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Sample records for capons

  1. Recursive and Fast Recursive Capon Spectral Estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiteng (Arden Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Capon algorithm, which was originally proposed for wavenumber estimation in array signal processing, has become a powerful tool for spectral analysis. Over several decades, a significant amount of research attention has been devoted to the estimation of the Capon spectrum. Most of the developed algorithms thus far, however, rely on the direct computation of the inverse of the input correlation (or covariance matrix, which can be computationally very expensive particularly when the dimension of the matrix is large. This paper deals with fast and efficient algorithms in computing the Capon spectrum. Inspired from the recursive idea established in adaptive signal processing theory, we first derive a recursive Capon algorithm. This new algorithm does not require an explicit matrix inversion, and hence it is more efficient to implement than the direct-inverse approach. We then develop a fast version of the recursive algorithm based on techniques used in fast recursive least-squares adaptive algorithms. This new fast algorithm can further reduce the complexity of the recursive Capon algorithm by an order of magnitude. Although our focus is on the Capon spectral estimation, the ideas shown in this paper can also be generalized and applied to other applications. To illustrate this, we will show how to apply the recursive idea to the estimation of the magnitude squared coherence function, which plays an important role for problems like time-delay estimation, signal-to-noise ratio estimation, and doubletalk detection in echo cancellation.

  2. FPGA implementation of robust Capon beamformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xin; Zmuda, Henry; Li, Jian; Du, Lin; Sheplak, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The Capon Beamforming algorithm is an optimal spatial filtering algorithm used in various signal processing applications where excellent interference rejection performance is required, such as Radar and Sonar systems, Smart Antenna systems for wireless communications. Its lack of robustness, however, means that it is vulnerable to array calibration errors and other model errors. To overcome this problem, numerous robust Capon Beamforming algorithms have been proposed, which are much more promising for practical applications. In this paper, an FPGA implementation of a robust Capon Beamforming algorithm is investigated and presented. This realization takes an array output with 4 channels, computes the complex-valued adaptive weight vectors for beamforming with an 18 bit fixed-point representation and runs at a 100 MHz clock on Xilinx V4 FPGA. This work will be applied in our medical imaging project for breast cancer detection.

  3. Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Meat from Capons Fed Cereals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Díaz; Luisana Rodríguez; Alexandr Torres; Ángel Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of breast and drumstick meat from capons (castrated male cockerels) fed cereals were studied. Three groups of capons were reared. One group was fed ad libitum the same commercial diet until the 4th mon of life. The last month of its life, the capons of this group were fed corn. The second and third group of capons were fed the same diet from caponization. The second group was fed mixture of corn (50%) and wheat (50%). The third group of capons was fed 2/3 corn and 1/3 mixture of corn (50%) and barley (50%). Capons were reared under free-range conditions and slaughtered at 150 d of age. Caponization was performed at 48 d. No signiifcant effects of feeding in chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip and cooking losses and texture of the meat were observed. The meat of the third group (capons fed 83%corn) was more yellow and showed higher content of C18:2 than that of the other capons.

  4. Tackling Illegal Activities Through Tax Law – Al Capone Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kacaljak Matej

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the Al Capone case and identifies legal institutions which contributed to the conviction of Al Capone for tax evasion in the USA and discusses similarities in Slovak law. The Slovak legal environment is assessed with the aim of identifying potential room for improvement. Under an assumption of identical factual circumstances, it is tested whether Al Capone would be convicted of tax evasion in the Slovak Republic and if not, what would be the main reasons. The paper conclu...

  5. The analysis of meat traits of Sussex cockerels and capons (S11) at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Marek; Kuźniacka, Joanna; Banaszak, Mirosław; Wegner, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare Sussex cockerels and capons as well as to estimate the influence of age on slaughter yield and meat quality. The tests were performed on cockerels and capons from strain S11 (Sussex). At 16, 18, and 20 wk of age, a dissection of the entire carcass was conducted. The breast and leg muscles were tested for physio-chemical traits, as well as chemical parameters. It was noted that, due to significant differences in BW of the eviscerated carcasses between wk 18 and 20 of slaughter, the best time to cease rearing S11 cockerels could be wk 20. However, for S11 capons, the optimal time for slaughter appeared to be wk 18 (no significant differences in BW and carcass weight or musculature between wk 18 and 20). The trait which did not differ between cockerels and capons slaughtered at different ages was slaughter yield. Fatness of the cockerels increased with age whilst the weight of capons' skin with subcutaneous fat was the same at wk 18 and 20 of evaluation. With increasing age, pH indicators of cockerels and capons' breast muscles were increasing; the water holding capacity of capons' breast muscles were also increasing. Both cockerels and capons showed darker color of breast muscle at wk 20 compared to wk 16 of evaluation. Redness of the breast muscle in the following periods of evaluation did not show significant differences, although with age, the yellowness of the cockerels and capons' breast muscle increased significantly. Among cockerels and capons, the water content in the breast and leg muscles were decreasing with age whilst the protein content was increasing. A significant growing tendency of the percentage of fat share in the breast and leg muscles with age was noted in the capon group. Conclusions for breeding practice are as follows: due to meat and quality traits, Sussex cockerels and capons can be used until wk 18 or 20 of life. PMID:26614680

  6. Synthesis of nNOS-Capon interaction inhibitors: ZLc-002 and its derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Ting-You Li, Lei Chang, Yu Ma & Dong-Ya Zhu ### Abstract nNOS-Capon interaction is involved in anxiety disorder, disrupting the nNOS-Capon interaction has been demonstrated to show anxiolytic-like effect. In this protocol, N-(2-carbomethoxyacetyl)-D-valine methyl ester, a nNOS-Capon interaction inhibitor, we named it ZLc-002, was prepared by condensation of D-valine methyl ester hydrochloride with methyl malonyl chloride. The synthesis of some analogues of ZLc-002 was als...

  7. Tackling Illegal Activities Through Tax Law – Al Capone Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacaljak Matej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Al Capone case and identifies legal institutions which contributed to the conviction of Al Capone for tax evasion in the USA and discusses similarities in Slovak law. The Slovak legal environment is assessed with the aim of identifying potential room for improvement. Under an assumption of identical factual circumstances, it is tested whether Al Capone would be convicted of tax evasion in the Slovak Republic and if not, what would be the main reasons. The paper concludes that due to some, probably unintentional, specifics of Slovak tax and criminal law, Al Capone could not be convicted of tax evasion by the Slovak courts. In our opinion, these specifics do not, however, constitute material elements of the basic structure of Slovak tax and criminal law and could be relatively easily corrected.

  8. Differences in Carcass and Meat Quality between Organically Reared Cocks and Capons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Volk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare carcass and meat quality traits of ecologically reared capons and cocks. The experiment comprised 60 layer-type Slovenian hybrid Prelux-G chickens. Half of the animals were caponized at the age of 52 days (app. 0.5 kg body mass and another half were left entire males. All chickens were reared on the same farm respecting requirements for ecological farming. Chickens were fed commercial feed mixtures combined with the free access to pasture. After the slaughter (185 days, the chickens were dissected and main carcass parts were weighed. Meat quality (pH, colour, water-holding capacity and chemical composition (protein, water, intramuscular fat were determined. Birds of both groups had similar weight of carcass and body parts, except for weight of the thighs with drumsticks and off al weight, which were significantly lower in capons. The main differences in carcass traits appeared in the abdominal fat tissue. Capons had more abdominal fat. Meat physico-chemical characteristics (pH, drip loss were similar in both groups, except for the colour. Capons had lighter (higher Minolta L*value and less red (lower Minolta a* value colour of meat as cocks. There was no difference between capons and cocks in the content of muscle proteins, water and intramuscular fat.

  9. Capon- and APES-Based SAR Processing: Performance and Practical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    López-Dekker, Paco; Mallorqui, Jordi J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Capon's minimum-variance method (MVM) and Amplitude and Phase EStimation (APES) spectral-estimation algorithms to synthetic aperture radar range�azimuth focusing. The rationale of the algorithms is discussed. An implementation of a Capon or APES processing chain is explained, and processing parameters such as chip-image size, resampling factor, and diagonal loading are discussed. For multichannel cases, a joint-processing approach is presented. A set of Mo...

  10. Chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of meat from capons as affected by breed and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, O.; Rodriguez, L.; Torres, A.; Cobos, A.

    2010-07-01

    The influence of the breed [Mos (Spanish indigenous breed), Sasso T-44 and X-44 (commercial strains)] and the age (5, 6, 7 and 8 months) of capons (castrated male cockerels) on some qualitative traits of breast and drumstick meat were studied. The chemical composition (dry matter, protein, lipid and ash contents), pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss, colour and texture (compression test and shear force) were measured. In breast meat, the Mos capon showed lower water holding capacity, higher drip loss and was lighter than the other breeds. In drumstick meat, the Mos capon showed lower lipid content, lower water holding capacity and was lighter and less red than the other breeds. Chemical composition, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, colour and texture of the meat were significantly influenced by the age of the capons. The meat of the youngest animals showed higher ash content, higher pH, lower water holding capacity, higher drip loss, higher lightness and lower shear test values, than that of the older ones. In conclusion, the capon meat quality is influenced by breed and age of the capons. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Study on Adaptive Digital Beamforming for Spaceborne SAR Based on Capon Spatial Spectrum Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Fan; Dang Hong-xing; Tan Xiao-min

    2014-01-01

    In rough mountainous areas, beam-pointing mismatch problems always arise when a spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses the traditional Digital BeamForming (DBF) approach in elevation to receive echoes, leading to the degradation of the receiver’s gain and system Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). To solve this problem, an Adaptive Digital BeamForming (ADBF) approach based on the Capon spatial spectrum estimation is proposed. This approach first estimates the Angle Of Arrival (AOA) of the so...

