of ratoon as seed is a common practice in countries like Brazil, Colombia, Argentina and Costa Rica, among others, its use is depending on the effectiveness of treatments to be given to the seed through the chain seed and varieties resistance to use.

  9. The stability of soil aggregates in tilled fallow areas in Hyderabad district, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagar Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arid areas are particularly susceptible to soil erosion due to long dry periods and sudden heavy downpours. This study investigates the aggregate size distribution and aggregate stability of twelve tilled fallow areas of Hyderabad district, Sindh, Pakistan. This study determined aggregate size distribution by dry sieving to evaluate the seedbed condition and aggregate stability using wet sieving to assess the susceptibility of tilled fallow areas to soil erosion. The aggregate size distribution of the soils of the selected areas was highly variable. Gulistan-e-Sarmast had the largest number of clods (51.0% followed by Kohsar (49.0%, Latifabad # 10 (41.10% and Daman-e-Kohsar (39.0%. Fazal Sun City, the left side of the Indus River, the Village Nooral Detha and the left side of the Abdullah Sports city had a greater number of large (>8.0 mm and small aggregates (<0.5 mm. The optimum aggregate size distribution was found in the left side of the channel, which had the largest number of aggregates (50.50% in the 0.5–8.0 mm sieve size range. Maximum aggregate stability (AS was found in Gulistan-e-Sarmast (46%, Kohsar (42% and Latifabad # 10 (34%, while all other soils had minimum aggregate stability (<14%. The minimum aggregate stabilities demonstrate that the tilled fallow areas of Hyderabad district are highly susceptible to erosion. Therefore, the present study suggests investigating potential ways to enhance the aggregate stabilities of soils.

  10. Peer-to-Peer Content Distribution and Over-The-Top TV: An Analysis of Value Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boever, Jorn; de Grooff, Dirk

    The convergence of Internet and TV, i.e., the Over-The-Top TV (OTT TV) paradigm, created opportunities for P2P content distribution as these systems reduce bandwidth expenses for media companies. This resulted in the arrival of legal, commercial P2P systems which increases the importance of studying economic aspects of these business operations. This chapter examines the value networks of three cases (Kontiki, Zattoo and bittorrent) in order to compare how different actors position and distinguish themselves from competitors by creating value in different ways. The value networks of legal systems have different compositions depending on their market orientation - Business-to-Business (B2B) and/or Businessto- Consumer (B2C). In addition, legal systems differ from illegal systems as legal companies are not inclined to grant control to users, whereas users havemost control in value networks of illegal, self-organizing file sharing communities. In conclusion, the OTT TV paradigm made P2P technology a partner for the media industry rather than an enemy. However, we argue that the lack of control granted to users will remain a seed-bed for the success of illegal P2P file sharing communities.

  11. The agricultural importance of loess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, J. A.

    2001-06-01

    Loess soils are among the most fertile in the world, principally because the abundance of silt particles ensures a good supply of plant-available water, good soil aeration, extensive penetration by plant roots, and easy cultivation and seedbed production. Also micaceous minerals in the silt and clay fractions provide an adequate supply of potassium for most crops, and the large amounts of total nitrogen in chernozems can maintain moderate yields of cereals without fertilizer additions. However, loess soils often contain little clay, which leads to loss of organic matter from soil types other than chernozems under arable cultivation; the resulting structural instability of the surface soil causes problems of crusting, poor germination of crops and erosion. This paper reviews early opinions of the fertility of loess, and summarises later scientific assessments of loess soils in USA, China, eastern Europe and Britain. In regions of thin but fairly extensive loess deposits, such as UK and parts of USA, loess probably plays an important role in maintaining yields of arable crops, and needs special measures to protect it from the increasing erosion noted in recent decades.

  12. Social aspects of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R C

    1976-01-01

    In slightly less than a century the world has gone from a predominantly rural to a largely urban society. Unlike Western Europe which industrialized slowly with labor-intensive industries, the developing world is industrializing rapidly with capital intensive industries which provide insufficient employment for the millions coming into the cities from the countryside. 2 factors responsible for growth of cities are rural push combined with urban pull, a lack of opportunity in the country combined with hopes and aspirations represented by the city. In addition, large population growth is a factor in both the increase in numbers of city-born dwellers and in the increase of young people leaving the countryside. Problems of health, sanitation, and public welfare are compounded by this rapid population growth. The social implications of these migrations are awesome. Already people are crowding together into cities without sufficient industrial base to provide employment; 1/5 to 1/4 of adult males are unemployed; as many as 4 out of 5 families live in a single room; as many as a 1/3 or more are without water. The tensions and social unrest caused by such conditions are the seedbed for serious political unrest. Resources and knowledge must quickly be brought to bear on the urban problem so that the now-disadvantaged will be able to realize their dream of a better life.

  13. Entrepreneurial developments and small scale industry contribution to Nigerian national development- A marketing interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : In both developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment. Entrepreneurship is as old as Nigeria and had contributed to the growth of the economy. Presently in Nigeria, SMEs assist in promoting the growth of the country’s economy, hence all the levels of government at different times havepolicies which promote the growth and sustenance of SMEs. This paper identifies the orientation of SME’s and entrepreneurial trends in Nigeria, tackles the operational definition and scopes, and describes the role of the Nigerian government as a participant, regulator and facilitator, both legally and politically in the growth of SMEs and entrepreneurship. It identifies the marketing problems of SMEs and entrepreneurships in Nigeria, the provision and enactment of beneficial and supportive laws, the provision of infrastructural facilities, constant man-power and development, direct financial assistance to SMEs and the establishment of finance institutions to support SMEs. It identifies the roles of SMEs in Nigeria’s development and growth. It discusses the entrepreneurial thoughts, problems and advance practical marketing solution. It concludes by clearly specifying the role of marketing to the survival of SMEsand entrepreneurship in Nigeria, and relevant recommendations. For SMEs to survive marketing practice and principles must be given prominence.

  14. Carbon sequestration in soils of central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, R. [Ohio State Univ., Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, FAES/OARDC, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Problems of frequent drought stress, low soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration, low aggregation, susceptibility to compaction, salinization and accelerated soil erosion in dry regions are accentuated by removal of crop residues, mechanical methods of seedbed preparation, summer clean fallowing and overgrazing, and excessive irrigation. The attendant soil degradation and desertification lead to depletion of SOC, decline in biomass production, eutrophication/pollution of waters and emission of greenhouse gases. Adoption of conservation agriculture, based on the use of crop residue mulch and no till farming, can conserve water, reduce soil erosion, improve soil structure, enhance SOC concentration, and reduce the rate of enrichment of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The rate of SOC sequestration with conversion to conservation agriculture, elimination of summer fallowing and growing forages/cover crops may be 100 to 200 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in coarse-textured soils of semiarid regions and 150 to 300 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in heavy-textured soils of the subhumid regions. The potential of soil C sequestration in central Asia is 10 to 22 Tg C y{sup -1} (16 {+-} 8 Tg C y{sup -1}) for about 50 years, and it represents 20 per cent of the CO{sub 2} emissions by fossil fuel combustion. (Author)

  15. Influence of acorn size and storage duration on moisture content, germination and survival of Quercus petraea (Mattuschka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Fahrettin

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate how acom size (small, medium and large) and acorn storage duration (0, 5 and 17 months) influenced Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) moisture content and germination. Acorn size and storage duration did not significantly affect acorn moisture content, but they significantly affected acorn germination performance. When averaged for three acorn sizes, loss of germination performance occurred after 17 months of storage even when the moisture content did not reduce significantly and remain at the initial level (32.6%). Maximum germination percentage was observed in large and medium size classes before storage (93 and 95%, respectively) and after 5-month storage (94 and 93%, respectively), but after 17-month storage medium acorn size class exhibited the highest germination (68%). Small seed size class exhibited the lowest germination percentage and rate in each acorn storage duration. Acorn size also significantly affected seedling emergence and survival in the nursery and seedling emergence and survival was the lowest in small seed size class (85 and 80%, respectively). Although seedling survival of one-year seedlings in the nursery increased up to large seed size class, maximum survival in nursery conditions was observed in large and medium size classes (89 and 91%, respectively). Thus, acorn size grading in Q. petraea may result in higher germination performance within in a seedbed.

