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Sample records for capitata genetic sexing

  1. Future needs in research on genetic sexing of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes suggestions on the direction of research for genetic sexing over the next several years and prepared the paper as a guide for discussion. The literature of genetic and cytogenetic studies on insects as a whole is the basis for most of the approaches that the genetic control community has used, but only a tiny fraction of the literature is directed at genetic sexing and most of that is limited to, small scale laboratory studies. The effort to use genetic sexing strains on the scale of mass rearing of medflies is unprecedented, and it is not surprising that a few problems have been encountered during implementation. Consideration of this fact leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to 'think big' and target the research. (author)

  2. Status of molecular genetic studies in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, in relation to genetic sexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the current status of the molecular genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, with particular emphasis on the development of genetic sexing systems is presented. Rapid developments in the work on the molecular genetics of Drosophila melanogaster are beginning to play a prominent role in the expansion of genetic sexing to include molecular approaches. For example, the increasing availability of cloned genes from Drosophila has permitted the homologous sequences from the medfly genome to be identified. If homologous genes are identified, they can be rapidly mapped on the polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization. Germ line transformation is now routine in Drosophila and many attempts have been made to transform the medfly using the same system, to date without success. A P-element excision assay in Anastrepha suspensa has indicated that in this species also, P-element transformation is unlikely to be successful. Target genes to be potentially used in transformation fall into two classes, sex killing and sex transformation, and progress in and possibilities for both are discussed. Recent data on sex regulation in Drosophila offer new approaches for sex killing systems. Finally, since the genome of the medfly is sparsely mapped, it is suggested that a search should be made for restriction fragment length polymorphisms. These could be rapidly assigned to chromosome position using in situ hybridization and mapped using conventional genetic analysis. (author). 58 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Incompatible insect technique: incompatible males from a Ceratitis capitata genetic sexing strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbachia are obligatory intracellular and maternally inherited bacteria that infect and spread through natural arthropod populations by inducing male-killing, feminization, parthenogenesis and, most commonly, unidirectional and bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Cytoplasmic incompatibility can be used to control natural populations of insect pests, in a way analogous to the sterile insect technique (SIT), namely through the incompatible insect technique (IIT). For the successful application of the ITT (based on a unidirectional CI approach) against a target species, it is essential that only males are released, as the release of females would lead to fertile matings between the released males and the released females and the establishment of a Wolbachia-carrying field population. In the present study, we describe a Wolbachia-infected line of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedermann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that carries the selectable marker temperature sensitive lethal (tsl). We show that (1) transferred Wolbachia induce high levels of CI even after the temperature treatment required for the male-only production, and (2) the Wolbachia-infected genetic sexing C. capitata line can be used in cage population suppression experiments analogous to the SIT. We also discuss our results in a comparison between IIT and SIT, investigating whether irradiation and cytoplasmic factors can be combined toward the development of novel strategies for insect pest control. (author)

  4. Evaluation of a white female pupa genetic sexing strain of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), under selection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During seven consecutive generations of mass rearing of a white female, brown male, genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), isolated at Seibersdorf (T:Y(wp+)30C, hereafter referred to as SWFP), only eggs produced during oviposition days 7-9 (adult age of 9-11 days, respectively) were seeded into the larval medium. Data on the quality of the various life stages were compared with similar data from the 'Sohag' normal colour strain collected throughout 1987. The Sohag strain was mass reared at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory from October 1983 until December 1987 when it was replaced by the SWFP strain. The mean amount of eggs collected daily per large colony cage of SWFP ranged between 40 mL and 62 mL in the successive generations, as compared to about 105 mL for for Sohag strain. Egg hatch in the SWFP successive generations varied between 71% and 76% as compared to about 85% for Sohag. Successful larval development in the artificial medium (percentage pupae from hatched eggs) fluctuated between 30% and 50%, while the average recovery in the Sohag strain was about 50%. Pupal size in the SWFP successive generations was always higher than in Sohag, i.e. 5.6 to 5.9 versus approx. 5.3 (size 5 on pupal day 4 corresponds to about 8.2 mg). Breakdown of the strain, as measured by the percentage of females emerging from brown pupae of the two highest larval collection days, was very low; increasing to only 1,2% by generation 7. Adult emergence and flight ability improved with the successive generations of SWFP from 64% to about 90% and from 50% to about 75%, respectively, while adult emergence and flight ability in the Sohag strain were around 93% and 90%, respectively. (author). 12 refs, 1 tab

  5. Chemical Stimulants and Genetic Sexing Boost the SIT: Evidence from Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera Dorsalis in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

  6. CONSTRUCTION AND REARING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA, GENETIC SEXING STRAINS, VIENNA-8 WITH MALES CARRYING THE MARKER SERGEANT-2 (VIENNA-8/Sr2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial on the construction, maintenance and adaptation of the genetic sexing strain Vienna-8/Sr2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), has been done in the fruit fly laboratories of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) in the cooperation with the laboratories of International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. This trial was successful and this strain was maintained in the medfly laboratories of the EAEA for more than 10 generations up till now. Vienna-8/ Sr2 is very stable strain and carries the dominant mutation called sergeant-2 (Sr2) and could be used as a visible marker for the sterile male flies released in the field for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly. This visible marker simplifies the discrimination between released sterile males and wild males caught in field monitoring traps. Males of this strain have three white stripes on the abdomen while wild males have only two stripes. The use of this genetic marker, as a replacement of the external dye marker, clearly has an immediate positive impact on the efficiency of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs (by using gamma radiation)

  7. Opportunities to improve competitiveness in male sexual strain has genetic sex determination Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of TIS program depends essentially on the capacity of the sterile males to compete with fertile males to couple with wild females. This program becomes more and more efficient if one good mastery its various factors, mainly the performances of males of the origin of ceratite in genetic sexing within the production unit of sterile flies of the National Center of the Sciences and Nuclear Technologies. Researches turned to the improvement of the competitiveness of the sterile males by the addition of bacteria in the nourishing circles of breeding. By basing itself on the symbiotic relations between the present bacteria in the bowel of the ceratite, we adopted, in this present work, a method of breeding which could improve the quality of the males of genetic sexing GSS. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria in the ceratite (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aerogenes) into the middle of breeding according to various combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by making various tests of quality control (weight, emergence, capacity in the flight, the longevity) and of reproduction (competitiveness, lasted mating, latent period). It turns out that the addition of Enterobacteriaceae in the middle of breeding outstandingly improved the percentage of emergence of the males of the GSS. Besides, these bacteria contributed to the improvement of the competitiveness of these males with regard to those of the other circles. Besides, the addition of Pseudomonas aerogenes in the middle of breeding gave the best latent period to the males GSS. We also noticed that the association of Enterobacteriaceae with Pseudomonas aerogenes has a positive effect on the capacity in the flight of the males of the GSS and their duration of mating.

  8. Development of sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata through manipulation of radiation-induced conditional lethals and other genetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African populations of Ceratitis capitata (Kenya and Reunion Isl.) and two Mediterranean ones (Sardinia and Procida Isl.) have been studied for genetic variability at 25 loci by electrophoresis. Parameters using gene frequencies indicate the presence of substantial geographic heterogeneity. The major part of this heterogeneity is attributable to genetic drift and is correlated with the dispersion of medfly from the source area of the species (Subsaharan Africa) to the periphery. Kenya has all the properties of a native population, as gene flow estimates, in terms of number of immigrant per generation, is significant between Kenya and the derived Mediterranean populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent colonization. But part of the geographic heterogeneity is related to the presence of fixed alleles in Reunion population which appears particularly differentiated, although it maintains the genetic attributes of the ancestral population. Selection may have played an important role in the differentiation of this population. 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  10. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronis Rempoulakis

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS that has a white pupae (wp and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C. The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2 strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  11. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  12. New sexing strains: Transforming Ceratitis capitata females into males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Ceratitis capitata female sex determination is established early during development and maintained by the key gene Cctransformer. The encoded protein seems to be able to promote female-specific pre-mRNA splicing of Cctra itself and of the downstream Ccdsx gene, hence encoding a female-specific isoform. In males, because of the Y-linked male determining signal, Cctra mRNAs encode truncated peptides most probably not functional and the Ccdsx gene produces a male-specific isoform. We developed C. capitata transgenic strains to verify two hypotheses: 1) a transgene mediated in vivo RNAi against Cctra should lead to complete masculinisation of XX individuals, as previously observed by embryonal RNAi: 2) a transgene encoded CcDSYM protein should promote partial masculinisation of XX individuals, by competing with the endeogenous CcDSXF. A PiggyBac vector was prepared containing a Cctra transgene bearing two inverted repeats, under the transcriptional control of an hsp70 promoter. A Minos vector was prepared containing a cDNA encoding the CcDSXM isoform, fused with an hsp70 promoter. Many different C. capitata transgenic lines were obtained that are presently under molecular and phenotypic analyses. Southern blots analysis confirmed the integration of the two vectors in the genome of the medfly transgenic lines. Further functional and phenotypic results will be presented, in the light of our final goal to develop transgenic C. capitata strains able to conditionally give male-only progeny. The mass-production, sterilisation and release of male-only insects can lead to the species-specific local suppression or eradication of a pest population. Two decades of the use of this Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) demonstrated that it is a safe technique to control infestations caused by some pest species, such as the medfly. The next challenges will be to demonstrate that SIT using sexing transgenic strains would be an essentially safe and an alternative efficient

  13. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Population suppression and sterility rates induced by variable sex ratio, sterile insect releases of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile insect releases of a pupal color-based genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were made during the summer and fall of 1991 in coffee plantations in Kauai, HI. Four treatments compared with respect to trap recapture and sterility rates induced in native populations were: (1) genetic sexing strain (≍99% males = males only), (2) genetic sexing strain (males and females), (3) genetic sexing strain (high % ♀ ♀), and (4) standard strain (males and females). Each week either 2 liters (≍120,000) of irradiated pupae for the bisexual populations or 1 liter of irradiated pupae for the unisexual populations were dye-marked and ground released in buckets. Adult flies emerged and dispersed throughout individual (≍1 ha) coffee fields. Flies were trapped weekly in standard dry traps or in liquid protein traps. Coffee berry samples were collected weekly to determine egg sterility rates, and females trapped in liquid protein were dissected for presence of sperm and sperm type. A new technique was developed to type sperm as either sterile (irradiated) or wild in mated females. An estimate of sterile fly competitiveness based on relative degrees of egg hatch suppression indicated an overall three- to five-fold increase in competitiveness of the males-only strain compared with the standard bisexual strain. Significantly, however, this difference even widened to a qualitative degree by the end of the test

  15. Sex and the single embryo: early deveopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharopoulou Antigone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In embryos the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts with transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are being clarified in Drosophila melanogaster, little is know about the embryogenic processes in other insect species. The recent publication of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from embryos of the global pest species Ceratitis capitata (medfly has enabled the investigation of embryogenesis in this species and has allowed a comparison of the embryogenic processes in these two related dipteran species, C. capitata and D. melanogaster, that shared a common ancestor 80-100 mya. Results Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (Cctransformer, Cctransformer2 and Ccdoublesex, the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the D. melanogaster sex-determination genes (sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille and intersex and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses and serendipity-α were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the Zelda gene has been considered, which in D. melanogaster encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Conclusions Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of C. capitata, ii when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is

  16. The significance of genetic polymorphisms within and between founder populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. from Argentina.

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    Alicia Basso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics.

  17. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  18. Development of a genetic sexing mechanism in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata for isolation of males in the egg or neonatal larval stage. Coordinated programme on development of sexing mechanisms in fruit flies through manipulation of radiation induced conditional lethals and other genetic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biochemical markers has allowed a sufficiently detailed evaluation of the genetic variability of the medfly; it has also fostered significant progress in the field of formal genetics. Chromosomal examinations have provided clues for interpreting genetical aspects of sex determination and of occasional recombination of linked factors in heterozygous males. The results obtained are considered a reliable basis for rewarding progress both in basic research and in applied programs

  19. Using genetic diversity information to establish core collections of Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Oliveira Santos-Garcia; Guilherme Toledo-Silva; Rodrigo Possidonio Sassaki; Thais Helena Ferreira; Rosângela Maria Simeão Resende; Lucimara Chiari; Cláudio Takao Karia; Marcelo Ayres Carvalho; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Maria Imaculada Zucchi; Anete Pereira Souza

    2012-01-01

    Stylosanthes species are important forage legumes in tropical and subtropical areas. S. macrocephala and S. capitata germplasm collections that consist of 134 and 192 accessions, respectively, are maintained at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Cerrados (Embrapa-Cerrados). Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure with the aim to assemble a core collection. The mean values of H O and H E for S. macrocephala were 0.08 and 0....

  20. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), as a tool in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers a period of five years of studies on the genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and genetic sexing. Fourteen morphological mutants were isolated during that period, including gr, ru, ro Sr, Sp, ew, br, sb and six yet unstudied mutants. Additional data were accumulated on genetic recombination between the various marked loci in males and females, and genetic maps were constructed. Recombination in males were found to be rather common in the medfly and not associated with the presence of chromosomal aberrations or with a particular chromosome. It seemed, however, that the dominant mutants that have been studied had a higher frequency of recombination in males, which almost matched the recombination levels encountered in the females. Initial steps towards the construction of genetic sexing strains were conducted. Selection for resistance to certain chemicals (potassium sorbate, Avermectin and Cyromazine) was carried out with limited success. Lines with high immunity to the three chemicals were established, and the mode of inheritance to Cyromazine and potassium sorbate was studied. Indications were that Cyromazine resistance was recessive and governed by a single gene whereas potassium sorbate resistance seemed to be a quantitative trait. (author). 14 refs, 8 tabs

  1. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in oppo

  2. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  3. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Karsten

    Full Text Available The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km, are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  4. Biochemical genetic studies on genotype strains of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four genotypes of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), i.e. two laboratory strains (dark and yellow pupae), genetic sexing line and wild strain were examined biochemically in larvae, pupae and adult stages by means of isoelectrophoresis to determine further genetic variations. Isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase and esterase enzymes were chosen for study. The medfly genotypes exhibited variations in the strains, as well as the genetic sexing line according to the biological characters. In order to identify some markers to distinguish individuals of different strains it should prove necessary to compare the electrophoretic pattern mobilities of isozyme numbers and activities of the three tested enzymes. The isoenzymes were genetically different from one genotype to another and from one stage to another. These results appear to be consistent over polymorphic loci. The functional genes of alkaline phosphatase larvae were higher in band numbers and activities than those of pupae and adult extractions in all materials. No variations were found between the adult males and females of all materials except the males of the genetic sexing line, which were more active. Electrophoresis and spectrophotometer enzymatic analysis of polyphenol oxidase indicated that the larval stage was more active than the other stages. In addition, the larval polyphenol oxidase activity of the yellow pupae strain and the genetic sexing line were more active than the others. Concerning the esterases, the genes controlling the activity of isozymes were different from one strain to another according to the stages of development. The esterases band numbers were low in larvae, but a high number was found in adult males of the genetic sexing line and the females of the yellow pupae strain. The results of this work were supported by previous results of Sabrah et al., where the genic polymorphism and ontogenic variation of esterase isoenzymes in medfly collected from different geographical

  5. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Early Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8–10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae. PMID:25474564

  6. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  7. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetelig, Marc F.; Wimmer, Ernst A. [Georg-August-University, Gottingen (Germany). Johann-Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology. Gottingen Center for Molecular Biosciences; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano [Universita di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Handler, Ernst A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  8. Genetic conflict and sex chromosome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, Colin D; Tao, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal sex determination systems create the opportunity for the evolution of selfish genetic elements that increase the transmission of one sex chromosome at the expense of its homolog. Because such selfish elements on sex chromosomes can reduce fertility and distort the sex ratio of progeny, unlinked suppressors are expected to evolve, bringing different regions of the genome into conflict over the meiotic transmission of the sex chromosomes. Here we argue that recurrent genetic conflict over sex chromosome transmission is an important evolutionary force that has shaped a wide range of seemingly disparate phenomena including the epigenetic regulation of genes expressed in the germline, the distribution of genes in the genome, and the evolution of hybrid sterility between species. PMID:19931208

  9. Genetic method for separation of males and females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), based on pupal color dimorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) were irradiated with 60 Gy gamma radiation and subsequently the emergent males were crossed with females of recessive mutants on white pupa color (w p/w p). A strain with a translocation between autosomal chromosome number 5, carrier of w p+ dominant gene, and Y chromosome was isolated. By this way the T:Y (w p+) 70 strain with sexual dimorphism based on pupal color was obtained. Cytological examination of the males was carried out to confirm the translocation. The genetic stability was monitored under laboratory conditions during 21 generations. The rates of contaminant females emerged from brown pupae were 0,96 to 4,5% and for males from white pupae these rates were 0,26 to 0,66%. These values presented no definite increase tendency. The origin of contaminant genotypes and the potential for utilization of the sterile male techniques are discussed. (author)

  10. Effect of successive irradiated generations on the biological activities of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wled)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulated effects of irradiated materials in the mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), ceratitis capitata (Wied) offsprings resulted from successively irradiated generations of eggs, pupae or adults were evaluated . Results showed that successive irradiation affected only the biological parameters that concern with the genetic cells i.e. sterility and fecundity. On the other hand, parameters concern the somatic cells i.e. Survival, sex-ration and mating activity were not significantly affected

  11. Effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly by genetic sexing male only sterile insect technique releases during 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For two successive years, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was effectively controlled by a combination of bait spraying onto boards suspended on host trees in May, followed by weekly releases of about one million gamma sterilized genetic sexing males till the end of the year. The treated area, Kibbutz Gvulot in southern Israel, included about 500 ha of citrus, mango and backyard fruit trees. In both years, the female/male ratio declined to extremely low levels in November-December, suggesting that the wild population had been driven to near extinction. This was apparent from fruit infestation as well, which was kept to levels below 0.1% in both years as compared with similar or even higher levels in the control area, which was treated by air bait spraying about weekly from September till the end of the year. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change. PMID:26135451

  13. Sex-specific genetic effects influence variation in body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M. Yazdanpanah (Mojgan); L.M. Pardo Cortes (Luba); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. Methods: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in t

  14. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  15. Sex-specific genetic effects influence variation in body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Zillikens, Carola; Yazdanpanah, Mojgan; Pardo Cortes, Luba; Rivadeneira Ramirez, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii; Oostra, Ben; Uitterlinden, André; Pols, Huib; Tikka-Kleemola, Päivi

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. Methods: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry. We used variance decomposition procedures to partition variation of body composition into genetic and environ...

  16. Mass rearing of the Medfly temperature sensitive lethal genetic sexing strain in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field tests have demonstrated the increased efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.), when only male Medflies are released (Robinson et al. 1986, Nitzan et al. 1993, McInnis et al. 1994, Rendon 1996). Genetic sexing strains (GSS) of Medflies, containing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) and white pupae colour (wp) mutations (Franz et al. 1994) developed by FAO/IAEA, allow the separation of male flies from female flies. GSS technology has reached a stage where it is being used in large-scale operational programmes, such as the Moscamed Program in Guatemala. GSS based on the wp/tsl have the advantages of: 1) not requiring sophisticated equipment for sex separation, 2) a high accuracy of separation (> 99.5% males) is possible and, 3) separation is achieved during egg development, which excludes the unnecessary rearing of females (Franz et al. 1996). It was shown by Franz et al. (1994) that tsl GSS are genetically stable for many generations under small-scale rearing conditions. However, under the large-scale rearing of operational programmes such as Moscamed (Hentze and Mata 1987), a gradual loss of the sex separation mechanism through recombination remains a problem, as has been demonstrated in Guatemala during 1994-1996. This in no way precludes the use of GSS technology, but it does mean that a management system must be used to control this gradual loss of stability; a strategy for colony management which maintains a stable and high level of accuracy of male-only production. The El Pino facility, which mass produces sterile flies for the Guatemala Medflies SIT Program, has introduced a filter rearing system (FRS) (Fisher and Caceres 1999), and has demonstrated in a Medfly tsl GSS known as VIENNA 4/Tol-94, that genetic stability can be maintained. We report the operation of the FRS and its impact upon genetic stability and male-only production. The concept of the FRS has the potential to improve the

  17. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  18. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  19. Kinetic properties of the two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) catalyses the reversible interconversion of a variety of alcohols and their corresponding aldehydes and ketones. Among insects, the ADH gene-enzyme system has been extensively studied in several species of Drosophila (Chambers 1988, Heinstra 1993, Ashburner 1998). The best characterised ADH from a non-drosophilid insect is that of the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), based on data from molecular genetics (Malacrida et al. 1992, Gasperi et al. 1992, Brogna et al. 1999), biochemistry (Gasperi et al. 1994) and population genetics (Gasperi et al. 1992, Gomulski et al. 1998). The primary interest in studying this enzymatic function in the Medfly was that the ADH system has been proposed, on the model of Drosophila, as a useful tool for genetic sexing strategies addressed to the biological control of this pest (Robinson et al. 1988). Moreover, molecular characterisation of Adh in a species like C. capitata, that diverged from the Drosophilidae more than 100 million years ago (Beverley and Wilson 1984), is of interest for studying the evolution of this protein in higher diptera. The principal function of ADH in insect metabolism is to catabolise alcohols generated by microbial fermentation in larval and adult feeding sites; in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, the presence of an active ADH is responsible for two different phenotypic traits, namely alcohol tolerance and alcohol utilisation (Van Delden 1982, David 1988). The ecological niche of C. capitata is different from that of Drosophila species, the first breeding on ripening fruits, the latter breeding on rotten plant material. Consequently, the physiological role of ADH may have diversified in these dipteran species

  20. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release

  1. A filter rearing system for mass reared genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), is arguably the world's most widespread pest of fresh fruit production. With mounting controversy over using chemicals against insect pests, the sterile insect technique (SIT) has become increasingly more important as a successful technology in controlling or eradicating many insect pests. However, the wider adoption of SIT for Medflies has been hindered by damage to fruit from sterile female stings (Hendrichs et al. 1995). Moreover, the release of sterile females in SIT for Medflies is not efficacious (Hendrichs et al. 1995), a point validated in the field in Hawaii (McInnis et al. 1994) and Guatemala (Rendon, personal communication). Hendrichs et al. (1995) list many other advantages for releasing only male Medflies including improved economy, increased safety and improved field monitoring. Genetic systems for the separation of sexes have been developed for Medflies (Franz and Kerremans 1994, Willhoeft et al. 1996) and they allow for large-scale releases of only males. Genetic sexing strains (GSS), as they are known, are based upon selectable characters linked to the male sex by using a Y-autosome translocation (Franz et al. 1996). There are two types of GSS used in mass rearing. First, strains based upon a recessive mutation (wp) change the pupal colour from brown to white. In these strains, females emerge from white pupae and males from brown pupae. A machine is used to sort the pupae based upon colour. First described by Robinson and Van Heemert (1982), the most recent strain, SEIB 6-96 based upon the T(Y;5) 2-22 translocation, is relatively stable in small scale rearing (Franz et al. 1994). Second are the temperature sensitive lethal strains (wp/tsl) which carry a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation in addition to wp. In tsl strains, female embryos are killed by exposing eggs to a 3 C temperature during development (Franz et al. 1996). Male embryos are not temperature sensitive and

  2. Genetic sexing strains for four species of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic sexing strains were assembled by using classical genetic and cytogenetic techniques for four medically important species of insects. Male linked reciprocal translocations were used to impose pseudolinkage of sex and selectable genes (shown in parentheses) for Anopheles albimanus (propoxur resistance), Anopheles quadrimaculatus sp. A (malathion resistance), Stomoxys calcitrans (dieldrin resistance; malathion resistance, and black pupa), and Musca domestica (black pupa). These strains would be of great value in implementation of the sterile insect technique for control of these species because the females can either be killed in the egg stage (in the case of insecticide resistance as the selectable gene) or they can be separated from the males and thus excluded from releases. (author). 13 refs

  3. The Genetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ngun, Tuck C.; Ghahramani, Negar; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Bocklandt, Sven; Vilain, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Biological differences between men and women contribute to many sex-specific illnesses and disorders. Historically, it was argued that such differences were largely, if not exclusively, due to gonadal hormone secretions. However, emerging research has shown that some differences are mediated by mechanisms other than the action of these hormone secretions and in particular by products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes, which we refer to as direct genetic effects. This paper reviews t...

  4. Chromosome polymorphism in a population of ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A morphological chromosomal polymorphism along with the observation of B chromosomes in a natural population of Ceratitis capitata is reported. A variability affecting the centromere size of chromosome 3 is described. The observed B chromosome is minute, heterochromatic and telocentric. The B chromosome was found in the male and female germ cells and it exhibited, in the males, intra-individual numerical variation with OB and IB cells, which suggested a mitotic instability. It was also found, in both sexes, in somatic cells (cerebral ganglia tissue). Only males transmitted the B chromosomes to the progeny. The high rate of transmission suggested a differential utilization of the sperm carrying the B chromosomes or a preferential segregation into secondary spermatocytes. Previously reported linkage relationship between a pupal esterase gene (Est-1) and a pupa colour mutant (nig) has been extended to a line carrying a Y-chromosome (Y,B) shorter than the one previously studied (Y,A). Furthermore, an elaborate crossing scheme has been devised in order to estimate the recombination distances between these two genes and a third one affecting pupal length (lp-1). It is concluded that all three genes are in the same linkage group but Est-1 is far from the other two. In turn, nig and lp-1 are separated by 14.9 map units. It is confirmed that genetic recombination does not regularly occur at high frequency in the male and this frequency is not increased by the varying length of the Y-chromosome. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Disorders of sex development: a genetic study of patients in a multidisciplinary clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Laino, Luigi; Majore, Silvia; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Grammatico, Barbara; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Marrocco, Giacinto; Bottillo, Irene; Grammatico, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Sex development is a process under genetic control directing both the bi-potential gonads to become either a testis or an ovary, and the consequent differentiation of internal ducts and external genitalia. This complex series of events can be altered by a large number of genetic and non-genetic factors. Disorders of sex development (DSD) are all the medical conditions characterized by an atypical chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypical sex. Incomplete knowledge of the genetic mechanisms involve...

  6. Population genetics of sex determination in Mytilus mussels: reanalyses and a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Yoichi; Breton, Sophie; Hoeh, Walter R

    2013-01-01

    Large variations in offspring sex ratio have been reported in Mytilus mussels, which show doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (DUI). Here, we reanalyzed the published sex ratio data, using simple population genetics concepts and logistic regression. Contrary to previous studies that detected only maternal effects, we found both paternal and maternal effects on the offspring sex ratio. We propose that sex in Mytilus is controlled by a pair of nuclear sex ratio alleles expressed in the mother and by minor sex-determining genes inherited from the father and also possibly from the mother. PMID:23505313

  7. Genetic gain in dairy cattle populations is increased using sexed semen in commercial herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl;

    2011-01-01

    100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase...... annual genetic gain by 1.8–2.5% compared with schemes without sexed semen and MOET on all BD. Performing MOET on all BD enables selection of offspring with high Mendelian deviations, which increase the annual genetic gain. Use of sexed semen decreased the genetic lag between the sires and the CD by 12...

  8. Sex Education and Intellectual Disability: Practices and Insight from Pediatric Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Carly; Lincoln, Sharyn; Meredith, Stephanie; Cross, Elizabeth M; Rintell, David

    2016-06-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) with or without other anomalies is a common referral for genetic counseling. Sessions may include discussions of reproductive implications and other issues related to sex education. Patients with ID regularly meet barriers when trying to obtain sex education due to the misperceptions of others as being either asexual or that such education would promote inappropriate sexual behavior. In this pilot study, we surveyed genetic counselors to explore their experiences with being asked to provide sex education counseling and their comfort in doing so for patients with ID ages 9-17. Results were analyzed from 38 respondents. Caregivers and patients most frequently requested information on puberty, sex abuse prevention, and reproductive health. Genetic counselors were most comfortable when they could provide sex education counseling within the context of a particular condition or constellation of features. They were least comfortable when they lacked familiarity with the patient, caregiver, or the family's culture. The most frequently cited barriers that prevented genetic counselors from providing sex education counseling were lack of time, lack of training, the patient's ID being too profound, and a belief that genetic counselors should not be responsible for providing sex education counseling. While many respondents reported that providing sex education counseling is not considered within the scope of a genetic counselor's practice, they also noted that patients' families initiate discussions for which counselors should be prepared. Respondents indicated that resource guides specifically designed for use by genetic counselors would be beneficial to their practice. Genetic counselors have the opportunity to embrace the role of advocate and broach the issue of sexual health with caregivers and patients by directing them toward educational resources, if not providing sex education directly to effectively serve the needs of patients and

  9. Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sex difference in the mean level of depressive symptoms has been well established, the sex difference in genetic and environmental influences on adolescent depressive symptoms is unclear. The current study conducted a meta-analysis of twin studies on sex differences in self- and parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally for boys and girls, accounting for 46% of variation, but shared environmental factors had stronger impacts on adolescent girls’ versus boys’ depressive symptoms (13% versus 1% of the variance. For parent-reports, genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally, with separate estimates of 34%, 35%, and 31%. The implications of sex difference in genetic and environmental etiologies of depressive symptoms are discussed.

  10. Targeted massively parallel sequencing provides comprehensive genetic diagnosis for patients with disorders of sex development

    OpenAIRE

    Arboleda, VA; Lee, H.; Sánchez, FJ; Délot, EC; Sandberg, DE; Grody, WW; Nelson, SF; Vilain, E

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are rare disorders in which there is discordance between chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypic sex. Only a minority of patients clinically diagnosed with DSD obtains a molecular diagnosis, leaving a large gap in our understanding of the prevalence, management, and outcomes in affected patients. We created a novel DSD-genetic diagnostic tool, in which sex development genes are captured using RNA probes and undergo massively parallel sequencing. In the pilot gr...

  11. Genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in a subdioecious plant with a proto-sex chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual dimorphism is thought to arise once sexually antagonistic genes accumulate on sex chromosomes early in their evolution. Yet because the earliest stages of sex chromosome evolution are elusive, we lack empirical evidence supporting this theory. In this study, we shed first light on the genetic...

  12. Exploring Contemporary Issues in Genetics & Society: Karyotyping, Biological Sex, & Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    In this two-part activity, high school biology students examine human karyotyping, sex-chromosome-linked disorders, and the relationship between biological sex and gender. Through interactive simulations and a structured discussion lab, students create a human karyotype and diagnose chromosomal disorders in hypothetical patients, as well as…

  13. Genetic and genomic analysis of a fat mass trait with complex inheritance reveals marked sex specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of expression profiling with linkage analysis has increasingly been used to identify genes underlying complex phenotypes. The effects of gender on the regulation of many physiological traits are well documented; however, "genetical genomic" analyses have not yet addressed the degree to which their conclusions are affected by sex. We constructed and densely genotyped a large F2 intercross derived from the inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ on an apolipoprotein E null (ApoE-/- background. This BXH.ApoE-/- population recapitulates several "metabolic syndrome" phenotypes. The cross consists of 334 animals of both sexes, allowing us to specifically test for the dependence of linkage on sex. We detected several thousand liver gene expression quantitative trait loci, a significant proportion of which are sex-biased. We used these analyses to dissect the genetics of gonadal fat mass, a complex trait with sex-specific regulation. We present evidence for a remarkably high degree of sex-dependence on both the cis and trans regulation of gene expression. We demonstrate how these analyses can be applied to the study of the genetics underlying gonadal fat mass, a complex trait showing significantly female-biased heritability. These data have implications on the potential effects of sex on the genetic regulation of other complex traits.

  14. Genetic dissection of sex differences in human brain and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, G. C. -Y

    2011-01-01

    The importance of sex differences in the brain and behaviour is indisputable. It forms the basis for differences in risk across a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, as well as gender roles within society. The classical approach to investigating sex differences primarily involves comparisons between males and females. While informative for characterizing the wide array of sexually dimorphic traits, straight comparisons are insufficient to elucidate specific molecul...

  15. Sex determination: insights from the silkworm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masataka G. Suzuki

    2010-09-01

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade seems to control sex determination in all Drosophila species and is partially conserved in another dipteran species, Ceratitis capitata: Cctra/Cctra-2 > Ccdsx and Ccfru. However, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, femaleness is determined by the presence of a dominant feminizing factor on the W chromosome. Moreover, no sex-specific regulatory Sxl homolog has been isolated from B. mori. Also, no tra homolog has yet been found in the Bombyx genome. Despite such differences, dsx homolog of B. mori (Bmdsx) is implicated in the sex determination. Bmdsx produces alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms that encode sex specific transcription factors as observed in dsx. While the female-specific splicing of dsx is activated by splicing activators, Tra and Tra2, the female splicing of Bmdsx represents the default mode. Instead, a splicing inhibitor, BmPSI is involved in the regulation of male-specific splicing of Bmdsx. Since BmPSI does not exhibit any sequence relationship to known SR proteins, such as Tra and Tra2, the regulatory mechanism of sex-specific alternative splicing of Bmdsx is distinct from that of dsx.

  16. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Appari Mahesh; Cario Gunnar; Richter-Unruh Annette; Demeter Janos; Werner Ralf; Bebermeier Jan-Hendrik; Holterhus Paul-Martin; Siebert Reiner; Riepe Felix; Brooks James D; Hiort Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46...

  17. New Technologies for the Identification of Novel Genetic Markers of Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Bashamboo, A.; Ledig, S.; Wieacker, P.; Achermann, J.C.; McElreavey, K

    2010-01-01

    Although the genetic basis of human sexual determination and differentiation has advanced considerably in recent years, the fact remains that in most subjects with disorders of sex development (DSD) the underlying genetic cause is unknown. Where pathogenic mutations have been identified, the phenotype can be highly variable, even within families, suggesting that other genetic variants are influencing the expression of the phenotype. This situation is likely to change, as more powerful and aff...

