Gagnevin, D.; Waight, Tod Earle; Daly, J.S.;
Plagioclase phenocrysts in dacites from the high-K calc-alkaline CapraiaVolcano were investigated for major, trace element and Sr isotope variations in order to gain better insight into the proposed open-system behaviour of the volcano. Repeated dissolution zone in plagioclases from the early-eru...
Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano
In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles
Agnelli, A. E.; Istituto Sperimentale per lo Studio e la Difesa del Suolo, Firenze, Italy; Corti, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali e delle Produzioni Vegetali, Università, Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Agnelli, A.; Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali e delle Produzioni Vegetali, Università, Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Del Carlo, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Coltelli, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Ugolini, F. C.; Dipartimento di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Università degli Studi di, Firenze, Italy
Volcano flanks are usually covered by deposits of fine materials (tephra) with variable thickness originated by the explosive activity. The deposits form bedded sequences of tephra layers often alternated with paleosols. Pyroclastic successions on Etna volcano (Italy) are composed of scoria or pumice lapilli and ash deposits, representing separate eruptions, and volcanogenic sediments developed between eruptions. The origin of paleosols cropping out in three pyroclastic successions on Mt Etna...
Marini, L.; Paiotti, A.; Principe, C.; Ferrara, G.; Cioni, R.
Both the δ34S value and the total S content of products from Vulture Volcano, Italy are mainly controlled by the separation of S gases, predominantly SO2, from high f O2 magmas containing S predominantly as SO2 4. The addition of evaporites to such magmas appears to be a relatively uncommon and limited phenomenon. The total S content of the most primitive product of Vulture Volcano (5600 mg/kg) is very high. The high δ34S value of 4ö indicates an origin through the partial melting of a mantle containing high S, enriched in 34S of unknown origin.
Rainone, M. L.; Rusi, S.; Torrese, P.
Mud volcanoes are common geological phenomenons observed worldwide as in Italy. They are well described in the scientific literature for their morphological, tectonic and hydrogeological features. They represent not only a relevant geological and geomorphological interest but also not negligible elements of hazard and risk associated with the presence of soft and pliable sediments and with the possible unexpected emission of gas and mud. Therefore, the understanding of their structure and hydrogeological circuits in the subsurface is an important key to define hazard and risk conditions in the adjacent areas. This paper deals with a multidisciplinary study including geophysical and hydrochemical surveys undertaken at the Pineto (central Italy) mud volcano site to achieve an interpretative conceptual model explaining the shallow upward migration of deep mud fluids. Shallow electrical and seismic imaging of the mud volcano was obtained using two dimensional and three dimensional (2D-3D) electrical resistivity tomography and 2D reflection seismic surveys. The hydrochemical properties of the rising fluids were assessed by means of seasonal measurements of the chemical-physical parameters, the concentrations of major ions, and some natural isotopes. This mud volcano or mud lump appears as a dome of about 15 × 10 m in size. The height of the crater is 2 m approximately, while the diameter of the crater is 2.5 m. Emission of fluids and solids (cold brine, mud, gas) occurs from this crater. Upper Pliocene-lower Pleistocene foredeep pelitic deposits (over-compacted clays with silty-sandy levels) overlain by clayey-silty deposits crop out in the area. The survey results seem to reveal that the uprising of deep fluids does not occur exactly below the mud volcano at present. Instead, a high conductivity body is present within a fractured zone in the pelitic deposits at 60 m approximately to the ENE. The probable occurrence of a high permeability layer approximately between 20
Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano
Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of Ξ2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/π]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided
Caracausi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nuccio, P. M.; Dipartimento Chimica e Fisica della Terra e Applicazioni, Universita` di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90100, Palermo, Italy; Favara, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nicolosi, M.; Dipartimento Chimica e Fisica della Terra e Applicazioni, Universita` di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90100, Palermo, Italy; Paternoster, M.; Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Università della Basilicata.
Geochemical investigations have shown that there is a considerable inflow of gas into both crater lakes of Monticchio, Southern Italy. These lakes are located in two maars that formed 140 000 years ago during Mt. Vulture volcano s last eruptive activity. Isotopic analyses suggest that CO2 and helium are of magmatic origin; the latter displays 3He ⁄ 4He isotope ratios similar to those measured in olivines of the maar ejecta. In spite of the fact that the amount of dissolved gases in the wat...
Anzidei, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Baldi, P.; Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bologna, Italy; Esposito, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Fabris, M.; Università di Bologna; Pesci, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Giordano, G.; Università Roma Tre; Carapezza, M. L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Riguzzi, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia
The Panarea and Albano active volcanoes (Italy) have been recently surveyed under multidisciplinary programs funded by the Italian Department of the Civil Protection and INGV. These complex volcanoes belongs to the perithyrrenian margin and the Aeolian arc system. Their activity, which produced in the past dramatic impacts on the environment as well as on human settlements, is known since historical times. At Panarea, on November 3th, 2002, a submarine gas eruption started in the shallow area...
Paternoster, M.; Liotta, M.; Favara, R.
SummaryA rain gauge network consisting of five sites located at different altitudes, ranging from 320 to 1285 m.a.s.l., was installed at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Rain water samples were collected monthly over a two-year period and their isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) was analyzed. During the same period, circulating groundwater was sampled from 24 springs and wells distributed throughout the study area. Monthly isotopic composition values were used to determine the local meteoric water line (LMWL). Its slope is slightly lower than the relationship defined by Longinelli and Selmo (Longinelli, A., Selmo, E., 2003. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Italy: a first overall map. J. Hydrol. 270, 75-88) for southern Italy. The groundwater samples analyzed were distributed essentially along the LMWL. The weighted local meteoric water line (WLMWL), defined through the mean values weighted by the rainfall amount, however, may define in a short range the meteoric end-member in the local hydrological cycle more precisely. Since most of the groundwater sampling locations do not show seasonal variations in their stable isotope values, the flow system appears to be relatively homogeneous. The mean altitude of the recharge by rainfall infiltration was estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient δ 18O. A few springs, which show anomalous isotopic values, reveal more regional circulation systems, associated with tectonic structures responsible for the ascent of deeper water.
With the aim of defining the chronological framework of the 51 m deep sedimentary sequence (core D) from Lago Grande di Monticchio (Mt Vulture volcano), macroscopic, microscopic and geochemical investigations have been carried out on the 14 thickest (at least 3 cm) tephra layers recorded in the core. The results indicate that the tephras are related to the main late Quaternary explosive events from Ischia, Vesuvius and the Phlegrean Fields districts of the Campanian area. Following these results, a usable time scale has been obtained, according to which the sequence spans the last 70 ka. Beyond the chronological information, this investigation has made it possible: (a) to identify widespread time-parallel markers for reliable correlations in the Central Mediterranean; (b) to collect useful data about past powerful eruptions, particularly from Vesuvius, for a better assessment of volcanic hazards in Central and Southern Italy.
Full Text Available Volcanoes are well known as an impressive large natural source of trace elements into the troposphere. Etna (Italy and Nyiragongo (D.R. Congo are two stratovolcanoes located in different geological settings, both characterized by persistent passive degassing from their summit craters. Here, we present some results on trace element composition in volcanic plume emissions, atmospheric bulk deposition (rainwater and their uptake by the surrounding vegetation, with the aim to compare and identify differences and similarities between these two volcanoes. Volcanic emissions were sampled by using active filter-packs for acid gases (sulfur and halogens and specific teflon filters for particulates (major and trace elements. The environmental impact of the volcanogenic deposition in the area surrounding of the crater rims was investigated by using different sampling techniques: bulk rain collectors’ gauges were used to collect atmospheric bulk deposition, and biomonitoring was carried out to collect gases and particulates by using endemic plant species. The estimates of the trace element fluxes confirm that Etna and Nyiragongo are large sources of metals into the atmosphere, especially considering their persistent state of passive degassing. The large amount of emitted trace elements is clearly reflected on the chemical composition of rainwater collected at the summit areas both for Etna and Nyiragongo. Moreover, the biomonitoring results highlight that bioaccumulation of trace elements is extremely high in the proximity of the crater rim and de- creases with the distance from the active craters.
Okuma, Shigeo; Stotter, Christian; Supper, Robert; Nakatsuka, Tadashi; Furukawa, Ryuta; Motschka, Klaus
Two helicopter-borne magnetic surveys were conducted over Stromboli Volcano and its surrounding areas on the Aeolian Islands, southern Italy in 2002 and 2004 to better understand the subsurface structure of the area. Observed data from those surveys were merged and aeromagnetic anomalies for Stromboli Island and its vicinity were reduced onto a smoothed surface, assuming equivalent anomalies below the observed surface. The magnetic terrain effects were calculated for the magnetic anomalies of the study area, assuming the magnetic structure comprised of an ensemble of prisms extending from the ground surface to a depth of 3000 m below sea level: the average magnetization intensity was calculated to be 2.2 A/m for the edifice of Stromboli shallower than 1200 m below sea level by comparing the observed and synthetic data. Next, apparent magnetization intensity mapping was applied to the observed anomalies using a uniform magnetization of 2.2 A/m as the initial value. The apparent magnetization intensity map indicates magnetic heterogeneities among volcanic rocks which constitute the edifice of the volcano. The most remarkable feature of the magnetization intensity map is a magnetization low which occupies the center of the island where the summit craters reside, suggesting demagnetization caused by the heat of conduits and/or hydrothermal activity in addition to the thick accumulation of less magnetic pyroclastic rocks. By comparing topographic and geologic maps, it can be seen that magnetization highs are distributed on the exposures of basaltic-andesite to andesite lavas (Paleostromboli I), shoshonitic lavas with an eccentric vent and a shield volcano (Neostromboli), on the south, north and west coasts of the volcano, respectively. These magnetization highs further extend offshore, implying the seaward continuation of these volcanic rocks. 3-D magnetic imaging was preliminarily applied to the same magnetic anomalies as well as for the magnetization intensity mapping
De Astis, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Kempton, P. D.; Natural Environment Research Council, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon, SN2 1EU, UK; Peccerillo, A.; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Perugia; Wu, T. W.; Department of Geology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5B7
New Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic ratios and trace element data for volcanic mafic rocks outcropping along a E–W transect in southern Italy, from Mt. Vulture to Neapolitan volcanoes, are reported. The variation of LILE/HFSE, HFSE/HFSE and radiogenic isotopes along this transect indicates that all of these volcanoes contain both intra-plate and subduction-related signatures, with the former decreasing from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes. New data are also reported for the Pa...
Speranza, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Pompilio, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Sagnotti, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia
We report on 270 paleomagnetic directions retrieved from 17 different spatter deposits spread over the northern and western flanks of the Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). The spatter were emplaced during previously undated high-energy Strombolian eruptions occurring after the third-seventh century AD. Our paleomagnetic directions were superimposed over the paleosecular variation curve of the geomagnetic field for the last two millennia, obtained by reducing to the coordinates of...
Pistolesi, M.; Delle Donne, D.; Pioli, Laura; Rosi, M.; Ripepe, M.
Basaltic volcanoes are dominated by lava emission and mild explosive activity. Nevertheless, many basaltic systems exhibit, from time to time, poorly documented and little-understood violent explosions. A short-lived, multiblast explosive crisis (paroxysmal explosion) occurred on 15 March 2007 during an effusive eruptive crisis at Stromboli (Italy). The explosive crisis, which started at 20:38:14 UT, had a total duration of ∼5 min. The combined use of multiparametric data collected by the per...
de Fino, M.; La Volpe, L.; Peccerillo, A.; Piccarreta, G.; Poli, G.
The paper presents major and trace element data and mineral compositions for a series of foiditic-tephritic to phonolitic rocks coming from Monte Vulture, Southern Italy, and investigates their origin, evolution and relationship with the other centres of the Roman province. Major and trace element variation in the foiditic to tephritic suite agrees with a hypothesis of evolution by simple crystal/liquid fractionation, whereas the early erupted phonolitic trachytes and phonolites have geochemical characteristics which do not support their derivation from tephritic magma by crystal fractionation. Foiditic and phonolitic rocks have mineral compositions which are interpreted as indicating magma mixing. However geochemical evidence shows that this process did not play an important role during the magma evolution. The Vulture rocks have compositional peculiarities such as high abundance of Na2O, CaO, Cl and S, when compared with other Roman volcanics. Instead, the distribution of incompatible elements is similar to those of Roman rocks, except for a lower content of Rb and K, higher P and lower Th/Ta and Th/Nb ratios which are still close to the values of arc volcanics. The high contents of Na, Ca and of volatile components are tentatively attributed to the interaction of magma with aqueous solutions, rich in calcium sulphate and sodium chloride, related to the Miocene or Triassic evaporites occurring within the sedimentary sequence underlying the volcano. The distribution pattern of the incompatible elements is interpreted as indicative of magma-forming in a subduction modified upper mantle and of the peculiar location of M. Vulture.
In the past thousand years,volcanoes have claimed more than 300,000 lives. Volcanology is ayoung and dangerous science that helps us against the power of the Earth itself.We live on a fiery planet. Nearly 2000 miles beneath our feet, the Earth's inner core reachestemperatures of 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Molten rock or magma, rises to the earth's surface. Acold, rigid crust fractured into some twenty plates. When magma breaks through crust it becomes
Caracausi, Antonio; Paternoster, Michele; Nuccio, Pasquale Mario
Mantle volatiles are mainly lost from the Earth to the atmosphere through subaerial and submarine volcanism. Recent studies have shown that degassing of mantle volatiles also occurs from inactive volcanic areas and in tectonically active areas. A new challenge in Earth science is to quantify the mantle-derived flux of volatiles (e.g., CO2) which is important for understanding such diverse issues as the evolution of the atmosphere, the relationships between magma degassing and volcanic activity, gas pressure and seismogenic processes, and the hazards posed by volcanic lakes. Here we present a detailed study of mantle-derived CO2 budget from Mt. Vulture volcano in the Apennines, Italy, whose latest eruption occurred 141 ± 11 kyr ago. The relationship between δ13CCO2 and total dissolved carbon at Mt. Vulture volcano indicates that the emitted CO2 is a mixture of a biogenic end-member with an average δ13CCO2 of about - 17 ‰ and a mantle-derived CO2 end-member with δ13CCO2 values from - 3 ‰ to + 2 ‰. These values of mantle-derived δ13CCO2 are in the range of those for gas emitted from active volcanoes in the Mediterranean. We calculated the contribution of individual components (CO2 in groundwater, in lakes and from main pools) to the total CO2 budget in the area. We used new measurements of water flow, combined with literature data, to calculate the CO2 flux associated with groundwater, and measured the gas flux from the main pools on the volcanic edifice. Finally, we calculated the CO2 flow in the lakes based on the gradient concentration and eddy diffusivity. The total mantle-derived CO2 budget in the area is 4.85 ×108 molyr-1, which is more than double previous estimates. This is higher than those observed in younger volcanic systems elsewhere, thereby supporting the existence of actively degassing mantle melts below Mt. Vulture volcano. A structural map highlights the tectonic control on CO2 flow across the Mt. Vulture volcanic edifice. Indeed, the
H. Mahadeva Iyer
Full Text Available We collected teleseismic waveforms from a digital microseismic network deployed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, on the Alban Hills Quaternary volcano during the 1989-1990 seismic swann. About 50 events were recorded by the network, 30 of them by at least 4 stations. We analysed the data in order to image crustal heterogeneities beneath the volcano. The results show large delay time residuals up to - 1 second for stations located on the volcano with respect to station CP9 of the National Seismic Network located about 20 km to the east, on the Apennines. This suggests that the whole area overlies a broad low-velocity region. Although the ray coverage is not very dense, we model the gross seismic structure beneath the volcano by inverting the teleseismic relative residuals with the ACH technique. The main features detected by tbc inversion are a low-velocity zone beneath the southwestern fiank of tbc volcano, and a high-velocity region beneath the center. The depth extension of these anomalous zones ranges between 5 and 16 km. The correspondence between the low-velocity region and the most recent activity of the volcano (- 0.027 Ma leads us to infer the presence of a still hot magmatic body in the crust beneath the southwestern side of the volcano, whereas the central part overlies the older and colder high-velocity volcanic roots related to the previous central activity (0.7 to 0.3 Ma.
Full Text Available Volcanic EmissionsThe technique for the assessment of the metal output from volcanoes was based on direct (in- plume collection of the plume on filter substrates. Gas and aerosols in the volcanic plume have been sampled from the rims of the active craters. [...
Hong, Wei-Li; Etiope, Giuseppe; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chang, Ping-Yu
Mud volcanoes (MVs) are considered important methane (CH4) sources for the atmosphere; gas is not only released from macro-seepage, i.e., from craters and visible gas bubbling manifestations, but also from invisible and pervasive exhalation from the ground, named miniseepage. CH4 flux related to miniseepage was measured only in a few MVs, in Azerbaijan, Italy, Japan, Romania and Taiwan. This study examines in detail the flux data acquired in 5 MVs and 1 "dry" seep in SW Taiwan, and further compares with other 23 MVs in Italy, Romania and Azerbaijan. Miniseepage from the six manifestations in SW Taiwan MVs and seeps annually contribute at least 110 tons of methane directly to the atmosphere, and represents about ˜80% of total degassing during a quiescent period. Combining miniseepage flux and geo-electrical data from the Wu-shan-ding MV revealed a possible link between gas flux and electrical resistivity of the vadose zone. This suggests that unsaturated subsoil is a preferential zone for shallow gas accumulation and seepage to the atmosphere. Besides, miniseepage flux in Chu-huo everlasting fire decreases by increasing the distance from the main gas channeling zone and molecular fractionation (methane/ethane ratio) is higher for lower flux seepage, consistently with what observed in other MVs worldwide. Measurements from Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, and Taiwan converge to indicate that miniseepage is directly proportional to the vent output and it is a significant component of the total methane budget of a MV. A miniseepage vs. macro-seepage flux equation has been statistically assessed and it can be used to estimate theoretically at least the order of magnitude of the flux of miniseepage for MVs of which only the flux from vents was evaluated, or will be evaluated in future. This will allow a more complete and objective quantification of gas emission in MVs, thus also refining the estimate of the global methane emission from geological sources.
Pingue, Folco; Troise, Claudia; De Luca, Gaetano; Grassi, Vittorio; Scarpa, Roberto
The geophysical monitoring system of Mt. Vesuvius volcano includes a geodetic EDM network having average basis lengths amounting to 6 km. This trilateration network is localised around the central crater and consists of 21 stations with a geometry allowing measurement of 60 slope distances. In order to relate this network to more stable areas and to other networks in the Apennines, the EDM net has been extended using GPS methods. In summer 1993 four GPS receivers (Leica System 200) were used on the same points measured with EDM method. During this survey two long bases from the volcano to the more stable limestone platform located in the S direction were measured. The same baselines were previously measured by using an AGA 600 laser geodimeter. In January 1995 a new survey was performed by using two infrared distantiometers (1 DISTOMAT DI3000 and an AGA 142). The comparison with the data since 1975 does not show any significant ground deformation to be ascribed to the volcanic activity. Moreover the consistency between GPS and EDM data allows to exclude systematic differences between these two methodologies for volcano monitoring.
Bonforte, Alessandro; Puglisi, Giuseppe
Mount Etna has developed at the intersection of two regional tectonic lineaments, the NNW-SSE trending Hybleo-Maltese escarpment, which separates the thick inland continental crust of the African platform from the Ionian Mesozoic oceanic crust, and the NE-SW Messina-Fiumefreddo fault that marks a rift zone between south Calabria and north-eastern Sicily, extending as far as the Mt. Etna area. All tectonic features affect, with outstanding surface features, the eastern side of the volcano. The eastern flank of the volcano is affected by a long-term motion toward ESE. In 1997, in order to increase the detail of the ground deformation pattern on the lower eastern flank of Mt. Etna, a new GPS network, the "Ionica" network, was installed on this sector of the volcano. This GPS network consists of 24 stations and covers the lower eastern flank of the volcano from the town of Catania to Taormina and from the coastline up to an altitude of about 1300 m. All the new stations consist in self-centring benchmarks; this kind of benchmark allows all station set-up errors to be avoided. Before the merging of the Ionica network to the frame of the global GPS network of Mt. Etna (in June 2001), three surveys were carried out on this network: in September 1997, August 1998 and January 2001. From the ground deformation pattern, it is possible to distinguish two different sectors, showing different characteristics of deformation. The southern part of the network shows a more uniform distribution of the vertical motion with a mean SE-ward horizontal component while the northern one shows an heterogeneous vertical motion with a ESE-ward horizontal component. Furthermore, a higher velocity is detected between 1997 and 1998, due to the additional stress induced by a shallow intrusion on the NW flank of the volcano. The model resulting from data inversions defines a wide sliding plane beneath the entire eastern flank of the volcano with a low dip angle. The expected velocity vectors fit
Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Maraio, Stefano; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Di Fiore, Vincenzo
-surface geological interpretation of Solfatara area and to better understand and relate temporal changes of geophysical and geochemical measurements to the shallow geological structure of the most active volcano of Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy, which it is presently characterized by an activity renewal, resulting in an enhanced hydrothermal activity and fumarolic emission increase.
Caracausi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nuccio, P. M.; Dipartimento CFTA, Universita` di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.; R. Favara; Nicolosi, M.; Dipartimento CFTA, Universita` di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.; Paternoster, M.; Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Università della Basilicata.
Geochemical investigations have shown that there is a considerable inflow of gas into both crater lakes of Monticchio, Southern Italy. These lakes are located in two maars that formed 140,000 years ago during Mt. Vulture volcano’s last eruptive activity. Isotopic analyses suggest that CO2 and helium are of magmatic origin; the latter displays 3He/4He isotope ratios similar to those measured in olivines of the maar ejecta. In spite of the fact that the amount of dissolved gases in the water is...
de Astis, G.; Kempton, P. D.; Peccerillo, A.; Wu, T. W.
New Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios and trace element data for volcanic mafic rocks outcropping along a E-W transect in southern Italy, from Mt. Vulture to Neapolitan volcanoes, are reported. The variation of LILE/HFSE, HFSE/HFSE and radiogenic isotopes along this transect indicates that all of these volcanoes contain both intra-plate and subduction-related signatures, with the former decreasing from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes. New data are also reported for the Paleocene alkaline rocks from Pietre Nere (Apulia foreland), which show isotopic ratios mostly overlapping the values for Mediterranean intra-plate volcanoes as well as the Eocene-Oligocene alkaline mafic lavas from the northern Adria plate. Pietre Nere provides evidence for an OIB mantle composition of FOZO-type, free of subduction influences, that is present beneath the Adria plate (Africa) before its collision with Europe. After this collision, and formation of the southern Apennines, westward inflow of mantle from the Adria plate to the Campanian area occurred, as a consequence of slab break off. Interaction of subduction components with inflowing Adria mantle generated hybrid sources beneath the Vulture-Campania area, which can explain the compositional features of both Mt. Vulture and the Campanian mafic rocks. Therefore, mafic magmas from these volcanoes represent variable degrees of mixing between different mantle components.
Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Bellatreccia, Fabio; De Benedetti, Arnaldo A; Mottana, Annibale
This work relates the occurrence and the characterization of fibrous tremolite within the latest pyroclastic deposits of the Colli Albani (Alban Hills) volcano, to the south-east of Rome (Italy). These mineralizations were observed during a systematic rock-sampling undertaken to complete the geological survey for the new 1:50 000 map of this volcanic area. The examined specimens were collected inside distal deposits correlated to the last Albano Maar activity, which are geographically located within the boundaries of the Nemi community. Tremolite occurs within both carbonate ejecta and the host pyroclastic rocks. It shows up as whitish to light gray coloured aggregates of crystals with fibrous aspect and sericeous brightness. Due to the extremely small crystal dimensions, never exceeding 0.5 micron in diameter, the micro-chemical composition of the fibres could be obtained only by combining P-XRD, SEM-EDX and FTIR methods. Infrared spectroscopy, in particular, proved to be a valuable technique to characterize...
Scandura, D.; Montalto, P.; Brancato, A.; Cannavo, F.; Coltelli, M.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Proietti, C.
The frequent flank eruptions occurrence at Mt. Etna lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked to a population of nearly one million people dwell on its flanks, poses a high volcanic risk. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management), we developed a near real-time computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations that provide the identification of the areas prone to the highest vent opening hazard. The use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) provide us a long-term hazard map mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano. The near real-time additional seismic and ground deformation data allow the long-term hazard map switches into a short-term future vent opening one. The short-term hazard map was computed starting from the evaluation of deformation field over Etna surface. Analytical inversion of deformation and seismic data is performed to find the parameters of a magmatic source in an elastic, isotropic and homogeneous half-space and forward model is performed to computed the displacement field over Etna surface. We modelled the final intrusion of the Mount Etna May 2008 eruption that was accompanied by a violent seismic swarm and marked by ground deformation recorded at GPS stations. Results suggest a good accordance between the higher probability area and the real vent occurrence.
D'Agostino, Marcello; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Langer, Horst; Messina, Alfio; Reitano, Danilo; Spampinato, Salvatore
Recent activity on Mt Etna was characterized by 25 lava fountains occurred on Mt Etna in 2011 and the first semester of 2012. In summer 2012 volcanic activity in a milder form was noticed within the Bocca Nuova crater, before it came to an essential halt in August 2012. Together with previous unrests (e. g., in 2007-08) these events offer rich material for testing automatic data processing and alert issue in the context of volcano monitoring. Our presentation focuses on the seismic background radiation - volcanic tremor - which has a key role in the surveillance of Mt Etna. From 2006 on a multi-station alert system exploiting STA/LTA ratios, has been established in the INGV operative centre of Catania. Besides, also the frequency content has been found to change correspondingly to the type of volcanic activity, and can thus be exploited for warning purposes. We apply Self Organizing Maps and Fuzzy Clustering which offer an efficient way to visualize signal characteristics and its development with time. These techniques allow to identify early stages of eruptive events and automatically flag a critical status before this becomes evident in conventional monitoring techniques. Changes of tremor characteristics are related to the position of the source of the signal. Given the dense seismic network we can base the location of the sources on distribution of the amplitudes across the network. The locations proved to be extremely useful for warning throughout both a flank eruption in 2008 as well as the 2011 lava fountains. During all these episodes a clear migration of tremor sources towards the eruptive centres was revealed in advance. The location of the sources completes the picture of an imminent volcanic unrest and corroborates early warnings flagged by the changes of signal characteristics. Automatic real time data processing poses high demands on computational efficiency, robustness of the methods and stability of data acquisition. The amplitude based multi
Calvari, Sonia; Groppelli, Gianluca
occurrence of an important eruptive event at least 7590 yr B.P. which may be associated with the deposition of the huge basal mud flow. This event was followed by fluvial reworking and deposition at a rate of at least 4 mm/yr. Extending this deposition rate to the whole thickness of the CH deposit (300 m) would imply a maximum age of 80,000-70,000 yr B.P. However, the deposition rate of the hidden part of the CH deposit was almost certainly much greater than 4 mm/yr implying an age for the onset of the CH sequence significantly less than 80,000-70,000 yr B.P. This very strongly suggests that the Trifoglietto volcano (which is older than 80,000 yr) was not involved in the opening of the VDB and the formation of the CH deposit. It also suggests that the first event of the opening of the VDB was much older than the 5000 yr proposed by some authors. It is possible that the CH was deposited during, or slightly later than, the life-span of the Ellittico volcano (40,000-15,000 yr B.P.).
Villa, Igor M.; Buettner, Annett
The eruptive history of Monte Vulture has been the subject of several geochronological investigations during the past decades, which reliably dated only a small number of eruptions. Understanding the causes of sub-optimum data yield in the past requires an interdisciplinary approach. We re-analyzed samples from previous works and present new data on samples from the main volcano-stratigraphic units of Monte Vulture, so as to provide an improved, consistent chronostratigraphic database. Imaging of minerals by cathodoluminescence and backscattered electrons reveals that heterochemical, high-temperature deuteric reaction textures are ubiquitous. Such observations are common in metamorphic rocks but had not frequently been reported from volcanic rocks. In view of the mineralogical complexity, we base our chronological interpretation on isochemical steps, defined as steps for which the Cl/K and/or the Ca/K ratios are constant. Isochemical steps carry the isotopic signature of chemically homogeneous mineral phases and therefore allow a well-constrained age interpretation. Comparison of old and new 39Ar-40Ar data proves the reproducibility of age spectra and their shapes. This quantifies the analytical reliability of the irradiation and mass-spectrometric analyses. Anomalous age spectra are a reproducible property of some specific samples and correlate with mineralogical anomalies. The present data allow us to fine-tune the age of the volcanostratigraphic units of Monte Vulture during the known interval of main volcanic activity from ca. 740 to 610 ka. After a very long stasis, the volcanic activity in the Monte Vulture area resumed with diatremic eruptions, one of which (Lago Piccolo di Monticchio, the site of a palynological-paleoclimatological drilling) was dated at ca. 140 ka.
Scarlato, P.; Taddeucci, J.; Del Bello, E.; Gaudin, D.; Ricci, T.; Andronico, D.; Lodato, L.; Cannata, A.; Ferrari, F.; Orr, T. R.; Sesterhenn, J.; Plescher, R.; Baumgärtel, Y.; Harris, A. J. L.; Bombrun, M.; Barnie, T. D.; Houghton, B. F.; Kueppers, U.; Capponi, A.
In May 2014, Stromboli volcano, one of the best natural laboratories for the study of weak explosive volcanism, hosted a large combination of state-of-the-art and prototype eruption monitoring technologies. Aiming to expand our parameterization capabilities for explosive eruption dynamics, we temporarily deployed in direct view of the active vents a range of imaging, acoustic, and seismic data acquisition systems. Imaging systems included: two high-speed visible cameras acquiring synchronized images at 500 and 1000 frames per second (fps); two thermal infrared forward looking (FLIR) cameras zooming into the active vents and acquiring at 50-200 fps; two FLIR cameras acquiring at lower (3-50 fps) frame rates with a broader field of view; one visible time-lapse camera; one UV camera system for the measurement of sulphur dioxide emission; and one drone equipped with a camcorder. Acoustic systems included: four broadband microphones (range of tens of kHz to 0.1 Hz), two of them co-located with one of the high-speed cameras and one co-located with one of the seismometers (see below); and an acoustic microphone array. This array included sixteen microphones with a circular arrangement located on a steep slope above the active vents. Seismic systems included two broadband seismometers, one of them co-located with one of the high-speed cameras, and one co-located with one of the microphones. The above systems were synchronized with a variety of methods, and temporarily added to the permanent monitoring networks already operating on the island. Observation focus was on pyroclast ejection processes extending from the shallow conduit, through their acceleration and interaction with the atmosphere, and to their dispersal and deposition. The 3-D distribution of bombs, the sources of jet noise in the explosions, the comparison between methods for estimating explosion properties, and the relations between erupted gas and magma volumes, are some examples of the processes targeted
Marfe`, Barbara; Avino, Rosario; Belviso, Pasquale; Caliro, Stefano; Carandente, Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Peluso, Rosario
This work is devoted to improve the knowledge on the parameters that control the heat flux anomalies associated with the diffuse degassing processes of volcanic and hydrothermal areas. The methodologies currently used to measure heat flux (i.e. CO2 flux or temperature gradient) are either poorly efficient or effective, and are unable to detect short to medium time (days to months) variation trends in the heat flux. A new method, based on the use of thermal imaging cameras, has been applied to estimate the heat flux and its time variations. This approach will allow faster heat flux measurement than already accredited methods, improving in this way the definition of the activity state of a volcano and allowing a better assessment of the related hazard and risk mitigation. The idea is to extrapolate the heat flux from the ground surface temperature that, in a purely conductive regime, is directly correlated to the shallow temperature gradient. We use thermal imaging cameras, at short distances (meters to hundreds of meters), to quickly obtain a mapping of areas with thermal anomalies and a measure of their temperature. Preliminary studies have been carried out throughout the whole of the La Solfatara crater in order to investigate a possible correlation between the surface temperature and the shallow thermal gradient. We have used a FLIR SC640 thermal camera and K type thermocouples to assess the two measurements at the same time. Results suggest a good correlation between the shallow temperature gradient ΔTs and the surface temperature Ts depurated from background, and despite the campaigns took place during a period of time of a few years, this correlation seems to be stable over the time. This is an extremely motivating result for a further development of a measurement method based only on the use of small range thermal imaging camera. Surveys with thermal cameras may be manually done using a tripod to take thermal images of small contiguous areas and then joining
Bindi, Luca; Cellai, Daniela; Melluso, Leone; Conticelli, Sandro; Morra, Vincenzo; Menchetti, Silvio
compositional and structural similarities between clinopyroxene of Monte Vulture and Leucite-bearing rocks of the Roman Province (plagioclase-bearing High Potassium Series=HKS) indicate a common petrogenetic affinity. On the other hand, differences between clinopyroxene in feldspar-free rocks from Monte Vulture and that in kamafugites (i.e, olivine melilitites, kalsilitites) from Central Italy, suggest significant magma dissimilarities between these two groups.
Full Text Available Three pyroclastic deposits from Monte Yulture volcanic area (Potenza, southern Italy looking like paleosols in the field were investigated in a previous study for mineralogy and major elements to estimate the stage of the weathering. Here is dealt with the behaviour of sorne trace elements (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb in the same deposits to give a comprehensive geochemical picture. The distribution of the chemical elements within the whole rock and after its attack with Na-pyrosulfate (residue + solute has been considered. Ba and Sr, as well as their distribution, appear to be controlled by the residual crystals in each of the deposits; La, Ce, Y and Nb are more concentrated in the solute that once was represented by vitric component, allophane, and Fe-Si-Al gels, biotite, carbonates and analcite; Y, Cr, and Ni show similar trends in whole rock and in solute. In particular La, Ce, Y, Y, Cr and Ni in the lowermost unit increase with the depth, as well as the contents of gels and allophane. Probably this behaviour was superimposed by the fluctuation of the water tables, as documented by the occurrence of a carbonate level upon the unit lies. It is concluded that the earliest stage of weathering did not affect the trace element distribution and that interpretations about chemical changes in deeply altered pyroclastic rocks should be always the outcome of careful accurate analyses.En un trabajo previo se estudiaron tres depósitos piroclásticos, considerados como paleosuelos, del área volcánica del Monte Yulture (Potenza, Italia para deducir su grado de meteorización. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de algunos elementos traza (Ce, La, Ba, Ni, Cr, Y, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb en esos depósitos para intentar obtener una imagen geoquímica más completa. Se ha estudiado la distribución de elementos traza en la roca total y después de un ataque con pirosulfato-Na (residuo + solución. Ba y Sr parecen estar controlados
Caracausi, Antonio; Cosenza, Paolo; Favara, Rocco; Foresta Martin, Luigi; Galli, Nunzio; Grassa, Fausto; Nuccio, Pasquale Mario; Paternoster, Michele; Riccobono, Giuseppe
from previous limnological-geochemical investigations has been joined with isotope signature of gas (CH4 and CO2) collected from sediments at the bottom of LPM, by means of a specially designed robot called "Muddy". Muddy is also able to perform vertical profiles both of pH and of temperature in the water column and in the sediments as well. The obtained results lead us: 1) to assess the production ratio of CH4 through acetoclastic methanogenesis and CO2 reduction in the sediments; 2) to determinate CH4 oxidation; 3) to detect the origin of CO2 involved in methanogenic processes, evaluating the contribution organic-CO2 and the sink of mantle-derived CO2.;4) to discuss the differences in CH4 sources in the water and sediments; 5) to properly define gas hazards assessment. A. Caracausi, M. Nicolosi, P.M. Nuccio, R. Favara, M. Paternoster, A. Rosciglione (2013) Geochemical insight into differences in the physical structures and dynamics of two adjacent maar lakes at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy), G. Cubed, doi: 10.1002/ggge.2011
Finizola, A.; Laboratoire GéoSciences Réunion, UR, IPGP, UMR 7154, Saint Denis, La Réunion, France; Ricci, T.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Deiana, R.; Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy; Barde Cabusson, S.; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, Firenze, Italy; Rossi, M.; Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova, Italy; Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; Praticelli, N.; Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy; Giocoli, A.; Laboratorio di Geofisica, IMAA-CNR, Tito Scalo, Potenza, Italy; Romano, G.; Tito Scalo, Potenza, Italy; Delcher, E.; Suski, B.; Institut de Géophysique, Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Revil, A.; Colorado School of Mines; Menny, P.; Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Di Gangi, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Letort, J.; Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Strasbourg, France; Peltier, A.; Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, France
On March 15th 2007 a paroxysmal explosion occurred at the Stromboli volcano. This event generated a large amount of products,mostly lithic blocks, someofwhich impacted the ground as far as down to 200 m a.s.l., about 1.5 kmfaraway fromthe active vents. Two days after the explosion, a newvapouremissionwas discovered on the north-eastern flank of the volcanic edifice, at 560 m a.s.l., just above the area called “Nel Cannestrà”. This new vapour emission was due to a block impact. In ...
Giammanco, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Parello, F.; DFCTA, University of Palermo; Gambardella, B.; Dip.Ter.Ris., University of Genova; Schifano, R.; DFCTA, University of Palermo; Pizzullo, S.; DFCTA, University of Palermo; Galante, G.; DFCTA, University of Palermo
Several sites with anomalous emissions of carbon dioxide were investigated in the region south of Mt. Etna volcano in order to assess the types of emission (focused and/or diffuse), their surface extension and the total output of CO2. Most of the studied emissions are located on the southwest boundary of Mt. Etna, near the town of Paternò. They consist of three mud volcanoes (known as Salinelle), one spring with bubbling gas (Acqua Grassa) and one area of diffuse degassing (Peschería...
La Volpe, L.; Patella, D.; Rapisardi, L.; Tramacere, A.
The activity of Monte Vulture started in the Middle Pleistocene; stratigraphic evidence suggests that the volcanic events may have occurred in the following succession: (1) formation of widespread pyroclastic pumice deposits; (2) sporadic and localized explosive and minor extrusive eruptions; (3) highly explosive eruptions with the formation of some tuff cones and of the oldest part of the Monte Vulture central volcano; and (4) activity at the central volcano, initially mainly explosive and successively increasingly effusive. The western part of the composite volcano, and probably also its summit part were affected by caldera collapses. The volcanic activity ended with hydromagmatic explosion, which formed two explosion craters. Monte Vulture was built up on the external units of the Southern Apennines at the western border of the foretrough. The upper part of the sedimentary substratum consists mainly of clayey formations of the Lagonegro and Sannitic units. Beneath these terrains radiolarites and cherty-limestones of the Lagonegro units outcrop west of Monte Vulture. Rocks of the Apulia carbonate platform were drilled east of the volcano. Deep dipole electrical soundings showed a resistant basement at a depth ranging from 0.2 km down to 4.3 km beneath Monte Vulture. Volcanological, geological and geoelectrical data allow us to hypothesize that: (a) the magma chamber could be located at the boundary between the rigid resistant basement and the overlying conductive plastic terrains; (b) the Apulia carbonate platform forms a structural high beneath the Monte Vulture; and (c) the overthrusting of the Lagonegro units on the Apulia platform may be located beneath the floors of the calderas of Monte Vulture.
Azzaro, Raffaele; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; D'Amico, Salvatore; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Tuvè, Tiziana; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia
Earthquakes are, by far, the most relevant source of hazard for the densely urbanised areas of Mt. Etna region. Local communities living in the eastern and southern flanks of the volcano continuously suffer social and economic losses due to the very high occurrence of damaging earthquakes, which produce intensities up to degree X EMS despite of low energy (M < 5.0). Seismic hazard in the Mt. Etna region is controlled by two distinct types of earthquakes, namely regional and local ...
Downes, H.; Kostoula, T.; Jones, A. P.; Beard, A. D.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bodinier, J.-L.
Spinel peridotite xenoliths found in the Monte Vulture carbonatite-melilitite volcano have been derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath central southern Italy. Clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites and harzburgites are the most common rock types, with subordinate wehrlites and dunites. Small quantities of phlogopite and carbonate are present in a few samples. The peridotites record a large degree of partial melting and have experienced subsequent enrichment which has increased their LILE and LREE contents, but in most cases their HFSE contents are low. Despite being carried to the surface by a carbonatite-melilitite host, the whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions of the xenoliths have a trace-element signature more closely resembling that of silicate-melt metasomatised mantle rather than carbonatite-metasomatised peridotites. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios for clinopyroxene from the Vulture peridotites are 0.7042-0.7058 and 0.51260-0.5131 respectively. They form a trend away from the depleted mantle to the composition of the host magmas, and show a significant enrichment in 87Sr/86Sr compared with most European mantle samples. The mantle beneath Monte Vulture has had a complex evolution - we propose that the lithosphere had already undergone extensive partial melting before being affected by metasomatism from a silicate melt which may have been subduction-related.
Full Text Available On 11 August 2008 a paroxysmal eruption occurred at Santa Barbara mud volcano (MV, located close to Caltanissetta, one of the most densely populated cities of Sicily (Italy. An associated minor event took place on August 2009. Both the events caused severe damage to civil infrastructures located within a range of about 2 km from the eruptive vent. Geomorphological, geochemical, and seismological investigations were carried out for framing the events in the appropriate geodynamic context. Geomorphological surveys recognized, in the immediate surrounding of the main emission point, two different families of processes and landforms: (i ground deformations and (ii changes in morphology and number of the fluid emitting vents. These processes were associated to a wider network of fractures, seemingly generated by the shock wave produced by the gas blast that occurred at the main paroxysm. Geochemical characterization allowed an estimation of the source of the fluids, or at least their last standing, at about 3 km depth. Finally, the close time relationships observed between anomalous increments of seismic activity and the two main paroxysmal events accounted for a possible common trigger for both the phenomena, even with different timing due to the very different initial conditions and characteristics of the two processes, i.e. seismogenesis and gas overloading.
Revil, A.; Finizola, A.; Ricci, T.; Delcher, E.; Peltier, A.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Avard, G.; Bailly, T.; Bennati, L.; Byrdina, S.; Colonge, J.; di Gangi, F.; Douillet, G.; Lupi, M.; Letort, J.; Tsang Hin Sun, E.