  12. High-contrast and low-computational complexity medical ultrasound imaging using beamspace capon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shigeaki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sato, Toru

    2015-08-01

    Several adaptive beamforming techniques have been proposed to improve the quality of medical ultrasound images. The beamspace (BS) Capon method is one common method used to depict high-resolution images with low computational complexity. However, the complexity is not low enough for real-time imaging in clinical situations because the conventional BS Capon method employs a time-delay process and a transition process from elementspace signal processing to BS signal processing at all points of interest. Thus, we propose a technique that replaces the time-delay process using a steering vector. In addition, the Capon method employs a spatial averaging (SA) technique to stabilize the estimation in intensity. However, when the averaging size is not adequate, the estimated intensity might be smaller than that given by the delay-and-sum (DAS) method. Because most medical diagnoses are presented based on the estimation of intensity acquired by the DAS beamformer, accurate estimation of intensity is also required. Therefore, we propose a compensation technique that uses both small and large sizes for SA. In an experiment, the -6 dB beam width, sidelobe level, and estimation error in the intensity of the proposed method were 0.17 mm, -27 dB, and 0.92 dB, respectively, where those of the conventional BS Capon method were 0.29 mm, -22 dB, and 8.1 dB. The complexity of the proposed method is one-fourteenth that of the conventional method. Compared with conventional methods, the proposed method succeeded in depicting a higher-contrast image with accurate intensity estimation and lower computational complexity. PMID:26737741

  13. Capon-based single-snapshot DOA estimation in monostatic MIMO radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Aboulnasr; Amin, Moeness G.; Zhang, Yimin D.; Ahmad, Fauzia

    2015-05-01

    We consider the problem of single snapshot direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of multiple targets in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. When only a single snapshot is used, the sample covariance matrix of the data becomes non-invertible and, therefore, does not permit application of Capon-based DOA estimation techniques. On the other hand, low-resolution techniques, such as the conventional beamformer, suffer from biased estimation and fail to resolve closely spaced sources. In this paper, we propose a new Capon-based method for DOA estimation in MIMO radar using a single radar pulse. Assuming that the angular locations of the sources are known a priori to be located within a certain spatial sector, we employ multiple transmit beams to focus the transmit energy of multiple orthogonal waveforms within the desired sector. The transmit weight vectors are carefully designed such that they have the same transmit power distribution pattern. As compared to the standard MIMO radar, the proposed approach enables transmitting an arbitrary number of orthogonal waveforms. By using matched-filtering at the receiver, the data associated with each beam is extracted yielding a virtual data snapshot. The total number of virtual snapshots is equal to the number of transmit beams. By choosing the number of transmit beams to be larger than the number of receive elements, it becomes possible to form a full-rank sample covariance matrix. The Capon beamformer is then applied to estimate the DOAs of the targets of interest. The proposed method is shown to have improved DOA estimation performance as compared to conventional single-snapshot DOA estimation methods.

  14. Rank-deficient robust Capon filter-bank approach to complex spectral estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwei; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2004-09-01

    We consider nonparametric complex spectral estimation using an adaptive filtering based approach where the finite impulse response (FIR) filter-bank is obtained via a rank-deficient robust Capon beamformer. We show that by allowing the sample covariance matrix to be rank-deficient, we can achieve much higher resolution than existing approaches, which is useful in many applications including radar target detection and feature extraction. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the performance of the new approach as compared to existing data-adaptive and data-independent FIR filtering based spectral estimation methods.

  15. A capon beamforming method for clutter suppression in colocated compressive sensing based MIMO radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Sun, Shunqiao; Petropulu, Athina P.

    2013-05-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar systems that explore the sparsity of targets in the target space enable either the same localization performance as traditional methods but with significantly fewer measurements, or significantly improved performance with the same number of measurements. However, the enabling assumption, i.e., the target sparsity, diminishes in the presence of clutter, since clutters is highly correlated with the desire target echoes. This paper proposes an approach to suppress clutter in the context of CS MIMO radars. Assuming that the clutter covariance is known, Capon beamforming is applied at the fusion center on compressively obtained data, which are forwarded by the receive antennas. Subsequently, the target is estimated using CS theory, by exploiting the sparsity of the beamformed signals.

  16. Study on Adaptive Digital Beamforming for Spaceborne SAR Based on Capon Spatial Spectrum Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Fan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In rough mountainous areas, beam-pointing mismatch problems always arise when a spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR uses the traditional Digital BeamForming (DBF approach in elevation to receive echoes, leading to the degradation of the receiver’s gain and system Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR. To solve this problem, an Adaptive Digital BeamForming (ADBF approach based on the Capon spatial spectrum estimation is proposed. This approach first estimates the Angle Of Arrival (AOA of the source signal in each range bin using the limited echo data. Then, it updates the weighting vector in the beamforming process, thereby enabling the receiving beams to precisely point to the signal source, and enhance the receiver’s gain and SNR.Simulation results suggest that the ADBF approach significantly improves the performance compared to the SCan-On-REceive (SCORE approach, exhibiting robustness to system and source parameters variations.

  17. Computational complexity reduction techniques for real-time and high-resolution medical ultrasound imaging using the beam-space Capon method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shigeaki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sato, Toru

    2016-07-01

    The beam-space (BS) Capon method is an adaptive beamforming technique that reduces computational complexity. However, the complexity is not low enough for real-time imaging. Reducing the number of time-delay and transformation processes from element-space to BS signal processing is required. We propose a technique that replaces the time-delay processes by the multiplication of steering vectors and covariance matrices. In addition, we propose a compensation technique for estimating the intensity accurately. In an experimental study using a 2.0 MHz transmission frequency on a 15 × 10.4 mm2 region of interest, the first side-lobe level, the ‑6 dB beam width, the intensity’s estimation error, and the calculation time of the conventional method were ‑15 dB, 0.70 mm, 3.2 dB, and 656 ms. Those of the proposed method were ‑17 dB, 0.36 mm, 1.6 dB, and 81 ms, respectively. Using our method on three CPUs achieves imaging of 37 frames/s.

  18. Pinocchio, Capone ja teised klaasist kangelased / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Näitus "Kaasaegne Slovakkia klaasikunst" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis" 10. aprillini 2011, kuraator Zora Petrášová. Václav Cigleri mõjust slovaki klaasikunsti arengusse, Patrik Illo, Miloš Balgavy, Ján Zoričaki ja Palo Macho töödest

  19. "The word was sung, the word was bound" / Lester Capon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Capon, Lester, 1951-

    2010-01-01

    4. rahvusvaheline köitekunsti näitus-konkurss "Scripta manent" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis 9. jaanuarini 2011. Köita tuli Veljo Tormise "Lauldud sõna". Jeff Clementsi, Katinka Keusi (Holland), Lolita Grabauskiene-Tarbunaite (Leedu), Tiina Piisangu, Maila Käose, Ruuda Maarandi töödest

  20. An Amplitude Spectral Capon Estimator with a Variable Filter Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Smaragdis, Paris; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    2012-01-01

    The filter bank methods have been a popular non-parametric way of computing the complex amplitude spectrum. So far, the length of the filters in these filter banks has been set to some constant value independently of the data. In this paper, we take the first step towards considering the filter...

  1. Application of Capon technique to mitigate bird contamination on a spaced antenna wind profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Yuan; Yu, Tian-You; Chu, Yen-Hsyang; Brown, William O. J.; Cohn, Stephen A.

    2007-12-01

    A novel technique is developed for profiling radars to measure atmospheric wind fields when signals are contaminated by migrating birds. It exploits the idea of adaptive beamforming to suppress the interference from birds to provide accurate three-dimensional wind measurements using a spaced antenna system. Numerical simulations based on the configuration of the UHF Multiple Antenna Profiler Radar of the National Center for Atmospheric Research are implemented to investigate the performance and the limitation of the proposed technique. The feasibility of atmospheric wind measurements is further demonstrated by using the experimental data. Wind measurements from the full correlation analysis (FCA) and postset beam steering (PBS) are also provided for comparisons. During the period when a single bird is present in the radar beam, the proposed technique produces wind estimates that are consistent with atmospheric wind field prior to the entry of the bird, while both FCA and PBS wind estimates are biased.

  2. Capões como Ilhas para Artrópodes no Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Aranda

    2013-12-01

    Capons as Island for Arthropods in Pantanal Abstract. The configuration of habitat is one of the factors that influence the distribution of organisms. The Pantanal by presenting mosaic natural formations fit to test such claims. The present study aimed to evaluate the distance and size of riparian capons affect the community composition of arthropods tested the hypothesis that the higher and closer to the capon of riparian vegetation, the greater its diversity. We sampled six plots of 30 cm² in nine capons where the leaf-litter and soil were collected, placed in plastic bags and later sorted. There was a relationship between the composition of arthropod community in relation to distance and size indicating that the flood pulse of the last year significantly affected the community of soil arthropods in geldings. The monitoring of the processes of recolonization of the capons is suggested.

  3. APES Beamforming Applied to Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Ann E. A.; Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Austeng, Andreas;

    2009-01-01

    Recently, adaptive beamformers have been introduced to medical ultrasound imaging. The primary focus has been on the minimum variance (MV) (or Capon) beamformer. This work investigates an alternative but closely related beamformer, the Amplitude and Phase Estimation (APES) beamformer. APES offers...

  4. Literature Circles Go Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Karen; Faughnan, Michelle; Ham, Susan; Miller, Melissa; Armstrong, Traci; Crandall, Cassandra; Garrison, Julia; Marrone, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a literature circle of seven pre-service teacher education students who read "Al Capone Shines My Shoes" (G. Choldenko, 2009). Students used the Internet to complete their roles, shared what they learned as they discussed the book, and then wrote about the digital experience. Four themes emerged from an analysis of…

  5. "After Feng Shui" by Steve Bickley. Collegiate Legacy: Emeritus Faculty Exhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Bickley, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Exhibition of works by College of Architecture and Urban Studies emeritus faculty, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the college. Curated by Truman Capone and Deb Sim. Moss Arts Center, Virginia Tech. STEVE BICKLEY. After Feng Shui. 2014. Forged aluminum. Courtesy of the Artist.

  6. Drug: D00786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00786 Drug Tolcapone (JAN/USAN/INN); Tasmar (TN) C14H11NO5 273.0637 273.2408 D00786.gif Antiparkinson...12) Dopaminergic synapse map07057 Antiparkinsonian agents map07216 Catecholamine ...capone (JAN/USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antiparkinson Agents Antiparkinson

  7. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space - the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.

    2011-02-01

    A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification) for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  8. Osteometric Effects of Surgical Caponisation on Some Long Bones in Cockerel Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the osteometric effects of surgical caponisation on long bones of cockerel chickens. Sixty- (60- day-old chicks were distributed into two experimental groups with thirty (30 cockerels per group. The birds were caponised at eight (8 weeks of age. The mean of final body weights of caponized groups was significantly higher (P≤0.05 than the uncaponised group. The weights of all long bones measured as well as lengths between the two groups were not statistically different (P>0.05 from one another except the weight of femur of the caponized group and the lengths of tibia and tarsometatarsus (P0.05 from one another except the midshaft diameter of ulna that was significantly higher (P0.05 on almost all the long bones studied when they were normalised to the final body weights.