  18. Analysis of the Ceratitis capitata y chromosome using in situ hybridization to mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Ceratitis capitata the Y chromosome is responsible for sex-determination. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic analysis of mitotic chromosomes. FISH with the wild-type strain EgyptII and two repetitive DNA probes enabled us to differentiate between the short and the long arm of the Y chromosome and gives a much better resolution than C-banding of mitotic chromosomes. We identified the Y-chromosomal breakpoints in Y-autosome translocations using FISH. Even more complex rearrangements i.e. deletions and insertions in some translocation strains were detected by this method. A strategy for mapping the primary sex determination factor in Ceratitis capitata by FISH is presented. (author)

  19. Genetic tests for alleles of complementary-sex-determiner to support honeybee breeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Hyink, Otto; Laas, Frans; Dearden, Peter

    2013-01-01

    International audience The honeybee haplodiploid sex determination system depends on genetic variation at the complementary sex-determiner (csd) locus. In closed populations of honeybees, especially those undergoing selective breeding, the number of csd alleles can drop such that brood viability is affected. Here we present two polymerase chain reaction tests that allow the discrimination of csd alleles. Such tests should find utility in bee breeding programmes allowing the tracking and ma...

  20. Why Don't Smart Teens Have Sex? A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Academic achievement and cognitive ability have been shown to predict later age at first sexual intercourse. Using a sample of 536 same-sex twin pairs who were followed longitudinally from adolescence to early adulthood, this study tested whether relations between intelligence, academic achievement and age at first sex were due to unmeasured genetic and environmental differences between families. Twins who differed in their intelligence or their academic achievement did not differ in their ag...

  1. Sex Differences in the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adult Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Madeline H.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to age 18) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after age 17) were obtained eight years later. Results revealed that either ...

  2. Sex chromosome linked genetic variance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism of quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Arild; Schielzeth, Holger; Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Theory predicts that sex chromsome linkage should reduce intersexual genetic correlations thereby allowing the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Empirical evidence for sex linkage has come largely from crosses and few studies have examined how sexual dimorphism and sex linkage are related within outbred populations. Here, we use data on an array of different traits measured on over 10,000 individuals from two pedigreed populations of birds (collared flycatcher and zebra finch) to estimate the amount of sex-linked genetic variance (h(2)z ). Of 17 traits examined, eight showed a nonzero h(2)Z estimate but only four were significantly different from zero (wing patch size and tarsus length in collared flycatchers, wing length and beak color in zebra finches). We further tested how sexual dimorphism and the mode of selection operating on the trait relate to the proportion of sex-linked genetic variance. Sexually selected traits did not show higher h(2)Z than morphological traits and there was only a weak positive relationship between h(2)Z and sexual dimorphism. However, given the relative scarcity of empirical studies, it is premature to make conclusions about the role of sex chromosome linkage in the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:23461313

  3. Tests for sex-biased dispersal using bi-parentally inherited genetic markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Goudet J.; Perrin N.; Waser P.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding why dispersal is sex-biased in many taxa is still a major concern in evolutionary ecology. Dispersal tends to be male-biased in mammals and female-biased in birds, but counter-examples exist and little is known about sex bias in other taxa. Obtaining accurate measures of dispersal in the field remains a problem. Here we describe and compare several methods for detecting sex-biased dispersal using bi-parentally inherited, codominant genetic markers. If gene flow is restricted amo...

  4. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Massive and simultaneous production of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae males and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F 1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.In the genetic sexing strain «Cast191», the females of Ceratitis capitata are homozygous for the mutation slow , slowing down their rate of development, and the males are heterozygous, having a normal rate of development. This feature made Cast191 capable of producing sterile males, on one hand, and parasitoids that are reared on the remaining larvae, on the other. The

  5. Genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in a subdioecious plant with a proto-sex chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigler, Rachel B; Lewers, Kim S; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2011-04-01

    The rise of sexual dimorphism is thought to coincide with the evolution of sex chromosomes. Yet because sex chromosomes in many species are ancient, we lack empirical evidence of the earliest stages of this transition. We use QTL analysis to examine the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in subdioecious octoploid Fragaria virginiana. We demonstrate that the region housing the male-function locus controls the majority of quantitative variation in proportion fruit set, confirming the existence of a proto-sex chromosome, and houses major QTL for eight additional sexually dimorphic traits, consistent with theory and data from animals and plants with more advanced sex chromosomes. We also detected autosomal QTL, demonstrating contributions to phenotypic variation in sexually dimorphic traits outside the sex-determining region. Moreover, for proportion seed set we found significant epistatic interactions between autosomal QTL and the male-function locus, indicating sex-limited QTL. We identified linked QTL reflecting trade-offs between male and female traits expected from theory and positive integration of male traits. These findings indicate the potential for the evolution of greater sexual dimorphism. Involvement of linkage groups homeologous to the proto-sex chromosome in these correlations reflects the polyploid origin of F. virginiana and raises the possibility that chromosomes in this homeologous group were predisposed to become the sex chromosome. PMID:21062281

  6. The "Battle of the Sexes": A Genetic Model with Limit Cycle Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. M.; Hofbauer, J.

    1986-01-01

    A two-locus genetic model, based on Dawkin's "sex war" game, with the fitness of the genotypes at each locus depending on the gene frequencies at the other, is shown to give rise to a stable limit cycle. The mathematical analysis involves averaging techniques and elliptic integrals.

  7. Genetics of dioecy and causal sex chromosomes in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Renu Kumari; Vishakha Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Dioecy (separate male and female individuals) ensures outcrossing and is more prevalent in animals than in plants. Although it is common in bryophytes and gymnosperms, only 5% of angiosperms are dioecious. In dioecious higher plants, flowers borne on male and female individuals are, respectively deficient in functional gynoecium and androecium. Dioecy is inherited via three sex chromosome systems: XX/XY, XX/X0 and WZ/ZZ, such that XX or WZ is female and XY, X0 or ZZ are males. The XX/XY system generates the rarer XX/X0 andWZ/ZZ systems. An autosome pair begets XY chromosomes. A recessive loss-of-androecium mutation (ana) creates X chromosome and a dominant gynoecium-suppressing (GYS) mutation creates Y chromosome. The ana/ANA and gys/GYS loci are in the sex-determining region (SDR) of the XY pair. Accumulation of inversions, deleterious mutations and repeat elements, especially transposons, in the SDR of Y suppresses recombination between X and Y in SDR, making Y labile and increasingly degenerate and heteromorphic from X. Continued recombination between X and Y in their pseudoautosomal region located at the ends of chromosomal arms allows survival of the degenerated Y and of the species. Dioecy is presumably a component of the evolutionary cycle for the origin of new species. Inbred hermaphrodite species assume dioecy. Later they suffer degenerate-Y-led population regression. Cross-hybridization between such extinguishing species and heterologous species, followed by genome duplication of segregants from hybrids, give rise to new species.

  8. Codling moth sex chromosomes and their potential for development of genetic sexing starins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Fuková, Iva; Vítková, Magda; Nguyen, Petr; Traut, W.

    San Miguel deTucumán : Sociedad Entomológica Argentina , 2005. s. 45-45. [Congreso Argentino de Entomología /6./. 12.09.2005-15.09.2005, San Miguel de Tucumán] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : FISH * genomic hybridization * laser microdissection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  9. Autism risk assessment in siblings of affected children using sex-specific genetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carayol Jerome

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inheritance pattern in most cases of autism is complex. The risk of autism is increased in siblings of children with autism and previous studies have indicated that the level of risk can be further identified by the accumulation of multiple susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs allowing for the identification of a higher-risk subgroup among siblings. As a result of the sex difference in the prevalence of autism, we explored the potential for identifying sex-specific autism susceptibility SNPs in siblings of children with autism and the ability to develop a sex-specific risk assessment genetic scoring system. Methods SNPs were chosen from genes known to be associated with autism. These markers were evaluated using an exploratory sample of 480 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE repository. A reproducibility index (RI was proposed and calculated in all children with autism and in males and females separately. Differing genetic scoring models were then constructed to develop a sex-specific genetic score model designed to identify individuals with a higher risk of autism. The ability of the genetic scores to identify high-risk children was then evaluated and replicated in an independent sample of 351 affected and 90 unaffected siblings from families with at least 1 child with autism. Results We identified three risk SNPs that had a high RI in males, two SNPs with a high RI in females, and three SNPs with a high RI in both sexes. Using these results, genetic scoring models for males and females were developed which demonstrated a significant association with autism (P = 2.2 × 10-6 and 1.9 × 10-5, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that individual susceptibility associated SNPs for autism may have important differential sex effects. We also show that a sex-specific risk score based on the presence of multiple susceptibility associated SNPs allow for the identification of

  10. Sex chromosome system in Lepidoptera and its potential for genetic sexing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František

    Vídeň : International Atomic Energy Agency, 2003, s. 75-86. [First Research Co-ordination Meeting within the FAO /IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme held in Kelowna.. Brithish Columbia (CA), 19.08.2002-23.08.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Grant ostatní: International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/RO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Bombyx mori Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Geographic, genetic and life-history variability in a sex-changing fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Benvenuto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequential hermaphroditism, commonly referred to as sex change or sex reversal, is a striking phenomenon in mating-system evolution and the most remarkable example of sexual plasticity. Among vertebrates, it is specific to teleosts. Some fish species reproduce initially as females and then change into males (protogynous hermaphrodites or vice versa (protandrous hermaphrodites. The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus, exhibits a high degree of sexual plasticity: populations have been reported to be gonochoristic, protandrous or digynic (with primary females, derived from intersexual juveniles, and secondary females, derived from males. We analysed populations collected from eight different locations across the species distribution range (between the Mediterranean and the North-Eastern Atlantic. These populations are characterized by different degrees of connectivity, spatial demographics and life histories. Using individual-based analyses, we linked the genetic structure of each specimen with environmental heterogeneity, life-history traits and reproductive modes. Our aim is to gather a better understanding of the variation in reproductive life-history strategies in this sexually plastic species. Diplodus sargus is a valuable candidate organism to investigate sequential hermaphroditism and it also has a commercial value. The application of population genetics tools against the background of life-history theory can bring valuable insights for the management of marine resources. The geographical patterns of sex change (and of age- and size-at-sex change linked with population genetics can be pivotal for both theoretical investigations and conservation and management plans in marine areas.

  12. Dosage Effects of Fadrozole on Growth and Development of Sex-Reversed Genetic Female Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-rong; JIANG He-sheng; ZHENG Jiang-xia; QU Lu-jiang; CHEN Si-rui; LI Jun-ying; XU Gui-yun; YANG Ning

    2013-01-01

    Fadrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, can masculinize genetic female chickens and high-dose decreases the hatchability. Therefore, it is important to study the growth and development of sex-reversed females after hatch. Chick embryos from a population of CAU3 egg-type were treated with different concentrations of Fadrozole prior to the sexual differentiation at E3.0 (st18). At hatch, the phenotypic sex and genetic sex were identified by vent sexing and genetic diagnosis with CHD1, respectively. Body weight and shank length of sex reversal were tested at 8 and 20 wk, respectively. Testicular development, oviduct and ovarian degeneration were observed and serum concentration of estradiol and testosterone were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) at 30 wk. The results showed that body weight and shank length of sex-reversed females were not significantly different between low-dose groups (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg for F1, F2, and F3, respectively) and high-dose groups (1.0 and 1.3 mg for F4 and F5, respectively) (P>0.05). Left and right testes or ovotestes in F2, F3, F4, and F5 groups were heavier than that of in F1 group (P<0.05). While the gonad weight of treatment groups were less than that in male control (P<0.05), oviduct weight in F2, F3, F4, and F5 groups were significant differences compared with female control and F1 group (P<0.05). Egg number from onset of laying egg to 30 wk in F4 and F5 groups were less than in female control, F1 and F2 groups (P<0.05). Serum testosterone level in F5 group was significant higher compared with female control, F1, F2, F3, and F4 groups (P<0.05), but significant lower compared with male control (P<0.05). While concentration of serum estradiol in F5 group was significant lower compared with female control, F1, F2, and F4 groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, the concentration of Fadrozole do not affect postnatal growth of sex-reversed female chicken and the degree of sex-reversed females elevate with the increase of Fadrozole concentration at

  13. EFFECT OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON SEX RATIO IN CROSSBRED PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naskar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was initiated with an idea to investigate few genetic and environmental factors that affect sex ratio of Khasi local and their different crossbreds with Hampshire pigs. Individual data were collected of pure Khasi local and its crossbred with 50, 75 and 87.5 % Hampshire inheritance in different seasons like rainy (July to October, summer (March-June and winter (Nov- Feb. The sex ratio for Khasi local crossbred with 50, 75 and 87.5 % Hampshire inheritance was 1.21 ± 0.16, 1.32 ± 0.16, 1.48 ± 0.16 an 1.32 ± 0.16 respectively with an overall mean sex ratio 1.38 ± 0.16, whereas, the sex ratio for spring, rainy and winter season was 1.31 ± 0.17, 1.29 ± 0.16 and 1.32 ± 0.15, respectively. Similarly, the sex ratio for larger litters and smaller litters was 1.40 ± 0.13 and 1.45 ± 0.13 respectively. This study concludes that crossbreds at different levels of inheritance, season and litter size had no effect on sex ratio.

  14. A computational model for sex-specific genetic architecture of complex traits in humans: Implications for mapping pain sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staud Roland

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits between the two sexes has significant implications for evolutionary studies and clinical diagnosis. However, our knowledge about sex-specific genetic architecture is limited largely because of a lack of analytical models that can detect and quantify the effects of sex on the complexity of quantitative genetic variation. Here, we derived a statistical model for mapping DNA sequence variants that contribute to sex-specific differences in allele frequencies, linkage disequilibria, and additive and dominance genetic effects due to haplotype diversity. This model allows a genome-wide search for functional haplotypes and the estimation and test of haplotype by sex interactions and sex-specific heritability. The model, validated by simulation studies, was used to detect sex-specific functional haplotypes that encode a pain sensitivity trait in humans. The model could have important implications for mapping complex trait genes and studying the detailed genetic architecture of sex-specific differences.

  15. Consultants Group Meeting on Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics of Screwworms. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Thematic Plan on SIT for Screwworms developed in 1999 by IPC and TC identified certain R and D bottlenecks to the expansion of this technology into new agricultural areas. This consultant's meeting was held to review these conclusions and to advise the Agency on the need, or otherwise, of initiating a CRP to address the bottlenecks identified in the Thematic Plan. In 2001 it is expected that the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, will have been eradicated from all of Central America, including Panama where a sterile release barrier will be established to prevent re-invasion from South America. This barrier will need to be maintained indefinitely with its associated costs. The use of an all-male strain in the production facility would have very positive impact on the cost/benefit analysis of the programme. The Director of the Screwworm Programme in Central America made this point very strongly during the Thematic Plan discussions and at a subsequent technical meeting in Tuxtla Gutierrez. Interest to expand the programme into South America is now being shown by certain countries in the region where the economic feasibility of implementing an SIT programme might depend on producing sterile flies more economically and here again the use of a genetic sexing strain could play an important role. For the Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana the Australian authorities have just completed a successful small field trial of the SIT in Malaysia and it is proposed that more extensive field tests be carried out in the region. For both the New World Screwworm in South America and the Old World Screwworm, in Asia there is virtually no information regarding the population structure in relation to the implementation of an SIT programme. Is the Old World Screwworm a single species over its very wide distribution and are the populations of New World Screwworm in South America the same as in Central America and related to each other? Are the populations isolated? These

  16. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  17. Influence of protein on feeding behavior of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae): comparison between immature males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to compare the influence of dietary protein on performance and feeding behavior of immature males and females of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The protein source was beer yeast at 6.5 and 1.5 g.100 ml-1. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of emergence, total life cycle, adult size, diet consumption, feeding preference and discrimination threshold for yeast. Immature adults showed similar protein requirements regardless of sex. Both males and females showed similar feeding behavior, preferring to feed on the diet with higher protein content. The discrimination threshold for levedure in both sexes was 0.4 g.100 ml-1. We concluded that immature males of C. capitata show similar protein requirements as the immature females. (author)

  18. Development and application of genetic sexing systems for the Mediterranean fruit fly based on a temperature sensitive lethal mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status in genetic sexing for the Mediterranean fruit fly is discussed. This includes the selection of the appropriate sexing gene (which determines the feasibility and practical applicability of the sexing system) as well as the selection of the appropriate Y-autosome translocation (which determines the stability of the sexing system). A temperature sensitive lethal mutation is used to eliminate females during the egg stage. This mutation in combination with new Y-autosome translocations allowed the construction of a genetic sexing strain, named VIENNA-42, that is stable enough for large scale mass rearing. Also described are the analysis of this strain under field cage and field conditions and, in preparation for large scale tests in Guatemala, the outcrossing of VIENNA-42 with genetic material from the target area. (author)

  19. A CRISPR-Cas9 sex-ratio distortion system for genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizi, Roberto; Hammond, Andrew; Kyrou, Kyros; Taxiarchi, Chrysanthi; Bernardini, Federica; O'Loughlin, Samantha M; Papathanos, Philippos-Aris; Nolan, Tony; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Genetic control aims to reduce the ability of insect pest populations to cause harm via the release of modified insects. One strategy is to bias the reproductive sex ratio towards males so that a population decreases in size or is eliminated altogether due to a lack of females. We have shown previously that sex ratio distortion can be generated synthetically in the main human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, by selectively destroying the X-chromosome during spermatogenesis, through the activity of a naturally-occurring endonuclease that targets a repetitive rDNA sequence highly-conserved in a wide range of organisms. Here we describe a CRISPR-Cas9 sex distortion system that targets ribosomal sequences restricted to the member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Expression of Cas9 during spermatogenesis resulted in RNA-guided shredding of the X-chromosome during male meiosis and produced extreme male bias among progeny in the absence of any significant reduction in fertility. The flexibility of CRISPR-Cas9 combined with the availability of genomic data for a range of insects renders this strategy broadly applicable for the species-specific control of any pest or vector species with an XY sex-determination system by targeting sequences exclusive to the female sex chromosome. PMID:27484623

  20. A CRISPR-Cas9 sex-ratio distortion system for genetic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizi, Roberto; Hammond, Andrew; Kyrou, Kyros; Taxiarchi, Chrysanthi; Bernardini, Federica; O’Loughlin, Samantha M.; Papathanos, Philippos-Aris; Nolan, Tony; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Genetic control aims to reduce the ability of insect pest populations to cause harm via the release of modified insects. One strategy is to bias the reproductive sex ratio towards males so that a population decreases in size or is eliminated altogether due to a lack of females. We have shown previously that sex ratio distortion can be generated synthetically in the main human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, by selectively destroying the X-chromosome during spermatogenesis, through the activity of a naturally-occurring endonuclease that targets a repetitive rDNA sequence highly-conserved in a wide range of organisms. Here we describe a CRISPR-Cas9 sex distortion system that targets ribosomal sequences restricted to the member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Expression of Cas9 during spermatogenesis resulted in RNA-guided shredding of the X-chromosome during male meiosis and produced extreme male bias among progeny in the absence of any significant reduction in fertility. The flexibility of CRISPR-Cas9 combined with the availability of genomic data for a range of insects renders this strategy broadly applicable for the species-specific control of any pest or vector species with an XY sex-determination system by targeting sequences exclusive to the female sex chromosome. PMID:27484623

  1. High-density interspecific genetic maps of kiwifruit and the identification of sex-specific markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Yifei; VanBuren, Robert; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhong, Caihong; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-10-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon) is an important specialty fruit crop that suffers from narrow genetic diversity stemming from recent global commercialization and limited cultivar improvement. Here, we present high-density RAD-seq-based genetic maps using an interspecific F1 cross between Actinidia rufa 'MT570001' and A. chinensis 'Guihai No4'. The A. rufa (maternal) map consists of 2,426 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with a total length of 2,651 cM in 29 linkage groups (LGs) corresponding to the 29 chromosomes. The A. chinensis (paternal) map consists of 4,214 SNP markers over 3,142 cM in 29 LGs. Using these maps, we were able to anchor an additional 440 scaffolds from the kiwifruit draft genome assembly. Kiwifruit is functionally dioecious, which presents unique challenges for breeding and production. Three sex-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers can be used to accurately sex type male and female kiwifruit in breeding programmes. The sex-determination region (SDR) in kiwifruit was narrowed to a 1-Mb subtelomeric region on chromosome 25. Localizing the SDR will expedite the discovery of genes controlling carpel abortion in males and pollen sterility in females. PMID:26370666

  2. A Genetic Method for Sex Identification of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Using the ZFX and ZFY Genes

    OpenAIRE

    OKUYAMA, Minami W.; Shimozuru, Michito; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A genetic method for sex determination in raccoons was developed based on nucleotide differences of the zinc finger protein genes ZFX and ZFY. Four novel internal primers specific for ZFX or ZFY were designed. PCR amplification using two primer sets followed by agarose gel electrophoresis enabled sex determination. 141-bp and 447-bp bands were in both sex, and 346-bp band was specific only in male with primer set I. 345-bp and 447-bp bands were in both sex, and 141-bp band was specif...

  3. Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana reveals earliest form of sex chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) from hermaphroditism is one of the major evolutionary transitions in plants and this transition can be accompanied by the development of sex chromosomes. However, we are now just beginning to gain insight into the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution vi...

  4. Interspecific sex in grass smuts and the genetic diversity of their pheromone-receptor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR system and heterodimerising transcription factors. Both operate in a biphasic mating process that starts with PR-triggered recognition, directed growth of conjugation hyphae, and plasmogamy of compatible mating partners. So far, studies on the PR system of grass smuts revealed diverse interspecific compatibility and mating type determination. However, many questions concerning the specificity and evolutionary origin of the PR system remain unanswered. Combining comparative genetics and biological approaches, we report on the specificity of the PR system and its genetic diversity in 10 species spanning about 100 million years of mating type evolution. We show that three highly syntenic PR alleles are prevalent among members of the Ustilaginaceae, favouring a triallelic determination as the plesiomorphic characteristic of this group. Furthermore, the analysis of PR loci revealed increased genetic diversity of single PR locus genes compared to genes of flanking regions. Performing interspecies sex tests, we detected a high potential for hybridisation that is directly linked to pheromone signalling as known from intraspecies sex. Although the PR system seems to be optimised for intraspecific compatibility, the observed functional plasticity of the PR system increases the potential for interspecific sex, which might allow the hybrid-based genesis of newly combined host specificities.

  5. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within sex, we recommend that SNP assays be developed to allow for rapid, cost-effective, and accurate sex identification.

  6. Population genetic evidence for sex-specific dispersal in an inbred social spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah R; Su, Yong-Chao; Berger-Tal, Reut; Lubin, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Dispersal in most group-living species ensures gene flow among groups, but in cooperative social spiders, juvenile dispersal is suppressed and colonies are highly inbred. It has been suggested that such inbred sociality is advantageous in the short term, but likely to lead to extinction or reduced speciation rates in the long run. In this situation, very low levels of dispersal and gene flow among colonies may have unusually important impacts on fitness and persistence of social spiders. We investigated sex-specific differences in dispersal and gene flow among colonies, as reflected in the genetic structure within colonies and populations of the African social spider Stegodyphus dumicola Pocock, 1898 (Eresidae). We used DNA fingerprinting and mtDNA sequence data along with spatial mapping of colonies to compare male and female patterns of relatedness within and among colonies at three study sites. Samples were collected during and shortly after the mating season to detect sex-specific dispersal. Distribution of mtDNA haplotypes was consistent with proliferation of social nests by budding and medium- to long-distance dispersal by ballooning females. Analysis of molecular variance and spatial autocorrelation analyses of AFLPs showed high levels of genetic similarity within colonies, and STRUCTURE analyses revealed that the number of source populations contributing to colonies ranged from one to three. We also showed significant evidence of male dispersal among colonies at one site. These results support the hypothesis that in social spiders, genetic cohesion among populations is maintained by long-distance dispersal of female colony founders. Genetic diversity within colonies is maintained by colony initiation by multiple dispersing females, and adult male dispersal over short distances. Male dispersal may be particularly important in maintaining gene flow among colonies in local populations. PMID:27551398

  7. The role of genetic sex in affect regulation and expression of GABA-related genes across species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eSeney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to investigate sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N = 51 MDD subjects, 50 controls, we show that the previously-reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST, a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N = 214; 2 frontal cortex regions and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N = 170 subjects, we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67 and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model (Four Core Genotypes (FCG mice, in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N ≥ 12/group, we show that genetic sex (i.e. X/Y chromosome influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice. This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males < gonadal females. Collectively, these combined human and mouse studies provide mechanistic insight into sexual dimorphism in mood disorders, and specifically demonstrate an unexpected role for XY genetic sex on GABA-related genes and anxiety

  8. Mitochondrial DNA paradox: sex-specific genetic structure in a marine mussel – despite maternal inheritance and passive dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teske Peter R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When genetic structure is identified using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, but no structure is identified using biparentally-inherited nuclear DNA, the discordance is often attributed to differences in dispersal potential between the sexes. Results We sampled the intertidal rocky shore mussel Perna perna in a South African bay and along the nearby open coast, and sequenced maternally-inherited mtDNA (there is no evidence for paternally-inherited mtDNA in this species and a biparentally-inherited marker. By treating males and females as different populations, we identified significant genetic structure on the basis of mtDNA data in the females only. Conclusions This is the first study to report sex-specific differences in genetic structure based on matrilineally-inherited mtDNA in a passively dispersing species that lacks social structure or sexual dimorphism. The observed pattern most likely stems from females being more vulnerable to selection in habitats from which they did not originate, which also manifests itself in a male-biased sex ratio. Our results have three important implications for the interpretation of population genetic data. First, even when mtDNA is inherited exclusively in the female line, it also contains information about males. For that reason, using it to identify sex-specific differences in genetic structure by contrasting it with biparentally-inherited markers is problematic. Second, the fact that sex-specific differences were found in a passively dispersing species in which sex-biased dispersal is unlikely highlights the fact that significant genetic structure is not necessarily a function of low dispersal potential or physical barriers. Third, even though mtDNA is typically used to study historical demographic processes, it also contains information about contemporary processes. Higher survival rates of males in non-native habitats can erase the genetic structure present in their mothers within a single

  9. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Francesca; Ludvik M Gomulski; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Anna R Malacrida

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unra...

  10. A genetic method for sex identification of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with using the ZFX and ZFY genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Minami W; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    A genetic method for sex determination in raccoons was developed based on nucleotide differences of the zinc finger protein genes ZFX and ZFY. Four novel internal primers specific for ZFX or ZFY were designed. PCR amplification using two primer sets followed by agarose gel electrophoresis enabled sex determination. 141-bp and 447-bp bands were in both sex, and 346-bp band was specific only in male with primer set I. 345-bp and 447-bp bands were in both sex, and 141-bp band was specific only in male with primer set II, which could distinguish raccoon's electrophoresis pattern from three native carnivores in Hokkaido. This method will be useful for conservation genetics studies or biological analyses of raccoons. PMID:24451927

  11. Sex differences in the genetic architecture of lifespan in a seed beetle: extreme inbreeding extends male lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Maklakov, Alexei A.; Meisner, Katrine;

    2009-01-01

    Background Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA) have been proposed, but these ideas have...... rarely been tested experimentally. Alternatively, sexual dimorphism in lifespan could result from sex-specific selection, caused by fundamental differences in how males and females optimize their fitness by allocating resources into current and future reproduction. Results Here we used sex......-specific responses to inbreeding to study the genetic architecture of lifespan and mortality rates in Callosobruchus maculatus, a seed beetle that shows sexual dimorphism in lifespan. Two independent assays revealed opposing sex-specific responses to inbreeding. The combined data set showed that inbred males live...

  12. High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Jean K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.

  13. Sex-differential genetic effect of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D on carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yuh-Cherng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D gene was reported as a susceptibility gene to stroke. The genetic effect might be attributed to its role in modulating the atherogenic process in the carotid arteries. Using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT and plaque index as phenotypes, the present study sought to determine the influence of this gene on subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Carotid ultrasonography was performed on 1013 stroke-free subjects who participated in the health screening programs (age 52.6 ± 12.2; 47.6% men. Genotype distribution was compared among the high-risk (plaque index ≥ 4, low-risk (index = 1-3, and reference (index = 0 groups. We analyzed continuous IMT data and further dichotomized IMT data using mean plus one standard deviation as the cutoff level. Because the plaque prevalence and IMT values displayed a notable difference between men and women, we carried out sex-specific analyses in addition to analyzing the overall data. Rs702553 at the PDE4D gene was selected because it conferred a risk for young stroke in our previous report. Previous young stroke data (190 cases and 211 controls with an additional 532 control subjects without ultrasonic data were shown as a cross-validation for the genetic effect. Results In the overall analyses, the rare homozygote of rs702553 led to an OR of 3.1 (p = 0.034 for a plaque index ≥ 4. When subjects were stratified by sex, the genetic effect was only evident in men but not in women. Comparing male subjects with plaque index ≥ 4 and those with plaque index = 0, the TT genotype was over-represented (27.6% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.008. For dichotomized IMT data in men, the TT genotype had an OR of 2.1 (p = 0.032 for a thicker IMT at the common carotid artery compared with the (AA + AT genotypes. In women, neither IMT nor plaque index was associated with rs702553. Similarly, SNP rs702553 was only significant in young stroke men (OR = 1.8, p = 0.025 but not in women (p = 0

  14. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) and Improvement of The Sterile-Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon: the release of male only, ability of sterilized males to compete with wild males in mating with wild females and discrimination of released male flies from the wild population. The effect of gamma irradiation doses on the male sterility was evaluated, to determine the level of induced sterility for achieving the balance between sterility and mating competitiveness. For optimal sterilizing dose, 8 different doses of gamma irradiation were tested. The results revealed that the doses 80, 90 and 100 Gy were the effective doses for SIT. In a field cage experiment, the mating ability, mating competitiveness and sexual compatibility were determined for the three effective sterilizing doses. The indices of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterile index (RSI) indicated that mating efficiency of the dose 80 Gy was better than the doses 90 and 100 Gy. Obtained results also revealed that the competitiveness of 80 Gy irradiated males was higher than either 90 or 100 Gy irradiated males. Mutant strains, i.e. white eye white pupae strain (WeWp strain), male linked translocated strain (T strain), temperature sensitive lethal strain (tsl strain) and sergeant 2 strain (Sr2 strain) were reared and maintained for the construction of genetic sexing strain Vienna 8- Sr2 strain (GSS V8-Sr2). The results of biological characters of GSSs revealed that, the 3 sexing strains (T, Sr2 and V8 strains) which have Y- auto some translocation were less productive than the bisexual strain (BSS). Also, the development of tsl and GSS V 8-Sr2 strains was delayed compared with the BSS strain. The stability of GSS V8-Sr2 strain in the filter rearing was higher than in the mass rearing throughout 12 successive generations. The use of recombinant DNA to develop the two genetically modified strains GMSs (V8-2) and (V8-4) using insect transformation offers

  15. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    OpenAIRE

    Isasawin,Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has...

  16. Genetic and Environmental Influence on Language Impairment in 4-Year-Old Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Spinath, Frank M.; Price, Thomas S.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: We investigated the aetiology of language impairment in 579 four-year-old twins with low language performance and their co-twins, members of 160 MZ twin pairs, 131 same-sex DZ pairs and 102 opposite-sex DZ pairs. Methods: Language impairment in 4-year-olds was defined by scores below the 15th percentile on a general factor derived from…

  17. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  18. Selection for resistance in the Mediterranean fruit fly for genetic sexing in sterile insect technique programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of 'genetic sexing' strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) is essential for economical and efficient mass rearing and proper execution of a sterile insect technique programme. The paper describes attempts to construct such strains via selection for resistance to three chemical agents: potassium-sorbate, Avermectin and Cyromazine. Dose mortality response studies, as well as the selection process, are described. With all three chemical agents, 'resistant' strains have been developed. The mode of inheritance of potassium-sorbate has been analysed, and it seems to depend on multiple and non-linked loci. The selection for resistance to Avermectin was discontinued owing to inconsistent results, although increased immunity was observed. Resistance to Cyromazine was also observed (five times) and it seems that it is regulated by a single recessive gene. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Non-invasive genetic sampling for molecular sexing and microsatellite genotyping of hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Flavia T.; Meyer, Janaína; Antas, Paulo T.Z.; Guedes, Neiva M.R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.

    2013-01-01

    Molted feather sampling is a useful tool for genetic analyses of endangered species, but it is often very laborious due to the low quality and quantity of the DNA obtained. In the present study we show the parts of feathers that resulted in better yield of DNA. In descending order these were: blood clot outside the umbilicus, umbilicus (without blood clot), tip, inner membrane, and small calamus. Compared to DNA extracted from blood samples, DNA extracted from feathers produced microsatellite alleles of poorer quality and had to be processed immediately after extraction. As expected due to the level of DNA degradation, molecular sexing protocols that result in shorter PCR products were more efficient. PMID:23569419

  20. Towards mosquito sterile insect technique programmes: Exploring genetic, molecular, mechanical and behavioural methods of sex separation in mosquitoes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilles, J. R. L.; Schetelig, M. F.; Scolari, F.; Marec, František; Capurro, M.L.; Franz, G.; Bourtzis, K.