  16. How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

    2014-05-01

    -throughput. Samples are taken over the rooting zone in the topsoil, plough pan and subsoil. The first year's dataset from this comprehensive project will be presented. Early data identified plough pans under shallow non-inversion tillage that will limit root growth at all sites. Aggregate stabilities vary as expected, with plough soils at shallow depth being less stable than non-inversion tillage, but greater stability in plough soils at greater depth due to incorporated organic matter. Very rapidly following cultivation, the seedbeds coalesce, resulting in a more challenging physical environment for crop growth. We are exploring the mechanisms in soil structure temporal dynamics in greater detail, including the resilience of seedbeds to structural degradation through natural weathering and the action of plants. These profound differences in soil conditions will impact the root ideotype of crops for these different conditions. This has implications for the way in which breeding and genotype selection is performed in the future. Ultimately, we aim to identify crop varieties suited to local soil conditions and management, possibly with root traits that boost yields and soil physical quality.

  17. Mapping tillage operations over peri-urban croplands using a synchronous SPOT4/ASAR ENVISAT pair and soil roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Gilliot, Jean-Marc

    2014-05-01

    Tillage operations (TOs) affect nutrient uptake, carbon sequestration, water and CO2 exchanges in soil, and therefore impact soil ecology together with biophysical processes such as soil erosion, leaching, run-off and infiltration. They are critical for parameterizing complex dynamic models of carbon and nitrogen. This study done in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 project presents an approach for mapping TOs of bare agricultural fields over a peri-urban area characterized by conventional tillage system in the western suburbs of Paris (France), combining synchronous SPOT4 and ENVISAT/ASAR images (HH and HV polarizations). Spatial modeling relied on 57 reference within-field areas named 'reference zones' (RZs) homogeneous for their soil properties, constructed in the vicinity of 57 roughness measurement locations and spread across 20 agricultural fields for which TOs were known. Soil roughness expressed as the standard deviation of surface height (Hrms) was estimated on the ground with a fully automatic photogrammetric method based on the processing of a set of overlapping pictures taken from different viewpoints from a simple digital camera all around a rectangular frame. The relationship was studied between the mean backscattering coefficient of the ASAR image and Hrms choosing a limited set of 28 RZs, on which successive random selections of training/validating RZs were then performed; the remaining 29 RZs were kept for validating the final map results. Six supervised per-pixel classifiers were used in order to map 2 TOs classes (seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough) in addition to 4 landuse classes (forest, urban,crops and grass, water bodies): support vector machine with polynomial kernel (pSVM), SVM with radial basis kernel (rSVM), artificial neural network (ANN), Maximum Likelihood (ML), regression tree (RT), and random forests (RF). All 6 classifiers were implemented in a bootstrapping approach in order to assess the uncertainty of map results. The

  18. Oxisol resistence to penetration in no-till system after sowing Resistência de um latossolo vermelho distroférrico à penetração em sistema plantio direto após semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius de V Ros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available If inappropriately conducted, management and sowing practices may compromise the environment and the profitability of the agricultural activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the furrow opener mechanisms action and the level of load applied to soil firming mechanism in no-till, on the Oxisol resistance to penetration during soybean sowing, under three soil moistures. The experiment was arranged in split-split plot design, in which the plots were composed by three soil moistures (23.8; 25.5 and 27.5% b.s., two furrow opener mechanisms sub-plots (double disks and furrow plough and the split-split plot of three levels of load applied to soil firming mechanism (12.2; 18.5 and 24.1 kPa, according to randomized blocks design, with three replications. The soil moisture provided different resistance behavior to penetration with the depth, on the seedbed, independently of the furrow opener and the level of load applied to soil firming mechanism. The furrow plough use provided less soil resistance to penetration when compared to the double disk furrow opener, on the seedbed, independently of the soil moisture and the level of load applied to soil firming mechanism. The pressure applied by soil firming mechanism of 18.5 kPa provided the lower resistance to penetration, when the furrow plough was used. The soil resistance to penetration was less on the sowing line than on between rows, with 20 cm deep.Práticas de manejo e semeadura mal conduzidas podem comprometer o meio ambiente e a rentabilidade da atividade agrícola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a ação de mecanismos sulcadores e a pressão da roda compactadora de uma semeadora-adubadora em plantio direto, na resistência de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico à penetração (RP, durante a semeadura da soja, sob três teores de água do solo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em esquema de blocos casualizados, arranjado em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, sendo as parcelas constitu

  19. An interdisciplinary tillage erosion experiment: establishing a new field in grassland with reconstructed ard plough of the Bronze Age - Iron Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, Jan; Smetanová, Anna; Rejman, Jerzy; Kováčik, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Despite recognising the role of tillage erosion in landforms evolution, little research has documented its effects in prehistoric times. Herein, an interdisciplinary archaeological-geomorphological experiment with reconstructed tillage tools and management was conducted in order to measure tillage erosion when a new field in grasslands was established in the Bronze Age-Iron Age. Three wooden ards were reconstructed based on archaeological findings. They were tested in a cross-tillage experiment, consisting of a tillage pass perpendicular to the primary slope (6.5-9.7%), and a second tillage pass parallel to the primary slope of a convex-convex ridge with mowed grass (0.2 m high, vegetation cover >90%). The standard sole ard proved to be the most effective, with a mean tillage depth of 0.12 m, a mean tillage speed of 3.8 km h-1, and a mean distance between furrows of 0.20-0.25 m. Only 13% of the 264 tracers placed on 6 transects were displaced, and the mean tracers displacement parallel to the primary slope was 0.04 ± 0.17 m. Contour tillage perpendicular to primary slope created V or U shaped furrows with a mean depth of 0.1-0.12 m, a mean width of 0.05-0.1 m, and incision under the main root zone. Only soil in direct contact with the ard was displaced, with a mean translocation distance of 0.06 ± 0.2 m parallel and 0.06 ± 0.3 m perpendicular to the primary slope. During tillage parallel to slope, soil clods of 0.20 x 0.25 x 0.10 m were created and slightly disturbed or turned over one another. The tracers moved within the furrows and with the soil clods. Loose soil, resembling a seedbed, was not covered by soil clods. Mean displacement during the second pass was 0.03 ± 0.19 m parallel and 0.00 ± 0.15 m perpendicular to primary slope. The displacement from cross-tillage with a wooden ard in permanent grasslands was lower than many previously measured values of traditional animal-powered metal ploughs in permanent fields. No relationship between mean soil

  20. Qualidade e sanidade de mudas de cebola em função da adição de composto termófilo Quality and health of onion seedlings by adding thermophilic compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Boff

    2005-12-01

    thermophilic compost, mineral fertilizer and organic-mineral fertilisers. In another experiment, the compost and the mineral fertiliser were combined with six plant densities in a factorial design experiment. For the seed bed coverage, new and one-year-old Pinus sawdust, soil, and thermophilic compost were evaluated using a randomised block design with four replicates. Thermophilic compost showed higher emergence and survival of onion transplants than organic-mineral and mineral fertiliser. The thermophilic compost increased the survival of onion transplants (101.4 pl/m² and reduced Botrytis squamosa intensity (51.7% when compared with the mineral fertiliser (87.7 pl/m² and 56.8% regardless of plant density. Onion seedlings grown on seedbeds covered with compost presented higher emergence (146.1 pl/m² and survival of seedlings (134.8 pl/m² than those grown using only soil as coverage (90.2 and 77.5 pl/m², respectively. The occurrence of damping-off did not differ between treatments with fertilisers alone or treatments in which coverage was used in the seedbed.