To gain a better insight of the hydrogeology and the location of the main tectonic faults of Stromboli volcano in Italy, we collected electrical resistivity measurements, soil CO2 concentrations, temperature and self-potential measurements along two profiles. These two profiles started at the village of Ginostra in the southwest part of the island. The first profile (4.8 km in length) ended up at the village of Scari in the north east part of the volcano and the second one (3.5 km in length) at Forgia Vecchia beach, in the eastern part of the island. These data were used to provide insights regarding the position of shallow aquifers and the extension of the hydrothermal system. This large-scale study is complemented by two high-resolution studies, one at the Pizzo area (near the active vents) and one at Rina Grande where flank collapse areas can be observed. The Pizzo corresponds to one of the main degassing structure of the hydrothermal system. The main degassing area is localized along a higher permeability area corresponding to the head of the gliding plane of the Rina Grande sector collapse. We found that the self-potential data reveal the position of an aquifer above the villages of Scari and San Vincenzo. We provide an estimate of the depth of this aquifer from these data. The lateral extension of the hydrothermal system (resistivity ˜15-60 ohm m) is broader than anticipated extending in the direction of the villages of Scari and San Vincenzo (in agreement with temperature data recorded in shallow wells). The lateral extension of the hydrothermal system reaches the lower third of the Rina Grande sector collapse area in the eastern part of the island. The hydrothermal body in this area is blocked by an old collapse boundary. This position of the hydrothermal body is consistent with low values of the magnetization (<2.5 A m-1) from previously published work. The presence of the hydrothermal body below Rina Grande raises questions about the mechanical stability
Peccerillo, Angelo; Federico, Marcella; Barbieri, Mario; Brilli, Mauro; Wu, Tsai-Wan
Magma-carbonate rock interaction is investigated through a geochemical and Sr-Nd-O isotope study of granular lithic clasts ( ejecta) from the Alban Hills ultrapotassic volcano, Central Italy. Some samples (Group-1) basically represent intrusive equivalents of Alban Hills magmas. A few samples (Group-2) are ultramafic, have high MgO (˜30 to 40 wt%) and δ 18O‰, and originated by accumulation of mafic phases that crystallised from ultrapotassic melts during assimilation of dolomitic rocks. Group-3 ejecta consist of dominant K-feldspar, and show major element compositions similar to phonolites, which, however, are absent among the Alban Hills volcanics. Finally, another group (Group-4) contains corroded K-feldspars, surrounded by a microgranular to porphyritic matrix, made of igneous minerals (K-feldspar, foids, clinopyroxene, phlogopite) plus wollastonite, garnet, and some cuspidine. Group-4 ejecta are depleted in SiO 2 and enriched in CaO with respect to Group-3. The analysed ejecta have similar 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.51204-0.51217) as the Alban Hills lavas, whereas 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70900-0.71067) is similar to lower. Whole rocks δ 18O‰ ranges from +7.0 to +13.2, reaching maximum values in ultramafic samples. A positive correlation with CaO is observed in single rock groups. Large Ion Lithophile Element (LILE) abundances and REE fractionation are generally high, and extreme values of Th, U and LREE are found in some Group-3 and Group-4 rocks. Mineralogical, petrological and geochemical data reveal extensive interaction between magma and carbonate wall rocks, involving both dolostones and limestones. These processes had dramatic effects on magma compositions, especially on phonolites, which were transformed to foidites. Evidence of such a process is found in Group-4 samples, in which K-feldspar is observed to react with a matrix that represents strongly undersaturated melts formed by interaction between silicate magma and carbonates. Trace element data also testify to a
Caracausi, A.; Nicolosi, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Favara, R.; Paternoster, M.; Rosciglione, A.
report on the first geochemical investigation of the Monticchio maar lakes (Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy) covering an annual cycle that aimed at understanding the characteristic features of the physical structures and dynamics of the two lakes. We provide the first detailed description of the lakes based on high-resolution conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles, chemical and isotopic (H and O) compositions of the water, and the amounts of dissolved gases (e.g., He, Ar, CH4, and CO2). The combined data set reveals that the two lakes, which are separated by less than 200 m, exhibit different dynamics: one is a meromictic lake, where the waters are rich in biogenic and mantle-derived gases, while the other is a monomictic lake, which exhibits complete turnover of the water in winter and the release of dissolved gases. Our data strongly suggest that the differences in the dynamics of the two lakes are due to different density profiles affected by dissolved solutes, mainly Fe, which is strongly enriched in the deep water of the meromictic lake. A conceptual model of water balance was constructed based on the correlation between the chemical composition of the water and the hydrogen isotopic signature. Gas-rich groundwaters that feed both of the lakes and evaporation processes subsequently modify the water chemistry of the lakes. Our data highlight that no further potential hazardous accumulation of lethal gases is expected at the Monticchio lakes. Nevertheless, geochemical monitoring is needed to prevent the possibility of vigorous gas releases that have previously occurred in historical time.
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Panina, Liya; Stoppa, Francesco
Melt inclusions in clinopyroxenes of olivine foidite bombs from Serra di Constantinopoli pyroclastic flows of the Vulture volcano (Southern Italy) were studied in detail. The rocks contain abundant zoned phenocrysts and xenocrysts of clinopyroxene, scarce grains of olivine, leucite, haüyne, glass with microlites of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The composition of clinopyroxene in xenocrysts (Cpx I), cores (Cpx II), and in rims (Cpx III) of phenocrysts differs in the content of Mg, Fe, Ti, and Al. All clinopyroxenes contain two types of primary inclusion-pure silicate and of silicate-carbonate-salt composition. This fact suggests that the phenomena of silicate-carbonate immiscibility took place prior to crystallization of clinopyroxene. Homogenization of pure silicate inclusions proceeded at 1 225 - 1 190°C. The composition of conserved melts corresponded to that of olivine foidite in Cpx I, to tephrite-phonolite in Cpx II, and phonolite-nepheline trachyte in Cpx III. The amount of water in them was no more than 0.9 wt.%. Silicate-carbonate inclusions decrepitated on heating. Salt globules contained salts of alkali-sulphate, alkali-carbonate, and Ca-carbonate composition somewhat enriched in Ba and Sr. This composition is typical of carbonatite melts when decomposed into immiscible fractions. The formation of sodalite-haüyne rocks from Vulture is related to the presence of carbonate-salt melts in magma chamber. The melts conserved in clinopyroxenes were enriched in incompatible elements, especially in Cpx III. High ratios of La, Nb, and Ta in melts on crystallization of Cpx I and Cpx II suggest the influence of a carbonatite melt as carbonatites have extremely high La/Nb and Nb/Ta and this is confirmed by the appearance of carbonatite melts in magma chamber. Some anomalies in the concentrations and relatives values of Eu and especially Ga seems typical of Italian carbonatite related melts. The mantle source for initial melts was, most likely, rather uniform
Conticelli, Sandro; Marchionni, Sara; Rosa, Davide; Giordano, Guido; Boari, Elena; Avanzinelli, Riccardo
The Roccamonfina volcano is characterised by two stages of volcanic activity that are separated by volcano-tectonic caldera collapses. Ultrapotassic leucite-bearing rocks are confined to the pre-caldera stage and display geochemical characteristics similar to those of other volcanoes in the Roman Province. After the major sector collapse of the volcano, occurred at ca. 400 ka, shoshonitic rocks erupted from cinder cones and domes both within the caldera and on the external flanks of the pre-caldera Roccamonfina volcano. On the basis of new trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data, we show that the Roccamonfina shoshonitic rocks are distinct from shoshonites of the Northern Roman Province, but are very similar to those of the Neapolitan volcanoes. The last phases of volcanic activity erupted sub-alkaline magmas as enclaves in trachytic domes, and as lavas within the Monte Santa Croce dome. Ultrapotassic rocks of the pre-caldera composite volcano are plagioclase-bearing leucitites characterised by high levels of incompatible trace elements with an orogenic signature having troughs at Ba, Ta, Nb, and Ti, and peaks at Cs, K, Th, U, and Pb. Initial values of 87Sr/86Sr range from 0.70926 to 0.70999, 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51213 to 0.51217, while the lead isotope rations vary between 18.788-18.851 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.685-15.701 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 39.048-39.076 for 208Pb/204Pb. Shoshonites show a similar pattern of trace element depletions and enrichments to the earlier ultrapotassic leucite-bearing rocks but have a larger degree of differentiation and lower concentrations of incompatible trace elements. On the other hand, shoshonitic rocks have Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes consistently different than pre-caldera ultrapotassic leucite-bearing rocks. 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.70665 to 0.70745, 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51234 to 0.51238, 206Pb/204Pb ranges from 18.924 to 19.153, 207Pb/204Pb ranges from 15.661 to 15.694, and 208Pb/204Pb ranges from 39.084 to 39.212. High-K calc
Piochi, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.
New major and trace element analyses and Sr-isotope determinations of rocks from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano produced from 25 ky BP to 1944 AD are part of an extensive database documenting the geochemical evolution of this classic region. Volcanic rocks include silica undersaturated, potassic and ultrapotassic lavas and tephras characterized by variable mineralogy and different crystal abundance, as well as by wide ranges of trace element contents and a wide span of initial Sr-isotopic compositions. Both the degree of undersaturation in silica and the crystal content increase through time, being higher in rocks produced after the eruption at 472 AD (Pollena eruption). Compositional variations have been generally thought to reflect contributions from diverse types of mantle and crust. Magma mixing is commonly invoked as a fundamental process affecting the magmas, in addition to crystal fractionation. Our assessment of geochemical and Sr-isotopic data indicates that compositional variability also reflects the influence of crustal contamination during magma evolution during upward migration to shallow crustal levels and/or by entrapment of crystal mush generated during previous magma storage in the crust. Using a variant of the assimilation fractional crystallization model (Energy Conservation-Assimilation Fractional Crystallization; [Spera and Bohrson, 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes I: General model and energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) formulation. J. Petrol. 999-1018]; [Bohrson, W.A. and Spera, F.J., 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic process II: application of energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) model to magmatic systems. J. Petrol. 1019-1041]) we estimated the contributions from the crust and suggest that contamination by carbonate rocks that underlie the volcano (2 km down to 9-10 km) is a fundamental process controlling magma compositions at Mt. Somma
Muon radiography represents an innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. This method integrates the conventional geophysical techniques and provides an Independent way to estimate the density of the volcano structure and reveal the presence of magma conduits. The experience from the pioneer experiments performed at Mt. Asama, Mt. West Iwate, and Showa-Shinzan (Japan) are very encouraging. Muon radiography could be applied, in principle, at any stratovolcano. Here we focus our attention on Vesuvius and Stromboli (Italy). (author)
Romano, Nunzio; De Falco, Melania; Speranza, Giuseppe; Tarolli, Paolo
Mediterranean environments are characterized by a climatic regime with a strong seasonal variability. More uniform precipitations usually occur during the winter season, whereas short and very intense rainfalls occur during the fall and early spring that, in turn, trigger surface runoff and severe soil erosion phenomena. When this typical seasonality interacts with a territory substantially altered by anthropic actions, conditions can easily arise for environmental imbalances with serious risks for flash floods and landslides. Many of the degradation dynamics recorded during the last decades in western countries are also the result of the socio-economic changes after the II world war which yielded land-use changes with the urban sprawl process and the increase in human settlements of the natural environments. We are also witnessing a change in the perception of the natural environment and the relevant values. This study benefits from the availability of historical maps and rainfall time series to analyze the profound landscape changes occurred during the last century along the hillsides of the Somma-Vesuvio volcano, in the renowned piedmont area located at east of Napoli city. We are specifically interested in the changes and disturbances made to the hydrographic network to evaluate the increasing potential risks for flood and landslides along these hillslopes characterized by the presence of highly vulnerable volcanic soils, the construction of roads, and other negative alterations of the natural overland flow patterns.
This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.
This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.
... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...
Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.
Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the
Mandarano, Michela; Paonita, Antonio; Martelli, Mauro; Viccaro, Marco; Nicotra, Eugenio; Millar, Ian L.
The elemental and isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, and Ar) in olivine- and clinopyroxene-hosted fluid inclusions have been measured for rocks at various degrees of evolution and belonging to high-K calcalkaline-shoshonitic and shoshonitic-potassic series in order to cover the entire volcanological history of Vulcano Island (Italy). The major- and trace-element concentrations and the Sr- and Pb-isotope compositions for whole rocks were integrated with data obtained from the fluid inclusions. 3He/4He in fluid inclusions is within the range of 3.30 and 5.94 R/Ra, being lower than the theoretical value for the deep magmatic source expected for Vulcano Island (6.0-6.2 R/Ra). 3He/4He of the magmatic source is almost constant throughout the volcanic history of Vulcano. Integration of the He- and Sr-isotope systematics leads to the conclusion that a decrease in the He-isotope ratio of the rocks is mainly due to the assimilation of 10-25% of a crustal component similar to the Calabrian basement. 3He/4He shows a negative correlation with Sr isotopes except for the last-erupted Vulcanello latites (Punta del Roveto), which have anomalously high He isotope ratios. This anomaly has been attributed to a flushing process by fluids coming from the deepest reservoirs, since an input of deep magmatic volatiles with high 3He/4He values increases the He-isotope ratio without changing 87Sr/86Sr. A comparison of the He-isotope ratios between fluid inclusions and fumarolic gases shows that only the basalts of La Sommata and the latites of Vulcanello have comparable values. Taking into account that the latites of Vulcanello relate to one of the most-recent eruptions at Vulcano (in the 17th century), we infer that the most probable magma which actually feeds the fumarolic emissions is a latitic body that ponded at about 3-3.5 km of depth and is flushed by fluids coming from a deeper and basic magma.
Borgia, A.; Delaney, P.T.; Denlinger, R.P.
As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.
Piochi, Monica; Mormone, Angela; Balassone, Giuseppina; Strauss, Harald; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe
We investigated sulfur-bearing minerals from the Campi Flegrei caldera, southern Italy, in relation to the increase of hydrothermal activity phenomena since 2006, aimed at providing insights into the volcanic system dynamics. Mineral encrustations and muds were sampled between 2013 and 2015 at the long-standing degassing crater of the Solfatara tuff cone and its recently restless north-eastern Pisciarelli slope. Deep-seated sulfides were further separated from two drill cores (AGIP's Mofete boreholes: 1500 m and 2695 m depth). The mineral assemblage and texture of sampled encrustations were determined by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis by energy dispersive spectrometry. Native sulfur and alunite dominate among the newly formed mineral phases. Other minerals are mostly alunogen, and locally pickeringite, potassium alum, hematite and pyrite. Mereiterite and amarillite sporadically occur. The mud pools are rich in gypsum, potassium alum and pyrite. Quartz and argillic phases, locally with analcime, are dispersed in the outcropping rocks. δ34S values were determined for shallow subsurface native sulfur (- 5.5 to 0.0‰) and alunite (- 1.7 to - 0.2‰), as well as for the deep-seated pyrite (3.3 to 7.4‰ in the depth range:1500-2695 m). δ18O values were measured for shallow native alunite (4.2 to 7.0‰). Pisciarelli alunite was finally analyzed for its 87Sr/86Sr ratio and 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.707517 ± 6 and 0.512459 ± 6, respectively). Textural and isotopic data constrain the genesis of alunite at the expense of K-feldspars through rock alteration by hydrothermal fluids. We suggest that the caldera is a low-sulfidation system hosting acid-sulfate deposits in its active degassing area. The acid-sulfate environment developed on an argillitic facies that thins outwards and is characteristic for steam-heated and magmatic-steam environments. These environments developed in relation to the fractured settings that
Scandone, Roberto; Bartolini, Stefania; Martí, Joan
We propose a simple volcanic risk coefficient (VRC) useful for comparing the degree of risk arising from different volcanoes, which may be used by civil protection agencies and volcano observatories to rapidly allocate limited resources even without a detailed knowledge of each volcano. Volcanic risk coefficient is given by the sum of the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of the maximum expected eruption from the volcano, the logarithm of the eruption rate, and the logarithm of the population that may be affected by the maximum expected eruption. We show how to apply the method to rank the risk using as examples the volcanoes of Italy and in the Canary Islands. Moreover, we demonstrate that the maximum theoretical volcanic risk coefficient is 17 and pertains to the large caldera-forming volcanoes like Toba or Yellowstone that may affect the life of the entire planet. We develop also a simple plugin for a dedicated Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) software to graphically display the VRC of different volcanoes in a region.
Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA
Guliyev, I. S.
Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption
This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team
Wiersberg, T.; Somma, R.; Rocco, A.; de Rosa, M.; Zimmer, M.; Quattrocchi, F.; de Natale, G.; de Natale, P.
From November 29th to December 1st 2006, a gas monitoring experiment was carried out at the Solfatara volcano (Pozzuoli, Italy). The primary objectives were to prove that monitoring is possible with the experimental set-up described below, and to compare the new data obtained with those from earlier continuos gas monitoring carried out in November 2001. Temperature measurements and gas extraction were done at the fumarole "Soffionissimo" very close to the "Bocca Grande". The temperature measurements were performed with a temperature probe (K-type thermocouple), which was let about 30 cm into the fumarole. For better comparison of temperature and gas data, the gas tube was directly connected with the temperature probe. After having adjusted a continuous gas flow with a diaphragm pump and a needle valve, the gas was piped through a 10 m Teflon© tube for more than 40 hours. The gas phase primary consists of water gas, which was condensed in a trap, installed in a refrigerator. The amount of water in the trap was determined regulary every 3-4 hours. At the beginning of the monitoring experiment, the Teflon© tube was heated in order to avoid condensation of the water in the tube before getting trapped. Although the tube was not heated for the whole time of the experiment, it turns out that the amount of water, condensed in the water trap per hour, and does not significantly change when the tube was not heated. Hence, the amount of water, condensing in the tube before getting trapped, seems negligible. The remaining, almost water-free gas phase was finally dried over Fe wool in a filter, and then continuously analysed with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (Balzers Omnistar ©) for the following components: H2, H2S, CH4, N2, O2, Ar, He, and CO2. To make sure that the final drying process does not influence the gas composition in particular for H2 and H2S, a comparison measurement was done without the filter, which only revealed somewhat higher water content. During the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication....
Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael
Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These
The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid. The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...
Del Pezzo, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; La Rocca, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Galluzzo, D.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Petrosino, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Cusano, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Bianco, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Breton, M.; Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colima – Università di Colima (Mexico); Orozco-Rojas, J.; Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colima – Università di Colima, (Mexico); Ibanez, J.; Instituto Andaluz de Geofisica - Universidad de Granada (Spain); Veneruso, M.; Centro Regionale di Competenza “Analisi e Monitoraggio del Rischio Ambientale” (AMRA)
In the period 2-6 April 2007 a seismic survey was carried out at Solfatara Volcano, (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) with the aim of inferring the shallow structure and evaluating local site effects. Five circular seismic arrays equipped with 1-Hz 3-component Mark LE3Dlite sensors, were installed in the Solfatara crater. Each array consisted of 4 sensors, 3 of them evenly spaced (120°) around the circumference and the fourth placed at its center. The arrays were designed with radii of 5, 10...
Deegan, F. M.; Uppsala University; Troll, V. R.; Uppsala University; Freda, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Misiti, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Chadwick, J.; Vrije Universiteit
Volcanoes located over carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks often emit large volumes of CO2 and have strong records of explosive activity. Examples include Vesuvius and the Colli Albani volcanic field in Italy; Popocatepetl in Mexico; and Merapi in Indonesia, all of which display petrological and/or gas-chemical evidence for magma-carbonate interaction. Merapi is one of the most active volcanoes in Java (Fig. 1), and represents a serious hazard by being located less than ...
Giudicepietro, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; D’Auria, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Scarpato, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Peluso, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Orazi, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Ricciolino, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; De Cesare, W.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Lo Bascio, D.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Esposito, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Borriello, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Capello, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Caputo, A.; Buonocunto, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Vilardo, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Martini, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia
Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy) is one of the volcanoes with the greatest risk in the World because of its highly explosive eruptive style and its proximity to densely populated areas. The urbanization around Mt. Vesuvius began in ancient times and the impact of eruptions on human activities has been very hard...
On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
Eruption patterns of parasitic volcanoes are discussed in order to study their correlation to the activities of their parental polygenetic volcanoes. The distribution density of parasitic vents on polygenetic volcanoes is diversified, probably corresponding to the age and structure of parental volcanoes. Describing existing parasitic cones contextually in relation to parental volcanoes is as indispensable as collecting observational data of their actual formations. In the present paper, spati...
RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi
The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.
Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.
Most volcanic eruptions that occur shortly after a large distant earthquake do so by random chance. A few compelling cases for earthquake-triggered eruptions exist, particularly within 200 km of the earthquake, but this phenomenon is rare in part because volcanoes must be poised to erupt in order to be triggered by an earthquake (1). Large earthquakes often perturb volcanoes in more subtle ways by triggering small earthquakes and changes in spring discharge and groundwater levels (1, 2). On page 80 of this issue, Brenguier et al. (3) provide fresh insight into the interaction of large earthquakes and volcanoes by documenting a temporary change in seismic velocity beneath volcanoes in Honshu, Japan, after the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Holocene volcanoes, which are those thought to be active in the last 10,000 years, that are within an extended area of the northern...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....
Marti, Edited By Joan; Ernst, Gerald G. J.
Volcanoes and the Environment is a comprehensive and accessible text incorporating contributions from some of the world's authorities in volcanology. This book is an indispensable guide for those interested in how volcanism affects our planet's environment. It spans a wide variety of topics from geology to climatology and ecology; it also considers the economic and social impacts of volcanic activity on humans. Topics covered include how volcanoes shape the environment, their effect on the geological cycle, atmosphere and climate, impacts on health of living on active volcanoes, volcanism and early life, effects of eruptions on plant and animal life, large eruptions and mass extinctions, and the impact of volcanic disasters on the economy. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in environmental change from the fields of earth and environmental science, geography, ecology and social science. It will also interest policy makers and professionals working on natural hazards. An all-inclusive text that goes beyond the geological working of volcanoes to consider their environmental and sociological impacts Each chapter is written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject Accessible to students and researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds
The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “W
Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun
The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various
As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts
going to be, when we know the record of specific earthquakes and the routes they have followed towards the East. For example, to foresee an earthquake in the Mediterranean region, we take starting point earthquakes to Latin America (0°-40°).The aforementioned elements will reach Italy in an average time period of 49 days and Greece in 53 days. The most reliable preceding phenomenon to determine the epicenter of an earthquake is the rise of the crust's temperature at the area where a large quantity of elements is concentrated, among other phenomena that can be detected either by instruments or by our senses. When there is an active volcano along the route between the area where the "starting-point" earthquake occurred and the area where we expect the same elements to cause a new earthquake, it is possible these elements will escape through the volcano's crater, carrying lava with them. We could contribute to that end, nullifying earthquakes that might be triggered by these elements further to the east, by using manmade resources, like adequate quantities of explosives at the right moment.
going to be, when we know the record of specific earthquakes and the routes they have followed towards the East. For example, to foresee an earthquake in the Mediterranean region, we take starting point earthquakes to Latin America (0°-40°).The aforementioned elements will reach Italy in an average time period of 49 days and Greece in 53 days. The most reliable preceding phenomenon to determine the epicenter of an earthquake is the rise of the crust's temperature at the area where a large quantity of elements is concentrated, among other phenomena that can be detected either by instruments or by our senses. When there is an active volcano along the route between the area where the "starting-point" earthquake occurred and the area where we expect the same elements to cause a new earthquake, it is possible these elements will escape through the volcano's crater, carrying lava with them. We could contribute to that end, nullifying earthquakes that might be triggered by these elements further to the east, by using manmade resources, like adequate quantities of explosives at the right moment.
Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.
Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.
Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.
Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.
In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the
Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.
), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10
Toon, O. B.
The evidence that volcanic eruptions affect climate is reviewed. Single explosive volcanic eruptions cool the surface by about 0.3 C and warm the stratosphere by several degrees. Although these changes are of small magnitude, there have been several years in which these hemispheric average temperature changes were accompanied by severely abnormal weather. An example is 1816, the "year without summer" which followed the 1815 eruption of Tambora. In addition to statistical correlations between volcanoes and climate, a good theoretical understanding exists. The magnitude of the climatic changes anticipated following volcanic explosions agrees well with the observations. Volcanoes affect climate because volcanic particles in the atmosphere upset the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and infrared energy emitted by the Earth. These interactions can be observed. The most important ejecta from volcanoes is not volcanic ash but sulfur dioxide which converts into sulfuric acid droplets in the stratosphere. For an eruption with its explosive magnitude, Mount St. Helens injected surprisingly little sulfur into the stratosphere. The amount of sulfuric acid formed is much smaller than that observed following significant eruptions and is too small to create major climatic shifts. However, the Mount St. Helens eruption has provided an opportunity to measure many properties of volcanic debris not previously measured and has therefore been of significant value in improving our knowledge of the relations between volcanic activity and climate.
Isogeny volcanoes are graphs whose vertices are elliptic curves and whose edges are $\\ell$-isogenies. Algorithms allowing to travel on these graphs were developed by Kohel in his thesis (1996) and later on, by Fouquet and Morain (2001). However, up to now, no method was known, to predict, before taking a step on the volcano, the direction of this step. Hence, in Kohel's and Fouquet-Morain algorithms, many steps are taken before choosing the right direction. In particular, ascending or horizontal isogenies are usually found using a trial-and-error approach. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that efficiently finds all points $P$ of order $\\ell$ such that the subgroup generated by $P$ is the kernel of an horizontal or an ascending isogeny. In many cases, our method is faster than previous methods. This is an extended version of a paper published in the proceedings of ANTS 2010. In addition, we treat the case of 2-isogeny volcanoes and we derive from the group structure of the curve and the pairing ...
European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).
This document on vocational training in Italy contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of Italy. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in Italy, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…
The island of Java (8.0S, 112.0E), perhaps better than any other, illustrates the volcanic origin of Pacific Island groups. Seen in this single view are at least a dozen once active volcano craters. Alignment of the craters even defines the linear fault line of Java as well as the other some 1500 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago. Deep blue water of the Indian Ocean to the south contrasts to the sediment laden waters of the Java Sea to the north.
C. Bakels; J. Sevink; W. Kuijper; H. Kamermans
In recent years it was discovered that the Middle to Late Holocene infi ll of the Agro Pontino graben (Central Italy) held a tephra layer originating from the Avellino eruption of the Vesuvius volcano. The eruption is dated to 1995 ± 10 calBC and took therefore place during the Early Bronze Age. Thi
New mechanism of imbalance between magma column and fluid volume, accumulated in the magmatic system, is considered as a driving force of the volcanic eruption. Conditions of eruption based on this mechanism are used to explain main features of the volcanic activity (eruptive cycles and paroxysms) of the volcanoes Etna and Stromboli (Italy).
LIU Guo-ming; ZHANG Heng-rong; KONG Qing-jun; WU Cheng-zhi; GUO Feng; ZHANG Chao-fan
Tianchi Volcano is the largest potential erupticve volcano in China. Analyzing these data on seismic monitoring, deformation observation and water chemistry investigation gained from the Tianchi Volcano Observatory (TVO), the authors consider that the Tianchi Volcano is in going into a new flourishing time.
well as, system hardening backup centers. Moreover, Antelope, as typical middleware, allows the scientist and software developer to focus on the specific purpose of their application by providing well defined input/output interfaces. This will spur the development of original and inventive real-time processing schemes in the realm of volcano monitoring. Whatever the underlying data and information engine is, it is only as good as the frontend. Such a frontend has to accommodate the dual purpose of putting data and information in a form that is conducive for scientist and the emergency responder. Current projects in Italy and Abu Dhabi with multiple display centers gave us insights into how difficult it is to develop a multipurpose situation room. Currently, we are experimenting with sophisticated emergency management software that ties strong-motion measurement, structural behavior, and loss estimation to a situation-driven response plan. Although different in content and timeline, this can be adapted for developing volcano eruptions. A final word on remote sensing data, e.g. infrared imaging from an airplane: If the data can be streamed, there is a way to time tag them and include them in the broader real-time process. At least, batch processing should be considered in order to improve the overall information status pre- or post-event.
Carbone, Daniele; Greco, Filippo
Continuous gravity measurements at active volcanoes are usually taken through spring gravimeters that are easily portable and do not require much power to work. However, intrinsic limitations dictate that, when used in continuous, these instruments do not provide high-quality data over periods longer than some days. Superconducting gravimeters (SG), that feature a superconducting sphere in a magnetic field as the proof mass, provide better-quality data than spring gravimeters, but are bigger and need mains electricity to work, implying that they cannot be installed close to the active structures of high volcanoes. An iGrav SG was installed on Mt. Etna (Italy) in September 2014 and has worked almost continuously since then. It was installed about 6km from the active craters in the summit zone of the volcano. Such distance is normally too much to observe gravity changes due to relatively fast (minutes to days) volcanic processes. Indeed, mass redistributions in the shallowest part of the plumbing system induce short-wavelength gravity anomalies, centered below the summit craters. Nevertheless, thanks to the high precision and long-term stability of SGs, it was possible to observe low-amplitude changes over a wide range of timescales (minutes to months), likely driven by volcanic activity. Plans are in place for the implementation of a mini-array of SGs at Etna.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides a subscription service to receive an email when changes occur in the activity levels for monitored U.S. volcanoes and/or when information releases...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or...
T. M. Manevich
Full Text Available The paper presents main glaciological characteristics of present-day glaciers located on the Koryaksky volcano. The results of fieldwork (2008–2009 and high-resolution satellite image analysis let us to specify and complete information on modern glacial complex of Koryaksky volcano. Now there are seven glaciers with total area 8.36 km2. Three of them advance, two are in stationary state and one degrades. Moreover, the paper describes the new crater glacier.
Neri, Marco; Neri, Emilia
Volcanoes have always fascinated people for the wild beauty of their landscapes and also for the fear that they arouse with their eruptive actions, sometimes simply spectacular, but other times terrifying and catastrophic for human activities. In the past, volcanoes were sometimes imagined as a metaphysical gateway to the otherworld; they have inspired the creation of myths and legends ever since three thousand years ago, also represented by paintings of great artistic impact. Modern technology today offers very sophisticated and readily accessed digital tools, and volcanoes continue to be frequently photographed and highly appreciated natural phenomena. Moreover, in recent years, the spread of social networks (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, etc.) have made the widespread dissemination of graphic contributions even easier. The result is that very active and densely inhabited volcanoes such as Etna, Vesuvius and Aeolian Islands, in Italy, have become among the most photographed subjects in the world, providing a popular science tool with formidable influence and usefulness. The beauty of these landscapes have inspired both professional artists and photographers, as well as amateurs, who compete in the social networks for the publication of the most spectacular, artistic or simply most informative images. The end result of this often frantic popular scientific activity is at least two-fold: on one hand, it provides geoscientists and science communicators a quantity of documentation that is almost impossible to acquire through the normal systems of volcano monitoring, while on the other it raises awareness and respect for the land among the civil community.
Llurba Ruiz, Mateu
Villarrica Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in south-central Chile. There are many hazards related to the volcano, but its main hazard for humans through Villarrica’s history have been the lahars. Since the arrival of the Spanish colonists (1550) to the towns beside the volcano, it have been reported hundreds to thousands of casualties and the towns were repeatedly destroyed by lahars. From the necessity to understand its behaviour for future events and reconstr...
The search for a single explanation for global mass extinctions has let to polarization and the controversies that are often fueled by widespread media attention. The historic record shows a roughly linear log-log relation between the frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions and the volume of their products. Eruptions such as Mt. St. Helens 1980 produce on the order of 1 cu km of tephra, destroying life over areas in the 10 to 100 sq km range, and take place, on the average, once or twice a decade. Eruptions producing 10 cu km take place several times a century and, like Krakatau 1883, destroy life over 100 to 1000 sq km areas while producing clear global atmospheric effects. Eruptions producting 10,000 cu km are known from the Quaternary record, and extrapolation from the historic record suggests that they occur perhaps once in 20,000 years, but none has occurred in historic time and little is known of their biologic effects. Even larger eruptions must also exist in the geologic record, but documentation of their volume becomes increasingly difficult as their age increases. The conclusion is inescapable that prehistoric eruptions have produced catastrophes on a global scale: only the magnitude of the associated mortality is in question. Differentiation of large magma chambers is on a time scale of thousands to millions of years, and explosive volcanoes are clearly concentrated in narrow belts near converging plate margins. Volcanism cannot be dismissed as a producer of global catastrophes. Its role in major extinctions is likely to be at least contributory and may well be large. More attention should be paid to global effects of the many huge eruptions in the geologic record that dwarf those known in historic time.
The field geothermal Volcano Azufral is located to 60 km of Pasto City. It discharges waters chlorine-bicarbonates, diluted and of neuter pH. The riolitics of low k20, andesites, dacites as well as lava flows, hydro volcanic deposits due to events volcanic past and the influence of calcium like main component in the layer stamp are the main ones characteristic geologic of the volcanic area of Azufral. The layer stamp heats waters of the underground and it reacts until producing bicarbonates waters, more common type in the region. Glasses of sulfur toward the crater of the volcano are presented close to a sour lagoon. Thermal activity has been detected toward the southwest of the volcano with an area of covering of 1.47 there are, approximately. Changes in the last 14 years were determined by comparison of last chemical analysis with those obtained by INEA in 1996
Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate
Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)
Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.
Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.
Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper presents Italyâ€™s economic growth through innovation and reforms. It highlights that Italyâ€™s future competitiveness depends on the institutional and macroeconomic conditions that allow productive firms to innovate, expand, and attract inward foreign direct investment (FDI) that in turn will require the successful implementation of the authoritiesâ€™ full structural- and institutional-reform agenda. The IMF report focuses on the enforcement of civil and commercial...
Reforming bankruptcy laws is difficult for many reasons. First of all, attitudes in Italy toward bankruptcy make it a difficult subject to generate support for. Secondly, bankruptcy reforms are complex and lengthy. They require changes not only to the bankruptcy law but also to other important parts of the legal framework, such as the codes of civil procedures and, in the case of Italy, the ...
Nostro, C.; Freda, L.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Baroux, E.
The Educational & Outreach Group (EOG) of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica & Vulcanologia created a portable museum to provide educational opportunities in volcanology, volcanic risk and Earth science for students and visitors. The EOG developed this project for the "Festival della Scienza", organized in Genoa, Italy, in October - November, 2007, which was a parade of over 200 events, including scientific and technological exhibitions, workshops, meetings, lectures, books and video presentations. In this museum visitors can successively see many posters and movies and play with interactive exhibits. A little 3D-movie shows the Big Bang, the formation of Solar System and, in particular the formation of the Earth. Many interactive exhibits illustrate why, where and when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur around the world and allow to introduce the visitor to the plate tectonics theory. A 3D magnetic plate tectonic puzzle can be put down and reconstructed by visitors to understand the Earth's surface configuration. Then two other 3D Earth models show what drives the plates and the inner Earth structure. An interactive program illustrates where and when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in accelerated time on maps of various areas around the world. Playing with a block diagram it is possible to produce an earthquake along a 1 meter long strike slip fault in a destroying all the man-made constructions close to it. A little movie introduces to volcanoes' world. Two small interactive exhibits allow visitors to understand the mechanism for the explosive and the effusive eruptions. Two other exciting interactive exhibits allow visitors to "create" two different eruptions: the explosive and the effusive ones. It is possible to get inside a volcano (a 2 meter high interactive exhibit) to attend an eruption from the magmatic chamber to the Earth surface. A big hall is completed dedicated to Italian volcanoes (Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano
Melis, M. T.; F. Mundula; DessÌ, F.; Cioni, R; Funedda, A.
Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene–Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices...
The central Mediterranean area comprises some of the most active volcanoes of the northern hemisphere. Some of their names recall myths or events in human history: Somma-Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano, Ischia and Campi Flegrei. These volcanoes are still active today, and produce both effusive and explosive eruptions. In particular, explosive eruptions can produce and disperse large amount of volcanic ash, which pose a threat to environment, economy and human health over a large part of the Mediterranean area. We present and discuss data of ash dispersal from some explosive eruptions of southern Italy volcanoes, which dispersed centimetre -thick ash blankets hundred of kilometres from the source, irrespective of the more limited dispersal of the respective coarse grained fallout and PDC deposits. The collected data also highlight the major role played by lower atmosphere winds in dispersal of ash from weak plumes and ash clouds that accompany PDC emplacement.
Capuano, P.; de Matteis, R.; Russo, G.
The Campania (Italy) coasts are characterized by the presence of several volcanoes. The island of Ischia, located at the northwestern end of the Gulf of Naples, belongs to the Neapolitan Volcanic District together with Phlegrean Fields and Vesuvius, having all these Pleistocene volcanoes erupted in historical times, and it is characterized by diffuse hydrothermal phenomena The island represents the emergent part of a more extensive volcanic area developed mainly westward of the island, with underwater volcanoes aligned along regional fault patterns. The activity of Ischia volcano is testified by the occurrence of eruptions in historical times, the presence of intense hydrothermal phenomena, and by seismic activity (e.g. the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake). Ischia is populated by about 50,000 inhabitants increasing, mainly in the summer, due to thriving tourism business, partially due to its active volcanic state. Hazard assessment at active, densely populated volcanoes is critically based on knowledge of the volcanoes past behavior and the definition of its present state. As a contribution to the definition of the present state of the Ischia island volcano, we obtain a model of the shallow crust using geophysical observables through seismic tomography and 3D gravity inversion. In particular we use travel times collected during the Serapis experiment on the island and its surroundings and free air anomaly. A new 3D gravity inversion procedure has been developed to take better into account the shape and the effects of topography approximating it by a triangular mesh. Below each triangle, a sequence of triangular prisms is built, the uppermost prism having the upper face coincident with the triangle following the topography. The inversion is performed searching for a regularized solution using the minimum norm stabilizer. The main results inferable from the 3D seismic and gravity images are the definition of the caldera rims hypothesize by many authors along the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...
Giovanetti, Gabriele; Monna, Stephen; Lo Bue, Nadia; Embriaco, Davide; Frugoni, Francesco; Marinaro, Giuditta; De Caro, Mariagrazia; Sgroi, Tiziana; Montuori, Caterina; De Santis, Angelo; Cianchini, Gianfranco; Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura
Many volcanoes on Earth are located within or near the oceans and observations from the seafloor can be very important for a more complete understanding of the structure and nature of these volcanoes. We present some results obtained from data acquired in volcanic sites in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Data were taken by means of stand-alone free-fall systems, and fixed-point ocean observatories, both cabled and autonomous, some of which are part of the European research infrastructure EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, www.emso-eu.org). EMSO observatories strongly rely on a multidisciplinary approach, in spite of the many technical challenges that the operation of very different sensors by means of a single acquisition system presents. We focus on three volcanic sites near the coasts of Italy (Marsili seamount, Stromboli Island and Etna Volcano) involved in subduction processes and to the opening of the Central Mediterranean basin. Through multidisciplinary analysis we were able to associate geophysical and oceanographic signals to a common volcanic source in a more reliable way with respect to single sensor analysis, showing the potential of long-term seafloor monitoring in unravelling otherwise still obscure aspects of such volcanoes. The very strong expansion of seafloor monitoring, which is taking place both in the quantity of the infrastructures and in the technological capabilities, suggests that there will be important developments in the near future.
EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 email@example.com The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).
Brenguier, Florent; Clarke, Daniel; Aoki, Yosuke; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Campillo, Michel; Ferrazzini, Valérie
In this article, we summarize some recent results of measurements of temporal changes of active volcanoes using seismic noise cross-correlations. We first present a novel approach to estimate volcano interior temporal seismic velocity changes. The proposed method allows to measure very small velocity changes (≈ 0.1%) with a time resolution as small as one day. The application of that method to Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (La Réunion Island) shows velocity decreases preceding eruptions. More...
Merapi volcano, located in Central Java, is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. 2 million people are living in its immediate neighborhood. Therefore Merapi was selected within the International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) of UNESCO as one of 15 so called high risk volcanoes in the world. National and International research groups from Indonesia, France, Netherlands, Japan, USA and Germany are working on Merapi. Different methods are applied on Merapi to study the v...
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.
Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona
This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…
Ferroglio, Ezio; Maroli, Michele; Gastaldo, Silvia; Mignone, Walter; Rossi, Luca
We report the results of a survey to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis and the presence of sand flies in northwestern Italy, where autochthonous foci of canine leishmaniasis have not been reported. Active foci of canine leishmaniasis were identified, which suggests that the disease is now also endemic in continental climate areas.
Cinelli Colombini D
Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy
Pritchard, M. E.; Jay, J.; Andrews, B. J.; Cooper, J.; Henderson, S. T.; Delgado, F.; Biggs, J.; Ebmeier, S. K.
Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has greatly expanded the number volcanoes that can be monitored for ground deformation - the number of known deforming volcanoes has increased almost five-fold since 1997 (to more than 213 volcanoes in 2014). However, from 1992-2014, there are still gaps in global volcano surveillance and only a fraction of the 1400 subaerial Holocene volcanoes have frequent observations in this time period. Starting in 2014, near global observations of volcano deformation should begin with the Sentinel satellites from the European Space Agency, ALOS-2 from the Japanese Space Agency, and eventually NISAR from the Indian Space Agency and NASA. With more frequent observations, more volcano deformation episodes are sure to be observed, but evaluating the significance of the observed deformation is not always straightforward -- how can we determine if deformation will lead to eruption? To answer this question, an international task force has been formed to create an inventory of volcano deformation events as part of the Global Volcano Model (http://globalvolcanomodel.org/gvm-task-forces/volcano-deformation-database/). We present the first results from our global study focusing on volcanoes that have few or no previous studies. In some cases, there is a lack of SAR data (for example, volcanoes of the South Sandwich Islands). For others, observations either show an absence of deformation or possible deformation that requires more data to be verified. An example of a deforming volcano that has few past studies is Pagan, an island in the Marianas Arc comprised of 2 stratovolcanoes within calderas. Our new InSAR measurements from both the ALOS and Envisat satellites show deformation near the 1981 May VEI 4 lava flow eruption on North Pagan at 2-3 cm/year between 2004-2010. Another example of a newly observed volcano is Karthala volcano in the Comoros. InSAR observations between 2004-2010 span four eruptions, only one of which is
ZHANG Xuexia; BO Liqun; LU Xingchang
Volcano eruption is one of the most serious geological disasters in the world. There are volcanoes in every territory on the earth, about a thousand in China, among which Changbai Mountain Volcano, Wudalianchi Volcano and Tengchong Volcano are the most latent catastrophic eruptive active volcanoes. The paper, following an instance of Changbai Mountain Volcano, expounds that monitoring, forecasting and estimating volcano disaster by building Volcano Disaster Information System (VDIS) is feasible to alleviate volcano disaster.
Venzke, E.; Siebert, L.; Luhr, J. F.
