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Sample records for capparis atamisquea kuntze

  1. Actividad biológica de extractos crudos de Larrea divaricata Cav. y Capparis atamisquea Kuntze sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L. Biological activity of crude extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav. and Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae (L.

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    A.I. Viglianco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades repelentes y antialimentarias de extractos crudos de dos plantas difundidas en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. y atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze., sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L.. Se estudiaron los extractos crudos en etanol, cloroformo y hexano de ambas especies. Para cada extracto se determino el coeficiente de disuasión total. Para las pruebas de repelencia se utilizaron papeles de filtro separados en dos mitades iguales; se determinaron los porcentajes de repelencia de cada extracto. Se observó mayor efecto antialimentario de los extractos de atamisqui con respecto a los de jarilla, y de los de hojas o tallos sobre los de frutos. El extracto de mayor efecto antialimentario fue el etanólico de tallos de atamisqui (clase ++++ seguido por los extractos etanólico y clorofórmico de hojas de esta especie (clase +++. Se observó un moderado efecto de repelencia de los extractos de jarilla y atamisqui sobre S. oryzae, destacándose el de hojas de atamisqui en hexano como el de mayor efecto de repelencia (clase IV. El extracto clorofórmico de hojas de atamisqui, los tres de hoja de jarilla y los clorofórmicos de tallos y frutos de jarilla presentaron efecto de repelencia (clase III.Repellent and antifeedant properties of crude extracts of two plants widely distributed in the province of Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. and atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae were studied. Crude extracts in ethanol, chloroform and hexane of both species were evaluated. The Total Deterrence Coefficient for each extract was determined. Repellence tests were conducted using filter paper separated in halves. Repellence percentages were determined for each extract. A greater antifeedant effect was observed in the atamisqui extracts than in the jarilla ones; the effect was also greater in extracts of leaves or twigs than in extracts of fruits. The extracts

  2. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA LINN.

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    P. N. Dhabale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempt to evaluate the physicochemical and phytochemicals parameters of Capparis zeylanica leaves belong to family Caparadaceae is a climbing shrub found in through out India. The plant is used in folk medicine to treat, rheumatism, abdominal ulcers and hernia, swelling, itching, hepatitis, liver tonic, insect poisoning and anti-inflammatory. But there is no standardization work reported on Capparis zeylanica leaves. Physicochemical parameters, preliminary characterization and phytochemical analysis were carried out. There finding will be useful to words establishing quality control parameters for the standardization of the plant material.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

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    P. Arora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  5. Capparis buwaldae Jacobs (Capparaceae). A new Myrmecophyte from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maschwitz, U.; Dumpert, K.; Moog, J.; LaFrankie, J.V.; Azarae, I.Hj.

    1996-01-01

    Capparis buwaldae, a climber of primary forests endemic to Borneo, is a myrmecophyte with stem domatia. The stems become hollow by pith degeneration and develop oval openings allowing ants to enter. These openings are localized at a strictly defined area above the insertion of the leaves and a pair

  6. Capparis buwaldae Jacobs (Capparaceae). A new Myrmecophyte from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maschwitz, U.; Dumpert, K.; Moog, J.; LaFrankie, J.V.; Azarae, I.Hj.

    1996-01-01

    Capparis buwaldae, a climber of primary forests endemic to Borneo, is a myrmecophyte with stem domatia. The stems become hollow by pith degeneration and develop oval openings allowing ants to enter. These openings are localized at a strictly defined area above the insertion of the leaves and a pair

  7. Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze: o ginseng-brasileiro

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    Fernando de Oliveira

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor efetua, revisão sobre os conhecimentos farmacognósticos de Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze incluindo considerações sobre a química e o uso da espécie. Chama a atenção para a diferença existente entre o ginseng-brasileiro e os ginseng importados.

  8. QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOMEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT CAPPARIS APHYLA ROTH (CAPPARIDACEAE FROM AKOLA DISRICT, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

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    Nitin A Khandare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focus on preliminary analysis of Capparis aphyla Roth., (Caper plant from Akola District Maharashtra , India. The plant has tremendous ethnic medicinal value. Quantitative analysis of Capparis aphyla was done in various solvents. It showed presence of maximum phytoconstituents in aqueous extract. The major phytochemicals present in this plant include Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponin and Phenolic while steroids are not detected in any solvent system.

  9. Chemical Investigation of Some Capparis Species Growing in Egypt and their Antioxidant Activity

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    Ahmed R. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Capparis cartilaginea and C. deserti growing in Egypt were investigated for their glucosiolates and rutin content. From Capparis cartilaginea four isothiocynates were isolated and identified using GC and EI/MS techniques. These compounds were butyl isothiocyanate (1, 6-methylsulphonylhexyl isothiocyanate (2, 7-methylsulphonylheptyl isothiocyanate (3 and 5-benzylsulphonyl-4-pentenyl isothiocyanate (4. In addition to compounds (1 and (2, two other compounds were isolated and identified from Capparis deserti. These compounds are 3-methylthiopropyl isothiocyanate (5 and [11-(2-butenylthio6-undecenyl isothiocyanate] (6. Compounds (1, (2, (5 and (6 are reported in this study for the first time from Capparis deserti. The main flavonoid component in the studied species was isolated and identified as rutin by comparing the data with those reported. Also, quantitative evaluation of rutin in the two species was carried out by TLC-densitometric analysis. The antioxidant activity was done using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method. The butanol fraction from C. cartilaginea and C. deserti showed the highest antioxidant properties.

  10. Leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae

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    Maria Regina T. Boeger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae, with emphasis on cystoliths, which are very abundant in this species. Leaves fully expanded from five mature individuals were collected in the teaching garden of the “Setor de Ciências Biológicas” (UFPR and fixed in FAA 70. The cystoliths were located in the epidermal cells of the adaxial face (litocysths and also among the collenchyma cells of the midrib and petiole. The cystoliths were cylindrical, long, with several small projections. They sometimes occurred in pairs and varied greatly in size, with an average length of 163.4±68.8 µm and a density of 23±9.97 cystoliths.mm-2 (n=10. The foliar lamina presented a uniseriate epidermis, dorsiventral mesophyll, and palisade parenchyma, which was continuous along the lamina. In the midrib, arc-shaped vascular veins were surrounded by fundamental parenchyma. Glandular trichomes occurred on both faces of the leaf, while non-glandular trichomes and diacytic stomata were present only on the abaxial face. The great number and size of the cystoliths observed could be related to defenses against herbivory and to mechanisms of removal of excess calcium absorbed from the soil.

  11. Furoquinoline alkaloids of Ertela (Monnieria) trifolia (L.) Kuntze from the Suriname rainforest.

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    Cao, Shugeng; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Brodie, Peggy; Wisse, Jan H; Moniz, Etienne; Malone, Stan; Kingston, David G I

    2008-01-01

    7-(2'-Hydroxy-3'-chloroprenyloxy)-4,8-dimethoxyfuroquinoline (1) and 6-(2'-hydroxy-3'-chloroprenyloxy)-4,7-dimethoxyfuroquinoline (2), together with ten known compounds, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Ertela (Monnieria) trifolia (L.) Kuntze. All the isolates were tested for antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line.

  12. Crescimento e bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L.) em área de Caatinga no Curimataú paraibano, Brasil Growth and bromatology of Capparis flexuosa at Curimatau region, Paraiba state, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Xavier de Almeida Neto; Albericio Pereira de Andrade; Alecksandra Vieira de Lacerda; Leonardo Pessoa Félix; Divan Soares da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar aspectos relacionados com o crescimento e a bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L.) em uma área no Curimataú, Semiárido Paraibano. Para a análise da...

  13. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

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    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  14. Isolation and Structural Identiifcation of Herbicidal Active Substance from Root of Flaveria bident (L.) Kuntze

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    HUO Jing-qian; XING Ji-hong; ZHANG Li-hui; KANG Zhan-hai; ZHANG Jin-lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and structure of herbicidal active substance from the root of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, the isolation and structural identiifcation were researched in this paper. The crude extract from the root of F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze was extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and water saturation of n-butyl alcohol, respectively, and the extraction lfuid was separated by using the method of TLC, then the main fraction was separated by HPLC, and the structure of the herbicidal active substance was analyzed by LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR. The results showed that the petroleum extraction had the strongest herbicidal activity, and the purple blue stripe separated by TLC had the strongest effect on Digitaria sanguinalis. The herbicidal active substance was identiifed as α-terthienyl according to the data of LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR.

  15. Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting

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    El-Bous, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting.- This investigation was carried out to assess the taxonomic relationships among eight taxa of the Egyptian members of Capparaceae based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, and to compare the results with those obtained from morphological studies. A total of 46 bands were scored for three RAPD primers corresponding to an average of 15.3 bands per primer. The three primers (A03, A07 and A09 revealed eight polymorphic RAPD markers among the studied taxa ranging in size from 200 bp to 1000 bp. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity varied from 0.28 to 0.84, indicative of high level of genetic variation among the genotypes studied. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated three distinct clusters, one comprised Cleome amblyocarpa and Gynandropsis gynandra, while another included two clusters at 0.74 phenon line; one for Capparis decidua, and the other for Capparis sinaica and all varieties of Capparis spinosa. The four varieties of Capparis spinosa were segregated at 0.84 phenon line. However, one of these varieties was more closely related to Capparis sinaica than to the other three varieties of C. spinosa. The RAPD analysis reported here confirms previous studies based on morphological markers.Consideraciones taxonómicas sobre algunos taxones egipcios de Capparis y géneros relacionados (Capparaceae a partir de RAPDs.- El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar las relaciones taxonómicas entre ocho taxones pertenecientes a las Capparaceae en base a marcadores de tipo RAPD, y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos previamente en estudios morfológicos. Se han contabilizado un total de 46 bandas para tres pares de cebadores, con una media de 15,3 bandas por cebador. Los tres pares de cebadores (A03, A07 y A09 revelan ocho marcadores polimórficos entre los taxones estudiados, de entre 200 y 1000 pares de

  16. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

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    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  17. In-vitro cytotoxic activity of β-Sitosterol triacontenate isolated from Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew

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    Permender Rathee; Dharmender Rathee; Deepti Rathee; Sushila Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the isolation and characterization of the constituent responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extract of stem ofCapparis decidua (C. decidua).Methods:The preliminary cytotoxic effect of isolated compound (β-Sitosterol triacontenate) was investigated byMTT assay onA549 solid tumor cells.Results:IC50 value of the β-Sitosterol triacontenate was found to be 1 μM. The cytotoxic activity increased in a dose dependent manner in case of β-Sitosterol triacontenate.Conclusions: The data therefore provide direct evidence for the role of β-Sitosterol triacontenate as a potent antimetastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of malignant cells.

  18. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  19. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

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    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  20. A new view on the codonocarpine type alkaloids of Capparis decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Yvonne; Ghaffar, Abdul; Bienz, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Several spermidine alkaloids are described in literature as constituents of the root bark of Capparis decidua. Since some of the proposed structures, however, are in conflict with the expected biosynthetic paths, an extract of the root bark of the plant was re-investigated. Four major spermidine alkaloids of the codonocarpine type were identified and their structures elucidated: of the four compounds, isocodonocarpine was described previously for C. decidua and cadabicine was proposed as a possible constituent as well. Codonocarpine was found for the first time in an extract of C. decidua but was previously isolated from a closely related plant. Capparidisinine, finally, is an alkaloid with a structure that has never been described before. The structures of the four alkaloids are substantiated by NMR and MS data, and the four compounds are in logical agreement with biosynthetic considerations: they would arise from α,ω-bis-adducts of spermidine with coumaric and/or ferulic acids, followed by phenol oxidation.

  1. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

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    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  2. Paleoclima de La Guajira, Colombia; según los anillos de crecimiento de Capparis odoratissima (Capparidaceae

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    Jorge Andrés Ramírez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available gran preocupación por el efecto del cambio climático en las regiones áridas y semi-áridas tropicales. Los modelos climáticos tanto locales como globales predicen que la precipitación pluvial de la árida Península de La Guajira en el Caribe colombiano se reduciría, y las temperaturas tanto del aire como superficial del mar aumentarían como consecuencia del cambio climático. Para tratar de verificar estas hipótesis construimos una cronología del ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Capparis odoratissima en la Media Península de La Guajira. La cronología mostró relaciones lineales estadísticamente significativas con las variables climáticas locales: temperatura del aire, temperatura superficial del mar (TSM, precipitación anual, velocidad del viento y variables climáticas del fenómeno ENSO (índices SOI y MEI. Las series de tiempo que calculamos mediante la función de transferencia entre 1955 y 2003, no mostraron tendencias estadísticamente significativas que demostraran que en ese período de tiempo la precipitación anual o las temperaturas han cambiado. La naturaleza anual de los anillos de crecimiento de C. odoratissima, la posibilidad de realizar datación cruzada entre muestras de esta especie y la alta correlación con las variables climáticas locales y globales, señalan un alto potencial de esta especie para realizar estudios dendrocronológicos en esta parte del continente americano.Paleoclimate of La Guajira, Colombia; by the growth rings of Capparis odoratissima (Capparidaceae. There is great concern about the effect of climate change in arid and subarid areas of the tropics. Climate change combined with other anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, fires and overgrazing can accelerate their degradation and, consequently, the increases in losses of biological and economic productivity. Climate models, both local and global, predict that rainfall in the arid Peninsula of La Guajira in the Colombian

  3. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

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    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  4. Capparis spinosa reduces Doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity in cardiomyoblast cells

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    Seyed Hadi Mousavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective anticancer drug but its clinical application is limited because it induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and leads to permanent degenerative cardiomyopathy and heart failure possibly due to oxidative stress. Recent studies showed that Capparis spinosa (C. spinoseexhibits potent antioxidant activity. So, in this study, we explored the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. spinosa against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak evaluation of DNA fragmentation following PI staining. Cells were cultured with 5 μM DOX for 24 hr to induce cell damage. H9c2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations (6-200 μg/ml of C. spinosa extract for 4 hr before DOX treatment in all trials. Results:  Pretreatment with 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml of C. spinosa could increase the viability of H9C2 cells to 72.63 ± 2.8% (p< 0.05, 77.37 ± 1.8% (p< 0.05, 83.56 ± 2.6% (p< 0.001 and 90.9 ± 0.5% (p< 0.001 of control, respectively. Also, C. spinosa decreased apoptotic induction significantly, at the doses of 50 µg/ml (p

  5. Micropropagation of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. - a tree of arid horticulture.

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    Deora, N S; Shekhawat, N S

    1995-12-01

    A method for micropropagation of mature trees of Capparis decidua was developed. Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium+0.1mgl(-1) NAA+5.0mgl(-1)BAP+additives (50mgl(-1) ascorbic acid and25 mgl(-1) each of adenine sulphate, L-arginine and citric acid) at 28 ± 2°C, 12 h/dphotoperiod and 35-40 μmol m(-2)s(-1) photon flux density. The shoots were multiplied by (i) subculture of nodal shoot segments onto MS +0.1 mgl(--1) IAA+1.0mgl(-1) BAPH+additives, and (ii) repeated transfer of original explant onto MS+ 0.1mgl(-1) IAA+mg l(-1) BAP+additives, at intervals of 3 weeks. Sixty to 70% of the shoots rooted when pulse treated with 100 mg l(-1) IBA in half strength MS liquid medium for 4h, and then transferred onto hormone-free half-strength agar-gelled MS basal saltmedium. Incubation in dark at 33 ± 2°C for 6d favoured root induction. In vitro hardened plants were transferred to pots.

  6. An Examination of the Function of Male Flowers in an Andromonoecious Shrub Capparis spinosa

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    Tao Zhang; Dun-Yan Tan

    2009-01-01

    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors.

  7. Assessment of the antioxidant properties of the caper fruit (Capparis spinosa L. from Bahrain

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    Abdul Ameer A. Allaith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa, a wild plant of the family Capparidaceae, is said to be native to the Mediterranean basin and found in many parts. This shrub can grow very well on dry heat and under intense sunlight and can tolerate low temperature. Caper berries from different locations of contrasting habitats were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities using several methods, including reduction of ferrictripiridyltriazine [Fe(III-TPTZ] (FRAP assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH assay, and [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging (ABTS assay. Total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids were also examined. The mean mmol Trolox equivalent/kg fresh weight for FRAP was 9.059 ± 1.450, DPPH 6.131 ± 0.607, and ABTS 8.127 ± 2,017. Mean % DPPH scavenging activity was 37.67% ± 7.19 and mean % ABTS scavenging activity was 31.29% ± 7.76. Partitioning studies revealed a higher antioxidant–antiradical capacity in the seed as compared to the flesh, and these capacities were associated more with hydrophobic and not lipophilic constituents. Antioxidant capacities strongly correlated with the total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids. Findings of this study contribute to the recent increase in scientific interest of a wild fruit which should be re-considered for its antioxidant constituencies and characteristics.

  8. Optimization of Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of Seleno-Capparis spionosa L. Polysaccharide

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    Ying Hao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experiment was designed to optimize the synthesis of seleno-Capparis spionosa L. polysaccharide (Se-CSPS by response surface methodology. Three independent variables (reaction time, reaction temperature and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS were tested. Furthermore, the thermal stability, particle size, shape and cytotoxic activity of Se-CSPS in vitro were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained shown as follows: reaction time 7.5 h, reaction temperature 71 °C, and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS 0.9 g/g. Under these conditions, the Se content in Se-CSPS reached 5.547 mg/g, which was close to the predicted value (5.518 mg/g by the model. The thermal stability, particle size and shape of Se-CSPS were significantly different from those of CSPS. Additionally, a MTT assay indicated that the Se-CSPS could inhibit the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Six new cassane diterpenes from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongyang; Li, Yuanping; Tang, Hongbo; Ma, Ruijing; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Liqin

    2015-09-01

    Six new cassane diterpenes, isoneocaesalpin H (1), caespinosin A (2), caespinosin B (3), a cassane diterpene with unique 6/6/7 carbon rings, and caespinosins C-E (4-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze). The absolute configuration of isoneocaesalpin H (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 represents a class of rare natural cassane diterpene bearing unique 6/6/7 carbon rings. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Cassane diterpenes were firstly reported from Tara. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  10. Crescimento e bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L.) em área de Caatinga no Curimataú paraibano, Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almeida Neto, Jorge Xavier de; Andrade, Albericio Pereira de; Lacerda, Alecksandra Vieira de; Félix, Leonardo Pessoa; Silva, Divan Soares da

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar aspectos relacionados com o crescimento e a bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L.) em uma área no Curimataú, Semiárido Paraibano. Para a análise...

  11. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP) Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM) were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH), and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ...

  12. Crescimento e bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L. em área de Caatinga no Curimataú paraibano, Brasil Growth and bromatology of Capparis flexuosa at Curimatau region, Paraiba state, Brazil

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    Jorge Xavier de Almeida Neto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar aspectos relacionados com o crescimento e a bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L. em uma área no Curimataú, Semiárido Paraibano. Para a análise da evolução do crescimento desta espécie formou-se quatro grupos de plantas segundo a classe de altura: GI até 0,50 m; GII de 0,51 a 1 m; GIII de 1,01 a 1,50 m e GIV a >1,51 m. No período de março a dezembro de 2007 determinou-se a altura e o número de ramos dos indivíduos, sendo o diâmetro do caule registrado de março a setembro. Avaliou-se também, a composição bromatológica das folhas e talos do feijão-bravo. Em todos os grupos, o feijão-bravo apresentou crescimento lento no período chuvoso. Entretanto, até o mês de agosto, observou-se o aumento no número de ramos das plantas, independente do grupo estabelecido. No Período amostrado, não se constatou diferença (p > 0,05 entre plantas em termos de diâmetro, em todos os grupos amostrados. Os dados bromatológicos registrados foram os seguintes: matéria orgânica (91,95%; cinzas (8,05%; matéria seca (47,1% e umidade (52,9%. Os teores de proteína bruta (8,13%; fibra bruta (32,32%; extrato etéreo (5,37%; e energia bruta (5.015 cal g-1 do feijão-bravo, dado a estas características, sugerem que esta espécie apresenta potencial para ser utilizada como forrageira.The general aim of this study was to describe the growth and bromatology of Capparis flexuosa L. in an area of Caatinga, Paraiba State, Brazil. To analyze the growth evolution, the plants were divided in four groups according to the height classes: GI until 0.50 m; GII from 0.51 to 1 m; GIII from 1.01 to 1.50 m and GIV above >1.51 m; the plants height, the number of branches and the basal diameter were determined, in the period between March and December, 2007. The bromatological composition of leaves and branches of Capparis flexuosa was evaluated. It was showed, in all groups, that Capparis flexuosa

  13. Propagação in vitro de Limonium latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae In vitro propagation of Limonium latifolium Kuntze (Plümbaginaceae

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    Claudimar Sidnei Fior

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Limonium latifoKum Kuntze é uma flor de corte cuja produção comercial de mudas é viabilizada através do cultivo de tecidos. Com o objetivo de aperfeiçoar o protocolo para a propagação clonal in vitro, fez-se uma sequência de estudos em que foram avaliados: viabilidade do uso de segmentos nadais do eixo da inflorescência imatura como explantes; tipos e concentrações de citocininas (cinetina-KIN e benzilaminopurina-BAP na regeneração; tipos e concentrações de auxinas (ácido naftalenoacético-ANA e ácido indolbutírico-AIB na fase de enraizamento in vitro; e técnicas de aclimatizaçao. Explantes oriundos de segmentos nadais da parte apical do eixo da inflorescência imatura são viáveis para a micropropagaçao de L. latifolium. Na fase de regeneração, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de meio de cultivo MS com 0,7mg de BAP/l por 35 dias. A fase de enraizamento m vitro foi feita com a manutenção dos explantes por 30 dias em meio MS acrescido de 1mg de AIB/l , garantindo ótimo índice de sobrevivência após a transferência para in vivo. A aclimatiwção foi feita sob cobertura plástica, em bancada de casa de vegetação, à temperatura ambiente e com irrigação por nebulização. Utilizaram-se, como recipientes, bandejas multicelulares de isopor, com 242 células e aproximadamente 10cm³ cada, preenchidas com casca de arroz carbonizada e esterilizada. As mudas receberam, quinzenalmente, adubação líquida com 0,5g/l de um adubo comercial (15:5:l5+micronutrientes. O processo in vitro dura 100 a 120 dias e um explante origina 15 a 30 mudas.Limonium latifolium Kuntze is a cut flower commercialy propagated in vitro. To develop and improve the micropropagation protocol, a sequence of assays was developed to evaluate performance of node explants; effect of cytokinins concentration (kinetin-KlN and 6-benzyl-aminopurin-BA on the regeneration rate; the presence of BA during the multiplication phase; concentration of

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

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    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  15. Anti-diabetic effect of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats

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    Mostafa Kazemian Mansur Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively. A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2. Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p. and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study. Results: Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003. However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP. Conclusion: These results showed that C. spinosa rootextract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.

  16. Extraction and Pharmacological Evaluation of Some Extracts of Tridax procumbens and Capparis decidua

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    B Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Free and bound flavonoids of different parts of Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae and Capparis decidua Forsk (Edgew (Capparaceae have been studied for their antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion assay, against two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 46 and Proteus mirabilis MTCC 425, one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87, and a fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 183. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was evaluated by micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/ fungicidal concentration determined by subculturing the relevant samples.  Both plants exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Free and bound flavonoids of T. procumbens flowers and C. decidua stem were found to be more potent. C. albicans was found to be most susceptible organism followed by S. aureus, P. mirabilis, and E. coli. Among 14 extracts tested, 12 were found to be active, while 2 extracts showed no activity at tested concentration. Total activity (TA was calculated for the extracts, to relate MIC of the extracts with its amount isolated from 1 g dried plant part. Results of the present study indicate that T. procumbens and C. decidua can be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs.   Industrial relevance: Adverse effects of popular antibiotics and multidrug resistant strains of pathogens have lead rapid search for new antimicrobials. Because of the long history of plants in the treatment of different human ailments, most of the herbal drugs are believed to be safer than the synthetic drugs with no side effects; therefore medicinal plants have gained more importance as possible source of alternative and effective drugs. Plants and natural products remain as an untapped reservoir of potentially useful chemical compounds not only as drugs but also as unique templates that could serve as a starting point for synthetic analogues. Over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural product origin and

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

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    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  18. [Paleoclimate of La Guajira, Colombia; by the growth rings of Capparis odoratissima (Capparidaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Jorge Andrés; Ignacio del Valle, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    There is great concern about the effect of climate change in arid and subarid areas of the tropics. Climate change combined with other anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, fires and over-grazing can accelerate their degradation and, consequently, the increases in losses of biological and economic productivity. Climate models, both local and global, predict that rainfall in the arid Peninsula of La Guajira in the Colombian Caribbean would be reduced and temperature would be increased as a result of climate change. However, as there are only suitable climate records since 1972, it is not possible to verify if, indeed, this is happening. To try to verify the hypothesis of reducing rainfall and rising temperatures we developed a growth ring chronology of Capparis odoratissima in the Middle Peninsula of La Guajira with 17 trees and 45 series which attain 48 years back. We use standard dendrochronological methods that showed statistically significant linear relationship with local climatic variables such as air temperature, sea surface temperature (SST), annual precipitation and wind speed; we also reach to successful relationship of the chronology with global climatic variables as the indices SOI and MEI of the ENSO phenomenon. The transfer functions estimated with the time series (1955 and 2003) do not showed statistically significant trends, indicating that during this period of time the annual precipitation or temperatures have not changed. The annual nature of C. odoratissima growth rings, the possibility of cross-dated among the samples of this species, and the high correlation with local and global climatic variables indicate a high potential of this species for dendrochronological studies in this part of the American continent.

  19. Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae detected by RAPDs

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    Houshang Nosrati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population size of plants affects on population genetic variation. Materials and Methods: We studied the impact of population size on genetic variation in populations of Capparis spinosa (caper, Capparaceae using RAPDs in East Azerbaijan (Iran. Within-population genetic diversity was estimated based on Nei`s and Shanonn`s diversity using Popgen, and genetic similarity among the populations was studied from a UPGMA dendrogram based the matrix of Nei’s distances obtained through SHAN. Difference in the level genetic variation between small-sized and large-sized populations was tested using Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation between geographical and genetic distances among populations was examined by Pearson test (SPSS, 11.3. Total genetic variation was partitioned into within and among populations based on AMOVA using Arlequin. Results: The polymorphism levels of RAPDs bands among the populations ranged from 48.8% to 81.4%, and within-population Nei’s diversity varied from 0.1667 to 0.2630. Genetic variation in small-sized populations (0.1667 to 0.1809 was significantly lower than the variations in large-sized populations (0.2158 -0.2630 (N= 7, P0.674, Pearson correlation test. Conclusions: Population size has a dramatic impact on its genetic diversity. The results revealed that fragmentation of caper population in the study region has most likely occurred recently. The low genetic diversity revealed within caper populations indicates high risk of extinction and suggests that urgent conservation action is needed to recover diversity in these populations.

  20. Jacaratia corumbensis O. Kuntze a new vegetable source for milk-clotting enzymes

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    Ana Rodrigues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The partial characterization and purification of milk clotting enzyme obtained from the (root latex of Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze was studied, by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate and ion exchange chromatography. The ammonium sulphate precipitate showed five fractions (AS1- 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100% and among the fractions obtained, the 40-60% fraction (AS3 showed the highest milk clotting activity with a purification factor of 1.2 fold in relation to the crude extract. This fraction when applied on Mono Q column yielded two protein peaks (p1 and p2, but p1 pool showed the best milk-clotting activity. The optimal pH for the crude and partially purified extract was 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. The maximum milk-clotting activity was at 55ºC for the both crude and partially purified extracts. The enzyme was inhibited by iodoacetic acid which suggested that this enzyme was a cysteine protease, with molecular weight of 33 kDa.A enzima coagulante de leite obtida de látex de raiz de Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze foi caracterizada parcialmente e purificada, por precipitação fracionária com sulfato de amônio e cromatografia de troca de íon. Foram utilizadas cinco frações de sulfato de amônio (AS1 - 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100%, a fração 40-60% (AS3 mostrou alta atividade coagulante com um fator de purificação de 1,2 vezes em relação ao extrato bruto. Esta fração foi aplicada em coluna Mono Q obtendo dois picos de proteína (p1 e p2, o p1 mostrou melhor atividade coagulante. O pH ótimo para o extrato bruto e parcialmente purificado foi 6,5 e 7,0, respectivamente. A atividade coagulante foi atingida a 55ºC para ambos os extratos, bruto e parcialmente purificado. A enzima foi inibida por ácido iodoacético que sugere que esta enzima é uma cisteína protease, com peso molecular de 33 kDa.

  1. Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze seeds in in vitro models

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    Naidu Kamatham A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze, is a medicinally important plant. Earlier, we have reported phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial activity of bitter cumin. In this study we have further characterized the antioxidative activity of bitter cumin extracts in various in vitro models. Methods Bitter cumin seeds were extracted with a combination of acetone, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. Results The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, reduced phosphomolybdenum (Mo(VI to Mo(V, ferricyanide Fe(III to Fe(II, inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct correlation between phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Bitter cumin is a good source of natural antioxidants.

  2. The allelopathy of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, an invasive weed species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao XU; Wenehao XU; Yajun YANG; Bu TAO; Jinlin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To identify the allelopathic effect of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze (F, bMenti) on other plants, the effects of different extracts from F. bidentis on the growth of sev-eral plants were studied by bioassay. Results showed that the water extracts inhibited the growth of corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton (Gassypium Hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine hispida L.), peanut (Arachi shypogaea L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) and rigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), with the most reactive indexes found in root and stem of cotton at -0.85 and -0.88, respectively, at a concentration growth of rice. In addition, the reactive indexes of the extracts of petroleum ether chloroform, ethyl acetate, acet and alcohol were higher than that of the water extracts, and that of the acet extracts was the highest. The melting point of the refined acetone extract ranged from 192.5℃ to 193.5℃, and its maximum absorbing wavelength was 220 nm. This extract was found to be herbicide-active and played an inhibitory role in the growth of crabgrass and

  3. The Effect of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze on Fatigue and Recovery after Exercise

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    Yanxia Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides from selenium-rich tea and the effects of these polysaccharides on swimming performance and recovery from swimming-induced fatigue in mice. By setting up a 5-week endurance exercise model in mice and the mice were given by oral gavage different doses of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze (LSK. The swimming exhaustion time of mice was recorded and the concentrations of blood glucose, Blood Ureanitrogen (BUN, Blood Lactic Acid (BLA and the contents of hepatic glycogen and Malonaldehyde (MDA as well as the activity of Hepatic Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured immediately and at 24 h after exhaustive exercise. LSK were Se-binding glycoproteins and could prolong the swimming exhaustion time, improve the carbohydrate metabolism, significantly increase the activity of GSH-Px and reduce the content of MDA in liver tissue of mice. LSK have an anti-fatigue effect in mice and the underlying mechanism is related to regulating the carbohydrate metabolism and improving tissue lipid peroxidation caused by excessive exercise.

  4. Epigallocatechin gallate from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze is a potential quorum sensing inhibitor in Chromobacterium violaceum

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    Joemar C. Taganna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem on the widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria calls for novel methods of control of bacterial activity. One of the new viable alternatives to antibiotics is the use of substances that inhibit quorum sensing (QS – a bacterial communication system that has been known to regulate the expression of virulence genes during infection. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG from green tea, Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze was tested for its ability to inhibit QS in a test organism, Chromobacterium violaceum. This microorganism produces a violet-colored substance, violacein, through QS. This study aimed to detect inhibition of QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum by EGCG and to determine the dynamics of QS inhibition relative to the concentration of EGCG. The effect of increasing concentration of EGCG on both violacein production and cell density of treated and untreated C. violaceum was determined in a 96-well-microplate format and read at 570nm and 620nm for violacein production and growth, respectively. The results show that addition of EGCG increased the growth of the organism while there is concentration-dependent decrease in the QS-controlled production of violacein. This study thus establishes that EGCG is a potential QS inhibitor and can be further studied and developed for its use as an anti-pathogenic but non-toxic drug.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze and Its Synergism with Different Antibiotics

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    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest forms of medical practice is the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of diseases that affect humans. We have studied the antimicrobial activity and synergism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze with different antibiotics. The crude extract from the leaves of P. gaudichaudianum was submitted to chromatographic separation, resulting in five fractions. Fraction F3 contained a chromone (2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxycroman-4-one, and fraction F2 contained isomers that are prenylated derivatives of benzoic acid [4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-E-2'-6'-dienylbenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-2'-Z-6'-dienyl benzoic acid]. The chemical structures of both compounds were determined by analysis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COZY, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectral data, and by comparison with data in the literature. The crude extract, fraction F2, and fraction F3 showed good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida tropicalis. The two benzoic acid derivatives only showed activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The bioauthographic analysis showed an inhibition zone only in fraction F2. Fractions F2 and F3 showed synergism in combination with ceftriaxone, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Morphological changes in form and structure were found by scanning electron microscopy in S. aureus treated with the combination of fraction F2 with vancomycin.

  6. MODELAGEM DE OCORRÊNCIA DE COORTES NA ESTRUTURA DIAMÉTRICA DA Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Ebling,Ângelo Augusto; Netto, Sylvio Péllico

    2015-01-01

    Estudos referentes à estrutura diamétrica das florestas nativas são essenciais para o entendimento do desenvolvimento, fornecer parâmetros do crescimento e produção suficientes para gerar estimativas que subsidiem o manejo sustentado. No entanto, a modelagem matemática de funções probabilísticas, como as de densidade, tornam-se de difícil aplicação em distribuições multimodais. A espécie Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, de importância social, ambiental e econômica, apresenta padrão de...

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

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    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  8. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively.

  9. Biochemical and molecular analysis of Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze tea from the selected P/11/15 clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samynathan Ramkumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is one of the most important beverages consumed across the world and it possesses various phytotherapeutics. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, total polyphenols, catechins, amino acid content and enzymatic antioxidants are considered to be potential parameters in tea characterization. P/11/15 clone (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze was chosen to analyze the biochemical characterization and to analyze the gene expression pattern. The selected P/11/15 clone (C. sinensis (L O. Kuntze possess potent Polyphenol oxidase (49.62 U/mg of protein, sufficient catechin (20.75%, Polyphenol (20.01%, Peroxidase (450.08 μM of O2 formed min−1 g−1 dry weight, Catalase (1.20 μM H2O2 reduced min−1 mg−1 protein and Super Oxide Dismutase (45.11 U/mg proteins. Flavonoid gene expression reveals ANR (1.66% and F3H (1.02% were up regulated in the selected P/11/15 clone. The results obtained suggest that P/11/15 clone showed adequate enzyme levels, thus an increased antioxidant activity.

  10. Enraizamento e morfo-anatomia de estacas caulinares de Odontonema strictum kuntze (Acanthaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Odontonema strictum Kuntze é uma espécie ornamental bastante utilizada no Brasil, cultivada em renques ou isoladamente, devido a coloração vermelha de suas inflorescências e seu porte arbustivo, podendo atingir cerca de dois metros de altura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento e a morfoanatomia de estacas herbáceas de O. strictum plantadas em tubetes de enraizamento, utilizando vermiculita de granulometria fina e pó de casca de coco como substratos. O experimento foi conduzido em casade- vegetação na Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Curitiba - PR. As estacas foram preparadas com mcomprimento de 12 cm e duas folhas cortadas pela metade, na porção apical. Estas foram distribuídas em quatro parcelas com 10 estacas, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 44 dias da instalação do experimento, o enraizamento foi de 100% nos dois substratos estudados. O substrato vermiculita apresentou o maior número de raízes por estaca (22,49 raízes, enquanto o pó de casca de coco apresentou a maior média de comprimento das cinco maiores raízes por estaca (11,67 cm. Estruturalmente, as estacas de O. strictum se caracterizam por apresentar epiderme unisseriada, com paredes pouco espessadas; córtex composto de colênquima, parênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary; cilindro central em estrutura secundária, com periciclo apresentando grupos isolados de fibras, câmbio ativo e medula parenquimática. A região provável de origem das raízes adventícias é na periferia do floema. Os resultados indicam que esta espécie pode ser considerada de fácil enraizamento, não sendo necessária a aplicação de fitorreguladores. As características anatômicas das estacas facilitam a formação de raízes adventícias.

  11. Pregnanes and other constituents of the roots of Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae); Pregnanos e outros constituintes das raizes de Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis Junior, Luiz Roberto de; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze is a plant popularly known as 'velame'. Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E)-8(Z)-dienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8{alpha}-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids. (author)

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

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    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  13. Differential display-mediated identification of three drought-responsive expressed sequence tags in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priti Sharma; Sanjay Kumar

    2005-03-01

    There is no information on drought-modulated gene(s) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], a woody and perennial plant of commercial importance. Using differential display of mRNA, three drought-modulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. Northern and BLAST analysis revealed that clone dr1 (droughtresponsive), induced only by drought but not by ABA, showed significant scores with PR-5 (pathogenesis related) family of PR-protein gene. Another clone dr2, repressed by drought but not by ABA, had nucleotide repeats for polyasparate that are also present in chicken calsequestrin-like mRNA. Clone dr3, responded similarly to clone dr2 but did not show significant homology with the reported genes, hence appears to be novel. Identification of these ESTs is an initial step to clone the full length genes and their promoters.

  14. Pengaruh Cairan Pembersih Lumut dan Pupuk Anorganik terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Teh (Camellia Sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Asal Biji Setelah Dipangkas

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    Intan Ratna Dewi Anjarsari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study examines the effect of moss removal and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of the tea (Camellia sinensis (L. O.Kuntze derived from seed after pruning. This research was conducted at the Research Center of Tea and Quinine in Gambung, Ciwidey.The research was managed using factorial experiment that arranged in Completely Randomized Design 4 x 4 with three replications. The first factor was the concentration of moss removal i.e. 0%, 1%, 2% and 3%. The second factor was the dose of inorganic fertilizer i.e. 100%, 80%, 60% and 40%. The result showed that there was no interaction between moss removal and inorganic fertilizer. In 2 % of moss removal showed the better result than 1% and 3% of moss removal in shoot numbers, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight. Inorganic fertilizer with 80% doses showed better result than doses 100%, 60% and 40% in shoot numbers, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight.

  15. Pregnanos e outros constituintes das raízes de Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil. Kuntze (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto de Assis Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil. Kuntze is a plant popularly known as "velame". Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12β-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12β-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E-8(Zdienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8a-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids.

  16. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption.

  17. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR.

  18. Review on the Application of Capparis in Garden and Park Greening%山柑属植物在园林绿化中的应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付涌玉

    2011-01-01

    The application of Capparis in garden and park was classified and summed up through systematic literature investigation and their resource type, ornamental characteristics and application were reviewed. The results showed that Capparis possessed resource types of check winds and fix drifting sand, medicinal, edible and feeding and ornamental characteristics of flower, fruit and tree, so they could be applied in aspects of greening desert and drought area, greening specific medicinal botanical graden and vertical greening of garden and park.%通过系统文献调研,对山柑属植物的园林应用进行分类归纳,并对该属植物的资源类型、观赏特性及应用进行了综述.结果表明,山柑属植物具有防风固沙、药用、食用、饲用等资源类型和观花、观果、观树等观赏特性,可用于荒漠与干旱区绿化、药用植物专类园绿化和园林垂直绿化等方面.

  19. Effects of Different Growing Media and Polyethylene Pot Size on Some Morphological Seedling Characteristics of Caper (Capparis ovata Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ölmez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Caper (Capparis ovata Desf. can be used to prevent destruction of the forests by providing an economical source to inhabitant and in order to combate against the soil erosion. The growing healthy and the best quality seedlings is an important issue in plantation and erosion control studies. Seedling morphology is an important indicator to obtain high quality seedlings. The mixtures of different materials such as road slope soil + sand (1:1, forest soil + creek sand + manure (3:1:1, forest soil and road slope soil, and polyethylene pots of different dimensions such as 12-22 cm, 15-23 cm, 19-30 cm were used as seedling growing media and pot in this study. The study was carried out to determine the effects of different seedling growing media and polyethylene pots on some morphological seedling characteristics such as shoot length (SL, root collar diameter (RCD, fresh shoot weight (FSW, dry shoot weight (DSW, fresh root weight (FRW and dry root weigh (DRW. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications (30 polyethylene pots for each replication for every treatment under open field conditions. According to statistical analyses (α=0.05, the best SL (167.3 mm and RCD (2.01 mm were obtained from the growing media of forest soil + creek sand + manure (3:1:1 with polyethylene pots had 19-30 cm dimension. The best FRW (3.45 g, FSW (1.28 g, DRW (1.36 g and DSW (0.43 g were determined from forest soil + creek sand + manure (3:1:1 growing media with the pots had 15-23 cm dimension.

  20. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant.

  1. Estudo morfoanatômico preliminar do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae A preliminary morphological and anatomical study of the stem and leaf of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia R. Rocha Martins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrições morfoanatômicas preliminares do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze foram realizadas a partir de material vegetal fresco e fixado. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As superfícies do caule e da folha foram observadas através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A. australe apresenta, tanto no caule quanto na folha, tricomas tectores pluricelulares, unisseriados e de extremidades afiladas, e glandulares discóides, com pedúnculo curto unicelular, no qual se prendem cinco séries de células. A folha é anfiestomática e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico, levemente proeminentes em relação ao nível das demais células epidérmicas. O caule apresenta crescimento secundário inicial, destacando-se os ductos secretores no parênquima cortical e medular.Preliminary morphological and anatomical descriptions of stem and leaf of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze were made in fresh and fixed material. Cross and superficial sections, stained with safranin/astra blue and Toluidine blue were analyzed at the light microscopic and the images were acquired by means the program Image Pro-Plus, version 4.0 (Media Cybertecnics. The surface of the stem and leaf were observed through scanning electronic microscopy. The species presents in the stem and leaf surface multicellular nonglandular trichome, uniseriate with a pointed edge and multicellular glandular trichome like a disk with a unicellular peduncle, in which is attached a series of five cells. The leaf presents anomocytic stomata in both surfaces a little prominent in relation to the level of the epidermal cells. The stem presents an initial secondary growth with evident secretory ducts in the cortex and pith.

  2. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  3. Developmental effects of additional ultraviolet a radiation, growth regulators and tyrosine in Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cláudia Barboza Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue cultures of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze were treated with different growth regulators (Kinetin and 2,4-D, tyrosine and Ultraviolet A radiation (UV-A; 320 - 400 nm to investigate their effects on development and pigment production. Nodal segments of plantlets grown from seeds were inoculated in all tested media and different light conditions. After eight weeks, this material was used to evaluate biomass, chlorophyll and betacyanin production. The Murashige and Skoog (MS + kinetin medium resulted in development of approximately four shoots/explant. This medium plus white light was the best combination for micropropagation with the highest rooting percentage and betacyanin production. Plantlets grown under UV-A illumination reduced biomass accumulation and worse Chlorophyll a / Chlorophyll b ratio. Addition of 2,4-D resulted in inhibition of pigment production and growth of plantlets.Culturas de tecidos de Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze foram tratadas com diferentes reguladores de crescimento (Cinetina e 2,4-D, tirosina e com ultravioleta longo (UV-A; 320 -400 nm adicional com o intuito de observar seus efeitos no desenvolvimento e produção de pigmentos. Segmentos nodais de plantas crescidas a partir de sementes foram inoculados nos meios de cultura testados e mantidos sob os diferentes tipos de iluminação. Após 8 semanas este material foi utilizado para avaliação da produção de biomassa, clorofilas e betacianinas. O meio de Murashige and Skoog (MS + cinetina proporcionou plântulas com até 4 brotos/explante. Este meio iluminado com luz branca (tipo luz do dia foi a combinação mais adequada para micropropagação, pois apresenta maior porcentagem de enraizamento e maior produção de betacianinas. Plântulas crescidas sob iluminação com ultravioleta adicional tiveram diminuídas tanto a produção de biomassa quanto a relação Clor a/ Clor b. A adição de 2,4-D ao meio de cultura resultou na inibição da produ

  4. Lack of toxicity of hydroethanolic extract from Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze by gavage in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjanel-Mouterde, S; Traoré, F; Gasquet, M; Dodero, F; Delmas, F; Ikoli, J F; Lorec, A M; Chamlian, V; Portugal, H; Balansard, G; Pisano, P

    2006-02-20

    In traditional medicine in Mali, extracts derived from Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Family: Rubiaceae) are commonly used to treat malaria. The antimalarial activity and the lack of genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo have been demonstrated in previous studies. Acute and chronic evaluation of the toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of Mitragyna inermis leaves was performed in this study, according to the recommendations (cahier de l'Agence no. 3) of the French Drug Office. Two dosages (300 mg/kg and 3 g/kg) were given in one single administration by gavage to male and female rats. No animal died and no behavioral signs of acute toxicity were observed. Chronic toxicity studies over 28 days showed no changes in body weight and no macroscopic abnormality in the 14 organs examined after the animals were sacrificed. With the 3 g/kg/d drug dosage (100-fold higher than those proposed in man), only slight histological abnormalities were observed. Statistically significant differences, compared to control animals, in the weight of some organs and the values of some haematological or biochemical parameters were observed. However, these values always remained in the range given by the breeder for naive animals of the same strain. These investigations thus seemed to indicate the safety of repeated oral administration (up to 3 g/kg/d) of the hydroethanolic extract of Mitragyna inermis leaves, which can therefore be continuously used with safety by the African population in traditional treatment of malaria.

  5. Primary and secondary metabolites of an European edible mushroom and its nutraceutical value: Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Sciubba, Fabio; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-12-26

    In this work, we report the study on the composition in primary and secondary metabolites of the polar and less-polar fractions obtained from the fruiting bodies of Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze collected from Central Italy. Thirteen compounds were identified through a series of classical chromatographic methods and through spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS)), namely suillin (1), ergosterol (2), glutamic acid (3), isoleucine (4), leucine (5), threonine (6), tyrosine (7), valine (8), D-mannitol (9), sucrose (10), D-sorbitol (11), fumaric acid (12) and alanine (13). These results allowed us to make specific considerations about the possible applications of this mushroom, which vary from medicine, due to the high cytotoxic and antitumor properties of suillin (1), to nutritional values, due to the presence of essential nutrients as amino acids and pre-vitamin D2 (ergosterol), together with low-calories sweeteners, confirming the close association between the identified components and the health-promoting properties of this species.

  6. Chitosan-induced immunity in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze against blister blight disease is mediated by nitric-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Panda, Koustubh; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-06-01

    Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze plants against blister blight disease were investigated. Foliar application of 0.01% chitosan solution at 15 days interval not only reduced the blister blight incidence for two seasons, but also maintained the induced expressions of different defense related enzymes and total phenol content compared to the control. Defense responses induced by chitosan were found to be down regulated under nitric oxide (NO) deficient conditions in vivo, indicating that the observed chitosan-induced resistance is probably activated via NO signaling. Such role of NO in host defense response was further established by application of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which produced similar defense responses accomplished through chitosan treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that increased production of NO in chitosan-treated tea plants may play a critical role in triggering the innate defense responses effective against plant pathogens, including that causing the blister blight disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

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    Xinhui Tang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH, and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt free radical assays were established to measure the antioxidant capacity of the LSEP in vitro. Results: According to analysis, extraction temperature significantly affected extraction yield. The optimum extraction conditions for LSEP were as follows: extraction temperature, 95°C; ultrasonic time 50 minutes; and dosage liquor ratio, 1: 12. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude LSEP was 12.80±0.19% which was well matched with the predicted models. The antioxidant capacity data suggested that LSEP has strong antioxidant activity. Conclusion: One-singer factor and RSM were used to extract of LSEP are simple and feasible and LSEP could be developed as a nutraceutical agent for itsstrong antioxidant activity.

  8. Predação de sementes de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

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    Viviane Grenha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A predação de sementes da palmeira Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 foi avaliada de setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005 no Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (RJ. A biologia e o comportamento de P. nucleorum em A. arenaria e as taxas de predação de sementes foram descritas. Frutos encontrados sob 50 palmeiras foram coletados, mensalmente, em cada uma das duas áreas amostradas no PNRJ (mata de cordão arenoso e formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia Sclthdl, Clusiaceae. A avaliação dos cocos predados foi feita a partir da contagem dos orifícios de saída dos bruquíneos no campo, da emergência dos insetos no laboratório e da abertura dos frutos remanescentes. Através de observações e experimentos em 60 infrutescências, verificou-se que a oviposição de Pachymerus nucleorum em A. arenaria ocorre na infrutescência ainda em desenvolvimento diferentemente de registros na literatura em outras espécies de palmeiras, onde a oviposição ocorre nos frutos no chão. A predação dos frutos por P. nucleorum foi de 29,3% na área de mata de cordão arenoso e 20,6% na formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia. O ciclo de vida de P. nucleorum foi bastante longo e com amplitudes bem grandes dentro de uma mesma amostra, o que sugere uma possível diapausa em alguma fase do seu ciclo de vida.Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae palm by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 was evaluated from September 2003 to September 2005 at the Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (PNRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The biology and behaviour of P. nucleorum on A. arenaria and predation rates were described. Fruits found beneath 50 palms were collected, monthly, for each one of the two sampled areas at PNRJ (ridge forest and Clusia Sclthdl (Clusiaceae open shrubland formation. The evaluation of preyed fruits was done by counting exit holes of Bruchinae in the field

  9. Chemical constituents and toxicity of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh kuntze essential oil against two stored-product insect pests Componentes químicos y toxicidad del aceite esencial de Agastachefoeniculum (Pursh Kuntze contra dos plagas de insectos de productos almacenados

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled use of synthetic insecticides is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Essential oils were introduced as low toxic agents against mammals and non-targeted insects. In this study, essential oil from aerial parts of blue giant hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae was isolated by the water steam distillation method with a Clevenger apparatus, and its chemical composition was studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The toxicity of A. foeniculum essential oil against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, and lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F. was evaluated by fumigation at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Estragole and 1,8-cineole were identified as major constituents of the A. foeniculum oil. Fumigation bioassays revealed that A.foeniculum oil had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. Rhyzopertha dominica was more susceptible than T. castaneum for all exposure times. Insecticidal activity varied with essential oil concentration and exposure time. Probit analysis showed that increased exposure time and essential oil concentration increased mortality. These results indicated that A. foeniculum essential oil can be applied in the management of stored-product insects to decrease the detrimental effects of synthetic insecticides.El uso incontrolado de los insecticidas sintéticos causa gran peligro para el medio ambiente y los consumidores. Los aceites esenciales se presentan como agentes tóxicos leves contra mamíferos e insectos no objetivo. En el presente estudio, el aceite esencial de las partes aéreas del hisopo gigante azul (Agastache Foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae se aisló por el método de destilación al vapor de agua, utilizando un aparato de Clevenger y se estudió su composición química mediante cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. La toxicidad del aceite esencial de A. foeniculum se evaluó por métodos de fumigación a las 24

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of two different extracts of Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze

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    K. Shanmugapriya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: White tea is the mildest tea made from new young leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze belonging to the family Theaceae. Objective: To compare the efficacy for phytochemical, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanol and acetone extracts of White tea. Methodology: The methanolic and acetone extracts of the white tea leaves were screened for all pharmacological activities. The four bacterial strains and one fungal species were investigated for antimicrobial activity of white tea. Phytochemical screening, Nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activity was analysed by standard methods. The prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Results: The methanolic extracts showed higher activity against four of the bacterial organisms and one fungus than acetone extracts. The methanolic extract of white tea has a high level of total phenolic content and reducing power than acetone extracts. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of white tea was higher than acetone extracts for all methods expect by Ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. It showed anti-inflammatory activity in terms of percent prevention of lysis of 40% and 38% for 100μl of methanolic and acetone extracts. The compounds present in both extracts were identified using GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate compounds isolated from methanolic and acetone extracts of White tea possesses pharmacological properties. Therefore, they could be used as natural potential compounds of natural origin for pharmaceuticals plant-based products industry.