  9. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  10. Chicago-metoden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    I filmen »De Uovervindelige« om politiets kamp mod Al Capones mafia forklarer politimanden Malone, hvad der er byens modus vivendi: »De trækker en kniv - du trækker en pistol. Han sender en af dine på hospitalet - du sender en af hans til lighuset. Dét er Chicago-metoden«. - Præsident Obama og hans...

  11. Chicago-metoden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    filmen »De Uovervindelige« om politiets kamp mod Al Capones mafia forklarer politimanden Malone, hvad der er byens modus vivendi: »De trækker en kniv - du trækker en pistol. Han sender en af dine på hospitalet - du sender en af hans til lighuset. Dét er Chicagometoden«. - Præsident Obama og hans...

  12. Comparison of parametric methods for radar signal processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejfek, Luboš; Burešová, Dalia; Fišer, O.; Brázda, V.

    Pardubice: University of Pardubice, 2015, s. 141-144. ISBN 978-1-4799-8117-5. [International Conference Radioelektronika 2015 /25th/. Pardubice (CZ), 21.04.2015-22.04.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : PSD method * MUSIC * Eigen Vector algorithm * CAPON * Auto Regressive (AR) model * frequency modulated radar Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7128986

  13. Neurobehavioral disorders locked in Alcatraz: case reports on three famous inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; de Paola, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    The Alcatraz prison, with its picturesque surroundings and fascinating life stories of its inmates, has been the subject of a number of films and publications. The authors take a closer look at the biographies of "Al Capone", Robert "Birdman" Stroud and "Mickey" Cohen. These legendary American mobsters shared not only a history at "The Rock", but also a history of neuropsychiatric diseases, ranging from neurosyphilis to anti-social, borderline and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. PMID:26222366

  14. Advances in diagnosis, clinical care, research, and treatment in retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnett ME; Capone Jr A

    2016-01-01

    M Elizabeth Hartnett,1–3 Antonio Capone Jr4,5 1Vitreoretinal Surgery, John A. Moran Eye Center, 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, and Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 4Associated Retina Consultants, Royal Oak, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont Hospital School of Medicine, Auburn Hills, MI, USAThe appearance of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has changed throughout the world and since the first descr...

  15. Advances in diagnosis, clinical care, research, and treatment in retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    M Elizabeth Hartnett,1–3 Antonio Capone Jr4,5 1Vitreoretinal Surgery, John A. Moran Eye Center, 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, and Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 4Associated Retina Consultants, Royal Oak, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont Hospital School of Medicine, Auburn Hills, MI, USAThe appearance of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has changed throughout the world and since the first d...

  16. Towards a Molecular Theory of Hydrophobic Hydration: Hard Spheres in Primitive Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, Jan; Nezbeda, Ivo

    Wien : European Physical Society, 2011 - (Colozza, I.; Blaak, R.; Capone, B.; Jungblut, S.), 34 /P2.34/ ISBN 2-914771-71-1. [Liquid Matter Conference /8./. Wien (AT), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710; GA AV ČR IAA400720802; GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrophobic hydration * pseudo-hard bodies * equation of state Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Capone F; Paolucci M; Assenza F; Brunelli N; Ricci L.; Florio L; Di Lazzaro V

    2016-01-01

    Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal c...

  18. Aislamiento y caracterización de Mycoplasma sp.de pulmones de cerdos provenientes de mataderos

    OpenAIRE

    Copes, Julio; Nievas, Fabián; Cerdá, Raúl Oscar; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    1995-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio microbiológico de 100 pulmones obtenidos al azar provenientes de capones y hembras sin servicio faenados en diferentes mataderos. Estos fueron clasificados macroscópicamente en pulmones con lesiones neumónicas (CLN) (43) y sin lesiones neumónicas (SLN) (57). Las muestras fueron procesadas para realizar el aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos perteneciente al género Mycoplasma, en particular Mycoplasma hyorhinis y Mycoplasma hyosynoviae. De casos seleccionados...

  19. Joint DOA and Fundamental Frequency Estimation Methods based on 2-D Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that filtering methods can be used for processing of signals in both time and space. This comprises, for example, fundamental frequency estimation and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. In this paper, we propose two novel 2-D filtering methods for joint estimation of the...... fundamental frequency and the DOA of spatio-temporarily sampled periodic signals. The first and simplest method is based on the 2-D periodogram, whereas the second method is a generalization of the 2-D Capon method. In the experimental part, both qualitative and quantitative measurements show that the proposed...

  20. Oceanic and atmospheric influences on the variability of phytoplankton bloom in the southwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raj, R.P.; Peter, B.N.; Pushpadas, D.

    , or “course correction”, of the model parameters, based on the chlorophyll data acquired by the sensor (Gregg, 2006). The assimilation model produces a bias of 0.1% when compared to NODC and NASA in situ data over 6 years (Gregg, 2006; th 218 R.P. Raj et al...., Oschlies, A., LaRoche, J., 2007. Physiological constraints on the global distribution of Trichodesmium — effect of temperature on diazotrophy. Biogeos- ciences 4, 53–61. Capone, D.G., Zehr, J.P., Paerl, H.W., Bergman, B., Carpenter, E.J., 1997...

  1. AcEST: BP920648 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920648|Adiantu...rotein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920648|Adiantum capillus-veneris ...YMU001_000139_G01 166 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000139_G01. BP920648 CL768Conti...g1 Show BP920648 Clone id YMU001_000139_G01 Library YMU01 Length 166 Definition Adiantum cap...on sp|Q5G872|SCUB2_DANRE Signal peptide, CUB and EGF-like domain-cont

  2. Predator-induced defences in Daphnia pulex: Selection and evaluation of internal reference genes for gene expression studies with real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Don

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planktonic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex is among the best-studied animals in ecological, toxicological and evolutionary research. One aspect that has sustained interest in the study system is the ability of D. pulex to develop inducible defence structures when exposed to predators, such as the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus. The available draft genome sequence for D. pulex is accelerating research to identify genes that confer plastic phenotypes that are regularly cued by environmental stimuli. Yet for quantifying gene expression levels, no experimentally validated set of internal control genes exists for the accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Results In this study, we tested six candidate reference genes for normalizing transcription levels of D. pulex genes; alpha tubulin (aTub, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, TATA box binding protein (Tbp syntaxin 16 (Stx16, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1 and CAPON, a protein associated with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase, were selected on the basis of an earlier study and from microarray studies. One additional gene, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, was tested to validate its transcriptional response to Chaoborus, which was earlier observed in a microarray study. The transcription profiles of these seven genes were assessed by qRT-PCR from RNA of juvenile D. pulex that showed induced defences in comparison to untreated control animals. We tested the individual suitability of genes for expression normalization using the programs geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Intriguingly, Xbp1, Tbp, CAPON and Stx16 were selected as ideal reference genes. Analyses on the relative expression level using the software REST showed that both classical housekeeping candidate genes (aTub and GAPDH were significantly downregulated, whereas the MMP gene was shown to be significantly upregulated, as predicted. aTub is a particularly ill suited reference gene because five copies are

  3. Fast Spectral Velocity Estimation Using Adaptive Techniques: In-Vivo Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to provide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the observation window(OW) is very sbort. In this paper two adaptive techniques are tested and compared to the averaged perlodogram (Welch) for blood velocity estimation. The Blood Power...... spectral Capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slowtime and depth. The Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of matched filters (one for each velocity component of interest) and filtering...... the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the power spectral density estimate. In this paper, the two adaptive methods are explained, and performance Is assessed in controlled steady How experiments and in-vivo measurements. The three methods were tested on a circulating How...

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Mossbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  5. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  6. SAR based adaptive GMTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Duc; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian

    2010-04-01

    We consider ground moving target indication (GMTI) and target velocity estimation based on multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Via forming velocity versus cross-range images, we show that small moving targets can be detected even in the presence of strong stationary ground clutter. Moreover, the velocities of the moving targets can be estimated, and the misplaced moving targets can be placed back to their original locations based on the estimated velocities. Adaptive beamforming techniques, including Capon and generalizedlikelihood ratio test (GLRT), are used to form velocity versus cross-range images for each range bin of interest. The velocity estimation ambiguities caused by the multi-channel array geometry are analyzed. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches using the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) publicly-released Gotcha SAR based GMTI data set.

  7. 墨尔本风暴工资帽违规及思想理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭传义

    2010-01-01

    @@ Part(a):Melbourne Storm Salary Cap Breach On April 22,one of the biggest scandals in rugby league history was revealed.Based on the article of NRL hit Melbourne Storm with$1.5 million salary cap breach in The Daily Telegraph on April 22,the NRL chief executive David Gallop stated that"The Storm has engaged in a long-term system of operating what might conveniently be called two sets of books.To their credit this morning the Storm representatives have come in and confessed to a well-organised system of paying players outside the cap.On what we know this amounted to$1.7 million over the last five years,including approximately$700,000 in 2010."

  8. In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    In this PhD project new ultrasound techniques for blood flow measurements have been investigated in-vivo. The focus has mainly been on vector velocity techniques and four different approaches have been examined: Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture, Directional Beamforming and Plane...... Wave Excitation. Furthermore two different adaptive spectral estimators have been investigated: Blood spectral Power Capon method (BPC) and Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation method (BAPES). The novel techniques investigated in this thesis are developed to circumvent some of the main limitations in...... conventional Doppler ultrasound. That is angle dependency, reduced temporal resolution and low frame rate. Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture and Directional Beamforming can estimate the blood velocity angle independently. The three methods were validated in-vivo against magnetic resonance...

  9. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  10. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence....... The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested and...... compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of...