    132S, č. 1 (2014), S178-S187. ISSN 0001-706X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Grant ostatní: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschalft(DE) SCHE 1833/1 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : female elimination * vector control * genetic sex ing strains (GSS) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.270, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001706X13002209?via=ihub

  1. The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in sex selection for family balancing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpani, A; Malpani, A; Modi, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in sexing embryos for family balancing in a private IVF clinic in India from April 1999 to April 2001. Embryos were biopsied and analysed on day 3, cultured in sequential media and then transferred on day 4 or day 5 after morphological selection of the best embryos. From a total of 42 cycles started, 14 clinical pregnancies and nine live births have been achieved so far, with five ongoing pregnancies. The benefits of delayed transfer 24-48 h after the embryo biopsy are that PGD centres could use the extra time available to confirm the diagnosis or introduce additional diagnostic tests for the same embryo. The selection of blastocysts for transfer should also permit the transfer of fewer embryos, thus reducing the risk of multiple gestations and increasing the pregnancy rate as a consequence of the expected higher implantation rate. This is the first report of the use of PGD in sex selection for family balancing in India, where couples place a premium on having baby boys, and the social and ethical aspects of the use of this technology in this setting are briefly discussed. PMID:12470347

  2. Genetic, geographic, and linguistic variation among South American Indians: possible sex influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, S L; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Salzano, F M

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between genetic variability, geographical distance, and linguistic affiliation in South Amerinds, and to elucidate whether the migration rate is the same for both sexes, spatial autocorrelation, Mantel's test, and F(ST) analyses were performed in four sets of populations and alleles (group 1: 48 populations, 12 alleles; group 2: 16 (all belonging to the Tupi linguistic group) and 12; group 3: 21 and 17; and group 4: 28 and 4 haplotypes). Groups 1-3 included blood group and protein (i.e., serum protein, red cell enzymes, and immunoglobulin systems), while group 4 was concerned with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) only. The latter set was also subjected to a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) evaluation. The frequencies of statistically significant correlograms were lower than those obtained in other populations when the blood groups and protein systems were considered, but 3 of the 4 mtDNA haplogroups gave suggestions of population structure. The variability in this organelle is also significantly correlated with language when geography is held constant. Migration per generation is generally low, but higher estimates were obtained for females. The AMOVA results suggest that populations whose members speak the same language are genetically homogeneous and may be viewed as the ultimate evolutionary unit at this level of analysis. PMID:11748563

  3. The autosomal genetic control of sexually dimorphic traits in humans is largely the same across the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Irfahan; McRae, Allan F

    2016-01-01

    There are substantial phenotypic differences between the male and female human. Several complex traits have recently been tested to see whether these phenotypic differences are explained by differences in genetic control between males and females. While some differences in genetic control between males and females are detected, overall the results demonstrate that the genetic control of complex traits in humans is largely the same across the sexes.Please see related Research article: http://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-1025-x. PMID:27496044

  4. Genetic Variation for Sex Ratio Traits within a Natural Population of a Parasitic Wasp, Nasonia Vitripennis

    OpenAIRE

    Orzack, S.; Parker, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    By analyzing isofemale strains extracted from a natural population of Nasonia vitripennis, we detected variation for the sex ratios produced in fresh hosts (first sex ratios) and in previously parasitized hosts (second sex ratios). Under simple assumptions of population structure, this between-strain heterogeneity of first sex ratios results in heterogeneity of fitnesses. There is approximately ten percent difference in average fitnesses between the strains. (The fitnesses of second sex ratio...

  5. Variation, sex, and social cooperation: molecular population genetics of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Flowers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic microbial model system for multicellular development, cell-cell signaling, and social behavior. Key models of social evolution require an understanding of genetic relationships between individuals across the genome or possibly at specific genes, but the nature of variation within D. discoideum is largely unknown. We re-sequenced 137 gene fragments in wild North American strains of D. discoideum and examined the levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in this social microbial species. We observe surprisingly low levels of nucleotide variation in D. discoideum across these strains, with a mean nucleotide diversity (pi of 0.08%, and no strong population stratification among North American strains. We also do not find any clear relationship between nucleotide divergence between strains and levels of social dominance and kin discrimination. Kin discrimination experiments, however, show that strains collected from the same location show greater ability to distinguish self from non-self than do strains from different geographic areas. This suggests that a greater ability to recognize self versus non-self may arise among strains that are more likely to encounter each other in nature, which would lead to preferential formation of fruiting bodies with clonemates and may prevent the evolution of cheating behaviors within D. discoideum populations. Finally, despite the fact that sex has rarely been observed in this species, we document a rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, the presence of recombinant genotypes among natural strains, and high estimates of the population recombination parameter rho. The SNP data indicate that recombination is widespread within D. discoideum and that sex as a form of social interaction is likely to be an important aspect of the life cycle.

  6. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altogether 27 morphological mutations on the five autosomes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), have been isolated and studied in the author's laboratory during 22 years of research on the genetics of this species. Of the 27 loci, 18 were located on chromosomes 4 and 5. No mutant loci were identified on the sex chromosome in the laboratory. Linkage relations, map distances and linear arrangements on the respective chromosomes were established for most of the 27 mutant traits. The wp and dp traits were utilized in the construction of genetic sexing lines in laboratories involved in studies of the sterile insect technique. The occurrence and consequences of male recombination are discussed. (author)

  7. Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Different Types of Natural Populations in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. and the Relationships with Sex Ratio, Population Structure, and Geographic Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoqing; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour., an evergreen small tree, has the rare sexual system of androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites), once with wide-spread natural distribution in the areas of the South Yangzi river basin. However, due to excessive human utilization, natural distribution became fragmented and the number and size of natural populations reduced sharply. With four different types of natural populations from the same region as research object, we aim to provide a comparative analysis on the relationships among genetic diversity, sexual system, population structure and size, and geographic isolation by ISSR. In genetic parameters of Ne, He, and I, the LQGC population had the highest value and the LQZGQ population had the lowest value. These indicated that LQGC population showed the highest genetic diversity, followed by QDH and JN population, and LQZGQ population exhibited the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic diversity in populations is closely related to population structure, reproduction mode, and sex ratio. However, there seems to be no obvious correlation between genetic diversity and population size. The results of AMOVA showed that genetic variations mostly occurred within populations. It indicates that no significant genetic differentiation among populations occurs, and geographic isolation has no significant effect on genetic diversity. PMID:25436228

  8. Genetic Interactions with Sex Make a Relatively Small Contribution to the Heritability of Complex Traits in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Krohn; Doug Speed; Rupert Palme; Chadi Touma; Richard Mott; Jonathan Flint

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which sex-specific genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation is largely unknown. We applied a novel Bayesian method, sparse partitioning, to detect gene by sex (GxS) and gene by gene (GxG) quantitative loci (QTLs) in 1,900 outbred heterogeneous stock mice. In an analysis of 55 phenotypes, we detected 16 GxS and 6 GxG QTLs. The increase in the amount of phenotypic variance explained by models including GxS was small, ranging from 0.14% to 4.30%. We conclude that GxS rare...

  9. Fine-scale genetic structure reflects sex-specific dispersal strategies in a population of sociable weavers (Philetairus socius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, René E; Covas, Rita; Doutrelant, Claire; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2015-08-01

    Dispersal is a critical driver of gene flow, with important consequences for population genetic structure, social interactions and other biological processes. Limited dispersal may result in kin-structured populations in which kin selection may operate, but it may also increase the risk of kin competition and inbreeding. Here, we use a combination of long-term field data and molecular genetics to examine dispersal patterns and their consequences for the population genetics of a highly social bird, the sociable weaver (Philetairus socius), which exhibits cooperation at various levels of sociality from nuclear family groups to its unique communal nests. Using 20 years of data, involving capture of 6508 birds and 3151 recaptures at 48 colonies, we found that both sexes exhibit philopatry and that any dispersal occurs over relatively short distances. Dispersal is female-biased, with females dispersing earlier, further, and to less closely related destination colonies than males. Genotyping data from 30 colonies showed that this pattern of dispersal is reflected by fine-scale genetic structure for both sexes, revealed by isolation by distance in terms of genetic relatedness and significant genetic variance among colonies. Both relationships were stronger among males than females. Crucially, significant relatedness extended beyond the level of the colony for both sexes. Such fine-scale population genetic structure may have played an important role in the evolution of cooperative behaviour in this species, but it may also result in a significant inbreeding risk, against which female-biased dispersal alone is unlikely to be an effective strategy. PMID:26172866

  10. Hermes-mediated germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Stamenova, A; Pinkerton, A C; Franz, G; Robinson, A S; Gariou-Papalexiou, A; Zacharopoulou, A; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2001-04-01

    We report the use of the Hermes transposable element for germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Hermes was able to genetically transform this insect at an estimated frequency between 0.6 and 1.1%, which is comparable to the transformation frequencies obtained for this species when using other transposable elements. Hermes integrates into the medfly genome by a cut-and-paste mechanism and the sequences integrated into the genome are delimited by the terminal nucleotides of the Hermes inverted terminal repeats. Integration resulted in the generation of 8 bp target site duplications, the sequences of which conformed to the target site duplications generated by hAT element transposition in insects. The Hermes element is one additional genetic tool that can be deployed in manipulating and characterizing the medfly genome. PMID:11422511

  11. Some chemical elements in gamma irradiated adults of the mediterranean fruit fly , Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis of the elemental compositions of both males and females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), was conducted on adult flies irradiated in the full grown pupae with 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gray at different ages (newly emerged, 7 and 15 days old). The data revealed the presence of ten elements, three of which are major (Na, K and N), four are moderate (P, Ca, Fe and Mg) and three are minors (Zn, Mn and Cu). Their quantities, however, varied according to adult sex, age and radiation dose. In all cases, the major elements remained major, the moderate elements remained moderate and the minor elements remained minor although the elements of each group differed in their arrangement according to changes in their quantities

  12. Sex impact on the quality of fatty liver and its genetic determinism in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Etancelin, C; Retailleau, B; Alinier, A; Vitezica, Z G

    2015-09-01

    Recent changes to French regulations now allow farmers to produce "foie gras" from both male and female mule ducks. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of female fatty liver and to compare, from a phenotypic and genetic point of view, liver quality in males and females. A total of 914 mule ducks (591 males and 323 females), hatched in a single pedigree batch, were reared until 86 d of age and then force-fed for 12 d, before being slaughtered. Carcasses and livers were weighed and liver quality was assessed by grading the extent of liver veining and measuring the liver melting rate, either after sterilization of 60 g of liver or pasteurization of 180 g of liver. Sexual dimorphism was observed in favor of males, with a difference of approximately 10% in carcass and liver weights and up to 54% for the liver melting rate. Moreover, one-third of female livers showed moderate to high veining, whereas this was not the case for male livers. The fatty livers of female mule ducks are, therefore, of poorer quality and could not be transformed into a product with the appellation "100% fatty liver." According to sex and parental line, heritability values ranged from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.07 for fatty liver weight and from 0.09 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.05 for the 2 melting rate traits. The genetic correlations between the fatty liver weight and both melting rates were high (greater than +0.80) in the Muscovy population, whereas in the Pekin population, the liver weight and melting rates were less strongly correlated (estimates ranging from +0.36 ± 0.30 to +0.45 ± 0.28). Selection for lower liver melting rates without reducing the liver weight would, therefore, be easier to achieve in the Pekin population. Finally, as the 2 melting rate measurements are highly correlated (0.91 and over 0.95 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively), we suggest using the easiest method, that is, sterilization of 60 g of liver. PMID:26440324

  13. Genetics of sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leo W. Beukeboom; Louis Van De Zande

    2010-09-01

    The parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy; males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex determination in Nasonia is not governed by complementary alleles at one or more sex loci. As in most other insects, the sex-determining pathway consists of the basal switch doublesex that is sex-specifically regulated by transformer. Analysis of a polyploid and a mutant gynandromorphic strain, suggested a parent-specific effect (imprinting) on sex determination in Nasonia. Zygotic activity of transformer is autoregulated and depends on a combination of maternal provision of tra mRNA and a paternal genome set. This constitutes a novel way of transformer control in insect sex determination implying maternal imprinting. The nature of the maternal imprint is not yet known and it remains to be determined how broadly the Nasonia sex-determining mechanism applies to other haplodiploids.

  14. Genetic variation in nuclear and mitochondrial markers supports a large sex difference in lifetime reproductive skew in a lekking species

    OpenAIRE

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Juillet, Cedric; Lank, David B.; Widemo, Fredrik; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in skews of vertebrate lifetime reproductive success are difficult to measure directly. Evolutionary histories of differential skew should be detectable in the genome. For example, male-biased skew should reduce variation in the biparentally inherited genome relative to the maternally inherited genome. We tested this approach in lek-breeding ruff (Class Aves, Philomachus pugnax) by comparing genetic variation of nuclear microsatellites (θn; biparental) versus mitochondrial D-l...

  15. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Langenberg, Claudia;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiologi...... with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.......Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions...... of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We...

  16. Media debates and 'ethical publicity' on social sex selection through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) technology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discourse analysis of media debate over social sex selection in the Australian media from 2008 to 2014. This period coincides with a review of the National Health and Medical Research Council's Ethical Guidelines on the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research (2007), which underlie the regulation of assisted reproductive clinics and practice in Australia. I examine the discussion of the ethics of pre-implatation genetic diagnosis (PGD) within the media as 'ethical publicity' to the lay public. Sex selection through PGD is both exemplary of and interconnected with a range of debates in Australia about the legitimacy of certain reproductive choices and the extent to which procreative liberties should be restricted. Major themes emerging from media reports on PGD sex selection in Australia are described. These include: the spectre of science out of control; ramifications for the contestation over the public funding of abortion in Australia; private choices versus public authorities regulating reproduction; and the ethics of travelling overseas for the technology. It is concluded that within Australia, the issue of PGD sex selection is framed in terms of questions of individual freedom against the principle of sex discrimination - a principle enshrined in legislation - and a commitment to publically-funded medical care. PMID:25803702

  17. Comparative Genetic Mapping Points to Different Sex Chromosomes in Sibling Species of Wild Strawberry (Fragaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Margot T.; Spigler, Rachel B.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. Here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry—one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), Fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), F. virginiana—share the same sex-determin...

  18. Genetic structure and rabies spread potential in raccoons: the role of landscape barriers and sex-biased dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Héloïse; Garant, Dany; Robert, Karine; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2012-06-01

    Identifying natural barriers to movements of hosts associated with infectious diseases is essential for developing effective control strategies. Raccoon rabies variant (RRV) is a zoonosis of concern for humans because its main vector, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), is found near residential areas. In Québec, Canada, all cases of RRV found in raccoons since 2006 were detected on the eastern side of the Richelieu River, suggesting that this river acts as a barrier to gene flow and thus the potential for RRV to spread. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic structure of raccoon populations and assess the effect of the Richelieu River on the population structure in southern Québec, Canada. We also evaluated whether RRV spread potential differed between sex and at a larger spatial scale. Our analyses revealed a weak signal of genetic differentiation among individuals located on each side of the Richelieu River. At a larger spatial scale, genetic structuring was weak. Our results suggest that rivers might not always efficiently restrain raccoon movements and spread of RRV. We suggest that the difference in genetic structure found between sexes can be partly explained by male movements during the breeding season in winter, when ice bridges allow passage over most rivers in Québec. PMID:25568059

  19. Why Don't Smart Teens Have Sex? A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Kathryn P.; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Academic achievement and cognitive ability have been shown to predict later age at first sexual intercourse. Using a sample of 536 same-sex twin pairs who were followed longitudinally from adolescence to early adulthood, this study tested whether relations between intelligence, academic achievement, and age at first sex were due to unmeasured…

  20. Disorders of Sex Development : Clinical outcomes, (epi)genetic regulation and germ cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.G. van der Zwan (Yvonne )

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the most fundamental aspects of early human development is establishment of sex, which can be defined as the biological qualities that differentiate between male and female. The process of normal sex development is strictly controlled by functionality of a number

  1. Genetic and physical maps around the sex-determining M-locus of the dioecious plant asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann-Rauber, Alexa; Jamsari, Ari; Kinney, Michael S; Pires, J Chris; Jung, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is a dioecious plant. A region called the M-locus located on a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes controls the sexual dimorphism in asparagus. The aim of this work was to clone the region determining sex in asparagus from its position in the genome. The structure of the region encompassing M should be investigated and compared to the sex-determining regions in other dioecious model species. To establish an improved basis for physical mapping, a high-resolution genetic map was enriched with AFLP markers closely linked to the target locus by carrying out a bulked segregant analysis. By screening a BAC library with AFLP- and STS-markers followed by chromosome walking, a physical map with eight contigs could be established. However, the gaps between the contigs could not be closed due to a plethora of repetitive elements. Surprisingly, two of the contigs on one side of the M-locus did not overlap although they have been established with two markers, which mapped in a distance as low as 0.25 cM flanking the sex locus. Thus, the clustering of the markers indicates a reduced recombination frequency within the M-region. On the opposite side of the M-locus, a contig was mapped in a distance of 0.38 cM. Four closely linked BAC clones were partially sequenced and 64 putative ORFs were identified. Interestingly, only 25% of the ORFs showed sequence similarity to known proteins and ESTs. In addition, an accumulation of repetitive sequences and a low gene density was revealed in the sex-determining region of asparagus. Molecular cytogenetic and sequence analysis of BACs flanking the M-locus indicate that the BACs contain highly repetitive sequences that localize to centromeric and pericentromeric locations on all asparagus chromosomes, which hindered the localization of the M-locus to the single pair of sex chromosomes. We speculate that dioecious Silene, papaya and Asparagus species may represent three stages in the evolution of XX, XY sex

  2. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  3. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  4. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  5. The 'Combi Fly Concept' revisited: How much radiation is required to sterilise males of a genetic sexing strain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 'Combi Fly Concept', as proposed by Steffens (1982, 1983), the radiation dose necessary to sterilise males can be reduced if the males carry a translocation between the male determining chromosome (Y) and an autosome. Such a chromosome rearrangement is required in genetic sexing strains (GSS) to link a selectable marker to sex. Due to the translocation, GSS males are already partially sterile and it might be possible to use a lower dose to sterilise them for release in SIT programmes. An added bonus to this approach is that this partial sterility is inherited by males. A reduction in radiation dose would be desirable because it would increase the quality of the insect

  6. Translocation-based genetic sexing system to enhance the sterile insect technique against the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autosomal recessive bubble wing (bw) mutant was used to construct a translocation-based genetic sex sorting system in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The translocation stock has females with the bubble wing phenotype that are unable to fly, but the males are wild-type and fly normally. The bubble wing translocation strain has lower egg hatch, larval viability, and eclosion rates than the wild-type strain. Expression of the bubble wing trait is temperature-dependent, with high expression of the trait in 92% of adults at 23°C but in only 15% of adults at 28°C. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only method available for automatic separation of male and female melon flies in sterile insect release programs

  7. Translocation-based genetic sexing system for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on pupal color dimorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autosomal recessive white puparium (wp) mutant was used to construct the first genetic sex sorting system in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The translocation stocks have females with the white puparium phenotype and puparia of males are the wild-type color, brown. Viability measurements of the 49-wp translocation strain indicate that fitness relative to the wild-type and white puparium strains was not lower than expected. Hatch rate and larval viability were lower for the translocation strain, but there were no significant differences between strains for eclosion rates. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only automatic method currently available for separation of male and female oriental fruit flies in sterile insect release programs

  8. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    OpenAIRE

    Rigaud, T.; Bouchon, D; Souty-Grosset, C.; Raimond, R

    1999-01-01

    Two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters (SRD) impose female-biased sex ratios on the wood louse Armadillidium vulgare by feminizing putative males. These SRD are (i) an intracytoplasmic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia, and (ii) another non-Mendelian element of unknown nature: the f element. Mitochondrial DNA variation was investigated in A. vulgare field populations to trace the evolution of host-SRD relationships and to investigate the effect of SRD on host cytoplasmic polymorphism. T...

  9. The influence of sex-linked genetic mechanisms on attention and impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Trent, Simon; Davies, William

    2012-01-01

    It is now generally agreed that there are inherent sex differences in healthy individuals across a number of neurobiological domains (including brain structure, neurochemistry, and cognition). Moreover, there is a burgeoning body of evidence highlighting sex differences within neuropsychiatric populations (in terms of the rates of incidence, clinical features/progression, neurobiology and pathology). Here, we consider the extent to which attention and impulsivity are sexually dimorphic in hea...

  10. Disorders of Sex Development : Clinical outcomes, (epi)genetic regulation and germ cell cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwan, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the most fundamental aspects of early human development is establishment of sex, which can be defined as the biological qualities that differentiate between male and female. The process of normal sex development is strictly controlled by functionality of a number of genes, both protein encoding- and noncoding-, in which the existing networks can act both on transcription (formation of RNA) and translation (formation of protein) regulation. Sexually dimorphi...

  11. Anticancer properties of Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Poças

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that some EOs have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, insecticidal activities. However, studies into their anti-tumoral activities are scarce. This study, indicates that Thymbra capitata and Helichrysum italicum EOs exhibited antitumor activity against RKO and MCF7 cells, deserving further research into both the mechanism of the observed anti-tumour activity and potential cancer therapeutic applications.

  12. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  13. The value of genetic information for diabetes risk prediction - differences according to sex, age, family history and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Mühlenbruch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes through the past years. In previous studies, the usefulness of these genetic markers for prediction of diabetes was found to be limited. However, differences may exist between substrata of the population according to the presence of major diabetes risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the added predictive value of genetic information (42 single nucleotide polymorphisms in subgroups of sex, age, family history of diabetes, and obesity. METHODS: A case-cohort study (random subcohort N = 1,968; incident cases: N = 578 within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam study was used. Prediction models without and with genetic information were evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the integrated discrimination improvement. Stratified analyses included subgroups of sex, age (<50 or ≥50 years, family history (positive if either father or mother or a sibling has/had diabetes, and obesity (BMI< or ≥30 kg/m(2. RESULTS: A genetic risk score did not improve prediction above classic and metabolic markers, but - compared to a non-invasive prediction model - genetic information slightly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (difference [95%-CI]: 0.007 [0.002-0.011]. Stratified analyses showed stronger improvement in the older age group (0.010 [0.002-0.018], the group with a positive family history (0.012 [0.000-0.023] and among obese participants (0.015 [-0.005-0.034] compared to the younger participants (0.005 [-0.004-0.014], participants with a negative family history (0.003 [-0.001-0.008] and non-obese (0.007 [0.000-0.014], respectively. No difference was found between men and women. CONCLUSION: There was no incremental value of genetic information compared to standard non-invasive and metabolic

  14. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  15. Genetically significant dose and sex ratio of the offsprings of patient treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadal doses following the 131I treatment of 6 male and 14 female patients with hyperthyroidism were calculated by the method of MIRD, measuring daily radioactivity in the thyroid gland and circulating blood. The testicular dose was 0.52 +- 0.256 rads and the ovarian dose was 0.632 +- 0.488 rads per mCi. In 1965, the genetically significant dose from 131I treatment of 925 patients with hyperthyroidism was estimated to be 0.0136 mrads/person/year. The genetically significant dose would amount to 0.0613 mrads/person/year, assuming that the total amount of 131I supplied for treatment in 1965 was administered to treat the hyperthyroid patients with an age-and sex distribution similar to that of the above mentioned group of patients. Sex ratios of the offspring of male and female patients treated with 131I from 1953 to 1966 were compared with those of offspring born to male and female patients before the treatment. The proportion of males was higher among the offspring of male patients after 131I treatment than among the offspring of the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. The sex ratio of the offspring of female patients was not different from that of controls. The mean age of the parents at the times of their children's birth after 131I treatment was 2.6 - 6.0 year older in male patients and 2.8 - 2.9 year older in female patients than that of controls. (J.P.N.)

  16. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  17. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  18. Introducción y producción en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryon i y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae en la Argentina Introduction and laboratory production of Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for the biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de reanudar la utilización de enemigos naturales contra la especie exótica Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, fueron introducidos a la Argentina en 1999 los agentes de control biológico Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, dos endoparasitoides de larvas de tefrítidos. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se describen los procedimientos de cría en laboratorio del huésped y de ambas especies de parasitoides y, se presentan y discuten los resultados de un año de producción de D. tryoni y D. longicaudata a mediana escala (enero-diciembre/2000. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los datos obtenidos sobre la producción de descendientes, proporción sexual, porcentaje de parasitismo y viabilidad de puparios por jaula de cría durante 15 generaciones entre ambas especies de parasitoides exóticos, utilizando como huésped larvas de C. capitata del tercer estadio de siete días de edad. Además, se discuten las posibilidades para implementar el control biológico aumentativo contra C. capitata y Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann en el país.The biocontrol agents Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, two endoparasitoids of fruit fly larvae, were introduced to Argentina in 1999 with the purpose of renewing the employment of natural enemies against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. For this reason, the general procedure and maintenance of the host and parasitoids rearing in the laboratory are described, and the results of one year insectary production (January-December/2000 of both D. tryoni and D. longicaudata are discussed. Data are presented of the progeny production, offpring sex ratio, host parasitism percentage, and pupal viability per parasitoid rearing cage during 15 generations of D. longicaudata and D. tryoni reared using late third instar larvae of C. capitata. New perspectives are discussed on the establishment of a biological control program for C

  19. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta;

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  20. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Langergraber, Kevin E.; Heike Siedel; Mitani, John C.; Wrangham, Richard W.; Vernon Reynolds; Kevin Hunt; Linda Vigilant

    2007-01-01

    A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt)DNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological r...

  1. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Luikart, Gordon; Sage, George K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Adams, Layne G.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale of genetic structure and the amount of gene flow in 301 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the landscape level using 15 nuclear microsatellites and 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region. Dall’s sheep exhibited significant genetic structure within contiguous mountain ranges, but mtDNA structure occurred at a broader geographic scale than nuclear DNA within the study area, and mtDNA structure for other North American mountain sheep populations. No evidence of male-mediated gene flow or greater philopatry of females was observed; there was little difference between markers with different modes of inheritance (pairwise nuclear DNA F ST = 0.004–0.325; mtDNA F ST = 0.009–0.544), and males were no more likely than females to be recent immigrants. Historical patterns based on mtDNA indicate separate northern and southern lineages and a pattern of expansion following regional glacial retreat. Boundaries of genetic clusters aligned geographically with prominent mountain ranges, icefields, and major river valleys based on Bayesian and hierarchical modeling of microsatellite and mtDNA data. Our results suggest that fine-scale genetic structure in Dall’s sheep is influenced by limited dispersal, and structure may be weaker in populations occurring near ancestral levels of density and distribution in continuous habitats compared to other alpine ungulates that have experienced declines and marked habitat fragmentation.

  2. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6±3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM-2 for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07±0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12±0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3±1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0±5.2 and 33.8±1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5±2.5 and 1.6±0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62.6±9.8% compared to the

  3. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayuecel, I

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6{+-}3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM{sup -2} for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07{+-}0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12{+-}0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3{+-}1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0{+-}5.2 and 33.8{+-}1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5{+-}2.5 and 1.6{+-}0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62

  4. Ontogenic and morphological study of gonadal formation in genetically-modified sex reversal XY(POS) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Yuria; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Rie; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Omotehara, Takuya; Nagahara, Daichi; Hirano, Tetsushi; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yanai, Shogo; Masuda, Natsumi; Yuasa, Hideto; Mantani, Youhei; Matsuo, Eiko; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sexual fate is determined by the presence or absence of sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry) in the "bipotential" gonads. Recent studies have demonstrated that both male and female sexual development are induced by distinct and active genetic pathways. Breeding the Y chromosome from Mus m. domesticus poschiavinus (POS) strains into C57BL/6J (B6J) mice (B6J-XY(POS)) has been shown to induce sex reversal (75%: bilateral ovary, 25%: true hermaphrodites). However, our B6N-XY(POS) mice, which were generated by backcrossing of B6J-XY(POS) on an inbred B6N-XX, develop as males (36%: bilateral testis with fertility as well as bilateral ovary (34%), and the remainder develop as true hermaphrodites. Here, we investigated in detail the expressions of essential sex-related genes and histological features in B6N-XY(POS) mice from the fetal period to adulthood. The onsets of both Sry and SRY-box 9 (Sox9) expressions as determined spatiotemporally by whole-mount immunohistochemistry in the B6N-XY(POS) gonads occurred 2-3 tail somites later than those in B6N-XY(B6) gonads, but earlier than those in B6J-XY(POS), respectively. It is possible that such a small difference in timing of the Sry expression underlies testicular development in our B6N-XY(POS). Our study is the first to histologically show the expression and ectopic localization of a female-related gene in the XY(POS) testes and a male-related gene in the XY(POS) ovaries. The results from these and previous experiments indicate that the interplay between genome variants, epigenetics and developmental gene regulation is crucial for testis development. PMID:26194606

  5. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  6. The Wellcome Prize Lecture. Genetic imprinting: the battle of the sexes rages on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reik, W

    1996-03-01

    Genomic imprinting in mammals is an important genetic mechanism by which genes are expressed or repressed depending on which parent they have been inherited from. Some properties of the imprinting mechanism are already established; notably, some of the effects of imprinting on mammalian development can be explained by the phenotypic effects of a number of specific imprinted genes, which include major fetal growth factors. An evolutionary explanation of imprinting has also been suggested. Some of the molecular mechanisms of imprinting are known, and these include the modification of DNA and chromosomes in the form of DNA methylation and possibly heritable chromatin structures. Loss of imprinting or altered imprinting is implicated in a large number of genetic diseases and cancers. Many important issues remain to be resolved; these include the precise molecular mechanisms and, in particular, the nature of the primary imprints that are inherited from the parental gametes, and the genes that control the imprinting process. Isolation of the majority of imprinted genes and the elucidation of their phenotypic effects and physiology are major goals for the future. These studies will provide important insights into human genetics, and will connect evolutionary understanding with physiology, genetic disease and human behaviour. PMID:8845132

  7. Cattle sex-specific recombination and genetic control from a very large pedigree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process that generates novel genetic variants and ensures proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. From a large USDA dairy cattle pedigree with over half million genotyped animals, we extracted 186,927 three-generation families, identified ov...

  8. DNA repair enables sex identification in genetic material from human teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovatsi, L.; Nikou, D.; Triantaphyllou, S.; Njau, S. N.; Voutsaki, S.; Kouidou, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a DNA repair protocol in improving genetic testing in compromised samples, frequently encountered in Forensic Medicine. Methods: In order to stretch the experiment conditions to the limits, as far as quality of samples and DNA is

  9. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa;

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially b...

  10. Genetic clusters and sex-biased gene flow in a unicolonial Formica ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapuisat Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal societies are diverse, ranging from small family-based groups to extraordinarily large social networks in which many unrelated individuals interact. At the extreme of this continuum, some ant species form unicolonial populations in which workers and queens can move among multiple interconnected nests without eliciting aggression. Although unicoloniality has been mostly studied in invasive ants, it also occurs in some native non-invasive species. Unicoloniality is commonly associated with very high queen number, which may result in levels of relatedness among nestmates being so low as to raise the question of the maintenance of altruism by kin selection in such systems. However, the actual relatedness among cooperating individuals critically depends on effective dispersal and the ensuing pattern of genetic structuring. In order to better understand the evolution of unicoloniality in native non-invasive ants, we investigated the fine-scale population genetic structure and gene flow in three unicolonial populations of the wood ant F. paralugubris. Results The analysis of geo-referenced microsatellite genotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes revealed the presence of cryptic clusters of genetically-differentiated nests in the three populations of F. paralugubris. Because of this spatial genetic heterogeneity, members of the same clusters were moderately but significantly related. The comparison of nuclear (microsatellite and mitochondrial differentiation indicated that effective gene flow was male-biased in all populations. Conclusion The three unicolonial populations exhibited male-biased and mostly local gene flow. The high number of queens per nest, exchanges among neighbouring nests and restricted long-distance gene flow resulted in large clusters of genetically similar nests. The positive relatedness among clustermates suggests that kin selection may still contribute to the maintenance of altruism in unicolonial

  11. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex) and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Daphna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The categorization of individuals as “male” or “female” is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the “female” form at all levels, or the “male” form at all levels). About 1% of the human population is identified as “intersex” because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the “male” form at...

  12. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 i

  13. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  14. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán;

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,72...

  15. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    2013-06-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  16. Development of genetic sexing strains in Lepidoptera: from traditional to transgenic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Neven, L. G.; Robinson, A. S.; Vreysen, M.; Goldsmith, M. R.; Nagaraju, J.; Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2005), s. 248-259. ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007307 Grant ostatní: IAEA(AT) 12055/R; IAEA(AT) 12619/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * codling moth * sterile insect technique Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2005

  17. Common genetic variation near MC4R has a sex-specific impact on human brain structure and eating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Horstmann

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.

  18. Sex-dichotomous effects of functional COMT genetic variations on cognitive functions disappear after menopause in both health and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Francesco; Sannino, Sara; Piras, Fabrizio; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    Different genetic variations in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene have been indicated to functionally regulate the encoded enzyme. Despite the vast literature on the single nucleotide COMT ValMet polymorphism, the impact of complex haplotypes on cognitive functions has been overlooked. Here we contrasted the effects of complex COMT haplotypes with the ValMet polymorphism on cognitive functions and their interaction with menopause, in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Healthy adults (N=229) as well as patients with schizophrenia (N=172) underwent a comprehensive cognitive assessment taking into account the menopausal state. Functional COMT variations selectively modulated working memory and executive functions. Strikingly, these effects were present only in adult men but not in women before menopause, in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Importantly, the same pattern of COMT-dependent effects present in men reappeared in women after menopause. Thus, functional COMT mutations seem to modulate cognitive functions depending on the hormonal status. These data clarify the importance of taking into account the combined effect of sex, hormonal status and genetics. PMID:26560201

  19. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; de Craen, Anton J M; Bis, Joshua C; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W K; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Jackson, Anne U; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A F; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L; Montasser, May E; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M; Ryan, Kathy A; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L; Wang, Sophie R; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S; de Geus, Eco J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew P; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M; Rice, Treva K; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarzynski, Mark A; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A; Scott, William R; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P Eline; Smit, Jan H; Sparsø, Thomas H; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Stringham, Heather M; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van Schoor, Natasja M; Asselbergs, Folkert W; de Bakker, Paul I W; Beckmann, Jacques S; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D; Moll, Frans L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Musk, Arthur W; Nieminen, Markku S; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Staessen, Jan A; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L M; Vermeulen, Sita H; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rao, D C; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C; McCarthy, Mark I; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; North, Kari E; Borecki, Ingrid B; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J F

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  20. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  1. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  2. Use of \\kur{Notch} gene for the production of genetic "sexing" lines of codling moth.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVELLEROVÁ, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of pome fruit and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. The extensive use of insecticides for a control of this pest has resulted in the development of resistance to these chemicals, and there is an increasing demand on the use of environment-friendly control tactics, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Codling moth SIT relies on the mass rearing and release of genetically sterile both males and females into a wild po...