  11. Morphological characterization of in-situ variability in kair (Capparis decidua and its management for biodiversity conservation in Thar desert

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    H. R. Mahla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Kair [Capparis decidua (Forsk.] is one of the important indigenous multipurpose shrub of hot arid ecosystem with the ability to survive in various habitats unattended and unprotected. Besides many socioeconomic and ecological benefits, it has a number of medicinal properties as the plants have significant pharmacological activities like hypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti plaque, antihypertensive, antihelmintic and purgative activities. CAZRI, RRS Jaisalmer have 1000 ha rangeland in which density of kair shrubs are more than 15 besides Zizyphus, Acacia and Prosopis species. In natural population, rich genetic diversity with wide range of variability is available for plant types, bearing habit, fruit size, colour of fruits, spiny habit, plant spread and compactness of canopy, flower colour, time of flowering and fruiting, etc. In general two distinct plant types of kair occur, tree form having more than 5 m height whereas majority occurred as bushes. It appears that plant attains tree form when it grows from seed and remains undisturbed. On the other hand, plants that get exposed to biotic interference may tend to produce more shoots and also propagates through root suckers. There are lot of variation exists for spine length (2-5 mm but plants with very less rudimentary spines and sometimes spineless also found in nature. Kair flowers throughout the year; February - March (Ambe Bahar, July - August (Mrig Bahar and October - November (Hast Bahar but profuse flowering occurs only in Ambe Bahar which gives quality fruits in ample quantity. A wide diversity in flower colour can be seen from light red to scarlet red but plants with yellow flowers also exist in the natural stands of rangeland

  12. Respuesta fisiológica de semillas de Cratylia argentea (Desvaux O. Kuntze a condiciones de almacenamiento y crioconservación Physiological response of Cratylia argentea (Desvaux O. Kuntze seeds to storage and cryoconservation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Montoya Bárcenas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y en los cuartos de crioconservación del Instituto Humboldt del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT (Palmira, Colombia en un diseño completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones, se evaluaron los efectos de tres contenidos de humedad (10%, 8% y 6 %, el congelamiento ultrarrápido a través de inmersión en nitrógeno líquido (NL y dos condiciones de almacenamiento en la germinación de las semillas de Cratylia argentea (Desvaux O. Kuntze cultivar Veranera. Los resultados mostraron la alta calidad fisiológica inicial de las semillas de esta leguminosa forrajera y la ausencia de latencia física o fisiológica, aunque la germinación se reduce drásticamente en condiciones no controladas de almacenamiento. La germinación disminuyó significativamente cuando el contenido de humedad se redujo a 6%, indicando el posible comportamiento recalcitrante, o sea semillas que pierden su viabilidad por deshidratación producida por el medio donde se encuentren, sea éste de almacenamiento o natural (Vieira et al., 1994. Para la crioconservación por inmersión en nitrógeno líquido durante un mes, el contenido adecuado de humedad fue de 8%, aunque no se detectaron diferencias en la germinación cuando las semillas en los tres niveles de humedad se crioconservaron durante una hora en nitrógeno líquido.On the cryoconservation cool rooms of the Nacional University of Colombia, Palmira, and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, the effects on germination of Cratylia argentea seeds (cv. Veranera of three moisture levels (10, 8 and 6%, the liquid N (LN cryoperservation and two storage conditions were evaluated. The results showed high initial physiological quality of seeds and lack of any type of physical or physiological dormancy which drastically reduce germination on non controlled storage conditions. Germination decreased drastically when moisture content was reduced to 6% which

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  14. Effect of Temperature, Light and Water Stress on Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze Seed Germination%温度、光照和水分胁迫对塔拉(Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze)种子萌发特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包松莲; 李志国; 张建云; 郑书星

    2012-01-01

    The effects of seed germination of Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze was studied by control experiments which were different temperature gradients, light and PEG-6000 simulations of water stress. The results showed that: (i) the suitable temperature range for seed germination was 15 -30℃. Germination rate was above 90% . Average rate of germination was less than 7 days. Average rate of germination took 2. 77d at optimum temperature 25℃ , and Tara seed finished germination in 5 days and the germination rate was over 99 %. In low temperature conditions, Tara seed germination was very difficult. The germination rates was only 32. 5 % within one month at 5℃ , but the germination rate could be 90. 83 % after transferred to thermostat at 25℃ after 5 days. High temperature above 30℃ also was not suitable for seed germination. The germination rate was lower, embryo root was yellowed, and it was difficult for normal growth; (ii) the effect of light on Tara seed was not obvious. The light 12 hours every day or shading condition had better effect; (iii) Tara seed germination rate and average germination rate in PEG-6000 concentration 15% following water stress had no significant changes. The germination rate could be above 87. 5% . When strengthening water stress, the germination rate sharply fell. When PEG-6000 percent was 20% , the germination rate was 70 %. When PEG-6000 percent was 25 9% , the germination rate was only 16 % . The seeds did not germinate in PEG-6000 30%. Tara seeds could tolerate a certain level of water stress. The water potential at 25% PEG-6000 could be the critical value for Tara seeds germination.0 pe%采用控制实验研究了不同温度梯度、光照和采用PEG-6000模拟水分胁迫对塔拉(Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze)种子萌发的影响.结果表明:①15~30℃为塔拉种子萌发的适宜温度范围,萌发率在90%以上,平均发芽速率在7d以内,但最适宜的发芽温度为25℃,平均发芽速率仅需2.77 d,5d内

  15. HPLC quantification of uncarine D and the anti-plasmodial activity of alkaloids from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Julien; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Boyer, Laurent; Mahiou, Valérie; Azas, Nadine; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2005-01-01

    An efficient system for the analysis of the total alkaloids extracted from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) by HPLC using a reversed-phase column is described. The chromatographic conditions allowed the separation of indole and oxindole alkaloids in leaf extracts, and the quantification of uncarine D in samples collected in Burkina Faso and Mali. The HPLC method described was validated for its specificity, linearity and precision using an internal standard (naphthalene). The concentrations of uncarine D in various extracts were compared with their in vitro anti-plasmodial activity. The anti-proliferative activity on chloroquine-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum was not correlated with the concentration of uncarine D in leaves.

  16. Separation and purification of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze by counter-current chromatography comparing two kinds of solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qianqian; Yin, Li; Zhang, Guoliang; Wei, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The first preparative separation of a flavonoid sulphate isorhamnetin 3-sulphate from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze by counter-current chromatography (CCC) was presented. Two kinds of solvent systems were used. A conventional organic/aqueous solvent system n-butanol-ethyl acetate-water (4:1:5, v/v) was used, yielding isorhamnetin 3-sulphate 2.0 mg with a purity of 93.4% from 83 mg of pre-enriched crude extract obtained from 553 mg ethanol extract by macroporous resin. A one-component organic/salt-containing system composed of n-butanol-0.25% sodium chloride aqueous solution (1:1, v/v) was also used, and the LC column packed with macroporous resin has been employed for desalination of the target compound purified from CCC. As a result, 2.1 mg of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate with a purity of over 97% has been isolated from 402 mg of crude extract without pre-enrichment. Compared with the conventional organic/aqueous system, the one-component organic/salt-containing aqueous system was more suitable for the separation of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate, and purer target compound was obtained from the crude extract without pre-enrichment using the new solvent system. The chemical structure was confirmed by ESI-MS and (1)H, (13)C NMR. In summary, our results indicated that CCC using one-component organic/salt-containing aqueous solution is very promising and powerful for high-throughput purification of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze.

  17. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

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    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  18. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

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    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  19. 槌果藤提取物治疗硬皮病动物模型的研究%Efficacy of Capparis Spinosa extracts in the treatment of scleroderma:an experimental study in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米新陵; 李凡; 惠艳; 华伟; 杨克俭

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物对硬皮病小鼠模型真皮厚度、Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原合成及转化生长因子-β1表达的影响.方法 用博莱霉素致小鼠硬皮病模型,给予槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物外用治疗;2、4、6周末皮肤病理观察真皮厚度变化,免疫组化观察Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原及转化生长因子-β1的合成表达.结果 硬皮病小鼠模型外用槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物2、4、6周后,与未用药的模型组比较,真皮厚度明显减少(F=12.99,P<0.01),Ⅰ型胶原(F=7.47,P<0.01)及转化生长因子-β1表达降低(F=11.76,P<0.01),对Ⅲ型胶原影响不大.结论 槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物具有抗皮肤纤维化作用.%Objective To observe the effect of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract of Capparis Spinosa on the thickness of dermis,synthesis of collagen type Ⅰ,type Ⅲ,and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in mouse models of scleroderma.Methods Mouse models of scleroderma were established through local injection of bleomycin on the back once a day for 4 weeks.After confirmation of model establishment,72 mouse models were equally and randomly divided into three groups.Two groups received topical treatment with ethanol extract of Capparis Spinosa and ethyl acetate extract of Capparis Spinosa,respectively,no treatment was given to the rest of the control group.After 2-,4-,6-week treatment,8 mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were obtained from the back,and subiected to the measurement of dermal thickness by HE staining,as well as to the analysis of expression of collagen type Ⅰ,collagen type Ⅲ and transforming growth factor-β1 by immunohistochemical staining.Results On week 2,4,6,the thickness of dermis was 23.22,24.94,19.97 μm respectively in mice treated with ethanol extract of Capparis Spinosa,27.66.26.15,22.13 μm respectively in those treated with ethyl acetate extract of

  20. 维吾尔族民间草药波里克果中脂肪和蛋白质组分的研究%Study on Fat and Protein Components of Uygur Folk Medicine-Capparis spinosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努尔买买提·依力亚斯; 库尔班江·巴拉提

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore fat and protein components of Uygur folk medicine-Capparis spinosa L.. [ Method] Using Capparis spinosa L. As tested materials, contents and components of fatty acids were tested by GC-MS analysis. Semi -micro Kjeldahl and grading method were respectively employed to determine the content of crude protein and isolate protein. Furthermore, amino acid components of protein were also studied. [ Result] Oil content of Capparis spinosa L. Was up to 21.2% , among which unsaturated fatty acid was the main component. Content of lin-oleic acid was the highest at 57. 21% , followed by oleic acid, palmitic acid, linolenic acid and stearic acid. Content of crude protein was 18. 31% , in which globulin was the highest at 42.2% , followed by glutelin at 37.2% , and the least in albumin, gliadin and residue protein. 18 amino acids were identified from Capparis spinosa L. Occupying more than 80% , in which content of aspartic acid was the highest at 17.8% , followed by glutamic acid at 11.7%. Besides, Capparis spinosa L. Was rich in essential amino acid that accounted for 25.83% of all amino acids. [Conclusion] The study could provide theoretical basis for comprehensive exploitation of Xinjiang wild resource of Capparis spinosa L..%[目的]探讨维吾尔族民间草药波里克果中脂肪和蛋白质组分.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱法测定波里克果油脂中脂肪酸的含量及组分;采用半微量定氮法和分级提取法测定粗蛋白和分离蛋白,并对蛋白质中的氨基酸组分进行了分析.[结果]新疆波里克果的含油率为21.2%,以不饱和脂肪酸为主要成分,其中以亚油酸最高为57.21%,其次是油酸、粽榈酸、亚麻酸、硬脂酸.波里克果中粗蛋白质含量平均为18.31%,其中以球蛋白含量最高,为42.2%,谷蛋白为37.2%,清蛋白、醇溶蛋白和残渣蛋白含量比较低.蛋白质氨基酸含量丰富,18种氨基酸含量在80%以上,其中天冬氨酸含量最高,占蛋白质的17

  1. Analysis on the Content of Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar in the Fruits of Capparis spinosa L.%刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖含量的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量.[方法]采用3.5-二硝基水杨酸法对刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量进行测定.[结果]应用水提法(100℃)提取的刺山柑果实中还原糖的含量在11.6%左右,提取温度对提取结果有明显影响;刺山柑果实中的总糖含量在24.5%左右.[结论]刺山柑果实中还原糖和总糖含量相对较高,具有较好的开发前景.%[ Objective] To analyze the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Method] 3. 5-two nitro salicylic acid method was chosen to test the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Result ] Results showed that the content of reducing sugar extracted by hot-water( 100 ℃) was about 11. 6% and temperature of water had obvious effect to the results. The content of total sugar was about 24. 5%. [ Conclusion] The reducing sugar and the total sugar were all relatively higher in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. , which indicated that they would have a good development perspective.

  2. An insight on the alkaloid content of Capparis spinosa L. root by HPLC-DAD-MS, MS/MS and (1)H qNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohamad; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Innocenti, Marzia; Melani, Fabrizio; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2016-05-10

    The Capparis spinosa L. has a wide distribution in the Old World from South Europe, North and East Africa, Madagascar, Southwest and Central Asia to Australia and Oceania. The consolidated traditional use of C. spinosa root as remedy against different pains in human is well known since the antiquity. Various secondary metabolites have been found in caper plant, nevertheless, few studies have been focused to the analysis of root constituents. To date, several free and glycosilated spermidine alkaloids and a more polar alkaloid, the stachydrine, have been isolated from the root of C. spinosa. Aim of this work was to improve the knowledge on the alkaloid content of the root of a Syrian sample of C. spinosa by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and to propose methods to quantify these molecules in different raw extracts. A decoction, an hydroalcoholic extraction and a fractionation process to selectively recover the spermidine alkaloids were applied. To our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-DAD-MS(n) profile that pointed out the co-presence of stachydrine, several isobaric forms of capparispine and/or capparisine in free and glycosylated forms and some isobars of isocodonocarpine or codonocarpine as monoglycosides in extracts of C. spinosa root. The determination by HPLC/DAD for the spermidine alkaloids expressed as p-OH-coumaric acid gave values up to 3.5mg/g dried root and the stachydrine evaluated by (1)H NMR was close to 12.5mg/g dried root. Overall, the total alkaloids were almost doubled in hydroalcoholic extract with respect to the decoction, and the stachydrine in the cortex was almost double than in the whole root.

  3. 野西瓜化学成分提取分离及抗氧化活性测定%Extraction and antioxidant activity of chemical compositions in Capparis spinosa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蕾; 贺春朋; 张小敏; 于娜; 谢乐琼

    2011-01-01

    Chemical compositions in Capparis spinosa L. Fruit were extracted and separated, to further explore chemical compositions with antioxidant activity in Capparis spinosa L. Fruit. Capparis spinosa L. Fruit meal was extracted The petroleum ether, ethyl aetate, butanol and water were extracted repeated respectively. Antioxidant activity of extracts were determined by DPPH · cleaning experiment. Identified antioxidant extract was separated by silica gel column, gel column with TLC, iodine vapor reagent, fluorescenrt color and universal reagent. Antioxidant compounds were got through DPPH · Experiment. The eliminating ability of every extact was ethyl acetate > water position > n - butanol > chloroform parts > petroleum ether. Three compouds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract : 1 kalanchoe glycosides, 2 succinate, 3 methyl stachydrine. Kalanchoe glycosides showed strong elimination ability while the other two showed low elimination ability. Ethyl acetate extract was the antioxidant active part of Capparis spinosa L. , and kalanchoe glycosides was one of the antioxidant compounds in ethyl acetate extract.%对野西瓜Capparis spinosa L.果实中化学成分进行提取分离,进一步探索野西瓜抗氧化活性成分,为野西瓜的充分开发利用提供科学依据,取野西瓜果实粗粉,采用95%乙醇回流提取,分别用石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、水萃取3次,反复萃取得各个部位,再用DPPH·清除实验比较各部位抗氧化活性,然后针对所确定抗氧化活性部位,经硅胶柱、凝胶柱分离,结合薄层层析、碘蒸气显色、荧光显色、通用显色剂显色等方法,得到单体化合物.最后,采用DPPH·清除实验测定各单体化合物的抗氧化活性.野西瓜各萃取部位的消除能力大小为:乙酸乙酯部位>水部位>正丁醇部位>氯仿部位>石油醚部位;从野西瓜活性部位-乙酸乙酯部位分离得到3个化合物,即化合物1

  4. Comparative Studies on the Allelopathic Effects of Ulva pertusa Kjellml, Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze on Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Jun Wang; Hui Xiao; Pei-Yu Zhang; Liang Qu; Heng-Jiang Cai; Xue-Xi Tang

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the allelopathic effects of three macroalgae, namely Ulva pertusa Kjellml,Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze, on the growth of the microalga Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Creve using culture systems in which the algae coexisted. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on S. costatum were also investigated. Moreover, isolated co-culture systems were built to confirm the existence of allelochemicals and preclude growth inhibition by direct contact. The coexistence assay data demonstrated that the growth of S. costatum was strongly inhibited when fresh tissues, dry powder and aqueous extracts were used; the allelochemicals were lethal to S.costatum at relatively higher concentrations. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on the microalga showed both species specificity and complexity. The inhibitory effect of fresh macroalgal tissue and culture medium filtrate on the microalga was due to the alleochemicals released by the macroalgae.The results of the present study show that the allelopathic effects of macroalgae on the microalga are complex. The present study could shed light onto the basis of the interaction between macro- and microalgae.

  5. ALTERAÇÕES NA ARQUITETURA TÍPICA DE Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze NA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE RUAS DE CURITIBA, PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban structure and equipments can restrict the correct development of trees and its typical architecture. Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (rosewood has been pruned continuously for being a species of large size and for being the most planted tree in the city of Curitiba. Because of that, this work aimed to assess the changes in the typical architecture of Tipuana tipu on street trees of Curitiba through completely randomized design containing a check plot composed by 6 trees and a treatment with 6 trees under utility lines and another with 6 trees in streets without utility lines. From horizontal photographs of trees there were obtained dendrometric variables based on a metric scale attached at DBH. Thus, the morphometric indexes were calculated to describe dimensional relationships for the species on trees without pruning (check plot and on pruned trees (treatments. The results showed that raising pruning change typical architecture of rosewood modifying its outline and its form, in addition to harm its aesthetic effect. The indexes that can express changes significantly (p<0.05, were: range index, salience index, crown angle, crown proportion and relation RH/PH.

  6. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  7. The Effect of Drought Stress on the Essential Oil Content and Some of the Biochemical Characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze

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    Sajedeh Saeedfar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plot trials were carried out in a research field in Tehran (Iran to determine the effect of drought stress on the essential oil content and some of the plant biochemical characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze, which is a valuable medicinal plant. Drought stress was conducted at different levels including: well-water (100% FC, mild drought stress (85% FC, moderate drought stress (70% FC, severe drought stress (55% FC, 100% FC (vegetative stage 85% FC (reproductive stage, 100% FC (vegetative stage 70% FC (reproductive stage, and 85% FC (vegetative stage 100% FC (reproductive stage. The experiment was arranged as a RCBD with three replications. The output results showed that, water deficit stress significantly (P≤0.05 increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase as well as Essential Oil yield and Abscisic Acid content. Lipid and protein oxidation (malondialdehyde and dityrosine contents also increased significantly under severe water deficit stress. According to the results, severe drought conduction (55% FC is the optimum level of soil moisture to plant Anise Hyssop under water deficit stress.

  8. Separation of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate and astragalin from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using macroporous resin and followed by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nusrat; Yin, Li; Gu, Yanxiang; Rwigimba, Eric; Xie, Qianqian; Wei, Yun

    2015-06-01

    D4020 resin offered the best dynamic adsorption and desorption capacity for total flavonoids based on the research results from ten kinds of macroporous resin. A column packed with D4020 resin was used to optimize the separation of total flavonoids from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze extracts. The content of flavonoids in the product was increased from 4.3 to 30.1% with a recovery yield of 90%. After the treatment with gradient elution on D4020 resin, the contents of isorhamnetin 3-sulfate and astragalin were increased from 0.49 to 8.70% with a recovery yield of 74.1% and 1.16 to 30.8%, with a recovery yield of 92.2%, respectively. Further purification was carried out by one-run high-speed countercurrent chromatography yielding 4.5 mg of isorhamnetin 3-sulfate at a high purity of 96.48% and yielding 24.4 mg of astragalin at a high purity of over 98.46%.

  9. 青藏高原地区刺山柑解剖特征研究%Anatomical Characteristics of Capparis spinosa L.in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 马淼

    2012-01-01

    To further explore the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau plant distinctive physiology structure and its environmental adaptability, the anatomical structures of Capparis spinosa L. from 4 000 m altitude of Zhada in Tibet were studied by the methods of paraffin section. The results showed that the anatomical structure was highly adapted to its environment of mountain desert grassland: periderm of secondary root is developed, the cork is thicker, there is a larger proportion of secondary xylem; There are epidermal hairs and obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems, and also developed collenchyma tissue, pith is narrow in stems; The leaf is isobilateral with multilayer palisade tissues. Dense stomata exists and significant cuticles are existed in epidermis; Corolla is larger with white petals, which is suitable for insect pollination; Parietal placentation with much ovules in each locule, ex-tine is thicker which can resistant to corrosion, acid and alkaline. All of the characteristics of C. spinosa L. described above result from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau stresses of extremely ecological conditions, such as high irradi-ance, cold temperature, low air pressure in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, as well as the adaptations of the C. spinosa L. to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau environments.%采用石蜡切片法对分布于海拔4000 m的西藏札达的刺山柑解剖结构进行研究,进一步探讨青藏高原植物独特生理结构及其与环境的适应性.结果表明刺山柑具有适应高山荒漠草原环境的典型结构特征:次生根周皮发达,具有较厚的木栓层和发达的次生木质部;茎具表皮毛和角质层,皮层较厚,厚角组织发达,髓较小;叶具角质层,气孔密集,栅栏组织多层,为双栅型等面叶;花冠较大,白色花瓣,适于虫媒传粉;侧膜胎座,子房多室,胚珠多数,花粉外壁较厚,具较强的抗腐蚀及抗酸碱性能.刺山柑形成上述结构特征是青藏高原特殊综合生态环境长期作用的结果.同时也

  10. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  11. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  12. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L) e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus) Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa) and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus)

    OpenAIRE

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz; BEELEN, P. M. G.; Silva,D.S.; PEREIRA, W. E.; Beelen, R; Beltrão,F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC) e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L) e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd). As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT) das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difu...

  13. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd. As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difusão radial. Para a DIVMS, foi utilizado método de dois estágios. Foram observadas diferenças entre as espécies (PCondensed tannins (CT of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus were characterized and the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of those species were determined. Concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT of the plants was determined using butanol-HCL method; astringency was determined, using radial diffusion method, and the IVDMD was determined using two-stages method. Concentration and astringency of condensed tannins varied between species (P<0.01. Jureminha was the species that presented the highest value (2.4% TT and 13.7-3 astringency. No tannins were detected in flor-de-seda. Crude protein was higher than 16% in all studied species, and the ADF and lignin values were lower than 39 and 15%, respectively. The IVDMD was low in jureminha (43% and high in flor-de-seda (80%. The correlation between IVDMD and TT was low (r²=0.097.

  14. Influence of phenolic compounds of Kangra tea [Camellia sinensis (L O Kuntze] on bacterial pathogens and indigenous bacterial probiotics of Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Sourabh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C, (--epicatechin (EC, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols and total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741, Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96 and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443, and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443 but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics.

  15. Respuesta fisiológica de semillas de Cratylia argentea (Desvaux O. Kuntze a condiciones de almacenamiento y crioconservación

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    Diana María Montoya Bárcenas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y en los cuartos de crioconservación del Instituto Humboldt del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT (Palmira, Colombia en un diseño completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones, se evaluaron los efectos de tres contenidos de humedad (10%, 8% y 6 %, el congelamiento ultrarrápido a través de inmersión en nitrógeno líquido (NL y dos condiciones de almacenamiento en la germinación de las semillas de Cratylia argentea (Desvaux O. Kuntze cultivar Veranera. Los resultados mostraron la alta calidad fisiológica inicial de las semillas de esta leguminosa forrajera y la ausencia de latencia física o fisiológica, aunque la germinación se reduce drásticamente en condiciones no controladas de almacenamiento. La germinación disminuyó significativamente cuando el contenido de humedad se redujo a 6%, indicando el posible comportamiento recalcitrante, o sea semillas que pierden su viabilidad por deshidratación producida por el medio donde se encuentren, sea éste de almacenamiento o natural (Vieira et al., 1994. Para la crioconservación por inmersión en nitrógeno líquido durante un mes, el contenido adecuado de humedad fue de 8%, aunque no se detectaron diferencias en la germinación cuando las semillas en los tres niveles de humedad se crioconservaron durante una hora en nitrógeno líquido.

  16. 中国特有产甜蛋白植物马槟榔常规繁育技术研究%Researches on Conventional Breeding Technology of Capparis masaikai Levl., a Sweet-protein Producing Plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 于旭东; 顾文亮; 朱会军; 胡新文; 郭建春

    2011-01-01

    研究濒危植物马槟榔的种子繁殖和压条繁殖方法,为其异地保护、繁殖和有效利用建立基础.探索种子预处理方法、存放时间、播种方法以及不同激素、温度、基质等对发芽率的影响,并研究普通压条和高空压条繁育技术.马槟榔种子为中度顽拗性种子,去除果皮后:晒干种子发芽率低;30℃烘干24 h种子发芽率为0;阴凉处晾干表面种子发芽率最高,离开母体种子约72天后种子失去活力.其最佳播种方法为:每年的11-12月,用新鲜种子播种,播种基质为红壤土:椰糠=1∶1;对种子进行开裂处理和激素处理有助于种子快速萌发并提高发芽率,而以10mg/L GA3的效果最佳,提前至少5天萌发.高于65℃低于100℃的热水处理4 h能提高种子的萌发率.高空压条是马槟榔较好的压条繁殖方法.该研究成功探索出了马槟榔较好的常规繁殖方法,可广泛应用于该植物的异地保护和小规模扩繁.%The objective is establishing the foundation for Capparis masakai ex-situ protection, propagation and utilization effectively by studying on the methods of seed breeding and layering.The facts of the seed pretreatment, seed storage, seed sowing and the different hormones, hot-water, and substrates on seed germination have been studied.At the same time, the technologies of common layering and air layering were also researched.The results showed that the seeds of Capparis masaikai belong to moderate recalcitrant ones,which lost their activity after about 72 days leaving mother plants.The dry seeds partly lowest or completely lost their activity drying in the sun or by oven, respectively.However, the seeds in nature conditions have high activity.The best sowing method was that the fresh seeds were sown on the substrate (red loam∶coconut residuum= 1∶1) in November or December.The seeds were cracked or pretreated with hormones could improve germination rate, and the best hormone was 10 mg/L GA3

  17. 鼠尾藻多酚提取纯化及其抗果蔬病原菌活性研究%Study on the phlorotannins of Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze against fruit and vegetable pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 毕爱强; 王晓梅; 王明珠

    2007-01-01

    为了获得具有抗菌活性的天然海洋生物活性物质,利用褐藻门马尾藻属的鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze)乙醇提取物,通过对Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum的抑制率来评价其抗菌活性.结果表明,鼠尾藻提取物有很强的抗果蔬病原菌活性,抑制Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum生长的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为16mg/mL和12mg/mL.采用10mg/mL多酚处理的草莓,其发病率和病斑直径分别比对照低28.4%和47.6%.

  18. Separation of patuletin-3-O-glucoside, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze by elution-pump-out high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Xie, Qianqian; Fisher, Derek; Sutherland, Ian A

    2011-09-09

    Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze is an annual alien weed of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae) in China. Bioactive compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and flavones from F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze, have been studied in order to utilize this invasive weed, Analytical high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was successfully used to separate patuletin-3-O-glucoside, a mixture of hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin using two runs with different solvent system. Ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:1:10, v/v) was selected by analytical HPCCC as the optimum phase system for the separation of patuletin-3-O-glucoside, a mixture of hyperoside and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside, and astragalin. A Dichloromethane-methanol-water (5:3:2, v/v) was used for the separation of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The separation was then scaled up: the crude extract (ca 1.5 g) was separated by preparative HPCCC, yielding 12 mg of patuletin-3-O-glucoside at a purity of 98.3%, yielding 9 mg of a mixture of hyperoside and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside constituting over 98% of the fraction, and 16 mg of astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) at a purity of over 99%. The pump-out peaks are isorhanetin (98% purity), kaemferol (93% purity) and quercitin (99% purity). The chemical structure of patuletin-3-O-glucoside and astragalin were confirmed by MS and ¹H, ¹³C NMR.

  19. KANDUNGAN KATEKIN DAN KUALITAS (WARNA AIR SEDUHAN, FLAVOR, KENAMPAKAN ENAM KLON TEH (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze DI KETINGGIAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyadi Mitrowihardjo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Catechins Content and Quality (Colour, Flavor, Appearance of Six Tea Clones (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze at Different Altitude Growings  ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi klon-klon yang dapat memberikan katekin dan kualitas hasil yang tinggi yang diharapkan bermanfaat sebagai arahan perbaikan dalam pengembangan tanaman teh ke depan. Ketinggian tempat tumbuh (1200 – 1300 m dari permukaan laut dan 700 – 900 m dari permukaan laut yang diduga berpengaruh terhadap kualitas hasil juga dievaluasi, karena terkait dengan ketersediaan lahan pengembangan. Analisis catechin (C, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, epicatechin gallate (ECG, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG dilakukan dengan metode HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography, sedang evaluasi kualitas (warna air seduhan, flavor, kenampakan dilakukan oleh tiga orang tester teh bersertifi kat. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa total katekin yang tinggi diperlihatkan TRI 2025, PGL 10, GMB 9 di lokasi ketinggian 1200-1300 m dpl, dan total katekin tinggi juga diperlihatkan PGL 15, GMB 9, dan PGL 10 di lokasi ketinggian 700 – 900 m dpl. Skor warna air seduhan tidak menunjukkan perbedaan antar klon maupun antar lokasi, namun skor flavor GMB 7 dan PGL 15 unggul di lokasi atas maupun di lokasi bawah. Ada kecenderungan skor fl avor lebih unggul di lokasi bawah dibanding dengan lokasi atas. Skor kenampakan ampas setelah teh diseduh tinggi untuk PGL 15, TRI 2025, dan GMB 9 di lokasi atas, sedang TRI 2025 tinggi di lokasi bawah. Serupa dengan skor fl avor, skor kenampakan ampas teh berkecenderungan unggul di lokasi bawah. Kata kunci: Teh, ketinggian tempat, katekin, kualitas (warna air seduhan, fl avor, kenampakan  ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to fi nd out high catechins content and quality of six tea clones which might contribute to tea clone improvements in the future. Altitudes growing (1200 – 1300 m above sea level and 700 – 900 m above sea level which

  20. MARCADORES POLÍNICOS EN MIELES DEL NOROESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio melisopalinológico de 49 muestras de miel provenientes del noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba. Prosopis spp., Larrea divaricata , Schinopsis spp., Condalia microphylla , Sarcomphalus mistol , Cercidium praecox , Geoffroea decorticans , Capparis atamisquea , Aloysia gratissima , Mimosa spp. y Schinus spp. fueron los tipos polínicos de mayor importancia y frecuencia de aparición, todos representantes de la flora nativa. Cuatro grupos de mieles se diferenciaron por análisis discriminante: Traslasierra, Perisalina, Chaco Árido y Chaco Serrano; algunas especies permitieron diferenciarlos entre sí: Schinus areira , Maytenus vitis-idaea , Cantinoa mutabilis y Schinopsis spp., respectivamente. Los tipos polínicos con mayor índice de importancia de especie y frecuencia se proponen como marcadores útiles para la Denominación de Origen.

  1. 维药野西瓜对佐剂性关节炎小鼠治疗效果及机制研究%Research on anti-inflammatory mechanism on the adjuvant arthritis mouse model by Uighur medicine Capparis Spinosa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文涛; 顾仁艳; 王家平; 张秋梅; 刘辉; 陈蓉; 何佳颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the anti-inflamatory effect of Uighur Medicine Capparis Spinosa L.on adjuvant ar-thritis(AA) in mice and to explore its mechanism.Methods 40 male Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Tripterygium wilfordii group ( Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside 0.01mg/kg) and Capparis Spinosa L. group.The mice in every group except blank control group were made into AA models by complete Freund's adju-vant.Blank control group and model group were given normal saline by intragastric administration, and Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were given respective drugs by intragastric administration.The changes of ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone and the level of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum in the mice were observed after 25 days’ intragastric administra-tion.Results After 25 days'intervention with the drugs, compared with model group, ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone of the mice in Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were all improved (P<0.05), there was no signifi-cant difference between the two groups.Conclusion Capparis Spinosa L.has good antiarthritic effects on AA in the mice, the mechanism may be associated with its significantly decreasing effect on the levels of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum.%目的:观察维药野西瓜治疗佐剂性关节炎(AA)小鼠的效果及机制。方法将40只雄性昆明鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、雷公藤组(雷公藤多甙片0.01mg/kg)及野西瓜组。除空白对照组外,其余均采用完全弗氏佐剂制作AA小鼠模型,空白对照组及模型组灌胃生理盐水,雷公藤组和野西瓜组分别灌胃相应药物,连续灌胃25d后,观察各组小鼠足肿胀、足踝关节组织病理变化及血清中白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)表达情况。结果药物干预25d后,与模型组比较,雷公藤组及野西瓜组小鼠足趾肿胀

  2. Studies on the phlorotannins of Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze against bacteria and fungi%鼠尾藻多酚提取纯化及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 王晓梅; 梁晓红; 张建婷

    2007-01-01

    为了获得具有抗菌活性的天然海洋生物活性物质,利用褐藻门马尾藻属的鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze)乙醇提取物,通过对靶菌Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus subtilis,Stapgylococcus aureus,Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum的抑制率来评价其抗菌活性.结果表明,鼠尾藻提取物有很强的抗细菌和抗真菌活性,抑制Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus subtilis和Staphylococcus aureus生长的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)为5~12 mg·m-1,抑制Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum真菌生长的MIC为12~16 mg·mL-1.采用10 mg·mL-1的多酚处理草莓,其发病率和病斑直径分别比对照低28.4%和47.6%.

  3. Determination of the contents of gallic acid and rutin in Capparis spinosa L .seeds by HPLC%HPLC法测定维药刺山柑种子中没食子酸和芦丁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 美丽万·阿不都热依木

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立刺山柑种子中没食子酸和芦丁的含量测定方法。方法采用Phnomenex色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm ,5μm),以乙腈-2 mL · L -1磷酸溶液为流动相,流速为1.0 mL · min-1,检测波长为254 nm ,梯度洗脱。结果没食子酸在1.4~14.0μg、芦丁在1.4~28.0μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,没食子酸平均回收率为99.9%,RSD为2.0%;芦丁平均回收率为100.6%, RSD为1.3%。结论 HPLC法测定没食子酸和芦丁的含量,方法简便可行,重复性和分离效果好,可为刺山柑的进一步开发利用及质量控制提供依据。%Objective To determine of the contents of gallic acid and rutin in Capparis spinosa L .seeds .Methods The separation was performed on a Phnomennex ODS(250 mm × 4 .6 mm ,5 μm) chromatographic column ,with acetonitrile-2 mL · L -1 phosph-pric acid solution as the mobile phase .The flow rate was 1 .0 mL · min-1 ,the detection wavelength was 254 nm ,and the column temperature was 30 ℃ .Results The linear ranges of gallic acid and rutin were 1 .4-14 .0μg ,1 .4-28 .0μg with the correlation coef-ficient 0.999 5(n=6) ,0 .999 7(n=7) ,and the average recoveries were 99 .9% (RSD=2 .0% ) ,100 .6% (RSD=1 .3% ) ,respective-ly .Conclusion The method is simple and reproducible ,and could be used for C .spinosa L .further development ,utilization and quality control .

  4. Alterações na arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810540A estrutura e os equipamentos urbanos podem restringir o correto desenvolvimento das árvores e de sua arquitetura típica. A Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (tipuana tem sido podada de forma contínua por ser uma espécie de grande porte e por estar entre as mais plantadas na cidade de Curitiba. Por conta disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a alteração da arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, por meio de delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo uma parcela testemunha composta por 6 árvores, um tratamento com 6 árvores sob fiação e outro com 6 árvores em ruas livres de fiação. A partir de fotografias horizontais das árvores foram obtidas variáveis dendrométricas, tendo por base uma escala métrica acoplada à altura do DAP. Assim, foram calculados índices morfométricos para descrever relações interdimensionais para a espécie, em árvores sem poda (testemunha e em árvores podadas (tratamentos. Os resultados demonstraram que as podas de elevação alteram a arquitetura típica da tipuana modificando seu contorno e sua forma, além de prejudicar seu efeito estético. Os índices que podem expressar as alterações, de forma significativa (p<0,05, foram: índice de abrangência, índice de saliência, ângulo de copa, proporção de copa e relação HR/HP.

  5. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  6. Research Progress in Caffeine Metabolism and Low Caffeine Content Germplasm Breeding of Tea Plants ( Camellia sinenesis (L.) O.Kuntze)%茶树咖啡碱代谢及低咖啡碱茶树育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华玲; 陈栋; 李家贤

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most important secondary metabolic products in tea plants (Camellia sinenesis (L.)0. Kuntze), which makes up 2-5% of the dry weight of fresh tea leaves broadly. Caffeine acts as a stimulant to nerves to get rid of fatigue, and to improve cardiovascular system. But high intake of caffeine can lead to adverse effects on human health. So, it is important to study the molecular mechanism of caffeine metabolism pathway in tea plants and to breed low caffeine content tea germplasm. In this study, the advances of research on tea caffeine were summarized from metabolic pathway and low caffeine content tea germplasm breeding. Finally, the problems and possible directions for these research areas were discussed.%咖啡碱是茶树中最重要的次生代谢产物之一,一般为茶叶干物质重的2%~5%.咖啡碱具有兴奋神经、祛除疲劳及增加心血管系统活动等保健功能,但摄入过高含量咖啡碱也会引起副作用,因此,研究茶树咖啡碱 代谢途径及其分子机理,培育低咖啡碱茶树品种具有非常重要的意义.本文综述了茶树咖啡碱的合成与分解代谢及其关键酶、以及近年来低咖啡碱茶树育种等方面的研究进展,并对这些研究领域目前存在的问题和今后努力的方向进行了讨论和展望.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One human intervention study from which no conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim was provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and a reduction in body weight.

  8. 旱生植物刺山柑不同种群茎叶的解剖学研究%Anatomy of stem and leaf in different populations of Capparis spinosa in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 赵红艳; 马淼

    2011-01-01

    刺山柑常分布于极端干旱的戈壁与砾石山坡,然而其适应干旱环境的解剖学机理却未见报道.对分布于新疆石河子、新疆库尔勒以及西藏札达的3个刺山柑种群茎、叶材料进行了比较解剖学研究.结果表明:不同种群材料均具有适应旱生环境的典型结构特征:茎表皮有表皮毛和发达的角质层,皮层较厚,维管组织发达,髓明显;叶为双栅型等面叶,上、下表皮均有气孔分布,气孔密集,但以下表皮气孔数目为多,角质层、栅栏组织、输导组织十分发达.随着生境干旱程度的加剧,其茎、叶的旱生结构特征也愈加显著.由于库尔勒的刺山柑种群分布于干旱石质山坡的阳坡,年降水量只有50 mm,而夏季岩石表面温度却高达80℃.因此,该种群植株的茎、叶比其它种群具有更为显著的旱生结构.%Capparis spinosa often lives on extremely arid Gobi desert or arid stony mountain, but there were few works about the relationship between its anatomical structure and its adaptation to arid living condition. In this paper, anatomical structures of stem and leaf of the cappers in different populations(Shihezi,Korla in Xinjiang,and Zha-da in Tibet)were studied. The results showed that the anatomical structure was highly adapted to its arid environment: there were epidermal hairs and obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems,and also developed cortex, pith and vascular tissue in stems. The leaf was isobilateral with double palisade tissue. Dense stomata existed on both upper and lower epidermis,there were significant cuticle,palisade tissue and conducting tissue in leaf. Its characteristics of xerophil were more obvious as available water condition in soil became worse in natural habitats. C. Spinosa in Korla population was of much significant xeromorphic traits than that in other populations because of its severe arid habitat.

  9. Study on Displacement Control of Flaveria bidentis Kuntze with Alfalfa and Sunflower%紫花苜蓿和向日葵对黄顶菊的替代控制机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞海; 付卫东; 张国良; 张衍雷

    2012-01-01

    黄顶菊是2001年新发现的外来入侵杂草,替代控制是控制其蔓延的主要途径之一.为探寻对黄顶菊有替代控制作用的植物,该研究通过室内和大田试验,分析了紫花苜蓿Medicago sativa和向日葵Helianthus annuus对黄顶菊Flaveria bidentis的竞争效应.结果表明:黄顶菊水浸提液对2种植物的种子萌发无抑制作用;而紫花苜蓿水浸提液对黄顶菊的种子萌发具有抑制作用,体积质量分数为0.1g/mL时,黄顶菊种子发芽率降低到32%;紫花苜蓿产生的化感物质主要抑制黄顶菊种子胚根的生长.向日葵水浸提液对黄顶菊种子萌发影响不明显.向日葵与低密度紫花苜蓿和黄顶菊混种,能够使黄顶菊株高、分枝数和生物量受到明显的抑制,并能使每平方米黄顶菊植株数量显著地降低.%Flaveria bidentis Kuntze is a new invasive weed discovered in 2001 in China, and displacement control is a main approach to checking its spread. In a study reported in this paper, the effect of competition between F. bidentis and alfalfa or sunflower was investigated in the lab and in the field. The results showed that the germination of alfalfa and sunflower seeds treated with the aqueous extract of F. bidentis was not inhibited, but the germination of F. bidentis seeds was suppressed by the extract of alfalfa. F. bidentis seeds treated with alfalfa extract at 0. lg/mL gave a germination rate of 32% only. Further investigation revealed that the allelopathic substance produced by alfalfa retarded the growth of the radicle of F. bidentis while the extract of sunflower had no such effect. Branch number, plant height, biomass and plant density of F. bidentis were markedly restrained by low density alfalfa and sunflower planted in the field.

  10. Cistein proteaza (kaparin) iz kapara (Capparis spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Yasar; Güngör, Azize Alayli; Duran, Elif Duygu; Demir, Nazan

    2008-01-01

    Proteaze su enzimi koji imaju vrlo važnu funkciju u organizmu i razne mogućnosti primjene in vitro. Posljednjih se godina sve više primjenjuju u medicini, farmaciji (u liječenju probavnih tegoba, raznih upala i dr.) i industriji (u proizvodnji sira, mekšanju mesa i štavljenju kože). U ovom je radu opisan postupak pročišćavanja i karakterizacije proteaze iz kapara (Caparis spinosa). Kapare se od davnine koriste kao hrana i u medicinske svrhe, a obilato rastu u nekim dijelovima Turske. Pročišća...

  11. 胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术治疗原发性手汗症29例%Twenty-nine cases primary palmar hyperhidrosis treatment by thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam cut off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东东; 洪丰; 江春苗

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术治疗原发性手汗症的疗效和预防术后并发症的措施.方法:回顾性分析29例原发性手汗症手术,对相关临床资料进行比较分析.结果:全组无手术死亡和严重并发症,术后手掌多汗症状消失,无复发病例,术后有2例出现轻度代偿性出汗,1例出现中度代偿性出汗,无重度代偿性出汗病例.结论:胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术是治疗原发性手汗症安全有效的微创方法.%Aim: Explore the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis efficacy and prevention of postoperative complications by thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam amputation. Methods; Twenty-nine cases of primary palmar hyperhidrosis symptoms underwent surgery and clinical data were analysed. Results; No operative death and serious complications, palm hyperhidrosis symptoms disappeared postoperatively, no recurrence, 2 cases of mild compensatory sweating, 1 case of moderate compensatory sweating, no severe compensatory sweating cases. Conclusion:Thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam amputation is safe and effective minimal invasive method for the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis.

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function (ID 1104, 1222, 1600, 1601, 1707, 1935, 2004, 2005), alleviation, of psychological stress (ID 1598, 1601), maintenance of normal sleep (ID 1222, 1737, 2004) and reduction of menstrual discomfort (ID 1599) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function, alleviation of psychological stress, maintenance of normal sleep and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...

  13. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae

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    Siu Kuin Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequential extracts of leaves, flowers and stems, and fractions and isolated compounds from dichloromethane (DCM leaf extract of V. glabra were assessed for APF activity using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB assay. Apoptotic effect of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract of V. glabra was studied using Hoechst 33342 dye and caspase colorimetry. Results: Both DCM extracts of leaves and flowers possessed broad-spectrum APF activity against HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. From DCM leaf extract, stearic acid (SA and ursolic acid (UA were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. APF activity of SA from DCM leaf extract displayed weak inhibitory activity and scientific literature showed UA has anticancer properties against those cancer cells used in this study. MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract and stained with Hoechst 33342 dye provided evidence that the extract had an apoptotic effect on the cells. Caspase colorimetry showed that the apoptotic effect involved activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, but not caspase-6. Conclusion: The potential of V. glabra as a candidate species for anticancer drugs warrants further investigation.

  14. Anatomia foliar de Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae Leaf anatomy of Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae

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    Gladys Flávia de A. Melo-de-Pinna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura interna da folha de espécies de Richterago mostrou-se bastante variável em relação à organização do mesofilo e à distribuição dos estômatos. Como caráter de valor taxonômico, apenas o tipo de tricoma tector foi utilizado nas relações entre R. arenaria e R. lanata,R. conduplicata e R. radiata, cujas folhas são morfologicamente semelhantes. Caracteres relacionados com adaptações ao ambiente xérico, como a ocorrência de extensões da bainha das unidades vasculares e traqueídes terminais, foram encontrados em todas as espécies. Hidatódios foram observados apenas nas duas espécies ribeirinhas (R. polymorpha e R. riparia, sendo o primeiro registro de hidatódios em representantes da tribo Mutisieae.Leaf anatomy of Richterago species revealed rather variability concerning mesophyll organization and stomata arrangement. As a character of taxonomic value, only non-glandular thricomes were used to compare R. arenaria and R. lanata,R. conduplicata and R. radiata, whose leaves are morphologically similar. Anatomical xeromorphic characters, e.g. the bundles sheath extensions and terminal tracheids were observed in all species. The waterside species (R. polymorpha e R. riparia showed hydathodes in the leaves, which represent the first record in Mutisieae.

  15. Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-05

    Nov 5, 2014 ... Bolu, 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Gülhan Military Hospital Dental Clinics, Ankara,. 3Department .... Finally, adhesion, growth and proliferation of the ..... Transport media for avulsed teeth: A review.

  16. Anti-termite efficacy of Capparis decidua and its combinatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Termites are highly destructive polyphagous insect pests, which largely ... biological activities such as anti-feedent, repellent and toxic ..... fordii (Tung tree) extracts (Hutchins, 2006) garlic .... antitermitic properties of Aleurites fordii (Tung.

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis in Parana Pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Santos André Luis Wendt dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were induced from dominant and non-dominant zygotic embryos excised from immature seeds proceeding from three different genotypes and five harvest dates. Zygotic embryos were inoculated in inductive culture medium LP and BM supplemented with or without plant growth regulators 2,4-D (5 µM, BA (2 µM and Kin (2 µM. The genotype of the mother tree and the developmental explant stage affected the induction frequency. In the maintenance phase, embryogenic cultures were maintained at continuous repetitive cell cycles every 20 days in semi-solid or liquid medium. In the maturation phase the culture medium was supplemented with different types and levels of growth regulators, osmotic agents, carbohydrates and derived. Embryogenic cultures inoculated in culture medium supplemented with PEG 3350 (6 and 9%, maltose (6 and 9%, plus BA and Kin (1 µM each resulted in the progression of somatic embryos to globular and torpedo developmental stages.

  18. VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND CUTTINGS PROPAGATION OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Ivar Wendling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian pine or araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia is a coniferous tree with great economic, social and environmental importance in southern Brazil, being exploited for both wood production and for its edible pine nuts. However, no efficient cloning techniques are available and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetative rescue methods for cuttings propagation of the species. Shoots/cuttings were generated in two ways: 26 years old trees underwent coppicing and 20 years old trees had the primary branches on the upper third of crown pruned at 2, 20 and 50 cm from the main trunk. Orthotropic shoots were rooted after application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g.L-1. Coppicing produced 47 cuttings per plant with 90% orthotropic shoots, while pruning resulted in 182 cuttings per plant with 44% orthotropic shoots. Rooting success indexes were low with no influence of IBA, although they are slightly superior to the ones available in the literature for the species, ranging from 12 to 30% for the coppice shoots and from 0 to 28% for the branches shoots. We conclude that both vegetative rescue techniques are viable and have potentially important applications. Coppicing is recommended for the propagation aiming the production of wood, while shoots derived from the side branches of the crown are more appropriate for seeds orchards formation.

  19. Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae); Estudo quimico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Alison G.; Silva, Thiago M.; Manfrini, Rozangela M.; Sallum, William S.T.; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila; Alcantara, Antonio F. de C., E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Knupp, Vagner F. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and {beta}-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and {beta}-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes. (author)

  20. Morfodiagnose da anatomia foliar e caulinar de Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae Leaf and stem anatomical morpho-diagnosis of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae

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    Márcia R. Duarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis é um arbusto ou árvore de pequeno porte, de origem asiática, denominado de chá-da-índia, chá-verde ou chá-preto. Possui atividades antioxidante, antiinflamatória, antimicrobiana e hepatoprotetora. A comercialização dessa espécie é relevante, como droga farmacognóstica e insumo na indústria de bebidas. O presente trabalho trata da caracterização estrutural de folha e caule, de modo a contribuir na morfodiagnose para o controle de qualidade. Amostras do material vegetal foram fixadas, seccionadas e coradas com azul de astra e fucsina básica. Testes microquímicos usuais foram realizados. A folha apresenta estômatos anomocíticos na face abaxial, tricomas tectores unicelulares em ambas as superfícies, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio, nervura central biconvexa e pecíolo plano-convexo, ambos percorridos por feixe vascular colateral. O caule, no nível analisado, possui epiderme unisseriada, camada subepidérmica de células colabadas, bainha esclerenquimática, estrato de células com paredes espessadas em U, organização vascular colateral e medula com células parenquimáticas e esclerenquimáticas. Esclereídes são encontradas na folha e no caule.Camellia sinensis is a shrub or small tree, of Asian origin and commonly called Chinese tea, green tea or black tea. This species has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and hepatic protective activities. Its trade is relevant, either as pharmacognostic drug or raw material in food industry. This work has dealt with the structural diagnosis of the leaf and stem, in order to contribute to its quality control. Samples of the botanical material were fixed, sectioned and stained with astra blue and basic fuchsine. Microchemical tests were also conducted. The leaf has anomocytic stomata on the abaxial side, unicellular non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces, dorsiventral mesophyll, calcium oxalate druses, biconvex midrib and plain-convex petiole, both traversed by a collateral vascular bundle. The stem, on the level analysed, shows uniseriate epidermis, sub-epidermal layer of dehydrated cells, sclerenchymatic sheath, strand of cells with U-thickened walls, collateral vascular organization and pith consisting of parenchymatic and sclerenchymatic cells. Sclereids are found in the leaf and stem.

  1. Estudo químico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae kuntze (Aristolochiaceae Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae

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    Alison G. Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and β-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and β-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes.

  2. Propagation by cuttings of the rhizome of Aspilia montevidensis (Spreng. KuntzePropagação por estacas de rizoma de Aspilia montevidensis (Spreng. Kuntze

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    Angeline Martini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The indication for use of native species in the landscape has become increasingly more frequent, but find them on the market still is not easy. One reason for this is the difficulty in production, which begins in the processes of propagation. Effective methods of spreading Aspilia montevidensis are not yet known. Thus the objective of this study was to vegetative propagation by cuttings of the rhizome of Aspilia montevidensis in different seasons. Two treatments were tested in each season: T1 – section of the tip of the rhizome and T2– section of the base of the rhizome, with three repetitions each of nine sections in the spring and summer and three replicates of ten sections each fal and winter. The variables were: percentage of rooted cuttings, dead and living, number of roots per cutting, number and length of shoots in each stake. Statistical analysis was performed by the SNK test at 95% probability. There were significant differences between treatments for the percentage of live cuttings in summer and during autumn for the percentage of rooted cuttings (T1= 30.7 % and T2= 0 %, living and the number of roots. In the other treatments and stations there were no statistical differences, although the highest rate of rooting was found in summer (T1 = 73.6 % and T2 = 38.15 %. We conclude that the season is a factor that influences the propagation by cuttings of rhizomes of Aspilia montevidensis A indicação do uso de espécies nativas no paisagístico tem se tornado a cada dia mais freqüente, porém encontrá-las no mercado ainda não é tarefa fácil. Um dos motivos para isso é a dificuldade na produção, que se inicia nos processos de propagação. Métodos eficazes de propagação de Aspilia montevidensis ainda não são conhecidos. Desta forma o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar propagação vegetativa por estacas de rizoma de Aspilia montevidensis em diferentes estações do ano. Testaram-se dois tratamentos em cada estação: T1 – secção apical do rizoma e T2 – secção basal do rizoma, com três repetições de nove secções cada na primavera e verão e três repetições de dez secções cada no outono e inverno. As variáveis analisadas foram: percentagem de estacas enraizadas, vivas e mortas; número de raízes por estaca; número e comprimento das brotações em cada estaca. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste SNK a 95% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para a percentagem de estacas vivas no período de verão, e no período de outono para a percentagem de estacas enraizadas (T1 = 30,7% e T2 = 0%, vivas e o número de raízes. Nos demais tratamentos e estações do ano não se verificaram diferenças estatísticas, embora a maior taxa de enraizamento tenha sido encontrada no verão (T1 = 73,6% e T2 = 38,15%. Conclui-se que a estação do ano é um fator que influência na propagação vegetativa, por estacas de rizomas apicais de Aspilia montevidensis.