  11. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher, E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K. [College of Science, Department of Physics (Oman)

    2006-01-15

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  12. Spectral Doppler estimation utilizing 2-D spatial information and adaptive signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Ingvild K; Torp, Hans; Løvstakken, Lasse

    2012-06-01

    The trade-off between temporal and spectral resolution in conventional pulsed wave (PW) Doppler may limit duplex/triplex quality and the depiction of rapid flow events. It is therefore desirable to reduce the required observation window (OW) of the Doppler signal while preserving the frequency resolution. This work investigates how the required observation time can be reduced by adaptive spectral estimation utilizing 2-D spatial information obtained by parallel receive beamforming. Four adaptive estimation techniques were investigated, the power spectral Capon (PSC) method, the amplitude and phase estimation (APES) technique, multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and a projection-based version of the Capon technique. By averaging radially and laterally, the required covariance matrix could successfully be estimated without temporal averaging. Useful PW spectra of high resolution and contrast could be generated from ensembles corresponding to those used in color flow imaging (CFI; OW = 10). For a given OW, the frequency resolution could be increased compared with the Welch approach, in cases in which the transit time was higher or comparable to the observation time. In such cases, using short or long pulses with unfocused or focused transmit, an increase in temporal resolution of up to 4 to 6 times could be obtained in in vivo examples. It was further shown that by using adaptive signal processing, velocity spectra may be generated without high-pass filtering the Doppler signal. With the proposed approach, spectra retrospectively calculated from CFI may become useful for unfocused as well as focused imaging. This application may provide new clinical information by inspection of velocity spectra simultaneously from several spatial locations. PMID:22711413

  13. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation For MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2015-02-08

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to estimate the target parameters, such as the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift, derived cost functions are usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the grid resolution enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, to estimate the parameters of a target, two reduced complexity optimum performance adaptive algorithms, which are based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation, are presented. The proposed algorithm exploits the low order two-dimensional fast Fourier transform to determine the sub- optimal estimates of spatial location and Doppler shift, which are then used as the initial points for the derived steepest descent algorithm. In contrast to the grid search based algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. Simulation results show that the mean-squared estimation error of the proposed estimators achieve the Craḿer-Rao lower bound.

  14. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region. PMID:25806985

  15. Hierarchical self-assembly of telechelic star polymers: from soft patchy particles to gels and diamond crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Barbara; Coluzza, Ivan; Blaak, Ronald; Lo Verso, Federica; Likos, Christos N.

    2013-09-01

    The design of self-assembling materials in the nanometer scale focuses on the fabrication of a class of organic and inorganic subcomponents that can be reliably produced on a large scale and tailored according to their vast applications for, e.g. electronics, therapeutic vectors and diagnostic imaging agent carriers, or photonics. In a recent publication (Capone et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 238301), diblock copolymer stars have been shown to be a novel system, which is able to hierarchically self-assemble first into soft patchy particles and thereafter into more complex structures, such as the diamond and cubic crystal. The self-aggregating single star patchy behavior is preserved from extremely low up to high densities. Its main control parameters are related to the architecture of the building blocks, which are the number of arms (functionality) and the fraction of attractive end-monomers. By employing a variety of computational and theoretical tools, ranging from the microscopic to the mesoscopic, coarse-grained level in a systematic fashion, we investigate the crossover between the formation of microstructure versus macroscopic phase separation, as well as the formation of gels and networks in these systems. We finally show that telechelic star polymers can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of open crystal structures, such as the diamond or the simple-cubic lattice, taking advantage of the strong correlation between single-particle patchiness and lattice coordination at finite densities.

  16. Time resolved dosimetry of human brain exposed to low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffi, Alessandra; Camera, Francesca; Lucano, Elena; Apollonio, Francesca; Liberti, Micaela

    2016-06-01

    An accurate dosimetry is a key issue to understanding brain stimulation and related interaction mechanisms with neuronal tissues at the basis of the increasing amount of literature revealing the effects on human brain induced by low-level, low frequency pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs). Most literature on brain dosimetry estimates the maximum E field value reached inside the tissue without considering its time pattern or tissue dispersivity. Nevertheless a time-resolved dosimetry, accounting for dispersive tissues behavior, becomes necessary considering that the threshold for an effect onset may vary depending on the pulse waveform and that tissues may filter the applied stimulatory fields altering the predicted stimulatory waveform’s size and shape. In this paper a time-resolved dosimetry has been applied on a realistic brain model exposed to the signal presented in Capone et al (2009 J. Neural Transm. 116 257–65), accounting for the broadband dispersivity of brain tissues up to several kHz, to accurately reconstruct electric field and current density waveforms inside different brain tissues. The results obtained by exposing the Duke’s brain model to this PMF signal show that the E peak in the brain is considerably underestimated if a simple monochromatic dosimetry is carried out at the pulse repetition frequency of 75 Hz.

  17. Novel Multistatic Adaptive Microwave Imaging Methods for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-12-01

    Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) methods are presented and compared for early breast cancer detection. Due to the significant contrast between the dielectric properties of normal and malignant breast tissues, developing microwave imaging techniques for early breast cancer detection has attracted much interest lately. MAMI is one of the microwave imaging modalities and employs multiple antennas that take turns to transmit ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses while all antennas are used to receive the reflected signals. MAMI can be considered as a special case of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar with the multiple transmitted waveforms being either UWB pulses or zeros. Since the UWB pulses transmitted by different antennas are displaced in time, the multiple transmitted waveforms are orthogonal to each other. The challenge to microwave imaging is to improve resolution and suppress strong interferences caused by the breast skin, nipple, and so forth. The MAMI methods we investigate herein utilize the data-adaptive robust Capon beamformer (RCB) to achieve high resolution and interference suppression. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods for breast cancer detection via numerical examples with data simulated using the finite-difference time-domain method based on a 3D realistic breast model.

  18. Range and azimuth resolution enhancement for 94 GHz real-beam radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqing; Yang, Ken; Sykora, Brian; Salha, Imad

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional (2D) (range and azimuth) resolution enhancement is investigated for millimeter wave (mmW) real-beam radar (RBR) with linear or non-linear antenna scan in the azimuth dimension. We design a new architecture of super resolution processing, in which a dual-mode approach is used for defining region of interest for 2D resolution enhancement and a combined approach is deployed for obtaining accurate location and amplitude estimations of targets within the region of interest. To achieve 2D resolution enhancement, we first adopt the Capon Beamformer (CB) approach (also known as the minimum variance method (MVM)) to enhance range resolution. A generalized CB (GCB) approach is then applied to azimuth dimension for azimuth resolution enhancement. The GCB approach does not rely on whether the azimuth sampling is even or not and thus can be used in both linear and non-linear antenna scanning modes. The effectiveness of the resolution enhancement is demonstrated by using both simulation and test data. The results of using a 94 GHz real-beam frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar data show that the overall image quality is significantly improved per visual evaluation and comparison with respect to the original real-beam radar image.

  19. High resolution through-the-wall radar image based on beamspace eigenstructure subspace methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo-Sun; Amin, Moeness G.

    2008-04-01

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a challenging problem, even if the wall parameters and characteristics are known to the system operator. Proper target classification and correct imaging interpretation require the application of high resolution techniques using limited array size. In inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR), signal subspace methods such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) are used to obtain high resolution imaging. In this paper, we adopt signal subspace methods and apply them to the 2-D spectrum obtained from the delay-andsum beamforming image. This is in contrast to ISAR, where raw data, in frequency and angle, is directly used to form the estimate of the covariance matrix and array response vector. Using beams rather than raw data has two main advantages, namely, it improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and can correctly image typical indoor extended targets, such as tables and cabinets, as well as point targets. The paper presents both simulated and experimental results using synthesized and real data. It compares the performance of beam-space MUSIC and Capon beamformer. The experimental data is collected at the test facility in the Radar Imaging Laboratory, Villanova University.

  20. Time resolved dosimetry of human brain exposed to low frequency pulsed magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffi, Alessandra; Camera, Francesca; Lucano, Elena; Apollonio, Francesca; Liberti, Micaela

    2016-06-21

    An accurate dosimetry is a key issue to understanding brain stimulation and related interaction mechanisms with neuronal tissues at the basis of the increasing amount of literature revealing the effects on human brain induced by low-level, low frequency pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs). Most literature on brain dosimetry estimates the maximum E field value reached inside the tissue without considering its time pattern or tissue dispersivity. Nevertheless a time-resolved dosimetry, accounting for dispersive tissues behavior, becomes necessary considering that the threshold for an effect onset may vary depending on the pulse waveform and that tissues may filter the applied stimulatory fields altering the predicted stimulatory waveform's size and shape. In this paper a time-resolved dosimetry has been applied on a realistic brain model exposed to the signal presented in Capone et al (2009 J. Neural Transm. 116 257-65), accounting for the broadband dispersivity of brain tissues up to several kHz, to accurately reconstruct electric field and current density waveforms inside different brain tissues. The results obtained by exposing the Duke's brain model to this PMF signal show that the E peak in the brain is considerably underestimated if a simple monochromatic dosimetry is carried out at the pulse repetition frequency of 75 Hz. PMID:27223143

  1. Deconvolution enhanced direction of arrival estimation using 1- and 3-component seismic arrays applied to ocean induced microseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, M.; Reading, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.; Gibbons, S. J.

    2016-04-01

    Microseisms in the period of 2 - 10 seconds are generated in deep oceans and near coastal regions. It is common for microseisms from multiple sources to arrive at the same time at a given seismometer. It is therefore desirable to be able to measure multiple slowness vectors accurately. Popular ways to estimate the direction of arrival of ocean induced microseisms are the conventional (fk) or adaptive (Capon) beamformer. These techniques give robust estimates, but are limited in their resolution capabilities and hence do not always detect all arrivals. One of the limiting factors in determining direction of arrival with seismic arrays is the array response, which can strongly influence the estimation of weaker sources. In this work, we aim to improve the resolution for weaker sources and evaluate the performance of two deconvolution algorithms, Richardson-Lucy deconvolution and a new implementation of CLEAN-PSF. The algorithms are tested with 3 arrays of different aperture (ASAR, WRA and NORSAR) using 1 month of real data each and compared with the conventional approaches. We find an improvement over conventional methods from both algorithms and the best performance with CLEAN-PSF. We then extend the CLEAN-PSF framework to 3 components and evaluate 1 year of data from the Pilbara Seismic Array (PSAR) in north-west Australia. The 3 component CLEAN-PSF analysis is capable in resolving a previously undetected Sn phase.

  2. A Novel Coherence Reduction Method in Compressed Sensing for DOA Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method named as coherent column replacement method is proposed to reduce the coherence of a partially deterministic sensing matrix, which is comprised of highly coherent columns and random Gaussian columns. The proposed method is to replace the highly coherent columns with random Gaussian columns to obtain a new sensing matrix. The measurement vector is changed accordingly. It is proved that the original sparse signal could be reconstructed well from the newly changed measurement vector based on the new sensing matrix with large probability. This method is then extended to a more practical condition when highly coherent columns and incoherent columns are considered, for example, the direction of arrival (DOA estimation problem in phased array radar system using compressed sensing. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method succeeds in identifying multiple targets in a sparse radar scene, where the compressed sensing method based on the original sensing matrix fails. The proposed method also obtains more precise estimation of DOA using one snapshot compared with the traditional estimation methods such as Capon, APES, and GLRT, based on hundreds of snapshots.