Interactive global satellite imagery datasets such as hosted by Google Earth provide a dynamic platform for educational outreach in the Earth Sciences. Users with widely varied backgrounds can easily view geologic features on a global-to-local scale, giving access to educational background on individual geologic features or events such as volcanoes and earthquakes. The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) volcano data became available as a Google Earth layer on 11 June 2006. Locations for about 1550 volcanoes with known or possible Holocene activity are shown as red triangles with associated volcano names that appear when zooming in to a regional-scale view. Clicking on a triangle opens an informational balloon that displays a photo, geographic data, and a brief paragraph summarizing the volcano's geologic history. The balloon contains links to a larger version of the photo with credits and a caption and to more detailed information on the volcano, including eruption chronologies, from the GVP website. Links to USGS and international volcano observatories or other websites focusing on regional volcanoes are also provided, giving the user ready access to a broad spectrum of volcano data. Updates to the GVP volcano layer will be provided to Google Earth. A downloadable file with the volcanoes organized regionally is also available directly from the GVP website (www.volcano.si.edu) and provides the most current volcano data set. Limitations of the implied accuracy of spacially plotted data at high zoom levels are also apparent using platforms such as Google Earth. Real and apparent mismatches between plotted locations and the summits of some volcanoes seen in Google Earth satellite imagery occur for reasons including data precision (deg/min vs. deg/min/sec) and the GVP convention of plotting the center-point of large volcanic fields, which often do not correspond to specific volcanic vents. A more fundamental problem originates from the fact that
Seventeen volcanic rocks of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano, in southwest Japan, were dated by the K-Ar method to clarify the age of volcanic activity in this region and the evolution of these composite volcanoes. The eruption ages of the Hiruzen volcano group were revealed to be about 0.9 Ma to 0.5 Ma, those of the Daisen volcano to be about 1 Ma to very recent. These results are consistent with geological and paleomagnetic data of previous workers. Effusion of lavas in the area was especially vigorous at 0.5+-0.1 Ma. It was generally considered that the Hiruzen volcano group had erupted during latest Pliocene to early Quaternary and it is older than the Daisen volcano, mainly from their topographic features. However, their overlapping eruption ages and petrographical similarities of the lavas of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano suggest that they may be included in the Daisen volcano in a broad sense. The aphyric andesite, whose eruption age had been correlated to Wakurayama andesite (6.34+-0.19 Ma) in Matsue city and thought to be the basement of the Daisen volcano, was dated to be 0.46+-0.04 Ma. It indicates that petrographically similar aphyric andesite erupted sporadically at different time and space in the San'in district. (author)
Apolone, G; Melotti, R; Repetto, F; Iapichino, G
Through prepaid compulsory insurance managed by the central government, Italy's National Health Service (NHS) provides full coverage, free accessibility, and no or limited copayment by individuals when receiving health services. Although Italy spends less than other countries on health care (product), the present NHS faces considerable difficulties, and its performance regarding quality, outcome, and spending has come under question. ICUs account for mix, and outcomes when compared with data from other countries. Important changes in the financial and institutional framework of the NHS are underway, yielding an unpredictable scenario for the future. Innovations focus mostly on cost containment and quality initiatives. These innovations will likely produce a new health service in which regions will have a more important role than in the past. Actions planned in a large Italian region by the local government are used as an example to explain the potential impact of this new trend on critical care medicine. PMID:8087596
Grasso, J R
Volcano eruption forecast remains a challenging and controversial problem despite the fact that data from volcano monitoring significantly increased in quantity and quality during the last decades.This study uses pattern recognition techniques to quantify the predictability of the 15 Piton de la Fournaise (PdlF) eruptions in the 1988-2001 period using increase of the daily seismicity rate as a precursor. Lead time of this prediction is a few days to weeks. Using the daily seismicity rate, we formulate a simple prediction rule, use it for retrospective prediction of the 15 eruptions,and test the prediction quality with error diagrams. The best prediction performance corresponds to averaging the daily seismicity rate over 5 days and issuing a prediction alarm for 5 days. 65% of the eruptions are predicted for an alarm duration less than 20% of the time considered. Even though this result is concomitant of a large number of false alarms, it is obtained with a crude counting of daily events that are available fro...
Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Italy.
Olga Rymkevitch; Claudia Villosio
The Framework Directive on Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation (2000/78/EC) included age as one of its prohibited grounds of discrimination. Member States were required to transpose this Directive by December 2003. In Italy age discrimination was explicitly regulated by means of Legislative Decree no. 216, 9 July 2003. The Decree introduced the new specific prohibition of discrimination, defining its application, exceptions and remedies. The purpose of this paper is to explore, in a ...
Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria
This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793
Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.
From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in
Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation
Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F
This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The
... severe respiratory illnesses. Volcanic ash also can damage machinery, including engines and electrical equipment. Ash accumulations mixed with water become heavy and can collapse roofs. Volcanic ash can affect ...
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[eng] The thesis “Fiscal forecasting in Italy” is comprised of three main chapters in which is analyzed, from an empirical point of view, several issues related to public finance forecasts, with an application to Italy. Chapter II, “Accuracy of fiscal forecasts in Italy” is focused on one of the most important aspects of the new Treaty: it requires that the decisions and recommendations taken by the European Commission are no longer be based on outcomes but on forecasts. In this chapter, I e...
Hill, L.; Harney, T.
Over time, active volcanoes have captured human fascination, not only because of their strange and dramatic beauty, but also because of their power to destroy. Two active U.S volcanoes-one on the Big Island of Hawaii, the other part of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest-will be the focus of "Inside Active Volcanoes: Kilauea and Mount St. Helens." This major exhibit opened July 6 in the Evans Gallery of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural history in Washington, D.C, and continued through September 24.
Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.
Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.
Balkanski, Yves; Menut, Laurent; Jourdain, Sylvie; Garnier, Emmanuel; Eschstruth, Celia; Vrac, Matthieu; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal
Simulation of the Laki volcanoe based upon analogs of winds We used daily surface pressure measurements from 1783 over Europe to reconstruct a year of 3D wind fields based upon the closest analog found in the 6-hourly fields from the ECMWF ERAI re-analysis from 1979 to 2013. These fields are then used to nudge the LMDZORINCA global model with a full chemical scheme and a horizontal resolution of 1.29°x0.94° with 39 vertical layers to simulate the emissions of SO2 from the volcano emitting over several months from June to August 1783. Fields of SO2 and H2SO4 were analyzed over the whole year of 1783. We inject 81 Tg (S) over the period. In France, the Royal society of medicine (Société royale de médecine) had developed for the first time a network of persons that observed both climatic variables and morbidity. The network is composed of 150 contributors over France, and has a more scattered coverage for Italy, Austria, Germany the United States and Madagascar. The measurements reported three times a day include: temperature, air pressure, air humidity wind direction and a description of the sky. Within the CHEDAR (Climate and Health Data Rescue and Modelling) project an archive of daily observations of fogs over French meteorological stations was created and registers of deaths in main cities were compiled. These data indicate that increased mortality occurred from June to September 1783 immediately following the Laki eruption when compared to the average mortality over the period from 1774 to 1789. We quantified this increase over 23 cities in France. We provide a comparison of SO2 surface concentrations and draw the following conclusions: - The days when the first manifestations of the volcano are reported over Western and Northern Europe are extremely well captured by the construction of analogs of winds for 1783. - The sharp increase and the days of heavy fogs are correlated with decreases in visibility due to the advection of sulfur from the volcanic cloud
Keyson, L.; West, M. E.
Uturuncu, located in southern Bolivia near the Chile and Argentina border, is a dacitic volcano that was last active 270 ka. It is a part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, which spans 50,000 km2 and is comprised of a series of ignimbrite flare-ups since ~23 ma. Two sets of evidence suggest that the region is underlain by a significant magma body. First, seismic velocities show a low velocity layer consistent with a magmatic sill below depths of 15-20 km. This inference is corroborated by high electrical conductivity between 10km and 30km. This magma body, the so called Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is the likely source of volcanic activity in the region. InSAR studies show that during the 1990s, the volcano experienced an average uplift of about 1 to 2 cm per year. The deformation is consistent with an expanding source at depth. Though the Uturuncu region exhibits high rates of crustal seismicity, any connection between the inflation and the seismicity is unclear. We investigate the root causes of these earthquakes using a temporary network of 33 seismic stations - part of the PLUTONS project. Our primary approach is based on hypocenter locations and magnitudes paired with correlation-based relative relocation techniques. We find a strong tendency toward earthquake swarms that cluster in space and time. These swarms often last a few days and consist of numerous earthquakes with similar source mechanisms. Most seismicity occurs in the top 10 kilometers of the crust and is characterized by well-defined phase arrivals and significant high frequency content. The frequency-magnitude relationship of this seismicity demonstrates b-values consistent with tectonic sources. There is a strong clustering of earthquakes around the Uturuncu edifice. Earthquakes elsewhere in the region align in bands striking northwest-southeast consistent with regional stresses.
Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.
Assennato, G; Bisceglia, L
The development of Occupational Epidemiology in Italy is closely correlated with the political and social awareness of the needs of preventive strategies in the workplace. In the late '60s the Trade Unions supported a model of intervention based on the involvement of the so-called "Homogeneous group of workers" in the validation of the preventive measures taken on the workplace. In spite of the shortcomings of the model, it was extremely effective resulting in enhanced perception of the priority of preventive strategies and in the formation within the National Health Service of the Occupational Health Services. In Italy over the period 1973-2002 there has been an impressive trend of research in field of occupational epidemiology (a search on Medline shows an increasing trend over the years and, in terms of international comparison, higher figures than in Germany, France and Spain). Occupational Epidemiology is now present in the activities of the local Occupational Health Services and in the teaching activities of the Medical Schools throughout the country. PMID:14582235
Catalano, Osvaldo; Mineo, Teresa; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni
A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energ...
Full Text Available Results of the ULF geomagnetic monitoring of the volcano Popocatepetl (Mexico and their analysis are summarized and presented for the period 2003–2006. Our analysis reveals some anomalies which are considered to be of local volcanic origin: the EM background in the vicinity of the volcano was found to be significantly noisier than at other reference stations; sporadic strong noise-like geomagnetic activity was observed in the H-component; some geomagnetic pulsations were observed only at the Tlamacas station (located at 4 km near the volcano. The results are discussed in terms of a physical mechanism involving the presence of a second magmatic chamber within the volcano and, finally, further perspective directions to study volcanic geodynamical processes besides the traditional ones are given.
It has been studied volcanic lava from Quimsachata Volcano in Pem. Moessbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electronic and optical microscopy allowed the identification of different mineralogical phases. (A.C.AS.)
Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.
At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.
Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele
Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.
Dvorak, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.
Routine geodetic measurements are made at only a few dozen of the world's 600 or so active volcanoes, even though these measurements have proven to be a reliable precursor of eruptions. The pattern and rate of surface displacement reveal the depth and rate of pressure increase within shallow magma reservoirs. This process has been demonstrated clearly at Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Long Valley caldera, California; Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy; Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea; and Aira caldera and nearby Sakurajima, Japan. Slower and lesser amounts of surface displacement at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming, are attributed to changes in a hydrothermal system that overlies a crustal magma body. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of eruptive fissures, as well as the amount of widening, have been determined at Kilauea, Hawaii; Etna, Italy; Tolbachik, Kamchatka; Krafla, Iceland; and Asal-Ghoubbet, Djibouti, the last a segment of the East Africa Rift Zone. Continuously recording instruments, such as tiltmeters, extensometers, and dilatometers, have recorded horizontal and upward growth of eruptive fissures, which grew at rates of hundreds of meters per hour, at Kilauea; Izu-Oshima, Japan; Teishi Knoll seamount, Japan; and Piton de la Fournaise, Re??union Island. In addition, such instruments have recorded the hour or less of slight ground movement that preceded small explosive eruptions at Sakurajima and presumed sudden gas emissions at Galeras, Colombia. The use of satellite geodesy, in particular the Global Positioning System, offers the possibility of revealing changes in surface strain both local to a volcano and over a broad region that includes the volcano.
Full Text Available The La Fossa cone of Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy is a closed conduit volcano. Today, Vulcano Island is characterized by sulfataric activity, with a large fumarolic field that is mainly located in the summit area. A scanning differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument designed by the Optical Sensing Group of Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden, was installed in the framework of the European project "Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change", in March 2008. This study presents the first dataset of SO2 plume fluxes recorded for a closed volcanic system. Between 2008 and 2010, the SO2 fluxes recorded showed average values of 12 t.d–1 during the normal sulfataric activity of Vulcano Island, with one exceptional event of strong degassing that occurred between September and December, 2009, when the SO2 emissions reached up to 100 t.d–1.
Kotsarenko, A.; V. Grimalsky; R. Pérez Enríquez; Yutsis, V.; Koshevaya, S.; J. A. López Cruz-Abeyro; Valdez-Gonzalez, C.; Villegas Cerón, R. A.
Results of the ULF geomagnetic monitoring of the volcano Popocatepetl (Mexico) and their analysis are summarized and presented for the period 2003–2006. Our analysis reveals some anomalies which are considered to be of local volcanic origin: the EM background in the vicinity of the volcano was found to be significantly noisier than at other reference stations; sporadic strong noise-like geomagnetic activity was observed in the H-component; some geomagnetic pulsations were observed o...
Two views of Olympus Mons, shown as topography draped over a Viking image mosaic. MOLA's regional topography has shown that this volcano sits off to the west of the main Tharsis rise rather than on its western flank. The topography also clearly shows the relationship between the volcano's scarp and massive aureole deposit that was produced by flank collapse. The vertical exaggeration is 10:1.
On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a
Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. PMID:10653614
23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...
23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...
15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...
At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).
Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here. Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.
Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.
The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.
Ferre, Francesca; de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Valerio, Luca; Longhi, Silvia; Lazzari, Agnese; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter; Maresso, Anna
Italy is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. Italy's health care system is a regionally based national health service that provides universal coverage largely free of charge at the point of delivery. The main source of financing is national and regional taxes, supplemented by copayments for pharmaceuticals and outpatient care. In 2012, total health expenditure accounted for 9.2 percent of GDP (slightly below the EU average of 9.6 percent). Public sources made up 78.2 percent of total health care spending. While the central government provides a stewardship role, setting the fundamental principles and goals of the health system and determining the core benefit package of health services available to all citizens, the regions are responsible for organizing and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary health care services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Faced with the current economic constraints of having to contain or even reduce health expenditure, the largest challenge facing the health system is to achieve budgetary goals without reducing the provision of health services to patients. This is related to the other key challenge of ensuring equity across regions, where gaps in service provision and health system performance persist. Other issues include ensuring the quality of professionals managing facilities, promoting group practice and other integrated care organizational models in primary care, and ensuring that the concentration of organizational control by regions of health-care providers does not stifle innovation. PMID:25471543
International Monetary Fund
This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights Italyâ€™s assesses measures undertaken to revive economic growth. Italy is vulnerable to a renewal of euro area tension and risks from domestic policy slippages, stalling of structural reforms, and banking distress that could undermine confidence. The government has taken steps to liberalize services, open the energy sector, and improve the labor market, but more is needed to boost productivity and raise Italyâ€™s low employment rate. The IMF repor...
Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano situated on the Eastern African Rift; it is part of Africa's Virunga Volcanic Chain. In a massive eruption that occurred on January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo sent a vast plume of smoke and ash skyward, and three swifly-moving rivers of lava streaming down its western and eastern flanks. Previous lava flows from Nyiragongo have been observed moving at speeds of up to 40 miles per hour (60 kph). The lava flows from the January 17 eruption destroyed more than 14 villages in the surrounding countryside, forcing tens of thousands to flee into the neighboring country of Rwanda. Within one day the lava ran to the city of Goma, situated on the northern shore of Lake Kivu about 12 miles (19 km) south of Nyiragongo. The lava cut a 200 foot (60 meter) wide swath right through Goma, setting off many fires, as it ran into Lake Kivu. Goma, the most heavily populated city in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, is home to about 400,000 people. Most of these citizens were forced to flee, while many have begun to return to their homes only to find their homes destroyed. This true-color scene was captured by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, on December 11, 2001, just over a month before the most recent eruption. Nyiragongo's large crater is clearly visible in the image. As recently as June 1994, there was a large lava lake in the volcano's crater which had since solidified. The larger Nyamuragira Volcano is located roughly 13 miles (21 km) to the north of Nyiragongo. Nyamuragira last erupted in February and March 2001. That eruption was also marked by columns of erupted ash and long fluid lava flows, some of which are apparent in the image as dark greyish swaths radiating away from Nyamuragira. Both peaks are also notorious for releasing large amounts of sulfur dioxide, which presents another health hazard to people and animals living in close proximity. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data supplied
Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.
This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.
jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group
Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides list of elevated status volcanoes with access to activity updates and/or information releases for changes in activity at the volcanoes. activity at...
Lu, Zhong; Wicks, Charles W., Jr.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Power, John A.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Masterlark, Timothy
In this article, we summarize our recent InSAR studies of 13 Alaska volcanoes, including New Trident, Okmok, Akutan, Kiska, Augustine, Westdahl, Peulik, Makushin, Seguam, Shishaldin, Pavlof, Cleveland, and Korovin volcanoes.
Gabriele Giovanetti; Stephen Monna; Nadia Lo Bue; Davide Embriaco; Francesco Frugoni; Giuditta Marinaro; Mariagrazia De Caro; Tiziana Sgroi; Caterina Montuori; Angelo De Santis; Gianfranco Cianchini; Laura Beranzoli; Paolo Favali
The three volcanoes that are the object of this paper show different types of activity that are representative of the large variety of volcanism present in the Central Mediterranean area. Etna and Stromboli are sub-aerial volcanoes, with significant part of their structure under the sea, while the Marsili Seamount is submerged, and its activity is still open to debate. The study of these volcanoes can benefit from multi-parametric observations from the seafloor. Each volcano was studied with ...
15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...
4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...
4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...
Segovia, N. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E
Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages.
LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu
There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.
Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages
Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole
The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…
Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.
A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.
Aubele, J. C.
The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep
I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.
As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals
Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.
Full text : In this paper on the isotopic carbon composition data, stage and formation temperature of bassanite mineral determined in the products of the Baharmud volcano activity is made estimation of depth and stratigraphic location of its hearth. Mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan have been investigated for many decades, but the problem on depth location, products of their activity up to now is still debatable. The most objective estimation of the stratigraphic depth of solid products of mud volcanoes activity is made on the basis of paleontological researches. Accrding to the studiesof isotopic hydrocarbon composition of oil and organic matter of rocks and oil-rock correlation was determined that part of studied mud volcanoes bring out to the surface Pliocene-Miocene oil, others mainly Paleogene oil. Many scientists have different opinions about the stratigraphic location of hydrocarbon gases that plays a great role in mud volcanism processes.
Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.
The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.
This PhD work focused on several aspects of the eruptions prediction. It allowed us to consider different space scales from global scale to a single volcano, Piton de la Fournaise, through statistical approaches. We then focused more specifically on the volcano-seismicity associated to its eruptive processes, using deterministic methods. First, we analyzed the statistical properties of the eruptive dynamics at the global scale. The emergence of recurrent power laws allowed us to relate the er...
Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.
Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.
Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.;
Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...
Full Text Available Located in the extreme northwestern part of the Los Coconucos volcanic chain in the Central Cordillera, the Purace is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes. Recent geological studies indicate an eruptive history of mainly explosive behavior which was marked most recently by a minor ash eruption in 1977. Techniques used to forecast the renewal of activity of volcanoes after a long period of quiescence include the monitoring of seismicity and ground deformation near the volcano. As a first approach toward the monitoring of the Purace volcano, Southwest Seismological Observatory (OSSO, located in the city of Cali, set up one seismic station in 1986. Beginning in June 1991, the seismic signals have also been transmitted to the Colombian Geological Survey (INGEOMINAS at the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory (OVS-UOP, located in the city of Popayan. Two more seismic stations were installed early in 1994 forming a minimum seismic network and a geodetic monitoring program for ground deformation studies was established and conducted by INGEOMINAS.
Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.
Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events
This paper describes the results of a study that was conducted to determine the relationship between hydrogeochemical composition and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the Mt. Vulture spring waters. Forty samples of spring waters were collected from local outcrops of Quaternary volcanites. Physico-chemical parameters were measured in the field and analyses completed for major and minor elements and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios. A range of water types was distinguished varying from alkaline-earth bicarbonate waters, reflecting less intense water-rock interaction processes to alkali bicarbonate waters, probably representing interaction with volcanic rocks of Mt. Vulture and marine evaporites. The average 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios suggest at least 3 different sources. However, some samples have average Sr isotope ratios (0.70704-0.70778) well above those of the volcanites. These ratios imply interaction with other rocks having higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios, probably Triassic evaporites, which is substantiated by their higher content of Na, SO4 and Cl. The Sr isotope ratios for some samples (e.g. Toka and Traficante) are intermediate between the value for the Vulture volcanites and that for the local Mesozoic rocks. The salt content of these samples also lies between the value for waters interacting solely with the volcanites and the value measured in the more saline samples. These waters are thus assumed to result from the mixing of waters circulating in volcanic rocks with waters presumably interacting with the sedimentary bedrock (marine evaporites)
Woith, Heiko; Chiodini, Giovanni; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Wang, Rongjiang
The hydrothermal system beneath Campi Flegrei is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara, associated with the formation of mud-pools (Fangaia), fumaroles (Bocca Grande, Pisciarelli), and thermal springs (Agnano). Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure transients in the hydrothermal system of Campi Flegrei are being continuously monitored at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. In total, waterlevel and temperature is recorded at 8 sites across the hydrothermal plume along a profile aligned between Agnano Termal in the East and Fangaia in the West. Autonomous devices are used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. At Fangaia mudpool water level and water temperature are dominantly controlled by rain water. Thus, the pool is refilled episodically. Contrary, the water level at a well producing hot water (82°C) for the Pisciarelli tennis club drops and recovers at nearly regular intervals. The induced water level changes are of the order of 1-2m and 3-4m in case of the mudpool and the hot-water-well, respectively. At first glance, both monitoring sites might seem to be fully useless to access natural changes in the Campi Flegrei fluid system. At a second thought, both timeseries provide a unique opportunity to monitor potential permeability changes in the aquifer system. A similar approach had been proposed to deduce earthquake-related permeability changes from Earth tide variations. Contrary to the indirect Earth tide approach, we have the chance to estimate the hydraulic aquifer properties from our monitoring data directly, since each time series contains a sequence of discrete hydraulic tests - namely drawdown tests and refill experiments. Although our Cooper-Jacob approach is really crude, we obtained reasonable permeability estimates for both sites. Preliminary permeability timeseries are presented.
Renzulli, A.; Serri, G.; Tribaudino, M.; Santi, P.; Salvioli-Mariani, E.
Large-sized xenoliths (up to 1.5 m) were sampled nearby the summit active craters of Stromboli (Aeolian Islands). The ejecta, erupted during recent eruptions, are spread within an area of ca. 50m2 and consist of fine-grained whitish to light-grey mottled rocks with heterogeneous vesicularity (3--50 vol.%). SEM-EDS and EMP analyses, XRD, TEM investigations and ICP-OES-MS bulk-rock geochemistry were carried out on representative samples. According to petrological and textural data the xenoliths are buchites, i.e. glassy hornfelses produced by high-grade contact metamorphism, up to partial melting. A highly porphyritic shoshonitic basalt generally covers the buchites, both as cm-sized coatings or as thicker spatters. The xenoliths are peraluminous (Al_2O_3 21.4--24.3 wt.%), with SiO_2 62.1--63.6 wt.% and are characterised by fine-grained cordierite (± indialite), plagioclase (An80-95), mullite, orthopyroxene (En74-83), pseudobrookite and rutile. These minerals locally replace, pseudomorphically, mm-sized crystals whose habitus is reminiscent of feldspar and pyroxene phenocrysts. In the xenoliths the glass has a wide range of silica compositions, from 61--66 wt.% (metaluminous) to 69--76 wt.% (peraluminous), going inward from the contact with the basalt coatings. At the xenolith-basalt contact a two mineral xenolith facies often occurs, consisting of a tridymite+clinopyroxene fine-grained glassy hornfels zone up to 5 cm. Cordierites have Mg values 82--91 and contain K_2O up to 1%. TEM and synchrotron powder diffraction examination on cordierites showed the presence of both crystals with fully achieved transformation to the orthorhombic state and euhedra having an hexagonal symmetry (indialites). The presence of different Al-Si ordering state in cordierite, from fully disordered indialite to partially ordered orthorhombic cordierite was observed. This may be due to high K_2O and/or fast cooling of the crystals that inhibited the transformation from hexagonal to orthorhombic symmetry. On the basis of mineralogical, geochemical and textural data we conclude that the buchites are the result of high-T, low-P contact metamorphism of hydrothermally altered ("intermediate argillic") volcanic rocks, induced by basaltic magmas analogous to those of the present-day activity of Stromboli. The argillaceous protoliths could have suffered intense thermal metamorphism/partial melting, either as in situ wall-rocks or as blocks stoped in the subvolcanic magma feeding system.
Calabrese, S.; Università di Palermo, Dipartimento DiSTeM, Italy; Aiuppa, A.; Università di Palermo, Dipartimento CFTA; Allard, P.; Institut de Physique du Globe, Sorbonne-Paris Cité, UMR CNRS 7154, Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris, France; Bagnato, E.; Università di Palermo, Dipartimento CFTA; Bellomo, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Brusca, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; D'Alessandro, W.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Parello, F.; Università di Palermo, Dipartimento CFTA
This study reports on the first quantitative assessment of the geochemical cycling of volcanogenic elements, from their atmospheric release to their deposition back to the ground. Etna’s emissions and atmospheric depositions were characterised for more than 2 years, providing data on major and trace element abundance in both volcanic aerosols and bulk depositions. Volcanic aerosols were collected from 2004 to 2007, at the summit vents by conventional filtration techniques. Precipitation was c...
Neri, M.; Giammanco, S.; Ferrera, E.; Patanè, G.; Zanon, V.
This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the unstable eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. In particular, the highest anomalies were found at the intersection between WNW-ESE and NW-SE -running faults. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. These maps revealed a progressive deepening of hypocenters from NW to SE, with the exception of a narrow zone in the central part of the area, with a roughly WNW-ESE direction. Also, the highest values of seismic energy were released during events in the southern and northwestern sectors of the area. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquake depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. Lastly, an important spin-off of this study is the recognition of some areas where radon activity was so high (>50000 Bq/m3) that it may represent a potential hazard to the local population. In fact, radon is the leading cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoke for long exposures and, due to its molecular weight, it accumulates in underground rooms or in low ground, particularly where air circulation is low or absent. In the investigated area this risk is real, as it is inhabited by thousands of people who reside there all year long. Therefore, this study serves as a starting point for the assessment of radon hazard in the Mt. Etna area, considering both spatial and temporal changes in soil radon emissions depending on the presence of faults and/or the occurrence of seismic activity.
Fressura, Nicola; And Others
A study examined vocational education and training in Italy. First, vocational education was placed within the context of Italy's political and administrative structures and economy. Italy's systems of general and vocational education were described, and the legislative aspects were examined. Special attention was paid to funding from various…
This paper summarizes advances in three topics of geochemical studies on island arc volcanoes, which I and my colleagues have been investigating. First one is strontium isotope studies of arc volcanic rocks mainly from Japanese island arcs. We have shown that the precise spatial distribution of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio reflects natures of the subduction structure and slab-mantle interaction. Based on the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of volcanic rocks in the northern Kanto district, where two plates subduct concurrently with different directions, the existence of an aseismic portion of the Philippine Sea plate ahead of the seismic one was suggested. Second one is geochemical monitoring of active arc volcanoes. 3He/4He ratio of volcanic volatiles was shown to be a good indicator to monitor the behavior of magma: ascent and drain-back of magma result in increase and decrease in the ratio, respectively. In the case of 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima volcano, the ratio began to increase two months after big eruptions, reaching the maximum and decreased. Such delayed response is explained in terms of travelling time of magmatic helium from the vent area to the observation site along the underground steam flow. Third one is remote observation of volcanic gas chemistry of arc volcanoes, using an infrared absorption spectroscopy. During Unzen eruptions starting in 1990, absorption features of SO2 and HCl of volcanic gas were detected from the observation station at 1.3 km distance. This was the first ground-based remote detection of HCl in volcanic gas. In the recent work at Aso volcano, we could identify 5 species (CO, COS, CO2, SO2 and HCl) simultaneously in the volcanic plume spectra. (author)
These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)
Sorrentino, Fiodor; Beverini, Nicolò; Carbone, Daniele; Carelli, Giorgio; Francesconi, Francesco; Gambino, Salvo; Giacomelli, Umberto; Grassi, Renzo; Maccioni, Enrico; Morganti, Mauro
Stress and strain changes are among the best indicators of impending volcanic activity. In volcano geodesy, borehole volumetric strain-meters are mostly utilized. However, they are not easy to install and involve high implementation costs. Advancements in opto-electronics have allowed the development of low-cost sensors, reliable, rugged and compact, thus particularly suitable for field application. In the framework of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project, we have developed strain sensors based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. In comparison with previous implementation of the FBG technology to study rock deformations, we have designed a system that is expected to offer a significantly higher resolution and accuracy in static measurements and a smooth dynamic response up to 100 Hz, implying the possibility to observe seismic waves. The system performances are tailored to suit the requirements of volcano monitoring, with special attention to power consumption and to the trade-off between performance and cost. Preliminary field campaigns were carried out on Mt. Etna (Italy) using a prototypal single-axis FBG strain sensor, to check the system performances in out-of-the-lab conditions and in the harsh volcanic environment (lack of mains electricity for power, strong diurnal temperature changes, strong wind, erosive ash, snow and ice during the winter time). We also designed and built a FBG strain sensor featuring a multi-axial configuration which was tested and calibrated in the laboratory. This instrument is suitable for borehole installation and will be tested on Etna soon.
Full Text Available The composition of non-methane organic volatile compounds (VOCs determined in 139 thermal gas discharges from 18 different geothermal and volcanic systems in Italy and Latin America, consists of C2–C20 species pertaining to the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and O-, S- and N-bearing classes of compounds. Thiophenes and mono-aromatics, especially the methylated species, are strongly enriched in fluids emissions related to hydrothermal systems. Addition of hydrogen sulphide to dienes and electrophilic methylation involving halogenated radicals may be invoked for the formation of these species. On the contrary, the formation of furans, with the only exception of C4H8O, seems to be favoured at oxidizing conditions and relatively high temperatures, although mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the production of thiophenes can be suggested. Such thermodynamic features are typical of fluid reservoirs feeding high-temperature thermal discharges of volcanoes characterised by strong degassing activity, which are likely affected by conspicuous contribution from a magmatic source. The composition of heteroaromatics in fluids naturally discharged from active volcanoes and geothermal areas can then be considered largely dependent on the interplay between hydrothermal vs. magmatic contributions. This implies that they can be used as useful geochemical tools to be successfully applied in both volcanic monitoring and geothermal prospection.
Nicolosi, I.; Caracciolo, F. D'ajello; Branca, S.; Ventura, G.; Chiappini, M.
The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits.
Francalanci, Lorella; Avanzinelli, Riccardo; Nardini, Isabella; Tiepolo, Massimo; Davidson, Jon P.; Vannucci, Riccardo
In situ Sr-isotope data by microdrilling, cou- pled with major and trace element analyses, have been performed on plagioclase and clinopyroxene from seven samples collected during the 2002–2003 eruptive crisis at Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). On 28 December 2002, the persistent moderate explosive activity was broken by an effusive event lasting about 7 months. A more violent explosion (paroxysm) occurred on 5 April 2003. Two magma types were erupted, namely a volatile- poor and ...
Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.
Hone, D. W. E.; Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Martin, K. T.
Cladistics is a systematic method of classification that groups entities on the basis of sharing similar characteristics in the most parsimonious manner. Here cladistics is applied to the classification of volcanoes using a dataset of 59 Quaternary volcanoes and 129 volcanic edifices of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Volcano and edifice characteristics recorded in the database include attributes of volcano size, chemical composition, dominant eruptive products, volcano morphology, dominant landforms, volcano age and eruptive history. Without characteristics related to time the volcanic edifices divide into two groups, with characters related to volcano size, dominant composition and edifice morphology being the most diagnostic. Analysis including time based characteristics yields four groups with a good correlation between these groups and the two groups from the analysis without time for 108 out of 129 volcanic edifices. Thus when characters are slightly changed the volcanoes still form similar groupings. Analysis of the volcanoes both with and without time yields three groups based on compositional, eruptive products and morphological characters. Spatial clusters of volcanic centres have been recognised in the Tohoku region by Tamura et al. ( Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:105 106, 2002). The groups identified by cladistic analysis are distributed unevenly between the clusters, indicating a tendency for individual clusters to form similar kinds of volcanoes with distinctive but coherent styles of volcanism. Uneven distribution of volcano types between clusters can be explained by variations in dominant magma compositions through time, which are reflected in eruption products and volcanic landforms. Cladistic analysis can be a useful tool for elucidating dynamic igneous processes that could be applied to other regions and globally. Our exploratory study indicates that cladistics has promise as a method for classifying volcanoes and potentially elucidating dynamic
Ventura, Guido; Passaro, Salvatore; Tamburrino, Stella; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Giannini, Luciano; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Sacchi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea
Structures and processes associated with shallow water hydrothermal fluid discharges on continental shelves are poorly known. We report geomorphological, geophysical, and geochemical evidences of a 5.5 x 5.3 km seabed doming located 5 km offshore the Naples harbor (Italy). The dome lies between 100 and 170 m of water depth and it is 15-20 m higher than the surrounding seafloor. It is characterized by a hummocky morphology due to 280 sub-circular to elliptical mounds, about 660 cones, and 30 pockmarks. The mounds and pockmarks alignments follow those of the main structural discontinuity affecting the Gulf of Naples. The seafloor swelling and breaching require relatively low pressures (about 2-3 MPa), and the sub-seafloor structures, which consists of 'pagodas' affecting the present-day seabed, record the active upraise, pressurization, and release of magmatic fluids. The gas composition of the sampled submarine emissions is consistent with that of the emissions from the hydrothermal systems of Ischia, CampiFlegrei and Somma-Vesuvius active volcanoes, and CO2 has a magmatic/thermometamorphic origin. The 3He/4He ratios (1.66-1.96 Ra) are slightly lower than in the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei volcanoes (~2.6-3.0 Ra) indicating the contamination of fluids originated from the same magmatic source by crustal-derived radiogenic 4He. All these evidences concur to hypothesize an extended magmatic reservoir beneath Naples and its offshore. Seabed doming, faulting, and hydrothermal discharges are manifestations of non-volcanic unrests potentially preluding submarine eruptions and/or hydrothermal explosions. We conclude that seabed deformations and hydrothermal discharge must be included in the coastal hazard studies.
Dida Working Group Ingv,.
Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their
Pignolet, Guy; Bertil, Alain; Huet, Patrice
While general information has already been given in previous papers about the SALM (Moon Mars Analogue Site) in Reunion Island, this status papers gives more useful details with : - a survey of Lava Tubes and other volcanic structures at Piton de la Fournaise volcano that are suitable for Moon and Mars analogue studies, - an overview of sampling and other exploration and evaluation techniques that may be tested on the analogue site for future use on Solar System bodies
Greenfield, T. S.; White, R. S.
Using a dense seismic network we have imaged the plumbing system beneath Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. We find a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at a depth of ~7 km around the depth of the brittle-ductile transition. The anomaly is ~10% slower than the initial best fitting 1D model and has a Vp/Vs ratio higher than the surrounding crust, suggesting the presence of increased temperature or partial melt. We use relationships between mineralogy and seismic velocities to estimate that this region contains ~10% partial melt, similar to observations made at other volcanoes such as Kilauea. This low-velocity body is deeper than the depth range suggested by geodetic studies of a deflating source beneath Askja. Beneath the large low-velocity zone a region of reduced velocities extends into the lower crust and is coincident with seismicity in the lower crust. This is suggestive of a high temperature channel into the lower crust which could be the pathway for melt rising from the mantle. This melt either intrudes into the lower crust or stalls at the brittle-ductile boundary in the imaged body. Above this, melt can travel into the fissure swarm through large dikes or erupt within the Askja caldera itself.We generate travel time tables using a finite difference technique and the residuals used to simultaneously solve for both the earthquake locations and velocity structure. The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga dike intrusion has provided a 45 km long, distributed source of large earthquakes which are well located and provide accurate arrival time picks. Together with long-term background seismicity these provide excellent illumination of the Askja volcano from all directions.hhhh
Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)
Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.
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The geochemical surveillance of an active volcano aims to recognize possible signals that are related to changes in volcanic activity. Indeed, as a consequence of the magma rising inside the volcanic "plumbing system" and/or the refilling with new batches of magma, the dissolved volatiles in the magma are progressively released as a function of their relative solubilities. When approaching the surface, these fluids that are discharged during magma degassing can interact with shallow aquifers and/or can be released along the main volcano-tectonic structures. Under these conditions, the following main degassing processes represent strategic sites to be monitored.
The main purpose of this special volume is to collect papers that cover a wide range of topics in volcanic fluid geochemistry, which include geochemical characterization and geochemical monitoring of active volcanoes using different techniques and at different sites. Moreover, part of this volume has been dedicated to the new geochemistry tools.
Li, Zhongmou; Liu, Yanchi
In this paper, we formulate a novel problem for finding blackhole and volcano patterns in a large directed graph. Specifically, a blackhole pattern is a group which is made of a set of nodes in a way such that there are only inlinks to this group from the rest nodes in the graph. In contrast, a volcano pattern is a group which only has outlinks to the rest nodes in the graph. Both patterns can be observed in real world. For instance, in a trading network, a blackhole pattern may represent a group of traders who are manipulating the market. In the paper, we first prove that the blackhole mining problem is a dual problem of finding volcanoes. Therefore, we focus on finding the blackhole patterns. Along this line, we design two pruning schemes to guide the blackhole finding process. In the first pruning scheme, we strategically prune the search space based on a set of pattern-size-independent pruning rules and develop an iBlackhole algorithm. The second pruning scheme follows a divide-and-conquer strategy to fur...
Esteban Hernández Quintero; Gerardo Cifuentes Nava; Enrique Cabral Cano; Jaime Urrutia Fucugauchi; René Chávez; Francisco Correa Mora; Ricardo Becerril; Juan José Ramírez
The first geomagnetic station (COV) has been installed near Colima volcano by the Geophysics Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, and Colima Volcano Observatory at the University of Colima. This station measure the scalar magnetic field and belongs to the geomagnetic monitoring network of active volcanoes in Mexico. Comparison between COV, IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field) and TEO (Teoloyucan Geomagnetic Observatory) data shows a high correlation with a co...
In this paper the application of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (INSAR) on volcanology is analysed. Since it is not a real novelty among the different applications of INSAR in Earth Observation activities, at the beginning of this paper it is analysed the state of the art of the researches in this field. During the discussion, the point of view of volcanologists is favoured because it is considered that the first applications were often badly aimed. Consequently, the initial INSAR performances in volcano logy were overrated with respect to the real capabilities of this technique. This fact lead to discover some unexpected limitations in INSAR usage in volcano monitoring, but, at the same time, spurred on scientists to overcome these drawbacks. The results achieved recently allow to better apply SAR to volcanology; in the paper a possible operative work-plan aimed at introducing INSAR in the volcano monitoring system is presented
Bartel, B. A.; Mothes, P. A.
Trained citizen volunteers called vigías have worked to help monitor and communicate warnings about Tungurahua volcano, in Ecuador, since the volcano reawoke in 1999. The network, organized by the scientists of Ecuador's Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Geophysical Institute) and the personnel from the Secretaría Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos (Risk Management, initially the Civil Defense), has grown to more than 20 observers living around the volcano who communicate regularly via handheld two-way radios. Interviews with participants conducted in 2010 indicate that the network enables direct communication between communities and authorities; engenders trust in scientists and emergency response personnel; builds community; and empowers communities to make decisions in times of crisis.
Caracausi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Martelli, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Nuccio, P. M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Paternoster, M.; Università della Basilicata; Fin, S.; Isotope Geosciences Unit, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre,
We report the results of a geochemical study of gas emissions along a NE–SW transect in southern Italy in order to test the hypothesis that the region around Monte Vulture is affected by degassing of mantle-derived fluids through a lithospheric discontinuity. We also investigated lavas from the Monte Vulture volcano displaying 3He/4He (up to ~6.0 Ra) and Sr isotopes that are consistent with an origin inmantle that has hadminimal pollution from subducted Adriatic slab. Similar 3He/...
Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.
Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
R. I. Tilling
Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.
Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.
Medicine Lake volcano forms a broad, seemingly nondescript highland, as viewed from any angle on the ground. Seen from an airplane, however, treeless lava flows are scattered across the surface of this potentially active volcanic edifice. Lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, cover more than 2,000 km2 east of the main axis of the Cascade Range in northern California. Across the Cascade Range axis to the west-southwest is Mount Shasta, its towering volcanic neighbor, whose stratocone shape contrasts with the broad shield shape of Medicine Lake volcano. Hidden in the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of Medicine Lake volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 8,000 ft (2,440 m). The maximum extent of lavas from this half-million-year-old volcano is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to its total estimated volume of 600 km3, and it is considered to be the largest by volume among volcanoes of the Cascades arc. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascades arc volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.
Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L
Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723
On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini. From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General. The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...
Guth, A. L.; Bluth, G. J.; Carn, S. A.
Nyamuragira volcano, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is Africa's most active volcano, having erupted 13 times (every 1-3 years) since 1980. The eruption frequency, and the large amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted by this rift volcano, may produce a significant impact on the global sulfur budget. In this project we are attempting to quantify the sulfur dioxide emissions from this volcano over the past 20+ years using satellite data. Since 1978, satellites carrying NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have been orbiting the earth collecting atmospheric data. These instruments use six wavelength bands located within the ultraviolet spectrum to measure solar irradiance and the energy reflected and backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Sunlit planetary coverage is provided once per day by TOMS data. The spatial resolution of these satellites varies from 24 km (Earth Probe, 1996-1997, but raised to 39 km from 1997 to present) to 62 km (Meteor-3, 1991-1994). Nimbus-7, the satellite operating for the longest span of time (1978-1993), had a nadir footprint of 50 km. The (instantaneous) mass retrievals of sulfur dioxide cloud masses are derived using several different image processing schemes and net tonnages are calculated using a background correction. Volcanic activity associated with this volcano typically consists of long term (weeks to months), and often continuous, effusive emissions. Work to date has discovered over 120 days in which sulfur dioxide plumes were observed from the 13 eruptions (ranging from a minimum of one day to a maximum of 32 days). Most (82%) of the sulfur dioxide clouds measured are relatively low-level, below 100 kilotonnes (kt); 16% of the emissions are between 100 and 1000 kt, and 1.5% were measured to have more than 1000 kt. Current work is focusing on deriving net emission fluxes, integrating the TOMS instantaneous measurements of relatively continuous emission activity. The eruptive activity
Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.
This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.
Rosa, Agostinho S.
The estimation of the Phillips curve in Italy, using the wage inflation rate as a dependent variable, based on annual data from the period 1961-2012, using the Johansen Method, allows us to conclude two things. Firstly, in the long term, there are two long-term relationships: the wage inflation rate relates positively to the inflation rate, negatively to the unemployment rate and positively to the average labour productivity growth index, as was expected; the inflation rate relates positively...
Carmela Mazzitello; Stefania Esposito; Adele E De Francesco; Annalisa Capuano; Emilio Russo; Giovambattista De Sarro
Introduction: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is the basis of pharmacovigilance. In fact, ADRs are associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. However, underreporting by all healthcare professionals remains the major problem in Italy and in the rest of the world. The dissemination of pharmacovigilance knowledge among Italian healthcare professionals, and the new pharmacovigilance regulations may promote the early detection and reporting of ADRs. This revie...
Colombino, Ugo; Hernæs, Erik; Jia, Zhyiang; Strøm, Steinar
A structural model for retirement and employment based on a flexible, parametric utility function is developed. The model requires only cross section data and is estimated on survey data for Italy and register data for Norway. The estimates indicate that the preference structure among middle-aged Italian males and Norwegian males and females who are approaching retirement has strong similarities. The utility function estimates from a model with no consumption smoothing, seem more reasonable t...
Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is the basis of pharmacovigilance. In fact, ADRs are associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. However, underreporting by all healthcare professionals remains the major problem in Italy and in the rest of the world. The dissemination of pharmacovigilance knowledge among Italian healthcare professionals, and the new pharmacovigilance regulations may promote the early detection and reporting of ADRs. This review examines the legislative framework concerning the pharmacovigilance in Italy. Materials and Methods: The information was collected from scientific articles and the websites of the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA. Results: The pharmacovigilance system, both in Italy and Europe, has undergone profound changes. European legislation on pharmacovigilance has been changed in 2010 according to the EU Regulation 1235/2010 and Directive 2010/84/EU. Basically, the changes tend to increase the efficiency, speed and transparency of pharmacovigilance activities. The new Regulation (1235/2010 and the Directive (2010/84/EU aim to strengthen the system of pharmacovigilance, establish more precisely who is obliged to do what, and allow faster and easier circulation and retrieval of information about ADRs. Conclusion: A greater knowledge on what is the Italian pharmacovigilance legislation will be useful to improve the status of ADRs reporting and spread the culture of spontaneous reporting.