  3. Improvement of the lactic acid fermentation of capers through an experimental factorial design (Capparis spinosa L

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    Errachidi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the caper fermentation process through an experiment factorial plan allows us to determine a function ƒ such that (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn existing between magnitude Y which is the decrease of pH (called response, and variables Xi , which are brine, lactic acid, citric acid and lactic ferment (called factors. A complete factorial plan 24 was made in order to determine the factors and the interactions among the factors which have a statistically significant influence on the studied response. Brine, lactic acid and citric acid have a significant effect on the fall of pH; by contrast, lactic ferment does not have a significant effect. On the other hand, the interactions between brine and lactic acid, between brine and lactic ferment , between lactic acid with citric acid and between lactic acid with lactic ferment have significant effects on the fall of pH (p El estudio del proceso de fermentación mediante un diseño factorial nos permitió determinar una función ƒ (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn que existe entre la magnitud Y que es la disminución del pH (llamada respuesta, y las variables X, que son la salmuera, ácido láctico, ácido cítrico y los fermentos lácticos (llamados factores. Un completo plan factorial 24 fue hecho con objeto de determinar los factores y las interacciones entre los factores que tienen una influencia estadísticamente significativa en la respuesta estudiada. La salmuera, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico tienen un efecto significativo en la caída del pH; por el contrario, los fermentos lácticos no tienen efecto significativo. Por otra parte, las interacciones entre salmuera y ácido láctico, salmuera y fermentos lácticos, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico, y ácido láctico y fermentos lácticos tuvieron un efecto significativo en la caída del pH (p < 0.0001. La fermentación fue hecha en el laboratorio de investigación de la Sociedad Marocapres-Fez líder Internacional en la transformación de alcaparras, a una temperatura de aproximadamente 30°C entre los meses de junio y julio.

  4. DIOECY EFFECT ON GROWTH OF PLANTED Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O. Kuntze TREES

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    Afonso Figueiredo Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dioecy on the growth in diameter at breast height (DBH, individual basal area, total height and individual volume of planted Araucaria angustifolia trees. The data came from 60 trees (30 male trees and 30 female trees sampled from a 30-year-old plantation in Paraná State. Complete stem analysis was used to recover historical tree growth. The Chapman-Richards model was fitted in order to represent the growth and yield of the dendrometric variables for female and male Araucaria trees. Weighted non-linear least squared method was used in the fitting process and the inverse variance was used as weight to solve the problem of heteroscedasticity. The test to verify the equality of parameters and the identity of non-linear regression models proposed by Regazzi (2003 was used to test the influence of dioecy on growth. Dioecy significantly influenced the growth of Araucaria, and female trees have higher growth in diameter, individual basal area and individual volume, while male trees showed better height development. The asymptotic coefficient of the Chapman-Richards model showed that male trees have a higher asymptotic height than female trees.

  5. Grafting of Araucaria angustifolia (BERTOL. kuntze through the four seasons of the year

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    Flávio Zanette

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered conifer species of South America that has been over exploited for timber. To incentivize Araucaria angustifolia planting is essential and may play a key role on the conservation of this species and the ecosystems that depend on it. Hence, techniques that allow the production of seedlings with attributes that may entice farmers to plant A. angustifolia trees are very important. Grafting may permit the selection of female trees and the production of precocious plants that will produce high quality seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the best season of the year to graft. Three-year-old seedlings were used as rootstock and orthotropic branches of young plants were used for scion collection. The technique used for the grafting was the bark patch. This procedure was carried out in the beginning of each season in 2007 and 2008, with a total of 160 grafted plants. Grafting carried out in the beginning of autumn had a 50 % success rate. Grafting success was negligible for all remaining seasons. In conclusion, grafting through bark patching is a viable technique for the production of A. angustifolia seedlings. Future research should be carried out to produce grafted seedlings in large-scale.

  6. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A deep Chandra ACIS survey of M51 (Kuntz+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Long, K. S.; Kilgard, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    This deep study of M51 is composed of 107ks of archival Chandra observations, to which we have added another 745ks of observations. All of the observations were made with the ACIS-S array. M51 has been observed extensively with HST. In particular, essentially all of M51 and its companion NGC 5195 was imaged with Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in V, R, and I (F435W, F555W, F814W) and Hα (F658N) as a Hubble Legacy Project (Proposal ID 10452, PI: S. Beckwith). (4 data files).

  8. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  9. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine

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    Paulo Sérgio Schlögl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz.,ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semiquantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds.

  10. Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Poonam Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD. The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  11. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Márcia O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds.

  12. Anatomia da madeira e casca do maricá, Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres gerais, macroscópicos e microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kutze, bem como a estrutura de sua casca. A anatomia da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para espécies afins. Os caracteres observados incluem placa de perfuração simples em vasos, pontuados alternos, pontuações ornamentadas, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes, raios homogêneos de células procumbentes e ausência de estratificação. Na estrutura da casca destacam-se o líber duro em faixas tangenciais descontínuas, envolvidas por células parenquimáticas geralmente cristalíferas, o curso irregular dos raios na casca interna e a formação de cunhas de parênquima na casca mediana.

  13. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. A. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas, semi-fermentation (red tea and fermentation method (black tea were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity.

  14. Patterns of genetic diversity in southern and southeastern Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze relict populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and a decrease in population size may lead to a loss in population genetic diversity. For the first time, the reduction in genetic diversity in the northernmost limit of natural occurence (southeastern Brazil) of Araucaria angustifolia in comparison with populations in the main area of the species continuous natural distribution (southern Brazil), was tested. The 673 AFLPs markers revealed a high level of genetic diversity for the species (Ht = 0.27), despite anthropogenic influence throughout the last century, and a decrease of H in isolated populations of southeastern Brazil (H = 0.16), thereby indicating the tendency for higher genetic diversity in remnant populations of continuous forests in southern Brazil, when compared to natural isolated populations in the southeastern region. A strong differentiation among southern and southeastern populations was detected (AMOVA variance ranged from 10%-15%). From Bayesian analysis, it is suggested that the nine populations tested form five “genetic clusters” (K = 5). Five of these populations, located in the northernmost limit of distribution of the species, represent three “genetic clusters”. These results are in agreement with the pattern of geographic distribution of the studied populations. PMID:21637518

  15. Improved method for isolation of coupled mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bellin Mariano

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the isolation of coupled mitochondria from the callus of Araucaria angustifolia is described for the first time. Mitochondria were isolated from embryogenic callus of A. angustifolia. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 2.4 when respiring on succinate as substrate. Oxygen uptake experiments, using freeze-thawed disrupted mitochondria, showed the presence of alternative rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases, which were stimulated by Ca2+. The procedure now described for the isolation of A. angustifolia mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the investigation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and metabolism and physiology of plants.Um procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias funcionalmente intactas de calos embriogênicos de Araucaria angustifolia foi desenvolvido pela primeira vez em nosso laboratório. Mitocôndrias isoladas por este método são metabolicamente ativas, capazes de sustentar fosforilação oxidativa como mostrado pelo controle respiratório de aproximadamente 2,4, respirando na presença de succinato como substrato. Através de experimentos de consumo de oxigênio com mitocôndrias rompidas em nitrogênio líquido foi demonstrada a presença de NAD(PH desidrogenases alternativas, insensíveis à rotenona e estimuladas por Ca2+. O isolamento de mitocôndrias de A. angustifolia é um novo e importante instrumento para estudar plantas, permitindo a execução de múltiplas investigações a respeito da bioenergética mitocondrial e fisiologia vegetal.

  16. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Ya; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Pan; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Yewei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physio...

  17. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  18. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Paulo Sérgio; dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz., ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semi-quantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds. PMID:22481892

  19. [Textual research on Amara (Mangifera Indica Linn), Butea monsperma (Lam) Kuntze, and Ferula asatoitida L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    In the Buddhist canons, there are lots of medicines imported from abroad recorded. The dictionary works of such Buddhist canons give detailed annotations and explanations to all these foreign medicines, from which we can investigate the features of all these medicines. It is also clear that these three medicines were imported into China no later than the Tang Dynasty. Amara was originally grown in the xi yu (Western Region) , now called Mango. Its form and connotation appeared no later than the eastern Han Dynasty, and the explanation of this medicine appears in the A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is wrong. While its explanation for Butea monsperma should be supplemented. There are two kinds of asafoitida, herbaceous and woody. Only the former one is used for medical purpose, and the annotation appeared in A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is problematic.

  20. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO MARICÁ, Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres gerais, macroscópicos e microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kutze, bem como a estrutura de sua casca. A anatomia da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para espécies afins. Os caracteres observados incluem placa de perfuração simples em vasos, pontuados alternos, pontuações ornamentadas, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes, raios homogêneos de células procumbentes e ausência de estratificação. Na estrutura da casca destacam-se o líber duro em faixas tangenciais descontínuas, envolvidas por células parenquimáticas geralmente cristalíferas, o curso irregular dos raios na casca interna e a formação de cunhas de parênquima na casca mediana.

  1. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  2. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis. PMID:27782129

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  4. Molecular regulation of catechins biosynthesis in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Arti; Singh, Kashmir; Ahuja, Paramvir S; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-03-10

    Catechins are bioprospecting molecules present in tea and any effort towards metabolic engineering of this important moiety would require knowledge on gene regulation. These are synthesized through the activities of phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways. Expression regulation of various genes of these pathways namely phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (CsPAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (CsC4H), p-coumarate:CoA ligase (Cs4CL), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (CsDFR) and anthocyanidin reductase (CsANR) was accomplished previously. In depth analyses of the remaining genes namely, chalcone synthase (CsCHS), chalcone isomerase (CsCHI), flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (CsF3'5'H) and anthocyanidin synthase (CsANS) were lacking. The objective of the work was to clone and analyze these genes so as to generate a comprehensive knowledge on the critical genes of catechins biosynthesis pathway. Gene expression analysis was carried out in response to leaf age and external cues (drought stress, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid treatments and wounding). A holistic analysis suggested that CsCHI, CsF3H, CsDFR, CsANS and CsANR were amongst the critical regulatory genes in regulating catechins content.

  5. Influences of various factors on hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum (Pursh Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz NOUROZI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium rhizogenes is known as a natural tool of genetic engineering in many plant species. For the first time, hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum using A. rhizogenes, rosmarinic acid content and the effect of different culture media and inoculation methods on hairy root growth rate were investigated. Hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was established by inoculation of the 1-month-old leaf explant with A4 strain of A. rhizogenes and the effectiveness of light – dark conditions and two inoculation methods (immersion and injection were tested. Furthermore, in immersion method, the effects of inoculation time (3, 5 and 7 min on root induction were investigated. In the second part of the study, the hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was studied using different basal culture media (MS, 1/2 MS and B5. Rosmarinic acid content in hairy roots and non- transformed roots was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was no significant difference between various inoculation methods in the ability of hairy roots induction. Observations showed that percentage of hairy root induction was higher when the explants were immersed for 5 min in bacterial suspension. Light conditions displayed the highest hairy root induction rates compared with dark condition. Various culture media are different in terms of types and amounts of nutrients and have influence on growth rate. The maximum growth rate (1.61 g fr wt/50 ml of hairy roots were obtained in 1/2 MS medium. Rosmarinic acid content in transformed roots (213.42 µg/g dry wt was significantly higher than non-transformed roots (52.28 µg/ g dry wt.

  6. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-10-26

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  8. Do leaf surface characteristics affect Agrobacterium infection in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze]?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitish Kumar; Subedar Pandey; Amita Bhattacharya; Paramvir Singh Ahuja

    2004-09-01

    The host range specificity of Agrobacterium with five tea cultivars and an unrelated species (Artemisia parviflora) having extreme surface characteristics was evaluated in the present study. The degree of Agrobacterium infection in the five cultivars of tea was affected by leaf wetness, micro-morphology and surface chemistry. Wettable leaf surfaces of TV1, Upasi-9 and Kangra jat showed higher rate (75%) of Agrobacterium infection compared to Upasi-10 and ST-449, whereas non-wettable leaves of A. parviflora showed minimum (25%) infection. This indicated that the leaves with glabrous surface having lower (larger surface area covered by water droplet), higher phenol and wax content were more suitable for Agrobacterium infection. Caffeine fraction of tea promoted Agrobacterium infection even in leaves poor in wax (Upasi-10), whereas caffeine-free wax inhibited both Agrobacterium growth and infection. Thus, study suggests the importance of leaf surface features in influencing the Agrobacterium infection in tea leaf explants. Our study also provides a basis for the screening of a clone/cultivar of a particular species most suitable for Agrobacterium infection the first step in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

  9. EFECTO DEL MEDIO DE CULTIVO EN EL DESARROLLO DE Suillus granulatus (L. Roussel y S. brevipes (Pk. Kuntze

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    Dulce Ma. Murrieta-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de crecimiento micelial de los hongos ectomicorrícicos Suillus granulatus y S. brevipes, se evaluó en tres medios de cultivo (PDA, BAF y MNM con dos valores de pH (4.8 y 5.8, con el fin de seleccionar el mejor medio de cultivo. Las cepas se aislaron de esporomas colectados en el bosque de Pinus hartwegii del Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (Tukey, P ≤ 0.05 en el área de crecimiento de ambas especies; los valores más altos se registraron en el medio PDA. Respecto a los valores de pH evaluados, no hubo diferencias significativas. Cada uno de los medios evaluados se puede utilizar para el cultivo de las cepas S. granulatus y S. brevipes dependiendo de los objetivos. El medio PDA fue el mejor sustrato para el crecimiento de las cepas. Se sugiere utilizar el medio BAF para la producción masiva de micelio para inóculo y el medio MNM se recomienda ya sea para el mantenimiento de las cepas o para pruebas de micorrización.

  10. Genetic diversity of UPASI tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) on the basis of total catechins and their fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M; Maria John, K M; Raj Kumar, R; Pius, P K; Sasikumar, R

    2005-03-01

    Tea leaf catechins and the ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechin fractions were analysed to identify the genetic diversity of 26 UPASI released tea clones. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on regression factor separated tea clones into five groups according to their jats (Jats are region based rays for e.g., Assam, China and Cambod origin) as well as their quality constituents (such as total polyphenols, total catechins, amino acids in the green leaves and liquor characteristics of black tea), particularly the catechins. Group 1 represented medium quality (quality of the final produce) clones, such as UPASI-10, UPASI-12 and UPASI-15 and drought tolerant clones like UPASI-1, UPASI-2, UPASI-9 and UPASI-10. Group 2 contained purely "China" cultivars while group 3 possessed high quality tea cultivars. "Assam" (group 5) teas had the lowest ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechin fractions (1:4) than the "Chinery" (group 2) teas (1:5). This biochemical differentiation indicated that there is a vast genetic diversity in UPASI released tea clones in terms of catechin fractions, even though the majority of them were selected from one tea estate located in the Nilgiris.

  11. Radial variation of basic density and wood cells dimensions of Cariniana legalis (Mart. O. Kuntze depending on the provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Provenance tests can provide information about the silvicultural behavior and wood quality for the exploration of variability and conservation of genetic material for future use. This study aims to investigate the effect of provenances on some wood properties of the Cariniana legalis. Seedlings of three provenances (Porto Ferreira, Piracicaba and Campinas were planted in Luiz Antonio-SP using randomized block design with six replicates. After 26 years of planting, eighteen trees, six of each provenance, were felled. The properties studied were basic density and the cellular dimensions. The results revealed that the basic density, fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel diameter, uniseriate ray height and width were influenced by the provenances. A good positive relationship was found among the fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length; vessel diameter and multiseriate ray height with radial position and a negative relation between vessel frequency with the radial position.

  12. CONSERVAÇÃO DA VIABILIDADE E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  13. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  14. Mitochondria and redox homoeostasis as chemotherapeutic targets of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in human larynx HEp-2 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia dos Santos; de Lima, Émilin Dreher; Rodrigues, Tiago Selau; Scheffel, Thamiris Becker; Scola, Gustavo; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2015-04-25

    Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new molecular targets in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity rate if left untreated. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of Araucaria angustifolia on laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells. The results showed that A. angustifolia extract (AAE) induced a significant cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells compared to the non-tumor human epithelial (HEK-293) cells, indicating a selective activity of AAE for the cancer cells. A. angustifolia extract was able to increase oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and the production of nitric oxide, along with the depletion of enzymatic antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the tumor cell line. Moreover, AAE was able to induce DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. A significant increase in the Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Bax, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage expression were also found. These effects could be related to the ability of AAE to increase the production of reactive oxygen species through inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and ATP production by the tumor cells. The phytochemical analysis of A. angustifolia, performed using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in MS and MS/MS mode, showed the presence of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, and phenolic compounds, which may be associated with the chemotherapeutic effect observed in this study.

  15. CHOLESTEROL ESTERASE ENZYME INHIBITORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L. KUNTZE. USING IN VITRO MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the in vitro cholesterol esterase enzyme inhibitory and in vitro antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.. Phytochemical screening of the extract shows the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids. The extract shows ability to inhibit the enzyme with IC50 (82.46±0.74µg/ml where as that of standard, Orlistat (24.15±0.59µg/ml. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were also assessed by using the methods, IC50 values for Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (396.83±0.83µg/ml, whereas for standard curcumin (260.38±0.66µg/ml, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (47.04±2.26µg/ml and for quercetin (70.99±1.31µg/ml. Moreover, the extract was found to scavenge the superoxide with 50% inhibition at 308.17±23.25µg/ml and standard ascorbic acid at 225.08±2.44µg/ml, IC50 for ferrous chelating ability assay (44.12±4.63µg/ml and of ascorbic acid (47.25±.89µg/ml. Total content of flavonoids present in 1mg of extract was 19.8±0.11 µg quercetin equivalents/mg. Results indicated that the extract shows potential bioactive compounds which might have a beneficial impact on diseases related to cholesterol synthesis and showed potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  16. Protective Effect of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) against Prostate Cancer: From In Vitro Data to Algerian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassed, Somia; Deus, Cláudia M.; Djebbari, Radja; Dahdouh, Abderrezak; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (GT) has been studied for its effects as antioxidant and cancer-preventive agent. Epidemiological studies showed that GT consumption decreases the risk for prostate cancer (PC). To investigate whether erythrocyte oxidative stress (OS) is associated with PC and whether daily consumption of GT improves the oxidative phenotype, we performed a study in a group of Algerian PC patients, preceded by an in vitro study to characterize composition and antioxidant/antiproliferative activities of the GT used. This contained a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, demonstrating in vitro antioxidant activity and significant antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer PC-3 cell line. Seventy PC patients and 120 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study, with glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase activity evaluated before and after GT consumption. The results showed a reduced GSH and catalase activity and a high level of MDA in erythrocytes from PC patients. The consumption of 2-3 cups per day of GT during 6 months significantly increased GSH concentration and catalase activity and decreased MDA concentration. In conclusion, GT significantly decreased OS in Algerian PC patients. Regular consumption of GT for a long period may prevent men from developing PC or at least delay its progression. PMID:28133488

  17. A review of the weevil fauna (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Araucariaceae in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mecke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The beetle superfamily Curculionoidea includes 43 species associated with Araucaria angustifolia trees in South Brazil. These weevil species belong to the families Nemonychidae (Brarus Kuschel, 1997, Rhynchitoplesius Voss, 1952, Brentidae (Taphroderes Schönherr, 1826 and Curculionidae, the latter including the subfamilies Curculioninae (Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955, Spermologus Schönherr, 1843, Cossoninae (Araucarius Kuschel, 1966, Eurycorynophorus Voss, 1964, Scolytinae (Ambrosiodmus Hopkins, 1915, Araptus Eichhoff, 1871, Cnesinus LeConte, 1868, Corthylus Erichson, 1836, Cryptocarenus Eggers, 1936, Hypothenemus Westwood, 1834, Monarthrum Kirsch, 1866, Pagiocerus Eichhoff, 1868, Phloeotribus Latreille, 1896, Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864, Xylechinosomus Schedl, 1963, Xyleborus Eichhoff, 1864, Xyleborinus Reitter, 1913 and Platypodinae (Cenocephalus Chapuis, 1865, Platypus Herbst, 1893, Tesserocerus Saunders, 1836. A checklist of all species including remarks on their life histories and taxonomic notes are presented. In addition, a key for the identification of adult Curculionoidea associated with Araucaria angustifolia to genus or species level is provided.A superfamília Curculionoidea compreende 43 espécies associadas à Araucaria angustifolia no sul do Brasil. As espécies destes gorgulhos pertencem às famílias Nemonychidae (Brarus Kuschel, 1997, Rhynchitoplesius Voss, 1952, Brentidae (Taphroderes Schönherr, 1826 e Curculionidae, (Curculioninae: Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955, Spermologus Schönherr, 1843; Cossoninae: Araucarius Kuschel, 1966, Eurycorynophorus Voss, 1964; Scolytinae: Ambrosiodmus Hopkins, 1915, Araptus Eichhoff, 1871, Cnesinus LeConte, 1868, Corthylus Erichson, 1836, Cryptocarenus Eggers, 1936, Hypothenemus Westwood, 1834, Monarthrum Kirsch, 1866, Pagiocerus Eichhoff, 1868, Phloeotribus Latreille, 1896, Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864, Xylechinosomus Schedl, 1963, Xyleborus Eichhoff, 1864, Xyleborinus Reitter, 1913; Platypodinae: Cenocephalus Chapuis, 1865, Platypus Herbst, 1893, Tesserocerus Saunders, 1836. Apresenta-se uma lista de todas as espécies, bem como informações sobre biologia e taxonomia das mesmas. Adicionalmente, está incluída uma chave de identificação de gêneros e espécies dos adultos de Curculionoidea associados à Araucaria angustifolia.

  18. Caracterização dendrométrica de Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. em povoamento de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Daniela Biondi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its history of exploitation and intensive use in landscaping, the Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae is currently one of the Brazilian flora endangered species. The Paraná State laws prohibit its extraction; however, there is no research to support future management plans. This work characterized the natural occurrence of D. Sellowiana in an Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State, using dendrometric variables after silvicultural intervention (clipping. D. sellowiana individuals (714 taller than the commercial height of 0.50 m were randomly sampled and assigned to the following treatments: plots with unclipped plants (T0, plots with plants clipped in the measurement (T1, and plots with plants clipped two years before in the measurement (T2. The variables analyzed were: density of the individuals/ha and plots, total and commercial caudex height (m, crown height (m, base diameter, crown (cm and frond (m, diameters, individual and total commercial volume. It was found significant difference between T1 and T2 for total height; between T2 and T0 and between T2 of T1 for crown and from diameters, individual commercial volume; between T0 and T1 and between TO and T2 for total commercial volume. The variables that characterized better the silvicultural interventions were the density of individuals and the total height. The occurred interventions revealed its importance for the management of the D. sellowiana because it favors the regeneration of the young plants for the conservation of the species, and benefits the development of the adult plants for its commercial exploitation.

  19. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  20. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

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    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  1. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora.

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A semente de Araucaria angustifolia, o pinhão, é comumente utilizada como alimento e propágulo para regeneração da espécie. A intensa predação das sementes pela fauna silvestre, que ocorre em áreas recém-plantadas por semeadura direta e em viveiros florestais, é um dos fatores adversos e desestimulantes à propagação da espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de algumas substâncias naturais e sintéticas potencialmente repelentes à fauna silvestre, em sementes de Araucaria angustifolia "in vitro". O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia e Fisiologia Vegetal do CAV / UDESC, no período de junho a dezembro de 2004. As sementes, após preparadas e tratadas com substâncias de origem vegetal e sintéticas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com substrato constituído por vermiculita e colocadas em câmara de crescimento com temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, umidade do substrato e períodos de luz controlados. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, contendo 15 tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 10 pinhões. As substâncias testadas, isoladas ou em misturas, foram: extratos alcoólicos de fruto de pimenta vermelha, raiz de salsa tempero e, da parte aérea de losna, óleo essencial de eucalipto, óleo de linhaça, óleo de mamona, breu, oxicloreto de cobre, sulfato de cobre, enxofre e tinta látex PVA. Emissão de raiz, emissão da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea foram avaliados 76 dias após a semeadura. As análises possibilitaram concluir que não houve efeitos fitotóxicos das substâncias testadas "in vitro" sobre as variáveis analisadas e que tais substâncias podem ser utilizadas nos experimentos de campo para testes de repelência aos animais consumidores de pinhões.

  2. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Fresh Leaves of Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-Yun LI; Chang-Jun JIANG; Xiao-Chun WAN; Zheng-Zhu ZHANG; Da-Xiang LI

    2005-01-01

    β-Glucosidases are important in the formation of floral tea aroma and the development of resistance to pathogens and herbivores in tea plants. A novel β-glucosidase was purified 117-fold to homogeneity,with a yield of 1.26%, from tea leaves by chilled acetone and ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography (CM-Sephadex C-50) and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC; Superdex 75, Resource S). The enzyme was a monomeric protein with specific activity of 2.57 U/mg. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be about 41 kDa and 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE and FPLC gel filtration on Superdex 200, respectively. The enzyme showed optimum activity at 50 ℃ and was stable at temperatures lower than 40 ℃. It was active between pH 4.0 and pH 7.0, with an optimum activity at pH 5.5, and was fairly stable from pH 4.5 to pH 8.0. The enzyme showed maximum activity towards pNPG, low activity towards pNP-Galacto, and no activity towards pNP-Xylo.

  3. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Onyuka, Enos A; Scholes, Julie D

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha(-1) were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha(-1) with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas.

  4. Concentraciones de elementos minerales en partes aéreas e infusiones de Margyricarpus pinnatus (Lam.) Kuntze (perlilla)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Gloria Cristina; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; del Vitto, Luis Angel; Mazza, Silvia Matilde; Marchevsky, Eduardo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la "perlilla" o “yerba de la perdiz” es un subarbusto que habita en Sudamérica de donde es nativo. Las infusiones de las partes aéreas: hojas y tallos, se utilizan en la medicina popular, fundamental para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones urinarias. No se encontraron estudios sobre el contenido mineral de las partes aéreas ni de las infusiones de esta especie. Objetivos: determinar la concentración de elementos minerales en partes aéreas e infusiones de Margyricarp...

  5. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product.

  6. 刺山柑雄全同株性系统的适应意义%Adaptive significances of sexual system in andromonoecious Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 谭敦炎

    2008-01-01

    对分布于新疆北部干旱荒漠区的刺山柑Capparisspinosa性系统进行了研究.结果表明:(1)该物种具有典型的雄全同株性系统.雄花和两性花的雄蕊均正常发育,且有长短之分;两性花的雌蕊发育正常,而雄花的雌蕊败育,只行使雄性功能.(2)居群间每天开放的雄花和两性花比率、两性花的长短雄蕊数及雄花短雄蕊的花丝与花药长等存在极显著差异(P0.05).(3)单花花期为15-16 h,每天18:00时左右开始开放,有强烈的气味和花蜜产生.植株每天产生的雄花和两性花数是随机的,可形成短时的雄花与两性花异株,但居群内雄花数比两性花数多.(4)三个居群两性花的P/O值分别为1.57×104、1.65×104和1.71×104.居群内雄花和两性花的花粉数及长、短雄蕊花药的花粉数均无显著差异(P>0.05),居群间雄花和两性花的花粉数、两性花的胚珠数及P/O值差异也不显著(P>0.05).(5)各居群雄花和两性花长短雄蕊的花粉活力动态变化曲线相似,花粉寿命为18-20 h,两性花雌蕊柱头的可授期为16-18h.(6)访花昆虫为膜翅目Hymenoptera和鳞翅目Lepidoptera昆虫,3个居群共有7种访花昆虫,其活动受天气影响很大.(7)两性花不存在无融合生殖现象,授自花花粉、同株异花花粉和异株异花花粉后均可结实,属于混合交配系统.刺山柑的雄全同株性系统可能是在长期与荒漠环境相适应的过程中由遗传和环境共同作用的结果.雄花的出现不仅增加了花粉数和P/O值,提高了植株的雄性适合度,同时增加了花的数量、对传粉昆虫的吸引力以及两性花柱头接受异花花粉的机会,提高了异交率和雌性适合度,保障其在荒漠极端环境中繁殖成功.

  7. Plant Growth Variation At Combined Progeny And Provenance Of 5-Year-Old Intsia Bijuga (Colebr. O.Kuntze In Sobang, Banten

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    Hamdan Adma Adinugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate plant growth of Intsia bijuga at 5 years old in Sobang, Banten for supplying good genetic material in the future. Establishment of the trial was conducted in 2007 using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD that consisted of 6 blocks, 100 families nested in 10 provenances, 4 treeplot for each family with a spacing of 4 x4 m. Measurements were taken periodically every year on the survival percentage, total height and stem diameter at the breast height or dbh. At the age of 5 years showed that the significant differences among provenance in survival percentage that ranged from 41.61 to 65.11 %,  average of plant height were 1.04 to 2.82 m and dbh 1.24 to 1.59 cm. The growth variation families also showed significant differences in height and diameter. The survival rate ranged from 12.5-91.67 %, average plant height were 0.52-2.55 m and dbh 0.90-2.44 cm. Individual tree heritability estimate for height was height (0.344 while that of diameter was moderate (0.259. Family heritabilities for height and diameter was considered moderate, namely 0.573 and 0.491 respectively. Genetic correlation between height and diameter growth was positive and high (0.834.

  8. Hypericum species in the Páramos of Central and South America: a special focus upon H. irazuense Kuntze ex N. Robson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara; Eberhardt, Marianne; Kunert, Olaf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about members of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae occurring in the tropical mountain regions of the world is limited, in part due to endemism and restricted distributions. High altitude vegetation habitats (Páramos) in Central and South America are home to numerous native Hypericum species. Information related to the phytochemistry of páramo Hypericum, as well as ecological factors with the potential to influence chemical defenses in these plants, is briefly reviewed. Results of the phytochemical analysis of Hypericum irazuense, a species collected in the páramo of the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, are presented. Lastly, guidelines for the viable and sustainable collections of plant material, to facilitate future investigations of these interesting plants, are given. PMID:21151765

  9. Aktivitas Polifenol Teh Hijau (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze Sebagai Imunomodulator melalui Respons Supresi Imunoglobulin E (IgE pada Rinitis Alergika

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    Yusni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosa caused by interactions between allergens and immunoglobulin E (IgE. Immunomodulatory is an important part of the treatment of allergic rhinitis. One of the medicinal plants that have immunomodulatory activities is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., specifically polyphenols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the activity of green tea’s polyphenols as an immunomodulator in patients with allergic rhinitis. This study was conducted in June to December 2011 in the laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Unsyiah with the IgE examinations conducted in private laboratories. This study is a pretest-postest quasi experimental study with control group design. Subjects were 12 patients with allergic rhinitis; 6 people were included in the control group (placebo and 6 in the treatment group (green tea’s polyphenols 2x350 mg/day, for 14 days. Analysis of the data was performed using the normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test (p<0.05. The results showed that the levels of immunoglobulin E after the administration of green tea’s polyphenols in the treatment group was lower than the control group (1.475.2±940.7 vs 494.3±366.5 IU, but not significantly (p=0.05. In conclusion, the administration of green tea’s polyphenols can insignificantly decrease the secretion of IgE. Hence, further research is required.

  10. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  11. Morphological structure of inflorescences of Agastache breviflora (A. Gray Epling, A. rugosa (Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Kuntze, and A. rupestris (Greene Standl. (family Lamiaceae ex situ

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    Galina O. Rudik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative analysis of morphological structure of inflorescences Agastache breviflora, A. rugosa, and A. rupestris introduced in the O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden are represented. It has been established that the common morphological characteristics for inflorescences of these plants are: the type of inflorescence (thyrs, its location on the shoot (terminal, type of the growth of main and lateral axes (monopodial growth of the main axis and sympodial growth of lateral axes on which are formed the partial inflorescences – cymoids, the structure of the partial inflorescences (system of dichasia. Differences are determined by the linear dimensions of inflorescences, quantity and size of flowers in partial inflorescences, orientation of the main axis and flowers in space, presence or absence of bracts and bracteoles.

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

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    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  13. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de saponinas triterpênicas isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze (Fabaceae) e Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae) sobre Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago,G.M.P.; Viana,F.A; Pessoa,O.D.L.; Santos,R.P.; Y.B.M. Pouliquen; Arriaga,A.M.C.; M. Andrade-Neto; Braz-Filho,R.

    2005-01-01

    A atividade larvicida de quatro saponinas monodesmosídicas (1-4) isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba e de uma saponina bidesmosídica (5) isolada de Cordia piauhiensis foi avaliada sobre larvas de estágio 3 de Aedes aegypti. As larvas foram expostas a várias concentrações (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 e 12,5 mg/mL) das saponinas por um período de 24 h. Os resultados indicam que somente as saponinas 1-3 mostraram alta atividade larvicida, com CL50 variando de 18,6 a 27,9 mg/mL. Estes resultados ressalt...

  14. Efek pemberian ekstrak teh hijau (Camellia sinesis (L O. Kuntze var. Assamica terhadap total lemak tubuh dan profil lipid wanita dewasa overweight dan obesitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernawati Hardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity can cause high body fat total and lipid profile in the blood that brings risk for diseases to the bearer. Some studies on green tea extract supplementation have been undertaken to find out its effect on the fat reduction in children, men, and mice and the result showed a reduction in body fat, weight, appetite, and triglyceride level. This study uses green tea extract supplemented to overweight and obese women. Objective: To find out the reduction of body fat total and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL in the blood of overweight and obese women personnel of Yogyakarta Municipal Health Office supplemented with green tea extract. Method: The study was randomized double-blinded control trial. The subject of the study was overweight and obese women of 35-55 years old personnel of Yogyakarta Municipal Health Office. Samples were 86 women randomly taken, comprising experiment group and control group, each of which consisting of 43 women. Each group had diet according to individual appetite. Both groups were given capsules of similar form and color but different ingredients: placebo and green tea extract. The experiment took three months. Blood was taken before and after the experiment to identify lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL. Body fat total was examined using body fat analyzer. Data analysis used paired t-test. Results: Green tea extract supplementation could significantly reduce body fat total and insignificantly reduce cholesterol level, triglyceride, and LDL, significantly increase HDL in overweight and obese women. Conclusion: Green tea extract supplementation could reduce body fat total and increase HDL (p<0.005.

  15. Effect of Acetylation on Stability to Retrogradation of Starch Extracted from Wild Polynesian Arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides (L. Kuntze for Utilization as Adhesive on Paper

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    Hamza Abba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch was isolated from T. leontopetaloides tubers, chemically modified by acetylation with varying amounts of acetic anhydride. Monolayer of the ten acetylated and control starch powders was exposed on roof top for five weeks and pastes of both exposed and unexposed (control samples were prepared with distilled water (1 : 3 w/w. The effects of acetylation, degree of substitution (DS, and exposure to sunlight were investigated to evaluate the retrogradation tendency of the adhesive pastes from changes in syneresis, tack strength, optical clarity, viscosity, gelation time, and drying time. The results obtained showed that all the adhesive properties studied were affected by both DS and exposure to sunlight. While tack strength, viscosity, and drying time were found to increase with increase in DS, syneresis, optical clarity, and gelation time were found to decrease with increase in DS. Increase in tack strength and reduction in syneresis imply that the acetylation treatment has made T. leontopetaloides starch more suitable for use in remoistenable adhesive applications. The reduction in syneresis, optical clarity, and gelation time with increase in DS was attributed to the strengthening of the bonds between the amylose and amylopectin molecules, preventing water leaching out of the starch granules.

  16. Variation of Photosynthesis, Fatty Acid Composition, ATPase and Acid Phosphatase Activities, and Anatomical Structure of Two Tea (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Cultivars in Response to Fluoride

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    L. X. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of photosynthetic parameters, water use efficiency (WUE, fatty acid composition, chlorophyll (Chl content, malondialdehyde (MDA content, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, fluoride (F content, and leaf anatomical structure of two tea cultivars, “Pingyangtezao” (PY and “Fudingdabai” (FD, after F treatments were investigated. The results show that net photosynthetic rate (, stomatal conductance (, and transpiration rate (E significantly decreased in both cultivars after 0.3 mM F treatment, but FD had higher , , and WUE and lower E than PY. Chl content in PY significantly decreased after 0.2 and 0.3 mM F treatments, while no significant changes were observed in FD. The proportions of shorter chain and saturated fatty acids increased and those of longer chain and unsaturated fatty acids decreased in both cultivars under F treatments. The contents of MDA increased after F treatments but were higher in PY than in FD. In addition, F treatments decreased the activities of ATPase and acid phosphatase and increased F content in both cultivars; however, compared with PY, FD showed higher enzymatic activities and lower F content in roots and leaves. Leaf anatomical structure in FD indicated that cells in leaf midrib region were less injured by F than in PY.

  17. Starch Product of Wild Plants Species Jalawure (Tacca leontopetaloides L.) Kuntze as The Source of Food Security in The South Coastal West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardah; Sambas, E. N.; Ridwan; Ariani, D.

    2017-04-01

    Majority of people of South coast of West Java, from Sukabumi, Cianjur, Garut are fishermen. Natural conditions are very dry and the area of land for agriculture, particularly rice cultivation is minimal. So that the condition of the society is more directed to high enough levels of food insecurity. Because coastal areas tend to have a longer dry season from rainfall. Results of research conducted in the years 2013 - 2016 in the area of Pelabuhan Ratu, Cidaun (Cianjur), Coastal area of Jayanti, Ranca Buaya, Mekar Mukti, and along the coast until Pameungpeuk, Leuweung Sancang, is known that jalawure plant which grows wild at South-coast region of West Java is precisely the alternative solution to address food insecurity. The results of the starch flour is a source of carbohydrate that is high enough to be used as a substitute for rice and wheat. Another potential source of jalawure nutrition is also recommended for diabetics consumption.

  18. Ökologischer Landbau in Sri Lanka - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Tee-Anbausystemen (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

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    Williges, Ute

    2005-01-01

    In Sri Lanka the agricultural structure of smallholder production has changed with population growth and land reforms. In former days a farm family could life from the production of their home garden through subsistence farming and barter economy. Additional income was achieved by selling surplus products like spices on the local markets. Today living standards and life style have changed and monetary needs for housing, schooling, electricity, telephone, household goods and transport faciliti...

  19. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  20. Skin Wound Healing Potential and Mechanisms of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves and Oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Kuntze in Rats

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    Lucas Fernando Sérgio Gushiken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing is a complex process which, sometimes, can be a problem in public health because of the possibility of physical disability or even death. Due to the lack of a gold standard drug in skin wound treatment and aiming at the discovery of new treatments in skin repair and the mechanisms involved in the process, we used oleoresin (OR from Copaifera langsdorffii and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves (EH to treat rat skin wounds. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into groups (n=8: Lanette, Collagenase, 10% EH, or 10% OR and, after anesthesia, one wound of 2 cm was made in the back of animals. The wounds were treated once a day for 3, 7, or 14 days and the wound areas were measured. The rats were euthanized and skin samples destined to biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a macroscopic retraction of the wounds of 10% EH and 10% OR creams and both treatments showed anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular and immunohistochemical results demonstrated the activity of Copaifera langsdorffii creams in angiogenesis, reepithelialization, wound retraction, and remodeling mechanisms.

  1. Atividade alelopática de extratos aquosos de Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic activity of aqueous extracts of Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

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    Ana Beatriz Gatti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de diferentes órgãos de Aristolochia esperanzae na germinação e no crescimento de alface e rabanete. Todos os extratos preparados obedeceram à proporção de 100g de material vegetal fresco para 300mL de água destilada, que produziu o extrato considerado 100% concentrado. A partir deste, foram feitas diluições com água destilada para 75, 50 e 25%. Nos testes de germinação foram avaliados os efeitos dos extratos obtidos de folha, caule, raiz, fruto e flor a 100, 75, 50 e 25%. Para o teste de crescimento foram utilizados extratos de folha, caule e raiz na concentração de 100 e 50%. Nos testes de germinação foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 30 sementes distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com duas folhas de papel de filtro umedecidas com 5 mL dos referidos extratos, secas durante 12h e reumedecidas com 4,5mL de água destilada. No primeiro teste avaliou-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação das sementes. No teste de crescimento, as sementes foram previamente germinadas (2-4mm de radícula e depois transferidas para caixas plásticas contendo os substratos de papel de filtro e fibra de coco umedecidos com os respectivos extratos. Avaliou-se a altura da parte aérea, o comprimento radicular, a massa seca das plântulas e a presença de anormalidades nas plântulas. Os testes foram mantidos à temperatura constante de 27ºC. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os extratos de folha foram os que mais afetaram a percentagem de germinação e que todos os extratos e as diferentes concentrações retardaram a germinação de sementes de alface e de rabanete. Quanto ao teste de crescimento, pode-se verificar que os extratos de caule e de raiz causaram anormalidades nas plântulas. As plântulas crescidas no substrato papel de filtro apresentaram maior inibição do crescimento, em relação àquelas crescidas no substrato fibra de coco. A concentração dos extratos foi a principal responsável pelo estímulo ou inibição causada no crescimento das plântulas de alface e rabanete.This work analyzed the effects of aqueous extractsof Aristolochia esperanzae organs in the germination and initial growth of lettuce and radish. All the extracts were prepared using 100g of plant fresh material + 300mL of distilled water to produce the extract 100% concentrated. This extract was diluted with distilled water to produce a final concentrations of 75, 50 and 25%. The germination was evaluated by tests using the extracts of leaf, stem, root, fruit and flower, with concentration of 100, 75, 50, and 25%. In the seedlings growth, the extracts of leaf, stem, and root were used in the concentration of 100 and 50%. In the germination tests, four replicates of 30 seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with two filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts, dried during 12 hours and moistened again with 4,5mL of distilled water. In the first test, the rate and germination percentage were evaluated. In the growth test, the seeds were previously germinated (2-4mm radicle length and transferred for plastic boxes containing the filter paper or coconut fiber, moistened with the extracts. The shoot height, radicle length, dry mass and the presence of abnormalities in the seedlings were evaluated. Both tests were maintained at constant temperature (27ºC. The results showed that the leaf extracts affected strongly the germination percentage and all the extract, in different concentrations, delayed the germination of lettuce and radish seeds. In the growth tests could be verified that the stem and root extracts caused abnormality in the seedlings. The seedlings grown in filter paper presented bigger growth inhibition in relation to seedlings from coconut fiber. The extract concentration was the main responsible for the promotion or inhibition caused on lettuce and radish seedlings growth.

  2. Conservação pós-colheita de pinhões [sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] armazenados em diferentes temperaturas Postharvest preservation of 'pinhões' [seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] stored at different temperatures

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão (semente de Araucaria angustifolia representa importante fonte de renda aos produtores rurais e uma opção a mais de alimento característico a ser oferecido aos turistas e à população em geral na região Sul do Brasil. A temperatura e a umidade de armazenamento são os principais determinantes da preservação pós-colheita de pinhões. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura de armazenamento nas taxas respiratórias e de evolução de etileno, bem como na perda de massa fresca e na germinação pós-colheita de pinhões destinados para consumo alimentar humano. Seguiu-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis temperaturas de armazenamento (2, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50°C e quatro repetições, cada repetição correspondendo a amostras contendo cerca de 300g de pinhões. Pinhões armazenados nas diferentes temperaturas não apresentaram produção de etileno (em níveis detectáveis através de cromatografia gasosa, com sensibilidade de 1ppm. A taxa respiratória aumentou substancialmente com o aumento na temperatura, com um Q10 @ 2,5 na faixa de temperatura de 2 a 37,1°C. Houve redução substancial da respiração com o aumento na temperatura de 37,1 para 50°C. A maior germinação dos pinhões foi verificada na temperatura de 20°C (~55% dos pinhões germinados aos 26 dias de armazenamento, reduzindo em temperaturas menores (~1% e 21% de germinação nas temperaturas de 2 e 10°C, respectivamente ou maiores (9% e The seeds ('pinhões' of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia represent an important sorce of income to the rural comunities and also an additional food product to be offered to the tourists and population in Southern Brazil. Temperature and humidity in the storage environment are the mais factors affecting 'pinhões' postharvest preservation. This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on postharvest respiration and ethylene production, as well as on fresh mass loss and germination of 'pinhões' intended for human consumption. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with six storage temperatures (2, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50°C and four replicates, each replicate with about 300g of 'pinhões'. 'Pinhões' stored at the different temperatures did not exhibit ethylene production (at levels detectable by gas chromatography, with a sensibility of 1ppm. The respiratory rates increased substancialy in the range from 2°C to 37.1°C, with a Q10 @ 2.5. The respiration decreased substantialy by increasing the temperature from 37.1°C to 50°C. The higher germination rate was achieved for 'pinhões' stored at 20°C (~55% germination after 26 days storage. The germination reduced for 'pinhões' stored at temperatures lower (~1% and 21% of germination for 'pinhões' left at 2 and 10°C, respectively or higher (9% and <1% of germination for 'pinhões' left at 30°C and 40-50°C, respectively than 20°C. These results show the importance of 'pinhões' storage at temperatures close to 0°C to reduce the metabolic ativity, especially the respiration, and, therefore, to preserve the product quality and to reduce fresh mass loss and seed germination.

  3. Radial variation of tracheid features, specic gravity and growth rings in Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze planted in Cunha-SP. Variação radial das características das traqueídes, densidade aparente e anéis de crescimento em Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze plantadas em Cunha-SP.

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    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated wood features along growth rings of Araucaria angustifolia trees planted between November and December of 1980 in Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar in Cunha, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Our goal was to determine radial variation of the tracheid features and specific gravity. For these analyses, we employed the usual methodologies for determining the tracheid dimensions by maceration. Based on the relationship between weight/volume of samples and growth rings, specific gravity was determined after discs were polished. Following the Typical Radial Pattern – (TRP, we observed a significant increase in length, diameter and wall thickness of tracheids toward the bark. Positive relationships were observed between all tracheid features and specific gravity, showing that the increase in length and, especially, wall thickness contributed to the increase in specific gravity toward the bark. Neste estudo, investigamos os anéis de crescimento e a variação radial das traqueídes na madeira de árvores de Araucaria angustifolia plantadas entre novembro e dezembro de 1980 no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar em Cunha, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a variação das características das traqueídes e densidade aparente. Nessas análises, empregamos metodologias usuais para estabelecer as dimensões das traqueídes pelo método de maceração. Com base na relação massa/volume das amostras e anéis de crescimento, a densidade aparente foi determinada após o polimento dos discos. De acordo com o Típico Padrão Radial – (TRP, observamos aumento significativo no comprimento, diâmetro e espessura da parede das traqueídes em direção à casca. Relações positivas foram observadas entre todas as características das traqueídes e a densidade aparente, mostrando que o aumento do comprimento e, especialmente, da espessura de suas paredes contribuem positivamente para o aumento da densidade aparente em direção à casca.

  4. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Artistolochia esperanzae O.Kuntze on development of Sesamum indicum L. seedlings Efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de Aristolochia esperanzae O.Kuntze sobre desenvolvimento de plântulas de Sesumum indicum L.

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    Ana Beatriz Gatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aristolochia esperanzae is a climbing plant that occurs in the savanna regions of Brazil. The aim of this work was to identify the effects of aqueous extracts of A. esperanzae on germination, root growth and xylem cell development of sesame seedlings. Leaf and shoot extracts were prepared at concentrations of 1.5 and 3%. Extracts caused marked changes in germination and seedling growth with greatest inhibition produced by root extracts. Morphological changes and decreased growth and development of seedlings were also observed. The extracts of A. esperanzae caused a reduction of 50% in the size of root xylem cells and marked changes in the primary root and in the number of secondary roots.Aristolochia esperanzae é uma trepadeira que ocorre no cerrado do sudeste do Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de identificar os efeitos dos extratos aquosos de A. esperanzae sobre a germinação, crescimento da raiz e de células do xilema de plântulas de gergelim. Extratos de folhas, caule e raiz foram preparados nas concentrações de 1,5 e 3,0%. Os extratos causaram alterações na germinação e no crescimento das plântulas com inibição maior causada pelos extratos de raízes. Observou-se mudanças morfológicas e decréscimo no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plântulas de gergelim. Os extratos de A. esperanzae causaram uma inibição de até 50% no tamanho das células do xilema das raízes e mudanças na raiz primária e no número de raízes secundárias.

  5. Determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras comerciais de chás verde e preto - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae = Determination of phenolic componds in commercial samples of green and black tea - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae

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    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O chá de Camellia sinensis é rico em compostos fenólicos antioxidantes, responsáveis por efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as determinações da concentração de fenóis totais e flavonoides de sete amostras comerciais dos chás preto e verde. Os teores de fenóis totais variaram de 4,80 a 26,60 mg de pirogalol g-1 de amostra e os de flavonoides, de 0,46 a 1,10 mg de quercetina g-1 de amostra. A análise anatômica do conteúdo das amostras permitiu caracterizar a autenticidade dos produtos,observando-se os marcadores anatômicos típicos da espécie (estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio e esclereides.The tea from Camellia sinensis (green tea and black tea is rich in antioxidant phenolic compounds, responsible for beneficial effects to human health. In this work, determinations were carried out on theconcentration of total phenols and flavonoids in seven commercial samples of black tea and green tea. The samples presented concentrations of total phenols varying between 4.80 and 26.60 mg of pyrogallol g-1 and concentrations of flavonoids from 0.46 to 1.10 mg of quercetin g-1. With the purpose of characterizing the authenticity of the product contained in the sachets, the samples were fixed for histological studies. The samples presented the typical anatomical markers of the species (anomocytic stomata, unicellular non-glandulartrichomes, dorsiventral mesophyll, calcium oxalate druses and sclereids.

  6. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de saponinas triterpênicas isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae e Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae sobre Aedes aegypti Evaluation of larvicidal activity of triterpenoid saponins isolated of Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae and Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae against Aedes aegypti

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    G.M.P. Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade larvicida de quatro saponinas monodesmosídicas (1-4 isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba e de uma saponina bidesmosídica (5 isolada de Cordia piauhiensis foi avaliada sobre larvas de estágio 3 de Aedes aegypti. As larvas foram expostas a várias concentrações (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 e 12,5 mg/mL das saponinas por um período de 24 h. Os resultados indicam que somente as saponinas 1-3 mostraram alta atividade larvicida, com CL50 variando de 18,6 a 27,9 mg/mL. Estes resultados ressaltam as potencialidades destas saponinas como possíveis agentes larvicidas naturais.The larvicidal activity of the four monodesmoside saponins (1-4 isolated from Pentaclethra macroloba and one bidesmoside saponin (5 from Cordia piauhiensis was evaluated on 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The larvae were exposed to serial concentrations (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/mL saponins for a period of 24 h. The results indicate that, only the saponins 1-3 showed high larvicidal activity, with LC50 ranging of 18,6-27,9 mg/mL. These results suggest that these can be used as natural larvicidal agents.

  7. Repelência de substâncias naturais e sintéticas aos mamíferos silvestres consumidores de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze em semeadura no campo.

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction of the predation level. The treatments with linseed oil presented changeable behaviors, equally to the treatments with latex ink, in the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds. In the experiment with treated hollows, the lignosulfonate of calcium in mixture with extracts of pepper, with root of parsley and with wormwood herb presented significant effect of reduction on the predation. The solution of linseed with red pepper extracts and with root of parsley extract also had significant effect for reduction of the predation of these seeds, in the experiment with treated hollows

  8. Parâmetros fisiológicos e bioquímicos durante a embriogênese zigótica e somática de Auracaria angustifolia (BERT.) O. KUNTZE

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Neusa

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais. A embriogênese somática é uma técnica biotecnológica amplamente utilizada para propagação massal e conservação de diversas espécies de coníferas como é o caso da Araucaria angustifolia. Além disso, esta técnica se configura como um modelo referência para estudos da biologia do desenvolvimento in vitro. A principal limitação da embriogênese...