  1. University-Government Partnerships and High Risk Research: The Last Stronghold for New Thinking About Coping with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    The repurposing of Bell Laboratories by new owner Lucent Technologies to become a mission-focused applied research facility effectively terminated fundamental, high-risk research everywhere but in research universities. The now almost ten year old NAS study that produced the watershed report Rising Above the Gathering Storm warned that the US research establishment encompassing industry, government, academia and nongovernment organizations has lost its way in promoting fundamental high-risk research of the kind that has historically led to the transformational scientific breakthroughs that radically changed and improved our quality of life for more than a century. Low-risk, incremental research dominates industry and most government funding agendas, including NSF (and including NSF's "transformational research" agenda!). Unprecedented challenges such as understanding and dealing with the consequences of climate change will require fundamental new ideas and technologies that do not exist. Adapting future ecosystems and human systems to climate variability and change needs new social models of cooperation, new biotechnologies and new environmental mangement strategies that do not now exist. A case can be made that history provides no strong templates for such a future. I argue that research universities, working in close partnerships with government, provides a fertile seedbed for the kinds of scientific knowledge and thinking that could produce "game changing" strategies for dealing with climate change. Government has the resources and the ability to convert and scale new ideas into usable knowledge, research universities have the ingenuity and disciplinary spectra to think up new ideas and test them for proof of concept. Co-locating a government presence within a research university has the potential to integrate a research enterprise that is not afraid to fail a few times before potentially hitting paydirt with an institution that can accelerate the translation of

  2. Evaluation of a collaborative project to develop sustainable healthcare education in eight UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, S C; Mortimer, F

    2017-09-01

    Environmental change poses pressing challenges to public health and calls for profound and far-reaching changes to policy and practice across communities and health systems. Medical schools can act as a seedbed where knowledge, skills and innovation to address environmental challenges can be developed through innovative and collaborative approaches. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore drivers and challenges of collaboration for educational development between and within medical schools; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of a range of pedagogies for sustainable healthcare education; and (3) identify effective strategies to facilitate the renewal of medical curricula to address evolving health challenges. Participatory action research. Medical school teams participated in a nine-month collaborative project, including a one-day seminar to learn about sustainable healthcare education and develop a project plan. After the seminar, teams were supported to develop, deliver and evaluate new teaching at their medical school. New teaching was introduced at seven medical schools. A variety of pedagogies were represented. Collaboration between schools motivated and informed participants. The main challenges faced related to time pressures. Educators and students commented that new teaching was enjoyable and effective at improving knowledge and skills. Collaborative working supported educators to develop and implement new teaching sessions rapidly and effectively. Collaboration can help to build educators' confidence and capacity in a new area of education development. Different forms of collaboration may be appropriate for different circumstances and at different stages of education development. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eliciting reflections on caring theory in elderly caring practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertine Ranheim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Caring theories are the description and conceptualization of the care that is given in caring practise by nurses and other professional caregivers with the aim of verbalizing and communicating caring phenomena. Intermittently, a theory –practice gap is given expression- that theory does not go along with clinical practice in caring.The aim of this study was an investigation into the possible disparity between theory and practice in caring by analysing nurses’ lived experience of the understanding of caring theory in practice in the context of municipal elderly care.Hermeneutical phenomenology was the research approach used to explore the lived experience of caring science theories in caring practice from the perspective of 12 nurses working in municipal care for elderly.The findings shows that the nurses Impulsively described their experience of detachment to caring theory, but when describing their caring intentions, the relationship to theory became apparent, and even confirmed their practice. As such, a seedbed exists for caring theory to be reflected on and cultivated in caring praxis. However, as the nurses describe, the caring theory must be sensitive enough for the nursing practitioners to accept.The gap revealed itself on an organisational level, as the nurses’ commission in municipal care did not correspond with their caring intention.We believe it is important to seriously consider what we want to achieve as a caring profession. We have to reflect on our responsibility as culture carriers and knowledge developers. We must make the disparate forces of intention and organisation become one intertwining force.

  4. Utilizing multimedia tools for LRAM project documentation and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G.; Hatton, P.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Boehm, A. [Army Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Land Rehabilitation and Maintenance program managers at U.S. Army Training Installations must present technical material relating to LRAM projects to a variety of audiences, ranging from installation commanders to installation visitors and environmental interest groups. These audiences may play a role in approving and/or funding LRAM projects. Effective communication to these audiences can facilitate the achievement of LRAM program objectives. The rapid development of computer-based multimedia technology provides LRAM managers with powerful tools for creating highly effective project presentations that can be presented from notebook computers for use in briefings or distributed on CD-ROM for use on desktop computers. This paper presents an example of use of multimedia to document and present an LRAM revegetation project conducted at the Freiholser Forst Local Training Area in Germany. This CD-ROM presentation makes extensive use of digitized photos, video, maps, and text to present a detailed summary of the project, including project justification, background, methods, costs, and results. The application design allows the viewer to select topics of particular interest for detailed examination and to omit other topics or examine them in less detail. Virtually every important revegetation procedure is presented in photographs supplemented by brief video clips and text. Interactive charts allow easy comparison of alternative revegetation procedures that use different combinations of soil amendments, seedbed preparation, and seed mixes. Slide sequences and video clips clearly illustrate differences between conditions before and after the LRAM project was conducted. The presentation will be used to brief commanding officers, installation visitors, and host country officials about this highly successful LRAM project.

  5. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  6. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  7. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  8. Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: Implications for grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempy-Mayer, K.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall = 7.6 cm, and short = 2.5 cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds??m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Undipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds??m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F 6,45 = 47.07, P seed densities were 123-324 seeds??m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769-2256 seeds??m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds??m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas.

  9. Effects of traffic control on the soil physical quality and the cultivation of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.