  3. Passive Source Localization Using Compressively Sensed Towed Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suresh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to estimate the sparse angular power spectrum using a towed acoustic pressure sensor (APS array. In a passive towed array sonar, any reduction in the analog sensor signal conditioning receiver hardware housed inside the array tube, significantly improves the signal integrity and hence the localization performance. In this paper, a novel sparse acoustic pressure sensor (SAPS array architecture is proposed to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA of multiple acoustic sources. Bearing localization is effectively achieved by customizing the Capons spatial filter algorithm to suit the SAPS array architecture. Apart from the Monte Carlo simulations, the acoustic performance of the SAPS array with compressively sensed minimum variance distortionless response (CS-MVDR filter is demonstrated using a real passive towed array data. The proposed sparse towed array architecture promises a significant reduction in the analog signal acquisition receiver hardware, transmission data rate, number of snapshots and software complexity.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.630-635, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5765

  4. Single-snapshot DOA estimation by using Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, Stefano; Grasso, Raffaele; Gini, Fulvio; Greco, Maria S.; LePage, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of estimating the directions of arrival (DOA) of multiple source signals from a single observation vector of an array data. In particular, four estimation algorithms based on the theory of compressed sensing (CS), i.e., the classical ℓ 1 minimization (or Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator, LASSO), the fast smooth ℓ 0 minimization, and the Sparse Iterative Covariance-Based Estimator, SPICE and the Iterative Adaptive Approach for Amplitude and Phase Estimation, IAA-APES algorithms, are analyzed, and their statistical properties are investigated and compared with the classical Fourier beamformer (FB) in different simulated scenarios. We show that unlike the classical FB, a CS-based beamformer (CSB) has some desirable properties typical of the adaptive algorithms (e.g., Capon and MUSIC) even in the single snapshot case. Particular attention is devoted to the super-resolution property. Theoretical arguments and simulation analysis provide evidence that a CS-based beamformer can achieve resolution beyond the classical Rayleigh limit. Finally, the theoretical findings are validated by processing a real sonar dataset.

  5. Resolution of direction of arrival and number of signal(s) in a highly noisy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1998-07-01

    The majority of Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) estimation methods studied in the literature work effectively in relatively strong signal power environment [positive dB of Array- Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (ASNR)]. In weak power signal environments, conventional beamformer-based and subspace-based methods fail to estimate the DOA correctly. The MaxMax method allows to maintain accurate estimates of the DOA even in extremely noisy environments (-10 dB of ASNR). The method is reviewed and its performance is compared with that of the Conventional Beamformer, Capon's Beamformer, MUSIC, ESPRIT, and Min-Norm methods. In contrast with the subspace-based methods which entirely depend on the full rank signal covariance matrix, the MaxMax method does not. Hence, the performance of the method remains superior to that of the others without adjusting the algorithm to the characteristics of source signals such as multipath or singlepath. If the signal power is so weak that its presence is almost negligible, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) or Minimum Description Length (MDL) do not yield correct estimates the number of signal paths. A new 'spatial sampling' technique and its performance are presented for estimating the number of signals in case of strongly suppressed signal power.

  6. Heterozygosity analysis of Bionda Piemontese and Bianca di Saluzzo chicken breeds by microsatellites markers: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Longeri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of genetic variability is one of the main goals in animal production science and the analysis of breeds genetic asset can supply objective basis for effective conservation programs and selection strategies. Bionda Piemontese (PIB and Bianca di Saluzzo (SAB chicken breeds originated in Piemonte region. Breeds conservation programmes started in 1999 in Verzuolo (CN aiming to preserve the breeds and to improve their diffusion being particularly adapted to free range rearing systems thanks to their resistance. PIB and SAB are both suggested for traditional recipes and production (e.g. Morozzo capon and are Slow Food presidia. A total of 76 birds were analysed: PIB (n=36, SAB (n=40. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples. All birds were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Each marker was subjected to PCR and the products were separated by electrophoresis in 4.2% denaturing polyacrylamide gels on ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer equipped with Genescan and Genotyper software. The results of this preliminary study highlight the genetic differences occurring between PIB and SAB populations

  7. Go abroad, young company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high cost of oil production in Canada has meant that Canadian oil and gas producers, especially juniors, are looking overseas for new opportunities. They do so, free of the relentless competition common in Alberta, hefty land costs, government regulations, farmers and environmentalists. For example, Trans-Dominion Energy has ongoing exploration in Senegal, Africa, Epic Energy is running tests on drill cores from the Aktash field in Ukraine, and Eagle Energy has completed a horizontal well in the Belli oil field in Tunisia. Seven Seas Petroleum purchased 35% in the Dindal and Rio Seco Association contracts in Columbia, while Cordex Petroleum acquired a 50% interest in the Laguna Los Capones field in Argentina. Another company, Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. (CanOxy), has been drilling in Yemen since 1990 with complete success. Production tops 185,000 barrels per day, of which CanOxy holds a 52% interest. The company has since focused on prospects in the Ejulebe field offshore Nigeria, the Turan basin in Kazakhstan, offshore Vietnam in the Nam Con Son basin, offshore Thailand and onshore Columbia. Gulf Canada Resources and Talisman Energy have also had impressive results in Indonesia

  8. Advances in diagnosis, clinical care, research, and treatment in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartnett ME

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available M Elizabeth Hartnett,1–3 Antonio Capone Jr4,5 1Vitreoretinal Surgery, John A. Moran Eye Center, 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, and Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 4Associated Retina Consultants, Royal Oak, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont Hospital School of Medicine, Auburn Hills, MI, USAThe appearance of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP has changed throughout the world and since the first description of “retrolental fibroplasia” in 1942. However, despite advances in neonatal care and the abilities to improve the survival of ever younger and smaller premature infants, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. We know that ROP is complex in that it is influenced by genetic predisposition, epigenetic regulation, and environmental risks. It is strongly associated with extreme degrees of prematurity, and the “phenotype” of ROP depends on resources available to support premature infants with adequate nutrition and regulation of oxygen, as examples. New studies also suggest that what is seen in the preterm infant retina may portend later neurodevelopmental outcomes. Therefore, we believe this is a needed time to revisit ROP and provide a thematic issue focused on ROP from several perspectives.

  9. Cyclic nucleotide regulation of cardiac sympatho-vagal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Paterson, David J

    2016-07-15

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are now recognized as important intracellular signalling molecules that modulate cardiac sympatho-vagal balance in the progression of heart disease. Recent studies have identified that a significant component of autonomic dysfunction associated with several cardiovascular pathologies resides at the end organ, and is coupled to impairment of cyclic nucleotide targeted pathways linked to abnormal intracellular calcium handling and cardiac neurotransmission. Emerging evidence also suggests that cyclic nucleotide coupled phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a key role limiting the hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP in disease, and as a consequence this influences the action of the nucleotide on its downstream biological target. In this review, we illustrate the action of nitric oxide-CAPON signalling and brain natriuretic peptide on cGMP and cAMP regulation of cardiac sympatho-vagal transmission in hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Moreover, we address how PDE2A is now emerging as a major target that affects the efficacy of soluble/particulate guanylate cyclase coupling to cGMP in cardiac dysautonomia. PMID:26915722

  10. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson International Advisory Board G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii G. Gratta, StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L

  11. THE ROLE OF PRAGMATICS IN UNDERSTANDING HUMAN COMMUNICATION IN AN INSTITUTIONAL SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain AL SHAROUFI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to show the importance of pragmatics in understanding human communication in an institutional setting. Speakers and listeners are actively involved in a negotiating process that leads to creating a cycle of actively changing contexts in which speech acts win their legitimacy of being real doers of action in real-time situations. Particular cultural repertoires in human societies facilitate language with a wealth of contextual resources that can help anchor meaning by favouring particular speech acts to other ones. In investigating some dialogical tactics practiced by some Kuwaiti customer service employees in Kuwait, I found that Mey’s pragmeme is the ideal outcome of these dialogic encounters. In Mey’s viewpoint, no speech act means anything without the cultural context in which it originates, a stance which casts a serious doubt on the semantico-syntactic analysis of speech acts in a Searlean sense. The communicative value of ethos in institutional encounters relies primarily on looking at meaning from a pragmatic perspective, to be more precise here from a pragmemic perspective. In order to assess the level of their socio-pragmatic awareness and their ability to depend on their socio-pragmatic resources to persuade their customers, I interviewed a group of customer service employees at some Kuwaiti banks. The results of the study showed cogently that bank employees in Kuwait have high socio-pragmatic awareness, which helped them significantly in attracting more customers to their banks. Those employees showed clear awareness of strategic positive politeness and effective usage of appropriate pragmemes, contextualized speech acts (Mey 2001, Capone 2005. Making promises, guaranteeing exceptional services, and pampering clients with versatile banking products are some of the socio-pragmatic strategies used by the aforementioned employees.

  12. Improved Detection and Location of Ocean Microseism Signals using Array Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, A. M.; Gal, M.; Koper, K. D.; Tkalcic, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present and evaluate a range of approaches that may be used to investigate ocean microseisms using seismic array data. At amplitudes below the dominant incoming signal, the ambient seismic energy (background noise) associated with microseisms arrives from multiple directions at any one time. Thus we address the challenge of detecting weaker signals from unpredictable directions in the presence of other strong signals. Our aim is to extract the most accurate information possible from such weaker signals in order to expand the capability of ocean storm studies, using seismology, including the ability to extract storm patterns from archive seismic array records. Detection of weaker microseism signals may be improved using algorithms widely used in astronomy. One example is the CLEAN algorithm which has wide usage in radio astronomy. This algorithm operates by finding the position and strength of point sources and iteratively deconvolving their contribution to the image. It may be combined to optimum effect with the previously published (Incoherently Averaged Signal) IAS Capon implementation for an accurate detection of weaker sources. Having detected weaker sources, they may be backprojected using a suitable Earth model, taking into account a correction for the mislocation due to slowness-azimuth station corrections. The microseism generation locations inferred in this manner are strongly frequency dependent, even within relatively restricted frequency ranges (0.325-0.725 Hz) for some arrays. Our advances in seismic array processing, with a focus on methods appropriate to weaker ambient noise signals, have led to insights, for example, regarding the generation of seismic noise. We find that secondary microseisms in the lower frequency band are generated mainly by ocean swell whereas higher frequency bands are generated by local wind conditions. These arrivals are investigated over a two-decade time frame for the Southern Ocean and west Pacific Ocean.