  9. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, en Cajamarca, Perú

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    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se tuvo por objetivo determinar aspectos biológicos, identificar enemigos naturales, y establecer periodos oportunos de control de un gracillariido plaga de tara. Los aspectos biológicos y los enemigos naturales se evaluaron en campo y en laboratorio, los periodos oportunos de control se determinó por interacción hospedero - plaga. Los resultados, el huevo dura 7,8 días y mide 0,34x0,21mm; la larva presenta 4 instares y dura 35,7 días, variando de medidas entre 1 o y 4 o instar de 0,09 a 0,65 mm de diámetro de encéfalo ; la pupa dura 14,3 días y mide 6,7mmx1,1mm ; el adulto dura 7,5 días y mide 13,43 mm de expansión alar. Presenta enemigos naturales, familias Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, y géneros Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp . , Hipodamia sp., y Zelus spp. Las mejores épocas de control ocurren cuando la fenología de la tara est á entre R3.1 a R4 y R3.3 a R6.

  10. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain-mediated induced systemic resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) through defense-related enzymes against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Morang, P; Deka, M; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-09-01

    Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. In this regard, individual application of two strains of Pseudomonas, RRLJ 134 and RRLJ 04, exhibited development of induced systemic resistance in tea plants against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot under split root experiments. The experimental findings also confirmed that the cuttings treated with fungal test pathogen and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains survived longer as compared with pathogen-alone-treated cuttings. The enzyme level studies revealed that the presence of PGPR strains reduced the viscosity loss of cellulose and pectin by both the pathogens to a significant level. The activity of defense-related enzymes like L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded higher in tea cuttings treated with PGPR strains in presence of pathogen. Crude bioactive metabolites isolated from these strains also showed in vitro antagonism against the test pathogens besides reducing the number of diseased plants under gnotobiotic conditions. These findings confirm the utilization of these two strains for induction of systemic resistance against two major root diseases in tea plants under plantation conditions.

  11. Antioxidant Capacity of Polyphenol Extracts from Different Parts of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze%补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳华; 张婧; 黄慧; 陈莺莺; 李均

    2013-01-01

    采用多种体外评价体系研究了补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力,结果表明:在4种不同的检测体系中,补血草根、根茎、叶和花的多酚提取物表现出不同的抗氧化能力水平.还原力从大至小依次为根>根茎>叶>花;FRAP值和TEAC值大小顺序依次分别为根>根茎≈叶>花,根≈根茎≈叶>花;而对β-胡萝卜素-亚油酸漂白的抑制作用大小为花>叶>根>根茎.光谱分析显示,根、根茎和叶提取物及花提取物的主要组分分别为原花色素类和黄酮类.在不同评价体系中,补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力与原花色素含量(R2 =0.5450~0.9201),与黄酮含量(R2 =0.7764~0.9993)均呈显著正相关.可见,补血草多酚提取物具有很强的体外抗氧化能力,且活性强弱与其原花色素和黄酮含量的高低密切相关.%The antioxidant capacities of polyphenol extracts from different parts of Limonium sinense were evaluated by several in vitro systems of assay. The result showed that the polyphenol ex tracts from different parts had different levels of antioxidant capacity in the four systems tested. The reducing power of polyphenol extracts from different parts was in the order of root > rhizome > leaf > flower, the ranking order of the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power ( FRAP) value and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity ( TEAC) value was root > rhizome≈leaf > flower, root ≈ rhizome ≈ leaf >flower, respectively, while the β- carotene-linoleate bleaching inhibition was flower > leaf > root > rhizome. Spectrum displayed that the main constituents in polyphenol extracts from root, rhi zome and leaf, and flower was proanthocyanin and flavonoid, respectively. Linear correlation be tween antioxidant capacities of various parts in different assays and proanthocyanin content (R2 = 0. 545 0 ~ 0. 920 1) , and total flavonoid (R2 = 0. 776 4 ~ 0. 999 3) was observed. Therefore, it could be concluded that polyphenol extracts from different parts of L. sinense have strong antioxidant activity in vitro, in which, high content of proanthocyanin and total flavonoid in polyphenol extracts closely correlates with the antioxidant activity in different parts.

  12. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianming Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Africa is one of the key centres of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries in Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (HS estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica respectively, as well as an admixed mosaic group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centres corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK. Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centres, TRFCA and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study represents the first step towards effective utilization of differently inherited molecular markers for exploring the breeding status of African tea. The findings here will be important for planning the exploration, utilization, and conservation of tea germplasm for future breeding efforts in Africa.

  13. 茶树花青素还原酶的酶学特性研究%Research on Enzymatic Characteristics of Anthocyanin Reductase of Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琴; 赵磊; 刘亚军; 刘莉; 王云生; 高丽萍; 夏涛

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of proanthocyanidins(PAs), which catalyzes anthocyanidins into the corresponding 2, 3-cis-flavan-3-ols. For researching enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme, this study was carried out to express and purify the protein by prokaryotic expression and Cobalt ion affinity column purification. The optimal conditions of CsANR1 were observed at 40℃ and pH 6.5. The more substrate preference of CsANR1 was showed on cyanidin over delphinidin. Moreover, Cu2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Hg2+inhibited the enzyme activity and the enzyme activity decreased 50% after storing 15 days.%  茶树花青素还原酶(CsANR)作为原花青素生物合成途径中的关键酶,催化花青素为相应的2,3-顺式-黄烷-3-醇。为了研究该酶的酶学特性,本文采用原核表达及钴离子亲和柱纯化技术,表达并纯化出目的蛋白;重点对 CsANR1酶学特性进行研究分析。结果表明,CsANR1的最适反应温度为40℃,最适 pH 值为6.5;对底物矢车菊色素的亲和力高于飞燕草色素。Cu2+、Co2+、Fe2+、Mn2+、Zn2+和 Hg2+等金属离子对酶有抑制作用,存放15 d 后酶活下降50%。

  14. A Simple1 and Effective Method for Extracting Total RNA from Different Organs of Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]%茶树不同器官组织总RNA提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬青; 王云生; 孙美莲; 单育; 骆洋; 韦朝领; 高丽萍; 夏涛

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining high quality total RNA is an important prerequisite for studying genomics and functional genomics of tea plant. It is hard to extract high quality total RNA from tea due to the interference of RNase, and polyphenols. Aiming at the drawbacks in extracting method for total RNA of tea plant,a comparative study was carried out to determine material dosage, extracting buffer, protein extracting solution,precipitating reagent for extracting total RNA, in this paper. The simple CTAB-LiCl method was established, which was a simple and effective method for extracting total RNA from different organs of tea plant. The differences among the improved Tri-Reagent method, the improved CTAB method and the simple CTAB-LiC1 method were comparably investigated. The results of spectrophotometry testing and agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the simple CTAB-LiC1 method was suitable for extracting high yield and high quality total RNA from tea organs. The intensity ratio of 28 S and 18 S rRNA bands was 2:1, the absorbance ratios of A260 to A280 were about 2.0, the absorbance ratios of A260 to A230 were up to 2.0, and the yield of total RNA ranged from 290.61 μg/g to 532.44 μg/g fresh weight. This method is good for extracting total RNA from different tea organs with its simple, efficient, high extracting rate and low cost. The results of RT-PCR and cDNA-AFLP analysis also revealed that the simple CTAB-LiC1 method could obtain high quality total RNA from different tea organs,%从茶树组织中提取高质量的总RNA,是开展茶树基因组学、功能基因组学研究的重要前提,面RNase、多酚类物质严重干扰茶树总RNA的分离提取.鉴于茶树组织总RNA提取过程难易不一、总RNA提取质量良莠不齐的现状,现对材料用量、提取液、DNA和蛋白质抽提液、RNA沉淀试剂、多酚氧化抑制剂等进行了比较研究,建立了一种适合茶树各器官组织总RNA提取的简单高效的方法(简易CTAB-LiCl法),并与实验室常用的改良Tri-Reagent法、改良CTAB法进行了比较.核酸定量和琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测结果显示,简易CTAB-LiCl法从茶树各器官组织中提取到的总RNA质量高、得率高.总RNA的得率是改良CTAB法的1.6-5倍.因此,简易CTAB-LiCl法具有效率高、适用范围广,且操作简单、实验成本低的特点.RT-PCR和cDNA-AFLP实验表明,提取的总RNA能够用于后续的分子生物学研究.

  15. Determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras comerciais de chás verde e preto - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.6233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O chá de Camellia sinensis é rico em compostos fenólicos antioxidantes, responsáveis por efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as determinações da concentração de fenóis totais e flavonoides de sete amostras comerciais dos chás preto e verde. Os teores de fenóis totais variaram de 4,80 a 26,60 mg de pirogalol g-1 de amostra e os de flavonoides, de 0,46 a 1,10 mg de quercetina g-1 de amostra. A análise anatômica do conteúdo das amostras permitiu caracterizar a autenticidade dos produtos, observando-se os marcadores anatômicos típicos da espécie (estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio e esclereides.

  16. Produção de biomassa no corte raso em plantio de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze de 27 anos de idade em Quedas do Iguaçu, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted in a 27-year-old Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Quedas do Iguaçu (PR county, aimed to estimate tree components, understory and accumulated litter biomasses. Biomass was estimated through regression equation adjustments, with 21 trees felled, distributed among 7 diametric classes, and with litter and understory based on known sample unit areas. Total stand biomass was 241.92 Mg ha-1, with 82.2% composed of Araucaria angustifolia, 9.6% composed of understory and 8.2% composed by litter. Considering only Araucaria angustifolia, the biomass was of 198.62 Mg ha-1, composed of wood (51.5%, bark (14.7%, roots (13.0%, lives branches (11.8%, aciculated branches (6.6% and dead branches (0.5%. Relative biomass production for the wood component may be low, when compared to other forest species, mainly due to the high allocation in the bark component.

  17. Differentially Expression of Tual, a Tubulin-encoding Gene,during Flowering of Tea Plant Camellia sinensis(L.)O.Kuntze Using cDNA Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Ping FANG; Chang-Jun JIANG; Mei YU; Ai-Hua YE; Zhao-Xia WANG

    2006-01-01

    The complementary DNA (cDNA) amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was used to isolate transcript-derived fragments corresponding to genes involved in the flowering of tea plant. Comparative sequence analysis of an approximately 300 bp differential fragment amplified by primer combination E11M11 revealed 80%-84% similarity to the corresponding part of an α-tubulin gene of other species. The complete cDNA sequence of this α-tubulin was cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique; its full length is 1537 bp and contains an open reading frame of 450 amino acid residues with two Nglycosylation sites and four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. The deduced amino acid sequences did show significant homology to the α-tubulin from other plants that has been reported to be a pollen-specific protein and could be correlated with plant cytoplasm-nucleus-interacted male sterility. We named this complete cDNA Tual. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence data of Tual have been recorded in the GenBank sequence database with the accession No. DQ340766. This Tual gene was cloned into the pET-32a expression system and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21trxB(DE3). The molecular weight of expressed protein was deduced to be approximately 49 kDa. Western blot analysis was used to identify the temporal expression of Tual in tea plant. Further studies of the effect of Tual protein on pollen tube growth indicated the Tual solution obviously promoted the growth of tea pollen tube.

  18. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  19. Typification of Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer-Gallego, P. Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A lectotype and an epitype are here designated for Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, an endemic taxon from the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, which is currently named Limonium dichotomum (Cav. KuntzeSe designan un lectótipo y un epítipo para Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, un taxon endémico del centro de la península Ibérica, actualmente denominado Limonium dichotomum (Cav. Kuntze.

  20. Biodeterioração, anatomia do lenho e análise de risco de queda de árvores de tipuana, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) O. Kuntze, nos passeios públicos da cidade de São Paulo, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Brazolin

    2009-01-01

    Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: avaliar o processo de biodeterioração do lenho das árvores de tipuana na cidade de São Paulo e relacionar as alterações da sua estrutura anatômica e propriedades físico-mecânicas com o seu risco de queda. Nos passeios públicos de regiões selecionadas da cidade, 1109 árvores de tipuana foram caracterizadas quanto às condições de entorno, estado geral, variáveis dendrométricas, biodeterioração externa e interna e o risco de queda, estimado com modelo de ...

  1. Prospeção da diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em 2 espécies agrícolas (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vicia faba L.) e 2 espécies nativas (Teline maderensis Webb & Berthel e Genista tenera (Jacq. Ex Murray) Kuntze) da Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Cristina Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Aplicada, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 O Filo Glomeromycota compreende um grupo de fungos que se considera no geral serem biotróficos obrigatórios e que se associam a cerca de 80% das plantas. O fungo e a planta formam uma associação simbiótica conhecida como micorriza arbuscular. Desta associação, o fungo absorve entre 5 a 20% do carbono fotossintetizado pela planta e por outro lado a planta pode beneficiar do aumento da absorção de n...

  2. Molecular Cloning and Expression of CaM Family Gene CsCaMs Under Cold Stress in Tea Plant[Camellia sinensis (L.) O.Kuntze]%茶树钙调素基因CsCaMs的克隆及其低温胁迫下的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉婷; 钱文俊; 王玉春; 曹红利; 王璐; 郝心愿; 王新超; 杨亚军

    2016-01-01

    钙调素(CaM)是植物钙离子信号通道的主要参与者,参与低温胁迫下多种植物的抗寒生理作用.本研究根据钙调素基因相关表达序列标签(EST)序列,借助RACE-PCR技术,获得CsCaM1和CsCaM2两条cDNA全长序列,GenBank登录号分别为KT238971和KT238972,长度分别为693 bp和841 bp,均包含450 bp的完整开放阅读框(ORF),编码149个氨基酸,两条氨基酸序列仅一个氨基酸有差异,且均含有4个植物CaM家族的共同特征手型结构EF (EF-hand).采用实时荧光定量PCR(qRT-PCR)分析CsCaMs在茶树低温胁迫下各种处理中的表达模式.结果表明,CsCaMs无组织表达特异性,低温胁迫处理和CaCl2均能诱导CsCaMs的表达,而钙调素拮抗剂W7与钙离子通道抑制剂LaCl3则会抑制其表达.本研究结果对阐明茶树抗寒性的分子机理有一定理论意义,为茶树的抗寒性育种提供参考.

  3. Prospeção da diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em 2 espécies agrícolas (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vicia faba L.) e 2 espécies nativas (Teline maderensis Webb & Berthel e Genista tenera (Jacq. Ex Murray) Kuntze) da Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Cristina Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Aplicada, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 O Filo Glomeromycota compreende um grupo de fungos que se considera no geral serem biotróficos obrigatórios e que se associam a cerca de 80% das plantas. O fungo e a planta formam uma associação simbiótica conhecida como micorriza arbuscular. Desta associação, o fungo absorve entre 5 a 20% do carbono fotossintetizado pela planta e por outro lado a planta pode beneficiar do aumento da absorção de n...

  4. Isolation of Endophytic Fungi from Limonium bicolor (Bge.)Kuntze and Their Microbial Inhibition Activities%药用植物二色补血草内生真菌分离及其抑菌活性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕江涛; 潘润霞; 黄盼盼; 吕雯; 关晓庆

    2012-01-01

    The endophytic fungi were isolated from root,stem and leaf of the host by tissue inoculation culture and five pathogenic fungi and four bacteria strains used as targeting microbes to test microbial inhibition activity by agar plate antagonistic action and modified agar gel diffusion methods. The results indicated that: (1)Eighteen fungal endophytic strains were isolated from the host. Most of them came from leaf,then root and stem,and the isolated strains attribute to four genera,two families,and two orders based on morphological characteristics. (2)For the isolated strains,ten of them were found to have some microbial inhibition activities against two or more pathogenic fungi,making up 55. 6% of the total isolates,and eight isolated fungi strains showed inhibition activities against one or more bacteria, respectively, reaching up to 44. 4% of the total isolates in number. The strain LBEFL001 and LBEFL006 had evident antifungal activities against 5 pathogenic fungal strains. They ascribed to Aspergillus sp. and Penicilium sp. individually. The strain LBEFR006 and LBEFS002 showed evident antibacterial activities to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , respectively. They both ascribed to Fusidium sp.. The strain LBEFL004 expressed evident antibacterial activities to Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus, belonging to Aspergillus sp. . It was found that the medicinal plant Limonium bicolor had relatively abundant fungal endophytic resource, and the isolatded endophytic fungi had evident inhibition activities against plant pathogens and showed relatively broad spectrum,and meanwhile the isolates as a whole had a certain of selectivity for bacterial inhibition, and inclined to be more antagonistic to S. aureus in general.%对药用植物二色补血草内生真菌进行分离,以番茄灰霉病菌、黄瓜枯萎病菌、枸杞黑果病菌、黄瓜立枯病菌、小麦全蚀病菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌为靶标菌,采用对峙法和改进的菌块法进行抗菌活性初步筛选.结果表明:(1)从二色补血草根、茎、叶组织器官中分离出18株内生真菌,其中以叶部最多,根部和茎部次之;经形态学初步鉴定归于2目,2科,4属.(2)有10株内生真菌对2种或多种植物病原真菌有不同程度的抑制作用,占分离菌株总数的55.6%;8株内生真菌对1种或多种供试细菌具有不同程度的抑制作用,占分离菌株总数的44.4%;菌株LBEFL001和LBEFL006分别对5种供试真菌具有明显抑制作用,属于曲霉属和青霉属;菌株LBEFR006、LBEFS002分别对金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌2种供试细菌具有明显抑制作用,属于梭孢霉属;菌株LBEFL004对枯草芽胞杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌2种供试细菌具有明显抑制作用,属于曲霉属.研究发现,二色补血草具有较为丰富的内生真菌资源,对植物病原真菌具有明显的抑菌活性,且抑菌范围较宽;对病原细菌抑制作用具有一定的选择性,总体上对金黄色葡萄球菌抑制作用明显.

  5. Genetic structure and diversity within and among six populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-04-24

    Apr 24, 2010 ... positive correlation between molecular genetic variation and actual population size. ... Key words: Capparis decidua, Tandhab, Assos, Population size, RAPD markers, Genetic diversity. .... polymorphism in some population, and were monomorphic ... highly informative and produced 152 bands with an ...

  6. Freezing tolerance and the histology of recovering nodes in St. Augustinegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Augustinegrass [Stenataphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] is a coarse-textured turfgrass commonly utilized for its excellent shade tolerance. However, inferior cold tolerance in comparison to other warm-season grasses limits its range primarily to the southeastern U. S., The objectives of this stu...

  7. Isolation and characterization of the genomic region from Drosophila kuntzei containing the Adh and Adhr genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppentocht, JE; van Delden, W; van de Zande, L

    2002-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the Adh and Adhr genes of Drosophila kuntzei were derived from combined overlapping sequences of clones isolated from a genomic library and from cloned PCR and inverse-PCR fragments. Only a proximal promoter was detected upstream of the Adh gene, indicating that D. kuntze

  8. Dates of Botanical Publications 1788-1792

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, F.A.

    1963-01-01

    Questions of priority often necessitate a search for precise dates of publication. Much research of this kind has already been done, for instance by Britten and Woodward in their “Bibliographical notes” published in the Journal of Botany, by O. Kuntze in his Revisio generum plantarum, by W. T. Stear

  9. Identification of the varietal origin of loose leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...

  10. Expert Assessment of Stigmergy: A Report for the Department of National Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Inspiration for optimization from social insect behaviour. Nature, 406:39-42, July 2000. [13] Eric Bonabeau, Sylvain Guerin, Dominique Snyers, Pascale Kuntz...February 2002. [107] Vitorino Ramos, Fernando Muge, and Pedro Pina . Self-organized data and image retrieval as a consequence of inter-dynamic synergistic

  11. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 4, De bastaarden van het Dryopteris spinulosa-complex in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segal, S.

    1971-01-01

    Hybrids of the Dryopteris spinulosa complex in the Netherlands Kuntze ex Druce (= D. carthusiana X D. cristata) and D. x deweveri Dryopteris x uliginosa (Joh. Jansen) J. & W. ( = D. carthusiana X D. dilatata) have been recorded from several places in the Netherlands. Fern hybrids, generally speaking

  12. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Response to Organic Infusions from Common Flora of Suburban Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the oviposition response of Aedes albopictus to six organic infusions. Laboratory and field placed ovitraps baited with water oak (Quercus nigra L.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill) and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze), as well as two-species mixture...

  13. Iridoid glycosides from Alonsoa meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Lamberto; Serafini, Mauro; Foddai, Sebastiano; Ventrone, Antonio; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    A new iridoid glucoside has been isolated from the Chilean native Alonsoa meridionalis (L.f.) Kuntze. Its structure has been assigned as 6'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-O-acetylharpagide (1) by using spectroscopic methods. Harpagoside (2), laterioside (3) and verbascoside (4) were also identified.

  14. Notes on some fungi of Michigan—I. ‘Cyhellaceae’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Derek A.

    1964-01-01

    This paper is based largely on collections made by the author in Michigan, U.S.A. The genera represented among these collections are Flagelloscypha Donk (with 1 species), Lachnella Fr. emend. Donk (1), Cyphellopsis Donk (1), Merismodes Earle (1), Henningsomyces O. Kuntze (1), Calathella Reid, gen. n

  15. Breeding of New Tea Cultivar Camellia sinensis cv.E-Cha No.11%茶树新品种鄂茶11选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵彩云; 贾尚智; 金孝芳; 陈勋; 石亚亚; 毛迎新

    2011-01-01

    A new tea variety Camellia sinensis(L.) 0. Kuntze cv. E-Cha No.ll (Original code 20-3-2) was derived from the natural crossing progenies of Camellia sinensis (L.) 0. Kuntze cv. Longjing No.43 by means of individual selection, vegetative propagation and variety comparative test. The results showed that it belonged to an early-sprouting variety, and its sprouting period was two days earlier than C. Sinensis (L.) 0. Kuntze cv. Fuding Dabaicha (control). In addition, C. Sinensis (L.) 0. Kuntze cv. E -Cha No. 11 had strong flushing ability, good shoot tenderness and growth vigor. The yield was increased by 72.1% compaired with the control. The content of amino acid was 4.1%. It had good quality of green tea manufacturing, high transplanting survival rate and strong resistance.%以龙井43[ Camellia sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze cv.Longjing No.43]自然杂交后代为育种材料,采用单株选择、无性繁殖、品比试验方法育成了茶树新品种鄂茶11[C.sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze cv.E-Cha No.11,原代号20-3-2],经多年的品比鉴定及区域试种,结果表明,该品种属早生种,春茶1芽1叶期比对照品种福鼎大白茶[C.sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze cv.Fuding Dabaicha]早2d,育芽能力强、持嫩性较强,生长势旺,鲜叶产量比对照品种增产72.1%,氨基酸含量为4.1%,制绿茶品质优良;移栽成活率高抗性强.

  16. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay; Gayatri Jaiswal; Shoeb Ahmad; Leena Khanna; Subhash Chand Jain

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2), triacontanol (CDS3), and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8) which have ...

  17. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  18. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species.

  19. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DE VARIÁVEIS AMBIENTAIS SOBRE O PADRÃO ESTRUTURAL E FLORÍSTICO DO COMPONENTE ARBÓREO, EM UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA MONTANA EM LAGES, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2012-01-01

    to a total basal area of 36.45 m2, distributed in 37 botanical families, 63 genera and 92 species. The three species with the highest values of VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand and Jacaranda puberula Cham. The variables that showed the higher correlation with the tree component structure and floristic composition were the pH, the plot highest declivity and the Mg content.

  1. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  2. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, a new species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayajirao Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  3. Smodirignium dermatitis: the intercellular secretory canals of the aerial axis and their relationship to this toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Smodingium argutum E. Mey. ex Sond., closely related to the American poison-ivy,  Toxicodendron radicans (L. Kuntze, is the only known indigenous member of the Anacardiaceae in South Africa causing dermatitis. The sap of the intercellular secretory canals of the stem, petiole and leaf of both plants, is responsible for this toxicity. These secretary canals are described, illustrated and compared for both species, and their formation and the function of the canals and sap, are briefly discussed.

  4. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

    OpenAIRE

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze) k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10,...

  5. [Urology of the XIX century in the life of a famous painter. Federico de Madrazo and his medical, historic, and artistic environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cuerpo, E

    1996-10-01

    The life Federico de Madrazo y Kuntz, a prominent figure in the history of Spanish Art, is briefly described, highlighting some biographical information about the painter, his contemporaries (Francisco de Goya, whose 250 th anniversary is being celebrated this year; Juan de Villanueva, the architect who designed the Prado Museum), the famous physicians of his paintings, doctors and urologists who treated him for different ailments, one of which was lithiasis.

  6. Novel Application of ALMANAC: Modelling a Functional Group, Exotic Warm-season Perennial Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kiniry, J. R.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Venuto, B. C. (deceased); Burson, B. L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy of the ALMANAC model in simulating leaf canopy growth and biomass production of a plant functional group, specifically “exotic warm-season perennial grasses,” represented by buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link] and “Old World Bluestems” (Bothriochloa Kuntze, Capillipedium Stapf, and Dichanthium Willemet). Study Design: Leaf area index (LAI) over the growing season, the light extinction coefficient (k) for Beer's Law, and the rad...

  7. Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D

    1987-01-01

    In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose.

  8. A Brief overview of some natural molluscicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineda Dahane-Rouissat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, there are three active schistosome centers (Schistosoma haematobium carried by the intermediate host (Bulinus forskalii and Bulinus truncatus in the Saharan oasis of Djanet region, Beni Abbes and Biskra and north in the area of Algiers (Mitidja, Reghaia, Gué of Constantine finally near Oran (Jdioua. This bref reviews on natural molluscicides give and presents preliminary research of a molluscicidal screening programme carried out on some Algerian Saharan molluscicidal plants: Anvillea radiata, Artemisia herba alba Asso, Bubonium gravealens, Launaea nudicaulis, Warionea saharea [Asteraceae] ; Capparis spinosa L. [Capparidaceae]; Acacia raddiana [Fabaceae] et Limoniastrum Feei [Plumbagiaceae].

  9. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Shikha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.

  10. Floristic composition of Peruvian plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Romo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Through of the analysis of the floristic composition of 16 plots of half an hectare in 12 sites where the Phyto-toma raimondii, Peruvian plantcutter exists, we found that richness and diversity of plants are not related to the abundance of the bird, neither the abundance of any of the 7 species used as food or for nestting, except the algarrobo (Prosopis pallida. The most frequent species in the 12 sites were algarroboProsopis pallida(92% of the sites, vichayoCapparis ovalifolia(67%, canutilloGrabowskia boerhaviifolia(58%, sapoteCapparis scabrida(58% and realengoMaytenus octogona(25%. Besides algarrobo, canutillo seem to be a key species because in the plots where only three species occurred, those two were present. In the plots where canutillo was present, realengo did not more than expected statistically. It is alarming the decrease and few places or habitats for the occurrence and reproduction of the Peruvian plantcutter, a species considered in danger of extinction.

  11. Caracterização do perfil biotecnológico de Dilsea carnosa. Ensaios de cultivo em IMTA, Análise do conteúdo coloidal, Quantificação de potencial bioativo

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, João Filipe Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia Vegetal, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra. No presente trabalho são apresentados estudos de interesse biotecnológico na macroalga laminar vermelha (filo Rhodophyta) da família Dumontiaceae, Dilsea carnosa (Schmidel) Kuntze. D. carnosa é uma alga do Atlântico Norte, esparsa na Europa Central e do Norte. Está presente ao longo da costa Centro e Norte Portu...

  12. Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.

  13. Distribución temporal y espacial del polen de Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) en Misiones, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Fabiana; Alarcón, Pamela Cecilia; Fassola, Hugo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze es una especie nativa de alto valor comercial que ha sido explotada indiscriminadamente; actualmente está en peligro crítico. Este trabajo inicia un programa de investigación aerobiológica sobre su fenología reproductiva en Misiones (Argentina). Se utilizaron muestreadores volumétricos continuos: uno fijo y otro portátil, variando la ubicación de este último entre 6 puntos de muestreo en dirección de los vientos predominantes. El período principal de po...

  14. Chemical composition of Tipuana tipu, a source for tropical honey bee products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Pereira, Alberto; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2003-01-01

    Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is a tree from the leguminosae family (Papilionoideae) indigenous in Argentina and extensively used in urbanism, mainly in Southern Brazil. The epicuticular waxes of leaves and branch, and flower surface were studied by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography. Several compounds were characterized, among which the aliphatic alcohols were predominant in branch, leaves and receptacle. Alkanes were predominant only in the petals and the aliphatic acids were predominant in stamen. In branches and leaf epicuticular surfaces, six long chain wax esters series were characterized, as well as lupeol and b-amyrin hexadecanoates.

  15. Characterization of a mineral coating of the plant Dyerophytum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Anatoly; Melghit, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    The mineral coating of Dyerophytum indicum Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) was analyzed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. Its composition was found to be similar to those of the carbonate mixtures isolated from rotting cacti and speleothems. The coating consisted of three major phases (monohydrocalcite, nesquehonite, and calcite), a minor phase of hydromagnesite, and traces of silica and sylvite. This is the first time that the occurrence of monohydrocalcite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite in a living higher plant has been reported. A possible mechanism of the formation of the coating is also discussed.

  16. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., and Staelia galioides DC. The pollen grains were acetolysed to and their morphological characters were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. They varied in size from small to large; were suboblate to subprolate; inaperturate (P. rigida, colpate and colporate in the remaining species, with an aperture number that varied from three to several. The exines were microreticulate in most species, reticulate (C. hirsutum, C. rigida and P. rigida, bireticulate (D. fruticosa, microechinate-perforated (C. hexandra, echinate-granulate (R. grandiflora, echinate-granulate-perforate (D. apiculata and D. teres, and psilate (P. asparagoides. Based on the results, palynological data can be used to distinguish these species.Rubiaceae foi representada na flora de Brejinho das Ametistas por dezesseis espécies, as quais foram tratadas palinologicamente no presente estudo: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., Staelia galioides

  17. Preparation and Identification of the Polyclonal Antibody Against Plant Sweet Protein Mabinlin Ⅱ%植物甜蛋白马宾灵(MabinlinⅡ)多克隆抗体的制备与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾文亮; 夏启玉; 姚晶; 胡新文; 郭建春

    2012-01-01

    马宾灵(MabinlinⅡ)是中国所特有的植物马槟榔种子中的甜味蛋白,将其作为新型甜味剂有着广阔的市场前景.为了给重组马宾灵的基因工程应用提供可靠的蛋白质检测与鉴定的抗体,通过离子交换法从马槟榔(Capparis masaikai Lévl)种子中分离纯化马宾灵,将其作为抗原免疫新西兰大白兔,收集免疫后血清经抗原亲和纯化制备马宾灵多克隆抗体.结果表明,制备的马宾灵多克隆抗体经ELISA检测效价比达到1:256000,Western-blot检测表明其具有良好的反应性和特异性.本研究制备的马宾灵多克隆抗体可用于马宾灵在不同生物反应器中表达的检测,为马宾灵的基因工程研究提供灵敏可靠的免疫学鉴定.%The plant sweet protein Mabinlin Ⅱ is found rich in mature seeds of Capparis masaikai Levl which is particular to China and may have wide application prospects in food sweeteners industry. In this study, in order to provide a reliable testing antibody for engineering applications of recombinant Mabinlin Ⅱ, Mabinlin Ⅱ was separated and purified from the mature seeds of Capparis masaikai Levl by ion exchange chromatography. The purified protein was used as antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits to prepare polyclonal antibody against the Mabinlin Ⅱ protein. The result of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbnent Assay (ELISA) showed that the titer of the polyclonal antibody to purified Mabinlin Ⅱ was 1:256000, and the polyclonal antibody against the purified Mabinlin E also had highly reactivity and specialty in western blot analysis. The polyclonal antibody against Mabinlin II could be used for detecting the protein amounts of Mabinlin Ⅱ expressed in various bioreactors, which may serve sensitive and reliable methods for immunology detection in genetic engineering research of Mabinlin Ⅱ .

  18. SPORISORIUM POLLINIANUM,A SMUT SPECIES NEW TO CHINA%黄金茅孢堆黑粉菌新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林

    2000-01-01

    Sporisorium pollinianum(Zundel)Vhnky & Shivas on Eulalia quadrinervis(Hack.)Kuntze is new to China,which was collected from Sichuan province.%寄生在四脉金茅[Eulalia quadrinervis(Hack.)Kuntze]植物上的黄金茅孢堆黑粉菌(Sporisorium pollinianum(Zundel)Vanky & Shivas)新记录种,其孢子堆生在全部小穗中,外有白色包被包围.中轴单个,弯曲.孢子团黑褐色,半粘结.黑粉孢子球形,近球形,卵圆形或椭圆形,10~12.5×8.5~10.51μm,黄褐色;壁厚均匀,0.5~0.8μm,有刺或瘤.不育细胞球形,近球形,卵圆形或椭圆形,10~20×8.5~16.5μm,无色,光滑.

  19. Five New Records of Orchidaceae from Hainan, China%海南兰科植物新记录5种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田怀珍; 董全英; 李星霖

    2012-01-01

    Five orchid species:Aphyllorchis caudata Rolfe ex Downie,Didymoplexis vietnamica Ormerod,Pinalia amica (H.G.Reichenbach) Kuntze,Zeuxine agyokuma Fukuyama and Z.sakagutii Tuyama.are newly recorded from Hainan Island.Aphyllorchis caudata and Didymoplexis vietnamica are saprophytic,Pinalia amica is epiphytic and Zeuxine agyokuana and Z.sakagutii are terrestrial orchids.All specimens are deposited at the Herbarium of East China Normal University (HSNU).%报道了5个海南兰科植物新记录种:尾萼无叶兰(Aphyllorchis cuadata Rolfe ex Downie)、中越双唇兰(Didymoplexis vietnamica Ormerod)、粗茎苹兰[Pinalia amica(H.G.Reichenbach)Kuntze]、绿叶线柱兰(Zeuxine agyokuana Fukuyama)和黄唇线柱兰(Z.sakagutii Tuyama.).其中尾萼无叶兰和中越双唇兰为腐生兰,粗茎苹兰为附生兰,绿叶线柱兰与黄唇线柱兰为地生种类.凭证标本均保存于华东师范大学生物学系植物标本馆(HSNU).

  20. Musgos da Gruta de Mirassol, São Paulo Mosses from the Gruta de Mirassol, São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yano

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Gruta de Mirassol foram encontradas 27 espécies de musgos pertencentes a 23 gêneros de 19 famílias. Racopilum tomentosum (Hedw. Brid., Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid. e Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. são as espécies mais abundantes. Brachymenium acuminatum Harv., Cyclodictyon varians (Sull. O. Kuntze, Entodontopsis leucostega (Brid. Buck & Ireland, Fissidens mollis Mitt., F. weirii Mitt., Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. e Trichosteleum fluviale (Mitt. Jaeg. estão sendo referidas pela primeira vez para o estado de São Paulo.Twenty-seven species of moss are described from the Gruta de Mirassol, State of São Paulo, Brazil; these are distributed among 23 genera and 19 families. Racopilum tomentosum (Hedw. Brid., Helicophyllum torquatum (Hook. Brid., and Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. are the most common species. Brachymenium acuminatum Harv., Cyclodictyon varians (Sull. O. Kuntze, Entodontopsis leucostega (Brid. Buck & Ireland, Fissidens mollis Mitt., F. weirii Mitt., and Hyophila involuta (Hook. Jaeg. & Sauerb. are cited for the firtst time from São Paulo State.

  1. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

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    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  2. Nutritional value of some non-conventional plant foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1992-07-01

    Thirteen non-conventional foods including fruits, leaves and grains consumed in various parts of the Indian subcontinent were analysed for their nutritional value. Khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria), Pinju (Capparis decidua) and Kachri (Cucumis species) contained considerable amounts of protein (15-18%). Kachri was rich in fat (13%). Bhakri (Tribulus terristris), Gullar (Ficus glomerata) and Peehl (Salvadora oleoides) were found to be rich sources of calcium; Gullar contained about 15 times the amount of calcium present in wheat. Phosphorus content of Santhi (Boernavia diffusa), Khejri beans, Bhakri, Pinju and Lehsora (Cordia dichotoma) were noticeable. Zinc was present in high amounts in Peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa) and Gullar; as was iron in Santhi and Bhakri and manganese in Santhi. Besides iron, zinc and calcium, Pinju contained appreciable amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin C. However, Santhi contained high amounts of oxalic acid.

  3. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

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    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  4. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

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    Jorge Ignacio del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimáticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronológicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimétricas del río Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatología en regiones tropicales.

  5. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera David Andrés

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimaticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronologicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimetricas del rio Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatologia en regiones tropicales.

  6. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  7. Etnoconhecimentos de Espécies Forrageiras no Semi-árido da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga, bioma with restricted occurrence to Brazil, is characterized by a xerophilous vegetation, with herb, shrub and tree components and high species diversity. The objective of this work was to study with participative forage species of the caatinga and establish a order of importance of the species as forage value at different altidudes. The collection of data was done through the use of questionnaires with rural workers of two ecoregion in Santa Luzia, Paraíba State: Borborema plateau and “sertaneja” Depression setentrional. The altitude affected the crude protein content of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poiret (jurema preta, Cnidoscollus phyllacanthus Muel. Arg. Pax et. K. Hoffm. (faveleira, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (catingueira, Capparis flexuosa L. (feijão bravo and Bauhinia cheilantha Bong. (mororó forage, was higher than the minimum demanded by ruminants in the dormant period.

  8. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

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    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  9. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

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    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  10. Kareel plant: A natural source of medicines and nutrients

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    Ravi K Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua or kareel is an indigenous medicinal plant of India having large biodiversity in different north-western states of India. The young flower bud and fruits are used to make pickles while caper berries are used as vegetable. Plant has its wider utility in traditional folk medicine and is used as ailments to relieve variety of pains or aches such as toothache, cough and asthma heal. Plant contains few important secondary metabolites such as quercetin which act as melanogenesis stimulator and also increase tyrosinase protein expression. Capparis sp. seeds contain lectin that exhibit potent anti HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition activity and also inhibits proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. It shows anti-rheumatic, anti-diabitic, anti-arthritis and anti-gout agent. C. decidua contains generous quantities of alkaloids, fatty acids, terpenes, vitamins, fibre and oils that show greater medicinal and nutritive value. It also contains saccharides, glycosides, flavonoids, volatile oils, sterols and steroids, which showed multiple pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, anti-fungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, anti-oxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anti-coagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction. Cadabicine an alkaloid that occurs in leaves shows anti-parasitic activity, while root bark and pulp are used to kill helminthes. Due to enzymatic inhibition plant extract shows the ability to control Leishmania major and L. infantum, L. donovani, L. braziliensis, Crithidia fasciculata and Herpetomonas muscarum infection. In the present review article both medicinal and nutraceutical properties of C decidua have been described in detail and special emphasis is given on its sustainable use of plant and its conservation in natural habitat.

  11. Separation and Identification of Fatty Acid in the Seed Oils of Two New Species of Celosia Cristata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Debao; WANG Haifeng

    2002-01-01

    The seed oils of two new species of Celosia cristata L., C. Argentea L. Var. Crispa Kuntze (Yellow flower) and C. Cristata L. Cv. Spicata ( Red flower), were extracted with organic solvent and the fatty acides (Fas) in seed oils were separated and identificated by gas chromatography (GC). They all contained 10 kinds of FA including 4 trace Fas, respectively. Two new Fas of odd number of carbons in the seed oils, pentadecanoic acid( C15:0) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1 ), were found. The compositions of main Fas in the seed oils were palmitic 20.61%, 23.50%; stearic 1.87 %; 2.39 %; oleic 20.77 %, 19.93% ;linoleic 51.39%, 45.99%; linolenic 1.54%, 1.86% and arachidonic 3.20%, 3.42%, respectively.

  12. Estresse luminoso em plântulas de jequitibá-rosa (Cariniana legalis, Lecythidaceae: monitoramento da capacidade de aclimatação fotossintética sob duas intensidades de luz

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    Tatiane de Oliveira Vieira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da capacidade de aclimatação e estabelecimento das espécies vegetais é importante para a implementação de programas de manejo e restauração ecológica de ecossistemas degradados. Estudos ecofisiológicos foram realizados (trocas gasosas, fluorescência da clorofila a e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos para avaliar o efeito da intensidade luminosa sobre a atividade e capacidade fotossintética de jequitibá-rosa (Cariniana legalis Mart. Kuntze. As respostas das plântulas submetidas à condição de pleno sol sugerem que a radiação direta pode ter sido um fator estressante para a espécie, afetando seu desempenho, embora tenha sido verificada aclimatação da capacidade fotossintética em função da maior intensidade luminosa.

  13. New Records of Lamiaceae from Guangxi,China%广西唇形科植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严克俭; 农云开; 杨平; 屈信成

    2015-01-01

    该文首次报道了唇形科5种植物在广西的新记录——簇序属(Craniotome Reichenb.)及簇序草[Craniotome furcata (Link) Kuntze]、西南水苏[Stachys kouyangensis (Vaniot) Dunn]、海南深红鸡脚参[Orthosiphon rubicundus (D.Don) Benth.var.hainanensis Sun ex C.Y.Wu]、黄花香薷[Elsholtzia flava(Benth.)Benth.]、滨海白绒草[Leucas chinensis (Retz.)R.Br.].引证标本均存放于广西中医药研究院标本馆(GXMI).

  14. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Jun; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Shan; Li, Sha; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Fang; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants.

  15. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos = Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. &Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologiautilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob

  16. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478 Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. & Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologia utilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H

  17. Registro de novos hospedeiros de Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Nota Científica. A register of new hosts of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae in the State of São Paulo (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Borges CONFORTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis éespécie nativa da América do Sul e é pragaprimária de espécies arbóreas exóticas e nativas.No município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo,durante pesquisa realizada nos anos de 2004,2005 e 2006, visando descobrir a causa damortalidade de árvores que compõem o dossel defragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual noBosque dos Jequitibás e na Mata Santa Genebra,foi coletado material associado a várias espéciesarbóreas ainda não registradas na literatura.Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S. F. Bl ake,Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong,Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br., Caesalpiniapluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporum undulatumVent., Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook Raf.,Mangifera indica L., Croton floribundus Spreng.,Croton piptocalyx Müll. Arg., Cariniana legalis(Mart. Kuntze, Luetzelburgia guaissaraToledo, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J. F.Macbr., Ficus benjamina L., Platypodium elegansVogel, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze,Machaerium stipitatum (DC. Vogel, Centrolobiumtomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Pachira aquaticaAubl., Inga cf. vera Willd. ssp. affinis (DC. T.D.Penn., são registradas pela primeira vez comohospedeiros de M. mutatus no stado de São Paulo,Brasil. Plantas hospedeiras referidas em bibliografiatambém são relacionadas.Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis isnative from South America and it is a primary pestof native and exotic trees. In the county ofCampinas, state of São Paulo, during researchcarried out in the years of 2004, 2005 and 2006aiming at to discover the cause of the mortality oftrees that compose the canopy of fragments ofSemideciduous Forest in the Bosque dos Jequitibásand Mata Santa Genebra, was collected materialassociated with some species still not recorded inthe literature. Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S.F. Bl ake, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.Morong, Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br.,Caesalpinia pluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporumundulatum Vent., Delonix

  18. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

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    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  19. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Tej K

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of saponins by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is reported. The solvent system was n-butanol:water:acetic acid (84:14:7). Detection of saponins on the TLC plates after development and air-drying was done by immersion in a suspension of sheep erythrocytes, followed by washing off the excess blood on the plate surface. Saponins appeared as white spots against a pink background. The protocol provided specific detection of saponins in the saponins enriched extracts from Aesculusindica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Silene inflata Sm., Sapindusmukorossi Gaertn., Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes, Asparagusadscendens Roxb., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Agave americana L., Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze. The protocol is convenient, inexpensive, does not require any corrosive chemicals and provides specific detection of saponins.

  20. Effects of intercropping with persimmon on the rhizosphere environment of tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Haiyan; LIU Zhongde; WANG Changrong; ZHONG Zhangcheng

    2006-01-01

    The rhizosphere environment of tea (Camelllia sinensis Kuntze) intercropped with persimmon (Diospyros kaki) differs from monocultures of tea.A trial was conducted to determine the effects of intercropping with persimmon on root exudates and soil nutrient condition of tea.Amino acid exuded in intercropping was three times higher than that in monoculture.Phenol,phenol/amino acid ration,dissolved sugar,and total organic acid were also lower in intercropping.The value of pH in soil was higher,and soil nutrient condition of rhizosphere,especially available nutrient,was not as well in intercropping as that in tea grown alone.While soil nutrient of non-rhizosphere was better than that in monoculture,tea quality and soil nutrient condition were better in intercropping ecosystem.

  1. Análise do histórico silvicultural de quatro espécies de uma floresta ombrófila mista com auxílio da dendrocronologia

    OpenAIRE

    Rondon Neto,Rubens Marques

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho desenvolvido em uma área de vegetação original de Floresta Ombrófíla Mista, em diversos estágios de regeneração, visa em seu contexto global analisar o histórico silvicultural e determinar a reação do crescimento em diâmetro e altura de árvores de quatro espécies nativas de importância comercial, frente a eventos ambientais passados, com o auxílio de técnicas dendrocronológicas. As espécies selecionadas foram: Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, Ocotea porosa (Nees & ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

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    Raquel Lourdes Faria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash. First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group. After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group. For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL. RESULTS: The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  3. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

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    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; AKISUE, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). Results The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Conclusions Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate. PMID:21986652

  5. Variações sazonais de aspectos fisiológicos de espécies da Caatinga Seazonal variations of physiological aspects of Caatinga species

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    Dilma M. de B. M. Trovão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de compreender as estratégias de sobrevivência utilizadas pelas espécies da Caatinga para se adaptarem às condições oferecidas pelo clima da região, avaliaram-se o potencial hídrico e a eficiencia quântica da fotossíntese obtida pela fluorescência das espécies: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis,Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp, Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigida, considerando-se dois períodos de observação: estiagem (1 e chuvoso (2, para se verificar os possíveis identificadores de estresse. Com relação ao potencial hídrico verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas entre as duas estações, porém o fato que chamou a atenção reside nos altos níveis do potencial hídrico, mesmo no período de estiagem que, caracteristicamente, provocaria o estresse hídrico em função da ausência de água no solo. Os dados de fluorescência revelaram ótimos estados nos aparatos fotossintéticos, não indicando condição de estresse. Concluiu-se que as estratégias de sobrevivência dessas espécies são altamente eficientes e resultam de uma alta complexidade evolutiva.With the purpose of understanding the survival strategies used by Caatinga species to face the weather conditions, the water potential and quantical photosynthetic efficiency of some species were studied. The data were obtained through the fluorescence of 11 species: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis, Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrine var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp., Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro, Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigidat. Two observation conditions of weather, the dry period and the wet one were studied, in which possible stress characteristics were verified. The study of the water potential presented statistical differences between

  6. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  7. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae

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    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2, triacontanol (CDS3, and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8 which have shown very low LD50 value in a range of 5.537–10.083 μg/mg. Similarly, one novel compound 6-(1-hydroxy-non-3-enyl-tetrahydropyran-2-one (CDF1 was isolated from flower extract that has shown an LD50 8.08 μg/gm. Repellent action of compounds was tested in a Y-shaped glass olfactometer in which CDF1 compounds have significantly repelled termites to the opposite arm. Besides this, C. decidua extracts have shown significant reduction (P<0.05 and 0.01 in termite infestation in garden saplings when it was coated on cotton tags and employed over tree trunks. Further, C. deciduas stem extract was used for wood seasoning, which gave very good results as test wood sticks have shown significantly (P<0.05 and 0.01 very low termite infestation.

  8. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: A review

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    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane. Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information regarding botanicals acting as alternative to chemical insecticide against sandflies assumes importance in the context of development of resistance to insecticides as well as to prevent environment from contamination. This review deals with some plants and their products having repellent and insecticidal effect to sandflies in India and abroad. Different methods of extraction and their bioassay on sandflies have been emphasized in the text. Various extracts of some plants like Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Solanum jasminoides (Solanaceae, Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae, Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae, Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae had shown repellent/insecticidal effect on sandflies. This review will be useful in conducting the research work to find out botanicals of Indian context having insecticidal effect on sandflies.

  9. Study of Herbal Medicine in Zirrah (Touz /Dashtestan/Bushehr province

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    Mohammad ali Ziraee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 23 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 131 medicinal plants belonging to 62 families were identified. Malva sylvestris, Zataria multiflora, Terminalia chebula, Cuminum cyminum, Foenicum vulgare, Olivera decumbens, Echium amoenum, Teucriuma polium, Cannabis sativa and Papaver somniferum had the highest cultural importance indices. Ducrosia anethifolia Bioss, Nigella sativa, Capparis spinosa and Urtica dioica had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynecological diseases and dermatological uses, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province are the same as Iran’s traditional medicine, but the people of this region use some of these plants for some diseases which are unique for this area. Thus, investigation about these plants should be initiated to discover novel drugs for clinical applications.

  10. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

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    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  11. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  12. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  13. In vitro efficacy of selected medicinal plants from Cholistan desert, Pakistan, against gastrointestinal helminths of sheep and goats

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    Muhammad Asif Raza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths are a major constraint to small ruminants in extensive husbandry systems of tropical regions. Yet, unavailability, high prices, side effects, and development of parasite resistance often limit the use of synthetic anthelmintics. Traditional medicinal plants might be an effective low-cost alternative. Therefore the in vitro anthelmintic activity of leaf extracts of the ligneous plants Capparis decidua, Salsola foetida, Suaeda fruticosa, Haloxylon salicornicum, and Haloxylon recurvum from Cholistan, Pakistan, was investigated against adult worms of Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris ovis, and Paramphistomum cervi. Various concentrations (from 7.8 to 500 mg dry matter ml^(−1 of three extracts (aqueous, methanol, and aqueous-methanol of each plant were tested at different time intervals for their anthelmintic activity via adult motility assay. Plant species (p<=0.01, extract type (p<=0.001, parasite species (p<=0.001, extract concentration (p<=0.001, time of exposure (p<=0.001 and their interactions (p<=0.001 affected the number of immobile or dead helminths. The 50% lethal concentration (LC_(50 values indicated that the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of C. decidua, H. recurvum, and H. salicornicum as well as the methanol extract of S. fruticosa have the potential to be developed into plant-based remedies against the studied helminths. Further studies are needed to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of these extracts, in order to develop effective, cheap and locally available anthelmintics for pastoralists in Cholistan and neighbouring desert regions.

  14. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  15. Study on preliminary mechanism of apoptosis in HepG-2 by CSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; MU Ke; WANG Wei; CUI Rong-tian; JI Yu-bin; ZOU Xiang

    2008-01-01

    t Objective To study on the mechanism of killing and apoptosis inducing effect of total alkaloid in the CSA(Capparis spinosa L. alkaloid, CSA)on human hepatoearcinoma cell Line HepG-2. Methods The killing effect of the CSA on human hepatoeareinoma cell Line HepG-2 was measured by MTT method. Morphological observation of the HepG-2 cells was completed by fluorescence microscope. The apoptosis indueing effect and changing of mitoehondria membrane potential of the CSA on the HepG-2 cells were measured by flow cytometry. In addition, effect of intraeellular Ca2+ level of the CSA on the HepG-2 cells was studied by laser confocal microscope. Results The CSA has obvious cytotoxicity on the HepG-2 and seems to be dose-dependent, and its IC50 value is 162.4 μg·mL-1. The HepG-2 cells have characteristic morphologic changes of apoptosis by the function of CSA, and the apoptosis percentage is higher than the natural one. The progress of cells cycle from S phase to G2 phase has been blocked, and the mitochondria membrane potential is markedly decreased, and the intraecllular Ca2+ level is increased by the function of CSA. Conclusions The CSA has obviously killing and apoptosis inducing effect on human hepatoearcinoma cell Line HepG-2 by the mechanism of decreasing the mitoehondria membrane potential and increasing the intracellular Ca2+ level.