  3. Perspectives on fruit fly expansion: A lesson from a global invader, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fruit flies are present worldwide, although the major pests such as species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis, each have a limited natural distribution. Mankind has played an important part in altering the natural distribution of some of the more polyphagous species, as well as certain oligophagous species. However, a question arises why only a few species have become or are becoming major pests. The major problem in approaching this question is the insufficient knowledge of invasive potential of different species in relation to their biological traits. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, was the first fruit fly species that entered the scientific scene as a potential invader, given its extensive and relatively quick invasion potentials. Genetic analyses of its invasive processes, along with the knowledge of its life history and historical records, allowed us to interpret the biogeography of this species. In southeastern Africa, its home range, this species displays a vast reservoir of genetic variability, which provides a high potential for plasticity, increasing the likelihood of spreading, survival and genetic differentiation. Establishing a fine-scale map of the genetic variability in the species range, we highlighted a variety of evolutionary processes operating over different time scales: from the primary expansion in the Mediterranean area, to the more recent one in the Americas. In addition, secondary colonisation events as well as the origin of different outbreaks have been assessed. Knowledge and methods learnt from the medfly represent a model to approach and investigate the invasion processes of other fruit fly pests. Examples are different species within the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, which represent potential threats to different geographic areas worldwide. (author)

  4. Population genetic analysis reveals cryptic sex in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing-Wen; Zhu, Wen; He, Meng-Han; Wu, E-Jiao; Duan, Guo-Hua; Xie, Ye-Kun; Jin, Yu-Jia; Yang, Li-Na; Shang, Li-Ping; Zhan, Jiasui

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive mode can impact population genetic dynamics and evolutionary landscape of plant pathogens as well as on disease epidemiology and management. In this study, we monitored the spatial dynamics and mating type idiomorphs in ~700 Alternaria alternata isolates sampled from the main potato production areas in China to infer the mating system of potato early blight. Consistent with the expectation of asexual species, identical genotypes were recovered from different locations separated by hundreds of kilometers of geographic distance and spanned across many years. However, high genotype diversity, equal MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 frequencies within and among populations, no genetic differentiation and phylogenetic association between two mating types, combined with random association amongst neutral markers in some field populations, suggested that sexual reproduction may also play an important role in the epidemics and evolution of the pathogen in at least half of the populations assayed despite the fact that no teleomorphs have been observed yet naturally or artificially. Our results indicated that A. alternata may adopt an epidemic mode of reproduction by combining many cycles of asexual propagation with fewer cycles of sexual reproduction, facilitating its adaptation to changing environments and making the disease management on potato fields even more difficult. PMID:26666175

  5. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E Langergraber

    Full Text Available A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological reasons for these inconsistencies, and take them into account to provide an unbiased characterization of mtDNA and NRY variation in chimpanzees, one of the few mammalian taxa where males routinely remain in and females typically disperse from their natal groups. We show that patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation are more strongly contrasting in patrilocal chimpanzees compared with patrilocal human societies. The chimpanzee data we present here thus provide a valuable comparative benchmark of the patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation to be expected in a society with extremely female-biased dispersal.

  6. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Siedel, Heike; Mitani, John C; Wrangham, Richard W; Reynolds, Vernon; Hunt, Kevin; Vigilant, Linda

    2007-01-01

    A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt)DNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological reasons for these inconsistencies, and take them into account to provide an unbiased characterization of mtDNA and NRY variation in chimpanzees, one of the few mammalian taxa where males routinely remain in and females typically disperse from their natal groups. We show that patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation are more strongly contrasting in patrilocal chimpanzees compared with patrilocal human societies. The chimpanzee data we present here thus provide a valuable comparative benchmark of the patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation to be expected in a society with extremely female-biased dispersal. PMID:17912352

  7. The use of kaolin to control Ceratitis capitata in organic citrus groves.

    OpenAIRE

    LO VERDE, G; Caleca, V; LO VERDE, 
V

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera Tephritidae), is the key pest in some organically managed citrus orchards in Sicily. The effectiveness of processed kaolin (Surround WP) for control of C. capitata damage was tested in field trials carried out in 2003-2004 on two early ripening citrus species: satsuma (Citrus unshiu Markow.) and clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). Although the number of males captured in trimedlure baited traps was high in both yea...

  8. Non-cytotoxic Thymus capitata extracts prevent Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Boubaker–Elandalousi, Ramzi; Mekni–Toujani, Marwa; Kaabi, Belhassen; Larbi, Imen; Diouani, Mohamed-Fethi; Gharbi, Mohamed; Akkari, Hafidh; B’chir, Fatma; Ghram, Abdeljelil

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) still causes great economic loss to the livestock industry and trade because there aren’t any available drugs that proved to be fully effective against it. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the antiviral activities of the Thymus capitata extracts were evaluated for the development of new, non toxic and specific anti-herpesvirus drug. Aqueous extracts (AE), ethanolic extracts (EE) and essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Thymus capitata were...

  9. Energy, ageing, fidelity and sex: oocyte mitochondrial DNA as a protected genetic template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Wilson B M; Lucas, Cathy H; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Allen, John F

    2013-07-19

    Oxidative phosphorylation couples ATP synthesis to respiratory electron transport. In eukaryotes, this coupling occurs in mitochondria, which carry DNA. Respiratory electron transport in the presence of molecular oxygen generates free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mutagenic. In animals, mutational damage to mitochondrial DNA therefore accumulates within the lifespan of the individual. Fertilization generally requires motility of one gamete, and motility requires ATP. It has been proposed that oxidative phosphorylation is nevertheless absent in the special case of quiescent, template mitochondria, that these remain sequestered in oocytes and female germ lines and that oocyte mitochondrial DNA is thus protected from damage, but evidence to support that view has hitherto been lacking. Here we show that female gametes of Aurelia aurita, the common jellyfish, do not transcribe mitochondrial DNA, lack electron transport, and produce no free radicals. In contrast, male gametes actively transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory chain components and produce ROS. Electron microscopy shows that this functional division of labour between sperm and egg is accompanied by contrasting mitochondrial morphology. We suggest that mitochondrial anisogamy underlies division of any animal species into two sexes with complementary roles in sexual reproduction. We predict that quiescent oocyte mitochondria contain DNA as an unexpressed template that avoids mutational accumulation by being transmitted through the female germ line. The active descendants of oocyte mitochondria perform oxidative phosphorylation in somatic cells and in male gametes of each new generation, and the mutations that they accumulated are not inherited. We propose that the avoidance of ROS-dependent mutation is the evolutionary pressure underlying maternal mitochondrial inheritance and the developmental origin of the female germ line. PMID:23754815

  10. Genetic studies in varicocele infertility: I: pedigree, nuclear sex and seminal nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K Z; Hafeiz, A R; Salam, E A; El Kerdasi, Z; Aiad, F

    1983-01-01

    The hereditary predisposition of varicocele men to develop infertility was investigated in a controlled study involving 30 infertile varicocele patients. Analysis of the pedigree charts, determination of sex chromatin constitution, and biochemical measurement of seminal nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) were undertaken. Sibs and Kins of infertile varicocele patients showed various developmental anomalies particularly of the genito-crural area. cocele formation while the gonads develop in the normal line. Such condition may be represented in fertile men with clinically detectable varicocele. In addition, the postulated defective gene in VI patients may interfere as well with the normal development of the mesenchyme-derived interstitial cells of Leydig. Defective testicular steroid hormone biosynthesis thus obtained may explain the reported decrease in androgen level in peripheral blood, sexual impotentia and accessory genital gland dysfunction (Raboch and Starka - 1971; Comhaire and Vermeulen - 1975). Moreover, being androgen dependent (Lacy - 1973), spermatogenesis may display abnormal patterns due to lowered intratesticular androgen concentration (Rodriguez-Rigau et al. - 1978). The outcome and severity of spermatogenic derangement may depend partially on the severity of disordered androgen biosynthesis. The present work showed significant decrease in sperm count, motility, normal forms and nucleic acid content (DNA and RNA) of the seminal fluid in VI patients. The decrease in the amount of DNA per millilitre of seminal fluid in VI patients may be explained by the decrease in sperm population (oligozoospermia). The decrease in the amount of RNA per millilitre of seminal fluid in VI patients may be due to the total decrease in cellular content of the seminal fluid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6198939

  11. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 1- Measured by using dehydrogenase Enzyme Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study searches for the improvement vitality of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Through the induction of a specific variance (mutation) in the genetic material. Several types of treatments that were thought to cause this mutation were used, as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, several types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. Generally, the activities of the energy enzymes alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme, when used as a direct measure for the fly vitality, increased due to treatments of the egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially by the usage of rice hulls in the larval rearing medium alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  12. Influence of sex hormones and genetic predisposition in Sjögren's syndrome: a new clue to the immunopathogenesis of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Safinaz; Seamon, Vanessa; Azzarolo, Ana Maria

    2012-03-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration, destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands and the presence of serum autoantibodies. Most women that suffer from SS are post-menopausal however, not all post-menopausal women develop SS, suggesting that other factors, in addition to the decrease in ovarian hormones, are necessary for the development of SS. The purposes of this study were to investigate a) the time course of lymphocytic infiltration and apoptosis in the lacrimal gland after ovariectomy, b) if a predisposed genetic background for SS aggravates the effects of decreasing levels of sex hormones in the lacrimal glands and c) if physiological doses of estrogen or androgen prevent the effects observed after ovariectomy. Six weeks old mice that are genetically predisposed to SS (NOD.B10.H2(b)) and control (C57BL/10) mice were either sham operated, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + 17β estradiol (E(2)) or OVX + Dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Lacrimal glands were collected at 3, 7, 21 or 30 days after surgery and processed for immunohistochemistry to measure CD4(+), CD8(+) T cells, B220(+) B cells, nuclear DNA degradation and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Quantification of the staining was done by light microscopy and Image Pro Plus software. The results of our study show that lymphocytic infiltration preceded lacrimal gland apoptosis after ovariectomy. Moreover, removal of ovarian sex hormones accelerated these effects in the genetically predisposed animal and these effects were more severe and persistent compared to control animals. In addition, sex hormone replacement at physiological levels prevented these symptoms. The mechanisms by which decreased levels of sex hormones caused lymphocytic infiltration and apoptosis and the interaction of lack of sex hormones with the genetic elements remain to be elucidated. PMID:22227485

  13. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Daphna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The categorization of individuals as “male” or “female” is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the “female” form at all levels, or the “male” form at all levels. About 1% of the human population is identified as “intersex” because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the “male” form at some levels and the “female” form at other levels. These two types of “intersex” reflect the facts, respectively, that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic nor perfectly consistent. Using 3G-sex as a model to understand sex differences in other domains (e.g., brain, behavior leads to the erroneous assumption that sex differences in these other domains are also highly dimorphic and highly consistent. But parallel lines of research have led to the conclusion that sex differences in the brain and in behavior, cognition, personality, and other gender characteristics are for the most part not dimorphic and not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain/gender characteristic with the “male” form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain/gender characteristics. Therefore although only ~1% percent of humans are 3G-“intersex”, when it comes to brain and gender, we all have an intersex gender (i.e., an array of masculine and feminine traits and an intersex brain (a mosaic of “male” and “female” brain characteristics.

  14. Genetic Sex Determination of Sub-adult Individuals from the Great Moravian Settlement in Mikulčice (9th Century AD)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, M.; Velemínský, P.; Hájek, Martin; Černý, Viktor

    Vol. 8. Brno: Archeologický ústav AV ČR Brno, 2008 - (Velemínský, P.; Poláček, L.), s. 61-75. (Spisy Archeologického ústavu AV ČR Brno. 27). ISBN 978-80-86023-74-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0725 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Early Medieval population * genetic sex determination * sub-adult individuals * morphologic sex determination Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. Genetic studies of medfly populations and related species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA were used to detect genetic markers in Ceratitis capitata. The authors employed both types of markers (1) to study the genome organization of the medfly, (2) to determine the level of intraspecific genetic diversity, and (3) to understand the evolution of the geographical populations. Sterility and high mutation rates in interstrain crosses were observed in C. capitata, reminiscent of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila, and may represent the activation of mobile elements, useful for medfly transformation. The biochemical, genetic and molecular characterization of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase clarified the peculiarity of this selectable system, compared with that of Drosophila, and revealed a surprisingly high sequence variability in medfly populations. The phylogenetic relationships between C. capitata and other Tephritidae species of economic importance were analysed by the MLEE approach. (author)

  16. Large-scale patterns of genetic variation in a female-biased dispersing passerine: the importance of sex-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Monica; Gennai, Clizia; Panayides, Panicos; Crabtree, Alan; Zuberogoitia, Iñigo; Copland, Alex S; Babushkina, Olga; Politi, Paolo M; Giunchi, Dimitri; Barbanera, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal affects the distribution, dynamics and genetic structure of natural populations, and can be significantly different between sexes. However, literature records dealing with the dispersal of migratory birds are scarce, as migratory behaviour can notably complicate the study of dispersal. We used the barn swallow Hirundo rustica as model taxon to investigate patterns of genetic variability in males and in females of a migratory species showing sex-biased dispersal. We collected blood samples (n = 186) over the period 2006 to 2011 from adults (H. r. rustica subspecies) nesting in the same breeding site at either high (Ireland, Germany and Russia) or low (Spain, Italy and Cyprus) latitude across Europe. We amplified the Chromo Helicase DNA gene in all birds in order to warrant a sex-balanced sample size (92 males, 94 females). We investigated both uniparental (mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biparental (microsatellite DNA: 10 loci) genetic systems. The mtDNA provided evidence for demographic expansion yet no significant partition of the genetic variability was disclosed. Nevertheless, a comparatively distant Russian population investigated in another study, whose sequences were included in the present dataset, significantly diverged from all other ones. Different to previous studies, microsatellites highlighted remarkable genetic structure among the studied populations, and pointed to the occurrence of differences between male and female barn swallows. We produced evidence for non-random patterns of gene flow among barn swallow populations probably mediated by female natal dispersal, and we found significant variability in the philopatry of males of different populations. Our data emphasize the importance of taking into account the sex of sampled individuals in order to obtain reliable inferences on species characterized by different patterns of dispersal between males and females. PMID:24886720

  17. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  18. Quality measurements of the gamma irradiated medfly ceratitis capitata wied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage caused by the mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to Egyptian agriculture is increasing mainly because farmers are finding it harder to choose suitable means of control in view of the difficulties frequently associated with the use of insecticides, such as undesirable residues and biological disequilibrium. Recently, the sterile-insect technique has opened up new possibilities of this insect control in egypt. The use of sterile insects to eradicate or suppress populations of pests was conceived by knipling,(1955) and applied successfully for the first time in 1954 against the screw-worm fly, cochliomyia hominivorax (cocquerel) on the island of curacao (Baumhover et al., 1955) and then in 1958 and 1959 in the south-eastern united states of america (knipling, 1960)

  19. Genetic variation in nuclear and mitochondrial markers supports a large sex difference in lifetime reproductive skew in a lekking species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne I; Juillet, Cedric; Lank, David B; Widemo, Fredrik; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-09-01

    Sex differences in skews of vertebrate lifetime reproductive success are difficult to measure directly. Evolutionary histories of differential skew should be detectable in the genome. For example, male-biased skew should reduce variation in the biparentally inherited genome relative to the maternally inherited genome. We tested this approach in lek-breeding ruff (Class Aves, Philomachus pugnax) by comparing genetic variation of nuclear microsatellites (θ n ; biparental) versus mitochondrial D-loop sequences (θ m ; maternal), and conversion to comparable nuclear (N e ) and female (N ef ) effective population size using published ranges of mutation rates for each marker (μ). We provide a Bayesian method to calculate N e (θ n = 4N e μ n ) and N ef (θ m = 2N ef μ m ) using 95% credible intervals (CI) of θ n and θ m as informative priors, and accounting for uncertainty in μ. In 96 male ruffs from one population, N e was 97% (79-100%) lower than expected under random mating in an ideal population, where N e :N ef = 2. This substantially lower autosomal variation represents the first genomic support of strong male reproductive skew in a lekking species. PMID:25478153

  20. Life extension and the position of the hormetic zone depends on sex and genetic background in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Hormesis, the beneficial effect of a mild stress, has been proposed as a means to prolong the period of healthy ageing as it can increase the average lifespan of a cohort. However, if we want to use hormesis therapeutically it is important that the treatment is beneficial on the individual level...... and not just on average at the population level. Long lived lines have been shown not to benefit from a, in other lines, hormesis inducing heat treatment in Drosophila melanogaster, D. buzzatii and mice. Also in many experiments hormesis has been reported to occur in one sex only, usually males but...... not in females. Here we investigated the interaction between the hormetic response and genetic background, sex and duration of a mild heat stress in D. melanogaster, using three replicate lines that have been selected for increased longevity and their respective control lines. We found that genetic...

  1. The influence of age and sex on genetic associations with adult body size and shape: a large-scale genome-wide interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W; Heid, Iris M.; Gorski, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eu...

  2. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape : A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su,; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Magi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rueeger, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  3. Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) female attractant studies and development of trapping systems for sterility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In four years of research, we evaluated different traps (McPhail, Tephri, Closed-bottom dry trap, Open-bottom dry trap, and Frutect), lures (FA-2 and FA-3 synthetic lures composed of ammonium acetate + putrescine, and ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine, respectively), and insect retention methods (water, sticky inserts, insecticides) to develop a selective trapping system for female Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann) sterility assessment. The trapping systems were compared with protein-baited McPhail traps, which are the standard method for C. capitata female capture, during eight to fifteen week trials in coffee and orthanique orange plantations at two different localities in Honduras. Trimedlure-baited Jackson traps were also used as the standard indicator of the C. capitata populations. The Closed-bottom trap baited with the two-component synthetic lure captured eight to twelve times fewer C. capitata than the Jackson trap. The McPhail trap and the modified Open-bottom trap, both baited with the two-component synthetic lure, captured 1.6 to 3.5 times more C. capitata females than the protein-baited McPhail trap. The addition of trimethylamine to the two-component synthetic lure resulted in 9.8 to 15.8 times increases in C. capitata female capture over the protein-baited McPhail trap. The presence of water in McPhail or Tephri traps did not affect the capture of C. capitata females. Throughout the study, all female-targeted trapping systems captured the same proportion of females. (author)

  4. HPA axis genetic variation, pubertal status, and sex interact to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses to negative emotional faces in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for stress exposure, particularly during early life, and for variation in genes involved in stress response pathways in neural responsivity to emotional stimuli. Understanding how individual differences in these factors predict differences in emotional responsivity may be important for understanding both normative emotional development and for understanding the mechanisms underlying internalizing disorders, like anxiety and depression, that have often been related to increased amygdala and hippocampus responses to negatively valenced emotional stimuli. The present study examined whether stress exposure and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predict individual differences in amygdala and hippocampus responses to fearful vs. neutral faces in school-age children (7-12 year olds; N = 107). Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted greater left amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli. Genetic profile scores interacted with sex and pubertal status to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses. Specifically, genetic profile scores were a stronger predictor of amygdala and hippocampus responses among pubertal vs. prepubertal children where they positively predicted responses to fearful faces among pubertal girls and positively predicted responses to neutral faces among pubertal boys. The current results suggest that genetic and environmental stress-related factors may be important in normative individual differences in responsivity to negative emotional stimuli, a potential mechanism underlying internalizing disorders. Further, sex and pubertal development may be key moderators of the effects of stress-system genetic variation on amygdala and hippocampus responsivity, potentially relating to sex differences in stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25583614

  5. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method

  6. Sex differences in the genetic architecture of lifespan in a seed beetle: extreme inbreeding extends male lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Maklakov Alexei A; Bilde Trine; Meisner Katrine; la Guardia Lucia; Friberg Urban

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA) have been proposed, but these ideas have rarely been tested experimentally. Alternatively, sexual dimorphism in lifespan could result from sex-specific selection, caused by fundamental differences in how males and females optimize th...

  7. X-ray sterilization of the An. arabiensis genetic sexing strain 'ANO IPCL1' at pupal and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndo, C; Yamada, H; Damiens, D D; N'do, S; Seballos, G; Gilles, J R L

    2014-03-01

    With a view to area wide integrated pest management programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, the effects of X-ray exposure of males of the genetic sexing strain (GSS) of An. arabiensis, "ANO IPCL1" have been tested. The suitability of X-ray was assessed in comparison to gamma-ray for mosquito sterilization in operational settings where the acquisition of gamma ray irradiators may be problematic. Pupae and adult males were sterilized using X-ray irradiation at 5 increasing doses and effects were observed in terms of fecundity and fertility. Irradiated pupae and adults were further observed for effects on longevity. The adult stage appeared to be more sensitive to radiation exposure than the pupal stage, with a residual fertility of 1% in adults irradiated at 75Gy and 0% at 105Gy, compared to 8%at 75Gy and 4% at 105Gy in adults irradiated at the pupal stage. All treatment groups except those irradiated at 60Gy were statistically different from the control groups in terms of adult longevity post treatment, however overall survival was not highly compromised in the 75Gy treatment group which showed 96% of induced sterility. To ensure the fine balance between the induced sterility and the fitness of the insect produced is achieved, irradiation of adults at this dose may be a good compromise for the SIT as applied for this species, especially in specific cases such as sterilization after female elimination by spiking blood meals. Investigation into the combined effects of blood spiking and irradiation at the adult stage and additional competitiveness studies both in laboratory and field cages will provide more insight into the radiation dose and mosquito stage to be used in the frame of future SIT programs targeting this important malaria vector. PMID:24361725

  8. Comparison of mating performance of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) genetic sexing and wild type strains: field cage and video recording experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) efforts are being devoted to obtain genetic sexing strains (GSS). The present work was carried out in order to compare the mating efficiency of flies from the GSS [(Ty34228 y+/X)swx] and from a wild type strain (Mendoza). Females of the GSS (T228) exhibit longer embryonic development, while males develop in a normal time period. In a field-cage experiment, mating competitiveness was compared between the T228 and the Mendoza, Argentina mass reared strain. The number and duration of matings and the location of copula in the tree were recorded. The analysis was repeated using irradiated males of T228. The results showed that mating efficiency of the GSS is good in comparison with that of the Mendoza strain. Although copulatory success in T228 is reduced by the radiation treatment, the high numbers of sterilized males released would compensate this effect in the control programs. In a second experiment, under laboratory conditions, video recording techniques were applied. In this case two virgin males, one of the GSS and one emerged from wild collected fruits, competed during 30 min for a virgin wild female. The proportion of successful males did not differ between strains, but some differences were observed between strains in the time spent in different stages of the courtship. Males of the T228 were more aggressive, and they attempted to copulate with the other male more frequently than did wild males. These differences may be due to selection for more aggressive individuals under the overcrowded laboratory breeding conditions for this strain. (author)

  9. Doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) is a sex-specific genetic determinant of childhood-onset asthma and is expressed in testis and macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schieck, Maximilian; Schouten, Jan P; Michel, Sven; Suttner, Kathrin; Toncheva, Antoaneta A; Gaertner, Vincent D; Illig, Thomas; Lipinski, Simone; Franke, Andre; Klintschar, Michael; Kalayci, Omer; Sahiner, Umit M; Birben, Esra; Melén, Erik; Pershagen, Göran; Freidin, Maxim B; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Granell, Raquel; Henderson, John; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A; Vogelberg, Christian; von Berg, Andrea; Bufe, Albrecht; Heinzmann, Andrea; Laub, Otto; Rietschel, Ernst; Simma, Burkhard; Genuneit, Jon; Jonigk, Danny; Postma, Dirkje S; Koppelman, Gerard H; Vonk, Judith M; Timens, Wim; Boezen, H Marike; Kabesch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a disease affecting more boys than girls in childhood and more women than men in adulthood. The mechanisms behind these sex-specific differences are not yet understood. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed whether and how genetic factors contribute to sex-specific predisposition to childhood

  10. Caracterização química da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata var capitata Chemical characterization of nut of Butia capitata var capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira Butia capitata var capitata produz o coquinho-azedo, fruto de odor agradável e penetrante, cuja polpa é aproveitada para a produção de um suco saboroso na região norte de Minas Gerais. As sementes apresentam uma amêndoa cuja exploração ainda é bastante limitada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição da amêndoa do coquinho-azedo, visando a avaliar suas possibilidades de uso. Na amêndoa, a composição química (umidade, proteínas, lipídios, cinzas e fibras foi determinada por métodos gravimétricos. Os teores dos principais minerais foram avaliados por espectrofotometria de emissão atômica com fonte de plasma indutivo, e a composição dos ácidos graxos presentes na gordura da semente foi determinada por cromatografia a gás. A amêndoa do coquinho-azedo apresentou 9,9 % de umidade e 57,8 % de lipídios totais, 25,8 % de fibra detergente neutro, 17,6 % de fibra detergente ácido e 1,6 % de cinzas em base seca. A gordura extraída da amêndoa de coquinho-azedo apresentou elevados teores de ácido láurico (42,1 %, que foi seguido pelo ácido oléico (16,9 %. Predominaram os ácidos graxos saturados (78,9 %, principalmente os de cadeia média (C6-C12.The Butia capitata palm tree produce a very aromatic fruit named "coquinho-azedo", which freeze pulp is frequently used to produce agreeable juice in north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. "Coquinho-azedo" kernel contains a nut that is not frequently explored. The purpose of the present study was the chemical characterization of "coquinho-azedo" nut to evaluate the possibilities of its use. The moisture, lipids, ash and fiber contents were determined by gravimetric methods. The mineral profile was characterized by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer and the fatty acids profile was characterized by gas chromatography. The coquinho-azedo nut presented 9,9 % of moisture, 57,8 % of total lipid, 25,8 % of neutral detergent fiber, 17,6 % of acid detergent fiber

  11. Biological and Biochemical Effects of Vitamin C on The Normal and Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Vitamin C on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) was studied with two concentrations (1000 and 2000 mg/ 1 kgm larval medium) and exposed the produced pupae with the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy) on some biological aspects (female fecundity male sterility, adult survival for 15 days and male computability. Also, some biochemical parameters for both sexes (total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates content) were studied. The changes in the activity of the digestive enzymes (protease, lipase and amylase) for males and females, sexual hormones (testosterone and progesterone) and the superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) were considered. The data obtained revealed that vitamin C had no effects on each of the biological and biochemical parameters, but when applying the sterilized dose (90 Gy) on the produced pupae, significant decreases in female fecundity, male sterility, total proteins and carbohydrates content were observed, while, significant increases were estimated in the total lipids for both sexes. The activity of the three tested digestive enzymes (Protease, Lipase and Amylase) were significantly decreased in both medfly sexes. Sexual Hormones (Testosterone and Progesterone) were slightly decreased when compared with the control group. SOD enzyme was significantly decreased in both sexes. The combined effect of vitamin C and the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) revealed improvements in the expected adverse effects of gamma radiation in all studied parameters. The competitiveness values of the irradiated males were increased by increasing the vitamin C concentration combined with gamma irradiation. Generally, the combined treatment of vitamin C and gamma irradiation could be successfully used to reduce the adverse effects of gamma irradiation and subsequently can be used in the integrated pest management to help in the success of the sterile insect technique against the medfly

  12. A highly polymorphic insertion in the Y-chromosome amelogenin gene can be used for evolutionary biology, population genetics and sexing in Cetacea and Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouau-Roy Brigitte

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early radiation of the Cetartiodactyla is complex, and unambiguous molecular characters are needed to clarify the positions of hippotamuses, camels and pigs relative to the remaining taxa (Cetacea and Ruminantia. There is also a need for informative genealogic markers for Y-chromosome population genetics as well as a sexing method applicable to all species from this group. We therefore studied the sequence variation of a partial sequence of the evolutionary conserved amelogenin gene to assess its potential use in each of these fields. Results and discussion We report a large interstitial insertion in the Y amelogenin locus in most of the Cetartiodactyla lineages (cetaceans and ruminants. This sex-linked size polymorphism is the result of a 460–465 bp inserted element in intron 4 of the amelogenin gene of Ruminants and Cetaceans. Therefore, this polymorphism can easily be used in a sexing assay for these species. When taking into account this shared character in addition to nucleotide sequence, gene genealogy follows sex-chromosome divergence in Cetartiodactyla whereas it is more congruent with zoological history when ignoring these characters. This could be related to a loss of homology between chromosomal copies given the old age of the insertion. The 1 kbp Amel-Y amplified fragment is also characterized by high nucleotide diversity (64 polymorphic sites spanning over 1 kbp in seven haplotypes which is greater than for other Y-chromosome sequence markers studied so far but less than the mitochondrial control region. Conclusion The gender-dependent polymorphism we have identified is relevant not only for phylogenic inference within the Cetartiodactyla but also for Y-chromosome based population genetics and gender determination in cetaceans and ruminants. One single protocol can therefore be used for studies in population and evolutionary genetics, reproductive biotechnologies, and forensic science.

  13. Sedimentation and the reproductive biology of the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Hédouin, Laetitia; Waller, Rhian G; Smith, Derek; Truong, William; Gates, Ruth D

    2014-02-01

    Environmental conditions can influence the physiology of marine organisms and have important implications for their reproductive performance and capacity to supply new recruits. This study examined the seasonal reproductive patterns of the coral Montipora capitata in habitats exposed to different sedimentation regimes. Although M. capitata is a main reef-building coral in the Hawaiian Archipelago, little is known about the gametogenic cycle and reproductive ecology of this important species. Our results indicate that gamete production in M. capitata is a resilient process; no differences in gamete development or fecundity were observed among sites with very different sedimentation regimes. The gametogenic cycle of M. capitata lasts between 10 and 11 months, with spawning occurring over 3-5 months during warmer months (May-September). Oocytes were found throughout the year, but spermatocysts were only found April-August. The largest increases in oocyte size occurred during February to May, the months when solar radiation increased rapidly. The largest variation in oocyte sizes was found during July and August; during this period individual colonies contained mature oocytes for immediate spawning and new oocytes being formed for spawning the next year. The capacity of M. capitata to reproduce in areas with high sedimentation is an interesting finding highlighting the potential of the species for acclimatization, adaptation, or both. Despite this optimistic finding, the management of terrestrial runoff and the restoration of habitat quality for corals remains a top priority to ensure the renewal and maintenance of coral populations. PMID:24648203

  14. A reliable genetic technique for sex determination of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from non-invasively collected hair samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durnin, Matthew E.; Palsboll, Per J.; Ryder, Oliver A.; McCullough, Dale R.

    2007-01-01

    Extractions from non-invasive hair samples usually yield low amounts of highly degraded DNA. Previously developed mammal molecular sexing methods were not designed with such sub-optimal conditions in mind. We developed a simple and reliable PCR-based sexing method aimed at degraded, low yield DNA ex

  15. Applying GIS software to monitor adult Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) behaviour in Terceira Island, Azores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The capabilities of Geographic Information System (GIS) in our days are well-known and it has numerous applications in many areas. Monitoring Ceratitis capitata adult dispersion is very important because this pest is spreading onto many cultures causing severe losses in orchards production. Knowing the spread capabilities of C. capitata it is important to evaluate the areas, which are more affected by this pest, its population dynamics and its seasonal presence. To monitor the C. capitata adult population, a network of Jackson and Tephri-traps was installed using a GPS in three fruit production areas of Terceira Island. The installation of this network was integrated in the INTERFRUTA project since January 2004 and the goal of it was to study the evolution C. capitata adult dispersion using GIS, under ESRI software, ArcView 3.2. To perform spatial analysis regarding the data from the network traps, the spatial analysis extension was used and applied the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method with a grid of 20m. A digital model of terrain was also used in order to cross-reference the information from the network traps and the topographic information. This software has demonstrated to be very useful to identify the problematic areas, as well as, to study the C. capitata dispersion behaviour. The results of spatial analysis in ArcView show some dispersion over the three zones, with a remarkable concentration of this pest between the 0 and 100 meters of altitude. With a three-dimensional analysis, it is possible to see that C. capitata adults have a preference for areas located in some topographic depressions, which apparently give them some climatic protection. This could be understood as a behaviour indicator for protection against the bad weather. This specific behaviour and the host type, as well as the ripening fruit evolution, could explain the adult population dynamics registered in the studied areas. (author)

  16. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  17. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  18. Stability of Fried Olive and Sunflower Oils Enriched with Thymbra capitata Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Rohaim, A.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Pedro, L. G.; Barroso, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of olive and sunflower oils for domestic uses after frying cow steak or only heating were evaluated in the presence or absence of the carvacrol-rich essential oil of Thymbra capitata. The treatments consisted of sunflower and olive oils either enriched with 200 mg/l of T. capitata oil or without it, heating at 180°C for 20 min, or frying 100 g cow steak at the same temperature and for the same period of time. In all assays, acid, peroxide, and p-anisidine values were followed ov...