  13. Improved performance over time of integration in momentum flux estimation using Postset Beam Steering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, V. K.; Kumar, Shridhar; Sureshbabu, V. N.; Rao, T. Narayana; Rao, M. Purnachandra; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-12-01

    Using time series of vertical data collected from middle and upper atmospheric (MU) radar, the adaptive Capon beamforming technique is used to synthesize beams in the desired pointing directions within the radar beamwidth. Beam synthesis has been performed at the tilt angle of 1.5° with different beam configurations (4 beams, 8 beams, 16 beams, 32 beams, 48 beams and 64 beams), which are equally separated azimuth plane. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) is obtained from the synthesized beam using the eigenvector (EV) sub-space based spectral estimation method. The first moment is derived from the EV produced spectrum using the adaptive moment estimation method. From the first order moments derived along equally spaced pointing directions, radial wind velocities are readily obtained in the corresponding directions. From radial velocity obtained in various pointing directions, momentum flux of short duration (<2 h) is estimated using the symmetric beam method (SBM) which requires 4 symmetric beams separated by 90° in the azimuth plane. A comparative study has been performed to study the optimum beam configuration, required for the flux estimation, which shows that 32 beam configuration is sufficient to estimate the flux with least error. Study with 32 beam configuration, gives 8 sets of symmetric beams (8×4). Using 8 set of beams, the flux is estimated for each set of beams and averaged. The averaged flux is further integrated over different lengths of time up to 14 h. This systematic method for the estimation of momentum flux reveals that spatial averaging of beams in azimuth and integration over different lengths of time have reduced the time of integration from 15 to 16 h for the conventional approach to 8-9 h for the new approach using Postset Beam Steering (PBS) technique. The flux estimated with spatial-averaging of beam using PBS technique has been compared with other standard methods.

  14. Pulse pair beamforming and the effects of reflectivity field variations on imaging radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Boon Leng; Hoffman, Michael W.; Palmer, Robert D.; Frasier, Stephen J.; López-Dekker, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    Coherent radar imaging (CRI), which is fundamentally a beamforming process, has been used to create images of microscale, reflectivity structures within the resolution volume of atmospheric Doppler radars. This powerful technique has the potential to unlock many new discoveries in atmospheric studies. The Turbulent Eddy Profiler (TEP) is a unique 915 MHz boundary layer radar consisting of a maximum of 91 independent receivers. The TEP configuration allows sophisticated CRI algorithms to be implemented providing significant improvement in angular resolution. The present work includes a thorough simulation study of some of the capabilities of the TEP system. The pulse pair processor, used for radial velocity and spectral width estimation with meteorological radars, is combined with beamforming technique, in an efficient manner, to the imaging radar case. By numerical simulation the new technique is shown to provide robust and computationally efficient estimates of the spectral moments. For this study, a recently developed atmospheric radar simulation method is employed that uses the ten thousand scattering points necessary for the high resolution imaging simulation. Previous methods were limited in the number of scatterers due to complexity issues. Radial velocity images from the beamforming radar are used to estimate the three-dimensional wind field map within the resolution volume. It is shown that a large root mean square (RMS) error in imputed three-dimensional wind fields can occur using standard Fourier imaging. This RMS error does not improve even as SNR is increased. The cause of the error is reflectivity variations within the resolution volume. The finite beamwidth of the beamformer skews the radial velocity estimate, and this results in poor wind field estimates. Adaptive Capon beamforming consistently outperforms the Fourier method in the quantitative study and has been demonstrated to enhance the performance compared to the Fourier method.

  15. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Copper characterization, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission and ultrasonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Engholm, Marcus; Olofsson, Tomas (Uppsala Univ., Signals and Systems, Dept. of Technical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2008. The first part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We present results of attenuation measurement performed for a number of samples taken from a real canister; two from the lid and four from different parts of canister wall. Ultrasonic attenuation of the material originating from canister lid is relatively low (less that 50 dB/m) and essentially frequency independent in the frequency range up to 5 MHz. However, for the material originating from the extruded canister part considerable variations of the attenuation are observed, which can reach even 200 dB/m at 3.5 MHz. In the second part of the report we present further development of the concept of the friction stir welding process monitoring by means of multiple sensors formed into a uniform circular array (UCA). After a brief introduction into modeling Lamb waves and UCA we focus on array processing techniques that enable estimating direction of arrival of multimodal Lamb waves. We consider two new techniques, the Capon beamformer and the broadband multiple signal classification technique (MUSIC). We present simulation results illustrating their performance. In the final part we present the phase shift migration algorithm for ultrasonic imaging of layered media using synthetic aperture concept. We start from explaining theory of the phase migration concept, which is followed by the results of experiments performed on copper blocks with drilled holes. We show that the proposed algorithm performs well for immersion inspection of metal objects and yields both improved spatial resolution and suppressed grain noise

  16. Risk management profile of etoricoxib: an example of personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patrignani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Paola Patrignani, Stefania Tacconelli, Marta L CaponeDepartment of Medicine and Center of Excellence on Aging, “G. D’Annunzio” University School of Medicine, and “Gabriele D’Annunzio” University Foundation, CeSI, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The development of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs selective for cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (named coxibs has been driven by the aim of reducing the incidence of serious gastrointestinal (GI adverse events associated with the administration of traditional (t NSAIDs – mainly dependent on the inhibition of COX-1 in GI tract and platelets. However, their use has unravelled the important protective role of COX-2 for the cardiovascular (CV system, mainly through the generation of prostacyclin. In a recent nested-case control study, we found that patients taking NSAIDs (both coxibs and tNSAIDs had a 35% increase risk of myocardial infarction. The increased incidence of thrombotic events associated with profound inhibition of COX-2-dependent prostacyclin by coxibs and tNSAIDs can be mitigated, even if not obliterated, by a complete suppression of platelet COX-1 activity. However, most tNSAIDs and coxibs are functional COX-2 selective for the platelet (ie, they cause a profound suppression of COX-2 associated with insufficient inhibition of platelet COX-1 to translate into inhibition of platelet function, which explains their shared CV toxicity. The development of genetic and biochemical markers will help to identify the responders to NSAIDs or who are uniquely susceptible at developing thrombotic or GI events by COX inhibition. We will describe possible strategies to reduce the side effects of etoricoxib by using biochemical markers of COX inhibition, such as whole blood COX-2 and the assessment of prostacyclin biosynthesis in vivo.Keywords: etoricoxib, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, COX-2, gastrointestinal toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, prostacyclin

  17. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Copper characterization, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission and ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2008. The first part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We present results of attenuation measurement performed for a number of samples taken from a real canister; two from the lid and four from different parts of canister wall. Ultrasonic attenuation of the material originating from canister lid is relatively low (less that 50 dB/m) and essentially frequency independent in the frequency range up to 5 MHz. However, for the material originating from the extruded canister part considerable variations of the attenuation are observed, which can reach even 200 dB/m at 3.5 MHz. In the second part of the report we present further development of the concept of the friction stir welding process monitoring by means of multiple sensors formed into a uniform circular array (UCA). After a brief introduction into modeling Lamb waves and UCA we focus on array processing techniques that enable estimating direction of arrival of multimodal Lamb waves. We consider two new techniques, the Capon beamformer and the broadband multiple signal classification technique (MUSIC). We present simulation results illustrating their performance. In the final part we present the phase shift migration algorithm for ultrasonic imaging of layered media using synthetic aperture concept. We start from explaining theory of the phase migration concept, which is followed by the results of experiments performed on copper blocks with drilled holes. We show that the proposed algorithm performs well for immersion inspection of metal objects and yields both improved spatial resolution and suppressed grain noise

  18. Personalized Alert Notifications and Evacuation Routes in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Onorati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparedness phase is crucial in the emergency management process for reaching an adequate level of readiness to react to potential threats and hazards. During this phase, emergency plans are developed to establish, among other procedures, evacuation and emergency escape routes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can support and improve these procedures providing appropriate, updated and accessible information to all people in the affected zone. Current emergency management and evacuation systems do not adapt information to the context and the profile of each person, so messages received in the emergency might be useless. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria that ICT-based systems could achieve in order to avoid this problem adapting emergency alerts and evacuation routes to different situations and people. Moreover, in order to prove the applicability of such criteria, we define a mechanism that can be used as a complement of traditional evacuation systems to provide personalized alerts and evacuation routes to all kinds of people during emergency situations in working places. This mechanism is composed by three main components: CAP-ONES for notifying emergency alerts, NERES for defining emergency plans and generating personalized evacuation routes, and iNeres as the interface to receive and visualize these routes on smartphones. The usability and understandability of proposed interface has been assessed through a user study performed in a fire simulation in an indoor environment. This evaluation demonstrated that users considered iNeres easy to understand, to learn and to use, and they also found very innovative the idea to use smartphones as a support for escaping instead of static signals on walls and doors.

  19. EL GÉNERO EN EL CONTEXTO CULTURAL DE APRENDIZAJE UNIVERSITARIO: LA FOTOGRAFÍA COMO VOZ REVELADORA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Olmedo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los informes sobre el EEES proponen un nuevo enfoque de aprendizaje basado en la construcción del conocimiento, que supone no sólo un cambio en la propuesta metodológica actual, sino que también del contexto cultural de aprendizaje que desencadene una nueva cultura de aprendizaje. Diversos trabajos, desde la perspectiva sociocultural (Gay y Cole, 1967; Rogoff y Lave, 1984; Scribner et al., 1982; Carraher, Carraher y Schliemann, 1985; Saxe, 1989; Capon y Kuhn, 1979; Buendía y Olmedo, 2002; Olmedo, Pegalajar y Buendía, 2011, insisten en la importancia del escenario en el que se desarrollan las acciones de aprendizaje y la necesidad de apostar por contextos permeables y enriquecidos por lo masculino y lo femenino (Calvo y Susinos, 2010. Este trabajo se centra en describir y reescribir para interpretar las relaciones de los objetos, presentados en fotografías por los y las participantes. Tres grupos de estudiantes de Posgrado de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de Granada, que construyen el contexto cultural de aprendizaje desde su perspectiva, diferenciada por la identidad de género. Mediante la investigación basada en la imagen, subyace como principal conclusión que a pesar de los esfuerzos realizados en la institución universitaria por cambiar hacia un modelo de aprendizaje constructivista, aún no está asumido completamente por los y las estudiantes, puesto que las modalidades de aprendizaje menos representadas son propias a este. El género no se ha incluido como orientador en las nuevas teorías y metodologías universitarias; las mujeres tratan de adaptar y reconfigurar el espacio a las necesidades demandadas por las nuevas acciones, haciéndolos más versátiles, y los hombres más conservadores y reafirmados en modalidades de carácter prioritariamente individuales, situadas en entornos tradicionales de aprendizaje como es un aula o su habitación de estudio.