  16. Topical Treatment of Dermatophytic Lesion on Mice (Mus musculus) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bindu; Kumar, Padma; Joshi, Suresh Chandra

    2011-06-01

    Antidermatophytic potential of three weed plants viz. Tridax procumbens L., Capparis decidua (forsk) Edgew and Lantana camara L. were explored and experimentally induced dermatophytic lesion was topically treated in mice. Microbroth dilution method was carried out for determination of MIC and MFC of different extracts of selected plants. In animal studies, mice were experimentally inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and infected animals were topically treated with 5 mg/g terbinafine and two concentrations, i.e., 5 and 10 mg/g of test extract ointment. Complete recovery from the infection was observed on 12th day of treatment for reference drug terbinafine (5 mg/g) and 10 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment whereas 5 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment showed complete cure on 16th day of treatment. Fungal burden was also calculated by culturing skin scrapings from infected animals of different groups. Test extract ointment successfully treated induced dermatophytosis in mice without any disease recurrence incidences, thereby indicating efficacy of test extract as an excellent topical antifungal agent for the cure of dermatophytosis.

  17. Drought Stress Response of Dry Forest Trees of the Brazilian Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R.; Worbes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Martin Worbes and Romulo Menezes In the frame of the "Tropi-Dry" network we studied drought response strategies of six tree species in a Caatinga forest at the Fazenda Tamandua near Patos in Paraiba, NE Brazil. We selected the tree species as representatives of the different phenological ecotypes: evergreen, deciduous and stem succulent. The deciduous group comprised N-fixing as well as non N-fixing Leguminosae. Over an entire vegetation period (dry and wet-season) we monitored their phenological behaviour, photosynthesis rates, stomata conductance and water potential, measured if leaves were present and we estimated seasonal variations in stable carbon and N15 content of the leaves. The major results are: Evergreen species (e.g. Capparis) may compensate low carbon-fixing rates in the wet season with a much longer vegetation period as the deciduous species. Stem succulents (Jatropha) do not fulfill the expectations of being high productive species under drought stress conditions, while the N-fixing Mimosa performed in particular at the end and the beginning of the dry period better than the rest of the investigated species. In general the results may help to understand different strategies of tree species in respect to extended dry periods of at least six months as in our study area and their role in carbon sequestration of tropical dry forests. The variety of observed strategies may contribute to the resilience of the ecosystem tropical dry forests.

  18. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

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    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  19. In vitro investigation of the potential health benefits of wild Mediterranean dietary plants as anti-obesity agents with α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Nicoletti, Marcello; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of digestive enzymes is one of the most widely studied mechanisms used to determine the potential efficacy of natural products as anti-obesity agents. In vitro studies reported here were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of formulations of edible plants from Italy on amylase and lipase by monitoring the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl caprilate and the hydrolysis of glycoside bonds in digestible carbohydrate foods. The formulation obtained from Capparis sicula exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 0.53 mg mL(-1) ) while the Borago officinalis formulation exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on α-amylase (IC50 = 31.61 µg mL(-1) ). In order to characterise the extracts, high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of the formulations was performed, revealing the predominance of (±)-catechin in Mentha aquatica formulation, rutin in C. sicula, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in Echium vulgare. The results obtained indicated that the extracts of C. sicula and B. officinalis could be good candidates for further studies to isolate pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibitors, respectively. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda.

  1. Prevalence Of Traditional Medications Through Native Floral Elements Among Tribal Communities Of Kachchh Arid Ecosystem, Gujarat, India

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    Ekta B Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This communication deals with the documentation of 38 medicinal plant species used for indigenous medications by local villagers such as pastoralists (Maldharis and farmers of Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR, Bhuj Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat, India. Traditional knowledge on medicinally important plant species has been recorded from tribal communities through semi-questionnaire survey using an open-ended questionnaire datasheets. The response from the people interviewed clearly indicated that most of the villagers were fully or partially dependent on the forest produce for their primary healthcare requirements as well as for curing chronic or acute disorders and ailments. Plant parts such as bark, flowers, fruits, gum, latex, leaves, roots, seeds, and spadix, were found to be used for the cure of bronchitis, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, fistula, gastric troubles, hypothermia, indigestion, piles, skin diseases, snake-bites, toothache, and ulcer. The most predominantly used 10 plant species in the area are Asparagus racemosus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis cartilaginea, Cassia auriculata, Commiphora wightii, Enicostema axillare, Fagonia schweienfurthii, Maytenus emerginata, Tinospora cordifolia, and Tribulus terrestris. An enumeration of these 38 medicinal plant species is presented; each species is cited with correct scientific names, vernacular names, ailments treated for, mode of preparation and dosages. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 184-201 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9221

  2. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

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    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  3. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-06-12

    The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 μg g(-1), chromium 0.15-1.27 μg g(-1), lead 0.12-0.23 μg g(-1) and nickel 0.09-0.21 μg g(-1) of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

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    Thana Juckmeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list. Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies.

  5. Fungal Control of Pathogenic Fungi Isolated From Some Wild Plants in Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

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    Abou-Zeid, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two plants were collected from Taif Governorate and identified as: Aerva lanata, Arnebia hispidissima, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia monosperma, Asphodelus aestives, Avena barbata, Capparis dcidua, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia glomerifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Juniperus procera, Launaea mucronata, Launaea sonchoides, Medicago sativa, Opuntia ficus, Phagnalon sinaicum, Prunus persica, Pulicaria crispa, Punica granatum, Rumex dentatus and Trichodesma calathiforme. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from some of these plants and identified as Alternaria alternata, Cephalosporium madurae, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporum, Humicola grisea, Penicillium chrysogenum and Ulocladium botrytis. Four antagonistic isolates were tested, 2 from Gliocladium fungus and 2 from Trichoderma fungus. We found that all the four antagonistic isolates (G. deliquescens, G. virens, T. viride and T. hamatum significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogenic fungi tested, with different ratios. The results indicated that the antibiotics produced by the antagonists were more effective than the fungus itself and differ with different fungi. Coating plant stems with antagonists or with antagonist extracts reduce the severity of the disease but not prevent it in all tested pathogens.

  6. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

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    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  7. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  8. The Cape genus Micranthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, nomenclature and taxonomy

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    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    species, Micranthus remains endemic to the Cape flora region, extending from its extreme northern limit in the Bokkeveld Mtns south-eastwards to Port Elizabeth. We also deal with the genera Paulomagnusia Kuntze and Beilia Kuntze with which Micranthus has sometimes been associated, although both are nomenclatural synonyms of Thereianthus G.J.Lewis, a genus close allied to Micranthus.

  9. Caracterização palinológica de espécies de Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto ocorrentes no nordeste brasileiro Pollen characterization of Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto species from northeastern Brazil

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    Anderson Alves-Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve com objetivo realizar as descrições polínicas de espécies nordestinas de Amaryllidaceae s.s. e Alliaceae e relacioná-las visando a sua delimitação taxonômica. Foram analisadas as espécies: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, e Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. As descrições foram feitas a partir da análise de grãos de pólen acetolisados (ou não observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura, os quais foram obtidos de espécimes recém-coletados. Todas as espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen em mônades, heteropolar-bilaterais, monossulcados e âmbito elíptico/elipsoidal. Foram detectadas características diagnosticas com relação ao padrão de ornamentação, destacando Hippeastrum stylosum Herb, e Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury por possuírem grãos de pólen com calotas equatoriais. As características polínicas analisadas foram suficientemente relevantes para a delimitação específica dentre os táxons analisados.The pollen of Amaryllidaceae s.s. and Alliaceae species from northeastern Brazil is described and related to taxonomic delimitation. The species analyzed were: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury, Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, and Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. Descriptions of acetolyzed and non-treated pollen grains from fresh specimens were based on analysis in light and scanning electron microscopy. All species presented

  10. Research Progress of Tea Genetic Evolution and the Application Prospects of SSR in Tea Genetic Evolution%茶树遗传演化研究进展及SSR在茶树遗传演化研究中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炎花; 姚明哲; 陈亮; 孙威江

    2009-01-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], which originated in the southwest of China, took place a series of evolution from the level of morphology to the cytology level and to molecular level as it spread from the original center to other parts of China and elsewhere in the world. The research on the tea genetic evolution is not only a fundamental issue of tea biology but also an important aspect of the study of tea genetic resources. In the recent years, new technologies and methods have been widely applied in the study of the genetic evolution of tea plant. Some significant progress had been made so far. In this paper, we summarized the studies on the tea genetic evolution in the aspects of morphology, cytology, biochemistry and molecular biology of tea plant. The applications of SSR markers in genetic evolution of plants and its prospects in tea plant were discussed. The purpose is to provide some references for further study of the genetic diversity of tea in China and related analysis of the evolution.%茶树[Camellia sinensis(L.)O.Kuntze]起源于中国的西南地区,在由起源地向中国其他地区和世界其他地区传播的过程中,发生了从形态学水平到细胞水平再到分子水平的一系列演化.对茶树遗传演化的研究,是茶树基础生物学的一个基本问题,也是茶树种质资源研究的重要方面.近年来,各种新技术、新方法被广泛应用于研究荼树遗传演化关系,取得了一定的进展.从形态学、细胞学、生物化学、分子生物学方面对茶树遗传演化研究取得的进展进行了综述,分析了SSR(Simple Sequence Repeat)标记在植物遗传演化中的应用,探讨了SSR标记在茶树遗传演化研究中的应用前景,旨为进一步深入研究中国茶树遗传多样性、亲缘关系及演化路径分析提供参考.

  11. Propagules removal in fragments of native forest and in reforested areas in an Araucaria Forest region of Paraná State Remoção de propágulos em fragmento de floresta nativa e reflorestamentos numa região de Floresta Ombrófila Mista do estado do Paraná

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    Yves Rafael Bovolenta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A question that has been discussed is the role that reforestations with exotic species in native fauna and several studies have shown that removal of propagules is lower in these environments. This study compared the removal rate of propagules (araucaria seeds, peanuts, corn from areas of native forest (FN, reforestations of Pinus taeda L. (RP, Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE and Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. In FN all propagules were removed. There was no difference in the removal of araucaria seeds between FN and RA, and removal rate in both areas differ from the removal rate in the RP and RE. In RP there was high removal of peanuts, while the RE showed the lowest value of removal of the three propagules. The low removal rates in reforestation of pine and eucalyptus reflect the decreased exploitation of these habitats for wildlife, which may be related to a poorly structured understory. Uma questão que tem sido discutida é o papel das monoculturas florestais exóticas na manutenção da fauna nativa e vários estudos têm mostrado que a remoção de propágulos é menor nesses ambientes. O presente trabalho comparou a taxa de remoção de propágulos (pinhão, amendoim, milho entre áreas de Floresta Nativa (FN, Reflorestamentos de Pinus taeda L. (RP, de Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE e Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. Na FN, todos os propágulos foram removidos e não houve diferença significativa na remoção de pinhão entre a FN e o RA. A remoção de propágulos nessas áreas diferiu da remoção no RP e RE. No RP, houve alta remoção de amendoim, enquanto que o RE apresentou os menores valores de remoção dos três propágulos. As baixas taxas de remoção nos reflorestamentos de pinus e eucalipto refletem a menor exploração desses habitas pela fauna, o que pode estar relacionado com um subosque pouco estruturado.

  12. Neuropharmacological properties of Launaea resedifolia Propriedades neurofarmacológicas de Launaea resedifolia

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    Abdu Razag A. Auzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Launaea resedifolia (L. Kuntze (family: Asteraceae, synonym Scorzonera resedifolia L., is a medicinal plant used in the Libyan folkloric medicine mainly for the treatment of hepatic pains. However, there is no report on any pharmacological evaluation of L. resedifolia available to date. In this study, the neuropharmacological potential of the ethanol extract of this plant has been assessed in animal models. Launaea resedifolia extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on the locomotor activity of mice in the open field test, an anti-nociceptive effect by increasing the hot plate reaction time in the hot plate test, and an anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Furthermore, a sedative effect was evident from the decrease in the onset of pentobarbitone sleeping time and increase in the duration of pentobarbitone sleeping time rats. The ethanol extract also demonstrated a significant decrease in the mortality rate induced by picrotoxin by about 66%, and a considerable reduction in the body weight of mice compared to the control groups.Launaea resedifolia (L. Kuntze (família: Asteraceae, sinônimo Scorzonera resedifolia L., é uma planta medicinal utilizada na medicina popular da Líbia para o tratamento de problemas hepáticos. Todavia, não há relato de qualquer avaliação farmacológica de L. resedifolia disponível na literatura. Neste estudo, o potencial neurofarmacológico do extrato etanólico desta planta foi analisado em modelos animais. Os extratos de Launaea resedifolia exibiram um efeito inibitório na atividade locomotora de camundongos no teste de campo aberto, um efeito anti-nociceptivo pelo aumento do tempo de reação em placa quente no teste da placa quente e uma atividade anti-inflamatória no edema de pata induzido por carragenina. Além disso, um efeito sedativo foi evidente pela diminuição no início do tempo de sono barbitúrico e aumento na duração do tempo de sono barbitúrico em ratos. O

  13. 13种植物耐盐性的离体快速分析%Salt Tolerance of 13 Wild Plants by Rapid Analysis Method in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 程龙; 杨静慧; 武春霞; 史滟滪; 徐慧洁

    2014-01-01

    The salt tolerance of wild plants was studied with leaves of 13 species seedings, Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, Caragana intermedia, Leucaena glauca, Cassia corymbosa, Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng F., Nitraria sibirica, Limonium bicolor Kuntz., Tamarix chinensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Elaeagnus angustifolial, Cerasus szechuanica, Euphorbiae Lathyridis, and under different NaCl concentrations, the changes of cell membrane relative permeability in Vitro were compared. The results show that the salt tolerance of six leguminous plants was Caragana intermedia>Leucaena glauca>Robinia pseudoacacia L. >Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb>Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng F. >Cassia corymbosa respectively, the salt tolerance of five bush plants was Tamarix chinensis>Nitraria sibirica>Caragana intermedia>Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng F. >Cassia corymbosa respectively, the salt tolerance of four trees was Leucaena glauca>Robinia pseudoacacia L. >Elaeagnus angustifolial>Cerasus szechuanica respectively, and the salt tolerance of four kinds of herbs was Limonium bicolor Kuntz. >Euphorbiae Lathyridis>Artemisia sphaerocephala>Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb respectively.%以野生、抗旱、耐盐性较强的草木犀、柠条、银合欢、伞房决明、刺槐、沙冬青、白刺、二色补血草、柽柳、白沙蒿、沙枣、樱桃、续随子等13种植物的实生幼苗为试材,通过比较不同浓度NaCl胁迫下离体叶片细胞相对膜透性的变化,分析这些植物的耐盐性。结果显示,6种豆科植物的耐盐性依次为:柠条>银合欢>刺槐>草木犀>沙冬青>伞房决明;5种灌木类植物的耐盐性依次为:柽柳>白刺>柠条>沙冬青>伞房决明;4种乔木类植物的耐盐性依次为:银合欢>刺槐>沙枣>樱桃;4种草本植物的耐盐性依次为:二色补血草>续随子>白沙蒿>草木犀。

  14. Anatomía y desarrollo de fruto y semilla de Solanum palinacanthum (Solanaceae Anatomy and development of fruit and seed of Solanum palinacanthum (Solanaceae

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    Nilda Dottori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el desarrollo y anatomía de fruto y semilla en Solanum palinacanthum Dunal, sect. Acanthophora Dunal, subgénero Leptostemonum (Dunal Bitter (Solanaceae. Se describen las características del pericarpo, (exocarpo, mesocarpo, endocarpo y de la semilla (incremento en el número de estratos medios y las particularidades de la exotesta y endotesta que permitieron caracterizar la especie. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con lo conocido en Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., S. juvenale Thell., S. hieronymi Kuntze y S. euacanthum Phil., especies pertenecientes al mismo subgénero pero a la sect. Melongena. Se concluye que S. palinacanthum de la sect. Acanthophora y los representantes analizados de la sect. Melongena tienen características semejantes, las diferencias radican en S. palinacanthum en la ausencia de pseudoseptos, de tricomas estrellados en el cáliz persistente y al espesor del pericarpo de 6 a 8 mm. Por el contrario las especies de la sect. Melongena presentan pseudoseptos, tricomas estrellados en el cáliz persistente y el espesor del pericarpo varía de 0,5 a 5 mm. Dentro de la sect. Acanthophora, S. palinacanthum se diferencia de las restantes especies del grupo por poseer el cariótipo más asimétrico y semillas sin alas, por lo que las diferencias observadas en este estudio no permiten separar ambas secciones.Fruit and seed development and anatomy of Solanum palinacanthum Dunal section Acanthophora Dunal, subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal Bitter (Solanaceae were analyzed. Characteristics of pericarp layers (exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp and seed details (number of median layers exotesta sclereids and endotesta characteristics were used to characterize these species. Results were compared with similar studies in Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., S. juvenale Thell., S.hieronymi Kuntze and S. euacanthum Phil., species that belong to the same subgenus but to another section, Melongena. We conclude that S. palinacanthum, sect

  15. O cultivo da araucária para produção de pinhões como ferramenta para a conservação Plantation of Brazilian pine to nuts production as a conservation tool

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    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira da araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze teve grande importância econômica no Brasil, principalmente entre 1930 e 1970. O desmatamento ocasionou a redução drástica do tamanho populacional de araucária e atualmente ela integra a lista de espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de extinção. O objetivo dessa revisão foi apresentar o potencial de geração de renda do cultivo de araucária para produção de pinhões e a consequente conservação da espécie. Segundo o que se observou na literatura, o pinhão pode gerar mais renda que a madeira da araucária, quando são utilizadas técnicas de manejo adequadas. O cultivo da araucária com interesse econômico do pinhão é uma ferramenta eficaz para aumentar os plantios e diminuir a exploração das araucárias remanescentes. É necessário propor estratégias em parceria entre organizações de produtores e coletores, pesquisadores e órgãos governamentais brasileiros para desenvolver e aprimorar técnicas adequadas de manejo, processamento e comercialização do pinhão. The wood of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze had great economic importance in Brazil, mainly between 1930 to 1970. The deforestation caused a drastic reduction in population size of Brazilian pine and currently it integrates the list of Brazilian threatened species. The aim of thisreview was to present the potential of generating income from Brazilian pine plantation for pine nuts production and the consequent species conservation. According to the literature, pine nuts can generate more income than Brazilian pine wood, when used appropriate management techniques. The plantation with economic interest in pine nuts is an effective tool to increase planting and reduce exploitation of the Brazilian pine remaining. It is necessary to propose strategies in partnership among producer and collectors organizations, researchers and Brazilians government agencies to develop and improve

  16. Ovatodiolide Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells through SMURF2-Mediated Downregulation of Hsp27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kuan-Ta; Wang, Bing-Yen; Chi, Wan-Yu; Chang-Chien, Ju; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Lee, Hsueh-Te; Tzeng, Yew-Min; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells involved in tumor initiation, resistance to therapy and metastasis. Targeting CSCs has been considered as the key for successful cancer therapy. Ovatodiolide (Ova) is a macrocyclic diterpenoid compound isolated from Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze with anti-cancer activity. Here we used two human breast cancer cell lines (AS-B145 and BT-474) to examine the effect of Ova on breast CSCs. We first discovered that Ova displayed an anti-proliferation activity in these two breast cancer cells. Ova also inhibited the self-renewal capability of breast CSCs (BCSCs) which was determined by mammosphere assay. Ova dose-dependently downregulated the expression of stemness genes, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and Nanog, as well as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), but upregulated SMAD ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (SMURF2) in mammosphere cells derived from AS-B145 or BT-474. Overexpression of Hsp27 or knockdown of SMURF2 in AS-B145 cells diminished the therapeutic effect of ovatodiolide in the suppression of mammosphere formation. In summary, our data reveal that Ova displays an anti-CSC activity through SMURF2-mediated downregulation of Hsp27. Ova could be further developed as an anti-CSC agent in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27136586

  17. Ovatodiolide Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells through SMURF2-Mediated Downregulation of Hsp27

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    Kuan-Ta Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSCs are a subpopulation of cancer cells involved in tumor initiation, resistance to therapy and metastasis. Targeting CSCs has been considered as the key for successful cancer therapy. Ovatodiolide (Ova is a macrocyclic diterpenoid compound isolated from Anisomeles indica (L. Kuntze with anti-cancer activity. Here we used two human breast cancer cell lines (AS-B145 and BT-474 to examine the effect of Ova on breast CSCs. We first discovered that Ova displayed an anti-proliferation activity in these two breast cancer cells. Ova also inhibited the self-renewal capability of breast CSCs (BCSCs which was determined by mammosphere assay. Ova dose-dependently downregulated the expression of stemness genes, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4 and Nanog, as well as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27, but upregulated SMAD ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (SMURF2 in mammosphere cells derived from AS-B145 or BT-474. Overexpression of Hsp27 or knockdown of SMURF2 in AS-B145 cells diminished the therapeutic effect of ovatodiolide in the suppression of mammosphere formation. In summary, our data reveal that Ova displays an anti-CSC activity through SMURF2-mediated downregulation of Hsp27. Ova could be further developed as an anti-CSC agent in the treatment of breast cancer.

  18. TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek

    2012-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC bioautographic assay has previously been established for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors but not for lipases. Development of a TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors in plant extracts. After migration of the plant extracts, the TLC plate was sprayed with α-naphtyl acetate and enzyme solutions before incubation at 37°C for 20 min. Finally, the solution of Fast Blue B salt was sprayed onto the TLC plate giving a purple background colouration. Lipase inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Orlistat (a known lipase inhibitor) inhibited lipase down to 0.01 µg. Methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntz and Rosmarinus officinalis L after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 82 and 56 µg, respectively. On the other hand the methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves did not exhibit any lipase inhibitory activity. The screening test was able to detect lipase inhibition by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats

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    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae, commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.

  20. Leaf structural adaptations of two Limonium miller (Plumbaginales, Plumbaginaceae taxa

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    Zorić Lana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonium gmelinii (Willd. O. Kuntze 1891 subsp. hungaricum (Klokov Soó is Pannonian endemic subspecies that inhabits continental halobiomes, while Limonium anfractum (Salmon Salmon 1924 is one of the indicators of halophyte vegetation of marine rocks and its distribution is restricted to the southern parts of Mediterranean Sea coast. In this work, micromorphological and anatomical characters of leaves of these two Limonium taxa were analyzed, in order to examine their adaptations to specific environmental conditions on saline habitats. The results showed that both taxa exhibited strong xeromorphic adaptations that reflected in flat cell walls of epidermal cells, thick cuticle, high palisade/spongy tissue ratio, high index of palisade cells, the presence of sclereid idioblasts in leaf mesophyll and mechanical tissue by phloem and xylem. Both taxa are crynohalophytes and have salt glands on adaxial and abaxial epidermis for excretion of surplus salt. Relatively high dimensions of mesophyll cells, absence of non-glandular hairs and unprotected stomata slightly increased above the level of epidermal cells, are also adaptations to increased salinity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  1. ENVIROMENTAL VARIABLE INFLUENCE ON THE TREE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FLORISTIC PATTERNS IN A MONTANE ARAUCARIA FOREST FRAGMENT IN LAGES, SANTA CATARINA STATE

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985081This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure of the tree component of a montane Araucaria Forest fragment and to assess the influence of environmental variables on the patterns observed. The study area was located in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina state, close to the margin of the Caveiras River. The vegetation and the environmental variables (physical and chemical soils characteristics, relief and canopy cover were surveyed within 50, 20 x 10m, permanent plots allocated systematically stratified in the forest fragment. All trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ³ 15,7 cm were measured (CBH and height and identified. It was calculated the importance value (VI of the species found, performed the ordination of plots according to the abundance of species through the analysis of NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and plotted the "a posterior" the significant environmental variables in the ordination diagram. One thousand, eight hundred and forty-three (1,843 individuals were sampled, which added up to a total basal area of 36.45 m2, distributed in 37 botanical families, 63 genera and 92 species. The three species with the highest values of VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand and Jacaranda puberula Cham. The variables that showed the higher correlation with the tree component structure and floristic composition were the pH, the plot highest declivity and the Mg content.

  2. Axial variation of basic density of Araucaria angustifolia wood in different diameter classes

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    Rômulo Trevisan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the wood characteristics is of fundamental importance for the correct use of this raw material and, among its properties, the basic density is a major, being reference in the quality of this material. This study aimed to evaluate the axial variation of basic density of the wood of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze in different diameter classes. For this, three trees were selected in six diameter classes, called class 1 (20-30cm, class 2 (30.1-40cm, class 3 (40.1-50cm, class 4 (50.1-60cm, class 5 (60.1-70cm and class 6 (70.1-80cm. From each individual sampled was withdrawn a disc at 0.1m (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the height of the first live branch and in the diameter at 1.30m from the ground (DBH, which were used for determining basic density. The weighted average basic density was equal to 0.422g cm-3 and, regardless of the diameter class analyzed, this property decreased in the axial direction. Diameter induced variation of basic density, but has not been verified a positive or negative systematic tendency in relation to the sampled interval.

  3. Araucaria forest management by the liocourt method, Painel municipality, SC

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    André Felipe Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the diameter distribution and calculate the value of the Liocourt quotient 'q' for the species Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze in natural forest, as well as evaluating competition indexes in a fragment with an area of 74.2 ha. Fixed area sample plots of 400 m2 were used in this study, totaling one hectare sampling area. Trees with DBH > 10 cm were measured in all plots and later distributed in diameter classes for the calculation of the density probability function and competition index. The forest showed a density of 228 trees per hectare and basal area of 19.49 m2·ha-1. The value of the "q" quotient for the forest was 1.1, indicating that the recruitment and mortality rates are in equilibrium. The calculated competition indices showed that the forest is in a competition stage, with Glover and Holl index of 0.9798 and 0.7069 m2 for the BALmod.

  4. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the simultaneous prediction of alkaloids and phenolic substances in green tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H; Engelhardt, U H; Wegent, A; Drews, H; Lapczynski, S

    1999-12-01

    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) method for the prediction of polyphenol and alkaloid compounds in the leaves of green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was developed. Reference measurements of the individual catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were performed by reversed-phase HPLC. The total polyphenols were determined according to the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Using the partial least-squares algorithm, very good calibration statistics were obtained for the prediction of gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, and theobromine (R(2) > 0.85) with standard deviation/standard error of cross-validation (SD/SECV) ratio ranging from 2.00 to 6.27. Simultaneously, the dry matter content of the tea leaves can be analyzed very precisely (R(2) = 0.94; SD/SECV = 4.12). Furthermore, it is possible to discriminate tea leaves of different age by principal component analysis on the basis of the received NIR spectra. Prediction of the total polyphenol content is performed with a lower accuracy, which might be due to the lack of specificity in the colorimetric reference method. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology can be successfully applied as a rapid method not only for breeding and cultivation purposes but also to estimate the quality and taste of green tea and to control industrial processes, for example, decaffeination.

  5. Comparative study on micro-morphological characteristics of seed coat of fourteen species in Chenopodiaceae from China%国产藜科14种植物种皮微形态特征比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明忠; 孙坤; 张明理; 庞海龙; 李金霞

    2011-01-01

    应用扫描电子显微镜和光学显微镜观察了中国产藜科(Chenopodiaceae)5族10属14种植物的种子形态和种皮微形态结构.观察结果表明:供试的14种藜科植物的种子多为卵形和圆形,少数为双凸镜形;种皮表面都具有网状纹饰,包括浅网纹、负网纹和穴状网纹.种皮可分为膜质和壳质2类,其中,膜质型种皮表面不光滑,除网状纹饰外,还有瘤状或褶皱状等纹饰,网眼无规则,纹饰排列无序,猪毛菜族(Salsoleae C.A.Mey.)的松叶猪毛菜(Salsola laricifolia Turcz.ex Litv.)及樟味藜族(Camphorosmeae Moq.)的地肤[Kochia scoparia(L.)Schrad.]、全翅地肤(K.krylovii Litv.)、黑翅地肤(K.melanoptera Bunge)、雾冰藜[Bassia dasyphylla(Fisch.et Mey.)O.Kuntze]、钩刺雾冰藜[B.hyssopifolia(Pall.)O.Kuntze]、樟味藜(Camphorosma monspeliaca L.)、兜藜(Panderia turkestanica Iljin.)和棉藜(Kirilowia eriantha Bunge)均属此类;壳质型种皮表面近光滑,网眼规则,排列整齐有序,少数为不规则浅穴,网脊平而不明显或凹陷,滨藜族(Atripliceae C.A.Mey.)的滨藜[Atriplex patens(Litv.)Iljin.]、碱蓬族(Suaedeae Reich.)的角果碱蓬[Suaeda corniculata(C.A.Mey.)Bunge]、纵翅碱蓬[S.pterantha(Kar.et Kir.)Bunge]和异子蓬(Borszczowia aralocaspica Bunge)以及藜族(Chenopodieae C.A.Mey.)的刺藜(Chenopodium aristatum L.)均属此类.各族之间种皮微形态结构也有一定的区别.根据种皮微形态,地肤属(Kochia Roth)与雾冰藜属(Bassia All.)的关系较近,属的界限和部分种类的亲缘关系需要进一步界定.藜科植物种皮表面大部分凹凸不平,这种结构可能与荒漠干旱生境下吸收和保留水分有关.%Seed shape and micro-morphological structure of seed coat of fourteen species belonging to ten genera and five tribes in Chenopodiaceae from China were observed by SEM and LM. Observation results show that most seeds of fourteen species are ovate and circular, and a few seeds are biconvex. There

  6. Identification of the toxic compounds produced by Sargassum thunbergii to red tide microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renjun; WANG You; TANG Xuexi

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of methanol extracts from the tissues of three macroalgal species on the growths of three marine red tide microalgae were assessed under laboratory conditions.Extracts of Sargassum thunbergii(Mertens ex Roth)Kuntz tissue had stronger inhibitory effects than those of either Sargassum pallidum(Turner)C.Agardh or Sargassum kjellmanianum Yendo on the growths of Heterosigrna akashiwo(Hada)Hada,Skeletonema costatum(Grey.)Grey,and Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg.Methanol extracts of S.thunbergii were further divided into petroleum ether,ethyl acetate,butanol,and distilled water phases by liquid-liquid fractionation.The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions had strong algicidal effects on the microalgae.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of these two phases identified nine fatty acids,most of which were unsaturated fatty acids.In addition,pure compounds of four of the nine unsaturated fatty acids had effective concentrations below 5 mg/L.Therefore,unsaturated fatty acids are a component of the allelochemicals in S.thunbergii tissue.

  7. Limits on the OVII Emission from the Local Hot Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Felix T; Li, Yaqiong; Morgan, Kelsey; Petre, Natalia; Sauter, Patrick; McCammon, Dan

    2014-06-01

    Constraining the properties of the gas in the local hot-bubble (LHB) is important for the understanding of the interstellar medium surrounding the sun. Much information about its energetic state is embedded in the observations of the low-energy diffuse X-ray background. From molecular-cloud shadowing observations (Galeazzi et al. 2006, R. Smith et al. 2007, Henley et al. 2007) it is known that a significant fraction of the 0.57keV OVII X-ray flux originates locally (< ~300 pc).To investigate the origin of this OVII emission, we analyze the correlation between OVII flux (extracted from Suzaku observations cleaned of point sources) against the local fraction of the ROSAT ¼ keV emission (R12 band), as separated from the distant (hot halo/extragalactic) component by Snowden (1998) and Kuntz (2000).Observations were selected to avoid galactic in-plane emission and features of other large-scale ISM structures. After correcting OVII flux for the more distant latitude-dependent emission, we find that it is essentially uncorrelated with the local ¼ keV emission, implying that the local hot bubble is not the source of the observed OVII emission. The lack of OVII emission further precludes temperatures above ~1E6K for the LHB gas (assuming collisional equilibrium models with solar abundance).

  8. UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS Analyses on Phenolic, Fatty Acid and Essential Oil of Verbascum pinetorum with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase, Antimicrobial and DNA Damage Protection Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boğa, Mehmet; Ertaş, Abdulselam; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Kızıl, Murat; Çeken, Bircan; Haşimi, Nesrin; Özden, Tuğba Yılmaz; Demirci, Serpil; Yener, İsmail; Deveci, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first phytochemical and ABTS cation radical decolorisation activity, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, anticholinesterase and DNA damage protection effect of endemic Verbascum pinetorum (Boiss.) O. Kuntze. Phenolic profile of V. pinetorum were qualified and quantified by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Malic acid (47250.61±2504.28 µg/g) and luteolin (7651.96±527.98 µg/g) were found as most abundant compounds for metanol and acetone extracts, respectively. Fatty acid and essential oil compositions were determined by GC-MS analysis. The main components of fatty acid were found to be palmitic (27.1%) and stearic (22.1%) acids. The main compounds of the essential oil were cineole (16.9%) and α-selinene (16.4%). The acetone extract was found to be more active than BHT used as a standard in β-carotene-linoleic acid test system. In DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the acetone and methanol extracts showed higher activity than BHT at all tested concentrations. The acetone, methanol and water extracts showed strong inhibition while the acetone extract showed better activity than BHT and α-tocopherol which were used as standards in ABTS cation radical scavenging and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays, respectively. All extracts were found to be inactive in antialzheimer activity. The acetone extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. The methanol extract of V. pinetorum were found no significant effect on DNA cleavage protection.

  9. 适宜长春地区栽植的芳香植物的引种试验%Introduction test of aromatic plants for planting in Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 李莉娜; 李丽

    2014-01-01

    Nine kinds of aromatic plant were taken as objects to conduct introduction test in Changchun , results indicated that Thymus pulegoides L., Thymus vulgare L., Thymus citriodorata, Thymus citriodorus variegate Aurea, Nepeta mussini, Agastache rugosus ( Fisch.et Mey) O.Kuntze and Hyssopus officinalis L.showed excellent growth vigor that the same as secondary introduction land , which can not adopt any cold-proof measures to overwintering safely .Salvia officinalls L.showed weakly growth vigor , but may overwintering in Changchun .Melissa officinalis L.would not overwintering in Changchun that all of therm died.%在长春地区,对9种芳香植物进行引种栽培试验,结果表明:阔叶百里香、直立百里香、柠檬百里香、金边百里香、猫薄荷、藿香、海索草表现优异,长势与次生引种地相同,可以不采取任何防寒措施安全越冬;鼠尾草表现一般,长势较弱,但在长春可以越冬;香蜂花在长春无法露地越冬,全部死亡。

  10. L-Theanine healed NSAID-induced gastric ulcer by modulating pro/antioxidant balance in gastric ulcer margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Chatterjee, Ananya; Roy, Surmi; Bera, Biswajit; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

    2014-10-01

    L-Theanine is a unique non-protein-forming amino acid present in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. In the present work, we evaluated the healing effect of L-theanine on NSAID (indomethacin)-induced gastric ulcer. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the third day after indomethacin administration (18 mg/kg, single dose p.o.) which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation; protein carbonylation; Th1 cytokine synthesis, and depletion of thiol, mucin, prostaglandin (PG) E, Th2 cytokine synthesis; and total antioxidant status in mice. L-Theanine healed gastric ulcer at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. but aggravated the ulcerated condition at a higher dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. At 10 mg/kg b.w., L-theanine significantly alleviated the adverse oxidative effect of indomethacin through enhanced synthesis of PGE2 by modulation of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and 2 [COX-1 and COX-2] expression, Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, and restoration of cellular antioxidant status at the gastric ulcer margin. The present study revealed for the first time the dose-dependent biphasic effect of a natural neuroprotective agent, L-theanine, on gastric ulcer disease.

  11. Increased Market Integration, Value, and Ecological Knowledge of Tea Agroforests in the Akha Highlands of Southwest China

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    Robban A. J. Toleno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the persistence and change of traditional land use patterns and ecological knowledge in response to expanded commercialization of tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica (L. Kuntze Theaceae in an indigenous Akha (Hani community in the midlevel montane forests of southwest Yunnan, China. Surveys were conducted in 2005 and 2008, over a period corresponding to a regional tea market boom and bust cycle, to compare the valuation smallholders attribute to land use types and to determine the role that value systems play in shaping environmental behavior and knowledge. At the community level, increased market integration of tea agroforests is associated with reconfiguration of land use, intensified management, reorganization of labor structures, and generation of knowledge on tea resources. Akha have tapped into customary resources and forged new social networks with tea industry agents to take advantage of emerging market opportunities. They have resisted state reforms calling for the cultivation of high-intensity plantations and introduced cultivars. Consequently, they have benefited from price premiums through niche market networks for tea sourced from agroforests and proprietary landraces not available to other communities disempowered by market cycles. Subsistence agriculture, home gardening, and foraging persist for food security despite tea wealth. However, as traditional values are reoriented toward market-based ideologies, the community may risk a breakdown of the social institutions that support sustainability.

  12. Effect of 25% Rimsulfuron on controlling field wild grasses in flax%25%宝成干悬浮剂防治亚麻田杂草药效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振玲; 刘其宁; 何丽红; 曾绍安; 吴学英; 杜刚; 刘飞虎

    2006-01-01

    不同剂量的25%宝成干悬浮剂在亚麻田中的除草试验表明:用量为90g/hm2的宝成即可有效防除亚麻田中各类杂草,药后50天,杂草鲜重防效达71%~99%,株防效达53%~92%,对禾本科(Gramineae)草和齿果酸模(Rumex den-tatus L.)、荠菜[Capsella bursa-pastoris(L.)Medic.]、碎米荠(Cardamine hirsute L.)、辣子草(Galinsoga parvifloraCav.)、通泉草[Mazus japonicus(Thunb.)O.Kuntze]、猪殃殃(Galium aparine L.)、牛繁缕(鹅肠菜)[Malachiumaquaticum(L.)Fries]等阔叶草的防除效果很好,对藜科杂草灰灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)的防除效果相对较差一些.

  13. Expectation for the X-ray Galactic Halo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We present an estimate of the strength and spectrum of the X-ray background from the warm gas associated with the Galactic halo. This investigation is motivated primarily by the recent detection of a spatially variable soft X-ray component towards the north Galactic polar cap by Kuntz et al. (2001), suggesting that the warm gas heated by gravitational shocks of the Galactic halo may produce a significant contribution to the soft X-ray sky. Another purpose of the study is to refine the recent theoretical prediction of the X-ray spectrum from the Galactic alo by Xue (2001) who adopted an ideal and simple isothermal model for the gas and dark matter distributions of the Galactic halo. We use the universal density profile for the dark matter distributions of the Galactic halo to evaluate the Xray properties of the warm gas either in hydrostatic equilibrium with, or tracing the underlying gravitational potential of the Galaxy. It has been shown that our prediction is consistent with the measured soft X-ray component towards the north Galactic polar cap if the gas fraction is taken to be ~ 0.005.

  14. New Records on the Naturalized Flora in Jiangxi Province,China%江西省新记录入侵植物赛葵、光荚含羞草

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪锋; 邱贺媛; 杜晓童; 叶小此

    2013-01-01

    Two species were collected from Xunwu ,Gangzhou,Jiangxi in March,2013,i.e.Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnae-us) Garcke,Mimosa bimucronata (Candolle) O.Kuntze.Two species were reported as new invasive plants records for Jiangxi Prov-ince,China,the former was the new genus of Jiangxi Province .Their collect site,habitat,and morphology characteristics were recor-ded.%2013年3月,在江西省赣州市寻乌县实地考察外来入侵植物,发现了赛葵( Malvastrum coromandelianum ( Linnaeus ) Garcke)和光荚含羞草(Mimosa bimucronata (Candolle) O.Kuntze),2种植物均为江西省外来入侵植物新记录,赛葵属为江西省新记录属。并对其产地、生长环境、形态特征等进行记述。

  15. Synergistic in vitro antimalarial activity of plant extracts used as traditional herbal remedies in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azas, N; Laurencin, N; Delmas, F; Di, Giorgio C; Gasquet, M; Laget, M; Timon-David, P

    2002-02-01

    In Mali, where malaria is endemic, plants are extensively used for treating periodic fevers and malaria. According to the advice of traditional medicine, plants are often mixed during the preparation of febrifugal decoctions. In previous studies, we demonstrated the potent in vitro antimalarial activity of extracts isolated from four plants commonly used in traditional remedies: Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze, Rubiaceae, Nauclea latifolia (Sm.), Rubiaceae, Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.), Combretaceae, and Feretia apodanthera (Del.), Rubiaceae. In the present work, we evaluate the potent in vitro synergistic antimalarial interaction between these extracts, using standard isobologram analysis. Then, we evaluate their cytotoxicity on human monocytes and their mutagenic activity on an in vitro system of two beta-carboline alkaloids isolated from Guiera senegalensis (harman and tetrahydroharman). Three combinations demonstrate a strong, synergistic, inhibitory effect on in vitro plasmodial development and are devoid of cytotoxicity towards human cells. These results justify their use in association in traditional medicine. Moreover, tetrahydroharman, isolated from G. senegalensis, presents interesting antimalarial activity, no cytotoxicity and is not genotoxic in the Salmonella Ames test with and without metabolic activation.

  16. Rainfall interception by two arboreal species in urban green area

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    Luzia Ferreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception by the two most usual species in forest urban spaces was analysed by measuring of interception (I or interception losses, through fall (Th, stem flow (St and gross precipitation (Pg. The chosen species were Caesalpinia pluviosa DC. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae or sibipiruna, and Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze (Fabaceae: Faboideae or tipuana. The individuals analysed were more than 50 years old, with three separate individuals and three individuals in each studied group of species at the campus of ”Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba. The experiments were carried out from January to February 2007. Water was collected using seven-litre pails, in the edges and in the centre of the canopies. A high correlation of Th with Pg was observed on the centre of the crow of tipuana and by the edges of sibipiruna. St and I had low correlation with Pg for both species. The average of rain interception was greater in the edges of the crow of sibipiruna individuals, 60.6%, and in the centre of tipuana crow, 59.40%. Thus, both species intercepted up to 60% of the water rainfall, which indicates a great potential of both species for arborisation in urban environments.

  17. Survey of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in teas and herbal teas on the Swiss market using HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Caroline; Edder, Patrick; Bieri, Stefan; Christen, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a large class of natural compounds amongst which the esterified 1,2-unsaturated necine base is toxic for humans and livestock. In the present study, a method was developed and validated for the screening and quantification of nine PAs and one PA N-oxide in teas (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and herbal teas (camomile, fennel, linden, mint, rooibos, verbena). Samples were analysed by HPLC on a RP-column, packed with sub-2 μm core-shell particles, and quantified using tandem mass spectrometry operating in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. These PAs and some of their isomers were detected in a majority of the analysed beverages (50/70 samples). In 24 samples, PA concentrations were above the limit of quantification and the sum of the nine targeted PAs was between 0.021 and 0.954 μg per cup of tea. Thus, in some cases, total concentrations exceed the maximum daily intake recommended by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and the UK's Committee On Toxicity (i.e. 0.007 μg kg(-1) bw).

  18. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES MADEIRAS SOBRE A COMPOSIÇÃO DA AGUARDENTE DE CANA ENVELHECIDA

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    DIAS Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram dosados compostos fenólicos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em aguardente de cana estocada por seis meses em barris de 20 L, das madeiras brasileiras amburana - Amburana cearensis (Fr. All. A.C. Smith; bálsamo - Myroxylon peruiferum L.F.; jequitibá Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze; jatobá - Hymenaea spp; ipê - Tabebuia spp e carvalho europeu - Quercus sp. Constatou-se que cada madeira introduziu predominantemente compostos fenólicos específicos na bebida: a ácidos elágico e vanílico no carvalho; b ácido vanílico e sinapaldeído na amburana; c vanilina e ácido elágico no bálsamo; d ácido gálico no jequitibá, e coniferaldeído no jatobá e f ácidos siríngico e vanílico e coniferaldeído no ipê.

  19. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

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    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  20. ESTRUCTURA DE LAS PRINCIPALES ESPECIES ARBÓREAS EN EL PARQUE CRUCE CABALLERO Y SU SIMILITUD FLORISTICA CON AREAS DE ARGENTINA Y DE BRASIL

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    Román Carlos Ríos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m. In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze prevail at higher stratum and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C.Burger, Lanj. & Boer, Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart., Ocotea lancifolia Mez and Apuleia leiocarpa J.F.Macbr. follow it. In Ustorthent araucaria is absent and Gymnanthes concolor Müll.Arg., Trichilia claussenii C.DC., Apuleia leiocarpa, Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. and Sorocea bonplandii prevail. Aracuaria is scarce in Udorthent where Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan, Alchornea triplinervia Müll.Arg., Luehea divaricata Mart., Erythrina falcata Benth. and Myrsine gardneriana A.DC. prevail. A comparative analysis shown Cruce Caballero more similar to seasonal forests than mixed araucaria forest from Brazil.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of Mitragyna inermis alkaloids in order to perform pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinou, Veronique; Fiot, Julien; Taudon, Nicolas; Mosnier, Joël; Martelloni, Maryse; Bun, Sok S; Parzy, Daniel; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2010-06-01

    In Africa, Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. Antimalarial activity is mostly due to the hydromethanolic extract of M. inermis leaves and especially to the main alkaloids, uncarine D and isorhynchophilline. In the present study, we describe for the first time an HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of uncarine D and isorhynchophylline in biological matrices. SPE was used to extract the components and the internal standard naphthalene from human and pig plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C-18 reversed column at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, using methanol-phosphate buffer (10:90, pH 7), as a mobile phase. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges of 0.0662-3.31 microg/mL for uncarine D and 0.0476-2.38 microg/mL for isorynchophylline. The precision was less than 12% and the accuracy was from 86 to 107% without any discrepancy between the two species. Uncarine D and isorhynchophylline recoveries were over 80%. These results allowed the quantification of both uncarine D and isorhynchophylline in pig plasma after intravenous administration of M. inermis extract.

  2. Survival of three commercially available natural enemies exposed to Michigan wildflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nathaniel J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-10-01

    Flowering plants are often used in habitat management programs to conserve the arthropod natural enemies of insect pests. In this study, nine species of flowering plants representing six families commonly found in North America east of the Rocky Mountains were evaluated based on how much they extended the lifespans of three commercially available natural enemy species in cages with cut flower stems compared with cages containing water only. The natural enemies used in the experiments were a lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville), a predatory bug (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae: Orius insidiosus (Say)), and an aphid parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidius colemani Viereck). The plant species that most extended the lifespans of all three natural enemies were Monarda fistulosa L. (Lamiaceae), Solidago juncea Aiton (Asteraceae), and Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae). Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae), Lobelia siphilitica L. (Campanulaceae), and Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae) were intermediate in their support of natural enemies. One plant species, Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willdenow (Scrophulariaceae), did not contribute to the longevity of natural enemies any more than water alone. These results emphasize the need for multi-species evaluations of flowering plants for conservation biocontrol programs, and the variability in plant value for natural enemies.

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  4. Genomic Characterization for Parasitic Weeds of the Genus Striga by Sample Sequence Analysis

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    Matt C. Estep

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation of ∼2200 Sanger sequence reads or ∼10,000 454 reads for seven Lour. DNA samples (five species allowed identification of the highly repetitive DNA content in these genomes. The 14 most abundant repeats in these species were identified and partially assembled. Annotation indicated that they represent nine long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon families, three tandem satellite repeats, one long interspersed element (LINE retroelement, and one DNA transposon. All of these repeats are most closely related to repetitive elements in other closely related plants and are not products of horizontal transfer from their host species. These repeats were differentially abundant in each species, with the LTR retrotransposons and satellite repeats most responsible for variation in genome size. Each species had some repetitive elements that were more abundant and some less abundant than the other species examined, indicating that no single element or any unilateral growth or decrease trend in genome behavior was responsible for variation in genome size and composition. Genome sizes were determined by flow sorting, and the values of 615 Mb [ (L. Kuntze], 1330 Mb [ (Willd. Vatke], 1425 Mb [ (Delile Benth.] and 2460 Mb ( Benth. suggest a ploidy series, a prediction supported by repetitive DNA sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis using six chloroplast loci indicated the ancestral relationships of the five most agriculturally important species, with the unexpected result that the one parasite of dicotyledonous plants ( was found to be more closely related to some of the grass parasites than many of the grass parasites are to each other.

  5. Black tea volatiles fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry combined with high concentration capacity sample preparation techniques: Toward a fully automated sensomic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Federico; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-06-15

    Tea prepared by infusion of dried leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, is the second world's most popular beverage, after water. Its consumption is associated with its chemical composition: it influences its sensory and nutritional quality addressing consumer preferences, and potential health benefits. This study aims to obtain an informative chemical signature of the volatile fraction of black tea samples from Ceylon by applying the principles of sensomics. In particular, several high concentration capacity (HCC) sample preparation techniques were tested in combination with GC×GC-MS to investigate chemical signatures of black tea volatiles. This platform, using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with multicomponent fiber as sampling technique, recovers 95% of the key-odorants in a fully automated work-flow. A group 123 components, including key-odorants, technological and botanical tracers, were mapped. The resulting 2D fingerprints were interpreted by pattern recognition tools (i.e. template matching fingerprinting and scripting) providing highly informative chemical signatures for quality assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  7. Distribution and habitat of brazilian-pine according to global climate change

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    Marcos Silveira Wrege

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze., also known as brazilian-pine, is a forest native species from Brazil. A. angustifolia is more vulnerable to global climate change, considering it is living in cold and humid mountain regions from southern and southeastern Brazil. Among the native Brazilian forest species, it presents one of the greatest growth and genetic gain potential. It shows excellent wood quality and can still be used in human and animal food, presenting great economic, social and environmental value. In order to determine current distribution of the species and better know its habitat, we worked in the regions representing the borders of natural occurrence, identifying populations and getting trees altitude and geographycal position. Field information along with secondary data from the Environmental Information Center (CRIA were used to map current distribution of brazilian-pine and to project the distribution in the next decades, with the projection of future climate scenarios. Mapping studies of ecological niches in present and future climate scenarios characterizing the environments in which they are living is essential for a better understanding of the risks of species extinction and which mitigating measures could be adequate to reduce the impacts of global climate change on species, thus contributing to the conservation and knowledge of this important species.

  8. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

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    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, physical scarification with hot water at 60°, 70°, 80°and 90° C for one minute, imbibition in distilled water for 24, 48 and 72 hours, oven heating at 65° C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, and a control treatment. Each treatment included four replicates of 25 seeds, using a completely randomized experimental design, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test at the 5% probability level. Assessed parameters included emergence percentage, emergence rate index, dry matter and length of plants. The most recommended treatments were mechanical scarification, immersion in sulfuric acid for 5, 10 and 15 minutes and immersion in distilled water for 48 hours.

  9. Attractiveness of Michigan native plants to arthropod natural enemies and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, A K; Landis, D A

    2007-08-01

    The use of plants to provide nectar and pollen resources to natural enemies through habitat management is a growing focus of conservation biological control. Current guidelines frequently recommend use of annual plants exotic to the management area, but native perennial plants are likely to provide similar resources and may have several advantages over exotics. We compared a set of 43 native Michigan perennial plants and 5 frequently recommended exotic annual plants for their attractiveness to natural enemies and herbivores for 2 yr. Plant species differed significantly in their attractiveness to natural enemies. In year 1, the exotic annual plants outperformed many of the newly established native perennial plants. In year 2, however, many native perennial plants attracted higher numbers of natural enemies than exotic plants. In year 2, we compared each flowering plant against the background vegetation (grass) for their attractiveness to natural enemies and herbivores. Screening individual plant species allowed rapid assessment of attractiveness to natural enemies. We identified 24 native perennial plants that attracted high numbers of natural enemies with promise for habitat management. Among the most attractive are Eupatorium perfoliatum L., Monarda punctata L., Silphium perfoliatum L., Potentilla fruticosa auct. non L., Coreopsis lanceolata L., Spiraea alba Duroi, Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze, Anemone canadensis L., and Angelica atropurpurea L. Subsets of these plants can now be tested to develop a community of native plant species that attracts diverse natural enemy taxa and provides nectar and pollen throughout the growing season.