  10. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  11. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-01-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector’s preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

  12. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  13. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-09-09

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  14. Glyphosate-resistant crops: adoption, use and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Gerald M; Cajacob, Claire A; Padgette, Stephen R

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) were first introduced in the United States in soybeans in 1996. Adoption has been very rapid in soybeans and cotton since introduction and has grown significantly in maize in recent years. GRCs have grown to over 74 million hectares in five crop species in 13 countries. The intent of this paper is to update the hectares planted and the use patterns of GRC globally, and to discuss briefly future applications and uses of the technology. The largest land areas of GRCs are occupied by soybean (54.2 million ha), maize (13.2 million ha), cotton (5.1 million ha), canola (2.3 million ha) and alfalfa (0.1 million ha). Currently, the USA, Argentina, Brazil and Canada have the largest plantings of GRCs. Herbicide use patterns would indicate that over 50% of glyphosate-resistant (GR) maize hectares and 70% of GR cotton hectares receive alternative mode-of-action treatments, while approximately 25% of GR soybeans receive such a treatment in the USA. Alternative herbicide use is likely driven by both agronomic need and herbicide resistance limitations in certain GR crops such as current GR cotton. Tillage practices in the USA indicate that > 65% of GR maize hectares, 70% of GR cotton hectares and 50% of GR soybean hectares received some tillage in the production system. Tillage was likely used for multiple purposes ranging from seed-bed preparation to weed management. GRCs represent one of the more rapidly adopted weed management technologies in recent history. Current use patterns would indicate that GRCs will likely continue to be a popular weed management choice that may also include the use of other herbicides to complement glyphosate. Stacking with other biotechnology traits will also give farmers the benefits and convenience of multiple pest control and quality trait technologies within a single seed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparison of energy of tillage systems in wheat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaeefar, A.; Varnamkhasti, M. Ghasemi; Karimi, M. [Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, Faculty of Biosystems Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran); Emamzadeh, H. [Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran (Iran); Rahimizadeh, R. [Iranian Drylands Research Institute (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    Reducing tillage practices results in lower energy consumption as well as soil erosion protection, structural damage control, and a reduction in time and energy required for seedbed preparation. This research was conducted at the Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh region of Iran to determine the amount of input energy for different tillage systems. The study was planned as a completely randomized block design with five tillage systems in four replications. The tillage treatments were: moldboard plow+roller+drill (T1); chisel+roller+drill (T2); cyclo-tiller+roller+drill (T3); sweep+roller+drill (T4); and no-till (T5). Wheat yield parameters and energy indices (net energy gain, energy productivity) were recorded. There were significant differences (1% probability level) among the treatments in terms of energy indices and for wheat yield and biomass values. It was found that T3 had the highest yield and biomass and T1 had the lowest. There were also significant differences (1% probability level) among tillage systems for the energy indices. T1 had the lowest energy productivity and energy ratios and T3 had the highest. The least energy consumed for wheat produced was 8.8 MJ kg{sup -1} for T5 and the most was 11.8 MJ kg{sup -1} for T1. Energy consumed for tillage using T1 was 32.5% of the total energy and using T5 was found to be 19% of total energy. It was concluded that T3 was the most efficient overall in the region studied. (author)

  16. Primary succession and dynamics of Norway spruce coastal forests on land-uplift ground moraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, J.S.; Jeglum, J.K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept of Forest Ecology

    2000-07-01

    This paper is an overview of primary succession on the rising coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia, which emphasises Norway spruce succession and forest development and identifies topics for research. It is concluded that continuing postglacial rebound provides excellent successional sequences, and an exceptional opportunity to add new and important knowledge on original forest ecosystem development. First, long-term undisturbed forest seres, terminating in climax-like Norway spruce forest, exist. Secondly, a well-stocked, old growth spruce forest can develop on the (generally) fairly productive mesic ground-moraine sites in a short ecological time. Thirdly, undisturbed successional sequences, which go back to original soil formation, permit reconstruction of ecosystems' developmental history. Fourthly, the relationship between ground elevation and land-uplift rate facilitates estimates of ground age, and consequently permits a four-dimensional study approach. Fifthly, in view of extensive anthropogenic influence in boreal Fennoscandian forests, the few remaining natural spruce forests should be recognised and carefully documented. From our review of the literature, we conclude that present knowledge of the succession of Norway spruce on emerging shorelines, and the part played by land uplift and other factors, is fragmentary. Attention should be given to initial spruce seedling colonisation relative to factors such as sea-water level, exposure (winds, fetch), parent material, seedbed types, potential seed source (isolation), and island size. Possible multiple pathways of Norway spruce primary succession relative to temporal changes in exposure and other factors, have so far received little research effort. Attention also should be paid to the response of spruce populations to site maturation, i.e. to increasing ground age based on land-uplift rate and elevation above sea level. Finally, attention should be paid to autogenic processes in spruce-dominated stages

  17. Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last

  18. Slumping in the rain - winter soil structure across Scotland and its physical degradation from extreme weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rebecca; Hallett, Paul; Raffan, Annette; Lilly, Allan; Baggaley, Nikki; Rowan, John; Crookes, Bill; Ball, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    Scotland is blessed with fertile and resilient soils that produce great cereal yields and whisky. However, there is worrying anecdotal evidence, confirmed by a small body of science, that some farming practices are causing widespread physical degradation of these soils. Studies from other UK regions have identified soil physical degradation by compaction, unstable seedbeds and erosion as a moderate to serious problem, depending on farming practice, soil properties and climate. In 2015/2016 we sampled 120 fields from 4 catchments in Scotland to describe the state of soil structure in the winter. To obtain a rapid assessment, we used the increasingly popular and easily interpretable Visual Evaluations of Soil Structure (VESS) and Subsoil Structure (SubVESS). We found severe soil structural degradation in 18% of topsoils and 9% of subsoils for 120 fields in 4 catchments. The severe 2015/2016 winter precipitation, the worst ever recorded, caused a 30% increase in occurrence of severely degraded topsoils, as determined from sampling some of the same fields before and after this unprecedented weather event. Run-off, erosion and nutrient losses were about 10X from degraded parts of fields such as tramlines than either within the field or at less trafficked boundaries. There was some agreement between areas identified as structurally degraded and those ranked as being susceptible to topsoil compaction using a simple model. Broad scale surveys that incorporate temporal sampling, such as the study reported here, are essential to provide regional assessments of soil degradation and to inform follow-on, targeted studies, where more in-depth analysis would be feasible.

  19. Chemical composition of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. under different management conditions in seven localities of Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Reissmann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (erva-mate, the mate tea, is a forest tree whose natural distribution in the Brazilian territory embraces the States of Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Its economical importance is moreover related to tea production. The purpose of this study is to characterize the leaf chemical composition in relation to different plantation and management conditions. Chemical analysis were performed on plants of different ages,in naturally occurring areas, planted stands, and seedbeds. The most remarkable elements observed in the study were P with average values ranging from 0,5 - 3,2 g kg-1 D.W., Mn values from 346 - 3.330 mg kg-1 D.W., and Al values from 167 - 1.235 mg kg-1 D.W.A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., no Brasil, distribui-se nos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. Sua importância econômica refere-se basicamente à produção do chá e chimarrão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a composição química foliar de acordo com diferentes sistemas de plantio e manejo. A análise química foi efetuada em plantas de diversas idades e sob condições distintas de manejo, ou seja, ocorrência natural, plantios e viveiros. Os elementos que mais chamaram a atenção, neste estudo, foram o P, cujos teores variaram de 0,5 - 3,2 g kg-1 M.S.; Mn de 346-3330 mg kg-1 M.S. e Al de 167-1235 mg kg-1 M.S.