  20. Understanding the dynamics of a geyser using seismic ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Estelle; Roux, Philippe; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Kedar, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is one of the most studied geysers in the world. The predictability, the repeatability and the short time lag, ~1.5 hour, between 2 eruptions make the study convenient. The surface expression of the geyser is a 4m high, 60m wide mound with an approximately 2m x 1m opening at the top, which permits to deploy a dense network of sensors closed to the orifice. In 1992, Sharon Kedar deployed 96 vertical geophones in a tight grid over the geyser's dome. The geophones recorded the ambient seismic noise during an entire eruptive cycle, including a short period of quiet seismic activity. The survey was completed by seven shots carried out with a sledge hammer. The signal consists in a series of impulsive events, most likely due to bubble collapse in boiling water areas inside the geyser's plumbing system. The aim of this study is to locate the sources of these events. We revisited a 10 minutes-long data set from S. Kedar's records and processed the signal using a Matched Field Processing (MFP) algorithm derived from ocean acoustics. The cross-correlation of the signals recorded by the 96 geophones showed a great level of coherency between the sensors, which is a pre-requisite to use MFP. This method introduced in geophysics by Capon is based on comparing forward modelling solutions of the wave equation in a grid search with acquired data, measured on an array of motion sensors. The process consists in placing a test source at each point of the grid search, computing the acoustic field corresponding at all the elements of the array and then correlating this modelled field with the data. The correlation is maximum when the candidate point source is co-located with the true point source. We used both linear (Bartlett) and non linear (MVDR : Minimum Variance Distorsionless) processors. The MFP processor was performed either incoherently from the raw ambient noise data or coherently from the cross-correlated traces

  1. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capone F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic

  2. Intracellular heavy metal nanoparticle storage: progressive accumulation within lymph nodes with transformation from chronic inflammation to malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Iannitti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tommaso Iannitti1, Stefania Capone2, Antonietta Gatti3, Frederico Capitani4, Cetta Francesco5,6, Beniamino Palmieri21Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK; 2Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, 3Laboratory of Biomaterials, Department of Specialistic Surgeries, Head and Neck Medical School and Surgical Clinic, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; 4Laboratory of Nanodiagnostics, San Vito, Modena, Italy 5Department of Surgery, University of Siena, Siena; 6Institute of Geriatrics, Pio Albergo Trivulzio Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: A 25-year-old man had complained of sudden fever spikes for two years and his blood tests were within the normal range. In 1993, a surgical biopsy of swollen left inguinal lymph nodes was negative for malignancy, but showed reactive lymphadenitis and widespread sinus histiocytosis. A concomitant needle biopsy of the periaortic lymph nodes and a bone marrow aspirate were also negative. In 1994, after an emergency hospital admission because of a sport-related thoracic trauma, a right inguinal lymph node biopsy demonstrated Hodgkin’s lymphoma Stage IVB (scleronodular mixed cell subtype. Although it was improved by chemotherapy, the disease suddenly relapsed, and a further lymph node biopsy was performed in 1998 confirming the same diagnosis. Despite further treatment, the patient died of septic shock in 2004, at the age of 38 years. Retrospective analysis of the various specimens showed intracellular heavy metal nanoparticles within lymph node, bone marrow, and liver samples by field emission gun environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Heavy metals from environmental pollution may accumulate in sites far from the entry route and, in genetically conditioned individuals with tissue specificity, may act as cofactors for chronic inflammation or even malignant transformation. The present anecdotal report

  3. Remote sensing based on hyperspectral data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifahmadian, Ershad

    In remote sensing, accurate identification of far objects, especially concealed objects is difficult. In this study, to improve object detection from a distance, the hyperspecral imaging and wideband technology are employed with the emphasis on wideband radar. As the wideband data includes a broad range of frequencies, it can reveal information about both the surface of the object and its content. Two main contributions are made in this study: 1) Developing concept of return loss for target detection: Unlike typical radar detection methods which uses radar cross section to detect an object, it is possible to enhance the process of detection and identification of concealed targets using the wideband radar based on the electromagnetic characteristics --conductivity, permeability, permittivity, and return loss-- of materials. During the identification process, collected wideband data is evaluated with information from wideband signature library which has already been built. In fact, several classes (e.g. metal, wood, etc.) and subclasses (ex. metals with high conductivity) have been defined based on their electromagnetic characteristics. Materials in a scene are then classified based on these classes. As an example, materials with high electrical conductivity can be conveniently detected. In fact, increasing relative conductivity leads to a reduction in the return loss. Therefore, metals with high conductivity (ex. copper) shows stronger radar reflections compared with metals with low conductivity (ex. stainless steel). Thus, it is possible to appropriately discriminate copper from stainless steel. 2) Target recognition techniques: To detect and identify targets, several techniques have been proposed, in particular the Multi-Spectral Wideband Radar Image (MSWRI) which is able to localize and identify concealed targets. The MSWRI is based on the theory of robust capon beamformer. During identification process, information from wideband signature library is utilized

  4. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del

  5. The role of the microfissuration of the rock matrix in the abrasion resistance of ornamental granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Angel; Sanchez-Delgado, Nuria; Camino, Clara; Calleja, Lope; Ruiz de Argandoña, Vicente G.; Setien, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    The microcrack density and the abrasion resistance of five ornamental granites (Albero, Gris Alba, Mondariz, Rosa Porriño and Traspieles) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been quantified as part of a research aimed to interpret the cuttability of the rocks in relation to the petrophysical properties of the rock matrix. Large blocks from the quarries have been cut with an industrial saw and the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance have been measured in two surfaces: H, parallel to the cut surface; T, perpendicular both to the cut surface and the cutting direction. Both planes are perpendicular to the rift plane, as it is known in quarry works. The microcrack density has been quantified following an stereological procedure applied to polished sections imaged under scanning electron microscopy. The magnification of the images allowed the study of microcracks as narrow as 2 microns in aperture. The density has been quantified in terms of length of microcrack traces per surface unit so possible anisotropies of the microcrack network could be detected. The obtained values are in the typical range for this type of rocks although the Traspieles granite shows a higher value due to its weathering degree (H: 5.11, T: 5.37 mm/mm2). The values measured in the two surfaces (H and T) are quite similar in four of the rocks; only the Albero granite shows a marked anisotropy (H: 2.76 T: 3.53 mm/mm2). The abrasion resistance of the rocks has been measured following the european standard EN 14157:2004 using the capon method. The rocks can be classified in two groups according to their abrasion resistance. Rosa Porriño, Gris Alba and Mondariz granites are the more resistant to abrasion with values around 16-17 mm. Albero and Traspieles granites are less resistant with values higher than 19 mm. The results show a good correlation between the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance. As can be expected the rocks with high microcrack density show low abrasion resistance. The

  6. a Vector Space Approach to Spatial Spectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Unnikrishna S.

    Array processing for spatial spectrum estimation is reexamined from the vector space viewpoint with the objective of finding a common framework within which the various known superresolution estimators may be compared. Based on the experience with eigenstructure methods, which are ideal in the sense that they asymptotically yield unbiased estimates and have infinite resolving power for point sources, a generic form for an ideal spectrum estimator is proposed. Within this context it is shown that the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) method is an exact realization and the well known superresolution estimators, such as the Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM) of Capon and the Linear Prediction Method (LPM), are approximate realizations of this form. Further, this formulation is shown to suggest ways to modify both MLM and LPM so as to achieve asymptotically ideal performance for point sources. In the case of estimated covariance matrices the compensation for the improved performance is shown to be the requirement of larger number of samples compared to the eigenstructure based methods. The question of how to deploy the array elements for improved performance, in terms of the ability of the array to detect and resolve a larger number of sources than conventionally possible, is addressed. A study related to the statistical properties of the estimator of the unknown angles of arrival is reported. This includes a general result based on Cramer-Rao bound, and specific analyses for various superresolution techniques. A test based on higher powers of the eigenvalues of the sample covariance matrix is derived to estimate the number of point sources present in the data. This test is found to be useful even when the number of array elements is less than the number of point sources and is applied to the augmentation technique where negative eigenvalues are encountered. Other results include determination of the sensitivity of the eigenstructure based techniques on element

  7. Diagnosis of Bearing System using Minimum Variance Cepstrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various bearings are commonly used in rotating machines. The noise and vibration signals that can be obtained from the machines often convey the information of faults and these locations. Monitoring conditions for bearings have received considerable attention for many years, because the majority of problems in rotating machines are caused by faulty bearings. Thus failure alarm for the bearing system is often based on the detection of the onset of localized faults. Many methods are available for detecting faults in the bearing system. The majority of these methods assume that faults in bearings produce impulses. Impulse events can be attributed to bearing faults in the system. McFadden and Smith used the bandpass filter to filter the noise signal and then obtained the envelope by using the envelope detector. D. Ho and R. B Randall also tried envelope spectrum to detect faults in the bearing system, but it is very difficult to find resonant frequency in the noisy environments. S. -K. Lee and P. R. White used improved ANC (adaptive noise cancellation) to find faults. The basic idea of this technique is to remove the noise from the measured vibration signal, but they are not able to show the theoretical foundation of the proposed algorithms. Y.-H. Kim et al. used a moving window. This algorithm is quite powerful in the early detection of faults in a ball bearing system, but it is difficult to decide initial time and step size of the moving window. The early fault signal that is caused by microscopic cracks is commonly embedded in noise. Therefore, the success of detecting fault signal is completely determined by a method's ability to distinguish signal and noise. In 1969, Capon coined maximum likelihood (ML) spectra which estimate a mixed spectrum consisting of line spectrum, corresponding to a deterministic random process, plus arbitrary unknown continuous spectrum. The unique feature of these spectra is that it can detect sinusoidal signal from noise. Our idea