  10. RNA-seq-mediated transcriptome analysis of actively growing and winter dormant shoots identifies non-deciduous habit of evergreen tree tea during winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Asosii; Jha, Ashwani; Bhardwaj, Shruti; Singh, Sewa; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-08-04

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a perennial tree which undergoes winter dormancy and unlike deciduous trees, the species does not shed its leaves during winters. The present work dissected the molecular processes operating in the leaves during the period of active growth and winter dormancy through transcriptome analysis to understand a long-standing question: why should tea be a non-deciduous species? Analyses of 24,700 unigenes obtained from 57,767 primarily assembled transcripts showed (i) operation of mechanisms of winter tolerance, (ii) down-regulation of genes involved in growth, development, protein synthesis and cell division, and (iii) inhibition of leaf abscission due to modulation of senescence related processes during winter dormancy in tea. These senescence related processes exhibited modulation to favour leaf abscission (i) in deciduous Populus tremula during winters, and (ii) also in tea but under osmotic stress during which leaves also abscise. These results validated the relevance of the identified senescence related processes for leaf abscission and suggested their operation when in need in tea.

  11. Biochemical defense strategies in sterilized seedlings of Nymphoides peltatum adapted to lead stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xuqiang; Shi, Guoxin; Yang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Xu, Xiaoying; Yang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    In order to study potential antioxidant defense mechanisms, the effects of increasing concentrations of lead (Pb) on polyamines (PAs), various thiols, vitamins C and E, and proline contents in sterilized seedlings of Nymphoides peltata (S.G. mel.) Kuntze were investigated after 5 days of exposure. The levels of total putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) decreased significantly, while the ratio of (Spd + Spm)/Put first increased but then declined as the concentration of Pb increased. The trends for free, perchloric acid soluble-conjugated (PS-conjugated), and perchloric acid insoluble-bound (PIS-bound) PAs were similar to the trend seen for total PAs. Moreover, reduced glutathione (GSH), nonprotein thiols (NP-SH), phytochelatins (PCs), and vitamin C were induced at high Pb concentrations. No significant change was observed in vitamin E. An initial decline in proline content was followed by an increase as the Pb concentration rose. The reduced level of Put and elevated contents of GSH, NP-SH, PCs, vitamin C, and proline were found to be associated with antioxidant efficiency, which supports the hypothesis that they could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanisms of N. peltatum under Pb stress.

  12. Compost impacts on dissolved organic carbon and available nitrogen and phosphorus in turfgrass soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alan L; Provin, Tony L; Hons, Frank M; Zuberer, David A; White, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    Compost application to turfgrass soils may increase dissolved organic C (DOC) levels which affects nutrient dynamics in soil. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of compost source and application rate on soil organic C (SOC), DOC, NO(3), and available P during 29 months after a one-time application to St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] turf. Compost sources had variable composition, yet resulted in few differences in SOC, DOC, and NO(3) after applied to soil. Available NO(3) rapidly decreased after compost application and was unaffected by compost source and application rate. Available P increased after compost application and exhibited cyclical seasonal patterns related to DOC. Compost application decreased soil pH relative to unamended soil, but pH increased during the course of the study due to irrigation with sodic water. Increasing the compost application rate increased SOC by 3 months, and levels remained fairly stable to 29 months. In contrast, DOC continued to increase from 3 to 29 months after application, suggesting that compost mineralization and growth of St. Augustinegrass contributed to seasonal dynamics. Dissolved organic C was 75%, 78%, and 101% greater 29 months after application of 0, 80, and 160 Mg compostha(-1), respectively, than before application. Impacts of composts on soil properties indicated that most significant effects occurred within a few months of application. Seasonal variability of SOC, DOC, and available P was likely related to St. Augustinegrass growth stages as well as precipitation, as declines occurred after precipitation events.

  13. Phytochemical, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Properties of Agastache foeniculum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are good sources of natural antioxidants and have beneficial effects on human health. Many of phenolic phytochemicals have shown antimicrobial and antifungal activity. Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze is a perennial aromatic plant of the Lamiaceae family with antimicrobial and antifungal properties and useful for gastrointestinal problems. In this investigation, the antioxidant activity of extracts, their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Salmonella thyphimurium, S. enteritidis, Escherichia coli strains and their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus was evaluated. Seven components were identified, representing 95.4% of the oils including methyl chavicol (83.1%, limonene (3.4%, spathulenol (3.1% and caryophyllene oxide (3.1%. Agar disk diffusion and broth micro-well dilution assays showed that B. subtilis was the most resistant strain against both of the EOs and E. coli was the most sensitive bacteria. Results of both disc diffusion and MIC showed that the EO was more effective against A. flavus than A. niger. Antioxidant activity of A. foeniculum by DPPH and ABTS assays revealed remarkable antioxidant activities of this EO comparing with BHT. Results of current study indicated that A. foeniculum EOs can be used as a food preservative in having antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity for the control of food deterioration.

  14. PBC should be named as Primary Biliary Cholangitis%PBC应命名为原发性胆汁性胆管炎(Primary Biliary Cholangitis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 王吉耀

    2009-01-01

    自1950年Ahrens EH Jr首次将PBC命名为原发性胆汁性肝硬化(Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)后,该诊断一直沿用至今。我们在临床实践中发现原发性胆汁性肝硬化这一诊断不能准确反映出大部分具有中小胆管慢性、非化脓性、毁损性炎症患者的临床和病理特征。Kuntz E教授在他主编的新版国际肝病领域权威教科书中提出了原发性胆汁性肝硬化(Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)应改名为原发性胆汁性胆管炎(Primary Biliary Cholangitis),两者的缩写都是PBC。这一疾病名称的改变代表对这类疾病的进一步认识,对其定位十分确切。

  15. 帽蕊木化学成分研究%Study on the Chemical Constituents of Mitragyna rotundifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文艺; 张百让; 许启泰; 李黎; 郝小江

    2006-01-01

    从帽蕊木(Mitragyna rotundifolia Kuntze)的茎皮乙醇提取物乙醇乙酯部分和正丁醇部分分离得到12个化合物,经波谱分析鉴定分别为β-胡萝卜甙(1),3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(2),β-谷甾醇(3),莨菪亭(4),3,4,5-三甲氧基苯醇-1-葡萄糖甙(5),蒲公英赛醇(6),3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯甲酸(7),3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯甲酸(8),咖啡酸(9),Gambirine (10), Gambireine (11),1,1-dimetheyl-2-acetl-diethyl ether (12).这些化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  16. Phenotypic plasticity as indicator of no pioneer trees more tolerant to intense irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayá Castiglioni Paradizo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Cariniana legalis (Mart. Kuntze (Lecythidaceae in secondary forests in different levels of regeneration suggests that this species is more resistant to full sun in relation to Paratecoma peroba (Record. & Mell Kuhlm. (Bignoniaceae found in dense primary forest. The aim of this study was to characterize the plasticity of growth, anatomical and structural cell wall variables of C. legalis and P. peroba. As the stem is strong drain on tree, it was proposed the hypothesis that plasticity of lignin and hemicelluloses monosaccharides are higher than of growth and anatomical variables, especially with C. legalis that is more resistant to full sun as suggested by its ecological habit. Young plants with 14 months of age were subjected to 20 and 100% of solar light for 60 days. Unlike expected, the plasticity of lignin was lower than plasticity of growth and anatomic variables for both species. Hemicellulose composition of C. legalis was not affected by light. Proportion of arabinose was lower in P. peroba under full sun. We conclude that the indication of higher resistance of C. legalis to full sun was associated with plasticity index of net assimilation rate and relative growth rate (≥ 0.6, stomatal density (≥ 0.3 and lignins (≤ 0.2.

  17. REVISIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO SPOROBOLUS (POACEAE: CHLORIDOIDEAE: SPOROBOLINAE DEL NOROESTE DE SUDAMÉRICA: PERÚ, ECUADOR, COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo-Cañas Diego

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies de Sporobolus para el noroeste de Sudamérica. Se reconocen once especies para el área de estudio. Se incluyen las claves para determinar las especies así como las descripciones morfológicas y sus ilustraciones. Se discuten para cada una de las especies sus relaciones morfológicas, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas; adicionalmente, se relacionan sus usos y sus nombres comunes. Asimismo, se propone la lectotipificación para Sporobolus lasiophyllus Pilg. Por otra parte, se registran tres especies por primera vez para Colombia [Sporobolus pilifer (Trin. Kunth, Sporobolus tenuissimus (Mart. ex Schrank Kuntze y Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth]. Se excluyen de este tratamiento a Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi Hack. (=Eragrostis airoides Nees y Sporobolus domingensis (Trin. Kunth. Adicionalmente, se propone la adopción y la unificación de algunos términos morfológicos en agrostología, tales como caña, panoja, espiguilla, lema, antecio y cariopsis, en lugar de culmo, panícula, espícula, lemma, flósculo y cariopse-cariópside, respectivamente.

  18. Cloning and Sequencing of a Full-Length cDNA Encoding the RuBPCase Small Subunit (RbcS)in Tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ai-hua; JIANG Chang-jun; ZHU Lin; YU Mei; WANG Zhao-xia; DENG Wei-wei; WEI Chao-lin

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed to isolate ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) from tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. In the study of transcriptional profiling of gene expression from tea flower bud development stage by cDNA-AFLP (cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism), we have isolated some transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) occurring in both the young and mature flower bud. One of them showed a high degree of similarity to RbcS. Based on the fragment, the full length of RbcS with 769-bp (EF011075) cDNA was obtained via rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It contained an open reading frame of 176 amino acids consisting of a chloroplast transit peptide with 52 amino acids and a mature protein of 124 amino acids. The amino acids sequence presented a high identity to those of other plant RbcS genes. It also contains three conserved domains and a protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and two N-myristoylation sites. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that the expression of RbcS in tea from high to low was leaf, young stem, young flower bud and mature flower bud, respectively. The isolation of the tea Rubisco small subunit gene establishes a good foundation for further study on the photosynthesis of tea plant.

  19. Effect of different substrates on growth of Mimosa bimucronata seedlings inoculate with rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Müller Freire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth response of Mimosa bimucronata (DC O. Kuntze seedlings in nursery conditions to inoculation with rhizobium strains previously selected using different substrates. An experimental design of randomized blocks with split plots was used, testing three substrates (pure organic-containing clay, sand and manure in 1: 1: 1 v: v: v ratio; organomineral mixed with 30% straw and sand with vermiculite in 1: 1 v: v and four N sources (inoculation with strains BR 3461 and BR 3470, control with N fertilization and control without fertilization, totalizing 12 treatments. Height and stem diameter were evaluate after 90 days and shoot, root and nodules dry mass were evaluate after 120 days. Organomineral substrates provided better seedling growth. However, only organic-substrate with straw and sand with vermiculite showed positive responses of plants inoculated with BR3470 strain. The performance of the inoculated seedlings was not higher than that of seedlings fertilized with N. The rate of N applied stimulated nodulation rather than inhibit it.

  20. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of Dof Family Transcription Factors and Their Responses to Abiotic Stress in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze is affected by abiotic stress during its growth and development. DNA-binding with one finger (Dof transcription factors (TFs play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In this study, a total of 29 putative Dof TFs were identified based on transcriptome of tea plant, and the conserved domains and common motifs of these CsDof TFs were predicted and analyzed. The 29 CsDof proteins were divided into 7 groups (A, B1, B2, C1, C2.1, C2.2, and D2, and the interaction networks of Dof proteins in C. sinensis were established according to the data in Arabidopsis. Gene expression was analyzed in “Yingshuang” and “Huangjinya” under four experimental stresses by qRT-PCR. CsDof genes were expressed differentially and related to different abiotic stress conditions. In total, our results might suggest that there is a potential relationship between CsDof factors and tea plant stress resistance.

  1. Biodiversity and importance of floating weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan District of KPK, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Mir Ajab; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District of KPK, Pakistan, during 2005 - 2007. The area was extensively surveyed in order to collect floating aquatic weeds. From the study area 11 floating aquatic weed species belonging to 9 genera and 9 families were collected and identified in the light of available literature. These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering period, availability, distribution in D.I.Khan, Pakistan and world, beneficial and harmful effects. Key to the floating aquatic species of the area was developed for easy and correct identification and differentiation.

  2. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  3. Biodiversity and Indigenous Uses of Medicinal Plant in the Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandauli District, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurya Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional medicines are very important part of Indian culture. In this study the outcome of two-year study of ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary (CPWLS and nearby area is reported. Information related to different plants which are used by local community in the treatment of many common diseases and well-being in the area was collected. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interview of about 122 participants and thorough observations and conversations with local communities. Approximately 100 plants belonging to 43 families used by the local healers were reported in this study. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lawsonia inermis, Gymnema sylvestre, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula Linn., Butea monosperma (Lam. Kuntze., Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Albizia lebbeck Benth., Aegle marmelos Correa., Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Solanum surattense Burm. f. The most frequent ailments reported were hepatitis, jaundice, constipation, and skin and urinary problems. The parts of the plants most frequently used were fruit, roots, and whole plants (17% followed by leaves (16% and bark (15%. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants.

  4. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  5. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  6. Control of bleeding in surgical procedures: critical appraisal of HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis KM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Michael Lewis,1 Carl Erik Kuntze,2 Heinz Gulle3 1Preclinical Safety and Efficacy, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Baxter Healthcare SA, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Surgical Sciences and Engineering, Baxter Medical Products GmbH, Vienna, Austria Abstract: The need for advanced hemostatic agents increases with the complexity of surgical procedures and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatments. HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat is a novel, advanced hemostatic pad that is composed of a synthetic, protein-reactive monomer and a collagen backing. The active side is covered with a protein-reactive monomer: N-hydroxysuccinimide functionalized polyethylene glycol (NHS-PEG. NHS-PEG rapidly affixes the collagen pad to tissue to promote and maintain hemostasis. The combined action of the NHS-PEG and collagen is demonstrated to have benefit relative to other hemostatic agents in surgery and preclinical surgical models. This paper reviews the published investigations and case reports of the hemostatic efficacy of HEMOPATCH, wherein HEMOPATCH is demonstrated to be an effective, easy-to-use hemostatic agent in open and minimally invasive surgery of patients with thrombin- or platelet-induced coagulopathies. Keywords: HEMOPATCH, hemostasis, surgical hemostasis, sealing, surgical sealant

  7. NASA Scientists Witness a Supernova Cosmic Rite of Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have witnessed a cosmic rite of passage, the transition from a supernova to a supernova remnant, a process that has never been seen in much detail until now, leaving it poorly defined. A supernova is a massive star explosion; the remnant is the beautiful glowing shell that evolves afterwards. When does a supernova become supernova remnant? When does the shell appear and what powers its radiant glow? A science team led by Dr. Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., has taken a fresh look at a supernova that exploded in 1970, called SN 1970G, just off the handle of the Big Dipper. This is the oldest supernova ever seen by X-ray telescopes. Chandra X-ray Image of SN 1970G Chandra X-ray Image of SN 1970G "Some astronomers have thought there's a moment when the supernova remnant magically turns on years after the supernova itself has faded away, when the shock wave of the explosion finally hits and lights up the interstellar medium," said Immler. "By contrast, our results show that a new supernova quickly and seamlessly evolves into a supernova remnant. The star's own debris, and not the interstellar medium gas, fuels the remnant." These results appear in The Astrophysical Journal, co-authored by Dr. Kip Kuntz, also of Goddard. They support previous Chandra observations of SN 1987A by Dr. Sangwook Park of Penn State. Using new data from Chandra and archived data from the European-led ROSAT and XMM-Newton observatories, Immler and Kuntz pieced together how SN 1970G evolved over the years. They found telltale signs of a supernova remnant - bright X-ray light - yet no evidence of interstellar gas, even across a distance around the site of the explosion 35 times larger than our solar system. Instead, the material that is heated by the supernova shock to glow in X-ray light, what we call the remnant, is from the stellar wind of the star itself and not distant gas in the interstellar medium. This

  8. Persistência de plantas medicinais em sistemas agroflorestais no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Hanisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 90, a comunidade de Rio Natal, no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, passou a fazer parte de uma Área de Preservação Ambiental e desde então, muitas áreas de cultivo, paulatinamente, estão retomando o processo de formação florestal. Neste cenário, foi sugerido pela comunidade, a possibilidade de cultivo de plantas medicinais adaptadas às condições de sombreamento. Em atendimento a essa demanda foi realizada uma pesquisa participativa na comunidade, de 2005 a 2008, onde foram avaliadas 14 espécies de plantas medicinais com potencial de mercado, cultivadas em áreas sombreadas, em três propriedades familiares. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência das espécies, incidência de doenças e pragas, teor de massa seca e altura das plantas. Apresentaram persistência ao cultivo em áreas sombreadas as espécies: Curcuma longa L. (açafrão-da-índia; Arctium lappa L. (bardana; Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (fáfia ou ginseng-brasileiro; Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco; Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntze (penicilina; Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth (patchuli e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek (espinheira-santa.

  9. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil; Atividade de {sup 14} C do 'fallout' em aneis anuais de crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia, de Arapoti - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de 14 C; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais. Lab. de Dendrocronologia

    2000-07-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial {sup 14} C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. {sup 14} C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of {delta}{sup 14} C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout {sup 14} C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11{sup S}, 49 deg 58{sup O}). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its {sup 14} C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the {delta} {sup 14} C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO{sub 2} mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  10. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  11. Fenologia de espécies lenhosas da caatinga do Seridó, RN Phenology of woody species in the caatinga of Seridó, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Lucena de Amorim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia de 13 espécies arbustivas e arbóreas da caatinga do Seridó foi acompanhada durante dois anos para determinar se, nesta vegetação aberta e pobre de espécies, as fenofases sucedem-se ao longo de todo o ano. Foram selecionados 10 indivíduos adultos de cada espécie e feitas observações quinzenais sobre sua cobertura de folhagem, floração e frutificação. A cobertura de folhas foi fortemente influenciada pela pluviosidade, em 11 das espécies que tiveram as copas totalmente desfolhadas durante um número variável de dias durante as estações secas. Essa influência ficou patente nos rápidos fluxos de formação e queda de folhas, subsequentes a chuvas esporádicas, em épocas normalmente secas. No entanto, Capparis flexuosa e Erythroxylum pungens permaneceram com folhas o ano todo. Ao longo dos dois anos, apenas por curtos períodos de tempo (cerca de 15 dias não havia flores ou frutos na comunidade. No entanto, floração e frutificação tiveram picos na estação chuvosa. Os padrões em nível de espécie foram mais complexos do que em nível de comunidade. Erythroxylum pungens não floresceu, e Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Tabebuia impetiginosa floresceram uma única vez, ao longo dos dois anos, enquanto Mimosa acutistipula floresceu cinco vezes e Jatropha mollissima e Pithecellobium foliolosum, quatro. Em quatro espécies (Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera colubrina, Pithecellobium foliolosum e Tabebuia impetiginosa, a frutificação não ocorreu em todos os indivíduos que floresceram, enquanto nas outras espécies os que floresceram produziram frutos. Apesar de a frutificação ter ocorrido quase que continuamente, durante muitos períodos foi composta exclusivamente de frutos do tipo seco.The phenology of 13 shrub and tree species in the caatinga of Seridó was observed for two years to determine if, in this open vegetation, poor in species, phenophases occur throughout all the seasons. Ten plants of each species

  12. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Jha, Prabhat Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl) concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM). It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85%) caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75%) of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid) in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR) in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase) under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to using PGPR

  13. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Rajnish Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM. It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85% caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75% of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to

  14. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF KELP GULL LARUS DOMINICANUS (CHARADRIIFORMES, LARIDAE IN THREE ISLANDS NORTH OFF PERU

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    Figueroa, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November and December 2004, an evaluation was done of some aspects of breeding biology of the kelp gull Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823 in Lobos de Afuera, Lobos de Tierra and Foca islands, located off northern Peru. An association was found between the colonies of this species with the South American sea lion Otariaflavescens (Shaw, 1800 in Lobos de Afuera and Foca, with the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii (Milne-Edwards, 1882 in Lobos de Afuera and Lobos de Tierra, the peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Molina, 1782 in Lobos de Afuera, and with the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti (Meyen, 1834 in Foca. Egg predation and kleptoparasitism of S. nebouxii was common for this species in the three islands. Regarding the selection of nesting areas, it was noted that the Kelp Gull used different types of substrates such as rock, gravel, flagstone, boulders and seashells and that the nests were built using the resources of the site, mainly seaweeds and feathers and, in the Foca case, using leaves from sapote Capparis scabrida (Kunth, 1821. The nests were located in high and windy areas of the islands next to cracks and large rocks, from slopes of less than 15º to cliffs. Apparently, the timing of nest initiation was the same in the three islands, starting around the third week of October; in most cases were found three eggs in the nests. Factors are discussed that could affect the biological characteristics of the Kelp Gull in northern Peru and its differences with other breeding areas.

  15. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  16. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

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    Gilles Havik

    Full Text Available Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  17. Large-scale Isolation and Purification of R-phycoerythrin from Red Alga Palmaria palmata Using the Expanded Bed Adsorption Method%用膨化柱填料的方法从红藻中规模分离纯化R-藻红蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广策; 孙海宝; 范晓; 曾呈奎

    2002-01-01

    以Phenyl-sepharose作为柱填料,用streamline柱层析技术从红藻(Palmaria palmata (Lannaeus) Kuntze)中规模分离捕光色素蛋白--R-藻红蛋白.由于不是传统的从层析柱上方进样,而是用泵将样品从streamline层析柱的下方加样(从下至上),因而解决了用一般层析柱分离R-藻红蛋白时海藻抽提液中大量的粘性多糖堵塞层析柱的难题.用P.palmata粗提液上样后,分别用0.2 mol/L、 0.1 mol/L和0.05 mol/L的(NH4)2SO4溶液从相反的方向(即从上到下)洗脱层析柱,发现这些洗脱液中的藻红蛋白纯度已经较高.然后将洗脱液透析去盐,用阴离子交换柱层析(Q-sepharose)进一步纯化.经过这两次柱层析后,R-藻红蛋白的纯度(OD565/OD280)超过3.5,高于一般认可的R-藻红蛋白的纯度标准3.2;产率为每克冷冻P.palmata可纯化0.122 mg高纯度的R-藻红蛋白,比使用一般分离方法的产率要高10倍.这些结果表明,使用本文报道的方法纯化藻红蛋白,将会使作为生化检测试剂的藻红蛋白市场价格大幅度下降.%R-phycoerythrin,a light-harvesting protein in some marine algae,and can be widely used in medicine,was isolated and purified from a red alga,Palmaria palmata (Lannaeus) Kuntze,using the streamline column (expanded bed adsorption) combined with ion-exchange chromatography.Because the crude extract was applied to the column upwardly,the column would not be blocked by polysaccharides usually very abundant in the extract of marine alga,this kind of blockage could hardly be overcome in ordinary chromatographic column.After applying the crude extract containing 0.5 mol/L (NH4)2SO4,(NH4)2SO4 solution of different concentrations (0.2 mol/L,0.1 mol/L and 0.05 mol/L) was used to elute the column downwardly and the eluates were collected and desalted.The desalted eluates were then applied onto an ion-exchange chromatographic column loaded with Q-sepharose for further purification of the R-phycoerythrin.Through these

  18. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent. The present study was set up to evaluate the abundance and diversity of soil spider families in natural and reforested Araucaria forests, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient method to collect these organisms. The study was conducted in four areas: native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Considering both sampling methods (Monolith and Pitfall traps, 20 spider families were identified. The pitfall trap method was more effective as it captured 19 out of the 20 recorded families, while the Monolith method extracted only ten spider families. Spider family abundance and Shannon's diversity index (H were affected by the employed collection method; the values for these attributes were always higher for the NF and lower for the NPF. Correspondence analysis (CA showed a spatial separation among spider familiy assemblages from the different studied areas. It is suggested that changes in the abundance of soil spider families in Araucaria forests are mainly caused by recurrent human intervention over the last few years.As florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze estão ameaçadas de extinção no Brasil, e são praticamente inexistentes as informações sobre a diversidade de famílias de aranhas de solo associadas nestes ambientes. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a abundância e diversidade de famílias de aranhas, além de identificar o método mais eficiente para coletar estes organismos. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro

  19. Qualidade da madeira de cinco espécies florestais para o envelhecimento da cachaça Quality of wood of five forestal species for aging of 'cachaça'

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    Catarina G. Catão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se esta pesquisa com o objetivo de avaliar as características das madeiras de amburana (Amburana cearencis (Fr. Allem. A.C. Sm., bálsamo (Myroxylon peruiferum L.f., ipê-amarelo (Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Standl., jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e jequitibá-rosa (Cariniana legalis (Mart. Kuntze no armazenamento de cachaças; comparar as cachaças com amostra armazenada em barril de carvalho (Quercus sp., analisar o efeito do envelhecimento e comparar os valores obtidos com os padronizados pela Legislação Brasileira. Para tanto, as cachaças foram armazenadas em barris de madeira e em recipiente de vidro e analisadas suas características químicas (acidez volátil, álcool metílico, álcool superior, aldeído, cobre, éster, extrato seco a 100 ºC, furfural e grau alcoólico e organolépticas (cor, sabor e aroma. Após seis meses de armazenamento as cachaças foram comparadas com os valores padronizados. Independente da espécie, a madeira melhorou as qualidades sensoriais da cachaça incorporando, à bebida, cor, gosto e sabor característicos. Todas as cachaças avaliadas continuaram dentro dos padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira.This research aimed to evaluate the wood quality of Amburana cearencis (Fr. Allem. A.C. Sm., Myroxylon peruiferum L.f., Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Standl., Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. and Cariniana legalis (Mart. Kuntze in the storage of "cachaça" (Brazilian sugar cane spirit; to compare the "cachaça" studied with the stored one in barrel of oak (Quercus sp., to analyze the effect of the aging and to compare the values obtained with the standard ones for the Brazilian Legislation. Thus, the "cachaças" were stored in wooden and glass barrels and their chemical (volatile acidity, methyl alcohol, superior alcohol, aldehyde, cupper, ester, dry extract to 100 ºC, furfural contents and

  20. HERBICIDES EFFICIENCY AND SELECTIVITY ON WEED CONTROL IN THE SOYBEAN CROP EFICIÊNCIA E SELETIVIDADE DE HERBICIDAS NA CULTURA DA SOJA (Glycine Max (L. Merrill EM ÁREA DE CERRADO

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    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of Boral (sulfentrazone, Scepter (imazaquin and Sencor (metribuzin on weed control in the soybean crop, a trial was carried out at Escola de Agronomia / Universidade Federal de Goiás. Six treatments were tested: 1- Boral 500 SC(1.2 l/ha; 2- Sencor 480 SC (1.0 l/ha; 3- Sencor 480 SC +Scepter 150 CE (0.6 + 0.8 1/ha; 4- Sencor 480 SC + Boral 500 SC (0.75 + 0.70 1/ha; 5- Not weeded control; 6- Weeded control. These treatments were planted as randomized blocks design with four replications. The soybean cultivar was MTBR-49 (Pioneira, sowing in 50 cm spacing and 20 plants/m density. There were not differences between the treatments in the first and second evaluation of Sida rhombifolia L., Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. and Ipomoea purpurea Lam. occurrence. There were differences between treatments for Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. O. Kuntze at first evaluation (27 days after herbicides application and for Brachiaria decumbens Stapt. and second evaluation (41 days after herbicides application. During the evaluations it was not found fitotoxicity.

    KEY-WORDS: Sulfentrazone; imazaquin; metribuzin; soybean.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade dos produtos Boral (sulfentrazone, Scepter (lmazaquin e Sencor (metribuzin no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, instalou-se um ensaio na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no município de Goiânia - GO. O ensaio constituiu-se de seis tratamentos: l- Boral 500 SC (1,2 1/ha; 2- Sencor 480 SC (1,0 1/ha; 3- Sencor 480 SC + Scepter 150 CE (0,6 + 0,8 l/ha; 4 - Sencor 480 SC + Boral 500 SC (0,75 + 0,70 l/ha; 5- Testemunha sem capina e 6-Testemunha capinada. O

  1. Análise de crescimento em amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. submetido à matocompetição Analysis of peanut growth under a weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mauro Barbosa

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram verificados os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle e convivência de plantas daninhas (0; 14; 28; 42; 56; 70; 84 e 98 dias na cultura do amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. em Moji-Guaçu (SP. As principais espécies invasoras da área experimental foram: Acanthospermum australe (Loef. O. Kuntz, Waltheria indica L., Borreria alata DC., Richardia scabra L., Rhynchelytrum repens (Nees Stapf. et Hubb. e Diodia teres Walt. De maneira geral, durante quase todo o ciclo, a espécie de maior importância relativa foi A. australe, sendo suplantada por outras espécies apenas na colheita, quando já estava encerrando seu ciclo de desenvolvimento. O período inicial de controle das plantas daninhas, além de reduzir a densidade da comunidade infestante, diminuiu sua riqueza em espécies e alterou a importância relativa das populações. A matocompetição resultou na redução do crescimento do amendoinzeiro, principalmente a partir de 42 dias de convivência, afetando a altura das plantas, a área foliar, o índice de área foliar e o acúmulo epígeo de matéria seca. Não foram afetados os números de ramos e de folíolos por planta, nem a qualidade dos grãos e o vigor das sementes do amendoim. A produção de frutos foi reduzida ao redor de 31,5% em decorrência da interferência das plantas daninhas. O período total de prevenção da interferência na produção foi de 14 dias e o período anterior à interferência foi de 70 dias.Effects of different periods (0-14-28-42-56-70-84 and 98 days of weed control in peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were studied in Moji-Guaçu region (State of São Paulo. The main weed species in the experimental area were: Acanthospermum australe (Loef. O. Kuntz, Waltheria indica L.; Borreria alata D.C.; Richardia scabra L.; Rhynchelytrum repens (Ness Stapf. et Hubb and Diodia teres Walt. During the whole peanut life cycle, except at harvest time, the most important weed species was A. australe. The

  2. Fatores ecológicos determinantes na ocorrência de Araucaria angustifolia e Podocarpus lambertii, na Floresta Ombrófila Mista da FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil Ecological factors that determine the occurrence of Araucaria angustifolia and Podocarpus lambertii in Mixed Ombrophylous Forest at São Francisco de Paula's FLONA, RS, Brazil

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na Floresta Nacional (FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, no Rio Grande do Sul. Teve como objetivo determinar, via análise de regressão logística, os fatores ambientais que influenciam a ocorrência das espécies Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e Podocarpus lambertii Klotzsch ex Endl. em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista na FLONA de São Francisco de Paula. Para o estudo, foram avaliados os indivíduos com cap=30cm, em 1.000 subunidades amostrais de 10 x 10m, demarcadas em 10 conglomerados permanentes de 1ha (100 x 100m previamente instalados na floresta. Em cada subunidade amostral, foram avaliados os fatores passíveis de influenciar a ocorrência das espécies, como os fatores relativos ao habitat: físicos do solo (profundidade, presença de afloramentos rochosos e umidade, exposição à luz e inclinação do terreno; e os fatores relativos à concorrência: área basal, densidade do sub-bosque e frequência de indivíduos. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que a Araucaria angustifolia ocorre em locais com solos profundos, expostos para o norte e com baixa frequência de indivíduos. Por outro lado, Podocarpus lambertii prefere locais não pedregosos, pouco inclinados, com exposição sul, relativamente úmidos, com alta frequência de indivíduos e alta densidade do sub-bosque.The present research was accomplished at São Francisco de Paula's National Forest (FLONA, in Rio Grande do Sul. The objective was to determine, through logistics regression analysis, the environmental and competition factors that could influence on the occurrence of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze and Podocarpus lambertii former Klotzsch Endl. species in Mixed ombrophylous forest. For the study, the individuals with cap=30cm had been evaluated, in 1000 samples of 10 x 10m, demarcated in ten permanent conglomerate of 1ha (100 x 100m previously installed in the forest. In each sample the factors that

  3. Ação antioxidante de chás e condimentos de grande consumo no Brasil Antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil

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    Selene M. de Morais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidantes são compostos que atuam inibindo e/ou diminuindo os efeitos desencadeados pelos radicais livres e compostos oxidantes. Os chás são bebidas populares e fontes significativas de compostos fenólicos, sendo considerados importantes integrantes das dietas devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antioxidante de uma variedade de chás e condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil. Os chás analisados foram das plantas: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia sinensis (L O. Kuntze (fermentado, Camelia sinensis (não-fermentado, Lippia alba N.E. Brown,Mentha arvensis L., e Pyrus malus L. Os condimentos analisados foram: Eugenia aromatica Baill, Cinnamonum zeylanicum Blume, Laurus nobilis L. e Origanum vulgare L. O método utilizado para avaliar a ação antioxidante foi o da atividade seqüestradora de radicais livres DPPH em solução metanólica. Todas as amostras analisadas demonstraram atividade em suas diferentes concentrações. Camelia sinensis (não-fermentada foi a mais ativa com CI50= 0,14 mg/mL, cujos principais compostos antioxidantes são epigalocatequinas. Os condimentos mais ativos foram Cinnamonum zeylanicum (CI50 = 0,37 mg/mL, Eugenia aromatica Baill (CI50 = 0,46 mg/mL e Laurus nobilis (CI50 = 0,76 mg/mL, cujo principal antioxidante relatado foi o eugenol.Antioxidants are compounds that remove free-radicals or minimize their availability to generate oxidative stress. Teas are popular beverages providing a significant source of phenolic compounds, important components of the human diet due to their antioxidant properties. The present work had the objective of evaluate the antioxidant action of teas and seasonings more consumed in Brazil. The analysed teas were from the plants: Pneumus boldus Mold., Matricaria recutita L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, Baccharis trimera (Less. DC, Camelia

  4. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro Cocentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is Caulerpa, with 11 species. The results showed that most taxa (89% are rare, and 10% are present at low frequencies. The most frequent species was Caulerpaprolifera (Forssk. J.V. Lamour. occurring at almost all coastal and inner shelf stations, recorded in all campaigns. Species distribution by depth range showed that higher species number occurred on the inner shelf from 10 to 20 m, and a wide vertical distribution pattern was registered for Anadyomenestellata (Wulfen in Jacq. C. Agardh,Chamaedoris peniculum (J. Ellis & Solander Kuntze, Codium isthmocladum Vickers, Microdictyon sp., Udoteaoccidentalis A. Gepp & E. Gepp and Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh J.L. Olsen & J.A. West. Four species, Cladophoracoelothrix Kütz., C.ordinata (Børgensen C. Hoek, Caulerpellaambigua (Okamura Prud'homme & Lokhorst and Halimedasimulans M. Howe, were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte.Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das algas verdes do infralitoral da Bacia potiguar, RN, nordeste do Brasil foram analisados a partir de material coletado em profundidades que variaram de 2 a 100 m. As coletas foram feitas em dois tipos de dragas durante as quatro campanhas: julho de 2002, maio e novembro de 2003 e maio de 2004, em 43 estações. Chlorophyta está representada por 54 espécies, cinco variedades e três formas. A família mais representativa é Caulerpaceae e dentro da família, o gênero mais diverso é Caulerpa, com 11 espécies. Os resultados

  5. Modelling Seasonal Carbon Dynamics on Fen Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Roppel, Mario; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges between soil and atmosphere on several fen peatland use areas at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements on our site of varying types of agricultural land use. There we found significant differences in the annual carbon balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Annual balances were constructed by applying single respiration and photosynthesis CO2 models for each measurement campaign. These models were based on LLOYD-TAYLOR (1994) and Michaelis-Menten-Kinetics respectively. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the

  6. Seasonal Trace Gas Dynamics on Minerotrophic Fen Peatlands in NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Minke, Merten; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges of several fen peatland use areas between soil and atmosphere at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements and show significant differences in their annual trace gas balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the identification of main flux driving parameters. That is that a reduced intensity in land use as a supposed mitigating treatment did not show the expected effect, though a normal meadow treatment surprisingly resulted in the lowest balances in both years. For implementing a

  7. Seasonal Carbon Dynamics on Selected Fen Peatland Sites in NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Minke, Merten; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges of several fen peatland use areas between soil and atmosphere at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements and show significant differences in their annual carbon balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the identification of main flux driving parameters. That is that a reduced intensity in land use as a supposed mitigating treatment did not show the expected effect, though a normal meadow treatment surprisingly resulted in the lowest CO2 balances in both years. For implementing a

  8. 前胡族花粉外壁超微结构及其系统学意义%Ultrastructure of Pollen Exine in Peucedaneae Drude with Reference to Its Systematic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒璞; 佘孟兰

    2004-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of pollen grains of 18 species belonging to 18 respective genera of the tribe Peucedaneae Drude revealed distinct ultrastructural difference in the pollen exine, including the thickness and features of tectum, columnar layer, foot layer and endexine. The systematic position of those 18 species are re-evaluated based on their ultrastructural characteristics of pollen exine observed in this study. Seven genera related to Angelica L. In Angelicinae Drude have been deduced to genus Angelica L. For example, Ostericum grosseserratum (Maxim.) Kitagawa was changed to Angelica L. By some authors, but it differs from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels in having well developed tectum which is thicker than the columnar layer and foot layer. Its columnar layer is quite well-developed with long and branched columellae. Besides its surface is tuberculated. Evidently, its development exceeds that of Angelica sinensis. However, it is only a moderate evolutional species in its genus, and the Angelica sinensis accounts as the most advanced species in Angelica Diels, thus, placing genus Ostericum Hoffm.in Angelica L. Is not suitable, it may be more appropriate to keep its original position. In addition, Ferula akitschkensis B. Fedtsch. Ex K.-Pol. Differs greatly from those of Talassia transiliensis (Herd.) Korov. And Schumannia turcomnnia Kuntze, because of its very well-developed columnar layer, being about four to five times thicker than the total of tectum and foot layer, tuberculated tectum surface and complicated structure of columnellae. As another species Heracleum forrestii Wolff also differs from Semenovia rubtzovii(Schischk.) Monden. In having an even thickness of exine and well-developed columnar layer, it seems suitable that they should also be treated as two independent genera.%报道了前胡族(Peucedaneae Drude)当归亚族(Angelicinae Drude)、阿魏亚族(Ferulinae Drude)和环翅芹亚族(TordyliinaeDrude)等3亚族18

  9. Tannins Dynamic of 15 Tropical Trees and Shrubs%15种热带乔灌木单宁含量动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂; 字学娟; 周汉林; 徐铁山; 刘国道

    2011-01-01

    Tannin contents of 15 tropical trees and shrubs were observed from March 2009 to Feb. 2010. Tannin levels of forage plants were ranked as: Ficus hispida L. F. (0. 39%), Erythrina variegata Linn. (0.77%); Cratylia argentea (Desv. ) Kuntze (0.78%); Dendrolobium triangulate (Retz. ) Schindl. (1. 16%); Cajanuscajan (Linn. ) Huth (1. 29%); Senna bicapsularis (Linn. ) Roxb. (1. 38%); Microcos paniculata Linn. (1.56%); Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb. Ex Link) Hassk. (1.57%); Ficus auriculata Lour. (1. 62%); Senna didymobotrya (Fresen. ) H. S. Irwin et Barneby (1. 82%); Flemingia macro-phylla (Willd. ) Prain (1. 91%); Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. ) Blume (2. 14%); Leucaena leuco-cephala (Lam.) de Wit (2.34%); Acacia fame siana (Linn.) Willd. (2.67%); Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt (2. 80%). There were significant monthly dynamic of tannin contents in all tested tropical trees and shrubs leaves, related to species, growing period and environment. Additionally, utilization and tannin physiology were also discussed in this paper.%通过对15种热带乔灌木不同月份(2009年3月至2010年2月)单宁含量的测定,以期明确部分木本饲用植物单宁含量及其动态变化趋势.结果表明:15种热带乔灌木单宁平均含量由低到高顺序如下:对叶榕(Ficus hispida L.f.)(0.39%)<刺桐(Erythrina variegata Linn.)(0.77%)<克拉豆(Cratylia argentea( Desv.)Kuntze) (0.78%)<假木豆(Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl.)(1.16%)<木豆(Cajanus ca jan (Linn.)Huth)(1.29%)<双荚决明(Senna bicapsularis (Linn.) Roxb.)(1.38%)<破布叶(Microcos paniculata Linn.)(1.56%)<圆叶舞草(Codariocalyx gyroides (Roxb.ex Link) Hassk.)(1.57%)<大果榕(Ficus auriculata Lour.)(1.62%)<长穗决明(Senna did ymobotr ya( Fresen.)H.S.Irwin et Barneby)(1.82%)<大叶千斤拔(Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Prain)( 1.91%)<黄牛木(Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume) (2.14%)<银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala( Lam

  10. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Rivera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze residues, broiler litter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or applied as cover to the substrate in 5 L pots at the beginning of spring. A chemical treatment with the nematicide fenamiphos and a control with substrate only were added for comparisons. The assay was composed of 11 treatments with six replicates, with a grape plant as experimental unit. Seven months later, the assessment of the treatments was carried out based on number of second stage juvenile, nodules, eggs per root gram and reproductive index. Fresh aerial and root plant weight were also measured. The chemical treatment presented the lowest final population of M. ethiopica. When evaluating the nematicide action of the organic amendments: compost A soil-incorporated and both grape pomace and solid dry tea residue as covers obtained low reproductive indexes, similar to the chemical treatment and control (P ≤ 0.05. No differences in aerial fresh weight were determined. However, the chemical treatment showed the smallest root mass as compared to compost B and solid dry tea residues, both as cover.Se realizó un experimento en macetas con plantas enraizadas de Vitis vinífera L. var. Chardonnay para evaluar el efecto nematicida de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas sobre el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968. Se usaron dos composts inmaduros: Compost A, elaborado con residuos de té (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, guano de pollo seco y orujo de uva; Compost B, elaborado con residuos de té, escobajo y orujo de uva; y separadamente residuos s

  11. Macrófitas aquáticas da lagoa de Jijoca de Jericoacoara, Ceará, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of Jijoca of Jericoacoara lagoon, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Queiroz Matias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A lagoa de Jijoca de Jericoacoara situa-se no litoral do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil (2º50'10'' e 2º55'32''S - 40º28'32'' e 40º24'09''W, sendo bordejada em sua extremidade Norte por dunas e por vegetação de tabuleiro nas demais faces. Realizou-se o levantamento da composição florística e da estrutura da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas presentes na lagoa. As amostras das plantas foram coletadas e depositadas no herbário EAC. Densidade, freqüência e cobertura das espécies foram amostradas em 10 transectos plotados em áreas com boas condições de conservação de suas margens, evitando-se áreas urbanas e de atividade agropecuária adjuntas à lagoa. Apresenta-se a lista de 45 espécies ocorrentes, suas formas biológicas e dados da estrutura da comunidade. As espécies com maior índice do valor de importância (IVI foram Eleocharis mutata (L. Roem. & Schult., Paspalidium geminatum Stapf, Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz. Kunth, Nymphoides indica (L. Kuntze e Echinodorus tenellus (Mart. Buchen. A forma de vida predominante foi "plantas enraizadas ao substrato - anfíbias tolerantes à seca". Em relação à profundidade, ocorre aumento da diversidade de espécies de áreas mais profundas para 0-0,5m de espessura da lâmina d'água.The Jijoca of Jericoacoara lake is located at Ceará Coastal Zone, Northeast of Brazil (2º50'10'' e 2º55'32''S - 40º28'32'' e 40º24'09''W, and it has sand dunes on the Northern shore and arboreal semi-deciduous vegetation around the other lakesides. A floristic and communities structure survey of aquatic flora was conducted. Plant samples were collected and included in the EAC Herbarium. The density, frequency, and cover were measurements used in describing communities by intercept transect sampling. Sampling was carried out in Jijoca of Jericoacoara lake at 10 localities, except areas with human impact, such as urban and agricultural areas. A list of 45 species, their life forms and vegetation

  12. Uso de plantas medicinais na região de Alto Paraíso de Goiás, GO, Brasil The utilization of medicinal plants in the region of Alto Paraíso of Goiás, GO, Brazil

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    Cynthia Domingues de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Os conhecimentos tradicionais dos usos mais comuns dados aos vegetais podem ser resgatados pela etnobotânica e utilizados para a valorização das plantas do Cerrado no processo de desenvolvimento econômico. Este estudo foi conduzido no município de Alto Paraíso de Goiás, localizado na microrregião denominada Chapada dos Veadeiros, a uma distância de 230 km de Brasília. O levantamento etnobotânico teve como alvo comunidades do entorno do Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros e da cidade de Alto Paraíso. Foram realizadas entrevistas em aberto com os moradores locais, tentando buscar informações em níveis sócio-culturais distintos, enfocando quais plantas são mais utilizadas e suas indicações no combate a enfermidades. Observou-se que as espécies vegetais do cerrado têm uma gama considerável de utilização humana para quase todos os estratos, ervas, arbustos e árvores. Quanto às espécies arbóreas, predomina a utilização da entrecasca e sementes. A comunidade utiliza a biodiversidade nativa uma vez que 69% das 103 espécies citadas pelos entrevistados como úteis pertenceram à flora nativa. No elenco das dez espécies medicinais mais utilizadas, foram coincidentes na indicação de todos os entrevistados: chapéu de couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, arnica (Lychnophora ericoides Mart., plantas nativas de porte herbáceo/arbustivo; as arbóreas nativas, jatobá (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne, tingui (Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil. e o barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e duas ruderais, carrapicho (Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze e mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., de porte herbáceo/arbustivo. Outro ponto importante evidenciado foi que, apesar do grande potencial de exploração extrativista vegetal, estes recursos estão sendo utilizados de forma indiscriminada, sem um programa eficiente de manejo sustentado.Ethnobotany allows rescuing traditional knowledge of the

  13. Indicadores de impacto ambiental de plantaciones forestales - componente vegetal.

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    Fabio Moscovich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscando determinar indicadores sobre el impacto ambiental, basados en características vegetales, que generarían los monocultivos forestales lindantes con bosques nativos, se instalaron 32 unidades de muestreo en un área de propiedad de la empresa LIPSIA, Departamento Esperanza (Misiones, que reunía estas características. Las parcelas, de 100 m2, se distribuyeron sistemáticamente a cada 25 m. La vegetación se dividió en tres estratos: superior (CAP ≥ 30 cm, medio (5 cm ≤ CAP  30 cm e inferior (CAP < 5 cm. Se instalaron 10 parcelas en bosque nativo explotado, 10 parcelas en una plantación de Pinus elliottii Engelm. de 18 años aproximadamente (400 árboles/ha, 6 parcelas en la zona límite de una plantación de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze de 20-25 años (900 árboles/ha y 6 parcelas en el interior de esta plantación. En el área en estudio se identificaron 150 especies vegetales. En el estrato inferior se encontraron diferencias en función de varios índices de diversidad florística. En todos los casos el bosque nativo presentó mayor diversidad que las plantaciones, seguido por el pinar, el interior de la plantación de araucaria y por la zona límite de la plantación de araucaria. Todos los bosques estudiados ajustaron a la serie logarítmica de distribución de especies, lo que estaría reflejando la incidencia de un factor ambiental en esta distribución.

  14. Indicadores de impacto ambiental de plantaciones forestales – componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Borhen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Buscando determinar indicadores sobre el impacto ambiental, basados en características vegetales, que generarían los monocultivos forestales lindantes con bosques nativos, se instalaron 32 unidades de muestreo en un área de propiedad de la empresa LIPSIA, Departamento Esperanza (Misiones, que reunía estas características. Las parcelas, de 100 m2, se distribuyeron sistemáticamente a cada 25 m. La vegetación se dividió en tres estratos: superior (CAP ≥ 30 cm, medio (5 cm ≤ CAP > 30 cm e inferior (CAP 30 cm e inferior (CAP < 5 cm. Se instalaron 10 parcelas en bosque nativo explotado, 10 parcelas en una plantación de Pinus elliottii Engelm. de 18 años aproximadamente (400 árboles/ha, 6 parcelas en la zona límite de una plantación de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze de 20-25 años (900 árboles/ha y 6 parcelas en el interior de esta plantación. En el área en estudio se identificaron 150 especies vegetales. En el estrato inferior se encontraron diferencias en función de varios índices de diversidad florística. En todos los casos el bosque nativo presentó mayor diversidad que las plantaciones, seguido por el pinar, el interior de la plantación de araucaria y por la zona límite de la plantación de araucaria. Todos los bosques estudiados ajustaron a la serie logarítmica de distribución de especies, lo que estaría reflejando la incidencia de un factor ambiental en esta distribución.

  15. The cultural-bound disease "empacho" in Argentina. A comprehensive botanico-historical and ethnopharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, R; Scarpa, G F

    2013-07-09

    Empacho is one of the most recognized cultural-bound syndromes in Argentina. It is a digestive disorder with many causes, being excessive food intake the most frequent. It is easily diagnosed in household medicine and there are different treatments applied for releasing the obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Therapeutics includes the use of medicinal plants and abdominal maneuvers, as well as rituals of magical and/or religious nature. The aim of this work is to analyze the compiled literature, considering documents from the XVIIIth century up to present, related to the employed plant species for the treatment of empacho. The bibliographic and journal collections of several Argentinean and foreign libraries and bookstores were consulted, in addition to the comprehensive review of the specific information found online. Ninety (90) primary sources, spanning three hundred years (from 1710 to 2010) were found; most of them included ethnobotanical studies besides others of medical botany, pharmacobotanical and anthropological origin. A total of 152 plant species used to treat empacho were found in 360 total quotations, being Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants; Alternanthera pungens Kunth; Ruta chalepensis L.; Clinopodium gilliesii (Benth.) Kuntze; Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke; Lippia turbinata Griseb., and Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, the most frequently mentioned. The main therapeutic properties of the medicinal plants cited against empacho are stomachic, purgative, antispasmodic, bitter-tonic, carminative, and cholagogue-choleretic. The variety of regions - spanning most of the country - from which the information comes, as well as the great variety of therapeutic strategies used, diversity of plant species and knowledge related to the treatment of empacho, is directly associated with the great significance that this disorder has within the system of medical-nosologic representations of the Argentinean popular medicine. Copyright

  16. DNA barcode and identification of the varieties and provenances of Taiwan's domestic and imported made teas using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yen, Cheng-En; Chang, Chieh

    2017-04-01

    The major aim of made tea identification is to identify the variety and provenance of the tea plant. The present experiment used 113 tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation, from which 113 internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) fragments, 104 trnL intron, and 98 trnL-trnF intergenic sequence region DNA sequences were successfully sequenced. The similarity of the ITS2 nucleotide sequences between tea plants housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation was 0.379-0.994. In this polymerase chain reaction-amplified noncoding region, no varieties possessed identical sequences. Compared with the trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic sequence fragments of chloroplast cpDNA, the proportion of ITS2 nucleotide sequence variation was large and is more suitable for establishing a DNA barcode database to identify tea plant varieties. After establishing the database, 30 imported teas and 35 domestic made teas were used in this model system to explore the feasibility of using ITS2 sequences to identify the varieties and provenances of made teas. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using ITS2 sequences with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, which indicated that the same variety of tea plant is likely to be successfully categorized into one cluster, but contamination from other tea plants was also detected. This result provides molecular evidence that the similarity between important tea varieties in Taiwan remains high. We suggest a direct, wide collection of made tea and original samples of tea plants to establish an ITS2 sequence molecular barcode identification database to identify the varieties and provenances of tea plants. The DNA barcode comparison method can satisfy the need for a rapid, low-cost, frontline differentiation of the large amount of made teas from Taiwan and abroad, and can provide molecular evidence of their varieties and provenances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkittikhun, P; Chaiyarat, R; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

    2007-01-01

    Bo Ngam lead mine soils contain high concentrations of lead (up 1% total Pb) and low amounts of organic matter and major nutrients (N, P, K). A glasshouse study was conducted to compare growth performance, metal tolerance and metal uptake by two grasses, Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Kuntze and four ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (three from Thailand: Surat Thani, Songkhla and Kamphaeng Phet, and one from Sri Lanka) and to study the effects of pig manure (20% and 40% w/w) and inorganic fertilizer (75 and 150 mg kg(-1)) amendments to this lead mine soil. The results showed that both T. maxima and V. zizanioides (Surat Thani and Songkhla) could tolerate high Pb concentrations in soil (10750 mg kg(-1)) and had very good growth performance. Application of pig manure increased electrical conductivity (EC) and reduced DTPA-extractable Pb concentration in the soils. Pig manure application improved the growth of vetiver, especially at 20%, application dosage. Vetiver had the highest biomass. T. maxima could not tolerate high EC values. The uptake by roots and transport of Pb to shoots of both species was reduced when soils were amended with pig manure. Application of inorganic fertilizer did not improve growth of vetiver but did improve that of T. maxima. Fertilizer application did not have any great influence on the Pb uptake in vetiver while T. maxima took up more Pb as a result of the fertilizer enhancing its biomass yield. Both species transported low Pb concentrations to shoots (8.3-179 mg kg(-1)) and accumulated higher concentrations in roots (107-911 mg kg(-1)). In summary, both species may be species well suited for phytostabilization in tropical lead mine areas.