  20. Estimation of economic and energetic expenses of soil tillage and soil management systems for the edible beans culture; Estimativas dos custos economicos e energeticos de sistemas de preparo e de manejo do solo para a cultura do feijao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boller, Walter; Gamero, Carlos A. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1997-12-31

    Soil tillage objectives to afford adequate conditions for field crop establishment and production, and contribute with a significant portion of the farming expenses. Conservation tillage aiming to protect the soil against erosion, save labor and fuel by preparing a seedbed. The purpose of these experiment was to estimate the economic and the energetic costs of three soil tillage systems (conventional tillage - disk plowing followed by harrowing twice, rotavation by means of a rotavator and chiselling using a chisel plow combined with stalk-cutting disks and a fitting roll), in combination with four pre-tillage soil cover conditions (black oats, rye, forage radish and fallow). The experiment was carried out during the years 1993/1994, in a heavy clay soil classified as Terra Roxa Estruturada, in the country of Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The fuel consumption in a time and in a area unity were determined through field measurements. Timetable economic and energetic expenses of every mechanized agricultural operation were estimated by means of calculation. The results showed that the replacement of conventional tillage by rotavation or by chiselling allow respectively economize 60,2 and 42,3% of the fuel consumption per unit of tilled area. The additional expenses of utilization of black oats or rye, in combination with rotavating or chiselling respectively a production of 22,65 and 26,73 kg/ha of edible beams. Soil cover crops utilization imply in a 2,2 to 6,0 upper energy requirement than the conventional tillage system in combination with fallow. The implantation of winter crops with the exclusive finality of produce vegetable biomass for soil coverage showed be feasible from economic standpoint, however it was disadvantageous under the energetic standpoint. The utilization of a portion of the biomass produced by soil cover crops for livestock feeding can decisively contribute towards the equilibrium of the energetic balance and to increase the economic

  1. Suitability and Economic Viability of Light Weight Mechanical Power Sources for Mechanizing Hill Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Dinesh Kumar; Singh, Sukhbir

    2017-06-01

    Farm power and equipment role was established in agriculture beyond doubt for sustainable development but hill farming is still facing shortage of farm power and matching equipment for timely and precisely operations. A study was carried out on performance evaluation of different light weight power tillers/weeders designated as P1, P2, P3 and P4 under dry and wet land conditions to meet out the demand of farm power for mechanizing hill agriculture, particularly under small and irregular shaped terraces having high vertical intervals where it is difficult to operate commercially available power tillers. Four power tillers in the horse power range of 3.0-7.0 hp manufactured and marketed by Indian firms were tested in silty-clay-loam soil at the HPKV farm, Palampur, India. The results showed that the depth of operation was less than 80 mm with P1, P2 as well as P3 power tiller after two passes of rotary at soil moisture content of 16.4% whereas, it was 102 mm with P4. The average effective field capacity was 0.055, 0.051, 0.042 and 0.060 ha/h under dry land conditions with P1, P2, P3 and P4, respectively whereas in wetland condition the capacity was 0.042, 0.038 and 0.05 with P1, P2, and P4, respectively. P3 power tiller could not be possible to test under wet land conditions due to less ground clearance of the engine. The cost of repair and maintenance was observed to be very high in case of P1, P2 and P3 power tillers due to the occurrence of frequent breakdowns. It was construed from the study that the power tillers up to 5 hp are not suitable for seed-bed preparation but it could be used as weeder for interculture operations in wide row spaced crops. However, P4 power tiller performed better than other models under different conditions. There was saving of 50-66% in time and 66-75% cost of operation observed with different makes of power tillers as compared to bullock ploughing.

  2. Efeito do herbicida ramrod em canteiros de semeação de cebola The effect of ramrod herbicide on onion seedling development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Alves

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram conduzidos, em solo areno-argiloso da formação Glacial, em Campinas, para estudar os efeitos da aplicação do herbicida «Ramrod» em canteiros para formação de mudas de cebola. Foram testadas as doses de 1,30, 1,95, 2,60, 3,90 e 5,20 kg/ha de ingrediente ativo. Em relação ao combate às ervas más dicotiledôneas, apenas a dose de 1,30 kg/ha não foi superior à da testemunha. Para qualquer das doses utilizadas não se verificaram sintomas visuais de fitotoxicidade nas plantas. Pequeno efeito residual do produto foi constatado em todas as doses, aos 50-60 dias após a aplicação.Two experiments to determine the effect of various rates of Ramrod herbicide on the development of onion seedlings were conducted on sandy-clay soil type, of Glacial formation, at the «Theodureto de Camargo» Experiment Station, Campinas. The results may be summarized as follows: 1 - Ramrod herbicide as pre-emergence application may be used for weed control on onion seedling formation. No apparent damage was noted with the application of the different rates of the herbicide. 2 - The comparison between Ramrod at 1.30 kg per hectare a. i. with the check treatment revealed no significant difference in the control of dicotyledoneous species that were found 22 days after sowing. 3 - The comparison of Ramrod at 1.95 and 2.60 kg per hectare a.i. of experiment 1, and 2.60, 3.90 and 5.20 kg per hectare a.i. of experiment 2 with the check treatment, showed highly significant differences in the control of dicotyledoneous species after 22 and 34 days. 4 - After 8 weeks no residual effect was observed from any rate of application of Ramrod. There was a regrowth of weeds after that period. 5 - Based on these experiments Ramrod at 1.95 up to 3.90 kg per hectare a.i., depending on soil type, could be recommended for weed control in onion seedbeds.

  3. Noor-Eesti ja kunstnikud. Young Estonia’s Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Talvistu

    2012-04-01

    , and a year later opened a school by the same name in Tartu, which became the seedbed of Estonian national art for the following several decades.

  4. An in-situ soil structure characterization methodology for measuring soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Endre; Kriston, András; Juhász, András; Sulyok, Dénes

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  5. The effect of mulching and soil compaction on fungi composition and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, M.; Siczek, A.; Lipiec, J.

    2009-04-01

    The soil environment is the habitat of pathogenic and saprotrophic microorganisms. The composition of the microbial community are related to biotic and abiotic factors, such as root exudates, crop residues, climate factors, mulching, mineral fertilization, pesticides introduction and soil compaction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the mulching and soil compaction on the microorganism communities in the rhizosphere soil of soybean. The studies were carried out on silty loam soil (Orthic Luvisol) developed from loess (Lublin, Poland). The experiment area was 192m2 divided into 3 sections consisted of 6 micro-plots (7m2). Three levels of soil compaction low, medium and heavy obtained through tractor passes were compared. The soil was compacted and loosened within seedbed layer 2 weeks before sowing. Soybean "Aldana" seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and were sown with interrow spacing of 0.3m. Wheat straw (as mulch) was uniformly spread on the half of each micro-plot at an amount of 0.5kg m-1 after sowing. Rhizosphere was collected three times during growing season of soybean. Microbiological analyses were conducted in 3 replications and included the determination of: the total number of bacteria and fungi, the number of bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp., the genus identification of fungi isolated from rhizosphere of soybean. Results indicated a positive effect of mulching on the increase number of all groups of examined rhizosphere microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp.). The highest number of the microorganisms was found in the low and medium compacted soil and markedly decreased in the most compacted soil. Relatively high number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of low and medium compacted soil, particularly in mulched plots. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of

  6. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzioki, Henry S; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L; Baker, Claire S; Sands, David C

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  7. Dynamics of Alexandrium fundyense blooms and shellfish toxicity in the Nauset Marsh System of Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Bibiana G; Keafer, Bruce A; Ralston, David K; Lind, Henry; Farber, Dawson; Anderson, Donald M