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The author recalls goals and deadlines of the Europena Community Habitats Directive 94/43/EEC and of the Natura 2000 Network. After saying that Italy has up to now only marginally took part in the definition of habitats and species to be included in the Annexes I, II, II e IV of the Habitat Directive, he underlines that only the collaboration between the Italian Botanical Society and the Italian Ministry of Environment – Nature Conservation Services, has allowed Italy to fill the gap with other countries. Furthermore, he relates the ongoing progress of Natura 2000 in Italy (Bioitaly: about 2700 sites collected, a useful collaboration between botanists, zoologists and ecologists, the constitution of a list of new habitats and species to be included into the Annexes of the Directive. Finally, he wishes a closer working relationship among phytosociologists, botanists and ecologists, in order to avoid the risk of replacing in the CORINE project the phytosociological approach with a less satisfactory physiognomic classification.
Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura
Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.
Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.
Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.
Hatfield, A.; Bailey, D.; Domack, E.; Brachfeld, S.; Gilbert, R.; Ishman, S.; Krahmann, G.; Leventer, A.
Jun Jaegyu is a young volcanic construct discovered in May 2004 by researchers aboard the National Science Foundation (NSF) vessel Laurence M. Gould (LMG04-04). The volcano is located on the Antarctic continental shelf in Antarctic Sound, approximately 9 km due north of the easternmost point of Andersson Island. Swath bathymetry (NBP01-07) indicates that the volcano stands 700 meters above the seafloor, yet remains 275 meters short of the ocean surface. The seamount lies along a northwest-southeast oriented fault scarp and contains at least 1.5 km3 of volcanic rock. Video recording of the volcano's surface revealed regions nearly devoid of submarine life. These areas are associated with a thermal anomaly of up to 0.052° C higher than the surrounding ocean water. A rock dredge collected ~13 kg of material, over 80% of which was fresh volcanic rock; the remainder was glacial IRD. These observations, along with reports by mariners of discolored water in this region of Antarctic Sound, suggest that the volcano has been recently active. The basalt samples are generally angular, glassy and vesicular. Preliminary petrographic observations indicate that plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene are all present as phenocryst phases, and that small (tectonic setting of the region is complex, volcanism appears to be associated with active faults related to within-plate extension.
Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina
This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes
Sorensen, O. E.; Rose, W. I.; Jaya, D.
Tungurahua Volcano (Lat. 01^o28'S; Long. 78^o27'W), located in the central Ecuadorian Andes, is an active edifice that rises more than 3 km above surrounding topography. Since European settlement in 1532, Tungurahua has experienced four major eruptive episodes: 1641-1646, 1773-1781, 1886-1888 and 1916-1918 (Hall et al, JVGR V91; p1-21, 1999). In September 1999, Tungurahua began a new period of activity that continues to the present. During this time, the volcano has erupted daily, depositing ash and blocks on its steep flanks. A pattern of continuing eruptions, coupled with rainfall up to 28 mm in a 6 hour period (rain data collected in Baños at 6-hr intervals, 3000 meters below Tungurahua’s summit), has produced an environment conducive to lahar mobilization. Tungurahua volcano presents an immediate hazard to the town of Baños, an important tourist destination and cultural center with a population of about 25,000 residents located 8 km from the crater. During the current eruptive episode, lahars have occurred as often as 3 times per week on the northern and western slopes of the volcano. Consequently, the only north-south trending highway on the west side of Tungurahua has been completely severed at the intersection of at least ten drainages, where erosion has exceeded 10 m since 1999. The La Pampa quebrada, located 1 km west of Baños, is the most active of Tungurahua's drainages. At this location, where the slope is moderate, lahars continue to inundate the only highway linking Baños to the Pan American Highway. Because of steep topography, the conventional approach of measuring planimetric inundation areas to determine the scale of lahars could not be employed. Instead, cross sections were measured in the channels using volume/cross-sectional inundation relationships determined by (Iverson et al, GSABull V110; no. 8, p972-984, 1998). After field observations of the lahars, LAHARZ, a program used in a geographic information system (GIS) to objectively map
This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....
Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...
Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen
Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…
Duffield, W.A.; Tilling, R.I.; Canul, R.
The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chicho??n, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, Me??xico. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chicho??n is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chicho??n is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chicho??n consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chicho??n in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent
Duffield, Wendell A.; Tilling, Robert I.; Canul, Rene
The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chichón, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, México. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chichón is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chichón consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chichón in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent pyroclastic
Ascraeus Mons Volcano: Like Earth, Mars has many volcanoes and volcanic features. This high-resolution view shows some of the lava flows near the summit of Ascraeus Mons, one of the three giant shield volcanoes known as the 'Tharsis Montes'. Volcanoes form when magma (molten rock) erupts out onto the surface of a planet. Based on Viking-era observations, Ascraeus Mons is considered to be one of the tallest volcanoes on Mars... its summit is more than 11 km (6.8 miles) above the surrounding plain. The summit is more than 23 km (14 miles) higher in elevation than the place where Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997.Description of MOC Image: This picture shows an area that is about 20 km (12 miles) higher in elevation than the Mars Pathfinder landing site. The picture shows three main features: (1) a crater at the center-right, (2) a sinuous, discontinuous channel across the upper half, and (3) a rough and pitted, elevated surface across the lower half of the image.(1) Crater at center right. Distinguishing meteor craters from volcanic craters can sometimes be a challenge on Mars. This particular crater was most likely formed by meteor impact because it has a raised rim and a faint radial ejecta pattern around the outside of it. This crater is 600 m (2000 feet) across, about 3/4 the size of the famous 'Meteor Crater' near Winslow, Arizona.(2) Sinuous channel. The type of discontinuous channel running across the upper half of the image is sometimes referred to as a 'sinuous rille'. These are common on the volcanic plains of the Moon and among volcanoes and volcanic plains on Earth. Such a channel was once a lava tube. It is running down the middle of an old lava flow. The 'tube' looks like a 'channel' because its roof has collapsed. The discontinuous nature of this channel is the result of the collapse, or 'cave-in' of what was once the roof of the lava tube. It is common for certain types of relatively fluid lavas to form lava tubes. As it is being emplaced, the outer
A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic
Newhall, C. G.; Siebert, L.; Sparks, S.
The Smithsonian’s Volcano Reference File (VRF), the database that underlies Volcanoes of the World and This Dynamic Planet, is the premier source for the “what, when, where, and how big?” of Holocene and historical eruptions. VOGRIPA (Volcanic Global Risk Identification and Analysis) will catalogue details of large eruptions, including specific phenomena and their impacts. CCDB (Collapse Caldera Database) also considers large eruptions with an emphasis on the resulting calderas. WOVOdat is bringing monitoring data from the world’s observatories into a centralized database in common formats, so that they can be searched and compared during volcanic crises and for research on preeruption processes. Oceanographic and space institutions worldwide have growing archives of volcano imagery and derivative products. Petrologic databases such as PETRODB and GEOROC offer compositions of many erupted and non-erupted magmas. Each of these informs and complements the others. Examples of interrelations include: ● Information in the VRF about individual volcanoes is the starting point and major source of background “volcano” data in WOVOdat, VOGRIPA, and petrologic databases. ● Images and digital topography from remote sensing archives offer high-resolution, consistent geospatial "base maps" for all of the other databases. ● VRF data about eruptions shows whether unrest of WOVOdat culminated in an eruption and, if yes, its type and magnitude. ● Data from WOVOdat fills in the “blanks” between eruptions in the VRF. ● VOGRIPA adds more detail to the VRF’s descriptions of eruptions, including quantification of runout distances, expanded estimated column heights and eruption impact data, and other parameters not included in the Smithsonian VRF. ● Petrologic databases can add detail to existing petrologic data of the VRF, WOVOdat, and VOGRIPA, e.g, detail needed to estimate viscosity of melt and its influence on magma and eruption dynamics ● Hazard
Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.
The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)
Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the Studies Department of ENEA (the Italian National board for new technologies, energy and environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment. In this paper, it is only provided a summary of the whole work. The complete report can be downloaded from the ENEA main page (www.enea.it). Italy gross domestic product (Gdp) grew by almost 3% in the year 2000, mostly sustained by an increase in the industrial production and services, as well. At the same time the total energy consumption rose to almost 185 Mtoe (+1% over 1999). Because Gdp grew more than the energy consumption, the energy intensity decreases in the year 2000. Almost 82% of the Italian energy needs (mainly oil and gas, even if electricity imports are increasing) depend upon imports. This heavy burden makes Italy particularly sensitive to both the oil price fluctuations and the euro/dollar exchange rate. Transportation absorbs a large and growing share of the energy consumption while showing quite an impact on the environment. From the supply side, renewable energy sources appear very promising because they allow the use of local resources, promote local development and may create new jobs, in area of the country with less favourable economic conditions. First among the European countries, a market mechanism to increase the use of renewable by establishing that a share of the whole electricity production (currently set at 2%) has to come from renewable has been introduced. However among the OECD countries, Italy records the lowest rate of R/D investments to GDP. This rate should more than double if the new opportunities coming from the development of innovative energy technologies have to be fully exploited
Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.
Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.
Forti P.; Sauro U.
Gypsum karst has been studied in Italy since the last decades of the l9th Century. In 1917 the geographer Olinto Marinelli published �Fenomeni carsici delle regioni gessose d�Italia�, a fundamental synthesis of the early research. He distinguished 56 different morpho-karstic gypsum units and/or areas, which are all different in size and character, and described them, paying special attention to their surface morphology and hydrology. Marinelli listed all the main gypsum units and only a few s...
Following the Chernobyl accident, a National Plan of protective measures for radiological emergencies has been set up in Italy to cope with those nuclear risks which may require actions at national level. As the Italian nuclear installations are, at present, not operational, the nuclear risk sources considered in the National Plan include accidents at nuclear power plants near the Italian borders or aboard nuclear-propelled ships, the fall of nuclear-powered satellites and the transportation of radioactive materials. Some of these events would potentially concern the whole national territory, while the typology of others is such that only small areas of the national territory are likely to be affected
Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol
Full Text Available In Italy, otters mainly occur only in some rivers in Central and Southern Italy, plus a recently found population in the Northern Apennines. A detailed research programme has been undertaken on five rivers. A captive population of otters has been established at the Faunistic Park "La Torbiera" to obtain useful information to aid field research.
In Italy, otters mainly occur only in some rivers in Central and Southern Italy, plus a recently found population in the Northern Apennines. A detailed research programme has been undertaken on five rivers. A captive population of otters has been established at the Faunistic Park "La Torbiera" to obtain useful information to aid field research.
Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar compostion. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick
This is a false-color composite of Central Africa, showing the Virunga volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The image was acquired on October 3, 1994, on orbit 58 of the space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). In this image red is the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received) polarization; green is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization; and blue is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The area is centered at about 2.4 degrees south latitude and 30.8 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 56 kilometers by 70 kilometers (35 miles by 43 miles). The dark area at the top of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the right) and Rwanda (to the left). In the center of the image is the steep cone of Nyiragongo volcano, rising 3,465 meters (11,369 feet) high, with its central crater now occupied by a lava lake. To the left are three volcanoes, Mount Karisimbi, rising 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) high; Mount Sabinyo, rising 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) high; and Mount Muhavura, rising 4,100 meters (13,500 feet) high. To their right is Nyamuragira volcano, which is 3,053 meters (10,017 feet) tall, with radiating lava flows dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s. These active volcanoes constitute a hazard to the towns of Goma, Zaire and the nearby Rwandan refugee camps, located on the shore of Lake Kivu at the top left. This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation of the region. The green patch to the center left of the image in the foothills of Karisimbi is a bamboo forest where the mountain gorillas live. The vegetation types in this area are an important factor in the habitat of mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce
Muller, C.; van der Laat, R.; Cattin, P.-H.; Del Potro, R.
Volcano geodetic networks are a key instrument to understanding magmatic processes and, thus, forecasting potentially hazardous activity. These networks are extensively used on volcanoes worldwide and generally comprise a number of different traditional and modern geodetic surveying techniques such as levelling, distances, triangulation and GNSS. However, in most cases, data from the different methodologies are surveyed, adjusted and analysed independently. Experience shows that the problem with this procedure is the mismatch between the excellent correlation of position values within a single technique and the low cross-correlation of such values within different techniques or when the same network is surveyed shortly after using the same technique. Moreover one different independent network for each geodetic surveying technique strongly increase logistics and thus the cost of each measurement campaign. It is therefore important to develop geodetic networks which combine the different geodetic surveying technique, and to adjust geodetic data together in order to better quantify the uncertainties associated to the measured displacements. In order to overcome the lack of inter-methodology data integration, the Geomatic Institute of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD) has developed a methodology which uses a 3D stochastic adjustment software of redundant geodetic networks, TRINET+. The methodology consists of using each geodetic measurement technique for its strengths relative to other methodologies. Also, the combination of the measurements in a single network allows more cost-effective surveying. The geodetic data are thereafter adjusted and analysed in the same referential frame. The adjustment methodology is based on the least mean square method and links the data with the geometry. Trinet+ also allows to run a priori simulations of the network, hence testing the quality and resolution to be expected for a determined network even
Poli, Giampiero; Peccerillo, Angelo
Late Miocene intrusive magmatism of the Island of Elba, Tuscany (central Italy), consists of stocks, laccoliths, sills, and dikes showing dominant monzogranite and granodiorite compositions, with minor leucogranitic dike-sill complexes, aplites and pegmatites. A few mafic rocks occur as dikes, and as microgranular enclaves hosted inside the main intrusions. The Elba magmatism belongs to the Tuscan Magmatic Province, an 8.5 to 0.3 Ma old association of mafic to felsic rocks, of mantle and crustal origin, cropping out in Tuscany and northern Latium. Major and trace element abundances of Elba rocks are extremely variable, testifying to complex origin and evolutionary history for magmas. 87Sr/86Sr (~ 0.708-0.723) and 143Nd/144Nd (~0.5121-0.5124) are close or within the field of upper continental crust, with mafic dikes showing the lowest Sr- and the highest Nd-isotope ratios. Petrological, geochemical and textural data of Elba igneous rocks are better explained by invoking a leading role for multiple mixing processes between crust-derived felsic magmas and mafic-intermediate melts of ultimate mantle origin, accompanied by fractional crystallisation. Proxies of crustal anatectic melts are represented by some highly radiogenic-Sr rocks from northern Monte Capanne pluton. Crustal magmas were formed by melting of sedimentary rocks, likely metagreywakes, at pressures exceeding 0.3 GPa. Mafic-intermediate magmas have calcalkaline to shoshonitic compositions and originated in an anomalous mantle, moderately contaminated by siliceous sediments. Selective enrichments in Sr, Ba and LREE are shown by some intermediate rocks (Orano dikes), revealing the occurrence of a distinct magma type at Elba. Similar compositions are also observed at Capraia island, San Vincenzo and Campiglia (southern Tuscany), suggesting a regional relevance for this magma type. Sr-Ba-LREE-rich rocks do not show obvious genetic relationships with other Tuscany magmas and may represent a distinct end
Aliyev, Ad.A.; Kabulova, A.Ya.
A study of the isotopic composition of helium facilitates the knowledge of genetic questions about mud volcanic activity. The isotopic ratio of He/sup 3/ to He/sup 4/ was studied for gases of active mud volcanos of Azerbaydzhan and they were compared to analogous data from eastern Georgia and southwestern Turkmenia. Information is presented about the chemical composition and isotopic ratios of the gases of the mud volcanos of the cited regions. Proceeding from the data from the isotopic ratio of helium, as well as from the chemical composition of the gases (hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon components) of the mud volcanos, it is possible to postulate a genetic link between the latter and the gases of the sedimentary series of the earth's crust. The volume of submerged helium in the gases of the mud volcanos of Azerbaydzhan is not great (0.15-2.7 percent). The isotopic composition of the methane carbon in the gases of several mud volcanos was also studied. From the value of sigmaC/sup 13/ it is possible to assume that the gases of the mud volcanos are mainly generated in a thermocatalytic zone where the formation of the basic mass of the oil and hydrocarbon gas occurs. The obtained results confirm the conclusion relative to the primary generation of gases of mud volcanos in oil and gas deposits in the sedimentary series of the earth's crust.
Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan
The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.
In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)
Talandier, Jacques; Hyvernaud, Olivier; Maury, René C.
We analyze two seismic events that occurred on 27 May 2011 and 29 April 2013 at the Rocard submarine volcano which overlies the Society hot spot. The Polynesian Seismic Network recorded for the first time unusual associated short- and long-period signals, with perfectly monochromatic (0.0589 Hz) Rayleigh wave trains of long period and duration. None of the numerous observations of long-period (10-30 s) signals previously associated with volcanic activity in Japan, Italy, Mexico, Indonesia, Antarctica, and the Hawaiian Islands have the characteristics we observed at Rocard. We propose a tentative model for these unusual and rather enigmatic signals, in which the movement of lava excited the resonance of a shallow open conduit under a high hydrostatic pressure of ~400 bars.
Surface deformation in volcanic areas is usually due to movement of magma, hydrothermal activity at depth, weight of volcano, landside, etc. Iran, located at the convergence of the Eurasian and Arabian tectonic plates, is the host of five apparently inactive volcanoes, named 'Damavand', 'Taftan', 'Bazman', 'Sabalan' and 'Sahand'. Through investigation of the long term surface deformation rate at Damavand volcano, the highest point in the middle east, Shirzaei et al. (2011) demonstrated that a slow gravity-driven deformation in the form of spreading is going on at this volcano. Extending the earlier work, in this study, I explore large sets of SAR data obtained by Envisat radar satellite from 2003 through 2010 at all Iranian volcanoes. Multitemporal interferometric analysis of the SAR data sets allows retrieving sub-millimeter surface deformation at these volcanic systems. As a result, I detect a transient flank failure in the form of landslide at Damavand that is followed by elevated fumarolic activity. This suggests that landslide might have triggered volcanic unrest. Moreover, I measure significant surface deformation at Taftan and Bazman volcanos associated with different episodes of uplift and subsidence. The inverse model simulations suggest that the time-dependent inflations and deflations of extended and spherical pressurized magma chambers are responsible for the surface displacements at these volcanoes. I also detect time-dependent surface displacements at Sabalan and Sahand volcanoes, where the investigation of the type and the sources of the observed deformation is subject of ongoing research. This study is a best example that shows the absent of recent eruption can not be used as a reliable factor in volcanic hazard assessment and a continuous monitoring system is of vital importance. Reference Shirzaei, M., Walter, T.R., Nankali, H.R. and Holohan, E.P., 2011. Gravity-driven deformation of Damavand volcano, Iran, detected through InSAR time series
Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.
This report consists of a large map sheet and a pamphlet. The map shows the geology, some photographs, description of map units, and correlation of map units. The pamphlet gives the full text about the geologic map. The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water; the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones.
18O/16O and 87Sr/86Sr ratios and major and trace element contents were measured for 33 leucite-bearing lavas from the Alban Hills, located just south of Rome. Petrologically, this volcanic center is the least complex of all the Pleistocene to Holocene volcanoes in the Roman Comagmatic Province, and the 87Sr/86Sr uniformity reflects this (0.71024-0.71091). Whole-rock delta18O=+5.6 to +9.8, but many samples were enriched in 18O by post-eruption hydration, evidenced by the good correlation between H2O content (up to 5 wt.%) and delta18O. Correcting for these effects, we obtain a delta18O range of +5.6 to +7.8 for the original magmas. No other volcanic center in the Roman Province displays such uniform strontium and oxygen isotopic compositions; thus, this volcano provides special insight into the origin of the High-K series magma end-member in Central Italy. Three groups of lavas are recognized on 87Sr/86Sr-1/Sr, delta18O-87Sr/86Sr, and K2O-SiO2 graphs; all of these groups, as well as the major caldera-forming eruption (Villa Senni Tuff), are derived from a very uniform, LIL-enriched, metasomatized source in the upper mantle. This source had delta18O=+6.5 +- 1.0 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.71030+-0.00010. The delta18O values correlate positively with 87Sr/86Sr, indicating minor interaction with the continental crust. Essentially all chemical and isotopic variations in the primitive (low-SiO2, high-Ca, high-Sr) potassic lavas in Italy can be explained by mixing in the upper mantle between this Alban Hills end-member and a Low-K series Roccamonfina-type end-member. (orig.)
Hidalgo, Paulo J.; Rooney, Tyrone O.
The origin of adakite magmas remains controversial because initially the term adakite had petrogenetic significance implying an origin by direct melting of the eclogitized subducting oceanic crust. Many models have been produced for their origin, and until now there has not been a straightforward method to discriminate between these models in a given adakite suite. Here, we use detailed chronological and geochemical studies of selected adakitic edifices that allows for the determination of the magmatic output rate parameter (Qe), which has been correlated with the rates of magma generation deep within subduction zones. By providing temporal and eruption rate estimates, we provide constraints on the possible petrogenetic processes involved in the generation of adakite-like signatures. Adakite magmas derived from the melting of the subducting slab should be volumetrically insignificant when compared to the adakite-like magmas produced by typical arc magma generation processes. In this study, we use this observation and the extraordinary stratigraphic exposure from Miocene to present in an adakitic volcano in Panama and to study the temporal and chemical variation in erupted magmas to estimate rates of magma generation. Detailed chemical and geochronological analyses of Baru volcano indicate that the volcanic edifice was constructed in its entirety during the Quaternary and magmas display adakite-like features such as steep rare earth elements patterns, pronounced depletions in the heavy rare earth elements, low Y, high Sr, and high Sr/Y. The magmatic output rates (Qe) that we have calculated show that compared to other typical adakitic volcanoes, most of the volcanic edifice of Baru volcano was constructed extremely rapidly (adakite suites.
Tedesco, D.; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Napoli 2, Italy; Vaselli, O.; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence, Italy; Papale, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Carn, S. A.; Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Voltaggio, M.; Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo-Engineering, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy; Sawyer, G. M.; Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, UK; Durieux, J.; Goma Volcano Observatory; Kasereka, M.; Goma Volcano Observatory, Mount Goma, Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo; Tassi, F.; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
In January 2002, Nyiragongo volcano erupted 14–34 × 106 m3 of lava from fractures on its southern flanks. The nearby city of Goma was inundated by two lava flows, which caused substantial socioeconomic disruption and forced the mass exodus of the population, leaving nearly 120,000 people homeless. Field observations showed marked differences between the lava erupted from the northern portion of the fracture system and that later erupted from the southern part. These observations are confirmed...
Greenfield, T. S.; White, R. S.
Through a combination of accurate earthquake locations and tomography we have imaged the melt feeding network beneath Askja, a large central volcano, in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland. We have deployed and operated a dense network of 3-component, broadband seismometers around the volcano since 2006 and have recorded a large number of events (on the order of 150 a day). The majority of these are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These have a lower frequency content to the shallower events which may be the result of highly attenuating lower crust. The deep earthquakes extend from 12-25 km depth, significantly below a well defined brittle-ductile boundary at 8-9 km. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. To image the structure beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations and velocity structure. Results showed a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at a depth of ~5 km. The anomaly is ~10% slower than the initial best fitting 1D model and has a Vp/Vs ratio higher than the surrounding crust, suggesting the presence of increased temperature or partial melt. The body is unlikely to be entirely melt as S-waves are still detected at stations directly above the anomaly. This low-velocity body is slightly deeper than the depth range suggested by InSAR and GPS studies of a deflating source beneath
West, M. E.; Kukarina, E.; Koulakov, I.
The PLUTONS project is attempting to capture the process of magma intrusion and pluton formation in situ through the multi-disciplinary study of known magmatic inflation centers. The centerpiece of this study, Uturuncu volcano, is investigated here through seismic travel time tomography. Local seismicity is well distributed and provides constraints on the shallow crust. Ray paths from earthquakes in the subducting slab complement this with steep ray paths that sample the deeper crust. Together the shallow and deep earthquakes provide strong 3D coverage of Uturuncu and the surrounding region. Previous studies have demonstrated that this region is underlain by a broad sill of partial melt at depths below 15 km. It is widely believed that this sill sources the prodigious magmas in the surrounding volcanic complex. However, the connection between the sill and discrete overlying volcanoes, such as Uturuncu, is unknown. We do not know if Uturuncu exists because of higher magma flux from the deep crust, an aggregation of melt from the surrounding sill, or because hotter crust in this region facilitates the movement of existing magmas. The combination of P-wave and S-wave tomography offer some insights. Above the sill, we observe a region of low P velocities but relatively constant Vp/Vs ratios. These suggest a region of high temperatures or, perhaps, hydrothermal alteration. At the time of writing, we do not see strong evidence for the presence of partial melt in the shallow crust. At depths below the sill, however, we observe a combination of low P velocities but high Vp/Vs ratios. The strong depression in S velocities required to get these values is consistent with the presence of partial melt. Taken together these suggest a regime in which excess magma exists beneath Uturuncu at depth, either from a deeper crustal source or pooled from the sill. This magma provides additional heat to the shallow crust. This heat may drive the hydrothermal system at Uturuncu as well as
WEI Hai-quan; JIN Bo-lu; LIU Yong-shun
A number of different lahars have been recognized from a systematic survey of a mapping project. The high setting temperature feature of the deposits indicates a relationship between the lahar and the Millennium eruption event of Tianchi Volcano. The lahars caused a dramatic disaster. Recognize of the huge avalanche scars and deposits around Tianchi Volcano imply another highly destructive hazard. Three types of different texture of the avalanche deposits have been recognized. There was often magma mixing processes during the Millennium eruption of Tianchi Volcano, indicating a mixing and co-eruption regime of the eruption.
Mormone, A.; Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.
Mineral systems generally develop around the deep root of the volcanoes down to the degassing magma chamber due the selective enrichment process of elements within the host-rock. The mineralization process depends on i) volcanic structure, ii) magma and fluid chemistry, iii) host-rock type and texture, iv) temperature and pressure conditions, and v) action timing that affect the transport and precipitation conditions of elements in the solution. Firstly, it generates a hydrothermal system that in a later phase may generate considerable metallogenic mineralization, in terms of both spatial extension and specie abundance. The study of secondary assemblages through depth and, possibly, through time, together with the definition of the general geological, structural, mineralogical and petrological context is the background to understand the genesis of mineral-to-metallogenic systems. We report our study on the Campi Flegrei volcano of potassic Southern Italy belt. It is a sub-circular caldera characterized by an active high-temperature and fluid-rich geothermal system affected by seismicity and ground deformation in the recent decades. The circulating fluids originate at deeper level within a degassing magma body and give rise at the surface up to 1500 tonnes/day of CO2 emissions. Their composition is intermediate between meteoric water and brines. Saline-rich fluids have been detected at ~3000 in downhole. The hydrothermal alteration varies from argillitic to phillitic, nearby the caldera boundary, to propilitic to thermo-metamorphic facies towards its centre. The Campi Flegrei caldera was defined as analogue of mineralized system such as White Island (New Zealand) that is an example of an active magmatic and embryonic copper porphyry system. In order to enhance the knowledge of such a type of embryonic-like metallogenic system, we have carried out macroscopic and microscopic investigations, SEM-EDS and electron microprobe analyses on selected samples from deep wells
Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst
Dynamic and evolution of magma in the plumbing system are key aspects in the evaluation of volcanic hazard. Eruptive phenomena involve indeed processes of magma upraise and storage, which may change in time and space, and mirror in the composition of volcanic products. In this study, we analyze the pattern of geochemical variations at Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013. In this time span, volcanic activity affected all the four craters close to the summit of the volcano (located at about 3300 m above the sea level), and fed eruptive fissures along its upper flanks. In addition, a new crater formed and rapidly built up, giving rise to spectacular lava fountains from 2011 on. Based on a dataset containing the geochemical composition of volcanic products collected over 18 years, we explored the application of data mining methods in the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project. In the present application, we discuss the relationships among the composition of volcanic products sampled from all the afore-mentioned eruptive centers. Our results highlight differences in magma evolution, dynamic and eruptive style even within a single eruptive center.
To promote rapid communication and data exchange among volcanologists, an international list of researchers and their electronic mail addresses is being compiled. If you are currently an electronic mail user on a non-commercial network (e.g., BITNET , SPAN, ARPANET, CSNET, UUCP, JANET, OZ, etc.) or on one of the networks that uses GTE Mail or Telemail (such as Kosmos, Pi-mail, or Omnet) and would like to be added to the list, send your name, title, user identification, node, network name, and a brief (one-line maximum) description of your volcano-related research interests to Jonathan Fink, Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe , AZ 85287 (tel.: 602-965-3195) (BITNET: AIJHF@ ASUACAD).
This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth
Savich, N. A.
The main goal of the 'VOLCANO' project developed jointly by the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics and space concern 'ENERGIA' is experimental investigation of the current-voltage characteristics of the 'Collector-Boom-Emitter' system simulating the long Tethered Satellite System (TSS) in the real space flight conditions on the transport ship 'PROGRESS'. These measurements will allow scientists to determine the attainable current values for different combinations of collectors and emitters (passive metallic sphere, thermocathode, hollow cathodes and show up some prospects of active TSS. The report is concerned with the concept, purpose and tasks of the project, the planned set up of the measurement equipment on the 'PROGRESS' ship and in the container extended on the deployable 100 m long boom end.
This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars
D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Tonarini, Sonia; Doglioni, Carlo
We report here, for the first time, on the new finding of extrusive calciocarbonatite (alvikite) rocks from the Pleistocene Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). These volcanic rocks, which represent an outstanding occurrence in the wider scenario of the Italian potassic magmatism, form lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and feeder dikes exposed on the northern slope of the volcano. The petrography, mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry attest the genuine carbonatitic nature of these rocks, that are characterized by high to very high contents of Sr, Ba, U, LREE, Nb, P, F, Th, high Nb/Ta and LREE/HREE ratios, and low contents of Ti, Zr, K, Rb, Na and Cs. The O-C isotope compositions are close to the "primary igneous carbonatite" field and, thus, are compatible with an ultimate mantle origin for these rocks. The Sr-Nd-Pb-B isotope compositions, measured both in the alvikites and in the silicate volcanic rocks, indicate a close genetic relationship between the alvikites and the associated melilitite/nephelinite rocks. Furthermore, these latter products are geochemically distinct from the main foiditic-phonolitic association of Mt. Vulture. We propose a petrogenetic/geodynamic interpretation which has important implications for understanding the relationships between carbonatites and orogenic activity. In particular, we propose that the studied alvikites are generated through liquid unmixing at crustal levels, starting from nephelinitic or melilititic parent liquids. These latter were produced in a hybrid mantle resulting from the interaction through a vertical slab window, between a metasomatized mantle wedge, moving eastward from the Tyrrhenian/Campanian region, and the local Adriatic mantle. The occurrence of carbonatite rocks at Mt. Vulture, that lies on the leading edge of the Southern Apennines accretionary prism, is taken as an evidence for the carbonatation of the mantle sources of this volcano. We speculate that mantle carbonatation is related to the introduction of
Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.
Volcanic eruptions pose significant hazards to human populations and have the potential to cause significant economic impacts as shown by the recent ash-producing eruptions in Iceland. Demonstrating both the local and global impact of eruptions is important for developing an appreciation of the scale of hazards associated with volcanic activity. In order to address this need, Web-based virtual field exercises at Vesuvius volcano in Italy and Laki volcano in Iceland have been developed as curriculum enhancements for undergraduate geology classes. The exercises are built upon previous research by the authors dealing with the 79 AD explosive eruption of Vesuvius and the 1783 lava flow eruption of Laki. Quicktime virtual reality images (QTVR), video clips, user-controlled Flash animations and interactive measurement tools are used to allow students to explore archeological and geological sites, collect field data in an electronic field notebook, and construct hypotheses about the impacts of the eruptions on the local and global environment. The QTVR images provide 360o views of key sites where students can observe volcanic deposits and formations in the context of a defined field area. Video sequences from recent explosive and effusive eruptions of Carribean and Hawaiian volcanoes are used to illustrate specific styles of eruptive activity, such as ash fallout, pyroclastic flows and surges, lava flows and their effects on the surrounding environment. The exercises use an inquiry-based approach to build critical relationships between volcanic processes and the deposits that they produce in the geologic record. A primary objective of the exercises is to simulate the role of a field volcanologist who collects information from the field and reconstructs the sequence of eruptive processes based on specific features of the deposits. Testing of the Vesuvius and Laki exercises in undergraduate classes from a broad spectrum of educational institutions shows a preference for the
Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change? PMID:21495289
The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...
Wright, Robert; Blackett, Matthew; Hill-Butler, Charley
present satellite measurements of the thermal flux observed from 95 active volcanoes, based on observations made daily over the past 15 years by NASA's Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensors. Excursions from an apparent baseline level of thermal emission are attributable to episodic lava-flow-forming eruptions. Highest average intensity was associated with the July 2001 eruption of Etna, Italy, which radiated an average of 2.5 × 109 W over 23 days. However, recent fissure eruptions in the Afar Rift have attained higher average intensities of 2.4-4.4 × 109 W, albeit for days, not weeks. The largest magnitude eruption was the ongoing eruption of Bardarbunga, Iceland, which radiated 2.6 × 1016 J. Kīlauea, Hawai'i, has radiated the most energy since 2000, although the lava lake at Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo, comes a close second. Time series analysis reveals evidence for periodicity in radiant flux at some volcanoes but not at others.
This three-dimensional image of the volcano Kilauea was generated based on interferometric fringes derived from two X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data takes on April 13, 1994 and October 4, 1994. The altitude lines are based on quantitative interpolation of the topographic fringes. The level difference between neighboring altitude lines is 20 meters (66 feet). The ground area covers 12 kilometers by 4 kilometers (7.5 miles by 2.5 miles). The altitude difference in the image is about 500 meters (1,640 feet). The volcano is located around 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in the interferometry analysis.
Sinnett, D. K.; Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Casu, F.; Segall, P.; Fukushima, Y.; Miklius, A.; Poland, M. P.
Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is a dynamic volcanic and tectonic system that hosts rift intrusions and eruptions, summit inflation/deflation and eruptions, flank earthquakes and slow slip events, as well as quasi-steady flank motion. We seek to identify and characterize the actively deforming structures on Kilauea and study their interactions using a combination of GPS, InSAR, and seismic data. In addition we examine whether the change from summit subsidence to inflation in 2003, led to changes elsewhere in the volcano. We begin by modeling velocities of 16 continuous GPS and 28 campaign GPS sites and mean velocities from three ENVISAT tracks (T93 ascending: 10 acquisitions from 20030120 to 20041115; T200 descending: 13 acquisitions from 20030127 to 20041122, T429 descending: 10 acquisitions from 20030212 to 20041103) between 2003 and 2004, a period lacking major episodic events. We use triangular dislocations to mesh the curving rift zones and décollement. The southwest and east rift zones are continuous through the summit caldera area, where we also include a point center of dilatation beneath the southwest caldera. A décollement beginning about 12 km offshore at seven km depth dips approximately eight degrees northwest to achieving a depth of nine kilometers beneath the summit/rift zone. The décollement mesh continues at a shallower dip beneath the north flank of Kilauea reaching a final depth of 9.5 km beneath the north flank of Kilauea/south flank of Mauna Loa. Kinematic constraints enforce that opening at the base of the rift equal the differential décollement slip across the rift. Future modeling will include tests of Koae and Hilina fault geometries as well as time-dependent modeling of the deformation field.
Moure, David; Torres, Pedro A.; Meletlidis, Stavros; Lopez, Carmen; José Blanco, María
A low cost and low power consumption multiparametric system designed for volcano monitoring is presented. Once tested with various sensors, at present it is installed in two locations in Tenerife, Canary Islands, acquiring and transmitting data in real time. The system is based on a commercial board (Raspberry Pi®, RPi®) that uses an embedded ARMTM processor with a Debian (Wheezy-Raspbian) Linux Operating System. This configuration permits different standard communication systems between devices as USB and ETHERNET, and also communication with integrated circuits is possible. The whole system includes this platform and self-developed hardware and software. Analog signals are acquired at an expansion board with an ADC converter with three 16 bits channels. This board, which is powered directly from the RPi®, provides timing to the sampling data using a Real Time Clock (RTC). Two serial protocols (I2C and SPI) are responsible for communications. Due to the influence of atmospheric phenomena on the volcano monitoring data, the system is complemented by a self-developed meteorological station based on ArduinoCC and low cost commercial sensors (atmospheric pressure, humidity and rainfall). It is powered with the RPi® and it uses a serial protocol for communications. Self-developed software run under Linux OS and handles configuration, signal acquisition, data storage (USB storage or SD card) and data transmission (FTP, web server). Remote configuration, data plotting and downloading is available through a web interface tool. Nowadays, the system is used for gravimetric and oceanic tides data acquisition in Tenerife and soon it will be applied for clinometric data.
William L. Osborn, Susan Petty, Trenton T. Cladouhos, Joe Iovenitti, Laura Nofziger, Owen Callahan, Douglas S. Perry and Paul L. Stern
Phase I of the Newberry Volcano Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration included permitting, community outreach, seismic hazards analysis, initial microseismic array deployment and calibration, final MSA design, site characterization, and stimulation planning. The multi-disciplinary Phase I site characterization supports stimulation planning and regulatory permitting, as well as addressing public concerns including water usage and induced seismicity. A review of the project'ÃÂÃÂs water usage plan by an independent hydrology consultant found no expected impacts to local stakeholders, and recommended additional monitoring procedures. The IEA Protocol for Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems was applied to assess site conditions, properly inform stakeholders, and develop a comprehensive mitigation plan. Analysis of precision LiDAR elevation maps has concluded that there is no evidence of recent faulting near the target well. A borehole televiewer image log of the well bore revealed over three hundred fractures and predicted stress orientations. No natural, background seismicity has been identified in a review of historic data, or in more than seven months of seismic data recorded on an array of seven seismometers operating around the target well. A seismic hazards and induced seismicity risk assessment by an independent consultant concluded that the Demonstration would contribute no additional risk to residents of the nearest town of La Pine, Oregon. In Phase II of the demonstration, an existing deep hot well, NWG 55-29, will be stimulated using hydroshearing techniques to create an EGS reservoir. The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is allowing geothermal industry and academic experts to develop, validate and enhance geoscience and engineering techniques, and other procedures essential to the expansion of EGS throughout the country. Successful development will demonstrate to the American public that EGS can play a
Philippe, P.; Ngoma, J.; Delenne, J.
Fluid overpressure at the bottom of a soil layer may generate fracturation in preferential paths for a cohesive material. But the case of sandy soils is rather different: a significant internal flow is allowed within the material and can potentially induce hydro-mechanical instabilities whose most common example is fluidization. Many works have been devoted to fluidization but very few have the issue of initiation and development of a fluidized zone inside a granular bed, prior entire fluidization of the medium. In this contribution, we report experimental results and numerical simulations on a model system of immersed sand volcanos generated by a localized upward spring of liquid, injected at constant flow-rate at the bottom of a granular layer. Such a localized state of fluidization is relevant for some industrial processes (spouted bed, maintenance of navigable waterways,…) and for several geological issues (kimberlite volcano conduits, fluid venting, oil recovery in sandy soil, More precisely, what is presented here is a comparison between experiments, carried out by direct visualization throughout the medium, and numerical simulations, based on DEM modelling of the grains coupled to resolution of NS equations in the liquid phase (LBM). There is a very good agreement between the experimental phenomenology and the simulation results. When the flow-rate is increased, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not extend to the top of the layer, and finally fluidization over the entire height of layer that creates a fluidized chimney. A very strong hysteretic effect is present here with an extended range of stability for fluidized cavities when flow-rate is decreased back. This can be interpreted in terms force chains and arches. The influences of grain diameter, layer height and injection width are studied and interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh . Finally, growing rate of the fluidized zone and
Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.
Mari, Nicola; Gravina, Teresita
The Marsili volcano is the largest and active seamount in Europe, located in the Marsili Basin back-arc basin (Aeolian Arc, Italy). Its flanks are unstables and a large collapse could originate a disastrous tsunami that will strike the tyrrhenian coasts of Southern Italy. In this work we used a GIS methodology in order to calculate the tsunami travel time starting from Marsili volcano, in particular the time that the wave needs to arrive on the tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria (South Italy). Although, we made a qualitative risk perception analysis by distributing a questionnaire at the population from different parts of Calabria. As a result, we obtained a tsunami travel time of 20-25 minutes for almost all the Calabria coasts and a tsunami celerity above the normal because of the great sea depth near the analysed coasts. The majority of the population declare to know the meaning of "tsunami" and a great number of them retain to be affected by a tsunami risk in the place where they live, but they are no instructed about this risk. A great quantity of people links the tsunami generation to a submarine volcanic eruption. In conclusion, by looking at the tsunami travel time calculated through GIS, the installation of an alert system need along the tyrrhenian coast of Calabria, with an alert advise of around 10 minutes and an evacuation plan of 10 minutes. More integration within GIS and the questionnaire data needs in order to create right evacuation plans and to conduct formative activities for each area.
Modern volcano physics started in the 1960s with the advent of the plate tectonic model for dynamic Earth. It progressed steadily along with other geosciences. The main steps were driven by the development of laboratory facilities for the simulation of T and P conditions in the deep interior of the Earth and of geophysical methods to probe the interior of volcanoes and to monitor its dynamics. The use of large computing facilities permitted to address the non-linearity of volcanic processes. Volcano physics is going very fast towards the possibility of an integrated use of different geophysical and geochemical monitoring data, history of past eruption of a volcano and results of analogical and numerical simulations on magma ascent and eruption, within quantitative probabilistic models of eruption forecasting.
Duffield, Wendell A.
A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.
Five monogenetic volcanoes within the Quaternary Auckland volcanic field are shown to have recorded a virtually identical but anomalous paleomagnetic direction (mean inclination and declination of 61.7° and 351.0°, respectively), consistent with the capture of a geomagnetic excursion. Based on documented rates of change of paleomagnetic field direction during excursions this implies that the volcanoes may have all formed within a period of only 50-100 years or less. These temporally linked volcanoes are widespread throughout the field and appear not to be structurally related. However, the general paradigm for the reawakening of monogenetic fields is that only a single new volcano or group of closely spaced vents is created, typically at intervals of several hundred years or more. Therefore, the results presented show that for any monogenetic field the impact of renewed eruptive activity may be significantly under-estimated, especially for potentially affected population centres and the siting of sensitive facilities.
Jakovlev, Andrey; Koulakov, Ivan; Abkadyrov, Ilyas; Shapiro, Nikolay; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Deev, Evgeny; Gordeev, Evgeny; Chebrov, Viktor
We present details of four field campaigns carried out on different volcanoes of Kamchatka in 2012-2015. Each campaign was performed in three main steps: (i) installation of the temporary network of seismic stations; (ii) autonomous continuous registration of three component seismic signal; (III) taking off the network and downloading the registered data. During the first campaign started in September 2012, 11 temporary stations were installed over the Avacha group of volcanoes located 30 km north to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in addition to the seven permanent stations operated by the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey (KBGS). Unfortunately, with this temporary network we faced with two obstacles. The first problem was the small amount of local earthquakes, which were detected during operation time. The second problem was an unexpected stop of several stations only 40 days after deployment. Nevertheless, after taking off the network in August 2013, the collected data appeared to be suitable for analysis using ambient noise. The second campaign was conducted in period from August 2013 to August 2014. In framework of the campaign, 21 temporary stations were installed over Gorely volcano, located 70 km south to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Just in time of the network deployment, Gorely Volcano became very seismically active - every day occurred more than 100 events. Therefore, we obtain very good dataset with information about thousands of local events, which could be used for any type of seismological analysis. The third campaign started in August 2014. Within this campaign, we have installed 19 temporary seismic stations over Tolbachik volcano, located on the south side of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group. In the same time on Tolbachik volcano were installed four temporary stations and several permanent stations operated by the KBGS. All stations were taking off in July 2015. As result, we have collected a large dataset, which is now under preliminary analysis
Montanaro, C.; J. Beget
The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are re...