  18. The clinical study of the optimalization of surgical treatment and the traditional Chinese medicine intervention on palmar hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Yan, Zhikun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Dong, Liwen; Xu, Linhai; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Genmiao

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the efficacy of different surgical methods in treating palmar hyperhidrosis and the compensatory hyperhidrosis after surgery and to observe the efficacy of "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula" on postsurgical hyperhidrosis patients. Two-hundred patients were randomly assigned to groups A (Chinese and Western medicine, T4 transection plus "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula") and B (Western medicine, T4 transection). The surgical efficiency, recurrence rate, compensatory hyperhidrosis, and the long-term life quality were compared. Another 100 cases (group C, T2 transection) were analyzed as a control group. After surgery, the palmar hyperhidrosis and armpit sweating were relieved in all the three group patients and in 34 % of patients combined with plantar hyperhidrosis, the symptoms were relieved. Transient palmar hyperhidrosis was found in three cases at day 2 to day 5 postoperatively. One case of Horner's syndrome and one case recurrence were found in group C patients. The compensatory sweating of various degrees occurred in all the three groups. There were 25, 24, and 43 cases in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There is a significant difference between groups C, A, and B. The compensatory sweating in 13 cases of group A and four cases of group B had different degrees of improvement in the follow-up 6 months after surgery. There is a significant difference. Thoracoscopic bilateral T4 sympathetic chain and the Kuntz resection are the optimized surgical treatments for the palmar hyperhidrosis. "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula" is effective in treating the postoperative compensatory sweating.

  19. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DO COMPONENTE ARBÓREO E ANÁLISE AMBIENTAL DE UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA ALTO-MONTANA NO MUNICÍPIO DE PAINEL, SC

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The highland Araucaria Forest is a little-studied forest formation, occurring in altitudes above 1,000 m. The objectives of this study were to understand the structural and floristic patterns of the tree component of a remaining of this forest in the southern plateau region of Santa Catarina State and to determine the environmental variables that influence these patterns. The tree component survey and the environmental data collection were conducted in 50 plots of 200 m2. Within these plots, all living trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 15,7 cm were measured (CBH and height and identified. In each plot, environmental variables related to soils physical and chemical traits, topography and canopy cover were collected. Phytosociological parameters and the diameter structure (whole tree community and tree populations with the importance value above 5 % were calculated. The floristic-structural similarities among plots were analyzed by NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and vectors of environmental variables (p < 0.05 were plotted a posteriori. A total of 50 tree species were identified, distributed in 33 genera and 20 families. The species with the highest VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze (17.32 %, Myrceugenia euosma (O. Berg D. Legrand (15.24 % and Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret (7.84 % . The diameter structure of the whole community and of the study populations (except Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. showed a distribution close to the “inverted J”. The NMDS analysis showed a higher percentage of clay in the plots with the highest density of Acca sellowiana and lowest percentage in the plots with high density of Dicksonia sellowiana, Inga lentiscifolia Benth. and Ocotea pulchella Mart. Plots with higher declivity had a higher density of Drimys brasiliensis Miers and those of lower declivity, higher elevation and greater canopy closure, had a higher occurrence of Drimys angustifolia Miers, Prunus myrtifolia (L

  20. An A20/AN1-zinc-finger domain containing protein gene in tea is differentially expressed during winter dormancy and in response to abiotic stress and plant growth regulators

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    Asosii Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present manuscript describes cloning and expression characterization of A20/AN1-zinc-finger domain containing protein (CsZfp gene in an evergreen tree tea [Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze] in response to winter dormancy (WD, abiotic stresses (polyethylene glycol, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride and plant growth regulators [abscisic acid (ABA, and gibberellic acid (GA3]. CsZfp encoded a putative protein of 173 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 18.44 kDa, an isoelectric point (pI of 6.50 and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY value of −0.334. The gene did not have an intron, and belonged to a multi-gene family. During the period of active growth (PAG, CsZfp showed maximum expression in root and fruit as compared to leaf, floral bud and stem. Interaction studies between temperature and plant growth regulators on the expression of CsZfp showed that ABA upregulated CsZfp expression at growth temperature (GT; 25 °C but had no effect at low temperature (LT; 4 °C. In response to GA3, upregulation was observed at LT but not at GT. Further, the expression was not modulated by LT either in the tissue harvested during PAG or during WD. It was interesting to record that the expression of CsZfp was upregulated by hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride, whereas it was non-responsive to polyethylene glycol. The possible role of CsZfp in playing key but differential roles in tea to various abiotic stresses is discussed.

  1. Potencial inseticida de óleos de origem vegetal sobre Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    J.F. Colpo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência do estudo das interações químicas entre insetos e herbívoros, e do avanço da pesquisa fitoquímica, é conhecida ampla variedade de produtos naturais com potencial inseticida. Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, mariposa-oriental, é uma das principais pragas do pessegueiro, danificando brotações e frutos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a mortalidade, atratividade e deterrência de óleos vegetais em G. molesta. Ovos e pupas de insetos provindos de criação artificial foram imersos nos óleos essenciais de Elionurus muticus (Spreng. Kuntze e Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor nas concentrações de 0,25%, 0,5%, 1% e 0,5%, 1%, 5%. Os testes de atratividade foram realizados em olfatômetro do tipo "Y". A deterrência à oviposição foi testada em gaiolas sem escolha e de dupla escolha. O óleo de E. muticus aplicado em ovos de G. molesta nas três concentrações causou mortalidades maiores que 30%, diferindo significativamente dos controles (p<0,05. A mortalidade causada pelo óleo de citronela foi em torno de 70%, significativamente superior ao controle (p<0,01. O óleo de citronela aplicado a 1% em pupas causou mortalidade de 99,8%. No teste com o olfatômetro, não houve atratividade dos adultos para nenhum dos óleos. A média de ovos no substrato com o tratamento (0,33±0,33, foi significativamente menor que no controle (7,3±0,88 (p<0,01, indicando deterrência à oviposição.

  2. Attenuating properties of Agastache rugosa leaf extract against ultraviolet-B-induced photoaging via up-regulating glutathione and superoxide dismutase in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yuri; Lim, Hye-Won; Huang, Yu-Hua; Kwon, Hee-Souk; Jin, Chang Duck; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Agastache rugosa Kuntze, known as a Korean mint, is an herbal medicine that has been used for the treatment of diverse kinds of symptoms in traditional medicine. This work was undertaken to assess the protective properties of A. rugosa leaves against UV-B-induced photoaging in HaCaT keratinocytes. They were evaluated via analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) and -9 (proMMP-9), total glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), cellular viability, flavonoid content and in vitro radical scavenging activity. Total flavonoid content of ARE, a hot water extract of A. rugosa leaves, was 22.8±7.6mg of naringin equivalent/g ARE. ARE exhibited ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity with an SC50 of 836.9μg/mL. ARE attenuated the UV-B-induced ROS generation. It diminished the UV-B-induced elevation of proMMP-2 and -9 at both activity and protein levels. On the contrary, ARE was able to enhance the UV-B-reduced total GSH and total SOD activity levels. ARE, at the used concentrations, was unable to interfere with the cellular viabilities of HaCaT keratinocytes under UV-B irradiation. Taken together, ARE possesses a protective potential against UV-B-induced photoaging in HaCaT keratinocytes, possibly based upon up-regulating antioxidant components, including total GSH and SOD. These findings reasonably suggest the use of A. rugosa leaves as a photoprotective resource in manufacturing functional cosmetics.

  3. Soil erosion rates in rangelands of northeastern Patagonia: A dendrogeomorphological analysis using exposed shrub roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Marcelo Pablo; Rostagno, César Mario; Roig, Fidel Alejandro

    2009-05-01

    Soil erosion is an important process of land degradation in many rangelands and a significant driver of desertification in the world's drylands. Dendrogeomorphology is an alternative to traditional methods for determining soil erosion rate. Specifically, the vertical distance between the upper portion of exposed roots and the actual soil surface can be used as a bioindicator of erosion since plant establishment. In this study, we determined (i) the soil erosion rate from exposed roots of the dwarf shrub Margyricarpus pinnatus [Lam.] Kuntze in two ecological sites in the northeastern rangelands of Patagonia and (ii) the relationship between shrub age and upper root diameter. We selected two ecological sites, a pediment-like plateau and a flank pediment, where the dominant soils were Xeric Haplocalcids and Xeric Calciargids, respectively. The soil erosion rates in the pediment-like plateau and in the flank pediment were 2.4 and 3.1 mm yr - 1 , respectively. Data clearly indicate a high rate of soil erosion during the mean 8-year life span of the dwarf shrubs in degraded patches, which represent ~ 10% of surface cover in the study area. Simple linear regression analysis yielded a highly significant predictive model for age estimation of M. pinnatus plants using the upper root diameter as a predictor variable. The measurement of ground lowering against datable exposed roots represents a simple method for the determination of soil erosion rates. In combination with other soil surface features, it was used to infer the episodic nature of soil erosion. This approach could be particularly useful for monitoring the effects of land management practices on recent soil erosion and for the establishment of records in regions where historical data regarding this process are scarce or absent.

  4. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, D.F.

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    José Silva Alves da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the Tamanduá Forest Genetic Reserve, in Brasília, Brazil, comprised mainly by gallery forest. It aimed to assess the floristic composition, natural regeneration and the spatial distribution of the main woody species in the undergrowth. The species were Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott and Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, all considered priorities for in situ conservation. Five transects were used, each 10 meters wide, laid perpendicular to the main watercourse in the studied area. A total of 21,482 regenerants per hectare were found in 69 species, 53 genera and 39 families. The families which had the largest numbers of species as seedlings were, in descending order, Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Meliaceae. Surveying of young individuals, the dominant families with higher importance value (IV were as follows: Meliaceae (32.78 %, Rubiaceae (13.92 %, Burseraceae (13.76 %, Rutaceae (8.54 % and Hippocrateaceae (6.36 %, accounting for 75.36 % of total IV and 78.56 % of cover. All target species studied were represented among regenerants, especially Cariniana estrelllensis. However, only Copaifera langsdorffii and Virola sebifera were found among young individuals. A mixture quotient of 1:3 was calculated and indicates a forest rich in species, when compared to other similar forest formations. The spatial distribution of the regenerant species showed different patterns.

  5. Efeito da inundação lateral sobre a distribuição da vegetação ripária em um trecho do rio Cuiabá, MT

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    Ricardo Keichi Umetsu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos hidrológicos e fitossociológicos foram realizados num perfil topográfico de 550 m instalado perpendicularmente ao rio Cuiabá, no Município de Rosário Oeste, MT, para analisar a influência da inundação sobre a distribuição da vegetação ripária. Utilizando os dados fluviométricos da estação de Rosário Oeste de 1966 a 2003, um modelo hidrológico de remanso em regime subcrítico foi ajustado, permitindo estabelecer a série hidrológica na área de estudo. A partir dessa série, os intervalos de recorrência nessa área foram obtidos. Os resultados sugeriram que a margem do canal principal, o canal secundário e o dique marginal, a planície de inundação e o terraço alagam a cada ~1 1,7 ano, ~1,77 2,8 anos, ~3 anos e de ~3,25 a ~39 anos, respectivamente. A espécie Combretum leprosum Mart. (Combretaceae apresentou maior VI na margem do canal principal, Callisthene fasciculata (Spr. Mart. (Vochysiaceae na margem do canal principal e no terraço e Licania parvifolia Huber (Chrysobalanaceae, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze. (Lecythidaceae e Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae na planície de inundação. Os resultados indicaram que a frequência e, principalmente, o tempo de alagamento são os principais determinantes ecológicos da distribuição das espécies vegetais ao longo do perfil topográfico.

  6. Lime and Phosphate Could Reduce Cadmium Uptake by Five Vegetables Commonly Grown in South ChinaABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wan-Neng; LI Zhi-An; QIU Jing; ZOU Bi; LI Ning-Yu; ZHUANG Ping; WANG Gang

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in artificially Cd-contaminated (5 mg Cd kg-1) soils to investigate the feasibility of using lime (3 g kg-1) or phosphate (80 mg P kg-1) to mitigate uptake of Cd by vegetables. Five common vegetables in South China, including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort.), Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. Chinensis (L.) var. parachinensis (L. H. Bailey) Hanect], Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. albiflora Kuntze), white amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and purslane (Amaranthus viridis L.), were grown in the soils and harvested after 60 d. The results showed that liming significantly reduced Cd uptake by most vegetables by 40%-50% (or a maximum of 70%), mainly due to immobilization of soil Cd. Increased availability of Ca in the soil might also contribute to the Cd uptake reduction as a result of absorption competition between Ca and Cd. Liming caused biomass reduction in white amaranth and purslane, but did not influence growth of the other vegetables. Phosphate decreased Cd uptake by vegetables by 12%-23%. Compared with lime, phosphate decreased, to a smaller extent, the bioavailability of Cd in most cases. Phosphate markedly promoted growth of vegetables. Changes in soil chemistry by adding lime or phosphate did not markedly influence nutrient uptake of vegetables except that lime increased Ca content and phosphate increased P content in shoots of the vegetables. The results suggested that a proper application of lime could be effective in reducing Cd uptake of vegetables, and phosphate could promote growth of the vegetables as well as alleviate the toxicity of Cd.

  7. Effects of temperature, pH and carbon and nitrogen sources on growth of in vitro cultures of ectomycorrhizal isolates from Pinus heldreichii forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarević, J.; Stojičić, D.; Keča, N.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: This study aims to provide basic information about physiological characteristics of isolates of Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray, Russula sanguinaria (Schumach.) Rauschert, Suillus collinitus (Fr) Kuntze, Suillus granulatus (L.) Rousell, Tricholoma batchii Gulden and Tricholoma imbricatum (Fr.) Kumm. Area of study: The isolates are obtained from Pinus heldreichii H. Christ forest in the south-eastern part of Montenegro. Material and methods: The isolates were molecularly characterised by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The effects of different temperatures (20, 22, 25°C), pHs (4, 4.5, 5.2, 5.8, 6.5, 7.5), and carbon (glucose, sucrose, dextrin, arabinose, xylose and starch) and nitrogen (NH4+, NO3- and protein) sources on their growth were examined under laboratory conditions. Main results: The studied factors established significant differences in the development of isolates. Isolates of R. sanguinaria, L. deliciosus and both Suillus, were characterised by faster growth at 22°C, while Tricholoma isolates grew faster at 25°C. S. granulatus, S. collinitus and T. imbticatum isolates grew well at lower pH values (4 - 5.2), while L. deliciosus, R. sanguinaria and T. bachii exhibited faster growth at pHs between 5.8 and 6.5. The examined isolates were able to utilize various carbohydrates as carbon sources. The biggest mycelial growth was characterised for sucrose, then glucose, dextrin, arabinose, starch and xylose. They grew on all examined nitrogen sources, while the biggest mycelia growth was achieved on ammonium, followed by nitrate and protein. Those characteristics varied amongst the species. Research highlights: Information about physiological characteristics of Tricholoma, Lactarius, Russula, as well as Suillus, are sparse. Hence, the data obtained in this study could contribute to the understanding of their function in ecosystems. (Author)

  8. Biology and life table of Dirphia araucariae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: A herbivore of potentially high impact on Araucaria angustifolia

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    Mauricio M. Zenker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-history and biology of Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908, including its life fertility table, are here described. Moths were reared in the laboratory under controlled conditions on their host plant, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze - Araucariaceae. We describe several life-history traits of the species, namely: developmental period, survival rate, growth rate, fertility, fecundity, sex ratio, cephalic capsule width, and pupal weight. Mean duration of life stages were: egg = 26.78 days; larva = 61.78 days; prepupa = 6.85 days; pupa = 62.46 days; adult = 8.37 days. We found statistically significant differences between sexes for adult, larval and pupal stage duration; larval stage was longer in females while pupal stage was longer in males. The survival rate of each life stage was: egg = 96.18%; larva = 95.38%; prepupa = 83.87%; pupa = 100%. The larvae developed through six instars and the mean growth rate was 1.418. The width of male and female cephalic capsules were different in last three instars, even though the total mean width between sexes was not different. Pupal mean weight ranged from 2.40 g to 4.79 g, with females being heavier than males. Fertility ranged from 66.78% to 100%, and the total fecundity was 358.45 eggs/female, including both laid eggs and eggs held in the abdomen. The sex ratio was 0.50 ± 0.05. The estimated biotic potential was 48731.08 specimens/female/year. We found the following values for the fertility life table: (Ro = 117.21 females; (T = 162.75 days; (r m = 0.21; (l = 1.23. Considering the biological parameters evaluated in this study, we conclude that D. araucariae is not able to cause primary damage in A. angustifolia forests, although further studies are needed to understand the reasons for occasional population outbreaks.

  9. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse.

  10. EVALUATION OF RECOVERABLE FUNCTIONAL LIPID COMPONENTS OF SEVERAL BROWN SEAWEEDS (PHAEOPHYTA) FROM JAPAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FUCOXANTHIN AND FUCOSTEROL CONTENTS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Masaru; Hirose, Atsushi; Narayan, Bhaskar; Baba, Yuta; Kawagoe, Chikara; Yasui, Hajime; Saga, Naotsune; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2009-08-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fx) and fucosterol (Fs) are characteristic lipid components of brown seaweeds that afford several health benefits to humans. This article describes the quantitative evaluation of lipids of 15 species of brown seaweeds with specific reference to Fx, Fs, and functional long-chain omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, fatty-acid composition of selected species was also accomplished in the study. Major omega-3 PUFAs in the brown seaweeds analyzed were α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). Both Fx (mg · g(-1) dry weight [dwt]) and Fs (mg · g(-1) dwt) were determined to be relatively abundant in Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Fx, 3.7 ± 1.6; Fs, 13.4 ± 4.4) and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Yendo) Fensholt (Fx, 2.4 ± 0.9; Fs, 8.9 ± 2.0), as compared with other brown seaweed species. Studies related to seasonal variation in Fx, Fs, and total lipids of six brown algae [S. horneri, C. hakodatensis, Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setch., Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze, Analipus japonicus (Harv.) M. J. Wynne, and Melanosiphon intestinalis (D. A. Saunders) M. J. Wynne] indicated that these functional lipid components reached maximum during the period between January and March. The functional lipid components present in these seaweeds have the potential for application as nutraceuticals and novel functional ingredients after their recovery.

  11. CRESCIMENTO DE ESPÉCIES NATIVAS DE CERRADO E DE Vetiveria zizanioides EM PROCESSOS DE REVEGETAÇÃO DE VOÇOROCAS

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    Thamy Evellini Dias Marques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of seed germination, plant survival and growth, as measured in the present study, are essential parameters to characterize the biological potential of species for the restoration of degraded areas. The lack of knowledge about these aspects in native species has justified the use of exotic plants in Brazilian gullies revegetation. However, especially in places subject to highly seasonal climate and on oligotrophic soils, exotic species do not always perform well, leading to revegetation failure or significantly increasing the cultivation care needs. To improve the knowledge concerning to the biological potencial of cerrado native species and of an exotic grass which has been used for erosion contention, in the present study, seedlings and clumps of native cerrado species, Cratylia argentea (Desv. Kuntze and Echinolaena inflexa (Poir. Chase, and of the exotic grass Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash, were transferred to a gully colluvium in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, where they remained during the dry season of 2010 without application of fertilizers or irrigation. In randomized block design, plots of 1 x 1 m received four planting treatments: clumps of Echinolaena inflexa or Vetiveria zizanioides, and clumps of these grasses intercropped with the legume Cratylia argentea. All grasses and 73% of the legume seedlings survived. As expected, the green cover of Echinolaena inflexa decreased throughout the dry season, however, showing regrowth after the first rains. Leaf area of Vetiveria zizanioides remained active and grew significantly in the period. Cratylia argentea showed high rates of germination and growth; however, nodulation occurred in only two individuals. Thus, there was no influence of the legume on grasses growth. Results indicate that both native species and the exotic grass tested are potential successful plants for gullies replanting. Plants survived and grew on low nutrient substrate and during the critical period of drought

  12. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  13. St. Augustine grass germplasm resistant to Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Katharine M; Milla-Lewis, Susana R; Brandenburg, Rick L; Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2014-08-01

    St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze) is an economically important turfgrass in the southeastern United States. However, this turf species is prone to southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber (Heteroptera: Blissidae) outbreaks. This insect is the most destructive pest of St. Augustine grass wherever this turf grass is grown. Host plant resistance has historically been an effective management tool for southern chinch bug. Since 1973, the 'Floratam' St. Augustine grass cultivar effectively controlled southern chinch bug in the southeast. However, southern chinch bug populations from Florida and Texas have now circumvented this resistance, through mechanisms still unknown. Therefore, identifying and deploying new cultivars with resistance to the southern chinch bug is imperative to combat this pest in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. Currently, the number of cultivars with resistance against southern chinch bug is limited, and their efficacy, climatic adaptability, and aesthetic characters are variable. Hence, the main focus of this study is the identification of alternative sources of resistance to southern chinch bugs in previously uncharacterized St. Augustine grass plant introductions (PIs) and its closely related, crossbreeding species, Pembagrass (Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongniart). The PIs exhibited a wide range of responses to southern chinch bug feeding, as indicated by damage ratings. Damage ratings for seven PIs grouped with our resistant reference cultivars. Moreover, nine PIs exhibited antibiosis, based on poor development of southern chinch bug neonates, when compared with our susceptible reference cultivars. Altogether our study has produced strong support to indicate these materials are good candidates for future southern chinch bug resistance breeding in St. Augustine grass.

  14. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-02-01

    Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.), rhein from Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb), dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. (raisins), essential oils, probiotics and mushrooms. Further, the review highlights plants from Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of the plants' antimicrobial properties and chemical principles have been elucidated. While the use of natural products for oral health is prominent in resource-poor settings, antimicrobial testing is mainly conducted in the following countries (in decreasing order of magnitude): India, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, France, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, Kenya, Switzerland, Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. While the review exposes a dire gap for more studies on clinical efficacy and toxicity, the following emerging trend was noted: basic research on plants for oral health is mainly done in Brazil, Europe and Australia. Brazil, China, India and New Zealand generally conduct value addition of natural products for fortification of toothpastes. African countries focus on bioprospecting and primary production of raw plants and other natural products with antimicrobial efficacies. The Middle East and Egypt predominantly research on plants used as chewing sticks. More research and funding are needed in the field of natural products for oral health, especially in Africa where oral diseases are fuelled by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).

  15. Nitrogen in combination with Desmodium intortum effectively suppress Striga asiatica in a sorghum‒Desmodium intercropping system

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    Carl Frederick Reinhardt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the parasitic weed Striga asiatica (L. Kuntze can be suppressed by Striga-tolerant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cultivars, Desmodium intortum (Mill. Urb. (greanleaf desmodium, and by fertilization with nitrogen. The study objective was the assessment of Striga control provided by integration of Desmodium density, timing of sorghum-Desmodium intercrop establishment, and nitrogen fertilization. Growth responses and yield of three sorghum cultivars were measured in three pot experiments. A soil naturally infested with Striga was used, and that part of the soil which served as uninfested control was chemically sterilised. Striga numbers and growth were affected significantly by sorghum cultivars, sorghum-Desmodium intercrop ratios, timing of the sorghum-Desmodium association, as well as by their interactions. Desmodium caused 100% suppression of Striga emergence when Desmodium was established in the 1:3 sorghum-Desmodium ratio at seeding of sorghum. Total control of Striga was also achieved with the 1:1 sorghum-Desmodium ratio when Desmodium was transplanted 30 days before sorghum seeding. However, these two treatments also caused significant reductions in sorghum yield. In contrast, 100% Striga control and a dramatic increase in sorghum yield were achieved with 100 kg N ha^{-1} in the 1:1 sorghum-Desmodium intercrop. Compatibility of sorghum and Desmodium was evident at the 1:1 sorghum-Desmodium intercrop established at sorghum seeding. Overall, the Ethiopian cultivars Meko and Abshir showed better agronomic performance and higher tolerance to Striga than the South African cultivar PAN 8564. It is recommended that the N × Desmodium × sorghum interaction be investigated under field conditions.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the molecular mechanisms of drought-stress-induced decreases in Camellia sinensis leaf quality

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    Weidong eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze] is an important commercial crop rich in bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids, which the quality of tea leaves depends on. Drought is the most important environmental stress affecting the yield and quality of this plant. In this study, the effects of drought stress on the phenotype, physiological characteristics and major bioactive ingredients accumulation of C. sinensis leaves were examined, and the results indicated that drought stress resulted in dehydration and wilt of the leaves, and significant decrease in the total polyphenols and free amino acids and increase in the total flavonoids. In addition, HPLC analysis showed that the catechins, caffeine, theanine and some free amino acids in C. sinensis leaves were significantly reduced in response to drought stress, implying that drought stress severely decreased the quality of C. sinensis leaves. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to amino acid metabolism and secondary metabolism were identified and quantified in C. sinensis leaves under drought stress using high-throughput Illumina RNA-Seq technology, especially the key regulatory genes of the catechins, caffeine and theanine biosynthesis pathways. The expression levels of key regulatory genes were consistent with the results from the HPLC analysis, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above results. Taken together, these data provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the change in the quality of C. sinensis leaves under environmental stress, which involve changes in the accumulation of major bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids.

  17. 长白山采集的中国东北新记录苔藓植物%New Records of Bryophytes to Northeast China Collected from Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹同; BELANDReneJ

    2002-01-01

    在对中国和加拿大苔藓学者联合于中国东北最高的长白山采集的2千余份标本鉴定的基础上,认定有苔藓植物59科,152属,300种.报道了中国大陆新记录1属-小曲柄藓属(Cam pylostelium ).中国东北新记录2属-直蓑衣藓属(Macrocoma )和同叶藓属(Iso pter ygium) ,中国东北新记录5种-褶叶裂叶苔(Lophozia incisa),假狗牙藓(Cynodontium f allax),细枝牛毛藓(Ditrichum gracile),散叶牛毛藓(Ditrichum divarcatum )和细叶棉藓(Plagiothecium latebricola).%Based on identification of more than 2000 specimens collected by joint expedition of Chinese and Canadian bryologists from Changbai Mountain .the highest peak in Northeast China.300 species belonging to 152 genera and 59 families of bryophytes are recognized.Among them,the genus Campylostelium (C saxicola (Web et Mohr) B S G) is new to mainland China;two genera are first records for Norheast China:Macrocoma (M tenus (Hook et Grev) Vitt spp sullivantii (C Muell) Vitt) and Isopterygium (I albescens (Hook) Jaeg).Five species of bryophytes are also new to Northeast China:Lophozia incisa (Schrad) Dum:Cynodontium fallax Limpr:Ditrichum gracile (Mitt) O Kuntze:Ditrichum divarcatum Mitt;and Plagiothecium latebricola (Wils) Schimp .

  18. Five hTRPA1 Agonists Found in Indigenous Korean Mint, Agastache rugosa.

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    Hana Moon

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential ankyrin1 (TRPA1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 are members of the TRP superfamily of structurally related, nonselective cation channels and mediators of several signaling pathways. Previously, we identified methyl syringate as an hTRPA1 agonist with efficacy against gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to find hTRPA1 and/or hTRPV1 activators in Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Meyer O. Kuntze (A.rugosa, commonly known as Korean mint to improve hTRPA1-related phenomena. An extract of the stem and leaves of A.rugosa (Labiatae selectively activated hTRPA1 and hTRPV1. We next investigated the effects of commercially available compounds found in A.rugosa (acacetin, 4-allylanisole, p-anisaldehyde, apigenin 7-glucoside, L-carveol, β-caryophyllene, trans-p-methoxycinnamaldehyde, methyl eugenol, pachypodol, and rosmarinic acid on cultured hTRPA1- and hTRPV1-expressing cells. Of the ten compounds, L-carveol, trans-p-methoxycinnamaldehyde, methyl eugenol, 4-allylanisole, and p-anisaldehyde selectively activated hTRPA1, with EC50 values of 189.1±26.8, 29.8±14.9, 160.2±21.9, 1535±315.7, and 546.5±73.0 μM, respectively. The activities of these compounds were effectively inhibited by the hTRPA1 antagonists, ruthenium red and HC-030031. Although the five active compounds showed weaker calcium responses than allyl isothiocyanate (EC50=7.2±1.4 μM, our results suggest that these compounds from the stem and leaves of A.rugosa are specific and selective agonists of hTRPA1.

  19. Medicinal Plants Used in Mali for the Treatment of Malaria and Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Mahamane; Bourdy, Geneviève; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra; Traore, Korotoumou; Giani, Sergio; Sanogo, Rokia

    2016-03-01

    Today, ethno-pharmacology is a very important resource in order to discover new therapies for the current diseases. Moreover, another good justification for the ethno-pharmacological approach is to obtain new, effective, less expensive and simple therapies, limiting at the same time the cost of pharmaceutical research. Two major anti-malarial drugs widely used today, i.e. quinine and artemisinin, came respectively from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments reported in the traditional medicines. In this contest, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drugs, due to the critical epidemiological situation of this disease and to the growth of resistances. In Mali, malaria and liver diseases remain one of the leading public health problems. Many medicinal plants are often used, in local traditional medicine, for the treatment at the same time of malaria and liver diseases, including hepatic syndromes, jaundice, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders. Moreover, in the local language Bamanan, the word "Sumaya" is used both for malaria and some liver diseases. In addition, we noted that some of the improved traditional phytomedicines produced by the Department of Traditional Medicine are prescribed by modern doctors both for malaria and liver diseases. In this review, pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical data on Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae), Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich (Cochlospermaceae), Combretum micranthum G.Don (Combretaceae), Entada africana Guillet Perr. (Mimosaceae), Erythrina senegalensis A. DC (Fabaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd) Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia Smith syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae), Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae), and Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake (Asteraceae) are reported. Some of the collected data could be used to improve the actual herbal drugs and to propose new phytomedicines for the management of malaria and

  20. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  1. Separation of chlorogenic acid and concentration of trace caffeic acid from natural products by pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Dong, Genlai; Gu, Yanxiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2013-07-01

    Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were selected as test samples for separation by the pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The separation of these test samples was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of methyl-tert-butyl-ether/acetonitrile/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5 v/v/v where trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; 8 mM) was added to the organic stationary phase as a retainer and NH4 OH (10 mM) to the aqueous mobile phase as an eluter. Chlorogenic acid was successfully separated from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze (F. bidentis) and Lonicerae Flos by pH-zone-refining CCC, a slightly polar two-phase solvent system composed of methyl-tert-butyl-ether/acetonitrile/n-butanol/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:1:5 v/v/v/v was selected where TFA (3 mM) was added to the organic stationary phase as a retainer and NH4 OH (3 mM) to the aqueous mobile phase as an eluter. A 16.2 mg amount of chlorogenic acid with the purity of 92% from 1.4 g of F. bidentis, and 134 mg of chlorogenic acid at the purity of 99% from 1.3 g of crude extract of Lonicerae Flos have been obtained. These results suggest that pH-zone-refining CCC is suitable for the isolation of the chlorogenic acid from the crude extracts of F. bidentis and Lonicerae Flos.

  2. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  3. Consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Nargesh Khatun; Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-07-31

    The shift in consumers' preferences from synthetic to 'natural' products has led to a resurgence of interest in medicinal plants, particularly in developing countries. However, research data about consumers' preferences for particular products is hard to find. The main objective of this study was to contribute to the general understanding of consumers' intention for selecting medicinal herbs for consumption. Factors underpinning consumers' acceptance of medicinal herbs were studied with the technology acceptance model (TAM) in Rasht City of Iran using a structured questionnaire. Most respondents had low to moderate familiarity with consumption of medicinal herbs. However, about half of the respondents (47.5%) showed a high level of acceptance of medicinal herbs. Herbs like spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Damask rose (Rosa × damascena Herrm.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J.Presl), flixweed [Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl], red feathers (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.), and green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] had the highest consumption rate among the majority (over 75%) of citizens of Rasht. The highest rate of perceived usefulness of medicinal herbs was related to their perceived role in healing diseases. The variable of importance of use of medicinal herbs had the strongest direct effect and the variables of perceived usefulness and attitude towards use had the second and third strongest direct effect on the acceptance of medicinal herbs' use at p research and evaluation concerning the use of medicinal herbs over time. For plant producers, more effective and targeted crop development should be encouraged, whereas for retailers better marketing and delivery strategies should be sought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan bitkisel ilaçlar

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    Sevda Süzgeç-Selçuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available u çalışmada, 2012 yılında Türkiye'deki eczanelerde bulunan, Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı bitkisel ilaçlar incelenerek; formülasyonunda aktif bileşik olarak standardize edilmiş bitkisel drog ekstresi veya drog preparatları bulunan müstahzarlar ele alınmıştır. Bitkilerden kimyasal işlemler sonucu elde edilen, bitkisel kaynaklı saf bileşikler (atropin, morfin, efedrin vb. bitkisel ilaç olarak değerlendirilmediklerinden, bu çalışma kapsamına dahil edilmemiştir. Bu kapsamda, bitkisel ilaçların içeriğindeki; bitkilerinin kullanılan kısımları (drog, etken maddeleri, etki ve kullanılışları incelenmiştir. İncelenen bu bitkiler: Aesculus hippocastanum L., Amygdalus communis L., Allium sativum L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Capsicum annuum L., Cassia acutifolia Del. (C. angustifolia Vahl., Centella asiatica L., Cimicifuga racemosa L., Cola nitida (Vent. Schott & Endl., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Ginkgo biloba L., Hamamelis virginiana L., Harpagophytum procumbens DC, Hedera helix L., Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Mentha piperita L., Passiflora incarnata L., Pelargonium sidoides DC., Pinus brutia Tenn., Populus sp., Rheum officinale Baill., Ricinus communis L., Serenoa repens (W. Bart. Small, Silybum marianum L., Thymus vulgaris L., Triticum aestivum L., Valeriana officinalis L, Vitex agnus-castus L., Vitis vinifera L., Zingiber officinale (Roscoe' dir. Sonuç olarak, 2012 yılında Türkiye eczanelerinde Sağlık Bakanlığı ruhsatlı 44 tane bitkisel ilaç tespit edilmiştir.

  5. Estimation of root cohesion for desert shrub species in the Lower Colorado riparian ecosystem and its potential for streambank stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A. R.; Gautam, M. R.; Yu, Z.; Imada, S.; Acharya, K.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying mechanical properties of native vegetation for streambank stability has remained a critical need of the Lower Colorado riparian revegetation effort. In the present study we estimated root cohesion for four representative native desert shrub species: Artiplex lentiformis (Torr.) S.Watson, Lycium andersonii A. Gray, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville, and Allenrolfea occidentalis (S.Watson) Kuntze to understand their suitability in streambank stabilization in the framework of a revegetation campaign. Field experiments were conducted to measure root length, root length density, root area ratio, and root tensile strength. Finally, the root cohesion values were assessed using a simple perpendicular model. Root area ratio estimates showed that on average plant roots occupy 0.46 % of the area under the crown of the selected species. The root tensile strength (Tr) was greatest for L. tridentata (62.23 MPa) followed by L. andersonii (53.53 MPa), A. lentiformis (49.17 MPa), and A. occidentalis (35.03 MPa).The root cohesion values could be used to rank the species according to their potential for shallow bank slope stabilization in riparian ecosystems of a desert environment. The maximum root cohesion in the present study was estimated for A. lentiformis (97.6kPa) followed by L. andersonii (89.3kPa), L. tridentata (35.6 kPa), and A. occidentalis (34.8 kPa). Root cohesion values were also estimated using Fiber bundle model (FBM) and compared to the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979). The comparative root cohesion values for root diameter (> 0.5 mm) suggest that Wu's model estimates are greater than those of the FBM model by a reduction factor ranges between 0.35 and 0.56 for our studied species.

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENT AND ECONOMIC VALUATION OF KALYANTHAKUR PARA LAKE: A COMMUNITY BASED LAKE OF TRIPURA, NORTHEAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitree TARAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetland resources are having significant role in the livelihoods of ethnic communities and their involvement in resource management can be used to maintain ecological banance in wetland ecosystem. The objective of this study is to provide some ideas about participation of “Tripuri” community and their role in wetland conservation and management. Physicochemical water parameters of the lake shows suitability of this lake water for fisheries and also its a good storage for carbon. Overall, six genera belonging to four classes of phytoplankton and total four groups of zooplankton have been identified from the lake. Total thirteen aquatic plants belongs to twelve families were identified from Kalyanthakur para lake and most of the plants are used for food, fodder and fencing. The dominant aquatic species were Enhydra fluctuans DC., Sacciolepis sp. and Nymphoides indica (L. Kuntze. with the Importance Value Index (IVI 73.53, 61.58 and 50.00 respectively. The lake also provides various provisioning and cultural services. The provisioning services of the Kalyanthakur para lake includes mainly fishes, aquatic plants, crabs, molluscs, domestic uses, collection of timber and fuelwood with a total value of US$ 26263.65/year. Whereas, the cultural services of Kalyanthakur para lake, includes recreational opportunities, aesthetic value and place with natural beauty with a total value of US$ 2605.68/year. Human settlements, negligence of the concerned authority and public effluent are worked as the chief factors for the degradation of this lake. Government should take some planning, managing and monitoring plan to mitigate the anthropogenic stress on this community based lake.

  7. Sucrose transporters in two members of the Scrophulariaceae with different types of transport sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, C; Voitsekhovskaja, O; Lohaus, G

    2001-05-01

    In order to study differences between sugar transport in oligosaccharide-translocating and sucrose-translocating species, two members of the Scrophulariaceae, Asarina barclaiana Pennell and Alonsoa meridionalis O. Kuntze, were analysed regarding minor-vein anatomy, sugar concentrations in leaves and phloem sap, and expression of sucrose transporters. The minor veins of Asarina barclaiana possess mainly transfer cells and modified intermediary cells and those of Alonsoa meridionalis have intermediary cells and ordinary companion cells. Phloem sap from these plants was collected by the laser-aphid-stylet technique. The main carbon transport forms in Asarina were sucrose and in Alonsoa raffinose and stachyose. The sum of the carbohydrate concentrations in the phloem sap of both species was as high as that in apoplastic phloem loaders. In Asarina the ratio of the sucrose concentration in the phloem to that in the cytosol of source cells was about 35 and the corresponding ratio in Alonsoa was about two. Sucrose transporter cDNAs were isolated from leaves of both species. By means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sucrose transporter mRNA was detected in different organs and also in the phloem sap. This is the first time that sucrose transporters have been found in oligosaccharide-translocating species and that the mRNA of these sucrose transporters has been localized directly in the phloem sap. Taken together, our observations indicate that Asarina is an apoplastic phloem loader, while the results for Alonsoa are ambiguous: some properties are typical of the symplastic phloem-loading mechanism, but probably a sucrose transporter is involved in loading and/or retrieval of sucrose into the phloem.

  8. Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda), a parasite of Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) from Vietnam, with comments on relative ovarian size as a new and potentially useful diagnostic character for proteocephalidean tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Binh, Tran Thi; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) is described from the intestine of the banded krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) in Vietnam. The new species differs from all but three Ophiotaenia species parasitic in Asian reptiles in the possession of a glandular apical organ. It differs from O. andersoni Jensen, Schmidt & Kuntz, 1983 in the position of the vagina in relation to the cirrus-sac (anterior and posterior in O. bungari versus anterior only in the latter species), in the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 50%) and by having more testes (100-150 versus 42-116 in O. andersoni); from O. chattoraji Srivastava, 1980 in the number of uterine diverticula (50-65 versus 10-26) and in the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 22%); and from O. rhabdophidis (Burt, 1937) by having more uterine diverticula (50-65 versus 30-45), by the cirrus-sac/proglottis width ratio (29-38 versus 20-25%) and by the width of the scolex (360-420 versus 130-187 μm). The taxonomic importance of the relative size of the ovary (i.e. the ratio of the ovarian size in relation to that of the entire proglottis), a character previously not used in the systematics of proteocephalidean cestodes, is discussed. Comparison of measurements of all of the nominal species of Ophiotaenia La Rue, 1911 and Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 (c.135 species) has shown that the ovary of species parasitic in snakes in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia is not only considerably smaller than that of congeneric species from European hosts, but also smaller than in all species of Proteocephalus parasitic in teleost fishes throughout the world.

  9. Effect of raw humus under two adult Scots pine stands on ectomycorrhization, nutritional status, nitrogen uptake, phosphorus uptake and growth of Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Horst; Schäfer, Tina; Storbeck, Veronika; Härtling, Sigrid; Rudloff, Renate; Köck, Margret; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (EM) formation improves tree growth and nutrient acquisition, particularly that of nitrogen (N). Few studies have coupled the effects of naturally occurring EM morphotypes to the nutrition of host trees. To investigate this, pine seedlings were grown on raw humus substrates collected at two forest sites, R2 and R3. Ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were identified, and their respective N uptake rates from organic (2-(13)C, (15)N-glycine) and inorganic ((15)NH(4)Cl, Na(15)NO(3), (15)NH(4)NO(3), NH(4)(15)NO(3)) sources as well as their phosphate uptake rates were determined. Subsequently, the growth and nutritional status of the seedlings were analyzed. Two dominant EM morphotypes displayed significantly different mycorrhization rates in the two substrates. Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. (RL) was dominant in R2 and Suillus bovinus (Pers.) Kuntze (SB) was dominant in R3. (15)N uptake of RL EM was at all times higher than that of SB EM. Phosphate uptake rates by the EM morphotypes did not differ significantly. The number of RL EM correlated negatively and the number of SB EM correlated positively with pine growth rate. Increased arginine concentrations and critical P/N ratios in needles indicated nutrient imbalances of pine seedlings from humus R2, predominantly mycorrhizal with RL. We conclude that different N supply in raw humus under Scots pine stands can induce shifts in the EM frequency of pine seedlings, and this may lead to EM formation by fungal strains with different ability to support tree growth.

  10. 维药刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸的含量测定%Determination of Vanillic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid in Cappers spinoza by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王响华; 陈文; 郭小娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸含量的高效液相色谱法.方法:采用Dikma Kromasil C18柱(4.6 mm×150mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸水梯度洗脱,紫外检测波长258 nm,流速0.8 mL· min-1.结果:刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸分别在0.00150 ~0.00900,0.00580 ~0.0348 μg呈良好的线性关系,(r=0.9999);平均加样回收率(n=3)分别为105% (RSD1.90%)103% (RSD=1.81%).结论:该方法操作简单、结果可靠、重复性好、定量准确,可用于刺山柑果实中原儿茶酸和香草酸的含量测定.%Objective: To establish a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in Capparis spinosa. Method: The samples were separated on a C18 column (4. 6 mm x 150 mm, 5 μm) , the mobile phase was consisted of methanol-0. 1 % phosphoric acid with gradient elution at the flow rate of 0. 8 mL -1 min and the detection wavelength was set at 258 nm. Result; The calibration curves for vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were linear in the range of 0. 001 50-0. 009 00, 0. 005 80-0. 034 8μg respectively. All the correlation coefficient were 0.999 9, and the average recoveries ( n = 3 ) were 105% and 103% with corresponding RSDs of 1.90% and 1.81% respectively. Conclusion; The method is simple, accurate and sensitive and can be used to determine the content of the vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in C. spinosa.

  11. Caracterización químico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botánicas empleando análisis descriptivo y multivariado

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    D. E. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo (AD, de componentes principales (ACP y correlaciones lineales (CL, se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los géneros Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra; y otras no leguminosas: Chlorophora, Morus, Guazuma, Cordia, Trichantera, Tithonia, Moringa, Azadirachta, Bulnesia, Capparis, Hibiscus y Wedelia. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y de la proteína bruta (DPB. Las especies evaluadas presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación animal (PB: 23.46 ±4.43%; FDN: 39.33 ±2.55%; cenizas: 9.78 ±4.35%; DMS: 64.98 ±14.42%; DPB: 69.15 ±15.89%. Sin embargo, las especies leguminosas, comparadas con las no leguminosas, exhibieron numéricamente mayor concentración de taninos condensados (4.06 ±4.01 vs 0.49 ±0.31%, taninos que precipitan proteínas (1.95 ±1.37 vs 0.28 ±0.23% y digestibilidad de la proteína con pepsina (72.51 ±14.64 vs 66.90 ±16.92%. Aunque el porcentaje de inhibición de la tripsina fuese similar entre los dos grupos (50.84 ±6.81 vs 50.92 ±8.94, la actividad de estos inhibidores (3.29 ±2.76 vs 1.55 ±0.39 tripsina inhibida/ gMS y la cantidad de unidades inhibidas (625.10 ±524.01 vs 323.33 ±135.31 unidades/ gMS fueron superior en los forrajes leguminosos. Mediante el AD, ACP y las CL sepudo comprobar que las especies leguminosas exhibieron diferencias acentuadas en el patrón fitoquímico de la biomasa, comparadas con el resto. Los taninos precipitantes de las leguminosas afectaron la digestibilidad de las fracciones nutritivas, mientras que los fenoles y los esteroles presentes en las no leguminosas exhibieron mayor potencial antinutricional en ese tipo de especies.

  12. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

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    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  13. Initial study on apoptosis in HepG-2 Human heptocarcinoma cell line by CSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; CUI Rong-tian; MO Ke; WANG Wei; JI Yu-bin; ZOU Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss on mechanism of the killing and apoptosis inducing effect induced by total alkaloid in the CSS(Capparis spinosa L. saponin, CSS)on human hepatocarcinoma cell Line HepG-2. Methods The killing effect of the CSS on human hepatocarcinoma cell Line HepG-2 was observed by MTT method. Morphological observation of the HepG-2 cells was completed by fluorescence microscope. This test was signed to observe the changes of the cell cycle of HepG-2 cells affected by the CSS by PI single-staining, and to observe if there were typical apoptosis peaks. The apoptosis inducing effect and changing of mitochondria membrane potential of the CSS on the HepG-2 cells were studied by flow cytometry. The effect of intraceUular Ca2+ level of CSS on the HepG-2 cells was measured by laser confocal microscope. Results CSS has growth inhibiting on the HepG-2 and seems to be enhanced with the increasing concentration of CSS, and its IC50 value was 46.16 μg·mL-1. The HepG-2 cells are characteristic apoptosis morphologic changed, and the apoptosis percentage is increased to 66.652 % in the 50 μg·mL-1 dosage group. The cells cycle has been changed obviously that the progresses of cells cycle of G1 period and G2 period in high dosage group have been blocked, and the cellular proportion in G2 period is decreased by the function of CSS for 24 h. The mitochondria membrane potential of HepG-2 cells induced by CSS is decreased in various degrees. In addition, the intracellular Ca2+ level is increased by the function of CSS in the middle and high dose groups. Conclusions The CSS has obviously killing and apoptosis inducing effect on human hepatoearcinoma cell Line HepG-2 by the mechanism of decreasing the mitochondria membrane potential and increasing the intracellular Ca2+ level.

  14. Preference of goats (Capra hircus L.) for tanniniferous browse species available in semi-arid areas in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, G; Bezabih, M; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-11-29

    The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2.5 years receiving a daily ration of grass hay (4% of body weight) and 200 g wheat bran. In trial 1, goats were offered 25 g of each browse species for a total of 30 min with intake, time spent on consumption and the number of visits to specific browse species recorded at 10-min intervals. In trial 2, the same procedure was followed except that 25 g of PEG 4000 was added to the daily wheat bran ration. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in browse species ranged from 69.0-245.5 to 159.8-560.6 g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively. Total phenols and total tannins contents ranged between 3.7-70.6 and 2.5-68.1 mg tannic acid equivalent/g DM, respectively, and condensed tannins 1.7-18.4 Abs550 nm /g DM. Preference indicators measured in the first 10 min of browse species intake differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (p < 0.0001). Principal components explained 69.9% of the total variation in browse species DMI. Despite the high tannin levels, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Tannin levels at the observed browse species DMI did not determine preference, instead, preference appeared to be based on hemicellulose. Determining browse species preference is essential to exploit them to improve nutrient utilization and control parasites in goats.

  15. Florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo e análise ambiental de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Alto-Montana no município de Painel, SC

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988449A Floresta Ombrófila Mista Alto-Montana é uma formação pouco estudada que ocorre em altitudes acima de 1.000 m. Os objetivos deste estudo foram conhecer os padrões florísticos e estruturais do componente arbóreo de um fragmento desta floresta na região do Planalto Sul Catarinense e determinar as variáveis ambientais que influenciam esses padrões. O levantamento da composição florística e estrutural e a coleta das variáveis ambientais foram conduzidos em 50 parcelas de 200 m2. Nelas, todos os indivíduos arbóreos com CAP (circunferência medida a altura do peito ≥ 15,7 cm foram medidos (CAP e altura e identificados. Foram coletadas, em cada parcela, variáveis ambientais relacionadas às características químicas e físicas dos solos, topográficas e de cobertura do dossel. Foram calculados os parâmetros fitossociológicos e a estrutura diamétrica da comunidade e das populações com valor de importância (VI acima de 5 %. A similaridade florístico-estrutural entre as parcelas foi analisada pela NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling e os vetores das variáveis ambientais significativas (p < 0,05 foram plotados a posteriori. Foram identificadas 50 espécies arbóreas distribuídas em 33 gêneros e 20 famílias botânicas. As espécies com maior VI foram: Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze (17,32 %, Myrceugenia euosma (O.Berg D.Legrand (15,24 % e Acca sellowiana (O.Berg Burret (7,84 %. A estrutura diamétrica de toda a comunidade e das populações estudadas (exceto Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. teve distribuição próxima ao “J invertido”. A análise NMDS demonstrou maior porcentagem de argila nas parcelas com maior densidade de Araucaria angustifolia e menor porcentagem, nas parcelas com maior densidade de Dicksonia sellowiana, Inga lentiscifolia Benth. e Ocotea pulchella Mart. As parcelas de maior declividade tiveram maior densidade de Drimys brasiliensis Miers e aquelas de

  16. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  17. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CAL A PLANTACIONES DE JAÚL (Alnus acuminata EN ANDISOLES DE LA CUENCA ALTA DEL RÍO VIRILLA, COSTA RICA

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    Marlon Salazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el impacto de adicionar cal a plantaciones de jaúl (Alnus acuminata (H.B.K. O. Kuntze en Andisoles de la cuenca alta del río Virilla, Costa Rica, se realizó el presente trabajo en 2 localidades: 1 Finca Hospicio: Ubicada en la localidad de Vista de Mar, cantón de Goicoechea, a una altitud de 1542 msmn; el suelo se clasificó como Typic Udivitrands y la plantación se estableció en el 2002. 2 Finca Dorval: Ubicada en la localidad de Las Nubes, cantón de Vásquez de Coronado, a una altitud de 1925 msnm; el suelo se clasificó como Thaptic Udivitrands y la plantación se estableció en 1997. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron 0 (testigo, 750, 1500 y 2250 kg.ha-1 de carbonato de calcio y magnesio (Dolomita, 1500 kg.ha-1 de carbonato de calcio (Calcita y 1500 kg.ha-1 de sulfato de calcio (Yeso. Se midieron el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP a 1,3 m, la altura total de los árboles (m y se estimó el volumen (V mediante la formula: V(m3=2,71828¿10,0557+ln(d*2,0369+0,9277 18*ln(h propuesta por Segura et al. (2005, en la cual d es el DAP en cm y h es la altura total en m. Al comparar las mediciones del diámetro a la altura del pecho, incremento medio anual en diámetro (IMA-DAP, altura total, incremento medio anual en altura (IMA-ALT, volumen total e incremento en volumen total, por dosis y fuentes de cal aplicada, se observó que ningún tratamiento causó diferencias estadísticas, en estas variables en ninguna de las 2 fincas comparadas ni entre épocas de medición. La adición de fuentes y niveles de cal no afectó significativamente las variables diámetro, altura y volumen. La falta de respuesta a las diferentes enmiendas comparadas demuestra que el suelo proporcionó suficiente Ca, Mg y S para asegurar el crecimiento óptimo del jaúl. Tampoco se encontró que los suelos mostraran problemas de acidez de magnitud tal que afectaran negativamente el crecimiento del jaúl.