  19. Analysis of dominant and recessive sex-linked lethal mutations induced by low radiation doses in genetically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster w and MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequencies of induced recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) and dominant lethal mutations (DLM) were analyzed in genetically different Drosophila melanogaster strains w and MS after their exposure to radiation on radioactive soil in laboratory conditions. The RSLLM test applied to males after their 14-day radiation exposure yielded controversial results. An analysis of induced and spontaneous DLM demonstrated an increase in the frequency of early embryonic lethal mutations in the experiment (radiation exposure) in comparison with the control (spontaneous mutation rate) in both strains examined

  20. Genetic techniques in insect pest control: an overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (1998), s. 40. [ FAO /IAEA International Conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. 28.05.1998-02.06.1998, Penang] Keywords : Cochliomyia hominivorax * Ceratitis capitata Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. The need for inclusion of sex and age of onset variables in genetic association studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattina, Gabriella Francesca; Steiner, Meir

    2016-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous mental disorder that significantly impairs an individual's functioning. The candidate gene approach has proven to be a useful tool in investigating potential risk genes for OCD, but genetic studies have been largely inconclusive. Etiologically distinct forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder based on sex and age of onset have been identified, yet many genetic studies fail to examine the association by these subtypes. Due to the sexually dimorphic nature of the disorder, positive associations have been found with OCD in males only, suggesting the potential for identifying risk genes that contribute to OCD in women, such as perinatal OCD. This review includes a brief overview of the disorder and its subtypes, with a current update on candidate genes that may contribute to OCD using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome wide association studies (GWAS). PMID:26827635

  2. Sterile insect release and the natural mating system of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in a natural population on Maui, HI. Systematic censuses of the study site were conducted before and after the release of marked sterile flies (both sexes), and the abundance and distribution of fruit flies and leks, incidence of male calling and number, and location of matings were recorded during the two periods. In both replicates, the abundance, distribution, and calling activity of wild males were largely unaffected by the released flies. Most of the released males joined preexisting mating aggregations of wild males and within these leks displayed similar calling activity as the wild males. Approximately 200 matings were observed following the release in each replicate. Three separate analyses indicated that in both replicates release males accounted for fewer matings with wild females than expected by chance. Given that sterile males settled and called in natural lek sites, it appears that their relatively low mating success resulted from an inability to attract wild females to their territory or perform courtship acceptable to females, or both. The results are discussed in light of current sterile insect techniques

  3. Sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Ball, R L; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R

    2015-01-01

    White rhinoceros ejaculates (n=9) collected by electroejaculation from four males were shipped (10°C, 12h) to develop procedures for the production of chilled and frozen-thawed sex-sorted spermatozoa of adequate quality for artificial insemination (AI). Of all electroejaculate fractions, 39.7% (31/78) exhibited high quality post-collection (≥70% total motility and membrane integrity) and of those, 54.8% (17/31) presented reduced in vitro quality after transport and were retrospectively determined to exhibit urine-contamination (≥21.0μg creatinine/ml). Of fractions analyzed for creatinine concentration, 69% (44/64) were classified as urine-contaminated. For high quality non-contaminated fractions, in vitro parameters (motility, velocity, membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity) of chilled non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa were well-maintained at 5°C up to 54h post-collection, whereby >70% of post-transport (non-sorted) or post-sort (sorted) values were retained. By 54h post-collection, some motility parameters were higher (Pelectroejaculates indicate acceptable fertility potential for use in AI. PMID:25497423

  4. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa Mohamed Ammar; Mohammed Said Hefnawy; Sahar Youssef Al-Okbi; Doha Abdou Mohamed; Nabil Khamis El-Sayed; Amira Ahmed El-Anssary; Tom Mabry

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Butia capitata (B. capitata) leaf extracts along with phytochemical analysis of the proposed bioactive constituents.Methods:organic solvents and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in tested animals and in-vitro antioxidant effect. An extensive phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts through paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high pressure liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. GC-Mass, ultraviolet, hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization-mass spectrometry, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation were carried out.Results:Results showed that different extracts possess promising antioxidant effect and Different successive extracts of B. capitata Becc. leaves were prepared with selective significant anti-inflammatory activity with variable degrees. The results of the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts revealed the presence of volatile substances, lipoidal matter, α-tocopherol, free sugars, polysaccharides and flavonoidal compounds.Conclusions: B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol.

  5. Genetic detection of sex-specific dispersal in historical and contemporary populations of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2004-01-01

    The study of sex-biased dispersal has attracted considerable attention in birds and mammals, but less in other taxa, including fishes. We analysed sex-specific dispersal in historical (1910s and 1950s) and contemporary (1990s) samples of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. We tested the hypothesis...... that dispersal is unbiased using information from microsatellite DNA and applying an assignment index for 11 temporally and spatially separated samples. Our results are most consistent with brown trout dispersal being male biased, and provide no evidence of female bias. We found no evidence that...

  6. Investigations on sex linked recessive lethal mutations as a possible mechanism for the genetic control of Lepidopterous pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex linked recessive lethal mutations (SLRLM) were induced on the Z-chromosome of male codling moths. The competitiveness of a number of strains, each possessing different SLRLM was assessed. The results indicate that a number of strains with SLRLM were isolated and the competitiveness of the heterozygous male carriers was not affected. Methods for combining SLRLM and sex chromosome translocations in the same strain for greater efficiency in the suppression of wild insect populations are discussed. (author). 10 refs, 4 tabs, 4 figs

  7. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in...

  8. Gamma Radiation and Temperature effects on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) with different ages (2, 24, 48 h.old) were incubated at two different temperatures (15 degree for 24 h. and 50 degree for 10 minutes), then they were seeded on the larval media. The produced pupae were irradiated with gamma radiation (70 Gy as a sub sterilizing dose). Some biological aspects were studied concerning the effect of temperature on eggs and irradiation of the produced pupae. Results obtained showed that the percent pupation in the control group was significantly decreased with increasing the egg age in comparing 2 and 48 h.old eggs. However, in case of 24 h.old eggs, there was no effect at both temperatures applied. Incubation of 2 and 48 h.old eggs at either temperatures significantly affected the percent pupation when compared to the control group except with 48 h.old egg and 50 degree. At the two temperatures applied, the incubation periods significantly decreased the percent emergence for 2 h.old at both temperatures and 48 h.old eggs at 15 degree only. Incubated eggs at 50 degree and 48 h.old didn't affect neither percent pupation nor percent emerged sex. On the other hand, egg hatch ability was significantly reduced at 24 h.old egg and 50 degree for 10 minutes also at 2 h.old egg and 50 degree for 10 min. either by applying temperature alone or combined with irradiation, respectively. Egg incubation at 15 degree and 50 degree for 24 and 48 h.old eggs, respectively insignificantly reduced hatch ability of eggs of the produced adults. Combination of temperature (50 degree for 10 minutes applied to 2 h.old eggs) and gamma radiation gave the best reduction in egg hatch ability of the produced adults. Male competitiveness was better when 24 h.old eggs were incubated at 15 degree for 24 hours rather than incubated at 50 degree for 10 minutes. Neither the temperature nor the exposure time to which eggs of different eggs were subjected to heat affected adult survival

  9. Genetic and environmental components of variation in eumelanin and phaeomelanin sex-traits in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Dijkstra, C

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism underlying the expression of melanin-based sex-traits may help us to understand their signalling function. Potential sources of inter-individual variation are the total amount of melanins produced but also how biochemical precursors are allocated into the eumelanin and pha

  10. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  11. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Likelihood of getting certain diseases Mental abilities Natural talents An abnormal trait (anomaly) that is passed down ... Human beings have cells with 46 chromosomes -- 2 chromosomes that determine what sex they are (X and ...

  12. Sex in Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Min; Feretzaki, Marianna; Sun, Der Sheng; Wang, Xuying; Heitman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Sexual reproduction enables genetic exchange in eukaryotic organisms as diverse as fungi, animals, plants, and ciliates. Given its ubiquity, sex is thought to have evolved once, possibly concomitant with or shortly after the origin of eukaryotic organisms themselves. The basic principles of sex are conserved, including ploidy changes, the formation of gametes via meiosis, mate recognition, and cell-cell fusion leading to the production of a zygote. Although the basic tenants are shared, sex d...

  13. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  14. Thymbra capitata essential oil prevents cell death induced by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigón-Vinagre, María P; Blanco, José; Ruiz, Trinidad; Henao, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary experimental investigation on the antioxidant activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil was made. This plant is a Mediterranean culinary herb, whose essential oil antioxidant power has recently been demonstrated in vitro as one of the highest in nature. We tested if this in vitro antioxidant capacity was reproducible on biological systems using as model system primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The composition and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the T. capitata essential oil were also assessed. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species level were measured in cells treated with pathophysiologic doses of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (capitata essential oil, and the ability of small doses (capitata essential oil. PMID:25203731

  15. Sex Determination in Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex determination is an intriguing system in trioecious papaya. Over the past seven decades various hypotheses, based on the knowledge and information available at the time, have been proposed to explain the genetics of the papaya's sex determination. These include a single gene with three alleles...

  16. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Figueiredo, A. C.; M.M. Costa; Martins, D; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, L. G.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 degreesC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants) were used and subjected to t...

  17. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae). Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the fol...

  18. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries. PMID:16218659

  19. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O; Thun, Michael J; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J

    2009-10-01

    Sex hormones, particularly the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiologic evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterized variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5% to 10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men [association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292-rs727479 (A-A) versus noncarriers; P = 1 x 10(-5)], and with inverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterized by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  20. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for elective sex selection, the IVF market economy, and the child--another long day's journey into night?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2002-09-01

    The promise of medical innovation has long evoked social commentary, particularly when personal reproductive autonomy may be involved. Development of the oral contraceptive, effective and safe surgical sterilization, and later IVF and ICSI are among the revolutionary developments where the initial reactions were dubious but were accorded mainstream status with sufficient clinical experience. In each instance, debate about the moral and social implications of these treatments accompanied their introduction into the medical marketplace. This pattern appears to be repeating itself in connection with the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for elective sex selection of human embryos. As with prior challenges in reproductive medicine, the development of meaningful "guidelines" for this latest controversy has proven to be a contentious task. Indeed, the progression of ethics committee reports from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine seems to echo the ambivalence within society at large regarding this issue. In this report, we chronicle sex selection claims based on sperm sorting, and describe how flow cytometry and especially PGD have facilitated this selection at the gamete and embryo stage, respectively. In doing so, we also explore market forces and practitioner considerations associated with the application of PGD for this; related ethical issues with particular emphasis on the progeny derived from such treatment are also reviewed. PMID:12408539

  1. Fine-scale population genetic structure and short-range sex-biased dispersal in a solitary carnivore, Lutra lutra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quaglietta, L.; Fonseca, V. C.; Hájková, Petra; Mira, A.; Boitani, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 3 (2013), s. 561-571. ISSN 0022-2372 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : conservation genetics * dispersal distances * Eurasian otter * isolation by distance * radiotracking * restricted gene flow * spatial relatedness structure * spatiotemporal scale Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.225, year: 2013

  2. Early Adverse Environments and Genetic Influences on Age at First Sex: Evidence for Gene × Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marie D.; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on…

  3. Effect of gamma-rays on inherited sterility and sperm transfer in Ephestia kuehniella with genetic sexing applied

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Koudelová, Jana

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (1998), s. 39. [ FAO /IAEA International Conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. 28.05.1998-02.06.1998, Penang] Keywords : Ephestia kuehniela * gamma-rays Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Gerald; Zacharopoulou Antigone; Caceres Carlos; Schetelig Marc F; Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dep...

  5. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  6. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ekspor Kubis (Brassica O. Capitata) dari Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuhaji, Nomi Br

    2012-01-01

    NOMI BR. SINUHAJI, 2012. The Analysis of Some Variables which Influence the export of Cabbages (Brassica O. Capitata) in Karo District (Supervised by Dr. Ir. Tavi Supriana, MS and Ir. Luhut Sihombing, MP). The demand of exporting cabbages to Malaysia and Singapore tends to increase, while the market segments of exporting cabbages from Karo District at the present time are new competitors, such as the People’s Republic of China, Thailand, and Vietnam. The aim of the research was to analyze ...

  7. Sexual behavior of mutant strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    R.D Briceño

    2003-01-01

    Males of the mutant strains (blind, vestigal-winged) of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratits capitata (Wiedmann) showed differences in behavior compared with control (mass-reared) males. Mutant males made fewer mating attempts and achieved fewer matings than control males. Vestigal-winged females copulated less frequently with both mutants. Blind males climbed rather than jumped onto females and copulated in very low numbers compared with control and vestigal males. Blind females co...

  8. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  9. Transcriptome analysis in Ceratitis capitata to unveil genes involved in ageing-maturation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. San Andrés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely used in integrated programmes against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae. Information on the age distribution of insects, and more particularly, the knowledge of wild female reproductive status (mature or not at the time of the sterile male release is one of the key factors for the success of the SIT. In recent years, sequencing analysis has become an important tool in molecular biology. In this work we present a genome-wide expression analysis based on SSH (substractive sequence hybridization and EST (expressed sequence tag sequencing and macroarray expression analysis to identify signature genes related to the ageing-maturing process in C. capitata, leading to the successful identification of new putative candidate genes of reproductive status in medfly that would serve as molecular markers for ageing. We have sorted out 94 unigenes from 873 single-pass ESTs, of which 57% have homology with known genes. Ageing-maturing process in C. capitata presents a marked expression pattern accompanied by the increase of transcription level of genes involved in reproduction (vitellogenins, chorion proteins and male-specific serum proteins. Other identified cDNAs (43% with a differential expression pattern would be also candidates but deserve further studies, as they belong to the unknown function class.

  10. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  11. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  12. Sex determination in Medfly: A molecular approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing new strategies of control to limit the damages inflicted on fruit crops by Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Medfly), a biotechnological approach is undertaken whereby female viability would be impaired or male viability would be improved following the introduction of specific genes into the genome of C. capitata. Only males will then be mass produced and released in the infested areas after sterilisation (Louis et al. 1987). Such conditional lethal or 'advantageous' genes could be expressed in transgenic flies either female-specifically or male-specifically by using cis regulative sequences obtained from previously isolated endogenous Ceratitis genes (Saccone et al. 1996, 1998). By using molecular strategies based on a subtractive technique, we have recently isolated male-specifically expressed genes in the Medfly. Furthermore, we present the current status of the research on the Ceratitis dsx gene, showing sex-specific alternative splicing as in Drosophila, and on the tra-inaZ strategy to induce in Drosophila flies female-specific conditional lethality

  13. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed. PMID:27055195

  14. Plant sex chromosome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    It is now well established that plants have an important place in studies of sex chromosome evolution because of the repeated independent evolution of separate sexes and sex chromosomes. There has been considerable recent progress in studying plant sex chromosomes. In this review, I focus on how these recent studies have helped clarify or answer several important questions about sex chromosome evolution, and I shall also try to clarify some common misconceptions. I also outline future work that will be needed to make further progress, including testing some important ideas by genetic, molecular, and developmental approaches. Systems with different ages can clearly help show the time course of events during changes from an ancestral co-sexual state (hermaphroditism or monoecy), and I will also explain how different questions can be studied in lineages whose dioecy or sex chromosomes evolved at different times in the past. PMID:23125359

  15. Some Chemical Elements in Gamma Irradiated Adults of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) Fed on Different Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental composition of four yeast diets differ in protein composition and mixed with sugar as a carbohydrate source were compared with a standard yeast diet used for the mass rearing of med fly C. capitata. The cost availability and the effects on the quality of reared flies were the main measures for these comparisons. Moreover, the elemental composition of reared flies on the tested diets either irradiated to gamma radiation or normal beside full grown pupae (F1) were detected and compared with those reared on standard diet . Data obtained revealed that ten elements (K, N, Na, P, Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Mn and Cu) were detected and classified according to their quantities .However those quantities varied according to the type of used yeast ,insect stage , insect sex and irradiated dose. The major group (K, N, Na and P), moderate group (Ca, Fe and Mg) and minor group (Zn, Mn and Cu) remained unchanged although their quantities were changed inside each group. In addition, a significant increase in K, N, Na, P and Ca when diet No.4 (D4) was used to feed flies. These findings may enhance the opportunity of sterile insect technique (SIT). However Fe and Zn ions were decreased with changing the standard yeast and this is may contradict SIT. Also when normal females fed on all tested yeasts, the concentrations of the ten elements increased as compared to those fed on standard diet. These results may increase the efficiency of sterilized reared insects to compete with the native insects in the field

  16. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions. PMID:22127183

  17. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  18. Evolution of Sex Chromosomes in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Vera B; Bachtrog, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. Y (or W) chromosomes lack genetic recombination, are male- (female-) limited, and show an abundance of genetically inert heterochromatic DNA but contain few functional genes. X (or Z) chromosomes also show sex-biased transmission (i.e., X chromosomes show female-biased and Z-chromosomes show male-biased inheritance) and are hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. Their unusual ploidy level and pattern of inheritance imply that sex...

  19. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein. PMID:26685109

  20. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gy—a dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrin—a highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended. PMID:25438257

  1. Conflict over condition-dependent sex allocation can lead to mixed sex-determination systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijper, B.; Pen, I.

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that genetic conflicts drive turnovers between sex-determining mechanisms, yet these studies only apply to cases where sex allocation is independent of environment or condition. Here, we model parent–offspring conflict in the presence of condition-dependent sex allocation, where the environment has sex-specific fitness consequences. Additionally, one sex is assumed to be more costly to produce than the other, which leads offspring to favor a sex ratio less biased toward the ch...

  2. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  3. Estudio de la actividad biocida de aceites procedentes de plantas aromáticas sobre Tetranychus urticae y Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Laborda, R.; Manzano, I.; Gamón, M.; Gavidia, Isabel; Pérez-Bermúdez, Pedro; Boluda Hernandez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la actividad biocida de aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas aromáticas como el romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) y la salvia (Salvia officinalis L.) sobre la araña roja (Tetranychus urticae Koch) y la mosca de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann). El aceite esencial de salvia a la concentración del 1% se mostró capaz de atraer adultos de C. capitata. La mayor actividad frente a la araña roja se observó por parte del aceite esencial de salvia, provocando, con gran rapid...

  4. Spring and early summer phenology and detection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious fruit pests world-wide, infesting more than 300 plant species (Liquido et al. 1991). Many studies on population dynamics of C. capitata have been conducted in the tropics (Vargas et al. 1983, Nishida et al. 1985, Eskafi and Kolbe 1990, Harris et al. 1993) and in the Mediterranean area (Rivnay 1951, Benfatto et al. 1989, Campos et al. 1989, Fimiani 1989, Cayol and Causse 1992, Michelakis 1992, Israely et al. 1997, Katsoyannos et al. 1998a). However, there are no detailed studies on the seasonal occurrence and population dynamics of the fly in the most temperate parts of its distribution. The population build up of the fly is mostly determined by host fruit abundance and availability, and by environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. In northern Greece, which is within the northern limits of the fly's distribution, winter temperatures are unfavourable for C. capitata survival (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). In addition, there is a gap in host fruit availability from near December until the following May. However, C. capitata has developed a remarkable ability to survive in such climates (though suffering high mortality), predominantly as larvae within certain host fruits that become infested at the end of autumn and remain in the orchards until the following spring (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The prolonged larval period, especially that of the 1st and the 2nd instars, due to low temperatures, enables the fly to survive long periods of unfavourable conditions (Papadopoulos et al. 1998). The few adults emerging in spring, may live as long as 3 months and can oviposit a high number of eggs in artificial oviposition substrates (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The importance of some key factors - late spring and early summer maturing host fruits - for the re-establishment of the C. capitata population has been suggested (Cayol 1996, Israely et al

  5. Rethinking Timing of First Sex and Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane; Hill, Jennifer E.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between timing of first sex and later delinquency was examined using a genetically informed sample of 534 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, who were assessed at three time points over a 7-year interval. Genetic and environmental differences between families were found to account for the association between earlier age at first sex and increases in delinquency. After controlling for these genetic and environmental confounds using a quas...

  6. Biology studies and improvement of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) mass trapping control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrubia María, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (mosca de la fruita), està considerada a nivell mundial com una de les plagues més destructives de fruits degut a la seva elevada capacitat de causar danys en la producció, la seva distribució global i al seu ampli rang d‟hostes. S‟ha desenvolupat un model eficaç de control integrat de plagues (IPM), que ha estat acceptat a Europa com estratègia de protecció vegetal per a una agricultura sostenible. L‟objectiu del present treball va ser l‟...

  7. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  8. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  9. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  10. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  11. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FIVE ADULT DIETS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND GAMMA IRRADIATED ADULT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the sterile insect technique for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), experiments were carried out to test the effect of four new adult protein sources on the insect vitality. Different yeasts consisting of almost the same nutritive components but differ in the quantity of protein were mixed with sugar as carbohydrate sources (2:3) and compared to the standard adult diet (enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3). Adults reared on each diet were evaluated biologically for their response to gamma radiation (90 Gy). The weight and size of the produced pupae from parents fed on the tested diets, percent of adult emergence, sex ratio, adults survival, egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) for the following generations were taken as monitors for the insect vitality. The results showed that adult male and female survival for 5, 10 and 15 days from emergence, percent egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) showed no sharp differences between three tested diets D3(Af), D4(YE300) and D5(YE00) as compared to the standard diet D1(YH, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3) for parents and F1 progeny. However, when the second tested diet D2(Ay150) was used, the results showed a significant decreases in most of the tested biological aspects, especially in the male mating competitiveness value (C.V.), which is considered the most important monitor for male insect vitality

  12. Sex-differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Willemsen, G; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  13. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  14. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  15. Wild Thymbra capitata from Western Rif (Morocco): essential oil composition, chemical homogeneity and yield variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhy, Khadija; Benlhabib, Ouafae; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Felix

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils (EO, 15 collective samples and 47 individual samples) of Thymbra capitata collected from Moroccan Western Rif were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-SM) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Twenty components were identified. Carvacrol (68.2%-85.9%) was by far the major component of all the samples, while the content of thymol (0.1-0.3%) was very low. Other components present in appreciable amounts were gamma-terpinene (up to 8.9%), p-cymene (up to 7.1%), linalool (up to 4.4%) and (E)-beta-caryophyllene (up to 4.1%). In contrast, the yield of EO varied drastically from sample to sample (0.5-3.7%). No correlation could be established between yield of EO and altitude, pH, chemical composition and granularity of the soil. Cultivation under controlled conditions is suggested to improve the quantitative characteristics of carvacrol-rich Moroccan T. capitata. PMID:24079192

  16. Sexual behavior of mutant strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Males of the mutant strains (blind, vestigal-winged of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratits capitata (Wiedmann showed differences in behavior compared with control (mass-reared males. Mutant males made fewer mating attempts and achieved fewer matings than control males. Vestigal-winged females copulated less frequently with both mutants. Blind males climbed rather than jumped onto females and copulated in very low numbers compared with control and vestigal males. Blind females copulated normally with control, males and in very low numbers with both types of mutant malesMachos mutantes (ciegos, alas vestigiales de la mosca del mediterráneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann mostraron diferencias en conducta comparados con los machos testigo (cría masiva. Los machos mutantes, realizaron menos intentos por aparearse y lograron menos apareamientos que los machos testigo. Las hembras con alas vestigiales, copularon menos con ambas clases de mutantes. Los machos ciegos, subieron en lugar de saltar sobre las hembras y copularon en números muy bajos comparados con los machos testigo y con los de alas vestigiales. Las hembras ciegas, copularon de forma normal con los machos testigo y en números muy bajos con ambos tipos de machos mutantes

  17. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays. PMID:27247307

  18. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  19. Agronomical and chemical characterisation of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. biotypes from Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Leto, Claudio; Cicero, Nicola; Tropea, Alessia; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the agronomical and chemical characterisation of 13 Sicilian biotypes of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., grown under the same agricultural and environmental condition, are reported. The main morpho-productive parameters and quali-quantitative profile of essential oils (EOs) were determined. The EOs were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to group biotypes according to the EOs chemical composition. The EO yield ranged between 4.6 and 8.1 (v/w). A total of 38 EO compounds have been identified. The compounds mostly represented were α-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, borneol, carvacrol and β-caryophyllene. In all biotypes, the carvacrol (67.4-79.5%) was the main compound, confirming that T. capitata is a carvacrol chemotype. The results showed that all Sicilian Thymbra biotypes have a good adaptation to the climatic conditions of the test environment. PMID:25600887

  20. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  1. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  2. Evaluation of ionizing radiation in the control of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian fruit exportation is being jeopardized by quarantine exigencies from import countries after EDB use restriction. Mangoes, papayas and persimmons were treated in their export boxes by Cobalt ionizing radiation doses from 10 to 40 krad after being naturally or artificially infested with eggs and larvae of the Mediterranean Fruit fly Ceratitis capitata W. The results showed that: papayas must be treated mature green, a dose of 38.9 to 40.0 krad is able to control the natural infestation and the artificial infestation with eggs in papayas and persimmons but the same dose was not able to control the infestation with last instar larvae, all the larvae (except four that survived treatments) were unable to attain the adult stage; the only four that survived gave non viable adults, the most susceptible stages of C. capitata to radiation treatment were eggs and pupae. The most resistant were last instar larvae; data obtained from mangoes were not considered due to insect death on the checks. (author)

  3. ROLE OF SILYMARIN AS ANTIOXIDANT ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND IRRADIATED PUPAE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of silymarin as an antioxidant on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, at different concentrations (40, 60, 80, 100 mg/0.5 kg larval medium). Also, larval and pupal duration, percent adult emergence, sex ratio, weight and size of pupae, as compared to the control group, were studied.The results indicated that larval and pupal durations were reduced at 60 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media as compared to the control.The concentrations 40, 60 and 80 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media were selected and the produced pupae from these different larval media were irradiated with the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) and the sub-sterilizing gamma dose (70 Gy) to study their effects on female fecundity, male fertility, survival, competitiveness values and also their effects on the mating ability and ability of males to inseminate females.The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant decrease in female egg production at all concentrations examined as compared to the control group. Male fertility was not affected when silymarin was applied alone but significant decrease was observed when pupae were treated with radiation alone or with silymarin at all concentrations and both gamma doses. Survival was not affected for both sexes with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation.Moreover, data obtained revealed significant effect in male competitiveness values at 40 and 80 mg silymarin concentrations and the gamma sterilizing dose (90 Gy). However, mating ability and ability to inseminate females were not affected with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation as compared to the control

  4. Some Biological studies on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) After Egg Exposure to Acetone, Diethyl Ether, Ethyl Alcohol and Pupal Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some biological studies of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were carried out to help in controlling this pest. Three laboratory experiments were done to study the effect of acetone, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol separately or combined with gamma radiation through egg treatment or larval diet treatment. The gamma dose (90 Gy) was applied only on the produced pupae after egg or larval diet treatment. Concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100% of each chemical were applied for treating eggs to evaluate egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio. larval diet treatment was done by adding 20 ml of each chemical concentration to 500 gm of larval diet.Treating eggs with ethyl alcohol separately increased pupation significantly at all concentration used while adult emergence was insignificantly increased with the lowest concentration only (25%). Treating larval diet with ethyl alcohol alone increased pupation insignificantly and adult emergence was insignificantly decreased at different concentrations. Moreover, treating eggs or larval diet with diethyl ether alone significantly increased sex ratio at 50% and 2% concentration, respectively,while differed insignificantly by applying different chemicals either on eggs or on larval diet. Treating eggs with the three chemicals before gamma irradiation of the produced pupae fluctuated egg hatch insignificantly compared to gamma irradiation alone. By applying diethyl ether on eggs or acetone in the larval diet decreased egg hatch insignificantly. Competitiveness values were insignificantly increased by applying ethyl alcohol on eggs, acetone or ethyl alcohol on eggs, acetone or ethyl alcohol in larval diet before gamma irradiation of the produced pupae. Survivals of the produced adults, treated as eggs or in the larval diet with different chemicals and irradiated as pupae, fluctuated insignificantly

  5. Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) of wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wield.), as influenced by the sterilizing dose of the gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on wings and mouth parts of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.), and their associated sensilla will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males or to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate. Moreover, the fly may fail to suck the plant juice. Using the scanning electron microscopy, this study was investigated. The changes which occurred to the wings and mouth parts of the med fly may be due to the sterilizing dose. One pair of wings was found to have similar typical structures in both sexes differing non-significantly in their measurements. Three different types of located sensilla were observed on each wing namely; trichoid (type sharp and blunt tipped), chaetica (type 1, 2 and 3) and basiconica (type non-socket, socket and papillae). The distribution and measurements of these sensilla were described in the text. The study of the mouth parts of both sexes recorded that there was similar pattern except significant increase between the length of the proboscis of male and female. Four different types of located sensilla were found on the mouth parts of the med fly and their measurements were given in the text. Namely trichoid (type sharp), squameformia (type 1 and socket), chaetica (type 1) and basiconica (type non-socket) were observed. The distal region of the labium was very smooth and did not bear any kind of sensilla. Pupal irradiation with the sterilizing dose resulted in different malformations in both irradiated male and female adult wings and mouth parts and their associated sensilla. Some malformations were observed in the intraveins of the irradiated male wing and in the pseudo tracheae of irradiated female labella

  6. Use of gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera, Tephritidae) for disinfestation of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation doses to attend quarantine requirements of importing countries, by disinfecting mango fruits from Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) is studied. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed during the embryonic development. Doses up to 40 Gy for C. capitata and up to 100 Gy for A. Fraterculus and A. Obliqua did not affect pupation of 4-,5-,6- and 7-day-old larvae, irradiated 'in vitro'. Larvae of C. capitata were more resistant than A. Obliqua and A. Fraterculus. Larvae of A. Obliqua were more resistant than A. Fraterculus. The dose of 125.5 Gy fulfilled the criteria for efficacy, which prevented emergence of the adults of three fruit fly species studied. (author)

  7. Sex Stereotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the social phenomenon—sex stereotype.The paper illustrates the characteristics of stereotype and discusses about the factors which influence sex stereotypes and the reasons of its existence.And it also found the positive role that sex stereotype plays in the communication.

  8. Sex linked deafness: Wilde revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon, W

    1990-01-01

    Sex linked recessive deafness is a rare cause of male genetic deafness, estimated to account for 6.2% of male genetic deafness in 1966. A male excess was found in the deaf population of Ireland in 1851. Reevaluation of this survey of 1851 confirms sex linked deafness as a factor in the disproportionate number of deaf males and suggests that 5% of congenital male deafness was the result of sex linked recessive deafness. This study confirms that a small but constant proportion of male deafness ...

  9. A genomic perspective to assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eradication in California

    OpenAIRE

    Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata are used extensively in control programs involving sterile insect technique in California. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release en masse into the field to compete with wild males and disrupt establishment of invasive populations. Recent research suggests establishment of C. capitata in California, despite the fact that over 250 milli...

  10. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, L.; Barroso, J.G.; Martins, D; M.M. Costa; Figueiredo, A. C.; Miguel, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants) were used and subjecte...

  11. A first AFLP-Based Genetic Linkage Map for Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana and Its Application in Mapping the Sex Locus

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map...

  12. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  13. Diversity among Bacillus thuringiensis active against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures were developed to screen rapidly isolates of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis against adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and simultaneously characterize its active agents on the basis of their water solubility and heat stability. Fermentation products in solution, in suspension or dried were bioassayed. Heat stable, soluble exotoxins were the most frequently found active agents; some strains produced exotoxins that precipitated and their activity was found in the sediment fraction of fermentation beers. Insoluble heat labile agents were found that upon subsequent preparation were identified as active spores. The activity of spores from different isolates was different. One isolate produced endotoxin that, although inactive when bioassayed alone, had synergistic activity when combined with spores. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Isolation and identification of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains with insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present work is to study the effect of toxins (delta-endotoxins), extracted from different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Ceratitis capitata, a devastating of citrus and fruit trees. Strains of B. thuringiensis were isolated from the mud of Sebket Sejoumi. Among 70 isolates tested, 15 showed a significant identicalness activity in which 5 isolates led to mortality rates ≥ 90 pour cent . These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of B. thuringiensis. Analysis of proteins profiles of different isolates of B. thuringiensis revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by B. thuringiensis strains for large scale application.

  15. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  16. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26996035

  17. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  18. Insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants on Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The excessive use of chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests is becoming alarming. The objective of this study is to search for biopesticides of plant origin that could be used to control one of the major pest of fruit production; the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). A colony of the Lebanese wild strain of this insect was reared under laboratory condition to provide biological material. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants in Lebanon was assessed. The tested plants are: Foeniculum vulgare, Thymbra spicata, Artemisia herba alba, Origanum syriacum, Ruta chalepensis, Lavandula stoechas, Salvia fruticosa, Mentha microphylla, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis and Ocimum gratissimum. Results show that essential oils isolated from F. vulgare, T. spicata, A. herba alba, O. syriacum and R. chalepensis have promising insecticidal potential. (author)

  19. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Globimetula oreophila (Oliv van Tiegh and Phragmanthera capitata (Spreng Balle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O O Ogbole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants will continue to be relevant in the production of lead compounds that can be utilized for its antibacterial activity directly or through chemical modification (s. Aims: The present study is conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity vis-ΰ-vis phytochemical constituents of Globimetula oreophila and Phragmanthera capitata. Materials and Methods: Cup plate agar diffusion assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts of both plants against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by plotting the diameters of zones of inhibition against the logarithm of concentrations and the straight line graph so generated extrapolated to the value equivalent to the diameter of the cork-borer. The antilog of the corresponding value of concentration was taken as the MIC value. Statistical Analysis: All the values of the results of cup plate diffusion assay were expressed as means of two replicates ± standard deviation. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones and flavonoid in both plants. Antibacterial screening of both plants showed that both of them were active against all clinical bacterial isolates tested with P. capitata having a higher activity than G. oreophila on most of the isolates. The ability of both plants to inhibit the growth of S. typhi is a major breakthrough in the control of incidence of typhoid fever notwithstanding the reports of resistance to existing antibiotics. Conclusion: It therefore follows that the importance of both plants in the management and control of infections with which all the bacterial isolates used for this study were associated cannot be underestimated.