Xu, Sheng; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Uto, Kozo; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.
This article presents new radiocarbon ages for the lavas, pyroclastic flow, and lahar deposits that originated from the Fugendake and Mayuyama volcanoes of the Younger Unzen Volcano, SW Japan. Nine charcoal samples were collected from the lavas and pyroclastic flow deposits, and 17 soil samples from the underlying volcanic-related products. This data set, together with previously published ages (thermoluminescence, K-Ar, fission track, and 14C), yielded new information about the timing of Lat...
Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar F.; Bagtasa, Gerry; Crisologo, Irene A.; Bernard Alan B. Racoma; Carlos Primo C. David
Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterized by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and ...
Goitom, Berhe; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O.S.; Grandin, Raphael; Barnie, Talfan; Donovan, Amy; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Yohannes, Ermias; Kibrom, Goitom; Kendall, J-Michael; Carn, Simon A.; Fee, David; Sealing, Christine; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay
We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of re- gional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative ...
Caracausi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Paternoster, M.; Dipartimento di Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy; Nuccio, P. M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia
Mantle volatiles are mainly lost from the Earth to the atmosphere through subaerial and submarine volcanism. Recent studies have shown that degassing of mantle volatiles also occurs from inactive volcanic areas and in tectonically active areas. A new challenge in Earth science is to quantify the mantle-derived flux of volatiles (e.g., CO2) which is important for understanding such diverse issues as the evolution of the atmosphere, the relationships between magma degassing and volcanic activit...
We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for 10Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The 10Be concentrations and 10Be/9Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The 10Be and 9Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the 10Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low 10Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of 40K and U-Th-series radionuclides (234Th, 210Pb, 226Ra, and 228Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the 10Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.
Legrand, Denis; Bataille, Klaus; Cembrano, Jose; Pavez, Andres; Bashkar, Kundu; Gahalaut, Vineet; Perez, Raul
Some monogenetic volcano fields are very close to cities, such as in New Zealand or in México. A new monogenetic volcano may appear at any place and at any time, which could be potentially hazardous for nearby regions. The ability to detect a new one in advance is obviously very important and challenging. The existence of nearby seismometers may help for such detection. Magma sometimes reaches the surface with the birth of a volcano which can be monogenetic, but in other cases the magma does not reach the surface How to detect such movements? How to be sure the magma will reach the surface? Some observations may detect them, such as seismicity which is distributed as a swarm, with a very peculiar distribution in time and magnitudes. In particular, it is important to distinguish between a tectonic swarm and a volcanic swarm. Scaling laws of seismicity in magnitude and time help to perform such a distinction. We show three cases: a seismic swarm in Chile, in the 2007 Aysen crisis, corresponding to an aborted birth of a monogenetic volcano; a seismic swarm triggered after the 2004 great Mw~9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake over an old monogenetic volcano; and a spatial study of monogenetic volcanoes in Mexico (Michoacán) showing the difficulty to forecast the place and time of the birth of a monogenetic cone without seismological records.
Kim, K. J.; Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J.; Feyzullayev, A. A.; Aliyev, C.; Matsuzaki, H.; Jull, A. J. T.
We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for 10Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The 10Be concentrations and 10Be/9Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The 10Be and 9Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the 10Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low 10Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of 40K and U-Th-series radionuclides (234Th, 210Pb, 226Ra, and 228Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the 10Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.
Lagravinese, Raffaele; Paradiso, Massimo
The vulnerability of health sector to corruption lies in the complex interaction between the social environment and the institutional setting of health systems. We investigate this interaction in the case of Italy, speci�cally looking at the impact of corruption on health expenditure. In Italy corruption is a social phenomenon. Health sector has been often involved in corruption o¤ences and decentralized health expenditure is considerably out of control. We show that the impact of corrupti...
A particular aspect of demographic behavior among young people in Italy is postponement of entering first union. High youth unemployment, a tense housing situation, and a passive welfare state are currently creating a precarious economic situation, in which most young adults are unable to choose cohabitation. Thus, not surprisingly, previous studies found evidence that in Italy cohabitation was only a choice for people who were economically independent. Also of interest is that the percentage...
Yasuo Ohe; Adriano Ciani
The purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate the demand characteristics of agritourism in Italy, which has not been fully investigated despite the relatively high number of the supply-side studies on the Italian agritourism. Design – First this paper conceptually characterized the features of agritourism as the old and modern types and outlined the trend of supply and demand in agritourism in Italy in comparison with Japan. Second, this paper statistically examined the characte...
Zecca Marco; Casazza Gabriella; Tamaro Paolo; Vasconcelos Carivaldo; Aricò Maurizio; Bisogno Gianni; Quarello Paola; De Rosa Marisa; Dini Giorgio; Rondelli Roberto; De Laurentis Clementina; Porta Fulvio; Pession Andrea
Abstract Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods ...
Full Text Available We report helium isotope data for 0.03–1 Ma olivine-bearing basaltic hawaiites from three volcanoes of the southern Italy magmatic province (Ustica, Pantelleria, and Linosa Islands. Homogenous 3He/4He ratios (range: 7.3–7.6 Ra for the three islands, and their similarity with the ratio of modern volcanic gases on Pantelleria, indicate a common magmatic end-member. In particular, Ustica (7.6±0.2 Ra clearly differs from the nearby Aeolian Islands Arc volcanism, despite its location on the Tyrrhenian side of the plate boundary. Although limited in size, our data set complements the large existing database for helium isotope in southern Italy and adds further constraints upon the spatial extent of intraplate alkaline volcanism in southern Mediterranea. As already discussed by others, the He-Pb isotopic signature of this magmatic province indicates a derivation from a mantle diapir of a OIB-type that is partially diluted by the depleted upper mantle (MORB mantle at its periphery.
The various components of Earthscope together provide vital information that will yield far better constraints on earthquake and volcano processes. First order questions that will be addressed include: (1) What controls the time scale of inelastic stress transfer between fault segments, and the timing of triggered earthquakes? Is it viscous relaxation of crust and upper mantle? Afterslip? Poroelastic relaxation? Or is delayed triggering controlled by the time it takes stressed fault patches to accelerate to instability? (2) How common are transient fault slip episodes (slow earthquakes) and transient regional deformation events? How do they evolve in space and time? What does the occurrence of these events teach us about fault zone constitutive properties? (3) How do earthquakes nucleate? Can we extrapolate from laboratory to the field? Does the nucleation phase scale with eventual magnitude? (4) What is the deep architecture of fault zones? Can we distinguish thick lithosphere versus thin lithosphere models? I illustrate 1) above using observations from a pair of earthquake that occurred in the South Iceland Seismic Zone in 2000. The data indicate poroelastic effects dominate during the first few months after the earthquakes (Jonsson et al, this meeting). In contrast, aftershocks decay over a much longer interval. Interpretation is complicated by limited depth resolution given the observed surface deformation. Fault slip transients (2) have been detected in both transform and subduction environments. I will briefly review recent progress in inverting for the space-time distribution of fault silp-rate and possible implications for fault zone constitutive properties. I also suggest that progress in addressing (4), the deep structure of faults will require integration of geologic, geodetic, and geophysical imaging data. Within the volcano realm key questions include: (5) How does premonitory deformation vary with eruptive style and magma composition? Much data is
Full Text Available Lautaro is the volcano closest to the Chile Triple Junction in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. The volcanic edifice of 3,607 m a.s.l. stands out on the north-western part of the plateau of the South Patagonian Ice Field. The volcano basement is composed of low-grade meta-pelites that are cut by tabular intrusive bodies of hornblende-biotite granite. The volcano is almost completely covered by ice and the study was performed on volcanic detritus present in terminal moraines of the Lautaro Glacier and the tephra on the surface of the O'Higgins Glacier. The terminal moraines of Lautaro Glacier contain fragments of light grey dacite rich in plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts. Some dacite blocks show prismatic jointing, suggesting an origin of hot emplacement and subsequent rapid cooling, possibly resulted from collapse of a steep lava front. Some samples have glassy groundmass and rhyolite-like flow texture, with presence of mafic inclusions and bread crust bomb texture. The surface of the O'Higgins Glacier is covered by lapilli-size pumice fallout deposit. There are many dirt cones covered by volcanic ash composed of pumice fragments, volcanic glass, quartz, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, and orthopyroxene. The ash and pumice are similar in chemical composition, both indicating an adakitic signature. At least three layers of fallout deposits have been recognised in parts of the surface of the glacier, which may correspond to the latest known eruptionsReconocimiento geológico del volcán Lautaro, Patagonia chilena. El volcán Lautaro es el más próximo al Punto Triple de la dorsal de Chile en la Zona Volcánica Austral de los Andes. El edificio volcánico de 3.607 m s.n.m. se destaca como el punto más alto en la parte noroeste del plateau del Campo de Hielo Patagónico Sur. El basamento del volcán está compuesto por metapelitas de bajo grado metamórfico que están atravesadas por cuerpos tabulares constituidos por granitos de
Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Liang, Wen-Tzong
The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located at the northern tip of Taiwan, near the capital Taipei and close to two nuclear power plants. Because of lack of any activity in historical times it has been classified as an extinct volcano, even though more recent studies suggest that TVG might have been active during the last 20 ka. In May 2003 a seismic monitoring project at the TVG area was initiated by deploying eight three-component seismic stations some of them equipped with both short-period and broadband sensors. During the 18 months observation period local seismicity mainly consisted of high frequency earthquakes either occurring as isolated events, or as a continuous sequence in the form of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency events were also present during the same period, even though they occurred only rarely. Arrival times from events with clear P-/S-wave phases were inverted in order to obtain a minimum 1D velocity model with station corrections. Probabilistic nonlinear earthquake locations were calculated for all these events using the newly derived velocity model. Most high frequency seismicity appeared to be concentrated near the areas of hydrothermal activity, forming tight clusters at depths shallower than 4 km. Relative locations, calculated using the double-difference method and utilising catalogue and cross-correlation differential traveltimes, showed insignificant differences when compared to the nonlinear probabilistic locations. In general, seismicity in the TVG area seems to be primarily driven by circulation of hydrothermal fluids as indicated by the occurrence of spasmodic bursts, mixed/low frequency events and a b-value (1.17 ± 0.1) higher than in any other part of Taiwan. These observations, that are similar to those reported in other dormant Quaternary volcanoes, indicate that a magma chamber may still exist beneath TVG and that a future eruption or period of unrest should not be considered unlikely.
Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst
Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind volcano formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be increased on Mars because the lower atmospheric pressure favors more rapid exsolution of dissolved gases from the magma, which also favors a wider dispersion of ejected particles. Therefore, care must be taken when applying terrestrial morphometric relationships to the interpretation of hypothesized volcanic features on Mars and other terrestrial bodies. As on Earth, small-scale volcanoes on Mars display diverse shapes and hence provide insight into diverse volcanic processes responsible for such variations. Those diverse processes may point to various mechanisms of magma ascent and eruption styles in dependency on magma properties (e.g., amount of volatiles) and the paleo
Coombs, M.L.; White, S.M.; Scholl, D. W.
Along the 450-km-long stretch of the Aleutian volcanic arc from Great Sitkin to Kiska Islands, edifice failure and submarine debris-avalanche deposition have occurred at seven of ten Quaternary volcanic centers. Reconnaissance geologic studies have identified subaerial evidence for large-scale prehistoric collapse events at five of the centers (Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Tanaga, Gareloi, and Segula). Side-scan sonar data collected in the 1980s by GLORIA surveys reveal a hummocky seafloor fabric north of several islands, notably Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Bobrof, Gareloi, Segula, and Kiska, suggestive of landslide debris. Simrad EM300 multibeam sonar data, acquired in 2005, show that these areas consist of discrete large blocks strewn across the seafloor, supporting the landslide interpretation from the GLORIA data. A debris-avalanche deposit north of Kiska Island (177.6?? E, 52.1?? N) was fully mapped by EM300 multibeam revealing a hummocky surface that extends 40??km from the north flank of the volcano and covers an area of ??? 380??km2. A 24-channel seismic reflection profile across the longitudinal axis of the deposit reveals a several hundred-meter-thick chaotic unit that appears to have incised into well-bedded sediment, with only a few tens of meters of surface relief. Edifice failures include thin-skinned, narrow, Stromboli-style collapse as well as Bezymianny-style collapse accompanied by an explosive eruption, but many of the events appear to have been deep-seated, removing much of an edifice and depositing huge amounts of debris on the sea floor. Based on the absence of large pyroclastic sheets on the islands, this latter type of collapse was not accompanied by large eruptions, and may have been driven by gravity failure instead of magmatic injection. Young volcanoes in the central and western portions of the arc (177?? E to 175?? W) are located atop the northern edge of the ??? 4000-m-high Aleutian ridge. The position of the Quaternary stratocones relative to the
Humphreys, Madeleine; Edmonds, Marie; Christopher, Thomas; Hards, Vicky
Arc volcanoes commonly show evidence of mingling between mafic and silicic magma. For example, the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat typically erupts andesitic magma containing basaltic to basaltic-andesite inclusions. However, the andesite also contains a wide variety of phenocryst textures as well as strongly zoned microlites, suggesting that more intimate physical mixing also occurs. Analysis of minor elements in both phenocrysts and microlites allows the discrimination of different crystal populations, and provides insight into their origins. Microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene are chemically distinct from the phenocrysts, being enriched in Fe and Mg, and Al and Ca respectively. However, they are indistinguishable from the compositions of these phases in the mafic inclusions. Microlite compositions also give anomalously high temperatures using standard geothermometry techniques, similar to those of the mafic inclusions. Compositions of clinopyroxene from overgrowth rims on quartz and orthopyroxene and coarse-grained breakdown rims on hornblende, are identical to those from the mafic inclusions, indicating that these rims form during interaction with mafic magma. We infer that the inclusions disaggregated under conditions of high shear stress during ascent in the conduit, transferring mafic material into the andesite groundmass. This implies that the mafic component of the system is greater than previously determined from the volume proportion of mafic enclaves. The presence of mafic-derived microlites in the andesite groundmass also means that care must be taken when using this as a starting material for phase equilibrium experiments. Melt inclusions and matrix glasses in the erupted include an anomalously K2O-rich population which overlaps with residual (high-K2O, high-TiO2) mafic inclusion glass. These glasses represent the effects of physical mixing with mafic magma, both during ascent and by diffusive exchange during the formation of mafic
Nishimura, T.; Iguchi, M.; Oikawa, J.; Yakiwara, H.; Aoyama, H.; Ohta, Y.; Nakamichi, H.; Tameguri, T.
Suwanose-jima is one of the most active volcano located in the Pacific ocean south of Kyushu region, Japan. The volcano often shows repetitive small vulcanian explosions from the active crater every a few tens of minutes, although such repetitive activity intermittently occurs for these decades. We deploy six tilt meters at depth 3-5 m and four broad band seismometers in the distance ranges of about 400 - 1500 m from the active crater to detect tiny changes of volcano deformations and to understand the magma ascent process in the conduit prior to small explosions. . The tilt meter closely set up to the active crater detects uplift of the active crater of about 10 n rad. The uplift starts about 60 - 100 s before each explosion. For the period during which small explosions repeatedly occur, small amounts of volcanic gasses and ashes are in general continuously emitted from the active crater, generating continuous tremor. But, the volcanic tremor amplitude sometimes decreases suddenly, and then the inflation starts. This coincidence of the top of continuous tremor stop and start of the inflation suggests that something like a cap, maybe consisting of solidified or high-viscous magma, stops the flow of gasses and ashes at the top of the conduit, and pressurizes the shallow part of conduit. Since each explosion is so small that signal to noise ratios of the tilt data are not high, we stack the tilt data to improve the accuracy and to obtain an average view on the volcano inflation prior to explosions. Adjusting the time of tilt records at the initial arrival of each explosion earthquake, we stack tens of tilt data for the data in 2009 and 2010-2011 separately. The stacked tilt data in 2009 shows some accelerated temporal changes in inflations, while the stacked tilt data in 2010-2011, which is a little smaller in amplitude than the tilt in 2009, indicate inflations constantly increasing with time. Since the pressure source of inflation is considered to be located at a
Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia
The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. PMID:22300481
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Italy. (J.S.)
Vicarelli, Giovanna; Pavolini, Emmanuele
More precise health workforce governance has become a prominent issue in healthcare systems. This issue is particularly important in Italy, given its strongly doctor-centered healthcare system and the dramatic aging of its physicians' labor force. Using different sources of information (statistical data, official planning documents and interviews with key informants), the article attempts to answer two questions. Why has the Italian healthcare systems found itself in the situation of a potential drastic reduction in the amount of doctors in the medium term without a rebalancing through a different mix of skills and professionals? How good is the capacity of the Italian healthcare system to plan healthcare workforce needs? The widespread presence of 'older' physicians is the result of the strong entry of doctors into the Italian healthcare system in the 1970s and 1980s. Institutional fragmentation, difficulties in drafting broad healthcare reforms, political instability and austerity measures explain why Italian health workforce forecasting and planning are still unsatisfactory, although recent developments indicate that changes are under way. In order to tackle these problems it is necessary to foster closer cooperation among a wide range of stakeholders, to move from uni-professional to multi-professional health workforce planning, and to partially re-centralise decision making. PMID:26470643
Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Mottini, N.
The main researches concerning the fuel cells in Italy are the PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell) and the MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell). This reports takes stock of these two techniques in Italy, explaining the running of these two types of cells and relating the Italian situation (development and research program, development programs of fuel cells vehicles). (O.M.)
Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.
Predicting volcanic activity requires continuous monitoring for signals of magmatic unrest in harsh, often remote environments. BENTO is a next-generation monitoring system, currently in prototype testing, that is highly portable, low-cost, rapidly deployable, and entirely autonomous. Such a system could be used to provide critical monitoring and data collection capabilities during rapid-onset eruptions, or to provide a crude baseline monitor at large numbers of remote volcanoes to 'flag' the onset of unrest so that costlier resources such as specialized instrumentation can be deployed in the appropriate place at the appropriate time. The BENTO 1 (low-rate data) prototype currently comprises off-the-shelf volcanic gas sensors (SO2, CO2, Fl, Cl, and Br), a weather station (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, pressure), and telemetry via Iridium modem. In baseline mode, BENTO 1 takes a measurement from all of its sensors every two hours and automatically sends the measurements through Iridium to a server that posts them to a dedicated and customizable web page. The measurement interval and other sensor parameters (pumping time, sensor constants) can be adjusted directly or remotely (through the Iridium network) as needed. Currently, BENTO 1 is deployed at Mt. Etna, Italy; Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, Hengill Volcano, Iceland; and Hekla Volcano, Iceland. The BENTO 2 (high-rate) system is motivated by a need to avoid having to telemeter raw seismic data, which at 20-100 Hz/channel is far too voluminous for cost- and power-effective transmission through satellite networks such as Iridium. Our solution is to regularly transmit only state-of-health information and descriptions of the seismic data (e.g., 'triggered' seismic event rates and amplitudes), rather than the data itself. The latter can be accomplished through on-board data analysis and reduction at the installation site. Currently, it is possible to request specific time segments of raw
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Italy. (J.S.)
Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Garrison, G. H.; Nordin, Y.; Uddenberg, M.; Swyer, M.
The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is a 5 year field project designed to demonstrate recent technological advances for engineered geothermal systems (EGS) development. Advances in reservoir stimulation, diverter, and monitoring are being tested in a hot (>300 C), dry well (NWG 55-29) drilled in 2008. These technologies could reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The project began in 2010 with two years of permitting, technical planning, and development of a project-specific Induced Seismicity Mitigation Plan (ISMP), and is funded in part by the Department of Energy. In 2012, the well was hydraulically stimulated with water at pressures below the principle stress for 7 weeks, resulting in hydroshearing. The depth of stimulation was successfully shifted by injection of two pills of Thermally-degradable Zonal Isolation Materials (TZIMs). Injectivity changes, thermal profiles and seismicity indicate that fracture permeability in well NWG 55-29 was enhanced during stimulation. This work successfully demonstrated the viability of large-volume (40,000 m3), low-pressure stimulation coupled with non-mechanical diverter technology, and microseismic monitoring for reservoir mapping. Further analysis and field testing in 2013 indicates further stimulation will be required in order to develop an economically viable reservoir, and is scheduled in 2014. The 2014 stimulation will use improved stimulation and monitoring equipment, better knowledge based on 2012 outcomes, and create a deep EGS reservoir in the hottest part of the wellbore.
Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Aron, F.; Delgado, F.; Macedo, O.; Aguilar, V.
An InSAR survey of all 13 Holocene volcanoes in the Andean Central Volcanic Zone of Peru reveals previously undocumented surface deformation that is occasionally accompanied by seismic activity. Our survey utilizes SAR data spanning from 1992 to the present from the ERS-1, ERS-2, and Envisat satellites, as well as selected data from the TerraSAR-X satellite. We find that the recent unrest at Sabancaya volcano (heightened seismicity since 22 February 2013 and increased fumarolic output) has been accompanied by surface deformation. We also find two distinct deformation episodes near Sabancaya that are likely associated with an earthquake swarm in February 2013 and a M6 normal fault earthquake that occurred on 17 July 2013. Preliminary modeling suggests that faulting from the observed seismic moment can account for nearly all of the observed deformation and thus we have not yet found clear evidence for recent magma intrusion. We also document an earlier episode of deformation that occurred between December 2002 and September 2003 which may be associated with a M5.3 earthquake that occurred on 13 December 2002 on the Solarpampa fault, a large EW-striking normal fault located about 25 km northwest of Sabancaya volcano. All of the deformation episodes between 2002 and 2013 are spatially distinct from the inflation seen near Sabancaya from 1992 to 1997. In addition to the activity at Sabancaya, we also observe deformation near Coropuna volcano, in the Andagua Valley, and in the region between Ticsani and Tutupaca volcanoes. InSAR images reveal surface deformation that is possibly related to an earthquake swarm near Coropuna and Sabancaya volcanoes in December 2001. We also find persistent deformation in the scoria cone and lava field along the Andagua Valley, located 40 km east of Corpuna. An earthquake swarm near Ticsani volcano in 2005 produced surface deformation centered northwest of the volcano and was accompanied by a north-south elongated subsidence signal to the
Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren
Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP, which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608 were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538 were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%, whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network.
Johnson, J. H.; Palacios, P.; Kendall, M.; Mader, H. M.
The measurement of seismic anisotropy using the method of shear wave splitting (SWS) has potential as a stress monitoring tool at volcanoes and is increasingly being used by researchers. Even though anisotropy, caused by preferentially aligned microcracks, can be a valid proxy for determining the stress regime in the subsurface, there are many other reasons that SWS may be observed. Anisotropy in the crust may be due to aligned macroscopic fractures, layering, or aligned minerals. Apparent SWS may also be observed due to site effects and phase conversions near the surface. Temporal changes in SWS may be an artefact of migrating sources passing through a heterogeneous anisotropic field. At Tungurahua Volcano in Ecuador, we have analysed SWS from local VT earthquakes from 2008 to 2012, spanning the onset of major eruptive activity in 2010. We have found significant site effects at several of the seismic stations, and corrections indicate how influential these effects can be. We explore both lateral and vertical variation in anisotropy, before targeting temporal variations associated with volcanic activity. Comparison with local geology and ground deformation allows us to identify regions where seismic anisotropy is controlled by local stress and is likely to change due to volcanic activity. Preliminary results suggest that apparent temporal changes in SWS measurements are due to sampling regions controlled by different mechanisms of anisotropy, demonstrating how important it is to identify the cause of anisotropy before seeking temporal variations caused by changing stress.
Geyer Traver, A.; Garcia-Selles, D.; Peddrazzi, D.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Marti, J.; Muñoz, J.
Monogenetic basaltic zones are common in many volcanic environments and may develop under very different geodynamic conditions. Despite existing clear similarities between the eruptive activity of different monogenetic volcanic fields, important distinctions may arise when investigating in detail the individual eruptive sequences. Interpretation of the deposits and consequently, the reconstruction and characterization of these eruptive sequences is crucial to evaluate the potential hazard in case of active areas. In diverse occasions, erosional processes (natural and/or anthropogenic) may partly destroy these relatively small-sized volcanic edifices exposing their internal parts. Furthermore, despite human activity in volcanic areas is sometimes unimportant due to the remote location of the monogenetic cones, there are places where this form of erosion is significant, e.g. Croscat volcano (Catalan Volcanic Field, Spain). In any case, when studying monogenetic volcanism, it is usual to find outcrops where the internal structure of the edifices is, for one or other reason, well exposed. However, the access to these outcrops may be extremely difficult or even impossible. During the last years, it has been demonstrated that the study of outcrops with problematic or completely restricted access can be carried out by means of digital representations of the outcrop surface. Digital outcrops make possible the study of those areas with natural access limitations or safety issues and may facilitate visualization of the features of interest over the entire outcrop, as long as the digital outcrop can be analysed while navigated in real- time, with optional displays for perspective, scale distortions, and attribute filtering. In particular, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TSL) instruments using Light Detection And Ranging technology (LIDAR) are capable of capturing topographic details and achieve modelling accuracy within a few centimetres. The data obtained enables the creation of
Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.
The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.
Carbone, D.; Privitera, E.; Zuccarello, L.; Rapisarda, S.; Rymer, H.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.
Between the 1st and 5th of September 2008, a multiparameteric experiment was performed at the summit of Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This volcano exhibits persistent degassing at its summit craters, punctuated by weak to mild explosions yielding gas jets and throwing ash, scoriae and lava lumps in the vicinity of the source crater 5-10 times an hour. This "normal" background activity can be interrupted by more violent, "major" explosions which can eject hot material several hundred meters from the craters. Such explosions represent a threat for tourists, guides and scientists in the summit area. Improved understanding of the processes controlling the explosive activity at Stromboli is thus a high priority for civil defense agencies. In spite of many theoretical and field-based studies on the subject, the mechanisms governing persistently activity and also the factors that may tip Stromboli volcano out of its dynamic equilibrium into paroxysm are still not fully understood. The main unresolved issues concern: (i) the mechanism allowing bubble coalescence; (ii) the level at which the gas accumulation occurs within the magmatic system prior to an explosive event and the timing of the process; (iii) the quantitative relationships between the amount of gas accumulated and the energy involved in the explosive event and (iv) the main difference in the overall process dynamics leading to either strombolian or paroxysmal explosions. In order to better constrain the "normal" explosive activity at Stromboli we took a multiparameteric approach, with the aim of improving our understanding of (i) the mechanisms driving the persistent activity and (ii) the geometrical characteristics of the upper plumbing system of Stromboli. The most challenging aspect of our experiment was to couple the observations usually accomplished to study persistently active volcanoes with continuous measurements of the gravity field. We thus installed a spring gravimeter (LaCoste and Romberg D
Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Lin, Li-Hung; Italiano, Francesco
Mud volcanoes and seeps are prominent surface manifestation of fluid channels connected to fluid/gas reservoirs in deep subsurface environments. While methane and carbon dioxide constitute the main components of exsolved gases, the discharge of these gases into the atmosphere have been estimated to exert profound effects on greenhouse over contemporary and geological time scales. How microbial processes and what community compositions imposed by different geochemical contexts near surface regulate the exact quantity of gas emission remain poorly constrained. In this study, porewater, gas and sediment geochemistry, and 16S rRNA genes for samples collected from mud volcanoes in Sicily of Italy were analyzed to investigate the changes of methane cycling and compositions of methanotrophic populations in response to different methane/CO2 ratios and other geochemical characteristics in gas bubbling environments. The analyses yielded contrast patterns of solute and gas geochemistry, and gene assemblages and abundances between sites related to different tectonic regimes. For sites located at the southern flank of Mt. Etna, methane and other hydrocarbons were low (less than tens of μM) in concentrations, whereas fluids were more saline than seawater and enriched with various solutes. No apparent methane consumption could be identified from geochemical profiles. Cell abundances were low, varying between 104 - 106 cells g‑1 with anaerobic methanotrophs being generally less than 104 cells g‑1. Communities were primarily composed of Halobacteriales, Gamma-Proteobacteria, Defferibacteres, Chloroflexi, and Delta-Proteobacteria. The dominant OTUs were related to heterotrophic halophiles, and sulfide oxidizers. While a fraction of sequences related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected, anaerobic methanotrophs and methanogens were rarely present. In contrast, methane and other hydrocarbons were high (generally more than 0.4 mM) at sites located within accretionary wedge
Unglert, K.; Radic, V.; Jellinek, M.
Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity can relate to changes in volcanic activity. Low-frequency seismic signals often precede or accompany volcanic eruptions. However, they are commonly manually identified in spectra or spectrograms, and their definition in spectral space differs from one volcanic setting to the next. Increasingly long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require automated tools to facilitate rapid processing and aid with pattern identification related to impending eruptions. Furthermore, knowledge transfer between volcanic settings is difficult if the methods to identify and analyze the characteristics of seismic signals differ. To address these challenges we evaluate whether a machine learning technique called Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) can be used to characterize the dominant spectral components of volcano seismicity without the need for any a priori knowledge of different signal classes. This could reduce the dimensions of the spectral space typically analyzed by orders of magnitude, and enable rapid processing and visualization. Preliminary results suggest that the temporal evolution of volcano seismicity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, can be reduced to as few as 2 spectral components by using a combination of SOMs and cluster analysis. We will further refine our methodology with several datasets from Hawai`i and Alaska, among others, and compare it to other techniques.
Matsushima, Takeshi; Takagi, Akimichi
Following 198 years of dormancy, an eruption started at Mt. Fugen, the main peak of Unzen volcano, in Kyushu, Japan, in November 1990. A dacite lava dome began to grow in May 1991. We installed the surveying points of GPS in 1992 around the lava dome in order to observe the ground deformation that accompanied the growth of the lava dome. In the winters of 1993 and 1994, we observed swift ground deformations that radiated from the vent of the volcano. It was presumed that rising magma accumulated and expanded the volcano body. After the lava effusion stopped in 1995, we also installed surveying points on the lava dome. EDM mirrors were permanently fixed to the large rocks with bolts. A GPS survey was carried out 2 or 3 times each year to estimate the 3-dimensional displacement. The result of the EDM survey showed that the baselines from the flank of the volcano were shortening 5 mm per day, and the result of the GPS survey showed that the displacement vector of the dome was parallel to the direction of the steepest slope of the old volcano body. This indicates that the inside of the lava dome is still very hot, and that deformation of the dome is viscous.
Lopes Pereira, R.; Trindade, J.; Gonçalves, F.; Suresh, L.; Barbosa, D.; Vazão, T.
Monitoring of volcanic activity is important for learning about the properties of each volcano and for providing early warning systems to the population. Monitoring equipment can be expensive, and thus the degree of monitoring varies from volcano to volcano and from country to country, with many volcanoes not being monitored at all. This paper describes the development of a wireless sensor network (WSN) capable of collecting geophysical measurements on remote active volcanoes. Our main goals were to create a flexible, easy-to-deploy and easy-to-maintain, adaptable, low-cost WSN for temporary or permanent monitoring of seismic tremor. The WSN enables the easy installation of a sensor array in an area of tens of thousands of m2, allowing the location of the magma movements causing the seismic tremor to be calculated. This WSN can be used by recording data locally for later analysis or by continuously transmitting it in real time to a remote laboratory for real-time analyses. We present a set of tests that validate different aspects of our WSN, including a deployment on a suspended bridge for measuring its vibration.
Full Text Available The Romanian transnational migration represents one of the most important social processes that our country had to face during the past two decades, involving over 3,5 million citizens. The most compatriots have left, especially for working, to Italy, Spain, France, England, Greece, and to other continents. The biggest Romanian immigrant community in different European states is in Italy and Spain, and the migration phenomenon form Romania is still in process. The main purpose of this article is to respond at three important questions: Who are those who have left from Romania to Italy, in what regions they are living and working? Which are the most important reasons of their options for this country? In what measure living in a foreign society has influenced their cultural identity and their value options? In the article is also presented a brief history of the sociological researches on Romanian immigrants from Italy, socio-demographical data and comparative analyses. The main research methods that we have used are the statistical method and the opinion query based upon questionnaire. The initial hypothesis, that Romanians from Italy have preserved, generally, their cultural identity, was confirmed by the results of the sociological field research
Bard, Joseph A.; Ramsey, David W.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Sherrod, David R.; Chitwood, Lawrence A.; Jensen, Robert A.
Newberry Volcano, one of the largest Quaternary volcanoes in the conterminous United States, is a broad shield-shaped volcano measuring 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west with a maximum elevation of more than 2 km. Newberry Volcano is the product of deposits from thousands of eruptions, including at least 25 in the past approximately 12,000 years (Holocene Epoch). Newberry Volcano has erupted as recently as 1,300 years ago, but isotopic ages indicate that the volcano began its growth as early as 0.6 million years ago. Such a long eruptive history and recent activity suggest that Newberry Volcano is likely to erupt in the future. This geologic map database of Newberry Volcano distinguishes rocks and deposits based on their composition, age, and lithology.
Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Osborn, W.; Clyne, M.; Nichols, M. L.; Nofziger, L.
An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir is created by injecting water under pressure into a geothermal well which induces shear slip on existing fractures ("hydroshearing"). The shear slip increases fracture permeability and induces microseismicity that can be detected by seismometers and used to map EGS reservoir growth. Most induced seismic events have a magnitude less than 2.0 and are not felt at the surface. However, some EGS projects have generated events large enough to be felt and cause minor damage. As a part of Phase I of the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration project, several data sets were collected to characterize the rock volume around the target well (NWG 55-29 on the NW flank of the volcano) and understand the induced seismicity potential. Fracture, fault, stress, and seismicity data has been collected by a borehole televiewer (BHTV), LiDAR elevation maps, and microseismic monitoring. Well logs and cuttings from the well and core from a nearby core hole (Geo N-2) have been analyzed to develop geothermal, geochemical, mineralogical and strength models of the rock matrix, altered zones, and fracture fillings. These characterization data sets provide inputs to AltaStim, a proprietary software model developed by AltaRock to plan and predict EGS induced seismicity, reservoir creation and productivity. The software is used to create a discrete fracture network (DFN) model, visualize EGS stimulation scenarios, and provide guidance for final planning. The process of creating an AltaStim model requires synthesis of geologic observations at the well, the modeled stress conditions, and the stimulation plan. The open-hole portion of the well was divided into five distinct zones defined by the contacts between various extrusive and intrusive volcanic units and variations in fracture intensity. The DFN model was constructed with fracture orientations and intensities bootstrapped from data interpreted from BHTV images and sliding friction coefficients based
Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.
Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely
Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco
An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several
Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Fox, Christopher G.
Much of the seafloor topography in the map area is on the southwest submarine flank of the currently active Mauna Loa Volcano. The benches and blocky hills shown on the map were shaped by giant landslides that resulted from instability of the rapidly growing volcano. These landslides were imagined during a 1986 to 1991 swath sonar program of the United States Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone, a cooperative venture by the U.S. Geological Survey and the British Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (Lipman and others, 1988; Moore and others, 1989). Dana Seamount (and probably also the neighboring Day Seamount) are apparently Cretaceous in age, based on paleomagnetic studies, and predate the growth of the Hawaiian Ridge volcanoes (Sager and Pringle, 1990).
Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Walker, S. L.; Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Buck, N.; de Ronde, C. E.; Arculus, R. J.
The northeast Lau Basin occupies a complex geological area between the Tafua arc front, the E-W trending Tonga Trench, and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center. These boundaries create multiple zones of extension and thus provide abundant opportunities for magma to invade the crust. The 25-km-long chain of “Mata” volcanoes lies near the center of this area, separated from both the arc front and the spreading ridge. In 2008 we discovered hydrothermal venting on the largest and most southerly of these volcanoes, W and E Mata. In 2010 we visited the 7 smaller volcanoes that form a 15-km-long arcuate sweep to the north from W and E Mata (the “North Matas”). We also revisited W and E Mata. Over each volcano we conducted CTD tows to map plumes and collect water samples. Based on the CTD results, camera tows searched for seafloor sources on three volcanoes. The N Mata volcanoes, extending from Mata Taha (1) in the south to Mata Fitu (7) in the north, lie within a prominent gap in the shallow bathymetry along the southern border of the Tonga trench. Northward from E Mata the Mata volcanoes degrade from large symmetrical cones to smaller and blocky volcanic edifices. Summit depths range from 1165 m (W Mata) to 2670 m (Mata Nima (5)). The most active volcano in the chain is the erupting W Mata, with an intense plume that extended 250 m above the summit. Hydrothermal temperature anomalies (Δθ, corrected for hydrographic masking effects) reached ˜1.7°C, with light-scattering values as high as 2-5 ΔNTU. The 2010 surveys now show that 6 of the 7 N Mata volcanoes are also hydrothermally active. Along the N Matas, Δθ and ΔNTU signals ranged from robust to weak, but distinct oxidation-reduction potential (aka Eh) anomalies confirmed active venting in each case. The most concentrated plumes were found near Mata Ua (2) and Mata Fitu (7), with Δθ and ΔNTU maxima of 0.1-0.17°C and 0.3, respectively. Despite the variability in plume strength, however, ΔNTU/Δθ ratios
Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.
Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.
Xu, M.; Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Peng, Y.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Kiely, A.; Peterson, N.; Ma, A.; Anusuya-Rangappa, L.; Miceli, M.; McBride, D.
In a volcano monitoring application, various geophysical and geochemical sensors generate continuous high-fidelity data, and there is a compelling need for real-time raw data for volcano eruption prediction research. It requires the network to support network synchronized sampling, online configurable sensing and situation awareness, which pose significant challenges on sensing component design. Ideally, the resource usages shall be driven by the environment and node situations, and the data quality is optimized under resource constraints. In this paper, we present our smart sensing component design, including hybrid time synchronization, configurable sensing, and situation awareness. Both design details and evaluation results are presented to show their efficiency. Although the presented design is for a volcano monitoring application, its design philosophy and framework can also apply to other similar applications and platforms. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo
On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.
LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya
The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from
McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.
The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.
Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Ionescu, Artur; Harangi, Szabolcs; Palcsu, László; Etiope, Giuseppe; Baciu, Cǎlin
The Ciomadul, located in the South Harghita Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) is the youngest volcano built by the Neogene volcanism in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region. The volcanic activity was characterized by an initial extrusive lava dome building period from about 200 ka to 100 ka followed by a more explosive eruption stage from 57 to 32 ka. Although the volcano seems to be inactive, several features (e.g. geophysical anomalies in the crust; fast remobilization of near solidus long lasting crystal mush prior to the past eruptions) suggest that melt-bearing magmatic body could still exist beneath the Ciomadul. This is supported by the abundance of dry gas emanations (CO2, CH4, H2S), CO2 rich mineral water springs and bubbling pools. The long-term observation of seemingly inactive, dormant volcanoes has become important in the past years (Ontake volcano-Japan, Colli Albani volcano-Italy). Gas-geochemical survey and monitoring (noble gases, isotopic composition of carbon species, flux measurements) of such volcanoes is an adequate tool in detecting changes in their volcanic plumbing system. Starting from 2015 we commenced a gas-monitoring study to constrain the origin of fluids at Ciomadul by measuring the flux of two gas-species and collecting the gas-phase from several mofettes and mineral water springs. A total of 46 sites have been surveyed, including 29 gas emanations (mofettes and bubbling pools), 3 drilled wells, 11 springs and 3 surface water sites. We provide the first complex CO2 and CH4 flux measurements in the area considering mofettes and bubbling pools. The CO2 flux values range between 10 and 264 kg/day while the CH4 flux has a range between 125 and 4723 g/day. Estimates of total CO2 and CH4 output into the atmosphere are ~229 and ~1.3 t/year, respectively. These values are consistent with other geothermal systems in Europe. The chemical composition of samples indicate CO2 content of up to 96.77%, CH4 content up to 1.42% and He content up to
Qadir Bhatti, Abdul
Italy is located on a earthquake prone area and old bridges were desinged without any seismic provision. In the years (2009), tremors were felt in Italy due to the strong earthquakes at Abruzzo, which highlight the earthquake threat to Italy. This study focuses on seismic vulnerability of arch type masonry bridge structures in Italy, designed primarily for gravity loads, when they are subjected to earthquakes. A case study has been carried out for the vulnerability study for a ...
This study examines the use of specific mud volcano features (i.e., elongated calderas, aligned vents and elongated volcanoes) as potential indicators of tectonic stress orientation. The stress indicator principles, widely recognised for magmatic systems, have been discussed and applied to mud volcano settings such as in the Northern Apennines and the Azerbaijan Greater Caucasus, as well as in other instances where the analysis was fully based on a remote sensing study. The results of these applications are promising, the obtained maximum horizontal stress (SH) directions generally showing a good correlation with those determined in the upper crust by classical methods (i.e., earthquake focal mechanism solutions, well bore breakouts). Therefore, stress information from mud volcanoes could be used as a proxy for stress orientation (1) where stress data is lacking, (2) where settings are inaccessible (i.e., underwater or the surface of planets), or simply (3) as supplementary stress indicators. This study also pays special attention to structural elements that may control fluid expulsion at various length scales, and pathways that should have spawned the mud volcanoes and controlled their paroxysmal events and eruptions. Different types of sub-planar brittle elements have been found to focus fluid flow rising up-through fold cores, where the vertical zonation of stresses may take part in this process by creating distinctive feeder fracture/fault sets. On a regional scale, mud volcanoes in active fold-and-thrust belts may occur over wider areas, such as the prolific mud volcanism in Azerbaijan, or may cluster along discrete structures like the steep Pede-Apennine thrust in the Northern Apennines, where the generation of overpressures is expected to establish a positive feedback loop allowing for fault movement and mud volcanism.
Lechner, H. N.; Gochis, E. E.; Brill, K. A.