    2011-12-01

    Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins are annually recurrent along the Massachusetts coastline (USA), which includes many small embayments and salt ponds. Among these is the Nauset Marsh System (NMS), which has a long history of PSP toxicity. Little is known, however, about the bloom dynamics of the causative organism Alexandrium fundyense within that economically and socially important system. The overall goal of this work was to characterize the distribution and dynamics of A. fundyense blooms within the NMS and adjacent coastal waters by documenting the distribution and abundance of resting cysts and vegetative cells. Cysts were found predominantly in three drowned kettle holes or salt ponds at the distal ends of the NMS - Salt Pond, Mill Pond, and Town Cove. The central region of the NMS had a much lower concentration of cysts. Two types of A. fundyense blooms were observed. One originated entirely within the estuary, seeded by cysts in the three seedbeds. These blooms developed independently of each other and of the A. fundyense population observed in adjacent coastal waters outside the NMS. The temporal development of the blooms was different in the three salt ponds, with initiation differing by as much as 30 days. These differences do not appear to reflect the initial cyst abundances in these locations, and may simply result from higher cell retention and higher nutrient concentrations in Mill Pond, the first site to bloom. Germination of cysts accounted for a small percentage of the peak cell densities in the ponds, so population size was influenced more by the factors affecting growth than by cyst abundance. Subsurface cell aggregation (surface avoidance) limited advection of the vegetative A. fundyense cells out of the salt ponds through the shallow inlet channels. Thus, the upper reaches of the NMS are at the greatest risk for PSP since the highest cyst abundances and cell concentrations were found there. After these localized blooms in the salt

  8. Creative Activism: a pedagogical and research tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Morrow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental activism has a long history in protest, addressing issues of degradation and segregation that threaten existing ecologies, social and built fabrics. Environmental activism is traditionally understood as a reaction, chiefly by groups of people, against a perceived external threat. In the 60’s and 70’s, an activist stance began to emerge in the work of some artists and architects, who used creative methods such as performances, happenings, temporary spatial interventions etc to convey their political/aesthetic messages. Some of this work engaged directly with communities but predominantly it was the production of one individual working ‘outside’ society. However such actions demonstrated not only the power of the visual in conveying a political message but also the potential of conceptual creative approaches to reveal alternative values and hidden potentials. This marked a shift from activism as protestation towards an activism of reconceptualisation. Recently, activist groups have developed a more politically informed process. Whilst their ‘tools’ may resemble work from the 60’s and 70’s, their methodologies are nontraditional, ’rhizomatic’, pedagogical and fluid; working alongside, rather than against, the established power and funding structures. Such creative processes build new, often unexpected, stakeholder networks; offer neutral spaces in which contentious issues can be faced; and create better understanding of values and identities. They can also lead to permanent improvements and development in the physical fabric. This paper will discuss a pedagogical example of activism in architectural education. The event (www.fourdaysontheoutside.com is in its fifth year of existence and as such has revealed a value and impulse beyond its learning and teaching value. The paper will discuss how the event contributes to the university’s outreach programme and how its structure acts as a seedbed for potential

  9. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  10. Post-fire stand structure impacts carbon storage within Siberian larch forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2015-12-01

    Increased fire severity within boreal forests of the Siberian Arctic has the potential to alter forest stand development thereby altering carbon (C) accumulation rates and storage during the post-fire successional interval. One potential change is increased stand density, which may result from fire consumption of the soil organic layer and changes to the seedbed that favor germination and establishment of larch trees during early succession. In this study, we evaluated above- and belowground C pools across 12 stands of varying tree density within a single 75-year old fire scar located near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, Russia. In each stand, we inventoried the size and density of larch trees and large shrubs (Salix and Betula spp.), and in combination with with allometric equations, estimated aboveground contribution to C pools. We quantified woody debris C pools using the line intercept method. We sampled belowground C pools in the soil organic layer + upper (0-10 cm) mineral soil and coarse roots (> 2 mm diameter) using sediment cores and 0.25 x 0.25-m trenches, respectively. We found that high density stands store ~ 20% more C (~7,500 g C m-2) than low density stands (~5,800 g C m-2). In high density stands, about 35% more C is stored aboveground within live larch trees (1650 g C m-2) compared to low density stands (940 g C m-2), and about 15% more C is stored in the soil organic layer and upper mineral soil. Coarse root C was 20% higher in high density stands (~475 g C m-2) compared to those with low density (~350 g C m-2). Less C was stored in large shrubs in high density stands, both in aboveground portions and coarse roots, but these amounts were relatively small (< 10% of total C pools). A fire-driven shift to denser larch stands could increase C storage, leading to a negative feedback to climate, but the combined effects of density on C dynamics, summer and winter albedo, and future fire regimes will interact to determine the magnitude of any vegetation

  11. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chandler Sands

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Striga hermonthica (witchweed is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: 1. Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; 2. Training of smallholder farmers (85% women, to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; 3. Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but

  12. Uncertainty of soil reflectance retrieval from SPOT and RapidEye multispectral satellite images using a per-pixel bootstrapped empirical line atmospheric correction over an agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Gilliot, J. M.; Bel, L.; Bréchet, L.; Hamiache, J.; Hadjar, D.; Lemonnier, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Many authors have reported the use of empirical line regression between field target sites and image pixels in order to perform atmospheric correction of multispectral images. However few studies were dedicated to the specific reflectance retrieval for cultivated bare soils from multispectral satellite images, from a large number (≥15) of bare field targets spread over a region. Even fewer were oriented towards additional field targets for validation and uncertainty assessment of reflectance error. This study aimed at assessing ELM validation accuracy and uncertainty for predicting topsoil reflectance over a wide area (221 km2) with contrasting soils and tillage practices using a set of six multispectral images at very high (supermode SPOT5, 2.5 m), high (RapidEye, 6.5 m) and medium (SPOT4, 20 m) spatial resolutions. For each image and each spectral band, linear regression (LR) models were constructed through a series of 1000 bootstrap datasets of training/validation samples generated amongst a total of about 30 field sites used as targets, the reflectance measurements of which were made between -6 days/+7 days around acquisition date. The achieved models had an average coefficient of variation of validation errors of ∼14%, which indicates that the composition of training field sites does influence performance results of ELM. However, according to median LR-models, our approach mostly resulted in accurate predictions with low standard errors of estimation around 1-2% reflectance, validation errors of 2-3% reflectance, low validation bias (March: in agricultural areas, images programmed during periods when most field tillage operations have resulted in smooth seedbed conditions (April in this study) are in favour of better performances of soil reflectance prediction. Nevertheless, directional effects appear to mainly and moderately affect the global performance of near-infrared and SWIR bands-models except for oblique viewing images (viewing angle > |20°|). The

  13. Erosion control in orchards and vineyards by a new soil and cover crop management method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wilfried; Guettler, Hans; Auer, Karl; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    -drill large-grain cover crop seeds and simultaneously cut the roots of the standing vegetation in the row middle, plus at the same time sow small-grain seeds over the whole middle. The large grains are placed several centimetres deep with the cultivator, while the small grains are spread on the surface in a seedbed prepared by the prismatic roller or the harrow module. So it is secured that on rewetting of the soil the next generation of cover crops will be established straight away. In all cases, however, the soil remains covered with living or dead plant biomass, so that the erosion risk is minimized. Uppermost goals of the flexible cover crop management are the well-being of the fruit trees and vines and maximum erosion protection of the soil.

  14. Substratos e estacas com e sem folhas no enraizamento de Luehea divaricata Mart. Substrates and stem cuttings with and without leafs on rooting of Luehea divaricata Mart.