  20. Experimental and DFT studies on the antioxidant activity of a C-glycoside from Rhynchosia capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.; Deepha, V.; Sivakumar, Raman

    2013-02-01

    Rhynchosia capitata (=Glycine capitata) Heyne ex roth, was found to possess polyphenolics including flavonoids, which acts as potential antioxidant. The study of ethanolic extract of roots and leaves reveals that the leaves possess high polyphenolics including flavonoids than roots. This was also confirmed by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Leaf powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents by soxhlet apparatus in the order of increasing polarity. The DPPH scavenging activity of methanol fraction was found to be high compared to the crude extract and other fractions. Nitric oxide scavenging activity was dominant in chloroform fraction compared to methanol fraction. Presence of flavonoids especially vitexin, a C-glycoside in methanol and chloroform fractions were confirmed by high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The structural and molecular characteristics of naturally occurring flavonoid, vitexin was investigated in gas phase using density functional theory (DFT) approach with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) reveals that the OH site that requires minimum energy for dissociation is 4'-OH from B-ring. To explore the radical scavenging activity of vitexin, the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index properties were computed and interpreted. The nonvalidity of Koopman's theorem has been verified by the computation of Eo and Ev energy magnitudes. Interestingly, from BDE calculations it was observed that BDE for 4'-OH, 5-OH and 7-OH are comparatively low for vitexin than its aglycone apigenin and this may be due to the presence of C-8 glucoside in vitexin. To substantiate this, plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution analysis for neutral and the corresponding radical species for the compound vitexin have been presented.

  1. Quarantine treatment to Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in orange fruits (Citrus sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (vapour heat and hot water) and irradiation on Ceratitis capitata eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; the relation between temperature and exposition time to vapour heat and hot water on fruit fly immature; the relation among the different doses of radiation on fruit fly immature and evaluate the effect of the treatments (thermal treatments and irradiation) on the chemical composition of the fruits. It was evaluated the heat absorption and loose of heat by the fruit. For thermal treatments it was used temperatures of 44 and 46 deg C for 15,30,60, 90 and 120 minutes and a control. For irradiation were used the doses: 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: to the control of eggs and larvae (first, second and third instars) the treatment with vapour heat was less efficient than the hot water treatment; the thermal treatments of C. capitata eggs and larvae (first and second and third instars) can be recommended with vapor heat at 46 deg C at 152.2 minutes or with hot water at 46 deg C at 84.8 minutes, achieving the quarantine request; third instar larvae are more tolerant to the thermal and irradiation treatments; the treatment with irradiation can be recommended for quarantine treatment of ali immature stages evaluated with the dose of 72.88 Gy; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from ali immature stages irradiated; treatments do not cause any change in the chemical proprieties in the orange fruits var. 'Valencia'. (author)

  2. Sex Determination Mechanisms in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quanqi; SUN Xiaohua; QI Jie; WANG Zhigang; WANG Xinglian; WANG Xubo; ZHAI Teng

    2009-01-01

    In fish, sex determination (SD) system shows high variation. The SD mechanisms include environmental and genetic regulation. The research on SD system and related genes in intensively studied fish species was reviewed. Although some genes have been described as sex-related, only DMRTlbY can be considered as a master sex determination gene and none of them has been util-ized in aquaculture. The variation of fish SD system, the importance of sex-related genes in evolution research and the relations be-tween environmental factors and sex-related genes were also discussed. The fish sex determination mechanism remains largely un-known. Further research needs to be done considering the significance of fish SD studies in basic and applied aspects.

  3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS FOR OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN Butia capitata (MARTIUS) BECCARI SEEDS TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS PARA SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Butia capitata (MARTIUS) BECCARI

    OpenAIRE

    Delacyr da Silva Brandão Júnior; Hélida Mara Magalhães; César Fernandes Aquino; Paulo Sérgio Nascimento Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-germination treatments for overcoming dormancy in Butia capitata seeds. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (mechanical treatments x immersion substances), with 20 seeds per plot and four replications. For mechanical treatments, seeds with endocarp (pyrene), seeds without endocarp, and scarified pyrenes were used, whereas, for the immersion substances, gibberellic acid, water, and the contr...

  4. Avaliação da qualidade de frutos de café atacados por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae Evaluation of the quality of coffee fruit attacked by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Cividanes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram usadas plantas de Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí Vermelho, localizadas no Campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba,SP, para avaliação dos danos que Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 pode causar aos frutos do cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que o ataque de C. capitula não causou queda prematura dos frutos, mas aumentou a queda de cerejas e foram encontradas, fortes evidências, com base na atividade da enzima polifenol oxidase e lixiviação de potássio, que cerejas atacadas podem produzir bebida de café de qualidade inferior.The present work was carried out using trees of Coffea arabica L. variety Red Catuaí grown at Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Campus of the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba,SP. The objective was to estimate damages that Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 can cause to coffee fruits. The results showed that C.capitata did not cause premature fruit fall, but it increased berry fall. The activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and potassium lixiviatiou give strong evidences that atacked coffee beans produce coffee beverage of inferior quality.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of the compatibility of a new attractant contaminant device ciontaining Metarhizium anisopliae with Ceratitis capitata sterile males

    OpenAIRE

    SAN ANDRÉS AURA, VICTORIA; Ayala Mingol, Ildefonso; Abad Payá, María Del Carmen; Primo Millo, Jaime; Casteñera, P.; Moya Sanz, Mª Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the compatibility of using the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, to be dispensed in a new attractant contaminant device (ACD), jointly with sterilized Ceratitis capitata males, as an integrated approach to control this major pest. The exposure of sterile Vienna 8 (V8) strain and wild type (WT) males to the contaminating part (infective dish) of the ACD showed similar susceptibility levels to the fungal strain (LT50 value of 4.52 ...

  6. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza; Paulo Augusto Lima-Filho; Wagner Franco Molina; Lúcia Maria de Almeida; Milson Bezerra de Gouveia; Francisco Pepino de Macêdo; Raul Alberto Laumann; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonic...

  7. SENSIBILIDADE DE OVOS DE Ceratitis capitata (WIED., 1824 IRRADIADOS EM DIETA ARTIFICIAL E EM FRUTOS DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A RAGA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as doses de radiação gama que impedissem a emergência de adultos de Ceratitis capitata, a partir de ovos irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga. Quinhentos ovos de 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de idade foram irradiados em cada dose. A infestação artificial de ovos ocorreu em mangas das cultivares Haden, Tommy Atkins ou Keitt. Um aumento da radioresistência de ovos foi observado durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, e para ovos de 48 horas em dieta artificial, foi estimado um Probit 9 de 24,67Gy. Não foi observada influência significativa dos frutos de manga na eficiência da irradiação dos ovos, quando comparada com os testes em dieta artificial.The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata (Wied. adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four- and fourty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of `Haden', `Tommy Atkins' and `Keitt' cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation.

  8. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Graça Miguel; Custódia Gago; Maria Dulce Antunes; Cristina Megías; Isabel Cortés-Giraldo; Javier Vioque; A. Sofia Lima; A. Cristina Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Maria Graça Miguel et al. The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS·+ and peroxyl free radicals...

  9. Origin of Sex Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mauro; Zintzaras, Elias; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2003-10-01

    Why did sex ever arise in the first place? Why it does not disappear in view of the greater efficiency of asexuals? These are clearly two different questions, and we suggest here that the solution for the origin of sex does not necessarily come from theoretical considerations based on currently existing genetic systems. Thus, while we agree with a number of authors in that the emergence of sex (understood as the exchange of genetic material between genomes) is deeply rooted in the origin of life and happened during the very early stages in the transition from individual genes (`replicators') to bacteria-like cells (`reproducers'), we challenge the idea that recombinational repair was the major selective force for the emergence of sex. Taking the stochastic corrector model as a starting point, we provide arguments that question the putative costs of redundancy in primitive protocells. In addition, if genes that cause intragenomic conflict (i.e., parasites) are taken into account, it is certainly wrong to suggest that cellular fusion would be beneficial at the population level (although this strong claim needs some qualifications). However, when a continuous input of deleterious mutations that impair the fitness of the protocell as a whole is considered in the model (in the realistic range in which stable mutant distributions of quasi-species within compartments are established), there are circumstances when sex could be beneficial as a side effect of the dynamic equilibrium between cellular fusion-mutation-selection. The scenario we have explored numerically is fully consistent with the idea that the universal ancestor was not a discrete entity but an ensemble of proto-organisms that exchanged much genetic information.

  10. Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author)

  11. Identifying the Impact of E-Selen on the Sterile Medfly Ceratitis capitata at the Genomic Level Using DNA Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antioxidant E-Selen is an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata in various concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.5 mg) prior to irradiation in order to obtain fully competent males. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at a dose rate of 90 Gy. Biological assessment of two E-Selen concentrations 0.3 and 0.5 mg were found to ameliorate the fitness of the sterile insects as well as to increase significantly most of their amino acids content. The study of the PCR patterns of normal and irradiated C. capitata undertaken or not different doses of E-Selen prior to irradiation and contained in the larval diets induced some modifications to the DNA profiles. The appearance of some new bands and disappearance of others were frequently encountered during this investigation. The appearance of bands was attributed to a repair mechanism that occurs in the irradiated DNA. However, the similarity in the DNA patterns of the homogenate pupal of C. capitata was due to the irradiation-induced damage may be in genome regions other than the regions of study

  12. Conflict over condition-dependent sex allocation can lead to mixed sex-determination systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Bram; Pen, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that genetic conflicts drive turnovers between sex-determining mechanisms, yet these studies only apply to cases where sex allocation is independent of environment or condition. Here, we model parent-offspring conflict in the presence of condition-dependent sex allocation, where the

  13. Efficacy Of Some Fungal Isolates And Their Applications For Controlling The Immature Stages Of The Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) Before And During Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) needs a suitable and effective cheap method alternative to chemical pesticides for suppressing or controlling the population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wi ed.). The effectiveness of five different fungal isolates: Trichoderma longibranchiatum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger and Penicillium oxalicum was evaluated against the immature stages of med fly. Filtrate and three spore suspension concentrations (104, 106 and 108 spores/ml) of each fungal isolate were applied to both 3rd larval instar and pupae at two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Percentage pupation, pupal mortality, adult emergence and sex ratio were studied. The percentage of pupation of 3rd larval instar was not affected. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of pupal mortality as well as in adult emergence from pupae 2 and 8 days-old at all fungal treatments. Pupae (2 days-old) were more susceptible than pupae (8 days-old) to all fungal treatments. The microbial biomass of both A. terreus and P. oxalicum was selected to apply with different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 w/w) on the pupae at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Best results were recorded with biomass at 20% concentration of both fungal isolates. Percentage of mortality was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 50% at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old) for both fungi. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was obtained in adult females emergence resulted in a reduction in the number of eggs deposited and subsequently the punctures on fruits. Chitinase enzyme (important for degradation of chitin which is a component of insect cuticle) and cellulase enzyme (used for improving soil fertility) were determined. The microbial biomass by A. terreus was appeared to be safe to human and animals and can be used for combating immature stages of medfly.

  14. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  15. Respuesta de ecotipos de Stylosanthes capitata a dosis de cobre en solución nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro Esteban A.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available La solución nutritiva de Arnon y Hoagland se modificó a 1/10 para simular las condiciones de acidez y fertilidad del suelo de las sabanas bien drenadas isohipertérmicas de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. Se usaron seis concentraciones de cobre (0,0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 Y 0.8 ppm. la solución nutritiva se renovó cada 15 días y se aplicaron nitrógeno (14 ppm/semana e hierro (1 ppm, 3/semana. La cantidad de materia seca producida por los ecotipos y el cultivar Capica en los tratamientos de 0.2, 0.4 Y0.8 ppm Cu, fue relativamente te nula. La producción de materia seca de la parte aérea, raíz y total de la planta fue diferente en los ecotipos de S capitata. Así mismo hubo diferencias significativas en la concentración, absorción y translocación del cobre por lo ecotipos y el cultivar Capica. El requerimiento diferencial de cobre, manifestado en la producción de materia seca en la parte aérea en el nivel 0.05 ppr por los ecotipos CIAT 1693 y 1728 por el cultivar Capica (CIAT 102801, se define como el resultado de las relaciones evolutivas de cada ecotipo con el nivel de cobre disponible en la solución del suelo.In the greenhouse ecotypes of Stylosanthes capitata were cultivated to observe their behavior under different copper concentrations. A nutrient solution based on Arnon and Hoagland's (1/10 was used to simulate the acidity and the fertility of well drained savannas of the Eastern Planes of Colombia. Six concentrations of copper were used (O, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm with rewal of the nutrient solution every 15 days, and applications of nitrogen (14 ppm/week and iron (1 ppm, three times/week. The dry matter quantity produced by the ecotypes and the Capica cultivar under treatments of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ppm Cu, relatively nill. A differential behavior of Stylosanthes capitata ecotypes responses to applied copper was observed in relation to dry matter production in aerial, part, root and total plant. So, there were significant

  16. Use of steril insect technique to control the medfly Ceratitis capitata wiedmann (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autocide struggle against fruit fly consists in making a raising in mass of the stump to genetic sexing of the fruit fly, to radiate males with gamma rays and then to set free them in orchards of citrus fruits. This technique permitted a reduction of the rate of stings of 50% in relation to the witness although its production of pupae in 2004, either enough feeble, not passing the 9 millions of pupae per week. But, it remains even efficient in relation to the chemical struggle (respectively 12% and 7%). One preliminary survey of the profitability of autocide struggle and the chemical struggle (rate of profitability to 181.020) is more profitable than autocide struggle (rate of profitability to 43.450) for the first year to release. This relativity weak profitability for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is the consequence of a bad interview of citrus fruits and unconsciousness of farmer of the importance of built in struggle technique . However, autocide struggle permits to preserve the quality of fruit, to reduce the toxics residues and to preserve parasitoides. therefore, there is increase of selling prices of the product. (author). 12 refs

  17. Genetic correlation between heart ratio and body weight as a function of ascites frequency in broilers split up into sex and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closter, A M; van As, P; Elferink, M G; Crooijmanns, R P M A; Groenen, M A M; Vereijken, A L J; Van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2012-03-01

    Ascites or pulmonary hypertension syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Male broilers have a higher BW and are therefore expected to be more prone to developing ascites than females. As genetic parameters might be affected by the ascites incidence, genetic parameters might differ between male and female broilers. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritability for the ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight (RATIO) and BW in male and female broilers, the genetic correlation between RATIO and BW separately for male and female broilers, and the genetic correlations between BW for ascitic and nonascitic broilers. Data were available from 7,856 broilers (3,819 males and 4,037 females). The broilers in the experiment were kept under a cold temperature regimen and increased CO(2) levels. In this study, we showed that the incidence of ascites is higher in male than in female broilers. Heritability estimates for BW at 7 wk of age were higher for male (0.22) than for female (0.17) broilers, and for RATIO heritability, estimates were higher for female (0.44) than for male (0.32) broilers. The genetic correlations between RATIO and BW measured at different ages changed from slightly positive at 2 wk of age to moderately negative at 7 wk. The change in genetic correlation was more extreme for male (from 0.01 to -0.62) than for female (from 0.13 to -0.24) broilers. The difference in ascites incidence between male and female broilers is the most likely reason for the difference in genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between BW traits measured in broilers with fluid in the abdomen and without fluid in the abdomen decreased from 0.91 at 2 wk to 0.69 at 7 wk. We conclude that under circumstances with ascites, data from male and female broilers should be analyzed separately. PMID:22334730

  18. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo,Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been foun...

  19. Heritability of sex tendency in a harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voordouw, Maarten J; Anholt, Bradley R

    2002-09-01

    Systems with genetic variation for the primary sex ratio are important for testing sex-ratio theory and for understanding how this variation is maintained. Evidence is presented for heritable variation of the primary sex ratio in the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus californicus. Variation in the primary sex ratio among families cannot be accounted for by Mendelian segregation of sex chromosomes. The covariance in sex phenotype between full-sibling clutches and between mothers and offspring suggests that this variation has a polygenic basis. Averaged over four replicates, the full-sibling heritability of sex tendency is 0.13 +/- 0.040; and the mother-offspring heritability of sex tendency is 0.31 +/- 0.216. Genetic correlations in the sex phenotype across two temperature treatments indicate large genotype-by-temperature interactions. Future experiments need to distinguish between zygotic, parental, or cytoplasmic mechanisms of sex determination in T. californicus. PMID:12389720

  20. Characterization and evaluation of microsatellite markers in a strain of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), with a genetic sexing character used in sterile insect population control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a key economic insect pest reducing fruit yield and generating constraints in the international market. The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) continues to reveal areas where new technologies can improve the effectiveness of fruit fly control. One such advancement concerns insect strains. In the present study, a mass-reared strain of the fly with a translocation-based genetic sexing character (Salaya1) based on a brown-white pupal colour dimorphism was genetically characterized using 11 microsatellite DNA markers. Subsequently, these markers were used to evaluate the maintenance of genetic variability in the strain under mass-rearing conditions. Mating competitiveness of this strain was also tested in field cages. Two of the newly characterized Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite markers were used for strain identification in field monitoring traps. The strain was also validated in a pilot integrated pest management programme using male-only SIT in a fruit orchard. The programme resulted in the suppression of the fruit fly population

  1. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  2. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  3. biological effects of gamma irradiation under partial vacuum on the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different biological effects of gamma irradiation (90 Gy) applied under partial vacuum (3 x 10-4 in Hg) to pupae of medfly, Ceratitis Capitata one or two days before adult eclosion were studied. Male sterility was higher when irradiation was applied to pupae in normal air pressure than that under partial vacuum. Female fecundity under partial vacuum was insignificantly higher than that in normal air pressure, but it was significantly higher in both treatment when compared with controls. Female fecundity was also significantly higher when pupae were treated one day before emergence than that when they were treated two days before emergence. Males treated under partial vacuum were significantly more competitive than those treated in normal air whether pupae were irradiated one day or 2 days before emergence was decreased by gamma irradiation when pupae were irradiated one or two days before eclosion, while when irradiation was conducted under partial vacuum, adult emergence was increased. Survival of males treated as pupae under partial vacuum was higher than that when pupae were irradiated in normal air. Females treated 2 days before emergence under partial vacuum lived longer than those irradiated in an atmosphere of normal air.3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Formation and structural organization of the egg-sperm bundle of the scleractinian coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.

  5. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author)

  6. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author)

  7. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, L R; Pinto, E; Gonçalves, M J; Pina-Vaz, C; Cavaleiro, C; Rodrigues, A G; Palmeira, A; Tavares, C; Costa-de-Oliveira, S; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J

    2004-06-01

    The composition and the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains were studied. Twenty-two samples of the essential oils from the aerial parts of the plant were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. All samples are of the carvacrol type, with a high content of carvacrol (60.0 - 65.8 %) and its biogenetic precursors, gamma-terpinene (8.2 - 9.5 %) and p-cymene (6.0 - 7.5 %). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida (7 clinical isolates and 3 ATCC type strains), Aspergillus (5 clinical isolates, 2 CECT and 2 ATCC type strains) and 5 dermatophyte clinical strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on Candida strains, the inhibition of germ tube and a flow cytometry assay with propidium iodide (PI) were used. The oil exhibited antifungal activity for all the tested strains, particularly for dermatophytes, with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.32 microL/mL. Regarding Candida, concentrations lower than the MIC values prevented germ tube formation. After a short incubation time the cells incorporated quickly PI, meaning that the fungicidal effect is mainly due to direct lesion of the membrane. PMID:15229809

  8. Variation of volatiles in Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imen Ben El Hadj; Guetat, Arbi; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Volatiles from 14 wild Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (=Thymus capitatus Hoffmanns. et Link=Coridothymus capitatus Rchb.f.), sampled in five ecological areas (sub-humid, upper semi-arid, mean semi-arid, lower semi-arid, and upper arid areas) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. Thirty-nine constituents representing 94.2 to 99.5% of the total oil were identified. Carvacrol (38; 51.1-75.9%), p-cymene (13; 3.7-15%), γ-terpinene (12; 1.4-11.9%), and trans-β-caryophyllene (22; 2.9-4.6%) are the major compounds. A significant variation among populations and population's bioclimatic stage for the majority of compounds was shown. The chemical population structure, estimated using a principal-component analysis (PCA) and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis performed on all populations and compounds and based on Euclidean distances among populations, was high. Both methods allowed separation of the populations into distinct groups defined rather by minor than by major compounds. The spatial compound distribution is linked to ecological factors, indicating that local selective environmental factors influence chemical-composition diversity. Conservation strategies should involve all populations because of their low size and their high level of destruction. Populations exhibiting particular compounds other than the major ones should first be protected. In situ conservation of populations should be accomplished appropriately according to bioclimate. PMID:22782875

  9. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  10. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  11. A Review of Sex Determining Mechanisms in Geckos (Gekkota: Squamata)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, T.

    2010-01-01

    Geckos are a species-rich clade of reptiles possessing diverse sex determining mechanisms. Some species possess genetic sex determination, with both male and female heterogamety, while other species have temperature-dependent sex determination. I compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distribution of these sex determining mechanisms in geckos. Using phylogenetic data from the literature, I reconstructed the minimum number of transitions among these sex determining mechanism...

  12. Molecular phylogeny and sex chromosome evolution of the medaka fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Takehana, Yusuke; 竹花, 佑介

    2006-01-01

    Many different sex determination mechanisms are found in nature. Fishes are particularly attractive group for studying the evolution of sex determination mechanisms, because they have a variety of mechanisms ranging from environmental to strict genetic sex determination systems. Accordingly, comparisons between closely related fish species with different sex determination systems or sex chromosomes should provide an important insight to understand how these developmental mechanisms evolve. In...

  13. Two-year data on the field evaluation of attractants for Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae in three localities in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the years 2003 and 2004, our organisations joined the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes'. Objective of the work was the evaluation of fruit fly attractants on two species of economic importance in Italy: Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, following the experimental protocol agreed at previous Research Coordination Meetings. In the 2003 season we selected two locations of southern Italy, one for each tephritid target species: C. capitata experiments have been performed in Eastern Sicily, in one of the most typical areas for citrus orchards; the work on B. oleae has been conducted in the vicinity of Foggia, Apulia, in the Italian southeastern plains, one of the largest and most productive areas for olives. Late summer and early autumn of 2003 were very hot and dry in Italy. For this reason both fly species, after a first detection during June, disappeared in July and August, returning in September with extremely low infestation rates. Nevertheless, experiments gave clear information on insects' preference for the proposed baits. Among the 5 different baits used in Sicily, treatments using the 3 Biolure components (Putrescine, Ammonium Acetate, Trimethylamine) elicited better results than the NuLure control. All baits showed marked selectivity for females. First captures among the 6 different baits utilised for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, were recorded during the first week of September; best scores were detected on the traps baited with NuLure, showing a capture sex ratio of 1:1; and, in a side experiment, on traps baited with the female pheromone, showing 100% male captures. For both insects, the relatively low numbers of captures can be correlated with the low infestation rate: this data was confirmed by the high yield in qualitative and quantitative terms. The tests with the medfly have been repeated in 2004 in an organic

  14. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  15. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  16. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  17. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  18. A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuenken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Baldauf, Sebastian A.

    2012-01-01

    Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pron

  19. Effect of including genetic Progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan F.; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2011-01-01

    dairy herd including young stock. A daily increasing trend describing genetic milk yield potential of the sire population was included in the model. The inaccuracy of assuming that replacement heifers have the same (milk yield) potential as the cows present in the herd was hereby dealt with. Improving...

  20. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape : A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Justice, Anne E.; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Magi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rueeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Asa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stancakova, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loic; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blueher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S.; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Graessler, Juergen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jorgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krueger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindstrom, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stephane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Perusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparso, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Voelker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Boeger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gronberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliovaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kaehoenen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mantyselka, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njolstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Voelzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Ines; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially betw

  1. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc;

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models...

  2. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, T.W.; Justice, A.E.; Graff, M.; Barata, L.; Feitosa, M.F.; Chu, S.; Czajkowski, J.; Esko, T.; Fall, T.; Kilpelainen, T.O.; Lu, Y.; Magi, R.; Mihailov, E.; Pers, T.H.; Rueger, S.; Teumer, A.; Ehret, G.B.; Ferreira, T.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Karjalainen, J.; Lagou, V.; Mahajan, A.; Neinast, M.D.; Prokopenko, I.; Simino, J.; Teslovich, T.M.; Jansen, R.; Westra, H.J.; White, C.C.; Absher, D.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Ahmad, S.; Albrecht, E.; Ferreira Alves, A.C.; Bragg-Gresham, J.L.; Craen, A.J. de; Bis, J.C.; Bonnefond, A.; Boucher, G.; Cadby, G.; Cheng, Y.C.; Chiang, C.W.; Delgado, G.; Demirkan, A.; Dueker, N.; Eklund, N.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Eriksson, J.; Feenstra, B.; Fischer, K.; Frau, F.; Galesloot, T.E.; Geller, F.; Goel, A.; Gorski, M.; Grammer, T.B.; Gustafsson, S.; Haitjema, S.; Hottenga, J.J.; Huffman, J.E.; Jackson, A.U.; Jacobs, K.B.; Johansson, A; Kaakinen, M.; Kleber, M.E.; Lahti, J.; Leach, I.M.; Lehne, B.; Liu, Y.; Lo, K.S.; Lorentzon, M.; Luan, J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Mangino, M.; McKnight, B.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Monda, K.L.; Montasser, M.E.; Muller, G.; Muller-Nurasyid, M.; Nolte, I.M.; Panoutsopoulou, K.; Pascoe, L.; Paternoster, L.; Rayner, N.W.; Renstrom, F.; Rizzi, F.; Rose, L.M.; Ryan, K.A.; Salo, P.; Sanna, S.; Scharnagl, H.; Shi, J.; Smith, A.V.; Southam, L.; Stancakova, A.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Sung, Y.J.; Tachmazidou, I.; Kiemeney, B.; Vermeulen, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially betw

  3. SENSIBILIDADE DE OVOS DE Ceratitis capitata (WIED., 1824) IRRADIADOS EM DIETA ARTIFICIAL E EM FRUTOS DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Raga, A.; YASUOKA S.T; E.O AMORIM; SATO M.E; SUPLICY FILHO N; FARIA J.T. de

    1996-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as doses de radiação gama que impedissem a emergência de adultos de Ceratitis capitata, a partir de ovos irradiados em dieta artificial e em frutos de manga. Quinhentos ovos de 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de idade foram irradiados em cada dose. A infestação artificial de ovos ocorreu em mangas das cultivares Haden, Tommy Atkins ou Keitt. Um aumento da radioresistência de ovos foi observado durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, e para ovos de 48 horas em diet...

  4. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  5. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  6. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de, E-mail: nmendes@terra.com.b, E-mail: bortoli@fcav.unesp.b [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Depto. de Fitossanidade; Doria, Hayda O.S., E-mail: hosd75@terra.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  7. Effect of the sex ratio on egg collection and hatch of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the female:male ratio in the adult cages of artificially reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was increased from 50:50 to 80:20 (the initial number of total adults was always the same) a 50% overall increase in the fertilized eggs collected per cage occurred during the first 2 weeks of adult life. Smaller increases occurred when the sex ratios were between 50:50 and 80:20, and there was a decrease (compared with the 80:20 sex ratio) when the sex ratio was 90:10 because the males needed several days to fertilize all, or nearly all of the females. At high female:male ratios, there was no increase in the eggs sticking on the oviposition net, in spite of the increased egg laying per surface unit of oviposition net. (author). 8 refs, 5 tabs

  8. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made. PMID:12885858

  9. The use of commercial yeast as a protein source in the adult diet of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) for its control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the using eight different artificial adult diets of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) on egg and larval production was studied. Adults fed on complete homogenate diet consisting of 75% raw sugar 25% yeast hydrolysate, showed a slightly insignificant decrease in the number of eggs and larvae produced/ female/ day. In absence of yeast hydrolysate, adults offered either only pure or raw sugar, showed a drastically significant decrease in both the number of eggs laid and larvae produced by one female/day. On the other hand, when the protein source was offered as a mixture of yeast hydrolysate and commercial yeast in the ratio 1:1 and offered pure or raw sugar as a carbohydrate source, the egg and larval production were almost not affected. Moreover, when the protein source was offered as totally commercial yeast and using pure or raw sugar as a carbohydrate source at the ratio 1:3, egg and larval production were highly significantly reduced. The results showed that, the 3 diets producing the highest number of eggs and larval/female/day were that consisting of raw sugar and yeast hydrolysate at the ratio 3:1 as well as those consisting of raw sugar and yeast hydrolysate and commercial yeast at the ratio 6:1:1. these 3 diets showed almost no effect on neither pupal or adult production nor sex ratio compared to control diet

  10. Linkage Analysis Reveals the Independent Origin of Poeciliid Sex Chromosomes and a Case of Atypical Sex Inheritance in the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Namita; Hoffmann, Margarete; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Among different teleost fish species, diverse sex-determining mechanisms exist, including environmental and genetic sex determination, yet chromosomal sex determination with male heterogamety (XY) prevails. Different pairs of autosomes have evolved as sex chromosomes among species in the same genus without evidence for a master sex-determining locus being identical. Models for evolution of Y chromosomes predict that male-advantageous genes become linked to a sex-determining locus and suppress...

  11. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siciliano, P.; He, X. L.; Woodcock, C.; Pickett, J. A.; Field, L. M.; Birkett, M. A.; Kalinová, Blanka; Gomulski, L. M.; Scolari, F.; Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A. R.; Zhou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, May (2014), s. 51-62. ISSN 0965-1748 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : medfly * Ceratitis capitata * olfaction * odorant binding protein * pheromone binding protein * pheromone * binding studies * protein expression * electroantennography * GC-EAG * fluorescence displacement Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.450, year: 2014

  12. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  13. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  14. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

  15. Improving efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi by gamma irradiation versus the Mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of wild and irradiated biocontrol fungi, Beauvaria Bassiana (Blsamo) and Trichoderma Harzianum (Rafai) on the Mediterranean Fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated. Applying wild B. bassiana and T. harzianum using spores suspension at different concentrations (108, 106 and 104 colony-forming units), on the pupation medium (sand) or in drinking water, resulted in a significant reduction in adult emergence of pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival of produced adults. Meanwhile, the introduction of some isolates irradiated at 150 and 300 Gy significantly reduced adult emergence from pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival was greatly increased by isolates irradiated at 150 Gy of B. bassiana and at Gy in case of T. harzianum. Applying irradiated isolates as culture filtrate with the concentrations of 10, 50 and 100% to the pupation medium or in drinking water, resulted in a reduction of adult emergence and survival. The results revealed that bioagents B. bassiana and T. harzianum can be applied in the field to suppress the population of the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata and considered as entomopathogenic for controlling this pest

  16. Intensity of Attack Caused by Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera, Tephritidae on Mandarin along the Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the Montenegrin seacoast, all cultivated citrus species (mandarin, orange, lemon,grapefruit, fig, loquat and ziziphus were detected as host plants of the Ceratitis capitata Wiedem.Among those found, in economic sense, the most important host plant is mandarinUnšiu.Intensity of the attack were monitored on mandarin in 2003 and 2004 in localities Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, and was determined as higher in 2003. The first symptoms ofattack were detected, depending on locality, from middle of September until beginning ofOctober, one to two months earlier then in 2004. The maximum number of larvae per fruitwere detected in October and November (average from 13.44±0.16 to 22.82±0.13. Timeof the first symptoms appearence on mandarin in September and October 2003 and in November2004, indicate on crucial importance of alternative host plants (figs and loquat forreproduction and increasing of C. capitata population, because later during a season its intensityof attack on mandarin, depend largely on their presence.

  17. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann: (1 wild males, (2 irradiated with Co-60 (steriles, and (3 irradiated (steriles and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild, based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings’ shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  18. Effects of conditioning with variations of temperatures on the susceptibility of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on sterility and male mating competitiveness of the medfly C. capitata (Wied.) under hypo and hyperthermia in order to minimize the deleterious effects of radiation on insects. Low, moderate and high temperature (5, 25 and 32 degree C) were applied to pupal and adult stages of C. capitata at different ages before and/or after irradiation with the doses (70, 90 and 110 Gy) of gamma radiation. Sterility of pupae or adults exposed to low temperature (5 degree C) before or after irradiation was increased compared with their controls. The rate of increase was more clear in pupae exposed after irradiation and in adults exposed before irradiation. When pupae or adults were treated with high temperature (32 degree C) for 24 h before or after irradiation, adult sterility was increased with increasing the radiation dose. The competitiveness values were greatly higher when pupae or adults were exposed to low temperature (5 degree C) than those exposed to moderate or high temperature before irradiation.

  19. Effect of the volatile constituents isolated from Thymus albicans, Th. mastichina, Th. carnosus and Thymbra capitata in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria G; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Costa, Monya M; Martins, Denise; Duarte, João; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2003-12-01

    The composition of essential oils isolated from Thymus albicans and Thymbra capitata collected in Algarve (Portugal), Th. mastichina collected in Algarve and Estremadura (Portugal) and Th. carnosus also collected in Algarve, during the flowering phase, was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant capacity of the oils as well as some of their main components was determined by periodic evaluation of the peroxide values in sunflower oils stored at 60 degrees C. These peroxide values were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without adding antioxidants) under the same experimental conditions. The oils of Th. albicans and Th. mastichina, collected in Algarve, were dominated by 1,8-cineole (68% and 45%, respectively), whereas linalool (52%) was the main component from the oils isolated from Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. Carvacrol (68%) was the major component present in the oils of Thymbra capitata while borneol (18%), terpinen-4-ol (11%) and camphene (9%) were the major ones in the essential oil of Th. carnosus. The essential oils as well as some of their main components showed higher antioxidant capacity than that of the synthetic antioxidant BHT. At the end of the experiment (57 days), BHT showed a percentage of inhibition of 20%, while that of the essential oils ranged from 46% for Th. carnosus, to 59% for Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. PMID:14727767

  20. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  1. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  2. Qualidade sanitária de sementes de coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata no Norte de Minas Gerais Health quality of Butia capitata seeds in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélida Mara Magalhães

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata Mart. Becc. é uma palmeira nativa dos cerrados brasileiros e seus frutos são fonte de alimento para seres humanos e animais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e quantificar os microorganismos nas sementes dessa espécie, utilizando análises "blotter test" e meio Batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA. Amostras foram colhidas em Abóboras, distrito de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais (MG e, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 2, as sementes com e sem endocarpo foram analisadas pelo "blotter test" e BDA, empregando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com 10 repetições. Essas sementes apresentaram microflora diversificada e a retirada do endocarpo não interferiu na análise microbiológica do coquinho-azedo. Mais espécies de microorganismos foram recuperadas na análise no meio BDA, com predominância de fungos Fusarium spp. e Penicillium spp., independentemente da análise. Portanto, a maior parte da microflora identificada nesse trabalho foi fúngica e o melhor teste foi o crescimento em BDA.Coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata Mart. Becc. is a Brazilian Cerrado native palm tree. Its fruit is used as food to human and animals. This record aim was to identify the microorganisms in the seeds of this species, using the "blotter test" and potato-dextrose-agar (PDA medium. Samples were collected in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State. In a factorial scheme 2 x 2, seeds with or without endocarp, were analysed by blotter test" and BDA, using a randomly designed with ten replications. These seeds presented a diversified microorganism population and endocarp removing did not interfere in coquinho-azedo microbiological analysis. Greater numbers of microorganism species were recovered in PDA medium, and mostly were Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. This study concluded that predominantly B. capitata microorganism population was fungus and PDA was better medium.