How do you teach volcanology and volcanic hazards to students when there is no volcano nearby? You bring the volcano to them! At Michigan Technological University we have developed a four-lesson-unit for middle and high school students which incorporates virtual, analogue and numerical models to increase students' interests in geosciences while simultaneously expanding the community of earth-science-literate individuals necessary for a disaster resilient society. The unit aims to build on students' prior geoscience knowledge by examining the physical properties that influence volcanic eruptions and introduces them to challenges and methods of communicating hazards and risk. Lesson one engages students in a series of hands-on investigations that explore the "3-Vs" of volcanology: Viscosity, Volatiles and Volume. The students learn about the relationship between magma composition and viscosity and the influence on eruption style, behavior and morphology of different volcanoes. Lesson two uses an analogue model of a volcano to demonstrate the forces involved in an explosive eruption and associated hazards. Students think critically about the factors that affect hazards and risk as well as the variables (such as topography) that affect the eruption and the hazard. During lesson three students use Google Earth for a virtual field trip to Pacaya volcano, Guatemala to examine changes in the landscape over time and other evidence of volcanic activity to make interpretations about the volcano. The final lesson has the students use numerical models and GIS to create hazard maps based on probabilistic lahar scenarios. Throughout the unit students are engaged in an inquiry-based exploration that covers several Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) content and practices. This four lesson unit has been field tested in two school districts and during a summer engineering program. Results from student work and post-surveys show that this strategy raises interests in and
Full Text Available Abstract The authors analyse available data on the impact of predators on Dormouse populations in Italy. Dormice are found in the diet of 2 snakes (Vipera berus and V. aspis, 2 diurnal birds of prey (Buteo buteo and Aquila chrysaetos, 6 owls (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo and Glaucidium passerinum and 9 mammals (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M. foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris and Sus scrofa in a variable percentage of the prey taken. Only Dryomys nitedula was never encountered as a prey item. The most common prey is Muscardinus avellanarius. There are significative regional differences in predation between bioclimatic areas of the Italian peninsula. The contribution of studies on predation to knowledge of Myoxid distribution is discussed. Riassunto Predazione di Mioxidi in Italia - Sono analizzati i dati pubblicati sull'impatto dei predatori sulle popolazioni di Myoxidae in Italia. Myoxidae sono stati riscontrati nelle diete di 2 serpenti (Vipera berus e V. aspis, 2 rapaci diurni (Buteo buteo e Aquila chrysaetos, 6 notturni (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo e Glaucidium passerinum e 9 mammiferi (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris e Sus scrofa in percentuale variabile nella comunità di prede. Solo Dryomys nitedula non è mai stato incontrato come preda. La specie piu comunemente predata risulta Muscardinus avellanarius. Sono discusse le
For part of their historic records, nine of the most active volcanoes on earth have each erupted magma at a nearly constant rate. These output rates are very similar and range from 0.69 to 0.26 cu m/s. The volcanoes discussed - Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Fuego, Santiaguito, Nyamuragira, Hekla, Piton de la Fournaise, Vesuvius and Etna - represent almost the whole spectrum of plate tectonic settings of volcanism. A common mechanism of buoyantly rising magma-filled cracks in the upper crust may contribute to the observed restricted range of the rates of output.
José Antonio Naranjo; Edmundo Polanco
Although all historic eruptions of the Copahue volcano (37°45'S-71°10.2'W, 3,001 m a.s.l.) have been of low magnitude, the largest (VEI=2) and longest eruptive cycle occurred from July to October 2000. Phreatic phases characterized the main events as a former acid crater lake was blown up. Low altitude columns were deviated by low altitude winds in variable directions, but slightly predominant to the NNE. The presence of the El Agrio caldera depression to the east of Copahue volcano may have ...
Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.
Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less
Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina
This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…
Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Alonso, Mar
Tenerife (2,034 km2), the largest of the Canary Islands, is the only island that has developed a central volcanic complex (Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes), characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. This central volcanic complex has been built in the intersection of the three major volcanic rift-zones of Tenerife, where most of the historical volcanic activity has taken place. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system beneath Teide volcano is suggested by the occurrence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around the summit cone of Teide (Pérez et al., 2013). Diffuse emission studies of non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases such as helium have recently provided promising results to detect changes in the magmatic gas component at surface related to volcanic unrest episodes (Padrón et al., 2013). The geochemical properties of He minimize the interaction of this noble gas on its movement toward the earth's surface, and its isotopic composition is not affected by subsequent chemical reactions. It is highly mobile, chemically inert, physically stable, non-biogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions, almost non-adsorbable, and highly diffusive with a diffusion coefficient ˜10 times that of CO2. As part of the geochemical monitoring program for the volcanic surveillance of Teide volcano, yearly surveys of diffuse He emission through the surface of the summit cone of Teide volcano have been performed since 2006. Soil He emission rate was measured yearly at ˜130 sampling sites selected in the surface environment of the summit cone of Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands), covering an area of ˜0.5 km2, assuming that He emission is governed by convection and diffusion. The distribution of the sampling sites was carefully chosen to homogeneously cover the target area, allowing the computation of the total He emission by sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs). Nine surveys have been
Kozlowska, B.; University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40007 Katowice, Poland; Morelli, D.; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Italy; Walencik, A.; University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40007 Katowice, Poland; Dorda, J.; University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40007 Katowice, Poland; Altamore, I.; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita` di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania, Italy; Chieffalo, V.; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita` di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania, Italy; Giammanco, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Imme, G.; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita` di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64 I-95123 Catania, Italy; Zipper, W.; University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40007 Katowice, Poland
Radioactivity in underground waters from Mt. Etna was investigated on the basis of 13 samples. The samples were collected from springs, wells and galleries around the volcano. Water from nine out of thirteen intakes is used for consumption. Activity concentration of uranium isotopes 234,238U, radium isotopes 226,228Ra and radon 222Rn were determined with the use different nuclear spectrometry techniques. The measurements of radium and radon activity concentration were performed wi...
Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C.-H.
The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004-2007) of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF) earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF) events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7-8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1) HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5-6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.
Full Text Available The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004–2007 of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7–8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1 HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5–6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.
Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S. B.; Meier, K.; Scarlato, P.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Wagner, R.; Walk, F.; Dingwell, D. B.
Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. During explosive eruptions, gas and pyroclasts are ejected at high speed over variable time spans and at variable intensity. As magma fragmentation inside a volcanic edifice defies direct observation, our mechanistic understanding of the syn-eruptive processes is still incomplete. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring devices and experimental volcanology. We performed 34 field-based fragmentation experiments using cylindrical samples, drilled from natural volcanic rock samples. Decompression and particle ejection were monitored with a variety of scientific instruments, namely 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) high-speed thermal camera, 4) acoustic and infrasound sensors and 5) pressure transducers. The experiments were performed at controlled sample porosity (25 to 75 vol.%) and size (60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively), confinement geometry, applied pressure (4 to 18 MPa) and temperature (25 and 850 °C). We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast ejection, giving coherent results of up to 130 m/s. Using different set-ups (length and internal volume), we were able to reveal the influence on the infrasound signals. This is a very encouraging result and of paramount importance as it proves the applicability of these independent methods to volcano monitoring. Each method by itself may enhance our understanding of the pressurisation state of a volcano, an essential factor in ballistic hazard evaluation and eruption energy estimation.
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Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.
Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.
Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern
Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo
Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident
Londoño B. John Makario
Full Text Available An analysis of the seismic activity for volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT swarms zones at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV was carried out for the interval 1985- 2002, which is the most seismic active period at NRV until now (2010. The swarm-like seismicity of NRV was frequently concentrated in very well defined clusters around the volcano. The seismic swarm zone located at the active crater was the most active during the entire time. The seismic swarm zone located to the west of the volcano suggested some relationship with the volcanic crises. It was active before and after the two eruptions occurred in November 1985 and September 1989. It is believed that this seismic activity may be used as a monitoring tool of volcanic activity. For each seismic swarm zone the Vp/Vs ratio was also calculated by grouping of earthquakes and stations. It was found that each seismic swarm zone had a distinct Vp/Vs ratio with respect to the others, except for the crater and west swarm zones, which had the same value. The average Vp/Vs ratios for the seismic swarm zones located at the active crater and to the west of the volcano are about 6-7% lower than that for the north swarm zone, and about 3% lower than that for the south swarm zone. We suggest that the reduction of the Vp/Vs ratio is due to degassing phenomena inside the central and western earthquake swarm zones, or due to the presence of microcracks inside the volcano. This supposition is in agreement with other studies of geophysics, geochemistry and drilling surveys carried out at NRV.
Belousov, A.; Belousova, M.; Zaennudin, A.; Prambada, O.
Gede volcano (2958 m a.s.l.) and the adjacent Pangrango volcano (3019 m a.s.l.) form large (base diameter 35 km) volcanic massif 60 km south of Jakarta. While Pangrango has no recorded eruptions, Gede is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia: eruptions were reported 26 times starting from 1747 (Petroeschevsky 1943; van Bemmelen 1949). Historic eruptions were mildly explosive (Vulcanian) with at least one lava flow. Modern activity of the volcano includes persistent solfataric activity in the summit crater and periodic seismic swarms - in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2010, and 2012 (CVGHM). Lands around the Gede-Pangrango massif are densely populated with villages up to 1500-2000 m a.s.l. Higher, the volcano is covered by rain forest of the Gede-Pangrango Natural Park, which is visited every day by numerous tourists who camp in the summit area. We report the results of the detailed reinvestigation of volcaniclastic stratigraphy of Gede volcano. This work has allowed us to obtain 24 new radiocarbon dates for the area. As a result the timing and character of activity of Gede in Holocene has been revealed. The edifice of Gede volcano consists of main stratocone (Gumuruh) with 1.8 km-wide summit caldera; intra-caldera lava cone (Gede proper) with a 900 m wide summit crater, having 2 breaches toward N-NE; and intra-crater infill (lava dome/flow capped with 3 small craters surrounded by pyroclastic aprons). The Gumuruh edifice, composed mostly of lava flows, comprises more than 90% of the total volume of the volcano. Deep weathering of rocks and thick (2-4 m) red laterite soil covering Gumuruh indicates its very old age. Attempts to get 14C dates in 4 different locations of Gumuruh (including a large debris avalanche deposit on its SE foot) provided ages older than 45,000 years - beyond the limit for 14C dating. Outside the summit caldera, notable volumes of fresh, 14C datable volcaniclastic deposits were found only in the NNE sector of the volcano
Cristaldi, Melita; Pampanini, Giovanni
According to a progressive interpretation of human development, girls' education should form an integral part of a full democratic system. Nevertheless, girls' education is threatened and attacked in many ways in current societies, be they authoritarian or democratic societies, developing or developed ones. In this article the two authors, both…
Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T.L.; Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Ramsey, D.W.
Medicine Lake Volcano (MLV), located in the southern Cascades ??? 55??km east-northeast of contemporaneous Mount Shasta, has been found by exploratory geothermal drilling to have a surprisingly silicic core mantled by mafic lavas. This unexpected result is very different from the long-held view derived from previous mapping of exposed geology that MLV is a dominantly basaltic shield volcano. Detailed mapping shows that < 6% of the ??? 2000??km2 of mapped MLV lavas on this southern Cascade Range shield-shaped edifice are rhyolitic and dacitic, but drill holes on the edifice penetrated more than 30% silicic lava. Argon dating yields ages in the range ??? 475 to 300??ka for early rhyolites. Dates on the stratigraphically lowest mafic lavas at MLV fall into this time frame as well, indicating that volcanism at MLV began about half a million years ago. Mafic compositions apparently did not dominate until ??? 300??ka. Rhyolite eruptions were scarce post-300??ka until late Holocene time. However, a dacite episode at ??? 200 to ??? 180??ka included the volcano's only ash-flow tuff, which was erupted from within the summit caldera. At ??? 100??ka, compositionally distinctive high-Na andesite and minor dacite built most of the present caldera rim. Eruption of these lavas was followed soon after by several large basalt flows, such that the combined area covered by eruptions between 100??ka and postglacial time amounts to nearly two-thirds of the volcano's area. Postglacial eruptive activity was strongly episodic and also covered a disproportionate amount of area. The volcano has erupted 9 times in the past 5200??years, one of the highest rates of late Holocene eruptive activity in the Cascades. Estimated volume of MLV is ??? 600??km3, giving an overall effusion rate of ??? 1.2??km3 per thousand years, although the rate for the past 100??kyr may be only half that. During much of the volcano's history, both dry HAOT (high-alumina olivine tholeiite) and hydrous calcalkaline
Rincon, Marta; Marquez, Alvaro; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Herrera, Raquel; Granja Bruña, Jose Luis; Llanes, Pilar
The morphology of volcanoes provides important information about edifice evolution. Volcanoes can deform by gravitational instability and intrusions. This deformation can compromise volcano structural stability, promoting flank collapse even at dormant edifices. Identification of past/active deformation processes is therefore important not only for the understanding of volcano evolution but also for volcanic hazards. Both deformation due to the flank spreading of a volcano over its weak core and due to the intrusion of a cryptodome in the volcano edifice can produce faulting and changes in the morphology of volcano flanks. These morpho-structural changes in the volcano open the possibility to identify potential deformed and unstable volcanoes using remote sensing techniques and DEMs. We have used analogue models of flank spreading and intrusion processes to make progress in the morpho-structural identification of deformation features which can provide criteria for distinguishing processes. We have geometrically and mechanically scaled two different sets of experiments using a sand-plaster mixture for volcano materials, silicone putty for weak core rocks and Golden Syrup for magma intrusions. For monitoring changes in the volcano morphology we have used a Kinect sensor (Microsoft), which provides us vertical displacements of volcano flanks several times per second with a 1 mm precision. We have synchronized the Kinect sensor with a digital camera for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of tectonic structures together with morphology. All experiments produce asymmetrical changes in volcano morphology, developing convex-concave geometries in the deformed flank. However, the spatial relationships of structures with changes in volcano flank curvature are different for the two processes, as noted by previous authors. The morphometric tools developed for analyzing volcano topography allow us to identify intrusion processes due to volcano volume increase. We have
Balzaretti, Ross; Piana, Pietro; Watkins, Charles
The number of British travellers to Italy in search of health, education and increasingly leisure grew substantially during Turner’s lifetime. Like Turner, travellers recorded their observations in journals and diaries, and some turned their experiences into printed books and guidebooks. This essay examines this material and provides a vivid insight into the rich environment that shaped Turner’s artistic development.
"A long-awaited beam of neutrinos has finally made it from Switzerland to a laboratory 730kilometers away in central Italy. The scientists involved hope the project, first sketched out 25 years ago, will address one of the big unsolved problems in particle physics." (2 pages)
Full Text Available We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event – measured by the total number of casualties in the event – follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950–2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide
Yu, S.; An, H.; Oh, J.
This presentation will introduce our design to develop a volcano risk modeling capacity within the Hazus-MH loss estimation framework. In particular, we will present how to build fragility curves within the Hazus-MH framework for loss estimation from volcanoes. This capability is designed to analyze the risk from volcanic hazards in Korea. The Korean peninsula has Mt. Baekdu in North Korea, which will soon enter an active phase, according to some volcanologists. The anticipated eruption will be explosive given the viscous and grassy silica-rich magma, and is expected to be one of the largest in recent millennia. We aim to assess the impacts of this eruption, in particular to South Korea. There are several types of hazards related to volcanic eruption, including ash, pyroclastic flows, volcanic floods and earthquakes. However, our initial efforts focus on modeling losses from volcanic ash. The proposed volcanic ash model is anticipated to be used to estimate losses caused by yellow dust in East Asia as well. Also, many countries, which are exposed to potentially dangerous volcanoes, can benefit from the proposed Hazus-MH Volcano risk model. Acknowledgement: this research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-3] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea. We would like to thank Federal Emergency Management Agency which develops Hazus-MH and allows the international use of Hazus-MH.
Full Text Available The three volcanoes that are the object of this paper show different types of activity that are representative of the large variety of volcanism present in the Central Mediterranean area. Etna and Stromboli are sub-aerial volcanoes, with significant part of their structure under the sea, while the Marsili Seamount is submerged, and its activity is still open to debate. The study of these volcanoes can benefit from multi-parametric observations from the seafloor. Each volcano was studied with a different kind of observation system. Stromboli seismic recordings are acquired by means of a single Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS. From these data, it was possible to identify two different magma chambers at different depths. At Marsili Seamount, gravimetric and seismic signals are recorded by a battery-powered multi-disciplinary observatory (GEOSTAR. Gravimetric variations and seismic Short Duration Events (SDE confirm the presence of hydrothermal activity. At the Etna observation site, seismic signals, water pressure, magnetic field and acoustic echo intensity are acquired in real-time thanks to a cabled multi-disciplinary observatory (NEMO-SN1 . This observatory is one of the operative nodes of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO; www.emso-eu.org research infrastructure. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we speculate about deep Etna sources and follow some significant events, such as volcanic ash diffusion in the seawater.
Wagner-Pine, Linda; Keith, Donna Graham
Presents an integrated math/science activity that shows students the differences among the three types of volcanoes using observation, classification, graphing, sorting, problem solving, measurement, averages, pattern relationships, calculators, computers, and research skills. Includes reproducible student worksheet. Lists 13 teacher resources.…
Dapeng Zhao; Lucy Liu
We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate).The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions.
Full Text Available Combining the shaded relief topography model and the slope map from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM images, toporaphical map, field occurrences and petrography, the volcanic sequences of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup (HVS can be constructed. Two types of volcanic centers can be identified in this area. One is the Tachienhou volcanic dome, which may be located in the center of an older caldera. The other is the Huangtsui composite volcano, which is composed of interbedding lava flows and pyroclastic deposits with a volcanic crater named the Huangtsui pond at the summit. Eight lava plateaus radiated from Mts. Huangtsui and Tachienhou to the north and the east can be distinguished based on the DTM images. The volcanic deposits are comprised of four lithofacies, the lava flows, pyroclastic breccias, tuffs and lahars on the base of field occurrences. At least thirteen layers of lava flow, named the H1 to H13 can be recognized in the HVS and can be reconstructed and categorized into four stages. An old and large volcano erupted lava flows to form the products of stages one and two, then collapsed to form a caldera with a dome for the third stage. The latest stage of lava flow was poured out from the Huangtsui volcano, which formed a crater at the summit.
The geological history of the Krakatoa volcano, especially the eruption of 1883, is amply described in the great work “Krakatau” by R. D. M. Verheer (1885), the Report of the Krakatoa Committee (Royal Soc. London 1888) and in the publications of B. G. Escher (Handel. 1e Nederl. Indisch Natuurwet ens
Based on the new data the different characteristics of the Neoproterozoic (volcano) sedimentary succesions of Uruguay are described and discussed. Their stratigraphic tectonics and palaeoclimatic implications are analyzed.The results of the present investigations also allow to define the Maldonado Group which would beintegrated by the Playa Hermosa and Las Ventanas formations.
Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.
Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.
Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe
The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.
Full Text Available Campi Flegrei is a unique volcanic region located near Naples, Italy. Anomalous crustal movements at Pozzuoli in Campi Flegrei have been documented since the Roman period. The movements were gradual and have continued to the present, occasionally accompanying swarms of local earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Generally the movements proceed with low seismicity. After the 1538 eruption of Monte Nuovo, Pozzuoli had subsided monotonously, but it changed to uplift abruptly in 1969. The uplift accelerated in 1983 and 1984 reaching more than 2 m, and thereafter began to subside. Many discussions of this event have been published. In Japan, we have examples of deformations similar to those at Campi Flegrei, mainly in volcanic areas, and rarely in non-volcanic areas. The former includes Iwojima, Miyakejima and Aira caldera while the latter is represented by Cape Omaezaki. Iwojima is a volcano island, and its secular uplifts since the 18th century are recognized as an unusual event. Miyakejima volcano and Aira caldera exhibited anomalous movements with low seismicity after their eruptions. Cape Omaezaki is not situated in volcanic zone but near a subduction zone, and gradually and continuously subsides as a precursor to a large earthquake. In such cases as Campi Flegrei and the Japanese localities, we would question whether the deformations are accompanied by normal seismicity or low seismicity. To examine quantitatively the relationship between seismicity and related deformation, seismic efficiency is generally useful. The crustal deformations in all the regions cited above are characterized by exceptionally low seismic efficiencies. In the present paper, the deformations at Pozzuoli and Iwojima are mainly described and a comparative discussion among these and other localities in Japan is supplemented. It is concluded that such anomalous phenomena in volcanic areas are attributable to peculiar rheological aspects of the material composing the local
Dina A. Sarsito
Full Text Available Papandayan volcano located in the southern part of Garut regency, around 70 km away from Bandung city, West Java. Many methods carried out to monitoring the activities of volcano, both continuously or periodically, one of the monitoring method is periodically GPS survey. Basically those surveys are carried out to understand the pattern and velocity of displacement which occurred in the volcano body, both horizontally and vertically, and also others deformation elements such as; translation, rotation and dilatation. The Mogi modeling was also used to determine the location and volume of the pressure source which caused deformation of volcano body. By comparing seismic activity and the deformation reveal from GPS measurement, before, during and after eruption, it could be understood there is a correlation between the seismicity and its deformation. These studies is hoping that GPS measurement in Papandayan volcano could be one of supported method to determine the volcano activities, at least in Papandayan volcano.
G.A> Valentine; F.V. Perry
The distribution and characteristics of individual basaltic volcanoes in the waning Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field provide insight into the changing physical nature of magmatism and the controls on volcano location. During Pliocene-Pleistocene times the volumes of individual volcanoes have decreased by more than one order of magnitude, as have fissure lengths and inferred lava effusion rates. Eruptions evolved from Hawaiian-style eruptions with extensive lavas to eruptions characterized by small pulses of lava and Strombolian to violent Strombolian mechanisms. These trends indicate progressively decreasing partial melting and length scales, or magmatic footprints, of mantle source zones for individual volcanoes. The location of each volcano is determined by the location of its magmatic footprint at depth, and only by shallow structural and topographic features that are within that footprint. The locations of future volcanoes in a waning system are less likely to be determined by large-scale topography or structures than were older, larger volume volcanoes.
Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.
The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program
Intrusions of magma beneath volcanoes deform the surrounding rock and, if the intrusion is large enough, the overlying ground surface. Numerical models generally agree that, for most eruptions, subsurface volume changes are sufficient to produce measurable deformation at the surface. Studying this deformation can help to determine the location, volume, and shape of a subsurface magma body and thus to anticipate the onset and course of an eruption. This approach has been successfully applied at many restless volcanoes, especially basaltic shields and silicic calderas, using various geodetic techniques and sensors. However, its success at many intermediate-composition strato-volcanoes has been limited by generally long repose intervals, steep terrain, and structural influences that complicate the history and shape of surface deformation. These factors have made it difficult to adequately characterize deformation in space and time at many of the world's dangerous volcanoes. Recent technological advances promise to make this task easier by enabling the acquisition of geodetic data of high spatial and temporal resolution from Earth-orbiting satellites. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) can image ground deformation over large areas at metre-scale resolution over time-scales of a month to a few years. Global Positioning System (GPS) stations can provide continuous information on three-dimensional ground displacements at a network of key sites -information that is especially important during volcanic crises. By using InSAR to determine the shape of the displacement field and GPS to monitor temporal changes at key sites, scientists have a much better chance to capture geodetic signals that have so far been elusive at many volcanoes. This approach has the potential to provide longer-term warnings of impending volcanic activity than is possible with other monitoring techniques.
Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)
The frequent coincidence of volcanic forcing with El Nino events disables the clear assignment of climate anomalies to either volcanic or El Nino forcing. In order to select the signals, a set of four different perpetual January GCM experiments was performed (control, volcano case, El Nino case and combined volcano/El Nino case) and studied with advanced statistical methods for the Northern Hemisphere winter. The results were compared with observations. The signals for the different forcings are discussed for three variables (temperature, zonal wind and geopotential height) and five levels (surface, 850 hPa. 500 hPa, 200 hPa and 50 hPa). The global El Nino signal can be selected more clearly in the troposphere than in the stratosphere. In contrast, the global volcano signal is strongest in the stratospheric temperature field. The amplitude of the perturbation for the volcano case is largest in the Atlantic region. The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of short-wave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in sub-tropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland are well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is weak in high latitudes during winter. A statistically significant tropospheric signal of El Nino forcing occurs in the subtropics and in the mid-latitudes of the North Pacific. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combined signal is different from a simple linear combination of the separate signals. It leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone and to a somewhat modified pattern. 73 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.
Lanza, F.; Waite, G. P.; Kenyon, L. M.
A dense, small-aperture array of 12 short-period seismometers was deployed on the west flank of Pacaya volcano (Guatemala) and operated for 14 days in January 2011. The data were used to investigate the properties of the volcanic tremor wave field at the volcano. Volcanic tremor has been proven to be a powerful tool for eruption forecasting, therefore, identifying its source locations may shed new light on the dynamics of the volcano system. A preliminary spectral analysis highlights that most of the seismic energy is associated with six narrow spectral peaks between 1 and 6 Hz. After taking topography into account, we performed frequency-slowness analyses using the MUSIC algorithm and the semblance technique with the aim to define and locate the different components contributing to the wave field. Results show a complex wave field, with possibly multiple sources. We identify peaks at frequencies effects of array aliasing, and therefore have not been considered in this study. The dispersive properties of the wave field have been investigated using the Spatial Auto-Correlation Method (SPAC). The dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh waves have been then inverted to find a shallow velocity model beneath the array, which shows a range of velocities from about 0.3 km/s to 2 km/s, in agreement with slowness values of the frequency bands considered. In detail, apparent velocities of 1-2 km/s dominate at frequencies below 2 Hz, whereas lower apparent velocities of about 0.6 km/s are found to characterize the 3 Hz signal. We conclude that the sustained tremor at Pacaya seems to be linked to a shallow source both from the volcano, corresponding to the new vent opened on the SE flank of the volcano during the last explosive eruption in May 2010, and possibly from anthropogenic sources.
Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Win, N.-T.-Z.; Chen, L.-D.; Newhall, C.
WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories' (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. Volcanoes are frequently restless but only a fraction of unrest leads to eruptions. We aim to compile and make the data of historical volcanic unrest available as a reference tool during volcanic crises, for observatory or other user to compare or look for systematic in many unrest episodes, and also provide educational tools for teachers and students on understanding volcanic processes. Furthermore, we promote the use of relational databases for countries that are still planning to develop their own monitoring database. We are now in the process of populating WOVOdat in collaboration with volcano observatories worldwide. Proprietary data remains at the observatories where the data originally from. Therefore, users who wish to use the data for publication or to obtain detail information about the data should directly contact the observatories. To encourage the use of relational database system in volcano observatories with no monitoring database, WOVOdat project is preparing an installable standalone package. This package is freely downloadable through our website (www.wovodat.org), ready to install and serve as database system in the local domain to host various types of volcano monitoring data. The WOVOdat project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). In the current stage of data population, our website supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing schematic design, information and documentation, and also data submission. As anticipation of various data formats coming from different observatories, we provide an interactive tools for user to convert their data into standard WOVOdat format file before then able to upload and store in the database system. We are also developing various visualization tools that will be integrated in the system to ease
Bleacher, J. E.; Williams, D. A.; Shean, D.; Greeley, R.
We are in the third year of a three-year Mars Data Analysis Program project to map the morphology of the Olympus Mons volcano, Mars, using ArcGIS by ESRI. The final product of this project is to be a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map. The scientific questions upon which this mapping project is based include understanding the volcanic development and modification by structural, aeolian, and possibly glacial processes. The project s scientific objectives are based upon preliminary mapping by Bleacher et al.  along a approx.80-km-wide north-south swath of the volcano corresponding to High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) image h0037. The preliminary project, which covered approx.20% of the volcano s surface, resulted in several significant findings, including: 1) channel-fed lava flow surfaces are areally more abundant than tube-fed surfaces by a ratio of 5:1, 2) channel-fed flows consistently embay tube-fed flows, 3) lava fans appear to be linked to tube-fed flows, 4) no volcanic vents were identified within the map region, and 5) a Hummocky unit surrounds the summit and is likely a combination of non-channelized flows, dust, ash, and/or frozen volatiles. These results led to the suggestion that the volcano had experienced a transition from long-lived tube-forming eruptions to more sporadic and shorter-lived, channel-forming eruptions, as seen at Hawaiian volcanoes between the tholeiitic shield building phase (Kilauea to Mauna Loa) and alkalic capping phase (Hualalai and Mauna Kea).
Rueda, H.; Macias, J.; Siebe, C.; Cepeda, H.; Mendez, R.; Cortes, G.
Cerro Machin (2,750 m a.s.l.) is a Quaternary dacitic volcano located in the Central Cordillera of the Andes in Colombia. It is a 2.4-km wide tuff ring that hosts three domes with fumarolic activity. The volcano's origin is linked to the development of a pull apart basin bounded by the Machin and Cajamarca faults. Detailed stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating indicate that six eruptions have taken place during the Holocene. Each eruptive event established a Plinian column that deposited pumice fall deposits followed by the collapse of the column ensuing pumiceous pyroclastic flows, surges and secondary lahars. These eruptive events are dubbed and dated (average age) as the Espartillal (5000 yr.), P0 (4600 yr.), P1 (3600 yr.), Guaico (2600 yr.), P2 (1200 yr.), and Anillo (900 yr.). The pyroclastic fall deposits have dispersal axes to the NW, they are exposed up to 60 km from the crater and cover a total approximated area of 2000 km2 and have a total volume of 4.9 km3. Calculated column heights oscillate between 19 and 32 km. The collapse of these columns generated pyroclastic flow deposits that traveled up to 15 km around the volcano infilling the Coello valley. Some pyroclastic flows were able to surmmount 200-m high topographic barriers. Remobilization by water of this unconsolidated material generated lahars that followed the Coello and Magdalena Rivers and traveled up to 115 km from the volcano covering and area of 1000 km2. The deposits of all these eruptions have affected large areas where the modern important cities of Colombia are now located, as well as routes of great economic importance. Although the volcano is in a quiescent state it must be closely monitored since it has produced cataclysmic eruptions ca. every 1000 yrs.
Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.
Volcanoes can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, volcanoes are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a difficult and dangerous situation. For these reasons, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have, for years, built camera systems to act as surrogate eyes. With the recent advances in digital-camera technology, these eyes are rapidly improving. One type of photographic monitoring involves the use of near-real-time network-enabled cameras installed at permanent sites (Hoblitt and others, in press). Time-lapse camera-systems, on the other hand, provide an inexpensive, easily transportable monitoring option that offers more versatility in site location. While time-lapse systems lack near-real-time capability, they provide higher image resolution and can be rapidly deployed in areas where the use of sophisticated telemetry required by the networked cameras systems is not practical. This report describes the latest generation (as of 2008) time-lapse camera system used by HVO for photograph acquisition in remote and hazardous sites on Kilauea Volcano.
Nativi, Stefano; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Cossu, Roberto; Santoto, Mattia; Martini, Marcello; Puglisi, Giuseppe
The MED-SUV European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to design and implement a multidisciplinary infrastructure for the volcanic risk management life-cycle in southern Italy. The MED-SUV infrastructure will rely upon the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius / Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. It will also achieve the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases, novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters, and tools for data analysis and process modelling. This effort will contribute to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems - http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.shtml) as one the volcano Supersite recognized by GEO (Group on Earth Observation) -see http://supersites.earthobservations.org/. To achieve its goals, MED-SUV needs an advanced e-infrastructure allowing: (a) heterogeneous data and processing systems to provide and share their resources, and (b) supersite Users to run their workflows and generate significant products. This presentation discusses the general interoperability approach and architecture characterizing the MED-SUV e-infrastructure. The MED-SUV e-infrastructure considered the concepts and solutions adopted by the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The architecture requirements and system technologies builds on the experience done by relevant European projects in the framework of GEOSS and ESFRI (e.g. EuroGEOSS, GENESI, GEOWOW). MED-SUV e-infrastructure adopts three-tiers approach distinguishing among: (a) local and distributed Data/Information Providers; (b) the MED-SUV Brokering framework for harmonization and interoperability; (c) the MED-SUV e-collaboration environment for the generation and publication of advanced products. MED-SUV e-infrastructure development considers interoperability with the other two FP7 supersite projects: MARSITE and FUTUREVOLC, as well as EPOS.
Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Parello, F.; D'Alessandro, W.; Allard, P.; Calabrese, S.
Quantifying the contribution of volcanism to global mercury (Hg) emissions is important to understand the pathways and the mechanisms of Hg cycling through the Earth's geochemical reservoirs and to assess its environmental impacts. While previous studies have suggested that degassing volcanoes might contribute importantly to the atmospheric budget of mercury, little is known about the amount and behaviour of Hg in volcanic aquifers. Here we report on detailed investigations of both the content and the speciation of mercury in aquifers of active volcanoes in Italy and Guadeloupe Island (Lesser Antilles). In the studied groundwaters, total Hg (THg) concentrations range from 10 to 500 ng/l and are lower than the 1000 ng/l threshold value for human health protection fixed by the World Health Organization [WHO (1993): WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality- http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/index.htlm]. Positive co-variations of (THg) with sulphate indicate that Hg-SO 4-rich acid groundwaters receive a direct input of magmatic/hydrothermal gases carrying mercury as Hg 0(gas). Increasing THg in a volcanic aquifer could thus be a sensitive tracer of magmatic gas input prior to an eruption. Since the complex behaviour and toxicity of mercury in waters depend on its chemical speciation, we carefully determined the different aqueous forms of this element in our samples. We find that dissolved elemental Hg 0(aq) and particulate-bound Hg (Hg P) widely prevail in volcanic aquifers, in proportions that highlight the efficiency of Hg adsorption onto colloidal particles. Moreover, we observe that dissolved Hg 0aq and Hg(II) forms coexist in comparable amount in most of the waters, in stark contrast to the results of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling. Therefore, chemical equilibrium between dissolved mercury species in volcanic waters is either prevented by natural kinetic effects or not preserved in collected waters due to sampling/storage artefacts. Finally, we
Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.
The term 'religious slaughter' commonly refers to the practice of killing animals without stunning, according to the precepts of Jewish and Muslim religions. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation concerning ritual slaughtering in not-stun bovines, small ruminants, and poultry in Italy in 2012. The study was divided into 2 phases. During the rst phase, preliminary data about all slaughterhouses authorized for ritual slaughter in Italy in 2012 are collected through the compilation of a questionnaire sent to each plants. The second step involved a sampling of not-stun animals religiously slaughtered in 5 selected plants. Authors collected and compiled all informations about management, restrain system and rite taking into account in particular animal welfare. PMID:27033526
Following the adoption of Law No.99 of July 209, Italy is on threshold of returning to nuclear power, even though there are many more challenges yet to overcome. It should be recalled that Law No. 99/2009 includes enabling provisions empowering the government to issue one or more implementing decrees providing rules for the sitting of new nuclear power plants, the licensing process for the construction, operation and dismantling of those plants, as well as rules for interim storage and the final disposal of nuclear waste. On 15 February 2010, upon the proposal of the Ministry of economic development, the Italian council of ministers issued legislative decree No. 31/2010 implementing the enabling provisions. This paper will analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the implementing decree in order to assess if it is able to provide Italy with a sound national nuclear legislative framework which is an essential precondition to the Italian nuclear resurgence. (N.C.)
Wednesday, 18th June 2008. The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) beam has re-started, shooting muon neutrinos towards Italy. The neutrino beam should run this year until mid November.The aim of CNGS is to understand the oscillation of neutrinos, for example their transformation from muon into tau neutrinos over long distances.Edda Gschwendtner, the liaison physicist of the CNGS beam, describes the progress of the project, “We did a lot of modifications this year to CNGS, which was a huge amount of work, with many groups and services involved. In parallel the OPERA detector in Italy made an enormous progress in completing their detector and we are looking forward to seeing tau neutrinos soon.”
This is an image of the Colima volcano in Jalisco, Mexico, a vigorously active volcano that erupted as recently as July 1994. The eruption partially destroyed a lava dome at the summit and deposited a new layer of ash on the volcano's southern slopes. Surrounding communities face a continuing threat of ash falls and volcanic mudflows from the volcano, which has been designated one of 15 high-risk volcanoes for scientific study during the next decade. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 24th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image is centered at 19.4 degrees north latitude, 103.7 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 35.7 kilometers by 37.5 kilometers (22 miles by 23 miles). This single-frequency, multi-polarized SIR-C image shows: red as L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green as L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue as the ratio of the two channels. The summit area appears orange and the recent deposits fill the valleys along the south and southwest slopes. Observations from space are helping scientists understand the behavior of dangerous volcanoes and will be used to mitigate the effects of future eruptions on surrounding populations. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), the C-band (6 cm) and the X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature
Complete text of publication follows. This investigation considers two regions of interest, the first one includes the zone around Parinacota (6350 m, 18 deg09'S, 69 deg08'W), a subduction related stratovolcano situated in the limit of Bolivia and Chile, which had its biggest eruptive episodes around 8000 years ago. The second zone is more to the south, around Lascar volcano (5592 m, 23 deg22'S, 67 deg41'W), located on the eastern side of the Salar de Atacama basin in northern Chile, it has been one of the most active volcanoes of the central Andes in the last years. Between September and November 2007, magnetotelluric and audio magnetotelluric sites were built in the area close to Lascar and Parinacota volcanoes. AMT sites were installed in the proximities of the volcanoes, for a more shallow view, and the MT sites, which can reach longer periods and larger depths, were installed on a profile south of Lascar, which goes from the volcanic arc, crossing the Salar de Atacama basin, and as an outer ring in the Parinacota region. Remote reference and robust techniques were used in the data processing. Induction arrows, phase tensor ellipses and strike direction of the conductivity distribution have been calculated for the AMT sites, showing some 3-D behavior for the shallower depths, with induction vectors at the closest sites to the volcanoes pointing away from them, influenced by the topography. For the higher periods, the behavior is more 2-D in both regions, with a more stable strike direction which is coherent with the induction vectors and the largest semi axis of the phase tensor ellipses. All these parameters show a strong influence in the higher periods which seem to be due to a large conductive anomaly in the backarc, according with other studies in the zone, under the Bolivian altiplano. From a first analysis, deep large conductive bodies are not present in these zones around the volcanoes. Topographic corrections have been developed as well as sensitivity
Kukarina, Ekaterina; West, Michael; Koulakov, Ivan
Uturuncu volcano belongs to the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex in the central Andes, the product of an ignimbrite ''flare-up''. The region has been the site of large-scale silicic magmatism since 10 Ma, producing 10 major eruptive calderas and edifices, some of which are multiple-eruption resurgent complexes as large as the Yellowstone or Long Valley caldera. Satellite measurements show that the hill has been rising more than half an inch a year for almost 20 years, suggesting that the Uturuncu volcano, which has erupted last time more than 300,000 years ago, is steadily inflating, which makes it fertile ground for study. In 2009 an international multidisciplinary team formed a project called PLUTONS to study Uturuncu. Under this project a 100 km wide seismic network was set around the volcano by seismologists from University of Alaska Fairbanks. Local seismicity is well distributed and provides constraints on the shallow crust. Ray paths from earthquakes in the subducting slab complement this with steep ray paths that sample the deeper crust. Together the shallow and deep earthquakes provide strong 3D coverage of Uturuncu and the surrounding region. To study the deformation source beneath the volcano we performed simultaneous tomographic inversion for the Vp and Vs anomalies and source locations, using the non-linear passive source tomographic code, LOTOS. We estimated both P and S wave velocity structures beneath the entire Uturuncu volcano by using arrival times of P and S waves from more than 600 events registered by 33 stations. To show the reliability of the results, we performed a number of different tests, including checkerboard synthetic tests and tests with odd/even data. Obtained Vp/Vs ratio distribution shows increased values beneath the south Uturuncu, at a depth of about 15 km. We suggest the high ratio anomaly is caused by partial melt, presented in expanding magma chamber, responsible for the volcano inflation. The resulting Vp, Vs and the ratio
Murru, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Console, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Falcone, G.; Earth Science Department, Messina University
We have applied an earthquake clustering epidemic model to real time data at the Italian Earthquake Data Center operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for short-term forecasting of moderate and large earthquakes in Italy. In this epidemic-type model every earthquake is regarded, at the same time, as being triggered by previous events and triggering following earthquakes. The model uses earthquake data only, with no explicit use of tectonic, geologic, or geodetic...
Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.; Agnes Helmstetter; Werner, Maximilian J.; Stefan Wiemer
We present a model for estimation of the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m ≥ 4.95 in Italy. This model is a modified version of that proposed for California, USA, by Helmstetter et al.  and Werner et al. [2010a], and it approximates seismicity using a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered...
This paper carries out an empirical assessment of the relationship between social capital and labour productivity in small and medium enterprises in Italy. By means of structural equations models, the analysis investigates the effect of different aspects of the multifaceted concept of social capital. The bonding social capital of strong family ties and the bridging social capital shaped by informal ties connecting friends and acquaintances are proved to exert a negative effect on labour produ...
Majocchi Antonio; Pavione Enrica
In Italy, the recent gradual liberalization of the retail market has led to an increase in competition and innovation. In this context, new and more flexible forms of organization have emerged, and franchising in particular has undergone a strong expansion. The main purpose of this work is to present a complete framework of the Italian franchising and to analyse its role, structural characteristics, trend and development in the context of the European market.
The increase in world energy demand is making natural gas a leading player, yet its supply in Italy is still inefficient because of internal and external factors of its geopolitical diversification. On the contrary, thanks to its geographical position and morphology our Country could represent the major point of gas exchange in central-southern Europe and transform itself from a country at the risk of emergency into one of the greatest gas hub in Europe
Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.
In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011.Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely farmed species, nevertheless some “new” candidates are employed often.The first two species represents more than 95% of the total production while the remaining is obtained by different promising candid...
Over the last two decades, Europe has witnessed the spreading of a new phenomenon: cohabitation. Whereas this modern living arrangement has become relatively widespread in most European countries, it has been rather hesitant in developing in Italy. The welfare state structure of this country, a high rate of unemployment, and tight housing is hampering the diffusion of cohabitation. Researchers so far have assumed that traditionally strong family ties between parents and their adult children h...
Lazzari, Claudio,; Pisanelli, Domenico Massimo; Genuini, Igino; Fedele, Francesco; Elisa, Silvetti; D'Ambrosi, Alessandra
It is estimated that in Italy there are about three million people affected by chronic heart failure. Cardiology is the health care field currently getting the largest benefits from telemedicine. Transmission, using wireless devices, makes possible to achieve virtual hospitalization: it is possible to anticipate the time of discharging and the patient can be remotely controlled by the central station in the ICU of the department of Medicine. Teleconsulting (i.e. a distance consulting between ...
At the CNI-JISC-SURF conference “Making the strategic case for institutional repositories” (http://www.surf.nl/en/bijeenkomsten/index2.php?oid=6), an invitational leadership meeting held in Amsterdam on the 10-11th May 2005, 13 countries presented their updates. This is the Italy update, which reports on the Italian situation of institutional repositories through a questionnaire that was compiled by several contributors.
The paper addresses the great difficulties and uncertainties that have characterizedthe process of services liberalization in Italy in recent years. After having analyzed the implementation of directive 2006/123/Ce, including the limits of the discipline introduced by legislative decree n. 59/2010, the paper explores the content of recent new regulations which, after the economic crisis, have again modified the existing legislation: First, law decree n. 138/2011 introduced only marginal chang...
Wind power utilization in Italy has not been very popular until the privatization of the ENEL and introduction of subsidies for private electricity producers. The greatest interest is concentrated around large wind turbines. Therefore the Danish manufacturers with know-how within large wind turbines can establish themselves on the Italian market. Cooperation with one of the four local wind turbine manufacturers is advisable. (EG)
This paper describes the experimental work undertaken in Italy on the irradiation of plutonium bearing fuel in thermal reactors. 16 MOX fuel assemblies were initially loaded into the Garigliano BWR and a further 46, a full reload, were loaded in 1975. Eight assemblies were loaded into the PWR at Trino Vercellese in 1976. Details of the fuel rod composition, burn up and post-irradiation examination results are given, together with a safety analysis
The paper is devoted to interaction across cultures and languages on the example of landsknechts and the way their language specificity is represented in some genres of Italian Renaissance literature (carnival songs). The scholar accounts for German loans (Teutonic coinages) in the so-called landsknecht songs by a necessity to parody despicable Teutonic behavior. In its turn, the landsknecht lifestyle in Italy gave rise to a pidgin language. Accounting for its origins and functions, the autho...
Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L
According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration. PMID:22187914
Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio
Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. PMID:26920304
After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure
贺传松; 王椿镛; 吴建平
The Wudalianchi volcano is a modern volcano erupted since the Holocene. Its frequent occurrence of the small earthquake is considered to be indicator of active dormancy volcano. The S wave velocity structure is inferred from the receiver function for the crust and upper mantle of the Wudalianchi volcano area. The results show that the low velocity structure of S wave is widely distributed underneath the volcano area and part of the low-velocity-zone located at shallow depth in the Wudalianchi volcano area. The low velocity structure is related to the seismicity. The Moho interface is not clear underneath the volcano area, which may be regard to be an necessary condition for the lava upwelling. Therefore, we infer that the Wudalianchi volcano has the deep structural condition for the volcano activity and may be alive again.
New detailed geological field studies and 14C dating of the Cosiguina Volcano (westernmost Nicaragua) have allowed to reconstruct a geological map of the volcano and to establish a recent stratigraphy, including three historical eruptions. Five major sequences are represented. I: pyroclastic flows around 1500 AD, II: pyroclastic flows, scoria and pumice flows and surges, III: pyroclastic deposits related to a littoral crater, IV: pyroclastic flows related to 1709 AD eruption, and finally, V: pyroclastic deposits corresponding to the cataclysmic 1835 AD phreatic, phreatomagmatic and subplinian eruption, which seems to be relatively small-scale in comparison with the preceding historical eruptions. The pulsating geochemical character of the pyroclastic rocks in the last five centuries has been documented. The beginning of every eruption is marked by increasing contents of silica and Zr. Based on that, regardless of present-day volcanic repose, the entire Cosiguina Peninsula should be considered as a very hazardous volcanic area. (author)
The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems, are
G. P. Gregori
Full Text Available A model is investigated, by which the encounters of the solar system with dense interstellar clouds ought to trigger either geomagnetic field reversals or excursions, that produce extra electric currents within the Earth dynamo, that cause extra Joule's heating, that supplies volcanoes and endogenous processes. Volcanoes increase the Earth degassing into the atmosphere, hence the concentration of the minor atmospheric constituents, including the greenhouse gases, hence they affect climate temperature, glacier melting, sea level and global change. This investigation implies both theoretical studies and observational data handling on different time scales, including present day phenomena, instrumental data series, historical records, proxy data, and geological and palaeontological evidences. The state of the art is briefly outlined, mentioning some already completed achievements, investigations in progress, and future perspectives.
Delgado, H.; Huesca, E. A. Gonzalez; Abrams, M.
Popocatepetl volcano has an altitude of 5452 meters and is capped by glaciers which represent a volume of less than 0.017 km(sup 3) of ice. These glaciers are distributed on the northwest-north face of the cone, starting at 4900 m.a.s.l. The ablation runoff of the glaciers is channelized to the north through the Barranca Central and Barranca Ventorillo which at the lower altitude join together to form a larger canyon bent to the northeast following a spur made of volcanic rock from the extinct Iztacchuatl volcano. At 3200 m.a.s.l. a sudden change in morphology marks the starting point of lahar deposits. Several of these mudflows have been mapped. The San Nicolas Lahar covers a poorly developed soil where pottery and other cultural remains have been found. There are now several towns in the area.
Swanson, Donald A.; Fiske, Dick; Rose, Tim; Houghton, Bruce; Mastin, Larry
Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, though best known for its frequent quiet eruptions of lava flows, has erupted explosively many times in its history - most recently in 2011. At least six such eruptions in the past 1,500 years sent ash into the jet stream, at the cruising altitudes for today's aircraft. The eruption of 1790 remains the most lethal eruption known from a U.S. volcano. However, the tendency of Kīlauea's 2 million annual visitors is to forget this dangerous potential. Cooperative research by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey, Smithsonian Institution, and University of Hawai‘i is improving our understanding of Kīlauea's explosive past and its potential for future violent eruptions.
Prejean, S.; Power, J.; Brodsky, E.
In the summer of 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) successfully forecast eruption at an unmonitored volcano, Kasatochi, and was unable to forecast eruption at a well monitored volcano, Okmok. We use these case studies to explore the limitations and opportunities of seismically monitored and unmonitored systems and to evaluate situations when we can expect to succeed and when we must expect to fail in eruption forecasting. Challenges in forecasting eruptions include interpreting seismicity in context of volcanic history, developing a firm understanding of distance scales over which pre- and co-eruptive seismic signals are observed, and improving our ability to discriminate processes causing tremor. Kasatochi Volcano is a 3 km wide island in the central Aleutian Islands with no confirmed historical activity. Little is known about the eruptive history of the volcano. It was not considered an immediate threat until 3 days prior to eruption. A report of ground shaking by a biology field crew on the island on August 4 was the first indication of unrest. On August 6 a vigorous seismic swarm became apparent on the nearest seismic stations 40 km distant. The aviation color code/volcano alert level at Kasatochi was increased to Yellow/Advisory in response to increasing magnitude and frequency of earthquakes. The color code/alert level was increased to Orange/Watch on August 7 when volcanic tremor was observed in the wake of the largest earthquake in the sequence, a M 5.6. Three hours after the onset of volcanic tremor, eruption was confirmed by satellite data and the color code/alert level increased to Red/Warning. Eruption forecasting was possible only due to the exceptionally large moment release of pre-eruptive seismicity. The key challenge in evaluating the situation was distinguishing between tectonic activity and a volcanic swarm. It is likely there were weeks to months of precursory seismicity, however little instrumental record exists due to the lack of a
Williams, Stanley N.; Meyer, Hansjürgen
A workshop was held at the Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia in Manizales, Colombia, March 28 to April 1, 1988, to review the accumulated data on the disastrous November 13, 1985, eruption and related activity of Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Figure 1). Approximately 30 scientists from eight countries presented data, developed a preliminary model, and addressed the future problems of Ruiz. The volcano (see Figure 2) erupted just prior to the meeting, covering the meeting site with 1-2 mm of ash.The workshop was convened by Stanley N. Williams (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge) and Hansjürgen Meyer (Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia). A special volume of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research is planned for the papers and letters presented at the workshop, with some additional contributions. Publication is expected in mid-1989.
E. Pomponi; Christoph Sens-Schönfelder
Exploiting the capability of the seismic noise correlation method to detect small velocity changes in the medium ( i.e. about 0.1%) we show that before the eruption of Piton de la Fournaise Volcano in October 2010 a clear variation (i.e. reduction) of this parameter is observed. Therefore its continuous monitoring could represent an important step ahead for our ability to forecast an eruption. This has been demonstrated previously. Moreover, through a simple inversion scheme based on a delta ...
Amici, Stefania; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Piscini, Alessandro; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Buongiorno, Fabrizia; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia
The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER ) has operated since 19 December 1999 from NASA’s Terra Earth-orbiting, sun synchronous satellite. Emissivity and temperature standard products are based on the TES algorithms and require periodical validation campaign. In the frame of the EC project PREVIEW (http://www.preview-risk.com/) a field campaign on Volcano Teide was carried on, from the 16th to 24th of September 2007, to validate and to integrate the satellite...
Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Cashman, K.V.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.
Two earthquake swarms, comprising 88 and 2833 locatable events, occurred beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May and August of 1996. Swarm earthquakes ranged in magnitude from -0.9 to 3.3. Increases in SO2 and CO2 emissions detected during the fall of 1996 were coincident with the second swarm. No other physical changes were observed in or around the volcano during this time period. No eruption occurred, and seismicity and measured gas emissions have remained at background levels since mid-1997. Earthquake hypocenters recorded during the swarms form a cluster in a previously aseismic volume of crust located to the south of Iliamna's summit at a depth of -1 to 4 km below sea level. This cluster is elongated to the NNW-SSE, parallel to the trend of the summit and southern vents at Iliamna and to the regional axis of maximum compressive stress determined through inversion of fault-plane solutions for regional earthquakes. Fault-plane solutions calculated for 24 swarm earthquakes located at the top of the new cluster suggest a heterogeneous stress field acting during the second swarm, characterized by normal faulting and strike-slip faulting with p-axes parallel to the axis of regional maximum compressive stress. The increase in earthquake rates, the appearance of a new seismic volume, and the elevated gas emissions at Iliamna Volcano indicate that new magma intruded beneath the volcano in 1996. The elongation of the 1996-1997 earthquake cluster parallel to the direction of regional maximum compressive stress and the accelerated occurrence of both normal and strike-slip faulting in a small volume of crust at the top of the new seismic volume may be explained by the emplacement and inflation of a subvertical planar dike beneath the summit of Iliamna and its southern satellite vents. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P. R.
Background (non-eruptive) seismicity at Mount Erebus Volcano is dominated by icequake activity on its extensive ice fields and glaciers. We examine icequake seismograms recorded by both long-running and temporary densification deployments spanning seven years (2003-2009) to assess event frequency, size, apparent seasonality, event mechanism, and geographic distribution. In addition to generally investigating mountain glacial ice seismicity in cold and dry glacial environments, we also hope to exploit icequakes as local sources for tomographic imaging of the volcano’s interior in conjunction with 2008-2010 active source and explosive volcanism data. Using Antelope-based methodologies, we determined the distribution and magnitude of a subset of well-recorded icequakes using data from the long-running Mount Erebus Volcano Network (MEVO) network, as well as two dense IRIS PASSCAL supported temporary networks deployed during 2008 and 2009 (the MEVO network consists of six broadband and nine short period stations with environmental data streams; the dense arrays consisted of 24 broadband stations arranged in two concentric rings around the volcano and 99 short period stations deployed near the summit of Erebus volcano and along the Terror-Erebus axis of Ross Island). During each of the seven years, we note a number of large icequake swarms (up to many hundreds of events per day). We hypothesize that many of these events occur in very shallow ice, based on the apparent ambient temperature-driven seasonality of the events. Specifically, approximately 43% of the events occur between March and May and approximately 30% occur between October and December. Each of these times feature rapidly changing ambient air temperatures due to the high latitude appearance/disappearance of the sun. A shallow mechanism is predicted by 1-D thermal skin depth calculations that show that annual temperature fluctuations decay by 1/e within the top few meters of ice.
Pauk, B.; Jackson, M.; Mencin, D.; Power, J.; Gallaher, W.; Basset, A.; Kore, K.; Hargraves, Z.; Peterson, T.
During June and July of 2005, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) installed eight permanent GPS stations on Akutan Volcano, in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. PBO worked closely with the Alaska Volcano Observatory and the Magmatic Systems Site Selection working group to install stations with a spatial distribution to monitor and detect both short and long term volcanic deformation in response to magmatic intrusions at depth and magma migration through the volcano's conduit system. All eight of the GPS stations were installed by PBO field crews with helicopter support provided by Evergreen Helicopters and logistical support from the Trident Seafood Corporation, the City of Akutan, and the Akutan Corporation. Lack of roads and drivable trails on the remote volcanic island required that all equipment be transported to each site from the village of Akutan by slinging gear beneath the helicopter and internal loads. Each station installed on the volcano consists of a standard short braced GPS monument, two solar panels mounted to an inclined structure, and a six foot high Plaschem enclosure with two solar panels mounted to one of the inclined sides. Each Plaschem houses 24 6 volt batteries that power a Trimble NetRS GPS receiver and one or two Intuicom radios. Data from each GPS receiver is telemetered directly or through a repeater radio to a base station located in the village of Akutan that transmits the data over the internet to the UNAVCO data archive at ftp://data-out.unavco.or/pub/PBO_rinex where it is made freely available to the public.
Son, Seung Bae; Hahn, Jae Ryang [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Miao, Qing; Shin, Jiyoung; Dolphin, David [Univ. of British Columbia, Columbia (Canada)
Dichloromethane liquid droplets containing a cobalt dipyrromethene trimer deposited on a graphite surface were found to form coffee ring, toroid ring, or volcano dot structures due to the redistribution of the solute during solvent evaporation. The shapes and size distributions of the ring structures depended on the drying temperature. The shape differences were attributed to the fact that the solvent evaporation rate controlled the self-assembly process that yielded the coffee stain and pinhole structures.
The source concentration of halogens in the mantle, as well as other volatiles, is heterogeneous and related to tectonic setting. Intra-plate magmas, which give rise to ocean island basalts and are derived from a mantle plume source, are typically enriched in halogens relative to mid-oceanic ridge basalts but depleted relative to arc magmas. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements of volcanic gases were supplemented with electron microprobe analyses of glasses in erupted products from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to provide the first detailed picture of the abundance, degassing and plume chemistry of halogens at this volcano. This study reveals that typical fluxes of both HCl and HF are 50-100 t/d; Cl/S ranges from 0.01 to 0.07 and F/S from 0.01 to 0.05. SiF4 and HBr are below detection. The abundance of halogens in melt inclusions and matrix glasses in the lavas allow formulation of their degassing path prior to eruption. Kilauea volcanic gases have lower Cl/S than volcanoes in arc settings, but are similar to those measured at other volcanoes in plume settings. F/S, on the other hand, is within range of that measured at Soufriere Hills, Masaya and Etna, indicating that there is a higher degree of homogeneity in the mantle distribution of F. The relative proportion of Cl, F and S in the volcanic plume varies considerably over time and space. This variability may be due to a number of factors: the depth of vapour-melt separation in the conduit; the degree of degassing of shallow, stagnant magma (S-rich gases exsolve first); interaction between vapour and a hydrothermal system; the relative rates of diffusion between the species; or processes occurring in the plume such as adsorption of or reaction between acidic gases and silicate particles.
Volcanic plumbing systems are the pathways through which volatiles are exchanged between the deep Earth and the atmosphere. The interplay of a multitude of processes occurring at various depths in the system dictates the composition and quantity of gas eventually erupted through volcanic vents. Here, a model is presented as a framework for interpreting surface volcanic gas measurements in terms of subsurface degassing processes occurring throughout a volcanic plumbing system. The model considers all possible sources of fluid from multiple depths, including degassing of dissolved volatiles during crystallization and/or decompression as recorded in melt inclusions plus any co-existing fluid phase present in a magma reservoir. The former is achieved by differencing melt inclusion volatile contents between groups of melt inclusions saturated at discrete depths. The latter is calculated using a thermodynamic model, which computes the composition of a C-O-H-S fluid in equilibrium with a melt given a minimum of five thermodynamic parameters commonly known for natural systems (T, P, fO2, either fH2 or one parameter for H2O, and either fS2 or one parameter for CO2). The calculated fluids are thermodynamically decompressed and run through a mixing model, which finds all possible mixtures of subsurface fluid that match the chemistry of surface gas within ±2.0 mol%. The method is applied to Mount Erebus (Antarctica), an active, intraplate volcano whose gas emissions, which emanate from an active phonolitic lava lake, have been well quantified by FTIR, UV spectroscopy, and multi-gas sensors over the last several decades. In addition, a well-characterized suite of lavas and melt inclusions, and petrological interpretations thereof, represent a wealth of knowledge about the shallow, intermediate, and deep parts of the Erebus plumbing system. The model has been used to calculate the compositions of seven C-O-H-S fluids that originate from four distinct regions within the Erebus
Schifano, F.; Ziller, T
This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.
In Italy, the issue of energy supply is always of great interest because this country depends on foreign imports for 83% of its primary energy needs. This is due to the limited availability of domestic mineral resources, combined with a strong dependence of the electricity production on fossil fuels. The present situation should be viewed in the light of the decision to freeze the nuclear program following the referendum of 1987. Italy's energy strategy subsequently turned back to the thermoelectric sector, which was updated, during the latter part of the 1990's, with several modern and efficient plants, mainly based on a combined cycle structure and fed by natural gas. In addition, the Italian government has started to fund renewables, in compliance with the European regulations, and these forms of energy have experienced a significant increase, especially in recent years. The current energy-mix makes the Italian economy more exposed to the global geopolitical instabilities of the oil- and gas-producing countries, compared to northern European countries. Moreover, with the shift of economic activities towards the service sector, the demand of electric energy is increasing and its costs, weighted also by renewable incentives, are becoming more and more significant for Italian users and the economy in general. These issues, coupled with the constraints set by the European 20-20-20 plan, in particular in terms of polluting gas emissions and energy savings, led the Berlusconi government (2008-2011) to resort to a new nuclear program. This relied on the construction of 4 EPR power plants (at least) in order to cover 25% of Italy's entire electricity needs. But the program was stopped by another referendum in June 2011, whose result was strongly influenced by the Fukushima tragedy. However, a new national energy strategy has not yet been defined. This paper analyses the present energy mix, with particular attention to the electricity production system, in order to
Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Wall, Frances; Stoppa, Francesco
At Mt. Vulture volcano (Basilicata, Italy) calcite globules (5-150 μm) are hosted by silicate glass pools or veins cross-cutting amphibole-bearing, or more common spinel-bearing mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts. The carbonate globules are rounded or elongated and are composed of a mosaic of 2-20 μm crystals, with varying optical orientation. These features are consistent with formation from a quenched calciocarbonatite melt. Where in contact with carbonate amphibole has reacted to form fassaitic pyroxene. Some of these globules contain liquid/gaseous CO 2 bubbles and sulphide inclusions, and are pierced by quench microphenocrysts of silicate phases. The carbonate composition varies from calcite to Mg-calcite (3.8-5.0 wt.% MgO) both within the carbonate globules and from globule to globule. Trace element contents of the carbonate, determined by LAICPMS, are similar to those of carbonatites worldwide including ΣREE up to 123 ppm. The Sr-Nd isotope ratios of the xenolith carbonate are similar to the extrusive carbonatite and silicate rocks of Mt. Vulture testifying to derivation from the same mantle source. Formation of immiscibile silicate-carbonatite liquids within mantle xenoliths occurred via disequilibrium immiscibility during their exhumation.
Monecke, Thomas; Petersen, Sven; Hannington, Mark D.; Anzidei, Marco; Esposito, Alessandra; Giordano, Guido; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Augustin, Nico; Melchert, Bernd; Hocking, Mike
Explosions of hot water, steam, and gas are common periodic events of subaerial geothermal systems. These highly destructive events may cause loss of life and substantial damage to infrastructure, especially in densely populated areas and where geothermal systems are actively exploited for energy. We report on the occurrence of a large number of explosion craters associated with the offshore venting of gas and thermal waters at the volcanic island of Panarea, Italy, demonstrating that violent explosions similar to those observed on land also are common in the shallow submarine environment. With diameters ranging from 5 to over 100 m, the observed circular seafloor depressions record a history of major gas explosions caused by frequent perturbation of the submarine geothermal system over the past 10,000 years. Estimates of the total gas flux indicate that the Panarea geothermal system released over 70 Mt of CO2 over this period of time, suggesting that CO2 venting at submerged arc volcanoes contributes significantly to the global atmospheric budget of this greenhouse gas. The findings at Panarea highlight that shallow submarine gas explosions represent a previously unrecognized volcanic hazard around populated volcanic islands that needs to be taken into account in the development of risk management strategies.
Xue, M.; Chun, K.; Henderson, G. A.
Located in the southeastern margin of Jilin Province, China, Changbaishan Volcano, a Cenozoic composite volcano, has been dormant for about 300 years. In this study we investigate the seismic structure beneath this volcano by comparing waveforms for rays that pass through it with rays that do not. Our seismic sources are composed mainly of chemical and nuclear explosions, including the 9 October 2006 North Korea underground nuclear test. All were recorded by 16 broadband stations installed by Tongji University along the southeastern boundary of Jilin Province. Here we focus our attention on seismograms from the 9 October 2006 North Korea event and a magnitude 2.3 local chemical explosion. Our preliminary results show that shear waves disappear abruptly when great-circle paths intersect the volcanic region. Our observations suggest that a magma body is present beneath the Changbaishan and that it is responsible for the severe attenuation of shear waves. We are currently expanding our dataset to pin down the location and geometry of the magma body. Our study highlights the dramatic effects a tectonic structure may exert upon the observed wavefield and hence the necessity to take them into account when carrying out source discrimination analysis.
Full Text Available The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are recognizable, elongate and lobate, with primary controls on the size and distribution of the volcanic debris being the volume and nature of material involved, proportion of fine grained material, depth of emplacement and the paleo-bathymetry. Volume calculations show the amount of material deposited in debris avalanches is as much as three times larger than the amount of material initially involved in the collapse, suggesting the incorporation of large amounts of submarine material during transport. The orientation of the collapse events is influenced by regional fault systems underling the volcanoes. The western Aleutian Arc has a significant tsunamigenic potential and communities within the Aleutian Islands and surrounding areas of the North Pacific as well as shipping and fishing fleets that cross the North Pacific may be at risk during future eruptions in this area.
Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma
Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided. PMID:26865491
Full Text Available In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly changing large-area volcanic phenomena. The systematic acquisition of airborne photogrammetric datasets can be adopted for implementing a more effective procedure aimed at long-term volcano monitoring and hazard assessment. In addition, during the volcanic crisis, the frequent acquisition of oblique digital images from helicopter allows for quasi-real-time monitoring to support mitigation actions by civil protection. These images are commonly used to update existing maps through a photo-interpretation approach that provide data of unknown accuracy. This work presents a scientific tool (Orthoview that implements a straightforward photogrammetric approach to generate digital orthophotos from single-view oblique images provided that at least four Ground Control Points (GCP and current Digital Elevation Models (DEM are available. The influence of the view geometry, of sparse and not-signalized GCP and DEM inaccuracies is analyzed for evaluating the performance of the developed tool in comparison with other remote sensing techniques. Results obtained with datasets from Etna and Stromboli volcanoes demonstrate that 2D features measured on the produced orthophotos can reach sub-meter-level accuracy.
Morales Rivera, A. M.; Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.
Over the last decade satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has developed into a well-known technique to gauge the status of active volcanoes. The InSAR technique can detect the ascent of magma to shallow levels of the volcanic plumbing system because new arriving magma pressurizes the system. This is likely associated with the inflation of the volcanic edifice and the surroundings. Although the potential of InSAR to detect magma migration is well known, the principal limitation was that only for few volcanoes frequent observations were acquired. The ALOS-1 satellite of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) acquired a global L-band data set of 15-20 acquisitions during 2006-2011. Here we use ALOS InSAR and Small Baseline (SB) time-series methods for a ground deformation survey of Latin America with emphasis on the northern Andes. We present time-dependent ground deformation data for the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and interpret the observations in terms of the dynamics of the volcanic systems.
Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust
How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.
Scaini, C.; Folch, A.; Navarro, M.
Concepción volcano in Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, is a highly active volcano with a rich historical record of explosive eruptions. Tephra fallout from Concepción jeopardizes the surrounding populations, whereas volcanic ash clouds threat aerial navigation at a regional level. The assessment of these hazards is important for territorial planning and adoption of mitigation measures. Here we compute probabilistic hazard maps for Concepción volcano considering three different eruptive scenarios based on past reference events. Previous geological analysis is used to quantify the eruption parameters of the reference events. We account for uncertainties in the definition of the scenarios trough probability density functions. A representative meteorological dataset is created for each scenario by running the WRF-ARW mesoscale meteorological model over a typical meteorological year, defined in terms of wind speed and direction at a given atmospheric height. Tephra transport and deposition under different eruption and wind conditions is modelled using the FALL3D dispersion model. For each scenario, simulations are combined to build probabilistic hazard maps for critical values of tephra load and for threshold values of airborne ash concentration at relevant flight levels. Results are useful to identify the expected impacts for each eruption type and aim at improving the assessment and management of risk in the region.
Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust
How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183
Full Text Available One major problem associated with the interpretation of seismic signals on active volcanoes is the lack of knowledge about the internal structure of the volcano. Assuming a 1D or a homogeneous instead of a 3D velocity structure leads to an erroneous localization of seismic events. In order to derive a high resolution 3D velocity model of
Saepuloh, Asep; Trianaputri, Mila Olivia
Indonesia contains 27 active volcanoes passing the West through the East part. Therefore, Indonesia is the most hazard front due to the volcanic activities. To obtain the new precursory signals leading to the eruptions, we applied remote sensing technique to observe ground surface change series at the summit of Sinabung and Kelud volcanoes. Sinabung volcano is located at Karo Region, North Sumatra Province. This volcano is a strato volcano type which is re-activated in August 2010. The eruption continues to the later years by ejecting volcanic products such as lava, pyroclastic flow, and ash fall deposits. This study is targeted to observe ground surface change series at the summit of Sinabung volcano since 2007 to 2011. In addition, we also compared the summit ground surface changes after the eruptions of Kelud volcano in 2007. Kelud volcano is also strato volcano type which is located at East Java, Indonesia. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remotely sensed technology makes possible to observe rapidly a wide ground surface changes related to ground surface roughness. Detection series were performed by extracting the backscattering intensity of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). The intensity values were then calculated using a Normalized Radar Cross-Section (NRCS). Based on surface roughness criterion at the summit of Sinabung volcano, we could observe the ground surface changes prior to the early eruption in August 2010. The continuous increment of NRCS values showed clearly at window size 3×3 pixel of the summit of Sinabung volcano. The same phenomenon was also detected at the summit of Kelud volcano after the 2007 eruptions. The detected ground surface changes were validated using optical Landsat-8, backscattering intensity ratio for volcanic products detection, and radial component of a tilt-meter data.
XIE QIONGTAO; YAN LINA; WANG LINMAO; FU JUN
We investigate both the non-Hermitian parity–time-(PT-)symmetric and Hermitianasymmetric volcano potentials, and present the analytical solution in terms of the confluent Heun function. Under certain special conditions, the confluent Heun function can be terminated as a polynomial, thereby leading to certain exact analytical results. It is found that the non-Hermitian PTsymmetric volcano potentials support the normalizable and non-normalizable reflectionless stateswith real energies. The Hermitian asymmetric volcano potentials allow normalizable reflectionless states with complex energies.
Gailler, L. S.; Lenat, J. F.; Lambert, M.; Levieux, G.; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Froger, J.L.
The structure and mass transfers at Piton de la Fournaise volcano are investigated using new on land and offshore measurements. The structures are defined using 2 and 3D modelling. Short-wavelength positive anomalies to the W and NW of the central area are interpreted as shallow piles of thick, dense lava flows which have filled volcano-tectonic depressions, several hundreds of meters deep. This finding provides a new insight into the evolution of the volcano. Conversely, the currently active...
Schnegg, P. A.
An Audio Magnetotelluric (AMT) profile has been carried out across the Plaine des Sables, a former caldera of the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island. Located in the Western Indian Ocean, between the Mascarene and Madagascar basins, this basaltic shield volcano originates from the activity of a hot spot. Our aim was to determine the internal structure of the volcano, in particular the shallow electrical properties of an area extending between the old and the new caldera rims....
Lazar, Cassandre; Parkes, R. John; Cragg, Barry A.; L'Haridon, Stephane; Toffin, Laurent
Marine mud volcanoes are geological structures emitting large amounts of methane from their active centres. The Amsterdam mud volcano (AMV), located in the Anaximander Mountains south of Turkey, is characterized by intense active methane seepage produced in part by methanogens. To date, information about the diversity or the metabolic pathways used by the methanogens in active centres of marine mud volcanoes is limited. 14C-radiotracer measurements showed that methylamines/methanol, H2/CO2 an...
Stolper, E. M.; DePaolo, D. J.; Thomas, D M
Oceanic volcanoes formed by mantle plumes, such as those of Hawaii and Iceland, strongly influence our views about the deep Earth (Morgan, 1971; Sleep, 2006). These volcanoes are the principal geochemical probe into the deep mantle, a testing ground for understanding mantle convection, plate tectonics and volcanism, and an archive of information on Earth’s magnetic field and lithospheredynamics. Study of the petrology, geochemistry, and structure of oceanic volcanoes has contributed immensely...
Liu, Jia-qi; Chen, Shuang-shuang; Guo, Zheng-fu; Guo, Wen-feng; He, Huai-yu; You, Hai-tao; Kim, Hang-min; Sung, Gun-ho; Kim, Haenam
The intense Cenozoic volcanism of Mt. Changbai provides a natural laboratory for investigating the characteristics of volcanism and the dynamical evolution of the Northeast Asian continental margin. Mt. Changbai volcanoes predominantly consist of Wangtian'e volcano in China, Tianchi volcano spanning China and DPR Korea, and Namphothe volcano in DPR Korea. Geochronology data and historical records of volcanism indicate that the three eruption centers were formed in the following sequence: Wangtian'e volcano to Namphothe and Tianchi volcano, advancing temporally and spatially from southwest to northeast. The three eruption centers of Mt. Changbai volcano are located close together, have similar magma evolution trends, bimodal volcanic rock distribution, and an enriched mantle source, etc. Although the Cenozoic volcanism in Mt. Changbai is thought to be somewhat related to the subduction of the Western Pacific Plate, the regularity of volcanic activity and petrography characteristics have continental rift affinity. We therefore conclude that the occurrence of synchronous and similar volcanic activity on both sides of the Japan Sea (i.e., the Japan Arc and Northeast China) likely respond to the rift expansion and the back-arc spreading of Japan Sea. From many perspectives, Mt. Changbai volcano is a giant active volcano with hidden potentially eruptive risks.
Cayol, V.; Catry, T.; Michon, L.; Chaput, M.; Famin, V.; Bodart, O.; Froger, J. L.; Romagnoli, C.
Field work carried out on the Piton des Neiges volcano (Réunion Island) suggests that the injection of magma along detachments could trigger flank failure by conjugate opening and shear displacement [Famin and Michon, 2010]. We use 3D numerical models to compare the ability of purely opened sheet intrusions, sheared sheet intrusions, and normal faults to induce flank displacement on basaltic volcanoes (Figure). We assume that shear stress change on fractures which are not normal to a principal stress results from stress anisotropy of the host rock under gravity. Exploring a large range of stress anisotropies, fracture dips, and fracture depth over length ratios, we determine that the amount of shear displacement is independent of the proximity to the ground surface. Sheared sheet intrusions are the most efficient slip medium on volcanoes. Using our model in a forward way, we provide shear and normal displacements for buried fractures. Applying the model to a pile of sills at the Piton des Neiges volcano, we determine that the mean shear displacement caused by each intrusion was 3.7 m, leading to a total of a 180-260 m of lateral displacement for the 50 m high pile of sills. Using our model in an inverse way, we formulate a decision tree to determine some fracture characteristics and the host rock stress anisotropy from ratios of maximum surface displacements. This procedure provides a priori models, thus limits to the parameter space which can be further explored through a formal inversion. Applying this procedure to the 1.4 m co-eruptive flank displacement recorded at Piton de la Fournaise in 2007, we find that it probably originated from a shallow eastward-dipping sub-horizontal normal fault.
Cayol, V.; Catry, T.; Michon, L.; Chaput, M.; Famin, V.; Bodart, O.; Froger, J.-L.; Romagnoli, C.
Field work carried out on the Piton des Neiges volcano (Réunion Island) suggests that the injection of magma along detachments could trigger flank failure by conjugate opening and shear displacement. We use 3-D numerical models to compare the ability of purely opened sheet intrusions, sheared sheet intrusions, and normal faults to induce flank displacement on basaltic volcanoes. We assume that shear stress change on fractures results from stress anisotropy of the host rock under gravity. Exploring a large range of stress anisotropies, fracture dips, and fracture depth over length ratios, we determine that the amount of shear displacement is independent of the proximity to the ground surface. Sheared sheet intrusions are the most efficient slip medium on volcanoes. Consequently, the largest flank displacement is induced by the longest, deepest sheared intrusion dipping closest to 45° in a host rock with the highest stress anisotropy. Using our model in a forward way, we provide shear and normal displacements for buried fractures. Applying the model to a pile of sills at the Piton des Neiges volcano, we determine that the mean shear displacement caused by each intrusion was 3.7 m, leading to a total of a 180-260 m of lateral displacement for the 50 m high pile of sills. Using our model in an inverse way, we formulate a decision tree to determine some fracture characteristics and the host rock stress anisotropy from ratios of maximum surface displacements. This procedure provides a priori models, which can be used to bound the parameter space before it is explored through a formal inversion. Applying the decision tree to the 1.4 m coeruptive flank displacement recorded at Piton de la Fournaise in 2007, we find that it probably originated from a shallow eastward dipping subhorizontal normal fault.
Skácelová, Z.; Rapprich, V.; Valenta, Jan; Hartvich, Filip; Šrámek, J.; Radoň, M.; Gaždová, Renata; Nováková, Lucie; Kolínský, Petr; Pécskay, Z.
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 299-310. ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : maar–diatreme volcano * ground magnetometry * ground gravity measurements Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2010 www.jgeosci.org/content/jgeosci.072_2010_4_skacelova.pdf
Bachelery, Patrick; Babonneau, Nathalie; Jorry, Stephan; Mazuel, Aude
The discovery in 2006, during the oceanographic survey FOREVER, of large volcaniclastic sedimentary systems off La Réunion Island (western Indian ocean) revealed a new image of the evolution of oceanic shield volcanoes and their dismantling. Marine data obtained from 2006 to 2011 during the oceanographic surveys ERODER 1 to ERODER 4 included bathymetry, acoustic imagery, echosounding profiles, dredging and coring. Six major turbidite systems were mapped and described on the submarine flanks o...
Gómez-García, Clara; Brenguier, Florent; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Droznin, Dmitry V.; Droznina, Svetlana Y.; Chebrov, Victor N.; Gordeev, Evgenii I.
In the last decade, extraction of Green functions from seismic ambient noise has been used extensive and efficiently in different contexts and scales: from imaging to monitoring the Earth's interior and from global to local scales. By using coda waves of noise cross-correlations to estimate travel time perturbations, we can assign changes in delay times to changes in the medium's velocity. Due to this technique attribute of continuous recording of the medium, it can accurately detect very small seismic velocity changes linked to small disturbances in volcano interiors. However, cross-correlation functions (CCF) do not necessary converge to media Green function: measurements of waveforms perturbations within a volcanic edifice are affected by the noise fluctuation. The Klyuchevskoy volcanic group, located above the edge of the Pacific Plate subducting beneath Kamchatka, is one of the most active clusters of volcanoes in the word. It is characterized by strongly localized volcanic tremor sources, which often dominate the recorded wavefield. To monitor and get measurements of temporal changes of these active volcanoes, we use coda waves of daily CCF from a total of 19 seismic stations from the seismic network operated by the Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service (KBGS) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Our study period goes from January 2009 to July 2013 in which two eruptions occurred: one from the Klyuchevskoy volcano (2009-2010) and the other from the Tolbachik volcano (2012-2013). After a quality checking of the records and testing different filters, we filter data in the frequency range 0.08 - 7 Hz and we use the Moving Window Cross Spectrum (MWCS) method to measure the relative time shifts. As both eruptions are characterized by emissions of seismic tremors, we avoid the choice of an arbitrary reference CCF: we compute velocity changes between all pairs of daily CCF. We retrieve a continuous velocity change time series for each station pair using a
Reyes Pimentel, T. A.; Cárdenas-Soto, M.
We present the analysis of seven months of continuous record (March-September, 2012) of the seismic monitoring of Popocatépetl volcano in four broad band stations (the maximum aperture is 12 km). The aim is to explore whether the seismic interferometry method provides complimentary information about the tectonic stress before eruptive stages. In that period of time several eruptive events have occurred. One of them was a subduction-related earthquake (March, 20, 2012, M=7.4) that produced an increase in the volcanic activity. On March 30 the volcano registered a train of 10 hours of exhalations and from March 11 to 29 a swarm of 15 volcanotectonic events. Another important event lasted from April 13 to June 3, in which around 276 hours of harmonic and spasmodic tremor were recorded. One of the biggest events was on May 11, a volcano emissions of around 4 km above the crater with incandescent fragments falling on the volcano slope. From March to September 90 volcanotectonic events were registered the biggest occurred on April 14 and July 23 with Mc=3.2 and 2.9 respectively. Also we analyze the volcano activity with the SSEM analysis, which can be related with regional tectonic earthquakes. We take advantage of seismic noise to get daily correlograms for each motion component (Z, R, T) by stacking 40s time windows. We observe that there are consecutive days for which it is not possible to obtain correlations between pairs of stations, probably caused by instrumental problems or variations in absolute time. Between the nearest stations, 4 km on average, we get consistent correlations, but not in the days of major volcanic activity. The similarity between the Z and R correlograms indicate an appropriate extraction of Rayleigh waves, while in the T component we have the Love wave. Over longer distances it is not possible to extract the dispersion properties; however, the loss of correlation prevails for those days of increased activity. It is important to mention that
Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Ruiz, Mario; Robin, Claude
A shear wave splitting analysis was performed on Cotopaxi volcano, one of Ecuador most active and hazardous volcanoes, in order to investigate the stress state under this volcano. Cotopaxi volcano is located in a highly populated area including the capital Quito. It's eruptive cycle is approximately 120 ±70 years and apart from possible minor eruptions in 1942 and 1903-1904, the last volcanic activity dates from 1878-1885. Moreover, 15 years of increasing seismicity with some major crisis during the 1995-2010 periods, lead to the current very high seismic level. Finally two years of gas monitoring suggest that the Cotopaxi's emissions are currently intermittent and passive, but non negligible. We analyzed 102 regional tectonic events recorded between 2006 and 2009 at a network of five broad-band three-component seismic stations. These stations are located on all flanks of Cotopaxi. The events used were from several seismic sources located inside a radius of 200 kilometers from the volcano and illuminate all space directions. Seismic events were manually chosen based on their clear shear wave component in regards to the compression wave and to the noise. The data were computed using Matlab software. Polarization directions and delay times of split shear waves were found using a method based on the cross correlation of displacement waveforms of shear-waves at all possible rotation angles. Our results show a bimodal anisotropic behavior. One of the fast-directions axes follows the regional Ecuadorian tectonic general strain with a ESE direction. The other trend was found to be perpendicular to the regional strain. Other studies have shown that a 90° flip may take place either prior, during, or just after the main eruptive phase, or during hydraulic injections. This 90° flip is probably relied to micro cracks filling and pressuring, creating a local reverse strain field. There is not clear trend on temporal evolution of anisotropy distribution on our data. Only one
Coombs, M. L.; Calvert, A. T.; Bacon, C. R.
Glaciers have affected profoundly the growth, collapse, preservation, and possibly, eruptive behavior of Quaternary stratovolcanoes in Alaska. Holocene alpine glaciers have acted as effective agents of erosion on volcanoes north of ~55 °N and especially north of 60 °N. Cook Inlet volcanoes are particularly vulnerable as they sit atop rugged intrusive basement as high as 3000 m asl. Holocene glaciers have swept away or covered most of the deposits and dome lavas of frequently active Redoubt (60.5 °N); carved through the flanks of Spurr's active vent, Crater Peak (61.3 °N); and all but obscured the edifice of Hayes (61.6 °N), whose Holocene eruptive history is known almost exclusively though far-traveled tephra and flowage deposits. Relationships between Pleistocene eruptive histories, determined by high-precision Ar-Ar dating of lava flows, and marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 2-8 (Bassinot et al., 1994, EPSL, v. 126, p. 91-108) vary with a volcano's latitude, size, and elevation. At Spurr, 26 ages cluster in interglacial periods. At Redoubt, 28 ages show a more continual eruptive pattern from the end of MIS 8 to the present, with a slight apparent increase in output following MIS 6, and almost no preservation before 220 ka. Veniaminof (56.2 °N) and Emmons (55.5°N), large, broad volcanoes with bases near sea level, had voluminous eruptive episodes during the profound deglaciations after MIS 8 and MIS 6. At Akutan (54.1 °N), many late Pleistocene lavas show evidence for ice contact; ongoing dating will be able to pinpoint ice thicknesses. Furthest south and west, away from thick Pleistocene ice on the Alaska Peninsula and mainland, the Tanaga volcanic cluster (51.9 °N) has a relatively continuous eruptive record for the last 200 k.y. that shows no clear-cut correlation with glacial cycles, except a possible hiatus during MIS 6. Finally, significant edifice collapse features have been temporally linked with deglaciations. A ~10-km3 debris
Di Piazza, A.; Rizzo, A. L.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M. L.; Sortino, F.; De Astis, G.; Romano, C.
In this study we analysed rocks and noble gas composition of fluid inclusions (FIs) hosted in olivine crystals contained in a suite of eruptive products of the last 10ka of activity of Turrialba volcano, Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The suite of analyzed rocks display a calc-alkaline affinity, ranging in composition from basaltic-andesite to dacite. Trace element patterns indicate a typical behavior of subduction-related magmas and also the clear contribution of an OIB-like signature at source. A group of andesites displays also adakite-like geochemical features, as evidenced by their constant depletion in HFSE elements. Sr isotope (0.703593 - 0.703678) and Nd isotope ratios (0.512960 - 0.512968) suggest that Turrialba magmas belong to one of the less contaminated mantle source of Central America. The 3He/4He ratio of fluid inclusions from the most mafic eruptive products (basaltic-andesites) varies from 7.86 to 8.07 Ra, while that from andesite lavas varies from 7.03 to 7.18 Ra. In order to understand the mantle source feeding Turrialba volcano, we performed a geochemical investigation on fumarolic gases of summit craters. The He isotope composition of dry gases of Turrialba volcano is characterized by extremely high R/Ra values (7.08-7.96 Ra). The highest 3He/4He ratios were measured at both West and Central Craters (7.93-7.96 Ra and 7.78-7.88 Ra, respectively), and are the highest values of the entire Central America. Despite the observed variability, the 3He/4He ratio of fumarolic gases and FIs from Turrialba volcano is well in the range of arc related volcanism (~7-8 Ra; Hilton et al., 2002), and represents the signature of a mantle wedge in which the contamination by crustal fluids is small to negligible. In addition the occurrence of recent adakite-like magmatism suggests the presence of an abnormal heating of the subducting lithosphere under Turrialba volcano, allowing even old or cold oceanic crust to melt.
Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Jensen, R. A.; Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.
Rapid changes in technology over the past dozen years have provided powerful new tools for geologic mapping. During the 20th century, improved topographic maps and aerial photography were the major innovations for fieldwork. But, beginning in 2000, the use of a hand-held GPS receiver changed the first mapping question at Newberry Volcano from "where exactly am I?" to "I know where I am, so now I can ask first, which lava flow is this?" Hand plotting of the GPS locations was done using a transparent grid over a paper topographic map. Recently, digital compilation and production of maps facilitated by the critical role of GIS experts has dramatically speeded the process of completing a map. The field geologist can now take a new and up-to-date colored copy of the mapping to the field each season. At Newberry Volcano, digital compilation has played a very important role. By contrast, aerial photos have been of little use because the volcano is mantled with Mazama ash from the 7.7-ka eruption that produced Crater Lake and by thick vegetation that has grown in the ash blanket. Finding an outcrop in the thick forest is time-consuming and difficult. In 2011, however, lidar coverage of much of the volcano became available and otherwise hidden outcrops became obvious in the shaded relief image generated from the lidar data. In 2012, the power of the lidar was enhanced at Newberry Volcano by using it on a tablet computer in an app that has location services and the ability to record information-rich placemarks. The blue location dot shows the exact location of the geologist; the app records the location of a point in a variety of formats (lat/long, UTM), provides an entry field for a description, and can incorporate photos tied to the location - all of which can be e-mailed. Images of the lidar with placemarks can also be saved as pdfs that can be annotated with lines and labels, all while in the field. The tablet can also provide immediate access to field notes scanned as
Birhanu, Yelebe; Biggs, Juliet; Gottsmann, Joachim; Lewi, Elias; Lloyd, Ryan; Bekele, Berhanu
Silicic volcanic centres in the rift systems frequently experience unrest indicating long-term activity in the underlying magmatic system, but it is difficult to distinguish the contributions of hydrothermal fluids, magma or gasses. Aluto volcano which is located in the central MER system is situated between the Lakes Ziway and Langano in the north and south respectively. Continuous GPS installed from April 2013 to October 2015 shows subsidence initially, with the largest subsidence observed in the eastern part of the caldera (2 cm/yr). InSAR observations from TerraSAR-X show a radially-symmetric pattern of long-term subsidence. Dynamic gravity surveys carried out in October 2014 and 2015 showed that there is a net mass loss in the western and central part of the caldera and mass gain in the eastern and southern part of the caldera, with a sharp gradient between the two. This complex spatial pattern of gravity change is significantly different to the simple pattern of deformation indicating multiple sources of pressure and mass change exist within the caldera. We explain the ratio of gravity to height change (dg/dh) throughout the volcano by considering cooling and crystallisation of magma body, draining and precipitation of hydrothermal fluids and changes in the water table and lake levels. Keywords: volcano deformation, dynamic gravity, continental rift
Ry, Rexha V.; Priyono, A.; Nugraha, A. D.; Basuki, A.