  8. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  9. Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickells, Tim D.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact T Jickells (1), K. Altieri (2), D. Capone (3), E. Buitenhuis (1), R. Duce (4), F. Dentener (5), K. Fennel (6), J. Galloway (7), M. Kanakidou (8), J. LaRoche (9), K. Lee (10), P. Liss (1), J. Middleburg (11), K. Moore (12), S. Nickovic (13), G. Okin (14), A. Oschilies (15), J. Prospero (16), M. Sarin (17), S. Seitzinger (18), J. Scharples (19), P. Suntharalingram (1), M. Uematsu (20), L. Zamora (21) Atmospheric nitrogen inputs to the ocean have been identified as an important source of nitrogen to the oceans which has increased greatly as a result of human activity. The significance of atmospheric inputs for ocean biogeochemistry were evaluated in a seminal paper by Duce et al., 2008 (Science 320, 893-7). In this presentation we will update the Duce et al 2008 study estimating the impact of atmospheric deposition on the oceans. We will summarise the latest model estimates of total atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the ocean, their chemical form (nitrate, ammonium and organic nitrogen) and spatial distribution from the TM4 model. The model estimates are somewhat smaller than the Duce et al estimate, but with similar spatial distributions. We will compare these flux estimates with a new estimate of the impact of fluvial nitrogen inputs on the open ocean (Sharples submitted) which estimates some transfer of fluvial nitrogen to the open ocean, particularly at low latitudes, compared to the complete trapping of fluvial inputs on the continental shelf assumed by Duce et al. We will then estimate the impact of atmospheric deposition on ocean primary productivity and N2O emissions from the oceans using the PlankTOM10 model. The impacts of atmospheric deposition we estimate on ocean productivity here are smaller than those predicted by Duce et al impacts, consistent with the smaller atmospheric deposition estimates. However, the atmospheric input is still larger than the estimated fluvial inputs to the open ocean

  10. Perennial grasses traits as functional markers of grazing intensity in basaltic grasslands of Uruguay Rasgos de gramíneas perennes como marcadores funcionales de la intensidad de pastoreo en pastizales de basalto en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jaurena

    2012-12-01

    los grupos funcionales se determinó la respuesta al incremento de la intensidad de pastoreo en un experimento con dos cargas de capones (0,78 and 1,56 unidades ganaderas ha-1 cuantificando la cobertura de dichas especies y los valores de sus rasgos. El contenido de MS y el área foliar específica fueron los rasgos que mejor describieron la respuesta de las gramíneas perennes al incremento de la carga animal y podrían ser utilizados como marcadores funcionales. Tres grupos funcionales fueron identificados. El nivel más bajo de carga animal se relacionó con el grupo funcional A (especies estivales, altas, con baja área foliar específica y alto contenido de MS y con el grupo funcional B (especies invernales altas y con niveles intermedios de rasgos foliares. Por otro lado, el nivel más elevado de carga animal se relacionó con el aumento del grupo funcional C (especies estivales, postradas, con alta área foliar específica y bajos contenidos de MS. Esta clasificación de una comunidad con alta diversidad de especies en tres grupos funcionales es un nuevo enfoque para desarrollar métodos simples y generales para el diagnóstico del estado de praderas naturales de la región basáltica en Uruguay y generar recomendaciones para su manejo.

  11. Especialización del uso de la tierra en la microbacia del rio “Ribeirão Descalvado” en Botucatu-San Pablo- en un período de 35 años Spatialization of the land use in the watershed Ribeirão Descalvado, Botucatu SP, in the period of 35 years Espacialização do uso da terra na microbacia do Ribeirão Descalvado, Botucatu (SP no período de 35 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Souza Ceragioli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La cobertura vegetal del suelo de esa región sufre grandes modificaciones por causa de la  intervención humana. Por eso este trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de realizar un inventário  de la región de la micro-bacia del Ribeirão Descalvado – Botucatú (SP. En un período de 35 años, con imágenes de satélite digital, bandas 3,4,y 5 del Sensor TM, del LANDSAT 5, órbita 220, punto 76, cuadrante A –  a partir de su pase  en  08 de junio de 1997 y las fotografías vertivcales de 1962, con la escala de 1:25000. esta área está situada entre las coordenadas geográficas de 22º 50’05” a 22º 54’ 26”- latitud S y  de 48º 22’ 29” a 48º 26’ 36” de Longitud W  Gr. Refiriéndose a un área de 2.136,25 hectáreas. Su cobertura vegetal presentó los siguientes resultados en 196 2: Área de Resflorestamiento: 219,13há; Suelos con atividades agrícolas: 17 há;   Suelos de Pastaje: 530,64há; suelo expuesto: 2,74 há; capones: 281,21 há y mata nativa de 303,4 há. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron contatar que hubo un incremiento significativo en áreas agrícolas en deterimiento, principalmente  de la reducción de las áreas de reflorestación;  pastos y capones. Las imágenes del satélite LANDSAT 5  ofrecieron un excelente banco de informaciones para la clasificación supervisionada , futuros planeamientos y gerenciamiento de la actividad agropecuária. El sistema de información Geugráfica IDRSI se mostró eficiente para la discriminación del uso y de la ocupación del suelo, demostrando la utilidad de la herramienta en el geoprocesamiento  torna fácil y ágil el cruzamiento de datos e informaciones bien como permite el    almacenamiento digital de  los mismos, para que puedan ser utilizados a cualquier momnento, en otros análisis o estudios.
    The cover vegetation of the soil has undergone constant modifications by humans. In this context, this research was carried out to complete the

  12. Linfoadenitis Caseosa (LAC en ovinos en la XI Región, Chile Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep at the XI Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tadich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue diagnosticar la presencia de Linfoadenitis Caseosa (LAC en ovinos de la XI Región, Chile. El estudio se realizó en la Planta Faenadora de Carnes Inducar de Coyhaique, XI Región, Chile, entre los meses de agosto y noviembre del año 2002. Se examinó un total de 1.397 ovinos de distintas categorías (corderos, borregas, ovejas, capones y carneros, edades y procedencias. La determinación de la edad se realizó mediante cronometría dentaria. El examen de las canales calientes se realizó mediante inspección y palpación de todos los nódulos linfáticos de la canal. También se examinaron el parénquima pulmonar, hígado y riñones. Los nódulos linfáticos y órganos que presentaron lesiones similares a las producidas por LAC fueron extraídos y se obtuvieron muestras de la periferia de ellos. El material obtenido fue incorporado a medio Stuart para su transporte. Además, muestras de mitades de los nódulos también fueron enviadas semanalmente al Instituto de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Austral de Chile. Sólo se obtuvieron cultivos positivos a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis de animales adultos. De las 105 muestras enviadas para cultivo, 81 fueron positivas a LAC. La prevalencia de LAC en los animales adultos fue de un 11,6% y de un 5,8% al considerar la población total examinada. La frecuencia de presentación aumentó a medida que aumentaba la edad de los animales. Los nódulos linfáticos más frecuentemente afectados fueron los superficiales con un 54,3%. Al considerar los nódulos individualmente, los más afectados fueron los mediastínicos con un 35,1%, seguido de los preescapulares con un 30,8 %. Con respecto a la procedencia de los animales afectados, en su mayoría correspondían a las estancias Ñirehuao y Río Cisnes, así como del sector Balmaceda y El Claro (81,5%. En base a los hallazgos de lesiones macroscópicas de los nódulos afectados y a sus cultivos

  13. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil) Antoniadis, Ignatios (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) Arminjon, Mayeul (CNRS, Section of Theoretical Physics, France) Banados, Max (University of Oxford, UK) Basilakos, Spyros (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Bastos, Catarina (IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Bertolami, Orfeu (IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Bevilaqua, Leandro Ibiapina (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil) Bezerra De Mello, Eugenio (Dept. de Física, CCEN Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil) Blake, Russ (Readify Pty Ltd, Australia) Bogdanos, Charalampos (LPT-Orsay, France) Burinskii, Alexander (Gravity Research Group NSI, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Cadonati, Laura (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA) Cadoni, Mariano (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Capone, Monica (University of Turin, Italy) Cavaglià, Marco (University of Mississippi, USA) Chirco, Goffredo (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Christodoulakis, Theodosios (University of Athens, Greece) Domingues Zarro, Carlos Augusto ((IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Durrer, Ruth (Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique, Switzerland) Fagnocchi, Serena (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Finazzi, Stefano (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Francia, Dario (University Paris 7 - APC, France) Ghosh, Subir (Indian Statistical Institute, India) Gomberoff, Andres (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile) Grumiller, Daniel (Institute for Theoretical Physics Vienna University of Technology, Austria) Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo (IFM, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Mexico) Hsu, Steve (University of Oregon, USA) Ichinose, Shoichi (University of Shizuoka, SFNS, Japan) Kiefer, Claus (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, Germany) Kokkotas, Kostas (Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Germany) Kothawala, Dawood (IUCAA, Pune

  14. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    N W 2002 Nature 416 811 [9] Borsboom M et al 1998 J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5 518 [10] Zernike F and Prins J A 1927 Z. Phys. 41 184 Colloidal suspensions contents How much does the core structure of a three-phase contact line contribute to the line tension near a wetting transition? J O Indekeu, K Koga and B Widom A systematic coarse-graining strategy for semi-dilute copolymer solutions: from monomers to micelles Barbara Capone, Ivan Coluzza and Jean-Pierre Hansen Structural searches using isopointal sets as generators: densest packings for binary hard sphere mixtures Toby S Hudson and Peter Harrowell The theory of delamination during drying of confined colloidal suspensions K J Wallenstein and W B Russel Electrostatics Modeling of equilibrium hollow objects stabilized by electrostatics Ethayaraja Mani, Jan Groenewold and Willem K Kegel The Donnan equilibrium: I. On the thermodynamic foundation of the Donnan equation of state A Philipse and A Vrij Colloidal rods and platelets Cholesteric order in systems of helical Yukawa rods H H Wensink and G Jackson Magnetic-field-induced nematic-nematic phase separation and droplet formation in colloidal goethite E van den Pol, A A Verhoeff, A Lupascu, M A Diaconeasa, P Davidson, I Dozov, B W M Kuipers, D M E Thies-Weesie and G J Vroege Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures N Doshi, G Cinacchi, J S van Duijneveldt, T Cosgrove, S W Prescott, I Grillo, J Phipps and D I Gittins 3D structure of nematic and columnar phases of hard colloidal platelets A B G M Leferink op Reinink, J M Meijer, D Kleshchanok, D V Byelov, G J Vroege, A V Petukhov and H N W Lekkerkerker Phase behaviour of binary mixtures of diamagnetic colloidal platelets in an external magnetic field Jonathan Phillips and Matthias Schmidt Rheo-SAXS investigation of shear-thinning behaviour of very anisometric repulsive disc-like clay suspensions A M Philippe, C Baravian, M Imperor-Clerc, J De Silva, E Paineau, I Bihannic, P Davidson, F Meneau, P Levitz and L J Michot