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    Jardel Pizzatto Pacheco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do substrato e do tipo de estaca no enraizamento de Luehea divaricata. O experimento foi realizado no Viveiro Florestal da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, no período de dezembro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007. Foram utilizadas estacas herbáceas (com folha e sem folha, de plantas matrizes com aproximadamente dois anos de idade e diferentes tipos de substrato (turfa, Plantmax®, vermiculita, Mecplant® em arranjo fatorial 2x4. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco unidades experimentais por repetição e 10 repetições por tratamento. As avaliações foram realizadas 60 dias após a implantação do experimento. As variáveis observadas foram sobrevivência, enraizamento, número de raízes, comprimento das raízes, matéria seca das raízes e matéria seca da parte aérea. O tipo de estaca apresentou influência em todas as variáveis estudadas, tendo em vista que 100% das estacas sem folha morreram antes de enraizar. Estacas cultivadas em Plantmax® apresentaram maior comprimento das raízes quando comparadas ao substrato Mecplant®. A utilização dos substratos turfa e Plantmax® permitiu obter maiores valores de matéria seca da parte aérea e matéria seca das raízes. Estacas com um par de folhas cultivadas em Plantmax® são indicadas na estaquia de Luehea divaricata.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of substrate and type of stem cuttings on the rooting of Luehea divaricata. The experiment was conducted at a Forest Seedbed at the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM, from December 2006 to February 2007. Herbaceous stem cuttings were used (with and without leaf, of plant matrices of approximately two years of age distributed as substrate (peat, Plantmax®, vermiculite, Mecplant ® in factorial 2 x 4. The experimental design was completely randomized and consisted of bifactorial combination with five units per repetition and

  15. Semilleros de investigación: una estrategia para la formación de investigadores Viveiros de pesquisa: urna estratégia para a formagao de investigadores Research "Seed Beds": A Research Training Strategy

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    Josefina Quintero-Corzo

    2008-06-01

    curriculares.Abstract Schools are coming up with new policies and strategies to close the gap between curriculum, research and practice in the field of teaching. This article outlines what has been accomplished in terms of processes to initiate research training for talented students who are enrolled in education programs at the University of Caldas (Universidad de Caldas in Manizales, Colombia. It shows how seed beds in Colombia have evolved and what they have contributed to the university’s mission. It explores how budding researchers manage to combine the terms teaching research, curriculum and educational interaction process. In this particular case, the students committed to seed-bed groups have contributed to the search for teaching know-how. The article emphasizes the special importance of making seed beds an innovative strategy in curriculum reform, considering the real needs and problems in education.

  16. Development and field evaluation of an intercropping machine for corn and bean

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    A Mondani

    2016-09-01

    pulverizing lumps, mulching the surface and firming the underneath soil to provide a smooth uniform seedbed. In this study, the common bean seed (var. Derakhshan and corn hybrid seed (SC-704 with 93 and 83 percent of germination and 97 and 98 percent of purity, respectively, were used. This machine was operated in five different distance patterns between corn and bean seeds on each row: 55 mm and 215 mm in the first pattern, 85 mm and 185 mm in the second pattern, 110 mm and 150 mm in the third pattern, 130 mm and 120 mm in the fourth pattern, and 160 mm and 100 mm in the fifth pattern for corn and bean, respectively. For all patterns, the depth of planting for corn and bean seeds was chosen as 20, 40, and 60 mm. In addition, the forward speed was assumed to be constant (4 km h-1. By using split plots with three replicates and SAS software (2002, the results were analyzed. Results and Discussion The multiple index, miss index, precision index, and quality of feed index was evaluated. The analysis of variance for bean planting unit showed that difference distance between seeds and various planting depth were significantly higher for multiple index (P 0.05. The precision index was significant was affected by different levels of seeds distance (P 0.05. Conclusions The data suggested a higher quality index once corn and bean were respectively plated at 160 and 215 mm seed distance with a planting depth of 60 mm being optimum for each corn and bean.

  17. Influência do preparo do solo e da natureza do fertilizante nitrogenado na cultura do milho Influence of soil tillage and source of nitrogen fertilizer on corn productivity

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    J.L. Favarin

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um ensaio de campo, em solo Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro latossólico (PELa, para avaliar a influência do preparo do solo e a natureza da fonte do fertilizante nitrogenado, para adubação em cobertura, na cultura do milho. Os tipos de preparo do solo avaliados foram o convencional e o plantio direto. Em relação às fontes de nitrogênio, foram utilizadas: uma sólida, o sulfato de amônio (20%N, e outra fluida, o uran (32%N, aplicados à superfície do solo sem incorporação. A absorção de nitrogênio (mg/planta foi determinada nas folhas, colmos, panículas e espigas, aos 53 e 67 dias após a emergência das plântulas. Na colheita, após a maturidade fisiológica, foi determinada a quantidade de nitrogênio acumulado e exportado, bem como a produção de grãos e alguns de seus componentes. O tipo de preparo do solo não apresentou influência na produção no primeiro ano de sua implantação. Entretanto, o plantio direto permitiu o aproveitamento do nitrogênio, mesmo quando se verificou redução na disponibilidade da água, estimada, através do balanço hídrico.The effect of soil tillage and source of nitrogen fertilizer applied as sidedressing on corn was studied by means of a field trial conducted on a latosolic Darkred Podzolic soil (PELa. Soil tillage treatments were conventional and notillage soil seed-bed preparation. Nitrogen sources were ammonium sulfate (solid, 20%N and uran (liquid, 32%N, sidedressed 40 days after sealing emergence. Nitrogen uptake by the plants was evaluated by determining N content in leaves, stalks, panicles and ear, 53 and 67 days after seedling emergence (13 and 27 days after sidedressing. Harvest was done after physiological maturity was reached by the corn crop. Treatment effects on corn production were determined through yield parameters such as ear lenght and diameter, grain and ear weight and a ratio between these two. Analysis and interpretation of the results indicated that soil

  18. Aggregate stability, root length and root thickness influenced by a mycorrhizal inoculum? - Results from a three-year eco-engineering field experiment on an alpine slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Lüscher, Peter; Graf, Frank; Gärtner, Holger

    2014-05-01

    In mountain environments many slopes are covered by coarse grained, glacial-, periglacial- or/and denudation-derived substrate. These slopes show a high geomorphic activity and are susceptible for erosional processes, shallow landslides or debris flows, which can result in a high socio-economic hazard potential. This is especially true for steep slopes, lacking a protecting vegetation cover. Regarding hazard prevention, eco-engineering gained in importance because related techniques provide a sustainable measure to protect erosion-prone hillslopes. The idea of using plants for sustainable erosion control and protection against shallow landslides, demands some essential requirements, as e.g., a stable seedbed providing appropriate water and nutrient supply. However, degraded alpine slopes are often unstable and the coarse-grained material shows a low retention capacity of water and nutrients. Extreme conditions like this hamper a fast and sustainable development of a protecting vegetation cover even if pioneer plants are used to stabilize the slopes. Thus, the question arises what needs to be done to give planted saplings within eco-engineering projects maximum support developing their above- and belowground structures to promote slope stabilization. Laboratory experiments using potted plants have shown a positive impact of mycorrhizal fungi inoculation plant development and soil structure, i.e. the formation of (stable) aggregates within several months. Soil aggregate stability is an integrating parameter, reflecting several aspects of the plant-soil system and for this also an indicator of soil development and soil stability. Because of this and based on the promising laboratory results, we intended to apply this approach in a field-experiment We established (i) mycorrhizal and (ii) non-mycorrhizal treated eco-engineered research plots on a field experimental scale, covering a total area of approx. 1000 m2 on an ENE exposed slope (coarse morainic and denudation

  19. Avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja, após o processo de hidratação-desidratação e envelhecimento acelerado Soybean physiological seed quality evaluation after hydration-dehydration process and accelerated aging

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    Alessandro de Lucca e Braccini

    1999-06-01

    osmotic potential of -0.8 MPa and 20ºC of temperature, for four days. After that, seeds were dried back to the initial moisture content and submitted to the accelerated aging test for the following periods: 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Two controls were used: untreated seeds and seeds soaked in water. After several determined accelerated aging periods, seeds were evaluated by the standard germination test, seedling length and dry biomass of seedlings. In greenhouse the speed of emergence-index and the final emergence in sand seedbed were determined. Soybean seeds hydration-dehydration treatment in PEG 6000 solution improved seed performance in relation to germination and vigor. The extent of the accelerated aging period affected seed performance in all parameters evaluated. However, PEG 6000 treatment was satisfactory in maintaining the seed quality during the accelerated aging periods. The soybean seed water soaking affected negatively the physiological seed quality. The soybean varieties showed differential response to the hydration-dehydration treatments and to the accelerated aging periods.