  18. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de uma floresta estacional semidecidual secundária em Viçosa, MG

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    Antonio Jorge Tourinho Braga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição florística e a estrutura da comunidade arbórea, bem como a distribuição das espécies em diferentes grupos ecológicos e os solos dos estádios inicial e avançado, de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa, MG (20°46' S e 42°52' W. O levantamento foi realizado em meio hectare, onde foram alocadas 10 parcelas de 25 x 10 m em cada trecho, sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo (CAP > 15 cm. Registraram-se 820 indivíduos, sendo 440 no trecho de floresta inicial e 380 no de floresta avançada. No levantamento florístico da floresta inicial foram amostradas 76 espécies, pertencentes a 28 famílias, destacando-se como as de maior número de indivíduos Fabaceae (137, Urticaceae (45 e Sapindaceae (41 e, as com os maiores valores de importância, Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speng., Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. Macbr., Allophylus sericeus Radlk., Siparuna guianensis Aubl. e Maclura tinctoria (L. Don ex Steud. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,57 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J', de 0,82. Já na floresta avançada foram amostradas 59 espécies, distribuídas em 26 famílias, das quais Fabaceae (103, Meliaceae (49 e Flacourtiaceae (34 sobressaíram com maior número de indivíduos. Por sua vez, as espécies com os maiores valores de importância foram A. peregrina, Trichilia pallida Swartz, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze., P. gonoacantha, Rollinia silvatica Mart. e S. guianensi. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,49 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J', de 0,85. No contínuo, o índice de Shannon (H' e a equabilidade (J' foram de 3,82 nat.ind.-1 e 0,84, respectivamente. Cada floresta apresentou distinta identidade florística e estrutural, tendendo a ser minimizada com o avanço da sucessão.

  19. Composição da flora arbórea e arborescente no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Bruna Treviso Cenci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de uma área de 178.000 m², situada nas coordenadas 29º10'38"S e 51º27'16"W, na localidade de Linha Palmeiro, Distrito de São Pedro, no Município de Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brasil, onde se encontra o Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, o qual se situa numa zona de transição de três formações vegetais distintas: Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Estacional Decidual e resquícios de Mata Atlântica. O local é uma área de conservação in situ no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves. O método de amostragem utilizado foi o de parcelas distribuídas ao acaso. Avaliaram-se 10 parcelas medindo 50 x 50 m cada. Dentro de cada parcela, foram amostrados indivíduos com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP superior ou igual a 30 cm. Foram amostrados 1.947 indivíduos vivos dentro de 35 famílias botânicas, além de 109 indivíduos mortos ainda em pé. As famílias mais expressivas em número de indivíduos e em espécies foram Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae e Lauraceae. As espécies com maiores valores de importância foram Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand, Ligustrum licidum W. T. Aiton e Sebastiania serrata (Klotzsch Müll. Arg. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 3,18 nats/indivíduos, enquanto a equabilidade de Pielou (J', 0,71, valores esses considerados altos se comparados a de outros levantamentos. O número de espécies identificadas evidenciou nível alto de diversidade florística, que se caracterizou pela associação de diferentes contingentes florestais, com predomínio daquelas de ampla distribuição na área.

  20. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, DF.

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    José Alves da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  1. 氟磺唑草胺防除甘蔗田杂草效果及其对作物的安全性%Weed-control and Safety of Flumetsulam SC Application on Sugarcane Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 胡进锋; 王长方; 游泳; 王俊

    2011-01-01

    为评估氟磺唑草胺对甘蔗田杂草防除效果及对后茬作物的安全性,采用农药田间药效试验法,测定480g·L-1氟磺唑草胺悬浮剂播后芽前土壤处理对甘蔗田杂草的防除效果,并分析其对甘蔗和后茬作物水稻、玉米、上海青生长的影响,结果表明,各处理浓度对马唐、旱稗、牛筋草、石胡荽、裸柱菊、通泉草、胜红蓟、飘拂草、香附子等杂草15 d防效均达86%以上,30 d防效均达88%以上;而各处理浓度30 d鲜重防效达95%以上,各项防治指标均优于对照药莠去津.药后约14个月种植后茬作物,对水稻、玉米和上海青3种后茬作物生长安全,对各后茬作物产量也没有影响.%This study aimed to evaluate the weed-control efficiency of Flumetsulam for sugarcane plantation and effect of its application on succession crops in the field. The rate of 480 g · L-1 Flumetsulam SC was applied in accordance to the pesticide-guidelines for the experimentation. Effects of the application on sugarcane and the succession crops of rice, corn and Shanghaiqing cabbage were determined. The results showed that the controlling efficiencies on major weeds,such as Digitaria sanguinalis (Linn. ) Scop, Echinochloa crusgalli (L. ) Beauv. Var. Hispidula (retz. ) Hack, Eleusine indica (Linn. ) Gaertn, Centipeda minima (Linn. ) A. Br. Et Aschers, Solva anthemifolia (Juss. ) R. Br. · Mazus japonicus (Thumb. ) O. Kuntze, Ageratum conzoides L. , Cardamine hirsute Linn, Polygonum aviculare L. , Fimbristylis aestuvalis (Retz) Vahlhirdute, Portulaca oleracea Linn, and Cyperus rotundus Linn. , were greater than 88% after a 15-day treatment, and 95% after a 30-day treatment. Furthermore, the fresh weight control efficency was more than 95% after a 30-day treatment. The three succession crops, I. E. , rice, corn and cabbage, grew normally in 14 months after the treatment. No significant difference on the crops' production was observed as compared to the control.

  2. Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrle, Hannah; Mevissen, Meike; Kaske, Martin; Nathues, Heiko; Gruetzner, Niels; Melzig, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-06-06

    .) MOENCH, Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Origanum vulgare L. were identified as best candidates for modulation of the immune system and inflammation. Several medicinal plants bear a potential for novel treatment strategies for young livestock. There is a need for further research focused on gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets, and the findings of this review provide a basis on plant selection for future studies.

  3. Aplicação de misturas de diuron com MSMA, e com paraquat, no controle de plantas daninhas de folhas largas em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Mixture of diuron whit MSMA and with paraquat for broadleaved weeds control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo conduzido em 1975/76 procurou-se avaliar a ação de misturas de MSMA com diuron e de paraquat com diuron, aplicadas em pós-emergência, em jato dirigido, em duas épocas diferentes, no controle de algumas plantas daninhas de folhas largas em algodão: carrapicho- do-campo (Acanthospermum australe (Loef O. Kuntze , falsa-poaia (Borreria ala ta (Aubl DC, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e guanxuma (Sida spp . A vegetação natural da área do ensaio era formada ainda pela gramínea capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop . Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de 2,00 kg e 2,70 kg/ha de MSMA com, respectivamente 0,30 kg e 0,40 kg/ha de diuron, e a mistura de 0.60 kg/ha de paraquat com 0,60 kg/ ha de diuron, foram eficientes no co ntro le daquelas dicotiledôneas, e também no da gramínea. Todos os tratamentos provocaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade nos algodoeiros, mas desapareceram depois e não prejudicaram o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, assim como a produção de algodão em caroço.In a field trial carried out in 1975/76, a diuron mixtu re with MSMA and another with paraquat was tested on broadleaved weeds in cotton crops. The applications were done in postemergence, directed-spray, in two different periods. The broadleaved weeds observed in the trial were Acanthospermum australe , Borreria alata, Richardia brasiliensis, and Sida spp, also the grass Digitaria sanguinalis. Best results were obtained with the mixture of 0,60 kg/ha of paraquat with 0,60 kg/ha of diuron, and 2,70 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,40 kg/ ha of diuron, or 2,00 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,30 kg/ha of diuron. All the treatments caused sl ight symptons of toxic ity in cotton, which disappeared later and did not damage the production.

  4. Fauna de Coleoptera no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil: abundância e riqueza das famílias capturadas através de armadilhas malaise Coleoptera fauna in the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Parana, Brazil: abundance and family richness captured with malaise traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coleoptera fauna of Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Parana, was sampled during 52 weeks using malaise traps (from September 1999 to August 2000. Five different sites were selected according to floristic conditions: one site in initial stage of vegetacional succession; one in intermediate stage; one in advanced stage (recognized as a mature forest; one with an Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze plantation, invaded by native forest vegetation; and a fifth site in the edge area. The Coleoptera communities from the five sites were analyzed based on abundance and family richness. The total of specimens collected was 10,822 belonging to 64 families. The most abundant sites were those in initial and intermediate stages of plant succession; the abundance in the edge area was the lowest. The family richness is not related with the level of preservation of the sites. The beetle community structures of the five sites were not significantly different when involving all the families captured; but the more correlated pair-wise site structures reflected the vegetational stages of the sites. A temporal comparison of the beetle community structures was made, based on data gathered in one of the selected site which were sampled 13 years ago (1986/1987. The fauna collected in this year was more related with that of the initial stage of succession, in 1999/2000, than the one collected in the same area, in 1999/2000, nowadays considered as an intermediate stage of succession. This fact probably represents a parallel succession of fauna and flora. The dominant families, about 60% of total abundance, include Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cerambycidae, Elateridae and Staphylinidae. Eventually, one or two of them, were substituted by Scarabaeidae, Ptilodactylidae, Cleridae, Coccinellidae, Lampyridae, Scolytidae, Cucujidae, Nitidulidae, Cantharidae, Scirtidae and Phengodidae. As observed in Vila Velha and other localities, there are a taxonomic

  5. Atomic Spectral Methods for Ab Initio Molecular Electronic Energy Surfaces: Transitioning From Small-Molecule to Biomolecular-Suitable Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeffrey D; Ben-Nun, Michal; Rollin, Kyle; Bromley, Michael W J; Li, Jiabo; Hinde, Robert J; Winstead, Carl L; Sheehy, Jeffrey A; Boatz, Jerry A; Langhoff, Peter W

    2016-08-25

    Continuing attention has addressed incorportation of the electronically dynamical attributes of biomolecules in the largely static first-generation molecular-mechanical force fields commonly employed in molecular-dynamics simulations. We describe here a universal quantum-mechanical approach to calculations of the electronic energy surfaces of both small molecules and large aggregates on a common basis which can include such electronic attributes, and which also seems well-suited to adaptation in ab initio molecular-dynamics applications. In contrast to the more familiar orbital-product-based methodologies employed in traditional small-molecule computational quantum chemistry, the present approach is based on an "ex-post-facto" method in which Hamiltonian matrices are evaluated prior to wave function antisymmetrization, implemented here in the support of a Hilbert space of orthonormal products of many-electron atomic spectral eigenstates familiar from the van der Waals theory of long-range interactions. The general theory in its various forms incorporates the early semiempirical atoms- and diatomics-in-molecules approaches of Moffitt, Ellison, Tully, Kuntz, and others in a comprehensive mathematical setting, and generalizes the developments of Eisenschitz, London, Claverie, and others addressing electron permutation symmetry adaptation issues, completing these early attempts to treat van der Waals and chemical forces on a common basis. Exact expressions are obtained for molecular Hamiltonian matrices and for associated energy eigenvalues as sums of separate atomic and interaction-energy terms, similar in this respect to the forms of classical force fields. The latter representation is seen to also provide a long-missing general definition of the energies of individual atoms and of their interactions within molecules and matter free from subjective additional constraints. A computer code suite is described for calculations of the many-electron atomic eigenspectra and

  6. Effect on vitality of Flaveria bidentis seeds after feeding through draining by animals%动物过腹对黄顶菊种子活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕忠才; 李瑞军; 陆秀君; 刘廷辉; 王付民; 胡国律; 沈佐锐

    2011-01-01

    To realize the possibility of seeds dispersed by animals, a study was carried out by adding the seeds of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze into feeds of five animals such as cows, sheep, donkeys, rabbits and chickens,then analyzing the ability of sprouting and germination of the seeds contained in feces of the animals. Results showed that many of the seeds in the feces were whole and the draining of the seeds would last for 4 days, 6 days,5 days, 2 days and 1 day, respectively, in turn for the five animals. While the seeds were found to reduce as time elapsed during the draining. Sprouting ratios of the seeds isolated from feces on the first day were 25.3%,31.3%, 19.3%, 10% and 11.7%, respectively, in turn for the five animals. The results indicate that the F.bidentis seeds may be dispersed by animals, and long -distance travel of animals should be an important approach to disperse the weeds.%为了明确黄顶菊种子动物传播的可能性,利用添加黄顶菊种子的饲料饲喂牛、羊、驴、兔和鸡等动物,研究了黄顶菊种子过腹后的种子活力和田间出苗能力.结果表明,黄顶菊种子经上述5种动物取食后,粪便中均有完整种子存在,5种动物取食种子后排空时间分别为4d、6d、5d、2d和1d,且粪便中种子量随时间延长呈减少趋势;黄顶菊种子经5种动物过腹后(第1天收集)的发芽率分别为25.3%、31.3%、19.3%、10%和11.7%.说明5种动物均具有传播黄顶菊种子的可能性,黄顶菊发生区动物的长途贩运是黄顶菊人为传播的重要途径.

  7. 茶树酯型儿茶素水解酶鉴定及其检测体系的建立%Identification and Reaction Assay of Galloylated Catechins Hydrolase in Tea Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂志银; 刘亚军; 刘莉; 高丽萍; 夏涛

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment, high activity of galloylated catechins hydrolase (GCH) was detected existing in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) by enzymology analysis in vitro, combining thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The galloylated catechins could be hydrolyzed to ungalloylated catechins and gallic acid (GA) with the GCH action. The optimum reaction assay of GCH has been established. The 2.5 mL enzyme reaction assay included 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 0.2 mmol/L EGCG, 2.4 mmol/L sodium ascorbate, crude enzyme extract (0.1 mg total protein), and then it was incubated at 30 ℃ for 30 min. Besides, the crude enzyme extract was partially purified via ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion exchange chromatography on Q Sepharose Fast Flow column and gel filtration chromatography on superdex 200 sequentially.%本试验利用体外酶学方法,结合薄层层析( TLC)、高效液相色谱(HPLC)和液相色谱-串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)分析,首次从茶树中检测到活性较高的酯型儿茶素水解酶(Galloylated Catechins Hydrolase,GCH)的存在.在酯型儿茶素水解酶催化下,酯型儿茶素发生水解反应,生成没食子酸(GA)和非酯型儿茶素.试验确立了酯型儿茶素水解酶的最适检测体系,在2.5 mL反应体系中包含0.2 mmol/L酯型儿茶素、2.4 mmol/L抗坏血酸、粗酶提取液若干(含0.1 mg酶蛋白)和0.1 mol/L磷酸缓冲液(pH6.5),在30℃下,反应30 min.此外,试验利用硫酸铵分级沉淀、阴离子交换层析和凝胶过滤层析对该酶进行了初步纯化.

  8. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FLORÍSTICA, FITOSSOCIOLÓGICA E REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DO SUB-BOSQUE DA RESERVA GENÉTICA FLORESTAL TAMANDUÁ, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão João Marcelo de Rezende

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  9. 茶树咖啡碱合成酶 CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑载体的构建%Development of a CRISPR/Cas9 Constructed for Genome Editing of Caffeine Synthase in Camellia sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雨薇; 刘丽萍; 王若娴; 陈宇宏; 刘仲华; 刘硕谦

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9技术是一门新兴的基因组定点编辑技术,具有操作简单、高效的优点,可轻松实现对目标基因的敲除、替换和定点突变等操作。该技术刚诞生,就受到了全球生命科学领域研究者的关注,不到3年的时间就已经成功应用于多种动、植物当中。然而 CRISPR/Cas9技术在茶树中的应用面临载体构建问题,本文以茶树咖啡碱合成酶为例,联合采用常规 PCR、Overlapping PCR 和 Golden Gate Cloning 技术,构建了包含茶树咖啡碱合成酶双靶点的 CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑载体,为 CRISPR/Cas9介导的基因组编辑技术在茶树中的应用奠定了坚实基础。%CRISPR/Cas9 technology (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) is a novel and powerful approach for targeted genome editing, such as targeted gene knock out or site-directed mutagenesis in a simple and easy way. Since its establishment, the CRISPR/Cas9 technique has been successfully applied in many eukaryotic organisms, including more than 10 plant species. However, it has not been available for genome editing of tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] due to the difficulty in constructing CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector. The present work developed an efficient method to construct a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for genome editing a tea caffeine synthase (TCS) by using general PCR, overlapping PCR and golden gate cloning technology. The present work would promote the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in genomic modification in tea plants.

  10. Effects of fertilization regimes on tea yields, soil fertility, and soil microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Lian Qiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields and influencing soil properties. A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2006-2011 in southeastern China, to investigate the effects of fertilization regimes on tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze yields, soil chemical properties, and soil bacterial and fungal communities. The field experiment included six treatments: (1 unfertilized control (CON; (2 chemical fertilizers (NPK; (3 half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure (1/2NPKOM; (4 organic manure fertilizers (OM; (5 half-chemical fertilizers plus half-organic manure plus legume stover returned (1/2NPKOM+L, and (6 chemical fertilizers plus legume stover returned (NPKL. Results showed that, compared to the control, NPK treatment showed no significant effect on soil organic matter (SOM, total N (TN, total P (TP, total K (TK, available N (AN, available K (AK and tea yields, but showed the lowest bacterial Shannon index of 1.714 and the lowest value of 2.002 for fungal Shannon index. Organic manure treatment had the richest diversity of soil bacterial community with Shannon index of 2.542, and the highest levels of soil essential nutrients, including SOM (30.03%, TN (2.90 g kg-1, TP (1.35 g kg-1, AN (245.30 mg kg-1, AP (57.00 mg kg-1, and AK (271.80 mg kg-1, followed by 1/2NPKOM+L, which appeared the maximal tea yields of 6772 kg ha-1. Organic manure amendment was a key factor in determining soil properties and productivity. Base on soil quality and tea yields, both OM and 1/2NPKOM+L treatments were recommended as better choices of fertilization practices for tea soils in southeastern China. These findings provided a better understanding of the importance of fertilizations in promoting soil fertility, crop yields, and altering soil microbial diversity, leading to selection of scientific fertilization practices for sustainable development of agroecosystems.

  11. PALINOLOGÍA DE LOS GÉNEROS TARASA Y WISSADULA (MALVACEAE, MALVEAE DE ARGENTINA Palynology of the genera Tarasa and Wissadula (Malvaceae, Malveae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela A. Cuadrado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Fueron estudiados y descriptos con microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido, los granos de
    polen de veintiún especies pertenecientes a dos géneros de Malvaceae; Tarasa Phil.: T.
    alberti Phil., T. antofagastana (Phil. Krapov., T. capitata (Cav. D. M. Bates, T. heterophylla
    (Griseb. Krapov., T. humilis (Gillies ex Hook & Arn. Krapov., T. meyeri Krapov., T. odonellii
    Krapov., T. tarapacana (Phil. Krapov., T. tenella (Cav. Krapov., T. trisecta (Griseb. Krapov. y
    T. urbaniana (Ulbr. Krapov., y Wissadula Medik: W. decora S. Moore, W. densiflora R. E. Fr.,
    W. glechomaefolia (A. St.-Hil. R. E. Fr., W. gymnanthemum (Griseb. K.Schum., W. paraguariensis Chodat, W. parviflora (A.St.-Hil. R.E.Fr., W. setifera Krapov., W. subpeltata
    (Kuntze R.E.Fr., W. tucumanensis R.E.Fr. y W. wissadifolia (Griseb. Krapov. Existe diferencia
    entre ambos géneros, con excepción de Tarasa alberti que tiene más afinidad con el grupo
    Wissadula. Los granos de polen son esferoidales, oblato-esferoidales y suboblatos, de medianos
    a grandes; la escultura no muestra gran variabilidad, las especies de ambos géneros son
    equinadas o equinuladas con nanoespínulas y perforaciones (fóveas entre las espinas o
    espínulas. En el género Tarasa las aperturas muestran variación en el número (tres a ocho y
    en la distribución: zonocolporadas, y en posición espiraloide. Las especies de Wissadula son
    todas trizonocolporadas. Se presentan dos claves para reconocer las especies de cada
    género y se establecen tres tipos de polen en base al número y distribución de las aperturas:
    1 tri-tetrazonocolporado, 2 pentazonocolporado y 3 oligocolporado (6 a 8 aperturas en
    posición espiraloide.
    Pollen grains of twenty one species of two genera of Malvaceae were studied and described
    under optical

  12. Estrutura do estrato herbáceo na formação aberta de Clusia do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Herb layer structure of Clusia scrub in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Cristina Alvarez Pereira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available No Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba localiza-se o site 5 do Programa de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração (PELD, região de grande diversidade de hábitats e riqueza florística nas restingas do Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para descrever a composição florística e estrutura do estrato herbáceo da formação aberta de Clusia foram amostrados todos os indivíduos deste estrato utilizando-se o método de parcelas. Em três diferentes áreas foram distribuídos 200 quadrados de 1m², totalizando 600m². Em cada quadrado anotou-se o número de indivíduos e percentagem de cobertura de cada espécie. Para a comparação entre as áreas utilizaram-se os índices de Similaridade de Sørensen, diversidade de Shannon (H' e equabilidade de Pielou (J'. Foram amostrados 39 espécies e 3.021 indivíduos. Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze, Vriesea neoglutinosa Mez, Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., Stigmaphyllon paralias A. Juss., Neoregelia cruenta (Graham L.B. Sm., Anthurium maricense Nadruz & Mayo, Pilosocereus arrabidae (Lem. Byles & G.D. Rowl. e Ipomoea imperati (Vahl Griseb. obtiveram os maiores valores de importância. A diversidade foi H'=1,89 nats/m² e a equabilidade J'= 0,52, utilizando a cobertura como medida de abundância das espécies por esta evitar a subjetividade na definição de indivíduos e melhor representar a estrutura oligárquica aqui descrita. O ponto A diferencia-se significativamente de B e C quanto ao número de indivíduos e à cobertura vegetal herbácea. O número de espécies e os índices de diversidade não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Os resultados aqui apresentados diferem parcialmente dos obtidos anteriormente para o estrato arbustivo, sugerindo que estudos sobre distribuição espacial e associação entre espécies são necessários para esclarecer as relações entre estes dois estratos.Long Term Ecological Research (LTER Site No.5 in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park

  13. Composição da flora arbórea e arborescente no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition of the tree flora in the Botanical Garden of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Treviso Cenci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de uma área de 178.000 m², situada nas coordenadas 29º10'38"S e 51º27'16"W, na localidade de Linha Palmeiro, Distrito de São Pedro, no Município de Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brasil, onde se encontra o Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves, o qual se situa numa zona de transição de três formações vegetais distintas: Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Estacional Decidual e resquícios de Mata Atlântica. O local é uma área de conservação in situ no Jardim Botânico de Bento Gonçalves. O método de amostragem utilizado foi o de parcelas distribuídas ao acaso. Avaliaram-se 10 parcelas medindo 50 x 50 m cada. Dentro de cada parcela, foram amostrados indivíduos com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP superior ou igual a 30 cm. Foram amostrados 1.947 indivíduos vivos dentro de 35 famílias botânicas, além de 109 indivíduos mortos ainda em pé. As famílias mais expressivas em número de indivíduos e em espécies foram Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae e Lauraceae. As espécies com maiores valores de importância foram Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand, Ligustrum licidum W. T. Aiton e Sebastiania serrata (Klotzsch Müll. Arg. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 3,18 nats/indivíduos, enquanto a equabilidade de Pielou (J', 0,71, valores esses considerados altos se comparados a de outros levantamentos. O número de espécies identificadas evidenciou nível alto de diversidade florística, que se caracterizou pela associação de diferentes contingentes florestais, com predomínio daquelas de ampla distribuição na área.The objective of this study was to survey the flora in an area of 178,000 square meters at 29&º10'38''S and 51&º27'16''W, in Linha Palmeiro, in São Pedro, a district of Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil where the Botanical Garden of Bento

  14. Radical scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts from Limonium sinense%中华补血草多酚提取物对自由基的清除能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳华; 李均; 郭巧茹; 陈莺莺

    2011-01-01

    By method of ultrasonic wave assisted extraction-macroporous resin adsorption, polyphenol extracts from root, rhizome, leaf and flower of Limonium sinense (Girard ) Kuntze were obtained, and their yield and constituents were preliminarily analyzed. On this basis, scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts from different parts to DPPH · ,· OH and 02' were comparatively researched. The results show that yield of polyphenol extracts from root, rhizome, leaf and flower is 12.42% , 5. 98% , 5. 27% and 3. 98% , respectively, having significant difference. Contents of total phenols, proanthocyanidin, flavanol and total flavonoids in polyphenol extracts have a relatively great change range, that is 51.87%-61.60% , 5.62% -39.47% , 3.69% -12.46% and 2.53% -35.97% , respectively. In which, contents of total phenols, proanthocyanidin and flavanol are the highest in polyphenol extracts from root and content of total flavonoids is the highest in polyphenol extracts from flower, showing significant differences with those in other parts. With rising of concentration gradually, scavenging rate of polyphenol extracts from the four parts to three radicals increases generally. In which, the scavenging effect of polyphenol extracts from root to DPPH* is the strongest and its half scavenging concentration (pSCso) is 38.52 p,g · LT-1, that is significantly lower than those of positive controls of rutin (67. 40 ug · L-1) and BHT (74.25 jtg · L-1 ). And scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts from flower to -OH and 02' is the strongest with pSC50 53. 51 and 74. 00 p,g · L-1, respectively, those are lower than that of rutin. Generally, the order of scavenging capacity of polyphenol extracts from the four parts to DPPH · fromstrong to weak is root, rhizome, leaf, flower, and that to -OH and O2' from strong to weak is flower, root, leaf, rhizome. Therefore, it could be concluded that polyphenol extracts from different parts of L. sinense have a strong scavenging capacity to radical

  15. Expression of Plant Sweet Protein Mabinlin Ⅱ in Escherichia coli%植物甜蛋白Mabinlin Ⅱ在大肠杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌博; 黄东彦; 胡文锋; 罗文华; 李雪玲; 颜少帆; 陈永泉

    2011-01-01

    本研究从马槟榔种子中扩增得到天然植物甜蛋白MabinlinⅡ的全长cDNA序列(M1),并通过特异引物PCR去除部分5'端序列得到修饰型的基因序列(M2).将M1与M2分别克隆至表达载体pET43.1a(+),并分别转化表达宿主菌Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)和Rosetta(DE3),成功构建出BL21(DE3)/pET43.1a-M1(缩写B-M1)、BL21(DE3)/pET43.1a-M2 (缩写B-M2)、Rosetta(DE3)/pET43.1a-M1(缩写R-M1)、Rosetta(DE3)/pET43.1a-M2(缩写R-M2)四个表达系统.经IPTG诱导表达后证明,R-M1的重组甜蛋白表达量最高,并可检测到轻微甜味和后甜感.同时利用镍柱对R-M1诱导表达的目的蛋白进行纯化,得到单一条带的重组甜蛋白.%Mabinlin Ⅱ is a safe, low calorie and strong sweet protein found in the seed of Capparis masasaikai Levl grown in Yunnan Province Southern China. We amplified the whole cDNA sequence of Mabinlin Ⅱ(M1) and the modified gene sequence (M2), which without 105bp of the 5'terminal from the seeds, and cloned into the expression plasmid pET43.la (+) respectively. The two recombinant plasmid were then transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and Rosetta (DE3), resulting in 4 recombinant expression system: BL21 (DE3)/pET43.la-M1 (abbr:B-M1), BL2I(DE3)/pET43.la-M2 (abbr: B-M2), Rosetta (DE3)/pET43.la- M1 (abbr: R-M1) and Rosetta/pET43.la-M2 (abbr: R-M2).Recombinant proteins expression was detected by SDS-PAGE, and the results indicated R-M1 yielded the recombinant Mabinlin Ⅱ in highest level, and sweetness was also detected. The R-M1 recombinant protein was then purified using Ni-NTA resin, and single protein band was observed after SDS-PAGE.

  16. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by population of Valley of Juruena Region, Legal Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Leonti, Marco; Arnason, John Thor; Ferrier, Jonathan; Rapinski, Michel; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Pereira, João Filipe Costa Alves; Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Feguri; Lopes, Célia Regina Araújo Soares; da Silva, Dennis Rodrigues; Pacini, Aloir; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2015-09-15

    The use of medicinal plants for treatment, cure and prevention of diseases has been described by many people since time immemorial. Because of this use, commercial and scientific interests have emerged, making it necessary to realize ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants species, which is important for subsequent chemical and pharmacological bioprospections. This study aimed at surveying, identifying, cataloging and documenting the medicinal plants species used in the Valley of Juruena, Northwestern Mato Grosso, Legal Amazon Brazil for the treatment of various human diseases, as well as assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting potential. Informants were interviewed using semi-structured form to capture information on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological data of medicinal plants such as vernacular name, uses, geographic origin, habit, form of preparation and part used. Results were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (Ur) and informant consensus factor (ICF), for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. Three hundred and thirty two (332) plants species belonging to 90 families were reported for medicinal purposes and totaling 3973 use-reports were reported by 365 (92.9%) of the people interviewed. Asteraceae (32.2%), Fabaceae (26.7%) and Lamiaceae (24.4%) families were the most represented, with majority being species native (64.45%) to Brazil. Leaves (64.5%) were the part of the plant most used and infusion (45.7%) was the most utilized form. Gastrointestinal disorders followed by respiratory complaints topped the list of use-reports. The native or naturalized plants with the highest use reports in the order of decreasing absolute frequency per each emic-category are Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapfc (104), Mentha pulegium L. (94), Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verl. (97), Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (71), Baccharis crispa Spreng (57), Phyllanthus niruri L. (48), Gossypium

  17. 使用硬质输尿管镜行单孔胸交感干切断术治疗手汗症6例%Single-port Thoracic Sympathectomy for Palmar Hyperhidrosis by Using Rigid Ureteroscope:Report of 6 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正红; 葛明建; 颜尧雄; 孙雨果

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical experience of single-port thoracic sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis by using rigid ureteroscope. Methods From March 2012 to February 2014, we used Wolf Fr8/9.8 rigid ureteroscope to replace the traditional thoracoscope in bilateral thoracic sympathetic trunk cutting via a 3-4 mm incision in the treatment of 6 cases of palmar hyperhidrosis .A columnar electrode was introduced through the operation hole and the T 3 thoracic sympathetic trunk and Kuntz beam were cut off. Results The operation was completed successfully in 5 cases, while an extended incision to 12 mm for ultrasonic knife dissection was required because of intrathoracic adhesions in 1 case.Unilateral pneumothorax was occurred in 1 patient.No perioperative death was found .Symptoms disappeared after the operation , and palms were all warm and dry .Follow-up for 9 -21 months (mean, 12.3 months) found 1 case of bilateral axillary compensatory hyperhidrosis .No recurrence was found. Conclusions Use of rigid ureteroscope instead of traditional thoracoscope in single-port thoracic sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis is safe , feasible, and effective.The incision is small without need of suture .%目的:总结使用硬质输尿管镜行单孔法胸交感干切断治疗手汗症的临床经验。方法2012年3月~2014年2月,使用德国Wolf Fr8/9.8硬质输尿管镜替代传统胸腔镜,采用单孔法行双侧胸交感干切断治疗手汗症6例,男性取乳晕切口,女性取乳腺边缘第3肋间切口3~4 mm,柱状电极经操作孔电凝切断T3胸交感干及外侧3~5 cm Kuntz束。结果5例手术顺利完成,1例因胸内粘连扩大切口至12 mm置入超声刀分离。1例术后单侧少量气胸,无围术期死亡。术后手汗症状消失,手掌温暖干爽。随访9~21个月,平均12.3月,1例双侧腋窝代偿性多汗。无复发病例。结论使用硬质输尿管镜替代传统胸腔镜行单孔法交感干切

  18. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor INALOO

    2013-06-01

    ;59(7:1006-10.10. Yavari MJ, Inaloo S, Saboori S. Multiple sclerosis in children: A review of clinical and paraclinical features in26 cases. Iran J Child Neurol 2008;2(4:41-46.11. Oksenberg JR, Baranzini SE, Sawcer S, Hauser SL. The genetics of multiple sclerosis: SNPs to pathways to pathogenesis. Nat Rev Genet 2008 Jul;9(7:516-26.12. Willer CJ, Dyment DA, Risch NJ, Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC; Canadian Collaborative Study Group. Twin concordance and sibling recurrence rates in multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003 Oct 28;100(22:12877-82.13. Ramagopalan SV, Knight JC, Ebers GC. Multiple sclerosis and the major histocompatibility complex. Curr Opin Neurol 2009 Jun;22(3:219-25.14. Banwell B, Krupp L, Kennedy J, Tellier R, Tenembaum S, Ness J, et al. Clinical features and viral serologies in children with multiple sclerosis: a multinational observational study. Lancet Neurol 2007 Sep;6(9:773-81.15. Alotaibi S, Kennedy J, Tellier R, Stephens D, Banwell B. Epstein Barr virus in pediatric multiple sclerosis. JAMA2004;291(15:1875-9.16. Pohl D, Knone B, Rostasy K, Kahler E, Brunner E, Lehnert M, et al. High seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in children with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2006 Dec12;67(11:2063-5.17. Waubant E, Mowry EM, Krupp L, Chitnis T, Yeh EA, Kuntz N,et al. Antibody response to common viruses and human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2012 Dec 11.18. Waubant E, Mowry EM, Krupp L, Chitnis T, Yeh EA, Kuntz N, et al. Common viruses associated with lower pediatric multiple sclerosis risk. Neurology 2011 Jun 7;76(23:1989-95.19. Mikaeloff Y, Caridade G, Rossier M, Suissa S, Tardieu M. Hepatitis B vaccination and the risk of childhoodonsetmultiple sclerosis. Arch Pediatric Adolesc Med 2007;161:1176-82.20. Hammord SR, English DR, Moleod JG. The age-range of risk of developing multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2000 May;123 (Pt 5:968-74.21. Van Amerongen BM, Dijkstra CD, Lips P, Polman CH. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D: an update. Eur J Clin

  19. 几种饲料原料对刺参幼参生长和体成分的影响%Effects of several diets on the growth and body composition of Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭娜; 董双林; 刘慧

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同饲料原料对刺参Apostichopus japonicus(Selenka)幼参生长和体成分的影响.实验采用鱼粉、鼠尾藻Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze、浒苔Enteromorpha prolifera、海带Laminaria japonica和海泥5种主要原料配制的饲料投喂体长为4.18±0.23cm、体重为5.99±0.26g的刺参幼参,进行了为期80d的养殖实验.实验结束时,投喂鼠尾藻饲料、浒苔饲料和动物性饲料的刺参特定生长率(SGR)分别为95.36%/d、92.29%/d和84.87%/d.这三者之间无显著差异,但生长效果要好于投喂海带饲料和海泥饲料的刺参.实验结果表明,在特定的室内养殖条件下,虽然刺参能够更好地利用植物性蛋白,但是可以将动物性蛋白作为刺参的辅助性饲料成分,配制出营养更全面的配合饲料;浒苔作为刺参幼参的养殖饲料原料是完全可行的;海带粗加工产品不适于用做刺参饲料的主要成分.%This study was conducted to determine the effects of several diets on the growth and body composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. A. japonicus at 4.18-0. 23cm of body length and 5. 99±0. 26g of body weight were fed with different diets,including animal-based (fish meal) diet, Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze, Enteromorpha proli f era , Laminaria japonica,and sea mud-based diet for 80d. Sea cucumbers were maintained in glass aquaria and fed with the five different diets. The special growth rate of sea cucumbers fed with diets of S. thunbergii,E. prolifera,and fishmeal were 95.36%/d-1 ,92.29%/d-1 and 84.87 %/d-1 ,respectively,which were not significantly different but higher than those fed with diets of L. japonica or sea mud. It was found that,although the animal's utilization of plant protein was higher,it is practically feasible to formulate more wholesome feed by using animal-based protein as the diet ingredient; E. prolifera is an alternative food source for juvenile sea cucumbers;Ground dried L. japonica should not be used as the

  20. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  1. Relationships between microbial activity and soil physical and chemical properties in native and reforested Araucaria angustifolia forests in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil de Morais Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze is the main component of the Mixed Ombrophilous forest and, in the State of São Paulo, it is associated with a high diversity of soil organisms, essential for the maintenance of soil quality, making the conservation of this ecosystem a major and pressing challenge. The objective of this study was to identify the physical and chemical properties that are most closely correlated with dehydrogenase enzyme activity, basal respiration and microbial biomass under native (NF and replanted (RF Araucaria angustifolia forests in three regions of the state of São Paulo, in winter and summer. The main differentiating factors between the areas were also determined. Each forest was represented by three true replications; at each site, from around the araucaria trees, 15 soil samples (0-20 cm were collected to evaluate the soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties. At the same points, forest litter was sampled to assess mass and chemical properties. The following microbiological properties were evaluated: microbial biomass carbon (MBC, basal respiration (CO2-C, metabolic quotient (Q: CO2, dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA as well as the physical properties (moisture, bulk density, macroporosity and total porosity, soil chemical properties [pH, organic carbon (org-C, P, Ca, K, Mg, Al, H+Al], litter dry mass, and C, N and S contents. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (TWO-WAY: ANOVA. A Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA and a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA were also performed. In the soil under NF, the values of K, P, soil macroporosity, and litter dry mass were higher and Q: CO2 and DHA lower, regardless of the sampling period, and DHA was lower in winter. In the RF areas, the levels of moisture, porosity and Q: CO2 were higher in both sampling periods, and DHA was higher in winter. The MBC was only higher under NF in the summer, while the litter contents of C, N and S were greater in

  2. Comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal del sitio ecológico ‘media loma’, región chaqueña occidental (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAVO, S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl comportamiento del fuego es uno de los componentes de la ecología del fenómeno y su caracterización es necesaria para su manejo y control. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar el comportamiento del fuego en un pastizal ubicado en el sitio ecológico ‘media loma’ ubicado en el Campo Experimental ´La María´, INTA EEA Santiago del Estero (28º 03’ S 64º 15’ E en una posición intermedia del paisaje, entre el bosque de dos quebrachos y la sabana. El fuego se aplicó en seis parcelas de dos sitios de estudio, estimándose la composición botánica, la carga de combustible fino y la densidad aparente del combustible en función de la altura en cada una de ellas. El comportamiento del fuego se caracterizó mediante la estimación de la velocidad de avance del frente de fuego y la longitud de llamas. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de la varianza empleando ´sitio de estudio´ como variable independiente. Las correlaciones entre variables fueron evaluadas mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Kendall (τ. Aunque ubicados en un mismo sitio ecológico, los sitios de estudio presentaron dominancia diferencial de dos especies nativas, Trichloris pluriflora (E. Fournier y Pappophorum pappipherum (Lam. Kuntze. Las dos especies poseen diferente proporción de tallo y hoja en su biomasa aérea, diferencia que se reflejó en la carga de combustible fino y su densidad aparente (p > F = 0,0001 en ambos casos y en la velocidad de avance del frente de fuego (p >F = 0.0001. Esta última fue de 28 m*min-1 en el sitio de estudio 1, con dominancia de la primera especie; y 21 m*.min-1 en el sitio de estudio 2, con dominancia de la segunda, respectivamente. La longitud de llamas promedio fue de 3,5 m, pero superó los 6 m cuando participaron en la propagación del fuego especies arbustivas que poseen aceites esenciales y resinas en su follaje. Se observó correlación positiva y significativa (p F = 0,0001 in both

  3. Analyses of species composition and diversity of weed seed bank of main crop fields in Jiangsu Province and its correlation with environmental factors%江苏省主要农田杂草种子库物种组成和多样性及其与环境因子的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章超斌; 马波; 强胜

    2012-01-01

    采用水洗镜检法对江苏省31个农田样点(包括旱田和水田)0~15 cm土层土壤杂草种子库的种类组成和物种多样性进行了调查研究;采用典范对应法分析了杂草种子库种类与环境因子(包括淹水天数、土壤有机质含量、土壤pH、年降水量、年均温、样点经度和样点纬度)的相关性并绘制了样点和种类与环境因子的二维排序散点图.调查结果表明:在31个样点的土壤杂草种子库中共检测到杂草种子15科54种,旱田和水田各有41和45种,二者共有种类占多数但优势种有差异,通泉草[ Mazus japonicus (Thunb.) Kuntze]、异型莎草(Cyperus difformis L.)、水苋菜(Ammannia baccifera L.)、千金子[Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees]、棒头革(Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud.)和牛繁缕[ Malachium aquaticum (L.) Fries]等种类为二者的共有优势种;杂草种类最多的为禾本科(Gramineae)和莎草科(Cyperaceae),分别占种类总数的22.6%和20.8%.旱田不同样点杂草种子库的优势种类变化较大,而水田杂草种子库优势种较稳定;二者优势种频度差异较大,旱田中频度高于0.30的杂草有19种,水田中频度高于0.50的杂草有20种;旱田和水田中平均重要值大于0.03的杂草各有11和9种,这些频度高的种类重要值也较大.旱田和水田土壤种子库种子密度分别为21 015和37 847 m-2,平均为31 008 m-2;旱田3层土壤中种子密度差异不显著,而水田上、中层土壤的种子密度显著高于下层.旱田以夏熟和秋熟杂草为主,而水田则以水田和夏熟杂草为主.按形态类型划分,水田及旱田中杂草种类数和密度从大到小均依次排序为阔叶草类、禾草类、莎草类,且水田中这3类杂草的种类数和种子密度均高于旱田.与旱田相比,水田杂草种子库的物种丰富度指数(S)、Shannon-Wiener 指数(H')和Simpson指数(D)较高,但Pielou均匀度指数(E)较低;旱田杂草种子库的S、H'

  4. The choice of thoracoscopic sympathecotomy in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis among different procedures%电视胸腔镜手术治疗手汗症不同术式的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙高忠; 许林海; 周冰

    2010-01-01

    = 41 ): Thoracoscopic T2 sympathetic nerve clipped. (4) Group D ( n = 240 ):Thoracoscopic T3-4 level sympathecotomy plus bypass fiber ( Kuntz fiber) resection on same level was performed. Results All procedures were successfully performed under thoracoscope without severe morbidity and mortality. The curative rate of palmar hyperhidrosis was 100. 00%. The incidence of compensatory sweating were 54. 9% ( group A) ,48. 1% ( group B) ,48.8% ( group C) and 28. 8% ( group D) respectively with significantly decrease in group D contrast to other three groups. The incidence of high-grade compensatory sweating which have important infleuces on daily life were 9. 8% (group A), 10. 4% (group B) ,9.8% (group C) and 2.9% (group D) respectively with significantly decrease in group D. Other pairings have nonsignificance. The relapse rate were 1.2% ( group A ), 2. 2% ( group B), 7. 3% ( group C )and 0. 8% (group D). Only when group D contrasted to group C has significantly decrease in the relapserate (x2 = 8. 423, P = 0. 004 ). Other pairings have nonsignificance. Conclusion The procedure of T3-4 sympathicotomy plus bypass fiber resection is reasonable operative method to cure hyperhidrosis with the better curative effect and lowest incidence of compensatory hyperhidrosis.

  5. Cursos Pronatec Copa 2014 Voltados ao Turismo em Curitiba, PR: Instrumento de Avaliação por Rubrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elmar Feger

    2015-10-01

    as exploratory and descriptive, with the spatial coverage in the city of Curitiba. The application of field research occurred in two courses held in the city of Curitiba. It was possible to verify, within the institutional structure that the students claimed that the qualification of teachers was one of the strengths in terms of offer structure. Keywords: Tourism. Profissinal training. Pronatec. Instrument rating. Curitiba, PR, Brazil. José Elmar Feger - Doutor. Professor e pesquisador do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Turismo, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR. Curriculo Lattes http://lattes.cnpq.br/8671782571748625. E-mail: elmar.josefeger@gmail.com Maria do Carmo Duarte Freitas – Doutor. Professora e pesquisadora dos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia da Produção e Ciência, Gestão e Tecnologia da Informação da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR. Currículo Lattes http://lattes.cnpq.br/1740734674821323. E-mail: carmemk2@gmail.comViviane Helena Kuntz – Mestre. Pesquisadora do Grupo de Pesquisa Núcleo de Acessibilidade Digital e Tecnologias Assistidas da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, e do Laboratório de Mídias Digitais do Grupo de Pesquisa Aplicada a Ciência, Informação e Tecnologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR. Currículo Lattes lattes.cnpq.br/7190093645944939. E-mail: vkuntz@gmail.com Livia Regina Nogueira dos Santos  - Bacharel. Pesquisadora no laboratório de Mídias Digitais do Grupo de Pesquisa Aplicada a Ciência, Informação e Tecnologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR. Currículo Lattes lattes.cnpq.br/5157079034428441%20. E-mail: liviareginasantos@gmail.com

  6. Plantas lenhosas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Parque Municipal das Araucárias – Guarapuava (PR / Woody plants of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest the Araucaria Municipal Park - Guarapuava (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cordeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das espécies lenhosas da uma área de 41 ha de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM do Parque Municipal das Araucárias, localizado em Guarapuava (PR com coordenadas geográficas 25º 20’ 44” e 25º 21’ 35” de latitude Sul e 51º 27’ 31” e 51º 28’ 16” de longitude Oeste. O patamar altimétrico do Parque fica em torno dos 1070 m.s.n.m., o predomínio é relevo suave ondulado e solo do tipo Latossolo Bruno Ácrico Húmico. O levantamento foi realizado de mar/04 a out/08 com média de uma visita a cada vinte dias. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 77 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas, distribuídos nas formas biológicas de microfanerófitos (n=44, mesofanerófitos (n=39, nanofanerófitos (n=15, lianas (n=8 e megafanerófito (n=1. As famílias que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: Solanaceae com 12 espécies, Myrtaceae com nove, Fabaceae com oito, Bignoniaceae com seis, Asteraceae com cinco. Estas famílias agruparam 37,4% das espécies, enquanto que as outras 38 famílias responderam por 62,6% da diversidade. Aproximadamente 60,5% das famílias são representadas por apenas uma espécie cada. Considerando o critério a frequência Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss & Cambess. Hieron. ex Niederl., Casearia decandra Jacq., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke, Jacaranda puberula Cham., Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso, Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees, Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H. Rob. e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. podem ser consideradas espécies companheiras da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze na florística da FOM. Os dados quanto ao total de espécies da FOM ainda são incompletos. Faz-se necessário que levantamentos sejam direcionados aos escassos remanescentes que restam e que o critério amostral estenda-se sobre todas as formas biol

  7. 茶树 HMG-CoA 还原酶基因全长 cDNA 克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of HMG-CoA reductase full-length cDNA from tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩兴杰; 徐玲玲; 廖亮; 李同建; 邓辉胜; 樊启水; 徐小青

    2015-01-01

    )catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)to mevalonate,which is the committed step in the synthesis of isoprenoids via the MVA pathway.To help understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying terpenoid synthesis of tea,a full-length cDNA encoding HMGR was cloned from tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze)by using the RACE-PCR technique (designated as CsHMGR 1).It comprised 1 979 bp,with a 1 722 bp intact open read-ing frame encoding a 573-amino-acid protein.The deduced protein showed 80% to 82% similarities to homologs from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis ),common camptotheca fruit (Camptotheca acuminate ),ginseng (Panax ginseng ), litchis (Litchi chinensis ),American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius ),rooted salvia (Salvia miltiorrhiza ),Momordica grosvenori (Siraltia grosvenorii ),and longan (Dimocarpus longan).The phylogenetic tree,constructed with the cat-alytic domalned of CsHMGR1 and homologs from other species,indicated that CsHMGR1 belonged to the eukaryotic class I HMGR family.CsHMGR1 consisted of two transmembrane domalns,implying that it may be localized to en-doplasmic reticulum (ER)similarly to other eukaryotic homologs.It also contalned two HMG-CoA binding sites,two NADP(H)-binding sites,four conserved catalytic active residues and a phosphorylation site,indicating that phospho-rylation/dephosphorylation is likely a crucial mode of regulation of its biochemical activity.Tissue expression analysis indicated that CsHMGR 1 was expressed comparatively in the leaf buds of C .sinensis cv.Dayelong and in both leaf buds and floral buds of the mother plants.The regulation of expression and physiological activity of CsHMGR1 are likely to impact greatly on tea quality,and CsHMGR1 may provide a basis of the quality evaluation and breeding of tea given that its function is further resolved.

  8. 不同林分内茶树光合特性及其影响因子和小气候因子分析%Analyses on photosynthetic characteristics of Camellia sinensis in different forests and its main impact factors and microclimate factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏; 马永春; 肖正东; 佘诚棋; 蔡新玲; 王其林

    2012-01-01

    Differences of three microclimate factors including photosynthetically active radiation intensity (PAR) , air temperature ( Ta) and air relative humidity ( RH ) and photosynthetic characteristics including net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) of Camellia sinensis ( L.) O. Kuntze in compound forests of Caslanea molliisima-Ginkgo biloba-Camellia sinensis and Caslanea mollissima-Camellia sinensis and pure forest of Camellia sinensis were compared, and the main physio-ecological factors affecting on Pn of C. sinensis were investigated by multiple regression analysis. The results show that there are great differences of PAR, Ta and RH in three forests during different measurement times, PAR and Ta in pure forest of C. sinensis are generally higher but its RH is generally lower than those in two compound forests during same measurement lime. Compared to pure forest of C. sinensis, compound planting of C. mollissima and G. biloba with C. sinensis is helpful to regulate PAR, Ta and RH in the forests. The growth of C. sinensis is affected by shading of C. mollissima or G. biloba in two compound forests. Pn of C. sinensis in pure forest is the highest with significant difference to that of C. sinensis in C. mollissima-G. biloba-C. sinensis compound forest. And Gs of C. sinensis in pure forest is generally higher than and its Ci has no significant difference with that in two compound forests. Also, Tr of C. sinensis generally has no significant difference among three forests. The results of multiple regression analysis indicate that effect of Tr on Pn of C. sinensis in three forests is the greatest among six physio-ecological factors (including Gs, Ci, Tr, PAR, Ta and RH) , and the second is Ta. While other factors have different effect degrees in different forests. It is suggested thai compound planting of C. sinensis can regulate water and heat conditions within forests and improve growing

  9. 自然越冬过程中3个茶树品种的生理特性变化及抗寒性评价%Change in physiological characteristics and cold resistance evaluation of three cultivars of Camellia sinensis during natural overwintering period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李叶云; 舒锡婷; 周月琴; 江昌俊

    2014-01-01

    以茶树也Camellia sinensis (Linn.) Kuntze页品种‘舒茶早’(‘Shuchazao’)、‘乌牛早’(‘Wuniuzao’)和‘平阳特早’(‘Pingyangtezao’)为实验材料,分析了自然越冬过程中(2011年10月至2012年3月)茶树叶片主要渗透调节物质(可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白质、热稳定蛋白质和脯氨酸)含量、抗氧化酶(SOD、CAT 和 POD)活性、PSⅡ原初光能转化效率(Fv / Fm )和总叶绿素含量的变化,并应用主成分分析结合隶属函数法对3个茶树品种抗寒性进行综合评价。结果表明:自然越冬期3个茶树品种叶片生理指标随时间推移呈规律性变化,越冬期(12月和1月)与越冬前期(10月)、越冬后期(2月和3月)各指标总体上差异显著,且品种间各指标也有一定差异。可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白质、热稳定蛋白质和脯氨酸含量以及 SOD 活性均呈先升后降的变化趋势,且峰值多出现在12月或2月;CAT 和POD 活性、Fv / Fm值和总叶绿素含量则呈先降后升的变化趋势,且均在1月降至最低。主成分分析结果显示:第1主成分(X1)包括可溶性糖含量、SOD 活性、CAT 活性、POD 活性、Fv / Fm和总叶绿素含量,贡献率达到57.97%;第2主成分(X2)包括可溶性蛋白质含量、热稳定蛋白质含量和脯氨酸含量,贡献率达到26.89%。综合评价结果显示:自然越冬期3个茶树品种抗寒性的综合评价值均随时间推移呈先升后降的变化趋势,且均在12月达到最高,据此判断3个茶树品种中‘舒茶早’的抗寒性最强、‘乌牛早’的抗寒性最弱,‘平阳特早’的抗寒性介于二者之间。研究结果显示:在自然越冬过程中供试3个茶树品种的抗寒性与其生理指标变化及生长表现一致,表明综合评价法可用于茶树抗寒性评价。%Taking cultivars ‘Shuchazao’, ‘Wuniuzao’and ‘Pingyangtezao’of Camellia sinensis (Linn.) Kuntze as experimental