  3. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic SIT in the fruit pest, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pests. We have started to inject the respective constructs into the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. In addition to trying the already established constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters, we have started to obtain Ceratitis genes, which are specifically expressed at the blastoderm stage. By PCRbased cDNA substractions of different embryonic stages, we isolated genes that are specifically expressed during the cellularization process. The molecular and developmental analysis of these genes will be presented. (author)

  4. The Program of Sex Chromosome Pairing in Meiosis Is Highly Conserved Across Marsupial Species: Implications for Sex Chromosome Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Jesús; Berríos, Soledad; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Suja, José Ángel; Prieto, Ignacio; Barbero, José Luis; Rufas, Julio S; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl

    2005-01-01

    Marsupials present a series of genetic and chromosomal features that are highly conserved in very distant species. One of these features is the absence of a homologous region between X and Y chromosomes. According to this genetic differentiation, sex chromosomes do not synapse during the first meiotic prophase in males, and a special structure, the dense plate, maintains sex chromosome association. In this report we present results on the process of meiotic sex chromosome pairing obtained fro...

  5. Does Sex Speed Up Evolutionary Rate and Increase Biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Melian Penate, Carlos Javier; Alonso, David; Allesina, Stefano; Condit, Richard S.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    Most empirical and theoretical studies have shown that sex increases the rate of evolution, although evidence of sex constraining genomic and epigenetic variation and slowing down evolution also exists. Faster rates with sex have been attributed to new gene combinations, removal of deleterious mutations, and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Slower rates with sex have been attributed to removal of major genetic rearrangements, the cost of finding a mate, vulnerability to predation, an...

  6. Sex differences in metabolic homeostasis, diabetes, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2015-01-01

    There are fundamental aspects of the control of metabolic homeostasis that are regulated differently in males and females. This sex asymmetry represents an evolutionary paradigm for females to resist the loss of energy stores. This perspective discusses the most fundamental sex differences in metabolic homeostasis, diabetes, and obesity. Together, the role of genetic sex, the programming effect of testosterone in the prenatal period in males, and the activational role of sex hormones at puber...

  7. Sex determination in annual fishes: Searching for the master sex-determining gene in Austrolebias charrua (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María José Arezo; Nicolás Papa; Verónica Guttierrez; Graciela García; Nibia Berois

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of sex determination and differentiation in fishes involves a broad range of sex strategies (hermaphroditism, gonochorism, unisexuality, environmental and genetic sex determination). Annual fishes inhabit temporary ponds that dry out during the dry season when adults die. The embryos exhibit an atypical developmental pattern and remain buried in the bottom mud until the next rainy season. To elucidate genomic factors involved in the sex determination in annual fish, we explored the ...

  8. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  9. Human postmeiotic sex chromatin and its impact on sex chromosome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Ho-Su; Ichijima, Yosuke; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Namekawa, Satoshi H

    2012-05-01

    Sex chromosome inactivation is essential epigenetic programming in male germ cells. However, it remains largely unclear how epigenetic silencing of sex chromosomes impacts the evolution of the mammalian genome. Here we demonstrate that male sex chromosome inactivation is highly conserved between humans and mice and has an impact on the genetic evolution of human sex chromosomes. We show that, in humans, sex chromosome inactivation established during meiosis is maintained into spermatids with the silent compartment postmeiotic sex chromatin (PMSC). Human PMSC is illuminated with epigenetic modifications such as trimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 and heterochromatin proteins CBX1 and CBX3, which implicate a conserved mechanism underlying the maintenance of sex chromosome inactivation in mammals. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that male sex chromosome inactivation has impacted multiple aspects of the evolutionary history of mammalian sex chromosomes: amplification of copy number, retrotranspositions, acquisition of de novo genes, and acquisition of different expression profiles. Most strikingly, profiles of escape genes from postmeiotic silencing diverge significantly between humans and mice. Escape genes exhibit higher rates of amino acid changes compared with non-escape genes, suggesting that they are beneficial for reproductive fitness and may allow mammals to cope with conserved postmeiotic silencing during the evolutionary past. Taken together, we propose that the epigenetic silencing mechanism impacts the genetic evolution of sex chromosomes and contributed to speciation and reproductive diversity in mammals. PMID:22375025

  10. Genetic influences on pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Thomsen, Simon; van der Sluis, Sophie;

    2011-01-01

    Heritability of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) has not been previously addressed in large twin studies. We evaluated the genetic contribution to individual differences observed in FEV(1), FVC, and PEF using data from the...... component sex-limitation models were applied to evaluate possible genetic differences between the sexes for FEV(1), FVC, and PEF. Estimates were adjusted for age, height, and smoking. For FEV(1), additive genetic effects of 61% (95% CI 56-65) were observed. For FVC, the additive genetic contribution was 26......% (3-49%) and the dominant genetic contribution was 29% (4-54%). For PEF, our models showed an additive genetic contribution of 43% (31-52%) for men, but genetic influences were not significant in women. We found no significant differences between dizygotic same-sex twins and dizygotic opposite...

  11. Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Amro; Packer, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) imposes a substantial genetic load through homozygosity at the sex locus that results in the production of inviable or sterile diploid males. ...

  12. Effects of two IGRs and gamma radiation on some biological aspects of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (24 h. old) were dipped in solutions of 5 or 160 ppm of dimilin for 24 hours, the produced pupae were irradiated with 70 or 90 Gy gamma radiation. This dipping led to a decrease in the fertility and an increase in mating competitiveness of the produced males. However, when the LC50 of either dimilin or IKI was mixed with the larval medium on which eggs were planted, and the produced pupae were irradiated (70 or 90 Gy) neither adult emergence adult survival was affected. However, egg hatch ability was affected by radiation and insignificantly affected by using either chemical applied separately, and significantly decreased when applying radiation and either chemical in combination together. Male mating competitiveness was not significantly when radiation and either chemical was applied together. 5 tabs

  13. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  14. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  15. Dispersal aspects of 32 P-labelled Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion of artificially-reared and gamma-sterilized males of the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata was studied in a citrus orchard. About 10,000 adults were tagged through a 32 P artificial medium and released into two different place of the orchard, one place had ripe fruits and the other place without ripe fruits. Flies trapped were collected daily during the first 8 days and then three more surveys once a week. Radioactive flies were detected by liquid scintillator through Cerenkov effect. The data suggested that the number of male trapped was affected by the presence of ripe fruit and by period between release and trapping. The climate factors during the period of the experiment, did not affect the flight distance neither the trapping data. (author)

  16. Testosterone as a Bio marker for Rapid Detection of Male Sterility of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid biochemical method for the determination of the sterility in males of the fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) was established utilizing testosterone as a bio marker. Pupae (2 days before emergence) were irradiated at 90 Gy using a 60Co-gamma-cell, unit. Testosterone level, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), in addition to sterility in irradiated male flies were compared to their corresponding values of the untreated control group. The data obtained revealed a highly significant decrease in the testosterone level associated with a highly significant decrease in sterility. The decrease in the hormone level was recognized during the different time intervals (24-120 hours after adult emergence). This bio marker (Testosterone) could be adopted as a rapid monitor for measurements of medfly male sterility before release in the field in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program

  17. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A Sofia; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS(•+) and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  18. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graça Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells.

  19. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A. Sofia; Figueiredo, A. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  20. sterility and mating competitiveness of male ceratitis capitata as affected by gamma radiation and di methane insecticide. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the effects of pupal gamma-irradiation (50, 70, 90 Gy), or adult treatment with dimethoate insecticide (0.93 ppm) on the male sterility and mating competitiveness of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) were studied. Results indicated that treatment of the adult medfly with dimethoate had no clear effect on male fertility whether this male mated with treated or normal females. However, gamma irradiation drastically decreased hatch ability of eggs laid by normal or treated (dimethoate) females, when mated with irradiated males all gamma doses. This reduction in egg hatch ability increased increased with increasing gamma dose. Irradiated females did not lay eggs at any of the gamma doses used. At all mating combinations, the male mating competitiveness was decreased especially when irradiated males were confined with treated males for mating with normal or treated females. Results are indicated and discussed in the text. 4 figs

  1. Biology of Aphaereta sp. n (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), a new larval parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Tânia Isabel Peres

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado - Biotecnologia em Controlo Biológico. As espécies que pertencem ao género Aphaereta estão distribuídas praticamente por todo o mundo, e vivem associadas a dípteros sinantrópicos e outros dípteros. Foi encontrado um total de 12 indivíduos, da população em estudo, em duas pupas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), estes indivíduos são endo-parasitóides gregários larva-pupa. Foram estimados pela primeira vez os parâmetros biológicos de Aphaereta s...

  2. Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica) by Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) through the use of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfect peaches, Prunus persica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27 0 C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  3. Lucilia cuprina Sexing Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexing systems have been developed for the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. The first system consisted of Y-autosome translocation strain where females were homozygous susceptible (+ / +) at the dieldrin resistance locus, Rdl, while males were heterozygous (Rdl / +) and therefore resistant to dieldrin. When first instar larvae were treated with an appropriate concentration of the insecticide, females died. While functional in the laboratory, males were found to be poorly competitive in the field. Further development of the Y-Autosome system led to a Y-5,3 translocation bearing strain where females were homozygous for eye colour mutants (and thus blind) while males were heterozygous and thus sighted. This strain was used in genetic control trials and proved to be effective in imparting genetic load into native populations. However, under mass rearing conditions, recombination within the elements involved in the translocation produced individuals that were more fertile than flies carrying the Y-5,3 translocation, and these rapidly increased in frequency. A further construct was made that included a temperature sensitive mutation (enabling female elimination), and pericentric inversions, that increased the genetic load imparted when released into the field, and also protected against recombination that might lead to the breakdown of the rearrangement.

  4. Sex Determination and Sexual Organ Differentiation in Flowering Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yanan; Li Fenglan; Gao Shumin

    2004-01-01

    The research in the genetics of sex determination and the differentiation of reproductive organs in flowering plants has long been a topic in recent years. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that control sex determination in flowering plants relies on detailed studies of the differentiation of sexual organs. Current theories about sex chromosomes have illuminated the mechanisms of plant sex determination. In addition, recent progress in cloning floral homeotic genes which regulate the identity of the floral organs has generated molecular markers to compare the developmental programs of male, female and hermaphrodite flowers in several species. In this review, the authors focus attention on these recent findings and provide a brief overview of the genetics of plant sex determination and the mechanism of sex determination gene expression and gene programs.

  5. Management of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), in the Gharb area in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Gharb is one of the most fertile regions of Morocco. The annual rainfall is 500 mm and the temperature varies from 11deg C in January to 24 deg.. C in July-August. Fruit production in the Gharb area covers 16,544 ha and generates an annual production of 466,680 Tonnes. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly); Ceratitis capitata is a major pest of cultivated and wild fruit trees. It causes 11,000 Tonnes/year of losses in citrus production and prevents export to main markets. Early varieties, such as clementine and navel are subject to higher infestation than late varieties like maroc late. The monitoring using Maghreb-Med trap has confirmed those results. Management of medfly is solely based on chemical treatments. Currently, and in order to determine the need for treatment, growers use Maghreb Med traps baited with trimedlure and a toxicant. At 2 to 3 flies/trap/day, a mixture of a proteinous bait attractant and a pyrethrenoid insecticide is sprayed in every fourth row. However, in the period of high activity, growers may treat every row using pesticide only. The number of applications can reach 10 per cycle of production, which leads to an average cost of USD 220/ha. This generates an increase of production costs, elimination of non-target organisms, toxic effects on consumers and the environment, and finally denial of export certificate because of high chemical residues. The DPVCTRF; the Moroccan official organisation for plant protection; in collaboration with GTZ; the German technical co-operation organisation, developed a management programme based on spot treatment. It consists of the application of a mixture of proteinous baits and pesticide on a weekly basis, using only 16ml/ha, as a spot treatment applied to the lower foliage of the tree. The spraying is applied from early fruit maturation until three weeks after harvest. This method allowed to decrease the cost of controlling medfly to an average of USD 30 /ha, instead of USD 220/ha, using

  6. Coital rates, sex-selective infanticide, and sex ratios at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W H

    1996-01-01

    The author of this short article comments on the suggestion by Brewis and Underwood, in their report on Micronesia, that the high sex ratios at birth were due to the high coital rates (greater than 108-110). First, in Australia, the reported sex ratio of births conceived in the first month of marriage from 1908 to 1967 was 109. Mean reported marital coital rates during the first month of marriage for the United States and England are estimated to be 20 per month. The average coital rate is higher among women who conceive. If the variation of sex ratios across societies were explained by coital rates alone, Micronesian coital rates would have to be much greater than 20 per month throughout couples' reproductive lives, and 3 times the averages in postindustrial countries. Such coital rates have not been substantiated; other reasons may account for the high sex ratios in Micronesia. Brewis and Underwood stated that they did not believe sex-selective infanticide was an explanation of the high sex ratios; this may have been based on current practices. Yet past practices of sex-selective infanticide could influence current sex ratios, given that there is mathematical evidence that genetics may influence the probability of producing a child of a particular sex. Therefore, the average current sex ratio at conception and birth of a population depends on: the magnitude of the genetic component of the Lexis variance (the reproductive-lifetime probability of a couple's producing a boy at each birth); and 2) the extent of the sex-selective infanticide in the past. The total extent of the Lexis variance, including its genetic component, is unknown. PMID:8909113

  7. Using RAD-seq to recognize sex-specific markers and sex chromosome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tony

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing methods have initiated a revolution in molecular ecology and evolution (Tautz et al. ). Among the most impressive of these sequencing innovations is restriction site-associated DNA sequencing or RAD-seq (Baird et al. ; Andrews et al. ). RAD-seq uses the Illumina sequencing platform to sequence fragments of DNA cut by a specific restriction enzyme and can generate tens of thousands of molecular genetic markers for analysis. One of the many uses of RAD-seq data has been to identify sex-specific genetic markers, markers found in one sex but not the other (Baxter et al. ; Gamble & Zarkower ). Sex-specific markers are a powerful tool for biologists. At their most basic, they can be used to identify the sex of an individual via PCR. This is useful in cases where a species lacks obvious sexual dimorphism at some or all life history stages. For example, such tests have been important for studying sex differences in life history (Sheldon ; Mossman & Waser ), the management and breeding of endangered species (Taberlet et al. ; Griffiths & Tiwari ; Robertson et al. ) and sexing embryonic material (Hacker et al. ; Smith et al. ). Furthermore, sex-specific markers allow recognition of the sex chromosome system in cases where standard cytogenetic methods fail (Charlesworth & Mank ; Gamble & Zarkower ). Thus, species with male-specific markers have male heterogamety (XY) while species with female-specific markers have female heterogamety (ZW). In this issue, Fowler & Buonaccorsi () illustrate the ease by which RAD-seq data can generate sex-specific genetic markers in rockfish (Sebastes). Moreover, by examining RAD-seq data from two closely related rockfish species, Sebastes chrysomelas and Sebastes carnatus (Fig. ), Fowler & Buonaccorsi () uncover shared sex-specific markers and a conserved sex chromosome system. PMID:27213697

  8. Infectivity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Relation to Environmental Factors and Their Effects on the Biochemistry of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaurub, E H; Soliman, N A; Hashem, A G; Abdel-Rahman, A M

    2015-12-01

    Late third instars of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), migrate from the host fruit into the soil and leaf litter beneath host trees, where they may become a target for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, soil type (texture), and soil moisture level on infectivity of the four tested EPNs Heterorhabditis bacteriophora AS1, H. bacteriophora HP88, Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, and Steinernema riobrave ML29 to late third instars of C. capitata were evaluated. Biochemical alterations induced by the most virulent nematodes were quantified. The nematode infectivity decreased with increase in exposure time to UV light, whereas it increased with increase in temperature. Infectivity increased in sandy soil, whereas it decreased in silt and clay soils. Soils with high moisture levels decreased infectivity. Based on the 50% lethal concentration (LC50), H. bacteriophora AS1 and S. carpocapsae ALL were the most virulent heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes, respectively, with the highest virulence for H. bacteriophora AS1. The nematodes caused significant decline in total protein and cholesterol content of larvae and caused reduced activity of transaminases and phosphatases. In contrast, they significantly enhanced total glucose content. It can be concluded that the most optimum environmental conditions of the tested nematodes to elicit their infectivity against late third instars of C. capitata were sandy soil with 10% moisture level, ambient temperature of 25°C, and no exposure to UV. The EPNs tested can affect late third instars of C. capitata by targeting different biochemical molecules in different metabolic pathways. The interaction between them and the host larvae appears to be primarily nutritional. PMID:26391517

  9. Studies on the Effect of E-Selen as Antioxidant in Ameliorating the Physiological Status of Gamma-Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly,Ceratits capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically based control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), which relies on the sterilization by irradiation of large numbers of insects, is gaining an increasing role in the control of medfly in Mediterranean areas. However, the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Because of the serious damaging potential of ROS, cells depend on the elaboration of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), both enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidant defense mechanisms. Enzymes of antioxidative defense system – peroxidase, esterasase and alcohol dehydrogenase are known to play an important main role in endogenous cell protection from oxidative damage.The antioxidant Eselenis an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata in various concentrations. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90Gy (sterilizing dose) and are used during this experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gamma-irradiation on C. capitata endogenous antioxidant activity (peroxidase, esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase and to examine whether the presence of eselen has the influence on activity of antioxidant and in reducing consequently the oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation in thefruit fly, C. capitata (Wied.). The results indicated that antioxidant pretreatments to the larval rearing dietand irradiation of the produced full grown pupae may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced injury to success the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling the Med fly, C. capitata .

  10. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83. ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  11. Physiological mechanisms of dehydration tolerance contribute to the invasion potential of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) relative to its less widely distributed congeners

    OpenAIRE

    Weldon, Christopher W; Boardman, Leigh; Marlin, Danica; Terblanche, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species now with an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Two other damaging, polyphagous and closely-related species, the marula fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and the Natal fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch, are not established outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, adult water balance traits and nutritional body composition were measured in all three species at different te...

  12. Disinfestation of export oranges and tangerines (Citrus spp) against medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera; Tephritidae) by gamma irradiation (Co-60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma bean 650 cobalt-60 source was utilized for irradiation (0; 10; 50; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 750 and 1000 Gy) of fresh ripe fruits artificially interested by immature stages of Ceratitis capitata to determine the sterilizing and lethal doses. The sensorial and chemical analyses did not show any significant differences between the control and irradiated samples. Differences on loss of weight of oranges show that 500 and 1000 Gy doses were responsible for increasing the loss of water content. (author)

  13. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906

  14. comparative studies on pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb as juvenile hormones applied separately or combined with gamma radiation for controlling the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (Wied)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative studies on pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb as juvenile hormones applied separately or combined with gamma radiation were carried out for controlling ceratitis capitata. Lc 50's of the two juvenile hormones, pyriproxfen and fenoxycarb, were determined against ceratitis capitata in treated diet by continuous contact of eggs and larvae using various concentrations. The Lc 50 were 32 and 140 ppm for pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb, respectively. The resulting pupae were gamma irradiated with 90 Gy. Larval and pupal durations were insignificantly affected, pupation and adult emergence were significantly affected while adult survival was insignificantly affected when applying the two JH's. Applying pyriproxyfen alone insignificantly increased egg hatch at the concentrations used (12.5 and 25 ppm) while when fenoxycarb was applied alone egg hatch was significantly decreased at the concentration used (100 ppm). Applying both juvenile hormones each combined with gamma radiation significantly reduced egg hatch. Male mating competitiveness was significantly increased when applying pyriproxyfen at the concentration 25 Ppm. Results indicated that pyriproxyfen was more effective than fenoxycarb against the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata.1 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Genetic epidemiology of Scheuermann's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank; Engell, Vilhelm; Nielsen, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    The genetic/environmental etiology of Scheuermann's disease is unclear. We estimated the heritability of the disease using an etiological model adjusted for sex and time of diagnosis, and examined whether the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease was constant over time....

  16. Identification of Sex-Specific Markers Reveals Male Heterogametic Sex Determination in Pseudobagrus ussuriensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Jun; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhou, Feng-Jian; Qiang, Xiao-Gang; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-08-01

    Comprehending sex determination mechanism is a first step for developing sex control breeding biotechnologies in fish. Pseudobagrus ussuriensis, one of bagrid catfishes in Bagridae, had been observed to have about threefold size dimorphism between males and females, but its sex determination mechanism had been unknown. In this study, we firstly used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based screening approach to isolate a male-specific DNA fragment and thereby identified a 10,569 bp of male-specific sequence and a 10,365 bp of female-related sequence by genome walking in the bagrid catfish, in which a substantial genetic differentiation with 96.35 % nucleotide identity was revealed between them. Subsequently, a high differentiating region of 650 bp with only 70.26 % nucleotide identity was found from the corresponding two sequences, and three primer pairs of male-specific marker, male and female-shared marker with different length products in male and female genomes, and female-related marker were designed. Significantly, when these markers were used to identify genetic sex of the bagrid catfish, only male individuals was detected to amplify the male-specific marker fragment, and female-related marker was discovered to produce dosage association in females and in males. Our current data provide significant genetic evidence that P. ussuriensis has heterogametic XY sex chromosomes in males and homogametic XX sex chromosomes in females. Therefore, sex determination mechanism of P. ussuriensis is male heterogametic XX/XY system. PMID:25981673

  17. Relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad de la hembra en Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae Relationship between time of larval development and fecundity in the female of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny C. Manso

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la relación entre tiempo de desarrollo larvario y fecundidad en la hembra de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, comparando individuos de una cepa salvaje, con individuos de una cepa portadora de la mutación sw , la cual provoca atrasos en el desarrollo larvario. Se observaron caracteres de la morfología del ovario y su herencia entre los segregantes, para «tiempo de desarrollo» en la progenie del cruzamiento entre mutante y silvestre. El estudio mostró que las hembras sw (- que quedan muy retrasadas en su desarrollo, tienen menos ovariolas y una distribución de tamaños de óvulos menos homogénea que las que se desarrollan antes. Se encontró asimismo que entre las larvas de tipo salvaje, las más retrasadas también producen hembras con menor número de ovariolas y menos huevos totalmente desarrollados, que las que se desarrollan antes. Tanto en las hembras sw (- como en las sw(+ , los atrasos del desarrollo obran en desmedro de la postura de huevos de las hembras que se desarrollan más tarde, efecto que se manifiesta en el número menor de ovariolas y en las diferencias del ritmo de maduración del ovario. Bajo condiciones apropiadas de cría, las hembras mutantes para sw son capaces de alcanzar la misma fecundidad que las normales.We studied the relationship between the development time in the larva stage and the resulting female fecundity, in Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann wild-type individuals compared to mutant individuals showing slow development (sw. We observed the morphology of the ovaries in the progenies of the crossing between mutant and wild-type strains, comparing females segregating by «development time». This study showed that sw(- females developing later have got less ovarioles, and a more heterogeneous distribution of ovules, than females developing earlier. It was also found that the wild type females developing late also produce lower numbers both of ovarioles and fully developed ova, than those developing

  18. The Riddle of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Dorion; Margulis, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the work of evolutionary biologists in determining how sexual reproduction arose. Topics explored include the nature of sex, bacterial sex, meiotic sex, and asexual reproduction. A diagram (which can be used as a duplicating master) illustrating types of bacterial sex is included. (DH)

  19. Dispersion of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Mandarin Orchards on Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Widem. has been an established pest onthe Montenegrin seacoast for more than ten years, although with variable abundance indifferent years and localities.From an economic aspect, its most important host in Montenegro is the mandarinunshiu (Citrus unshiu Marc., particularly its cultivar Owari. Dispersion of C. capitata in citrusorchards (prevailingly mandarin was monitored on Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar localitiesduring 2003 and 2004.The results of this study showed that, during both years, peripheral-row trees (primarily thefirst row in citrus orchards were more exposed to attacks by C. capitata than middle and lastrows. In 2003, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from 11.4±0.59to 40.1±0.67, from 7.04±0.47 to 28.8±0.48 and from 2.9±0.07 to 17.3±0.54 on the localities ofBaošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On the same localities, it ranged from 7.4±0.34 to16.9±0.4, from 0.0 to 18.7±0.32 and from 0.0 to 9.93±0.56 in middle rows, and from 3.0±0.28 to16.8±0.77, from 0.0 to 20.9±0.38 and from 0.0 to 13.1±0.39 in last rows. Data collected at Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar in 2003 also suggest that the average number of larvae per mandarinfruit in first rows was 1.78-2.08 times higher than in middle rows, and 1.25-1.77 times higher thanin last rows. In 2004, the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows varied from7.3±0.27 to 8.3±0.45, from 7.2±0.23 to 17.6±0.59 and from 3.8±0.1 to 8.8±0.25 on the localitiesof Baošići, Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, respectively. On these localities, it ranged from 1.7 ±0.17 to3.3±0.19, from 1.1±0.12 to 3.5±0.8 and from 0.0 to 0.8±0.14 in middle rows, and from 1.7±0.17 to3.6±0.32, from 0.0 to 4.0±0.26 and from 0.0 to 0.2±0.06 in last rows. Data collected in 2004also showed that the average number of larvae in mandarin fruits in first rows on the samelocalities was 3

  20. Neural, not gonadal, origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch

    OpenAIRE

    Agate, Robert J.; Grisham, William; Wade, Juli; Mann, Suzanne; Wingfield, John; Schanen, Carolyn; Palotie, Aarno; Arnold, Arthur P.

    2003-01-01

    In mammals and birds, sex differences in brain function and disease are thought to derive exclusively from sex differences in gonadal hormone secretions. For example, testosterone in male mammals acts during fetal and neonatal life to cause masculine neural development. However, male and female brain cells also differ in genetic sex; thus, sex chromosome genes acting within cells could contribute to sex differences in cell function. We analyzed the sexual phenotype of the brain of a rare gyna...

  1. Sex Education for Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zitner, David

    1985-01-01

    Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are...

  2. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  3. Finding clues to the riddle of sex determination in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushana, A; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2016-03-01

    How sex is determined has been one of the most intriguing puzzles in biology since antiquity. Although a fundamental process in most metazoans, there seems to be myriad of ways in which sex can be determined - from genetic to environmental sex determination. This variation is limited mainly to upstream triggers with the core of sex determination pathway being conserved. Zebrafish has gained prominence as a vertebrate model system to study development and disease. However, very little is known about its primary sex determination mechanism. Here we review our current understanding of the sex determination in zebrafish. Zebrafish lack identifiable heteromorphic sex chromosomes and sex is determined by multiple genes, with some influence from the environment. Recently, chromosome 4 has been identified as sex chromosome along with few sex-linked loci on chromosomes 5 and 16. The identities of candidate sex-linked genes, however, have remained elusive. Sex in zebrafish is also influenced by the number of meiotic oocytes in the juvenile ovary, which appear to instruct retention of the ovarian fate. The mechanism and identity of this instructive signal remain unknown. We hypothesize that sex in zebrafish is a culmination of combinatorial effects of the genome, germ cells and the environment with inputs from epigenetic factors translating the biological meaning of this interaction. PMID:26949096

  4. Finding clues to the riddle of sex determination in zebrafish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Nagabhushana; Rakesh K Mishra

    2016-03-01

    How sex is determined has been one of the most intriguing puzzles in biology since antiquity. Although a fundamental process in most metazoans, there seems to be myriad of ways in which sex can be determined – from genetic to environmental sex determination. This variation is limited mainly to upstream triggers with the core of sex determination pathway being conserved. Zebrafish has gained prominence as a vertebrate model system to study development and disease. However, very little is known about its primary sex determination mechanism. Here we review our current understanding of the sex determination in zebrafish. Zebrafish lack identifiable heteromorphic sex chromosomes and sex is determined by multiple genes, with some influence from the environment. Recently, chromosome 4 has been identified as sex chromosome along with few sex-linked loci on chromosomes 5 and 16. The identities of candidate sex-linked genes, however, have remained elusive. Sex in zebrafish is also influenced by the number of meiotic oocytes in the juvenile ovary, which appear to instruct retention of the ovarian fate. The mechanism and identity of this instructive signal remain unknown. We hypothesize that sex in zebrafish is a culmination of combinatorial effects of the genome, germ cells and the environment with inputs from epigenetic factors translating the biological meaning of this interaction.

  5. Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae); Importancia da ingestao de proteina na fase adulta para o sucesso de acasalamento dos machos de Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S., E-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.co, E-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.co, E-mail: ibravo@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2010-04-15

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and fi eld cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the fi rst four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the fi eld cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the fi rst four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and fi eld cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the fi rst 12 days. (author)

  6. Repetitive Sequence and Sex Chromosome Evolution in Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ezaz, Tariq; Deakin, Janine E

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are the most dynamic entity in any genome having unique morphology, gene content, and evolution. They have evolved multiple times and independently throughout vertebrate evolution. One of the major genomic changes that pertain to sex chromosomes involves the amplification of common repeats. It is hypothesized that such amplification of repeats facilitates the suppression of recombination, leading to the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes through genetic degradation of ...

  7. Mammalian sex determination—insights from humans and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, Stefanie; Sinclair, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Many of the genes required for gonad development have been identified by analysis of DSD patients. However, the use of knockout and transgenic mouse strains have contributed enormously to the study of gonad gene function and interactions within the development network. Although the genetic basis of mammalian sex determination and differentiation has adv...

  8. Sex modifies exercise and cardiac adaptation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konhilas, JP; Maass, AH; Luckey, SW; Stauffer, BL; Olson, EN; Leinwand, LA

    2004-01-01

    How an individual's sex and genetic background modify cardiac adaptation to increased workload is a topic of great interest. We systematically evaluated morphological and physiological cardiac adaptation in response to voluntary and forced exercise. We found that sex/gender is a dominant factor in e

  9. Climate-driven population divergence in sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido; Uller, Tobias; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Harts, Anna; While, Geoffrey M.; Wapstra, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Sex determination is a fundamental biological process, yet its mechanisms are remarkably diverse(1,2). In vertebrates, sex can be determined by inherited genetic factors or by the temperature experienced during embryonic development(2,3). However, the evolutionary causes of this diversity remain unk

  10. An assessment of sex bias in neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Polyak, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Grönke, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and intellectual disability have a sex bias skewed towards boys; however, systematic assessment of this bias is complicated by the presence of significant genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of these disorders. Methods To assess the extent and characteristics of sex bias, we analyzed the frequency of comorbid features, the magnitude of genetic load, and the existence of family history within 32,155 individuals ascertained clinically for ...

  11. Influence of Melatonin on The Ultrastructure of Posterior Midgut of Male Ceratitis Capitata (Wied.) Irradiated With Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic architecture and organization of the posterior midgut epithelial cells in male med flies, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephtitidae), have been inspected after being subjected to sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy). Their midgut cells damages were monitored by means of electron microscope. The treated cells were swollen and have slight vacuolation and increase of vesicles. The ground cytoplasm contained large vacuoles of myelinoid bodies, slight irregularity of few RER, lipid droplets and multi vesicular bodies. Some mitochondria were polymorlyphic owing to swelling of membrane or fusion together to form various shapes. Midgut epithelial cells of insects pre-treated with melatonin prior to gamma irradiation showed approximately normal structures, and preservation could be observed. The combined treatment by irradiation and melatonin could be successfully used to reduce the adverse effects of irradiation and subsequently can be used in the integrated pest management to help in the success of the sterile insect technique against the insects as well as to minimize complications of irradiation on sensitive non-target organs. This has many applications during radiotherapy for patients with cancer

  12. Combined biological effects of gamma radiation and Dimethoate insecticide on the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mediterranean fruit fly, (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera : Tehritidae), is one of the most important agricultural pests. It is considered (Hagen et al, 1981) to have originated from tropical Africa, from where it spread to north and south africa, invaded spain and subsequently spread into the european mediterranean countries and the middle east. It appeared in hawaii, costa rica, south america, spread north through central america and finally into southern mexico. There are (kourti et al, 1990), 235 fruit trees, nut trees and vegetables recorded as medfly hosts . Of the 253 hosts, 40 are considered heavily or generally infested. The importance of controlling this injurious pest needs no emphasis. Different methods of control had been applied against this pest, all of them are directed towards the protection of fruits from infestation. Although man used chemical compounds which played and are still playing an important role in this struggle against insects, the extensive and continued use of broad - toxicity spectrum and long lived pesticides created a number of problems, among which environmental pollution represents one of the grave concerns. Moreover, the appearance of resistance in several species of insects to the action of these chemical is another problem

  13. Some aspects of the behavior at different ages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae) irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out in the laboratory of the Entomology Section of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to determine the effects different gamma radiation doses on the reproductive potential of males and the flight behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). For all the treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma beam-650 was used, with activity of approximately 13,410 x 10B Bq. (4,967 Ci.), and the dose rate of 2.000 Gy per hour. The doses used were 80 Gy, 100 Gy and 120 Gy. The three doses employed affected more the longevity of males than the females and the number of spermatozoid found lower in the irradiated insects compared with the control, with no significant differences between doses. The insects irradiated with 80 Gy showed activity similar to the control population until four days after emergence: afterwards they were more active than the unirradiated. The gamma irradiation diminished the take-off ability of the insects. (author). 59 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Are all eggs created equal? A case study from the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Barshis, Daniel J.; Alamaru, Ada; Hédouin, Laetitia; Hernández-Pech, Xavier; Kandel, Frederique; Leon Soon, Sherril; Roth, Melissa S.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.; Grottoli, Andrea G.; Portocarrero, Claudia; Wagenhauser, Stephanie A.; Buttler, Fenina; Gates, Ruth D.