Tangkuban Parahu is one of the active volcano in Indonesia located about 15 km northern part of Bandung city. The objective of this study is to investigate the seismic activity in the time periods of January 2013 to December 2013. First, we identified seismic events induced by volcano-tectonic activities. These micro-earthquake events were identified as having difference of P-wave and S-wave arrival times less than three seconds. Then, we constrained its location of hypocenter to locate the source of the activities. Hypocenter determination was performed using adaptive simulated annealing method. Using these results, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted to image the three-dimensional velocity structure of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio. In this study, 278 micro-earthquake events have been identified and located. Distribution of hypocenters around Tangkuban Parahu volcano forms an alignment structure and may be related to the stress induced by magma below, also movement of shallow magma below Domas Crater. Our preliminary tomographic inversion results indicate the presences of low Vp, high Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio that associate to accumulated young volcanic eruption products and hot material zones.
Luis Miguel Peci
Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARMTM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (DebianTM as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.
Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón
This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461
De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo
Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p
In 2004 Italy introduced an obligation for electricity and gas distribution companies to reach specific objectives regarding the improvement of energy efficiency in final energy consumption. The scope of the provision is to promote investments in energy efficiency in order to meet the greenhouse gases reduction target set by the Kyoto protocol. The adoption of binding targets of energy efficiency will also lead to the development of an energy services market, modifying the traditional relation between energy dealers and final consumers, thus leading to a more efficient use of the available resources. Similar mechanisms have already been applied in other European countries (as France and United Kingdom) and will be likely introduced in other countries with the implementation of European Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. This paper describes and analyzes both the measures adopted in Italy and the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. The paper is divided in six different sections. In the first part we highlight the main problems related to the development of system based on tradable white certificates. In the second part we provide a brief description of the Italian regulatory context. In the third part there is an economic analysis of investments in energy efficiency. The fourth part considers the different options that distribution companies face in order to reach the energy efficiency targets. The fifth part shows the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. Finally, we propose some possible modifications to the scheme adopted in Italy considering the results obtained and the alternative solutions already applied in France and United Kingdom
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthrax has almost disappeared from mainland Europe, except for the Mediterranean region where cases are still reported. In Central and South Italy, anthrax is enzootic, but in the North there are currently no high risk areas, with only sporadic cases having been registered in the last few decades. Regional genetic and molecular characterizations of anthrax in these regions are still lacking. To investigate the potential molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Northern Italy, canonical Single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotyping was performed against all isolates from animal outbreaks registered in the last twenty years in the region. Findings Six B. anthracis strains were analyzed. The canSNP analysis indicates the presence of three sublineages/subgroups each of which belong to one of the 12 worldwide CanSNP genotypes: B.Br.CNEVA (3 isolates, A.Br.005/006 (1 isolates and A.008/009 (2 isolate. The latter is the dominant canSNP genotype in Italy. The 15-loci MLVA analysis revealed five different genotypes among the isolates. Conclusions The major B branch and the A.Br.005/006 were recovered in the Northeast region. The genetic structure of anthrax discovered in this area differs from the rest of the country, suggesting the presence of a separate and independent B. anthracis molecular evolution niche. Although the isolates analyzed in this study are limited in quantity and representation, these results indicate that B. anthracis genetic diversity changes around the Alps.
Full Text Available Increasingly the pressures of deregulation and competition have promoted innovation in the development of financial instruments. In the case of Italy the pressure for innovation has arisen from the need to finance the public sector borrowing requirement and the effects of inflation. As a result, funding instruments have been switched from longer-term bonds to the shorter-term treasury bill. However, this can lead to excessive supply of liquid assets with consequent problems for monetary controls. Such factors will make it more difficult to use monetary aggregates as a guide to monetary policy in the future
Osvaldo Chiara; Stefania Cimbanassi; Alba Fava; Sergio Vesconi
In Italy, as in other western countries, trauma is a leading cause of death during the first four decades of life, with almost 18.000 of deaths per year. Since 80s organized systems for trauma care, including a pre-hospital emergency medical system and a network of hospitals designated as Trauma Centres, have been developed in north American countries. Effectiveness of trauma systems has been investigated comparing the post-system to the pre-system trauma care with the method of panel evaluat...
Maria Cristina GIANNINI
Full Text Available The research analyzes the phenomenon of trafficking of moldavan minors for sexual exploitation in Italy and in the European context trying to measure the quantitative and qualitative incidencef the criminal problem. Through a questionnaire submitted to the responsibles of the Italian centers of assistance (according Italian legislation recovering moldovian minors for the period 2000 – 2008, it has been possible to evaluate all the variables concerning the victims and the traffickers and to reach specific conclusions regarding the adoption of preventive measures in the short and long term. The study suggests the integration of two convergent approaches in a transnational dynamic perspective.
Fiorillo, Damiano; Sabatini, Fabio
This paper presents the first empirical assessment of the causal relationship between social capital and health in Italy. The analysis draws on the 2000 wave of the Multipurpose Survey on Household conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics on a representative sample of the population (n=46,868). Our measure of social capital is the frequency of meetings with friends. Based on IV and bivariate probit estimates, we find that individuals who meet friends every day or more time times a week are approximately 11-16% more likely to report good health. PMID:25805101
Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.
The US Enron group and the Italian Enel group have decided to create a joint-venture for the production of electric power in Italy. Their activities will be based on the transformation of existing classical thermal power plants into natural gas fueled combined cycle power plants. The total capacity of the converted power plants will be of 5000 MW. Enron should invest about 3 billions of US Dollars in this project and will be in a privileged position when the Italian electric power market will be open to competition in 1999. Short paper. (J.S.)
Marcacci, Maurilia; De Luca, Eliana; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Di Tommaso, Morena; Mangone, Iolanda; Aste, Giovanni; Savini, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Lorusso, Alessio
Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) has been recently identified by RT-PCR in the urine sample of a nephropathic cat in Italy. In this report, we describe the whole genome sequence of strain Piuma/2015 obtained by combination of sequence independent single primer amplification method (SISPA) and next generation sequencing (NGS) starting from RNA purified from the infected urine sample. The existence in Germany and Turkey of FeMVs from cats divergent from Piuma/2015, suggests the presence of FeMV heterogeneity in Europe as it has been described previously in Japan and China. PMID:27155238
Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.
In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011. Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely...... Amyloodinium ocellatum) and gill flukes (Diplectanum aequans and Sparicotyle chrysophrii) mainly present in inland farms (earth ponds and concrete tanks based); isopods crustacea (Ceratotoa, Anylocra) and Enteromyxidiosis (Enteromyxum leei) represent a treat for offshore cages. Among the dismetabolic unknown...
Full Text Available The present paper traces the development in inflation in Italy throughout the period following WWII, with particular emphasis on its relation to labour costs, productivity and import prices. Since the sliding scale mechanism has been operating at full power during the whole of the seventies, and especially in the second half of the decade, owning to the increased frequency of both domestic and imported destabilising pressures, this period is analysed in greater detail. The conclusions indicate that the sliding scale has played an important role in aggravating inflationary pressures during that period.
Bato, Mary Grace; Pinel, Virginie; Yan, Yajing
The recent advances in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) imaging and the increasing number of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) networks recorded on volcanoes provide continuous and spatially extensive evolution of surface displacements during inter-eruptive periods. For basaltic volcanoes, these measurements combined with simple dynamical models (Lengliné et al. 2008 , Pinel et al, 2010 , Reverso et al, 2014 ) can be exploited to characterise and constrain parameters of one or several magmatic reservoirs using inversion methods. On the other hand, data assimilation-a time-stepping process that best combines models and observations, sometimes a priori information based on error statistics to predict the state of a dynamical system-has gained popularity in various fields of geoscience (e.g. ocean-weather forecasting, geomagnetism and natural resources exploration). In this work, we aim to first test the applicability and benefit of data assimilation, in particular the Ensemble Kalman Filter , in the field of volcanology. We predict the temporal behaviors of the overpressures and deformations by applying the two-magma chamber model of Reverso et. al., 2014  and by using synthetic deformation data in order to establish our forecasting strategy. GPS time-series data of the recent eruptions at Grimsvötn volcano is used for the real case applicability of the method.  Lengliné, O., D Marsan, J Got, V. Pinel, V. Ferrazzini, P. Obuko, Seismicity and deformation induced by magma accumulation at three basaltic volcanoes, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B12305, 2008.  V. Pinel, C. Jaupart and F. Albino, On the relationship between cycles of eruptive activity and volcanic edifice growth, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res, 194, 150-164, 2010  T. Reverso, J. Vandemeulebrouck, F. Jouanne, V. Pinel, T. Villemin, E. Sturkell, A two-magma chamber as a source of deformation at Grimsvötn volcano, Iceland, JGR, 2014  Evensen, G., The Ensemble Kalman
Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael P.
Estimating rates of magma supply to the world's volcanoes remains one of the most fundamental aims of volcanology. Yet, supply rates can be difficult to estimate even at well-monitored volcanoes, in part because observations are noisy and are usually considered independently rather than as part of a holistic system. In this work we demonstrate a technique for probabilistically estimating time-variable rates of magma supply to a volcano through probabilistic constraint on storage and eruption rates. This approach utilizes Bayesian joint inversion of diverse datasets using predictions from a multiphysical volcano model, and independent prior information derived from previous geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies. The solution to the inverse problem takes the form of a probability density function which takes into account uncertainties in observations and prior information, and which we sample using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Applying the technique to Kīlauea Volcano, we develop a model which relates magma flow rates with deformation of the volcano's surface, sulfur dioxide emission rates, lava flow field volumes, and composition of the volcano's basaltic magma. This model accounts for effects and processes mostly neglected in previous supply rate estimates at Kīlauea, including magma compressibility, loss of sulfur to the hydrothermal system, and potential magma storage in the volcano's deep rift zones. We jointly invert data and prior information to estimate rates of supply, storage, and eruption during three recent quasi-steady-state periods at the volcano. Results shed new light on the time-variability of magma supply to Kīlauea, which we find to have increased by 35-100% between 2001 and 2006 (from 0.11-0.17 to 0.18-0.28 km3/yr), before subsequently decreasing to 0.08-0.12 km3/yr by 2012. Changes in supply rate directly impact hazard at the volcano, and were largely responsible for an increase in eruption rate of 60-150% between 2001 and
Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.
The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August 28, 2008 Ops was staffed around the clock (24/7). Among other duties, Ops staff engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding federal and state agencies and issued Volcanic Activity Notices (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notifications for Aviation (VONA), recently established and standardized products to announce eruptions, significant activity, and alert level and color code changes. In addition to routine phone communications with local, national and international media, on July 22, AVO held a local press conference in Ops to share observations and distribute video footage collected by AVO staff on board a U.S. Coast Guard flight over Okmok. On July 27, AVO staff gave a public presentation on the Okmok eruption in Unalaska, AK, 65 miles northeast of Okmok volcano and also spoke with local public safety and industry officials, observers and volunteer ash collectors. AVO's activity statements, photographs, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Over the six-week 24/7 period, AVO staff logged and answered approximately 300 phone calls in Ops and approximately 120 emails to the webmaster. Roughly half the logged calls were received from interagency cooperators including NOAA National Weather Service's Alaska Aviation Weather Unit and the Center Weather Service Unit, both in Anchorage. A significant number of the public contacts were from mariners reporting near real-time observations and photos of both eruptions, as well as the eruption of nearby Cleveland Volcano on July 21. As during the 2006 eruption of
Full Text Available Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus, a species native of the Eastern Palaearctic, is reported for the first time from Italy on the basis of a female specimen collected in a beech forest (Veneto Region, Treviso Province, Foresta del Cansiglio. The possible establishment of this alien species in Italy is briefly discussed.
Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco
In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…
... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an... from Italy and Japan (65 FR 6147, February 8, 2000). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....
In order to shed light on recent developments, as well as on future steps, this paper will first analyse the history of nuclear power production in Italy and the reasons for the decision to re-embark upon a nuclear power programme. It will briefly describe the legislation which governed nuclear activities before this decision, introduce the latest legislative changes and legislative projects and, finally, aim to demonstrate what else is necessary to realize this ambitious project in the near future. This analysis will be particularly focused on the current italian legislation following the recent approval of Act No. 99 of 23. july 2009, which lays down milestones for the new national nuclear legal framework. The implementation of a nuclear power programme is an enormous challenge. however, it can be successful if appropriate and timely steps are taken in the months and years to come. the national nuclear framework will play a key role in managing and regulating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in a consistent and rational manner. It is therefore crucial that the foundation for this framework is set accurately so that it provides a sound basis for activities related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Italy. (N.C.)
Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.
The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.
Montagnani, Carlotta; Esposito, Susanna; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena; Principi, Nicola; de Martino, Maurizio
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is still the only vaccine approved for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), and is widely used in highly endemic countries, where all newborns receive a single intradermal dose immediately after birth; however, the recommendations concerning its use in Europe vary widely from country to country. This document describes the recommendations of a group of Italian scientific societies concerning its pediatric use in Italy, the persistence of the protection it provides, its safety, its interference with tuberculin skin test (TST) responses, and the children who should be vaccinated. The experts conclude that BCG vaccination provides a good level of protection against tuberculous meningitis and disseminated forms, and a fair level of protection against pulmonary disease; the protective effective lasts at least 10 years, and revaccination offers no advantages over a single administration. The vaccine is safe in immunocompetent subjects, and affects the response to a TST for at least 6 y On the basis of these observations, we recommend its use in Italy in all TST-negative immunocompetent newborns and breastfeeding infants aged <6 months, and all TST-negative children aged between 6 months and 5 y who come from highly epidemic areas, or whose parents come from highly endemic areas, or who have been in contact with a family member with active TB without contracting the disease themselves. PMID:26587764
Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia
The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330
Ewert, J. W.; Pallister, J. S.
For 24 years the U.S. Geological Survey and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance have supported a small team of scientists and the monitoring equipment required to respond to volcanic crises at short notice anywhere in the world. This VDAP team was founded following the 1985 tragedy at Nevado del Ruiz, where 23,000 perished following an eruption-triggered lahar that swept through the town of Armero, Colombia. Through its first two decades, VDAP has deployed teams and equipment to assist host-country counterparts in responding to volcanic eruptions and unrest at numerous volcanoes in Central and South America, the Caribbean, the Western Pacific and Africa and the Middle East. VDAP and the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) have a synergistic relationship. VDAP contributes to domestic eruption responses (e.g., Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Marianas Islands (2003-05), Mount St. Helens (2004) and several Alaskan eruptions). In turn, when VDAP lacks sufficient capability, the larger USGS Volcano Hazards Program provides a “backstop” of staff and expertise to support its international work. Between crises, VDAP conducts capacity-building projects, including construction of volcano-monitoring networks and education programs in monitoring, hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. Major capacity-building projects have focused on Central and South America (1998-present), Papua New Guinea (1998-2000) and Indonesia (2004-present). In all cases, VDAP scientists work in the background, providing support to counterpart agencies and representing the U.S. Government as scientist-diplomats. All VDAP monitoring equipment (whether used in crisis response or in capacity building) is donated to counterpart agencies as a form of U.S. foreign aid. Over the years, VDAP has helped build and sustain volcano observatories and monitoring programs in more than a dozen countries. As observatories, monitoring networks, and the science of volcanology and forecasting have
Wallace, K.; Coombs, M. L.
Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra
Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.
The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic
Richardson, J. A.; Miller, D. M.; Bleacher, J. E.; Connor, C.; Gregg, T. K.; Connor, L. J.; Glaze, L. S.
Clusters of tens to thousands of monogenetic volcanoes are present on Earth, Venus, and Mars. In this investigation, volcano clusters from Venus and Mars are analyzed and compared to monogenetic volcanic fields on Earth. Spatial intensity (vents/sq km) of volcano clusters is calculated using nonparametric kernel methods and an optimized elliptical bandwidth uniquely defined for each cluster. This objective data-driven technique allows for comparison between volcanic fields in different regions and on different planets. Mars: Monogenetic volcanism on Mars occurs as fields of distributed low shields with diameters of tens of kilometers and heights of tens to hundreds of meters. These shield fields are recently recognized to be a major component of Tharsis Province volcanism as the province contains several hundreds of low shields. A Tharsis-wide data set of volcanic vents has been prepared using gridded topographic data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and images from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Context Imager (CTX), and the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). Topographic rises of >10s meters with visible apex craters and/or radial flows were cataloged as vents; topographic rises without apparent apex craters or flows were cataloged as likely vents. In this investigation, the spatial intensities of two shield fields within the Tharsis data set are determined by nonparametric kernel methods. The area within each two-sigma kernel bandwidth is calculated to be 2440 and 4330 square kilometers, respectively. Venus: Monogenetic volcanism on Venus occurs on two apparent scales, as shield fields (hundreds of vents) covering thousands to tens of thousands of square kilometers and as broader shield plains (thousands of vents) which individually cover thousands to millions of square kilometers. Volcanoes within these clusters are identified as 1-10 km in diameter with low (1-5 degree) slopes. Four shield fields and three shield plains have
Carbon-containing materials formed as a result of the Elbrus volcano eruptions during the recent 10 thousand years are studied the radiocarbon dating method. Three differing in age episodes of the Elbrus volcano eruptions in holocene: the oldest (7200-7500 years ago), the middle (4600-5500 years ago) and the youngest (at the start of our era) ones were identified
Mud volcanoes are important pathways for CH4 emission from deep buried sediments; however, the importance of gas fluxes have hitherto been neglected in atmospheric source budget considerations. In this study, gas fluxes have been monitored to examine the stability of their chemical compositions and fluxes spatially, and stable C isotopic ratios of CH4 were determined, for several mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan. The major gas components are CH4 (>90%), 'air' (i.e. N2 + O2 + Ar, 1-5%) and CO2 (1-5%) and these associated gas fluxes varied slightly at different mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. The Hsiao-kun-shui (HKS) mud volcano emits the highest CH4 concentration (CH4 > 97%). On the other hand, the Chung-lun mud volcano (CL) shows CO2 up to 85%, and much lower CH4 content (4 content (>90%) with low CO2 (1 (methane)/C2 (ethane) + C3 (propane) and δ13CCH4 results, with the exception of mud volcanoes situated along the Gu-ting-keng (GTK) anticline axis showing unique biogenic characteristics. Only small CH4 concentration variations, 4 emission fluxes for mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan fall in a range between 980 and 2010 tons annually. If soil diffusion were taken into account, the total amount of mud volcano CH4 could contribute up to 10% of total natural CH4 emissions in Taiwan.
Recently derived morphologic evidence suggests that intrusive events have not only influenced the growth of young shield volcanoes on Mars but also the distribution of volatiles surrounding these volcanoes: in addition to rift zones and flank eruptions on Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons, melt water channels were identified to the northwest of Hecates Tholus, to the south of Hadriaca Patera, and to the SE of Olympus Mons. Melt water release could be the surface expression of tectonic deformation of the region or, potentially, intrusive events associated with dike emplacement from each of these volcanoes. In this study the structural properties of Hawaiian shield volcanoes were studied where subaerial erosion has removed a sufficient amount of the surface to enable a direct investigation of the internal structure of the volcanoes. The field investigation of dike morphology and magma flow characteristics for several volcanoes in Hawaii is reported. A comprehensive investigation was made of the Koolau dike complex that passes through the summit caldera. A study of two other dissected Hawaiian volcanoes, namely Waianae and East Molokai, was commenced. The goal is not only to understand the emplacement process and magma flow within these terrestrial dikes, but also to explore the possible role that intrusive events may have played in volcano growth and the distribution of melt water release on Mars
Chaput, Marie; Famin, Vincent; Michon, Laurent
We performed a microstructural study of Piton des Neiges (La Réunion Island) to understand how intrusions and stresses control each other in basaltic volcanoes. Our study reveals that three perpendicular intrusions trends coexisted during the 2 Myr history of the volcano: a N120-140°E rift zone, a perpendicular dike trend, and swarms of subhorizontal intrusions hereafter called "sill zones". Independently, the inversion of fault-slip data shows that incompatible paleostress fields recurrently occurred along with the intrusions: a dominant NNE-SSW extension, a perpendicular extension, and strike-slip or compressional regimes. The orientations of paleostresses are consistent with the orientations of the three perpendicular intrusion populations. We propose that stress accumulation in the edifice under the effect of repeated magma injections resulted in permutations of the principal axes of the stress tensor, causing a reorientation of subsequent intrusions. Stress permutations were cyclical. Each cycle started with dike injections in an extensional stress field, reducing the deviatoric stress and switching the axes of principal stresses, and finished with sill intrusions in a compressional stress field. Sill zones acted as detachment planes, restoring the extensional stress field and initiating a new cycle of permutations. Our model of stress permutations is in agreement with the pattern of eruptions and deformation observed at Piton de la Fournaise. In contrast with the Hawaiian model of spreading on a décollement, stress permutations in La Réunion's volcanoes imply that the basal deformation of the edifices, if any, is not sufficient to compensate the reduction of deviatoric stress caused by intrusions.
We present the results of one year of continuous radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano collected at two automated real-time stations. These were deployed on the NE flank (at 520 m a.s.l.) and within the summit area (900 m a.s.l.). Higher daily emissions at the lower station approached 4,200 Bq/m3, with bulk averages around 1,800 (±980) Bq/m3; whereas the summit station reached peak values of 23,000 Bq/m3 and bulk averages of 12,500 Bq/m3 (±4,000). Negative correlations are observed between radon emissions, soil temperature and, to a lesser extent, atmospheric pressure. In contrast, increases in radon concentrations were observed during periods of higher rainfall conditions. Therefore, trends in radon concentrations may be decoupled from those of other geochemical parameters (CO2 fluxes and CO2/SO2 plume ratios) during periods of heavy to moderate rainfalls. Multiple Linear Regression statistics (including the effects of soil temperature, atmospheric pressure and tidal forces) led us to compute the residuals given by the difference of measured and calculated 222Rn concentrations. The cross-check between the daily measured radon activities and the absolute variations in radon residuals, for the data collected at the summit station, give us the opportunity to suggest a methodological approach that can be used in the attempt of predicting some major changes in volcanic activity. - Highlights: ► We report one year of radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano during 2008–2009. ► Radon data were filtered for environmental parameters by Multiple Linear Regression. ► Our goal was focussed in predicting some major changes in volcanic activity. ► The proposed methodology may improve geochemical monitoring and volcano surveillance.
Keating, G. N.; Valentine, G. A.; Krier, D. J.; Perry, F. V.
We characterize the subvolcanic geometry of small-volume basaltic volcanoes (magmatic volatile-driven eruptions, 0.1 to 0.5 km3) based on a synthesis of field studies of 5 basaltic volcanoes with varying degrees of erosion exposing feeder dikes, conduits, and vent areas development of a complex conduit above ~50-70 m depth is reflected in bifurcating dikes and brecciation and stoping of the country rock. The overall zone of effect models, the width of the feeder dike from 250 to 500 m depth is expected to range from 1 to 10 m and is expected to decrease to about 1-2 meters below ~500 m. The flaring shape of the observed feeder systems is similar to results of theoretical modeling using lithostatic pressure- balanced flow conditions. Sizes of observed conduits differ from modeled dimensions by up to a factor of 10 in the shallow (100 m depth the difference is a factor of two to five. This difference is primarily due to the fact that observed eroded conduits record the superimposed effects of multiple eruptive events while theoretical model results define dimensions necessary for a single, steady eruption phase. The complex details of magma-host rock interactions observed at the study areas (contact welding, brecciation, bifurcating dikes and sills, and stoping) represent the mechanisms by which the lithostatic pressure-balanced geometry is attained. The similarity in the normalized shapes of theoretical and observed conduits demonstrates the appropriateness of the pressure-balanced modeling approach, validating the conclusions of Wilson and Head (1981) for this type of volcano.
Pedone, M.; Viveiros, F.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Gagliano, A. L.; Francofonte, V.; Ferreira, T.
Furnas volcano, in São Miguel island (Azores), being the surface expression of rising hydrothermal steam, is the site of intense carbon dioxide (CO2) release by diffuse degassing and fumaroles. While the diffusive CO2 output has long (since the early 1990s) been characterized by soil CO2 surveys, no information is presently available on the fumarolic CO2 output. Here, we performed (in August 2014) a study in which soil CO2 degassing survey was combined for the first time with the measurement of the fumarolic CO2 flux. The results were achieved by using a GasFinder 2.0 tunable diode laser. Our measurements were performed in two degassing sites at Furnas volcano (Furnas Lake and Furnas Village), with the aim of quantifying the total (fumarolic + soil diffuse) CO2 output. We show that, within the main degassing (fumarolic) areas, the soil CO2 flux contribution (9.2 t day-1) represents a minor (~15 %) fraction of the total CO2 output (59 t day-1), which is dominated by the fumaroles (~50 t day-1). The same fumaroles contribute to ~0.25 t day-1 of H2S, based on a fumarole CO2/H2S ratio of 150 to 353 (measured with a portable Multi-GAS). However, we also find that the soil CO2 contribution from a more distal wider degassing structure dominates the total Furnas volcano CO2 budget, which we evaluate (summing up the CO2 flux contributions for degassing soils, fumarolic emissions and springs) at ~1030 t day-1.
Barba, Diego; Robin, Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Eissen, Jean-Philippe
Ice-capped Chimborazo is one of the large composite Ecuadorian volcanoes whose recent eruptive activity is poorly known. This paper presents the characteristics and the ages of a newly discovered Holocene sequence of pyroclastic deposits on the east and north sides of the cone. Lying upon a moraine of the Late-Glacial period, the most complete section of ~ 4.5 m in thickness is located 5 km from the present summit crater. It consists of seven massive or diffusely stratified ash flow layers and four fallout layers interbedded with seven paleosoils. Based on field study, most flow deposits were assessed as surge layers, and six radiocarbon analyses obtained from charcoal fragments and paleosoils indicate that eruptions occurred at quite regular intervals between about 8000 and 1000 years ago. The first two and most potent events generated thick lahars over the north and west flanks of the cone. Surface textures of volcanic clasts were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Blocky and blocky/fluidal vitric clasts indicate fragmentation during vulcanian explosions of a quite solidified shallow magma body. In addition, aggregates either cemented at a cooling stage (with surface fluidal textures), or consisting of fine particles (moss-looking aggregates), form a large part of the surge deposits. These characteristics indicate powerful explosions and intense fragmentation due to phreatic water reaching the conduit, probably from the ice-cap. Since the last eruption occurred between the early part of the 5th century (~ AD 420) and the end of the 7th century, these results highlight that Chimborazo is a potentially active volcano. Given its dominating presence over the densely populated Ambato and Riobamba basins, and owing its large ice-cap, Chimborazo should be considered a dangerous volcano.
Lamb, O. D.; De Angelis, S.; Umakoshi, K.; Hornby, A. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.
Rhythmic seismicity associated with spine extrusion is a well-documented phenomenon at a number of dome-forming volcanic systems. At Unzen volcano, Japan, a 4-year dome-forming eruption concluded with the emplacement of a spine from October 1994 to February 1995, offering a valuable opportunity to further investigate seismogenic processes at dome-forming volcanoes. Using continuous data recorded at a seismic station located close to the dome, this study explores trends in the seismic activity during the extrusion of the spine. We identify a total of 12 208 volcano-seismic events in the period between October 1994 and February 1995. Hourly event counts indicate cyclic activity with periods of ∼ 40 to ∼ 100 h, attributed to pulsatory ascent defined by strain localisation and faulting at the conduit margins. Waveform correlation revealed two strong clusters (a.k.a. multiplets, families) which are attributed to fracturing along the margins of the shallow, ascending spine. Further analysis indicates variable seismic velocities during the spine extrusion as well as migration of the cluster sources along the spine margins. Our interpretation of the results from seismic data analyses is supported by previously published field and experimental observations, suggesting that the spine was extruded along an inclined conduit with brittle and ductile deformation occurring along the margins. We infer that changes in stress conditions acting on the upper and lower spine margins led to deepening and shallowing of the faulting sources, respectively. We demonstrate that the combination of geophysical, field and experimental evidence can help improve physical models of shallow conduit processes.
Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Bagtasa, Gerry; Crisologo, Irene; Racoma, Bernard Alan; David, Carlos Primo
Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterised by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and cause lift into the atmosphere, which normally leads to heavy rains and floods. Heavy southwest monsoon rains from 18-21 August 2013 flooded Metro Manila (population of 12 million) and its suburbs paralyzing the nation’s capital for an entire week. Called the 2013 Habagat event, it was a repeat of the 2012 Habagat or extreme southwest monsoon weather from 6-9 August, which delivered record rains in the mega city. In both the 2012 and 2013 Habagat events, cyclones, the usual suspects for the delivery of heavy rains, were passing northeast of the Philippine archipelago, respectively, and enhanced the southwest monsoon. Analysis of Doppler data, rainfall measurements, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations show that two large stratovolcanoes, Natib and Mariveles, across from Manila Bay and approximately 70 km west of Metro Manila, played a substantial role in delivering extreme rains and consequent floods to Metro Manila. The study highlights how volcanoes, with their shape and height create an orographic effect and dispersive tail of rain clouds which constitutes a significant flood hazard to large communities like Metro Manila.
Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Bergsson, Baldur; Di Napoli, Rossella; Fridriksson, Thráinn; Óladóttir, Audur Agla; Óskarsson, Finnbogi; Grassa, Fausto; Pfeffer, Melissa; Lechner, Katharina; Yeo, Richard; Giudice, Gaetano
Hekla is a frequently active volcano with an infamously short pre-eruptive warning period. Our project contributes to the ongoing work on improving Hekla's monitoring and early warning systems. In 2012 we began monitoring gas release at Hekla. The dataset comprises semi-permanent near-real time measurements with a MultiGAS system, quantification of diffuse gas flux, and direct samples analysed for composition and isotopes (δ13C, δD and δ18O). In addition, we used reaction path modelling to derive information on the origin and reaction pathways of the gas emissions. Hekla's quiescent gas composition was CO2-dominated (0.8 mol fraction) and the δ13C signature was consistent with published values for Icelandic magmas. The gas is poor in H2O and S compared to hydrothermal manifestations and syn-eruptive emissions from other active volcanic systems in Iceland. The total CO2 flux from Hekla central volcano (diffuse soil emissions) is at least 44 T d-1, thereof 14 T d-1 are sourced from a small area at the volcano's summit. There was no detectable gas flux at other craters, even though some of them had higher ground temperatures and had erupted more recently. Our measurements are consistent with a magma reservoir at depth coupled with a shallow dike beneath the summit. In the current quiescent state, the composition of the exsolved gas is substantially modified along its pathway to the surface through cooling and interaction with wall-rock and groundwater. The modification involves both significant H2O condensation and scrubbing of S-bearing species, leading to a CO2-dominated gas emitted at the summit. We conclude that a compositional shift towards more S- and H2O-rich gas compositions if measured in the future by the permanent MultiGAS station should be viewed as sign of imminent volcanic unrest on Hekla.
De Vita, Pantaleone; Piegari, Ester
In the territory of the Campania region (southern Italy), critical rainfall events periodically trigger dangerous fast slope movements involving ashy and pyroclastic soils originated by the explosive phases of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano and deposited along the surrounding mountain ranges. In this paper, an integration of engineering-geological and geophysical measurements is presented to characterize unsaturated pyroclastic samples collected in a test area on the Sarno Mountains (Salerno and Avellino provinces, Campania region). The laboratory analyses were aimed at defining both soil water retention and electrical resistivity curves versus water content. From the matching of the experimental data, a direct relationship between electrical resistivity and matric suction is retrieved for the investigated soil horizons typical of a ash-fall pyroclastic succession. The obtained relation turns out to be helpful in characterizing soils up to close saturation, which is a critical condition for the trigger of slo...
Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Monreal, Matthias; Sartohadi, Junun
In an attempt to understand the complexity of human-environment systems, models help to define, quantify, describe, or simulate complex interactions. With regards to the human-volcano system, we develop a conceptual model in order to assist analysis of its two basic elements, the physical and the social environment. A field survey of the human environment interaction of two of the most active volcanic areas in Indonesia (Mt. Merapi and Mt. Bromo) and a corresponding literature review from other case studies was carried out. A differentiated understanding of human interaction with hazard potential elements within the human-volcano system is the main focus of the model development. We classified volcanic processes and effects as three pairs of dichotomies: positive or negative impacts, on society or environment in an indirect or direct way. Each volcanically induced process or effect characterized accordingly leads to eight distinct process/effect classes. They are positive direct effects on society (PDS); positive direct effects on natural resources (PDN); positive indirect effects on society (PIS); positive indirect effects on natural resources (PIN); negative direct effects on society (NDS); negative direct effects on natural resources (NDN); negative indirect effects on society (NIS) and lastly negative indirect effects on natural resources (NIN). Such differentiated view of volcanic process/effects bears several advantages. First, whereas volcanic processes have hitherto been viewed as hazards only, it becomes possible now to describe a particular process/effect in a particular context as negative or positive. Secondly, such a categorization makes it possible to account for processes of the human-volcano system that do not have a direct physical expression but are of socio-cultural relevance. Thirdly, the greater degree of differentiation that is made possible when evaluating volcanic processes has significant repercussions on the way volcanic risk must be
Diaz, J. Andres; Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Conejo, Elian; Heinrich, Kristel; Soto, Carlomagno
The Airborne Volcanic Emissions Mass Spectrometer (AVEMS) System developed by NASA-Kennedy Space Center and deployed in collaboration with the National Center for Advanced Technology (CENAT) and the University of Costa Rica was used for mapping the volcanic plume of Arenal Volcano, the most active volcano in Costa Rica. The measurements were conducted as part of the second CARTA (Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Application) mission conducted in March 2005. The CARTA 2005 mission, involving multiple sensors and agencies, consisted of three different planes collecting data over all of Costa Rica. The WB-57F from NASA collected ground data with a digital camera, an analog photogrametric camera (RC-30), a multispectral scanner (MASTER) and a hyperspectral sensor (HYMAP). The second aircraft, a King Air 200 from DoE, mounted with a LIDAR based instrument, targeted topography mapping and forest density measurements. A smaller third aircraft, a Navajo from Costa Rica, integrated with the AVEMS instrument and designed for real-time measurements of air pollutants from both natural and anthropogenic sources, was flown over the volcanoes. The improved AVEMS system is designed for deployment via aircraft, car or hand-transport. The 85 pound system employs a 200 Da quadrupole mass analyzer, has a volume of 92,000 cubic cm, requires 350 W of power at steady state, can operate up to an altitude of 41,000 feet above sea level (-65 C; 50 torr). The system uses on-board gas bottles on-site calibration and is capable of monitoring and quantifying up to 16 gases simultaneously. The in-situ gas data in this work, consisting of helium, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and acetone, was acquired in conjunction of GPS data which was plotted with the ground imagery, topography and remote sensing data collected by the other instruments, allowing the 3 dimensional visualization of the volcanic plume at Arenal Volcano. The modeling of possible scenarios of Arenal s activity and its
Tishin, A.M.; Snigirev, O.V.; Khomutov, G.B.;
-plane and out-of-plane pre-magnetization in a field of 1.4 T at 300 K. Randomly placed “magnetic volcanos” with a remanent magnetic moment of the order of 10−13 A m2 was observed. A decay of the remanent magnetization with a characteristic time of about 120 h was observed. It is suggested that the magnetic...... order is relatively long ranged, and that topological defects (vortices) lead to the observed out-of-plane field lines, and are responsible for the magnetic volcanos. Finally, it is hypothesized that a similar topology of field lines is responsible for superconductivity as observed in ceramic high...
Di Martino, Roberto M. R.; Camarda, Marco; Gurrieri, Sergio; Valenza, Mariano
Geochemical monitoring of fumarole and soil gases is a powerful tool for volcano surveillance, for investigating the subsurface magma dynamics, and for hazard assessment in volcanic areas. The monitoring of both carbon dioxide (CO2) flux, and hydrogen (H2) concentration in active volcanic areas helps to improve the understanding of the processes linking the surface gas emissions, the chemistry of the magmatic gases, and the volcanic activity. The CO2 flux measurement is a routine technique for volcano monitoring purposes, because of CO2 is the second-abundant component of the gas phase in silicate magmas, attaining saturation at the mantle to deep crustal level. The H2 concentration has provided indications concerning the oxygen fugacity of magmatic gases, a parameter that changes over a wide range of low values (10-16 - 10-8 bar), and affects the redox state of multivalent elements. This study reports on the use a tailor-made automatic system developed for continuous monitoring purposes of H2 concentration and CO2 flux in the summit area of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian islands). The automatic device consists of an H2-selective electrochemical sensor, and two IR-spectrophotometers for measuring the CO2 flux in agreement with the dynamic concentration method. The data collected by the automatic system deployed at Stromboli from 19 May 2009 to 15 December 2010 are presented herein. The data processing provides a better understanding of the relationships between the evolution of the low temperature fumarolic emissions, and the volcanic activity. The results of the data analysis indicates that the high frequency variations exhibited by CO2 flux and H2 concentration are positively correlated with the eruptive activity of Stromboli, typically changing on time scale of hours or days. Furthermore, the investigation of the relationships between CO2 flux and H2 concentration provides an evaluation of the depth of the degassing source, by which the gas mixture containing H2 and
Global geologic maps of Mars at 1:15,000,000 scales were digitized to obtain accurate measurements of the areal extent of 90 geologic units. These data were used to determine the resurfacing history of Mars by volcanic, eolian, fluvial, periglacial, and impact processes. This work is presently being extended to focus on the extent, magnitude, and duration of volcanism and tectonism (mainly faulting) throughout each of the three time-stratigraphic systems. This work involves detailed mapping to assess volcano-tectonic episodes in terms of their occurrence in eight epochs that represent subdivisions of Martian periods
Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.; Rodríguez Ayala, N. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.
Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive volcanic eruptions. The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast, which is a key communication point for coast of Jalisco and Nayarit and the northwest of Mexico. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacitic composition lava flows along the southeast side. Although surface activity has been restricted to fumaroles near the summit, Ceboruco exhibits regular seismic unrest characterized by both low frequency seismic events and volcano-tectonic earthquakes. From March 2003 until July 2008 a three-component short-period seismograph Marslite station with a Lennartz 3D (1Hz) was deployed in the south flank (CEBN) and within 2 km from the summit to monitoring the seismic activity at the volcano. The LF seismicity recorded was classified using waveform characteristics and digital analysis. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, most of the hypocenters are below the volcanic edifice within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the
Hall, M.L.; Robin, Claude; Beate, B.; Mothes, P.; Monzier, Michel
Tungurahua, one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes, is made up of three volcanic edifices. Tungurahua 1 was a 14-km-wide andesitic stratocone which experienced at least one sector collapse followed by the extrusion of a dacite lava series. Tungurahua 2, mainly composed of acid andesite lava flows younger than 14,000 years BP, was partly destroyed by the last collapse event, 2955 plus or minus 90 years ago, which left a large amphitheater and produced an approximately 8-km3 debris deposit. The...
Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.
Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal
Delfosse, T.; Delmelle, P.; Iserentant, A.; Delvaux, B.
Quiescently degassing volcanoes can significantly contribute to the global emission of heavy metals. In turn, substantial deposition of metals onto soils may result, possibly increasing the risk of phytotoxicity. In contrast to anthropogenic sources, the environmental impacts of airborne volcanic heavy metals and their accumulation in soils are poorly studied. Along with the degassing of S, Cl and F, Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is also a strong source of heavy metals. Recent estimates indicate emission rates of e.g., 62 t As yr-1, 133 t Zn yr-1 and 306 t Cu yr-1 (Moune, 2002). Here, we report on the effects of heavy metal depositions on the total contents of As, Cr, Ni, Cu, Bi, Zn, Se, and Co in two groups of soils located 5 km and 15 km downwind from the volcano. These soils correspond to young Vitric Andosols and more weathered Eutric Andosols, respectively. As and Se were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry after soil digestion in a trace metal unit, and Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Bi and Zn were determined after alkaline fusion in Li-metaborate/Li-tetraborate. Results suggest that prolonged metal inputs in the vicinity of Masaya volcano have significantly increased the As, Se and Zn contents of the soils. For these elements, concentrations are about 3-5 times those measured in the parent rock materials. However, maximum concentrations in soils (i.e., 5.4 mg As kg-1, 183 mg Zn kg-1 and 0.9 mg Se kg-1) never exceed critical concentration levels as defined for cultivated soils in the UK (10, 300 and 3 mg kg-1 for As, Zn and Se, respectively). We did not detect significant enrichments in Cr, Ni, Cu, Bi, and Co. The relatively low accumulation of metals in the Masaya Andosols contrasts with the high retention of volcanic F and S inputs (Delmelle et al., 2003). Since Andosols typically show a high affinity for heavy metals, which can be bound to organic matter as well as to oxides, oxyhydroxide and allophane minerals present in these soils, rapid
Meliksetian, Khachatur; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Charles; Halama, Ralf; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Manucharyan, Davit; Ishizuka, Osamu; Quidelleur, Xavier; Germa, Aurélie
In this contribution we discuss the geological structure and volcano-stratigraphy of the Quaternary Aragats stratovolcano in Armenia based on recent age determinations as well as petrological and geochemical features of magma generation processes specific for collision zones. Armenia is situated in the NE part of the Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian plateau, an intensely deformed segment of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The complex geological structure of the region is represented by a mosaic of tectonic blocks comprising fragments of volcanic arcs, continental crust and exhumed oceanic crust. Collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian margin in early Miocene resulted in orogenic uplift associated with intense volcanism. Aragats (4090m) is one the largest volcanoes in the entire region and produced central vent (inc. Plinian VEI>4) and monogenetic type flank eruptions and periphery plateaus within a total area greater than 5000 km2, known as Aragats volcanic province (AVP). The Aragats volcanic province (AVP) comprises the composite cone of Aragats volcano, the peak of which is built on a summit plateau, ~45 km in diameter shield structure with dozens of flank vents, scattered monogenetic cinder cones on the adjacent volcanic plateaus as well as the neighboring stratovolcano Arailer. New K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of groundmass and separated plagioclase samples indicate that volcanism at AVP began ~2.5 Ma, while most recent volcanic activity is 0.49 Ma for Plinian eruption of dacites from Irind flank vent and basaltic trachyandesite lava flows from Tirinkatar (0.48-0.61 Ma), Kakavasar, (0.52-0.54 Ma) and Ashtarak (0.58 Ma) monogenetic flank centers, as well as trachyandesites of Jrbazhan volcano on the summit plateau of Aragats (0.52 Ma). Based on bulk rock geochemical data (major, minor and low abundance trace elements, Sr and Nd isotopes) and mineral chemistry, we conclude that volcanic rocks of AVP are largely recording a complex mixing between deep