  20. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  1. Germination and initial growth of tree seedlings on deforested and natural forest soil at Dulhazara, Bangladesh

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    Md. Mohitul Hossain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of natural forest is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, settlement and for the agricultural expansion over last few decades, and studies for their recovery need to be undertaken. With this aim, this comparative study was designed to see the effects of deforested soil on germination and growth performance of five different tree species. In the experiment, five species namely Gmelina arborea, Swieteniamahagoni, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium grande were germinated for six weeks on seedbeds and raised in pots (25cm diameter, 30cm height, that were filled with two soil and type of land use: deforested and adjacent natural forest of Dulhazara Safari Park. Growth performance of seedling was observed up to 15 months based on height, collar diameter and biomass production at the end. Our results showed that the germination rate was almost similar in both type of land uses. Height growth of D. turbinatus, G. arborea and S. mahagoni seedlings was almost similar and A. auriculiformis and S. grande lower in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil, while collar diameter of A. auriculiformis, G. arborea, S. grande and S. mahagoni lower and D. turbinatus similar in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. After uprooting at 19 months, S. mahagoni seedlings were showed significantly (p≤0.05 higher oven dry biomass, D. turbinatus and A. auriculiformis higher, while G. arborea showed significantly (p≤0.05 lower and S. grande almost similar oven dry biomass in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. Oven dry biomass of D. turbinatus seedlings at 19 month age in deforested soil was 21.96g (n=5 and in natural forest soil 18.86g (n=5. However, differences in germination rate and growth performance for different tree species indicated that soil are not too much deteriorated through deforestation at Dulhazara and without any failure such deforested lands would be possible to

  2. Modeling Seed Germination of Ricinus communis Using Hydrothermal Time Model Developed on the Basis of Weibull Distribution

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    H Akbari

    2016-02-01

    in germination rate by increasing the temperature. Compared with hydrothermal time model based on the normal distribution, Weibull hydrothermal time model gave a better fit (RMSE=8.07% and more accurate (AIC=-5801 to seed germination data of castor bean. Based on Weibull hydrothermal time model, base temperature and hydrothermal time constant were estimated to be 8.86 ˚C and 833/10 MPa h, respectively. The osmotic potential from which the germination begins was (μ -1.71 MPa. The shape parameter (λ of the Weibull hydrothermal time model implied asymmetry of base water potential data and skewness of distribution to the right. A right-skewed distribution of b(g has important ecological implications, as it means that the seed population have a greater reserve of seeds with very high values of b(g and are therefore slow in germination, even under optimal conditions. The HTT model assumes that the timing, rate and percentage of seed germination for a constant temperature to be controlled by the difference between water potential of the seedbed and the b for a given percentile (b(g. Most previous studies have assumed that b(g is normally distributed. Our results suggested that the Weibull distribution may be more suitable than the normal distribution for seed germination modeling of castor bean. Similar to the normal distribution model the parameters of the Weibull HTT model can be readily interpreted to yield information about the frequency distribution of population for b(g, enabling comparison of the germination behaviors in different seed populations. The location parameter of Weibull HTT model (μ specifies the lowest b(g possible value in the population ((b(0 that cannot be derived from normal HTT model. The median (M and mode (Mo can be readily determined by equations of and , respectively, from the μ, scale (σ and λ parameters. The median specifies the value of b(50 for the population and the mode will specify the location of the

  3. Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L. Cultivation

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    Rooholla Moradi

    2016-02-01

    and different levels of N fertilizer (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg urea ha-1 was randomized as a subplot in tillage treatment. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plot size under the trial was 4 m × 3 m so as to get 70 cm inter row spacing. Maize seeds (single-cross 704 cultivar were hand sown in May for two years. The ideal density of the crops was considered as spacing 20 cm inter plant. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation continued every 10 days. No herbicides or chemical fertilizers were applied during the course of the trials and weeding was done manually when necessary. Measurement of CO2 emissions was performed by the closed chamber method. For this purpose, PVC plastic rings (20 cm in diameter and 30 cm height were scattered on each of the plots. The chambers were placed in soil for two hours and the gathered air was collected by 10 ml vacuum syringe. Then, the samples were transferred to the laboratory and CO2 was measured using GC-mass. Results and Discussion: The results showed that CO2 emissions for conventional tillage was about 15 and 10% higher than the reduced tillage in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The CO2 emissions can be taken as indicators of soil tillage effects on the soil ecosystem, because CO2 emissions are closely connected to the microbial turnover and the physical accessibility of organic matter to microbes. These parameters were more available in the conventional tillage than the reduced tillage. CO2 emissions were strongly higher in the remaining residual condition rather than leaving condition in two years. CO2 emissions in the remaining residual condition was about 4.36 and 5.37 times higher than that of the leaving residual condition in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The microbial respiration and humidity of soil in the remaining residual condition is higher than that of the leaving residual condition. CO2 emission was elevated with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The N fertilizer can

  4. Analytical and Experimental Draft Force Evaluation of Plastic Coated Chisel Tines

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    M Barzegar Tabrizi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Improving the efficiency of all agricultural operations has always been important for farmers and engineers. It is well known that the force required for cutting a soil using narrow blades is a function of soil and environmental physical properties, tool shape geometry and the tool’s surface characteristics like soil-tool adhesion and friction. Soil tool adhesion can reduce ploughing efficiency and quality. It may also halt the movement of tillage machines in more severe conditions. Adhesion can also disable some machine abilities, which can result in a significant reduction of machine performance. Adhesion of the soil to seed-bed preparation tools like furrowers can significantly affect the germination rate. Reducing soil tool adhesion of furrowers can reduce draft force and improve ploughing efficiency. Many researchers have worked on methods of reducing draft force by modifying the surface material and/or surface texture of the plough tools. A good prediction on draft force of a tool before producing it has always been important for farmers and engineers. There are some models for predicting the draft force of narrow blades in soil. McKyes-Ali’s model is widely used because of its accuracy and simplicity. Ultra-high molecular weight polythene (UHMW-PE is a polymer with ultra-high weight and long molecular chains and is well known for its outstanding physical and chemical properties and self-cleaning abilities, which reduce soil-tool adhesion. The aim of this study was to investigate usability of UHMW-PE coated furrower tines for draft force. Analytical and experimental investigations were carried out during the research. A comparison was conducted between the analytical and the experimental method. The results of this comparison can be used to determine reliability of the analytical model for predicting the draft force improvement caused by the surface modification on tines using different surface coatings. Materials and

  5. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

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    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  6. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

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    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  7. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration Monitoramento da viabilidade de sementes porta-enxertos de citros armazenados em câmara fria

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    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B