    2013-03-01

    Parental effects have been largely unexplored in marine organisms and may play a significant role in dictating the phenotypic range of traits in coral offspring, influencing their ability to survive environmental challenges. This study explored parental effects and life-stage differences in the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata from different environments by examining the biochemical composition of mature coral colonies and their eggs. Our results indicate that there are large biochemical differences between adults and eggs, with the latter containing higher concentration of lipids (mostly wax esters), ubiquitinated proteins (which may indicate high turnover rate of proteins) and antioxidants (e.g., manganese superoxide dismutase). Adults displayed high phenotypic plasticity, with corals from a high-light environment having more wax esters, lighter tissue δ13C signatures and higher Symbiodinium densities than adults from the low-light environment who had higher content of accessory pigments. A green-algal pigment (α-carotene) and powerful antioxidant was present in eggs; it is unclear whether this pigment is acquired from heterotrophic food sources or from endolithic green algae living in the adult coral skeletons. Despite the broad phenotypic plasticity displayed by adults, parental investment in the context of provisioning of energy reserves and antioxidant defense was the same in eggs from the different sites. Such equality in investment maximizes the capacity of all embryos and larvae to cope with challenging conditions associated with floating at the surface and to disperse successfully until an appropriate habitat for settlement is found.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in guava fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insects pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Because reports have show that guavas are important host of the pest, quarentine treatments must be developed if it's to exported to countries which impose quarentine restrictions on Mediterranean fruit fly infestable commodities. Ionizing radiation is one alternative method of quarentine treatment. This work was carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation against eggs and larvae of Ceratitis capitata in guavas of 'Pedro Sato' cultivar. Guavas artificially infested with eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation at the following doses: 0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 Gy for eggs and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy for first and third instar larvae, at the dose rate of 352 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic pots in a room at 25 +/- 1 deg C and 70 +/- 5% RH. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults in both treatments (eggs and larvae)

  16. From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Padilla-Gamiño

    Full Text Available Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission, which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission, a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring.

  17. Optimal salinity and temperature intervals of Limapontia capitata (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa) determined by growth and heart rate measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.

    1977-12-01

    Growth rate of Limapontia capitata was determined at various temperatures and salinities. An optimal temperature of about 15/sup 0/C was found on the basis of growth rate, percentage of nongrowing animals during the experiments, spawning, and heart rate measurements. Q/sub 10/ of heart rates shows a high value in the temperature interval immediately preceding maximum heart rate. This indicates a marked increase in respiration without a corresponding increase in growth. Heat coma sets in at 38-40/sup 0/C, and cold coma is estimated to set in around 0/sup 0/C. In late summer and early autumn, when the experimental animals were collected, the estimated mean water temperature in the sampling area is about 15/sup 0/C. Based on the same factors as above (no heart rate measurements), an optimal salinity of about 30/sup 0///sub 00/ was determined. This is far from the mean of the sampling area (about 15%), and spawning is as abundant (or more so) at 20 and 15%, so some kind of adaption to salinity--although not with respect to growth--seems to exist. Death of osmotic stress only occurred at room temperature (20-23/sup 0/C) and a concurrent salinity of 5%.

  18. Rice hulls a new bulking component for larval rearing of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata wied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice hulls as a new bulking component for the larval rearing of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata wied. Was tested in the laboratory; and 4 formulas of rice hulls and wheat bran were evaluated biologically and financially. When rice hulls and wheat bran were mixed in the ratio of 3:1, all biological aspects and response to gamma radiation (90 Gy) of the produced adults were normal except for male fertility that decreased by about 13% of that of the bran medium (control); while male mating competitiveness was increased. When rice hulls were used without bran, only adult emergece and female fecundity were decreased by about 2% and 20%, respectively as compared to control medium (totally wheat bran); while larval duration increased by one day. The fourth formula consisting of wheat bran and rice hulls in the ratio of 1:1 showed the least favourite bulking component. Calculations showed that one million pupal production costed $26.6,22.2, 20.2 and 21.4 for the bulking ratios (hulls : bran) 0.1, 1:1, 3:1 and 1:0,respectively

  19. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) FOR THE BIOAGENTS ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM OXALICUM AGAINST THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative to chemical control or as a part of integrated pest management (IPM program), there is a resurgence of interest in using microbial agents for pest population suppression before the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann). The insect-fungus interaction between the fungal isolates, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium oxalicum, when applied as a spore suspension against the adults of Medfly in the laboratory showed visual fungal development after 7 days from inoculation. Examination of the infected parts of the dead fly with light microscopy showed a markedly damage as evidenced by the occurrence of the attached conidia and features of pathogen penetration. Using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the abundant sporulation of both fungal isolates was investigated over all parts of the dead fly and their associated sensillae. The recognized shape of the fungal conidial spores and their arrangement on the hyphae of both bio agents was investigated. This ultra structural study may be helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of both fungal bio agents on the functions of all infected parts of the insect and their associated sensillae (the main communication system between insects, their internal and external environment) and their main role in the courtship, male mating ability, the selection of fruit host plants necessary for the adults food and also the selection of a suitable oviposition site

  20. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  1. Sex Education: Another View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer

    1977-01-01

    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  2. Same sex, no sex, and unaware sex in neurotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Males and females of virtually all species differ in how they respond to their environment. Because such differences exist in almost all biological realms, including disease patterns and therapeutic outcomes, they have evoked calls by various bodies to incorporate their assessment in research. Neurobehavioral indices pose special questions because, unlike outwardly visible markers, they are described by complex functional outcomes or subtle alterations in brain structure. These divergent responses arise because they are inscribed in the genome itself and then by endocrine mechanisms that govern sexual differentiation of the brain during development and operate throughout life. Other organ systems that exhibit sex differences include the liver, an important consideration for neurotoxicology because it may process many toxic chemicals differentially in males and females. Despite the scope and pervasiveness of sex differences, however, they are disregarded by much of neurotoxicology research. Males predominate in behavioral experiments, few such experiments study both sexes, some investigators fail to even describe the sex of their subjects, and in vitro studies tend to wholly ignore sex, even for model systems aimed at neurological disorders that display marked sex differences. The public is acutely aware of sex differences in behavior, as attested by its appetite for books on the topic. It closely follows debates about the proportion of women in professions that feature science and mathematics. Neurotoxicology, especially in the domain of laboratory research, will be hindered in its ability to translate its findings into human health measures if it assigns sex differences to a minor role. It must also be sensitive to how such debates are framed. Often, the differences evoking the most discussion are subtle in scope. They do not lend themselves to the typical analyses conducted by experimenters; that is, reliance on mean differences and null hypothesis testing. PMID

  3. Sex Education in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the influence of the Catholic church on educational policy, more specifically on sex education, in Croatia. It explores tensions between secular and religious discourses regarding the introduction of a sex education programme supported by the Catholic church into Croatian schools. The presence of the Catholic doctrine in the educational system provided the basis for the introduction of sex education with a religious framework, namely the GROZD sex edu...

  4. Studies On The Radio-Protective Role Of Melatonin On The Testes Fine Structure Of MEDFLIES Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.) Sterile Males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with evaluating the radio-protective effects of melatonin on the testes fine structure of med flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), to avoid oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation. It was found that the testes of non-irradiated adult male Mediterranean fruit fly (4 days-old), Ceratitis capitata (Wield), consists of a single sac like follicle containing all the development zone of male sexual cells. In the testes wall, there is a peritoneal sheath of large cells, its cytoplasm full with pigment grains of different sizes and shapes located on a continuous layer of muscles and followed by a follicular epithelium supported with thick basement membrane. Certain aspects of spermatogenesis in the studied insect are described in this study using the electron microscope. The spermatogenesis was occurred within the cysts, which contain approximately 100-246 germ cells per cyst. Inside each cyst, all the spermatids were more or less at the same stage of maturation. The head of sperm was formed of a layer of acrosome and the nucleus. The flagellum of sperms has the typical axoneme formed by a 9+9+2 microtubule arrangement, two mitochondrial derivatives containing crystalline cone and two accessory bodies developed during sperm formation. The pattern of spermatogenesis in the treated C. capitata was altered when using the sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (90 Gy). These effects include alteration of axonemal membrane, abnormalities in chromatin of the nucleus, and clear degeneration of some sperms. By adding the melatonin, some of spermatids possessed very large nuclei of various shape with different distribution of the chromatin and two well-developed mitochondria derivatives, so, the sperms which success in complete its growth became less in numbers and more active.

  5. The Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers in Sex Discrimination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bardakci, Fevzi

    2000-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were successfully used in discrimination of sexes in Nile tilapia fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) using linear discriminant function analysis. The results provide support for the view that major genetical sex determining factors exist in tilapia.

  6. Sex Differences in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Sex differences in cognitive skills, grouped into motor, spatial and linguistic areas, are assessed in relation to current theories of cerebral lateralization. Few convincing sex differences exist, either overall, or in interactions with functional localization. Qualifying criteria include age, birth order, culture, sex of experimenter and sex…

  7. Practice Safer Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a long-term, faithful sexual relationship. Use protection for all kinds of sexual contact. Remember that you don't only get HIV from penile-vaginal sex. Use a condom during oral sex and during anal sex. Dental dams also ...

  8. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824); Esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) para aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jamuga@cena.usp.br; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  9. Evaluación de modernos plaguicidas en el complejo Ceratis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Psyttalia concolor Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ould-Abdallahi, Elhadj Abdalldhi

    2004-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Mosca mediterránea de la Fruta) es una de las principales plagas de los cultivos frutales. Está presente en la mayor parte de las regiones subtropicales del mundo. Su rango de huéspedes abarca a más de 250 especies. Los daños son producidos en primer lugar por la oviposición de la hembra en los frutos, y posteriormente, por el desarrollo larvario en su interior. Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide de moscas de ...

  10. Estrategias para la utilización de la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) en el control de Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedermann)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Quist, José Cristian

    2010-01-01

    una serie de eventos que conducen a la muerte final del insecto. Limitaciones o alteraciones en cada una de estas etapas pueden explicar que una δ-endotoxina particular osea o no propiedades insecticidas sobre una determinada especie de insecto. En este sentido, como reacción a la aparente insensibilidad que muestra C. capitata hacia los cristales de δ-endotoxinas, se ha abordado el tratamiento in vitro de dichos cristales emulando algunos pasos del citado mecanismo de acción así como la e...

  11. Efectos de la citarabina, el ftorafur y la radiación gamma sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y longevidad de Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Díptera: Trypetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, R.; Muñiz, M

    1992-01-01

    Se han realizado experimentos para estudiar los efectos de los antimetabolitos citarabina y ftorafur y de la radiación gamma sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y longevidad de Ceratitis capitata Wied. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que la acción conjunta de estos agentes produce un posible efecto sinérgico sobre la reducción de la fertilidad de este insecto y no altera la longevidad de los machos y las hembras. En este trabajo se considera importante estudiar la competitivi...

  12. Effect of depth of placement and levels of fertilizer phosphorus on its utilization in two genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of depth of placement and levels of applied P fertilizer on its utilization by two genotypes of cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata was studied using 32P labelled superphosphate. In both the genotypes, phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff %) increased with increasing level of P application. Placement of P fertilizer at 5 cm depth resulted in higher Pdff and utilization efficiency decreased with increasing level of applied P. Mahyco hybrid 413 utilized fertilizer P more efficiently than Pride of India. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  13. Studies on mass rearing and effect of sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on the adult emergence and male competitiveness on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on mass rearing of mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) revealed that the size and weight of pupae influence the adult emergence, flight ability index and egg production. Egg laying spans over a period of 18 days. A great majority was laid during 3rd to 7th day. The ideal dose of gamma irradiation for sterilization of males was found to be 9 Krad applied to mature pupae. Sexual competitiveness of irradiated males was highest when the ratios of sterile male to untreated males and female was either 1:2:1 or 1:3:1. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Sex-determination systems and their evolution: Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex-determination methods are very diverse as they have become an enduring research field, understanding the causes of gonadal development and elucidating the main factors involved in sex-determination of offspring required relating information from far-ranging areas such as cytology, embryology, morphology, molecular biology and even ecology and evolution. This article presents an overview of sex-determination in placental mammals, encompassing several levels of biological organization. The importance of the underlying molecular tools in the context of sex-determination assays and their implications in conservation genetics is also discussed.

  15. Familial disorders of sexual differentiation: a clinical and molecular genetic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Boehmer, Annemie

    2000-01-01

    textabstractSexual determination and differentiation are series of events starting with the establishment of genetic sex at fertilization, proceeding with the translation of genetic sex into gonadal sex, and culminating in the translation of gonadal sex into body sex. This three-step model is still valid, but actually (2000) much more complex. Many factors involved in normal sexual determination and differentiation became known, were cloned or defined on the molecular level during recent year...

  16. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  17. Sex effects on inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Caren; Taenzer, Aline; Lupu, Andreea; Heckmann, Nina; Engler, Jan Broder; Patas, Kostas; Friese, Manuel A; Gold, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    Clinical observations in human autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest a pivotal role of sex-related factors in the etiopathogenesis. These include a female preponderance in MS incidence and an increasing sex bias over time, a parent-of-origin effect in MS inheritance, and the protective effect of pregnancy on disease activity. The complex interplay of factors contributing to these clinical phenomena, however, is incompletely understood and may include sex hormones as well as genetic or epigenetic sex differences. While genetic and hormonal effects are impossible to study independently in humans, novel mouse models have started to unravel the cause-effect relationship between individual sex-related factors and autoimmunity. Here, we present the evidence for mechanisms underlying sex differences in the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) and how these might help to explain some of the clinically observed sex differences in MS. A better understanding of the molecular underpinnings may ultimately help to devise sex-specific treatment strategies as well as highlight novel avenues for therapy in both sexes. PMID:26773723

  18. Pharmacogenomics of multigenic diseases: Sex-specific differences in disease and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsonneault, Julia; Sadée, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Numerous genetic variations have been shown to affect disease susceptibility and drug response. Pharmacogenomics aims at improving therapy on the basis of genetic information for each individual patient. Furthermore, sex chromosomes broadly determine biological differences between males and females. Consequently, substantial sex differences exist in phenotypic manifestation of disease and treatment response. This review discusses the role of sex in coronary artery disease, schizophrenia, and ...

  19. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... evolved very recently. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we uncover that the sequence and expression patterns of Z chromosome genes covary with their ages of becoming Z-linked. In contrast to the mammalian X chromosomes, such patterns are mainly driven by mutational bias and genetic drift in birds, due...... to the opposite sex-biased inheritance of Z vs. X....

  20. Science, sex, superflies [A spin-off of nuclear science and technology has changed the dynamics of a complex mating game. Along the way, it has spawned success stories - some small, some large - around the world during the IAEA's first half century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medfly (Ceratitis capitata) is on the most unwanted list of farmers and food inspectors in about 80 countries. If not controlled, the pest can nest in more than 300 fruit and vegetable crops (from Granny Smith to Beurre D'Anjou) and ravage them. VIENNA 8 tsl is tailor-made to yield only male flies that stay strong enough after gamma sterilization to become virile agents of Medfly family planning. Once the sterile males are released into the wild, their mission is to compete in the mating game and win over willing females. The union is, of course, fruitless, and the outdoor fly population falls to nothing when systematically targeted over time. Biological birth control. The genetic sexing strain is a 21st-century feature of the sterile insect technique (SIT). The technology has spawned success stories in unlikely places during the IAEA's first half century as the world's 'atoms for peace' organization. What started out in the 1950s and 1960s on a small laboratory scale has peacefully 'mushroomed' into a multi-million dollar affair that continues to attract more and more players. VIENNA 8 tsl is among advances registered through the IAEA's joint work since 1964 with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). At any given moment, more than four billion sterile insects - 3.5 billion of them Medflies bred using genetic sexing strains - are being reared for weekly use at 30 SIT facilities worldwide. Among the latest are mass-rearing plants built in Bahia, Brazil, and Valencia, Spain. All the SIT facilities supply pest eradication, suppression and prevention programmes against various insect pests. A main common goal: to protect the quality of food and agricultural products, including livestock, that the pests can attack and destroy. Successes include winning battles from the Americas to Africa and the Middle East to Europe, Asia and Australia - against screwworm flies endangering cattle herds, tsetse flies killing livestock and humans, moths ruining crops and

  1. Hidrogenionic potential (pH of the attractant, trap density and control threshold for Ceratitis capitata (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE on Hamlin oranges in São Paulo central region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Branco Paiva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of initial pH values of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 of the attractant (protein bait Milhocina® and borax (sodium borate in the field, on the capture of fruit flies in McPhail traps, using 1, 2, 4 and 8 traps per hectare, in order to estimate control thresholds in a Hamlin orange grove in the central region of the state of São Paulo. The most abundant fruit fly species was Ceratitis capitata, comprising almost 99% of the fruit flies captured, of which 80% were females. The largest captures of C. capitata were found in traps baited with Milhocina® and borax at pH 8.5. Captures per trap for the four densities were similar, indicating that the population can be estimated with one trap per hectare in areas with high populations. It was found positive relationships between captures of C. capitata and the number of Hamlin oranges damaged, 2 and 3 weeks after capture. It was obtained equations that correlate captures and damage levels which can be used to estimate control thresholds. The average loss caused in Hamlin orange fruits by C. capitata was 2.5 tons per hectare or 7.5% of production.

  2. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  3. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  4. Comparison of the ecological energetics of the polychaetes capitella capitata and nereis succinea in experimental systems receiving similar levels of detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, K. R.

    The ecological energetics, including specific growth rate, population production and trophic transfer, was measured for the polychaetes Capitella capitata and Nereis succinea in laboratory systems receiving similar detritus food rations (1500 mg C · m -2 · d -1). The opportunistic Capitella species more effectively exploited the available food because of a higher specific growth rate and a higher population density. The metabolic cost was high (production : respiration 0.66, versus 2.50 for Nereis), but a greater proportion of the available detritus went into production in Capitella (trophic transfer efficiency is the ratio between worm production and food supplied; 27% for Capitella and 3% for Nereis). Opportunistic species such as Capitella capitata can exploit high organic conditions as in these laboratory growth studies. They effectively exploit not only by fast population increase when food levels increase, but also by achieving high population densities. The more typical, larger, benthic deposit feeders, such as Nereis succinea, not only have a shower population response to increasing food, but behavioural interactions due to crowding ( i.e., increased mortality) may limit population density to levels that do not maximally exploit available food.

  5. Developmental biology of sex determination : establishing a basis for systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Segerståhl, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    The existence of males and females is a fundamental aspect of animal biology but the developmental mechanisms of sex determination and sexual differentiation exhibit surprising evolutionary diversity. Depending on the species, sex determination mechanisms range from genetic sex chromosome effects to environmental temperature effects and even to social cues that derive from local population structure. Many genes and molecules that play a role in sex determination biology have been identified, ...

  6. The Evolution of the Search for Novel Genes in Mammalian Sex Determination: From Mice to Men

    OpenAIRE

    Arboleda, Valerie A.; Vilain, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Disorders of sex determination are a genetically heterogeneous group of rare disorders, presenting with sex-specific phenotypes and variable expressivity. Prior to the advent of the Human Genome Project, the identification of novel mammalian sex determination genes was hindered by the rarity of disorders of sex determination and small family sizes that made traditional linkage approaches difficult, if not impossible. This article reviews the revolutionary role of the Human Genome Project in t...

  7. Psychopathological Profiles in Transsexuals and the Challenge of Their Special Status among the Sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias K Auer; Nina Höhne; María Ángeles Bazarra-Castro; Hildegard Pfister; Johannes Fuss; Stalla, Günter K.; Caroline Sievers; Marcus Ising

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating psychopathological profiles of transsexuals raises a very basic methodological question: are control groups, which represent the biological or the phenotypic sex, most suited for an optimal evaluation of psychopathology of transsexuals? METHOD: Male-to-female (MtF) (n=52) and female-to-male transsexuals (FtM) (n=32), receiving cross-sex hormone treatment, were compared with age matched healthy subjects of the same genetic sex (n=178) and with the same phenotypic sex (...

  8. Sex Differences in Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Steven N; Fischer, Kathleen E

    2016-06-14

    Sex differences in longevity can provide insights into novel mechanisms of aging, yet they have been little studied. Surprisingly, sex-specific longevity patterns are best known in wild animals. Evolutionary hypotheses accounting for longevity patterns in natural populations include differential vulnerability to environmental hazards, differential intensity of sexual selection, and distinct patterns of parental care. Mechanistic hypotheses focus on hormones, asymmetric inheritance of sex chromosomes and mitochondria. Virtually all intensively studied species show conditional sex differences in longevity. Humans are the only species in which one sex is known to have a ubiquitous survival advantage. Paradoxically, although women live longer, they suffer greater morbidity particularly late in life. This mortality-morbidity paradox may be a consequence of greater connective tissue responsiveness to sex hormones in women. Human females' longevity advantage may result from hormonal influences on inflammatory and immunological responses, or greater resistance to oxidative damage; current support for these mechanisms is weak. PMID:27304504

  9. Sex determination in salmonids

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Ayaka; Guyomard, René; Jouanno, Elodie; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Members of the salmonid family are present worldwide and many of them are species of major importance for aquaculture, wild stock fisheries or recreational sport fisheries. Sex determination has been well studied in this fish family, because of the importance of a better sex control in aquaculture and also because salmonids can be excellent research models. All salmonid species in which sex determination has been studied in details thus far belong to the Salmoninae subfamily (mainly salmons, ...

  10. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS FOR OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI SEEDS TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS PARA SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Butia capitata (MARTIUS BECCARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacyr da Silva Brandão Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-germination treatments for overcoming dormancy in Butia capitata seeds. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (mechanical treatments x immersion substances, with 20 seeds per plot and four replications. For mechanical treatments, seeds with endocarp (pyrene, seeds without endocarp, and scarified pyrenes were used, whereas, for the immersion substances, gibberellic acid, water, and the control (without immersion were used. The emergence of seedlings began within 51 days, in pyrenes scarified and treated with gibberellic acid. The difference between the first and last count was 190 days. There was no interaction effect for the characteristics assessed, except for the mechanical treatments. It was possible to conclude that the scarified pyrenes showed a higher performance for most  characteristics assessed: emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length, and root fresh and dry mass.

    KEY-WORDS: Arecaceae; pyrene; scarification; gibberellins.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos, na superação de dormência em sementes de coquinho-azedo. O experimento foi montado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (tratamentos mecânicos x substâncias de imersão, com 20 sementes por parcela e quatro repetições. Nos tratamentos mecânicos, utilizaram-se sementes com endocarpo (pirênio, sementes sem endocarpo e pirênios escarificados, enquanto, nos tratamentos de substância de imersão, foram utilizados ácido giberélico, água e a testemunha (sem imersão. A emergência das plântulas iniciou-se aos 51 dias, em pirênios escarificados e tratados com ácido giberélico. A diferença entre a primeira e a última contagem foi de 190 dias. Para as características avaliadas, não houve efeito da interação, somente dos tratamentos mecânicos. Concluiu-se que os pirênios escarificados

  11. Osho - Insights on sex

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes...

  12. Plant contributions to our understanding of sex chromosome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    A minority of angiosperms have male and female flowers separated in distinct individuals (dioecy), and most dioecious plants do not have cytologically different (heteromorphic) sex chromosomes. Plants nevertheless have several advantages for the study of sex chromosome evolution, as genetic sex determination has evolved repeatedly and is often absent in close relatives. I review sex-determining regions in non-model plant species, which may help us to understand when and how (and, potentially, test hypotheses about why) recombination suppression evolves within young sex chromosomes. I emphasize high-throughput sequencing approaches that are increasingly being applied to plants to test for non-recombining regions. These data are particularly illuminating when combined with sequence data that allow phylogenetic analyses, and estimates of when these regions evolved. Together with comparative genetic mapping, this has revealed that sex-determining loci and sex-linked regions evolved independently in many plant lineages, sometimes in closely related dioecious species, and often within the past few million years. In reviewing recent progress, I suggest areas for future work, such as the use of phylogenies to allow the informed choice of outgroup species suitable for inferring the directions of changes, including testing whether Y chromosome-like regions are undergoing genetic degeneration, a predicted consequence of losing recombination. PMID:26053356

  13. Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficks, Courtney A; Dong, Lu; Waldman, Irwin D

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have examined the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth, and even fewer have tested whether the genetic and environmental influences underlying these traits differ for boys and girls. We tested for sex differences in the etiology of 3 trait dimensions-impulsivity, narcissism, and callous-unemotionality (CU)-previously found to underlie youth psychopathy in our sample. Using biometric modeling we tested whether constraining the genetic and environmental influences for each dimension across sex reduced model fit. We also tested for qualitative sex differences in the influences underlying these dimensions by allowing the genetic and environmental correlations between opposite sex dizygotic twins to be less than their respective values in same-sex dizygotic twins. Although the magnitudes of the genetic and environmental influences underlying the CU and narcissistic trait dimensions did not differ for boys and girls, nonshared environmental influences contributed significantly greater variance to impulsive traits in boys. No qualitative sex differences were found in the influences underlying any of the 3 trait dimensions, suggesting that the same genes and environments contribute to these psychopathic traits in males and females. PMID:24886014

  14. The Mathematical Basis of Mendelian Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, B.

    1972-01-01

    Applies set theory to the mono- and dihybrid Mendelian genetic crosses, multiple allelism, sex linkage, and linkage to show the application of mathematics to biology teaching (and of biology examples to mathematics instruction). (AL)

  15. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world. PMID:12286018

  16. Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Budd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex-linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment.

  17. Sex determination strategies in 2012: towards a common regulatory model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulou Roxani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is a complicated process involving large-scale modifications in gene expression affecting virtually every tissue in the body. Although the evolutionary origin of sex remains controversial, there is little doubt that it has developed as a process of optimizing metabolic control, as well as developmental and reproductive functions within a given setting of limited resources and environmental pressure. Evidence from various model organisms supports the view that sex determination may occur as a result of direct environmental induction or genetic regulation. The first process has been well documented in reptiles and fish, while the second is the classic case for avian species and mammals. Both of the latter have developed a variety of sex-specific/sex-related genes, which ultimately form a complete chromosome pair (sex chromosomes/gonosomes. Interestingly, combinations of environmental and genetic mechanisms have been described among different classes of animals, thus rendering the possibility of a unidirectional continuous evolutionary process from the one type of mechanism to the other unlikely. On the other hand, common elements appear throughout the animal kingdom, with regard to a conserved key genes and b a central role of sex steroid control as a prerequisite for ultimately normal sex differentiation. Studies in invertebrates also indicate a role of epigenetic chromatin modification, particularly with regard to alternative splicing options. This review summarizes current evidence from research in this hot field and signifies the need for further study of both normal hormonal regulators of sexual phenotype and patterns of environmental disruption.

  18. Analysis of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in genetically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster ms and w irradiated in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of induced and spontaneous recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) in Drosophila melanogaster strains w and ms was estimated after their chronic irradiation in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl' meltdown. The mutagenic effect of relatively low radiation doses was analyzed. In an experiment conducted in 1990, a significant increase in the RSLLM frequency was recorded, while, in 1991, no significant difference between the experiment and control was found

  19. Tratamento hidrotérmico na mortalidade de larvas de Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae em tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco = Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the mortality of fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weidmann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae larvae in tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento hidrotérmico no controle de larvas de C. capitata em frutos de tangerina para fins quarentenários. Tangerinas da variedade ‘Dancy’ infestadas por larvas de Ceratitis capitata foram submetidas aostratamentos hidrotérmicos de 46±1°C e 50±1°C, em diferentes tempos de exposição. Para a temperatura de 46±1°C foram utilizados nove períodos de exposição: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 min. Na temperatura de 50±1°C, utilizaram-se sete tempos de exposição: 0, 5,10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 min., sendo o tempo (0 infestado e sem tratamento para as duas temperaturas. Cada tratamento foi composto de cinco repetições com dois frutos. Frutos maduros e semi-maduros infestados foram imersos em água quente, visando quantificar ototal de larvas vivas e mortas, sendo que, um grupo de frutos foi mantido sem imersão como controle. Os índices quarentenários, na temperatura de 46±1°C foram atingidos aos 32,0 e 35,3 min. para frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. Na temperatura de50±1°C, os índices quarentenários foram atingidos aos 20,8 e 21,7 minutos para os frutos maduros e semi-maduros, respectivamente. A mortalidade das larvas de C. capitata foi crescente com o aumento da temperatura e o tempo de exposição.This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of hydrothermaltreatment in the control of C. capitata larvae in tangerine fruit for quarantine safety. Tangerines fruits infested by larvae of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 46±1°C and 50±1°C for different exposure times. The fruits were selected in two maturity stages (ripe and semi-ripe and immersed in hot water. For temperature at 46±1°C, nine exposure times were used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes. The same procedure was used for temperature at 50±1°C, where the exposure times were: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. Infested

  20. [Genetics and genetic counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Claudia; Liut, Francesca; Dallera, Nadia; Mazza, Cinzia; Magistroni, Riccardo; Savoldi, Gianfranco; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent genetic disease, characterized by progressive development of bilateral renal cysts. Two causative genes have been identified: PKD1 and PKD2. ADPKD phenotype is highly variable. Typically, ADPKD is an adult onset disease. However, occasionally, ADPKD manifests as very early onset disease. The phenotypic variability of ADPKD can be explained at three genetic levels: genic, allelic and gene modifier effects. Recent advances in molecular screening for PKD gene mutations and the introduction of the new next generation sequencing (NGS)- based genotyping approach have generated considerable improvement regarding the knowledge of genetic basis of ADPKD. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the genetics of ADPKD, focusing on new insights in genotype-phenotype correlation and exploring novel clinical approach to genetic testing. Evaluation of these new genetic information requires a multidisciplinary approach involving a nephrologist and a clinical geneticist. PMID:27067213

  1. Sex Away from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Harold

    1971-01-01

    The reasons why people who are normally truthful to their spouses engage in sex away from home are discussed. These reasons can include loneliness, ego building or the opportunity to have homosexual relations. Sex away from home is likely to increase since the number of people traveling is increasing. (Author/CG)

  2. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  3. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women face after a spinal cord injury? How should expectations about sex change after a spinal cord ... people do with a catheter during sex? How should people deal with spasticity during sex? What about ...

  4. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  5. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias") - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids.Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals). Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals) even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony.Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios. PMID:19863794

  6. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias" - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids. Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals. Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony. Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  7. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > The New Genetics The New Genetics Living Laboratories Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy ... Piece to a Century-Old Evolutionary Puzzle Computing Genetics Model Organisms RNA Interference The New Genetics is ...

  8. Sex modifies exercise and cardiac adaptation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Konhilas, John P.; Maass, Alexander H.; Luckey, Stephen W.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Olson, Eric N.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    How an individual’s sex and genetic background modify cardiac adaptation to increased workload is a topic of great interest. We systematically evaluated morphological and physiological cardiac adaptation in response to voluntary and forced exercise. We found that sex/gender is a dominant factor in exercise performance (in two exercise paradigms and two mouse strains) and that females of one of these strains have greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to similar amounts of...

  9. Contrasting patterns of karyotype and sex chromosome evolution in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Šíchová, Jindra

    2016-01-01

    It is known that chromosomal rearrangements play an important role in speciation by limiting gene flow within and between species. Furthermore, this effect may be enhanced by involvement of sex chromosomes that are known to undergo fast evolution compared to autosomes and play a special role in speciation due to their engagement in postzygotic reproductive isolation. The work presented in this study uses various molecular-genetic and cytogenetic techniques to describe karyotype and sex chromo...

  10. Genetic Linkage of Region Containing the CREB1 Gene to Depressive Disorders in Families With Recurrent, Early-Onset, Major Depression: A Re-Analysis and Confirmation of Sex-Specific Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Brion S; Hughes, Hugh B.; Zubenko, Wendy N.; Zubenko, George S.

    2010-01-01

    A previously published model-free linkage analysis of chromosome 2q33-35, highlighted by previous case-control studies and supported by within-family analyses employing the transmission disequilibrium test, revealed evidence of sex-specific linkage of the CREB1-containing region of 2q to unipolar Mood Disorders among women in 81 Recurrent, Early-Onset, Major Depressive Disorder (RE-MDD) families. Since it has been reported that the LODPAL program from S.A.G.E. v.4.0 used to conduct this previ...

  11. Microscopical studies on the effects of gamma radiation and/or pyriproxyfen (IGR) on the testis and ovary of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larval artificial diet of the mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (wied.) was treated with the Lc50 of the juvenile hormone, pyriproxyfen. The produced full grown pupae were gamma irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 90 and 110 Gy. The produced four days-old adults were dissected for removing the testis or the ovary for microscopical investigations. The study revealed that pyriproxyfen and/or irradiation affected insignificantly the volume of the male testis and significantly the ovary of the female, injured the process of spermatogenesis and caused gross damage to the female ovary. The damage was increased with increasing the gamma dose level. Deformations were observed including shrinkage of testis and ovary contents, vacuolations and disturbances in the process of sperm and oocyte maturation

  12. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 2- Measured by using ME and At Pase Enzyme Activities and Total Protein Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation aims at producing sterile adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Having the best possible vitality through the use of irradiation and /or a mutagenic substances to be used in a sterile insect technique program. Several types of mutagenic that were thought to cause mutations were used as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, serve ral types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. In a common pathway, malic enzyme (ME) activity, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity and the total protein contents are studied as direct parameters for measuring vitality of the insect. It was found that there is an increment at levels of these parameters due to the treatment of egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially the usage of the rice hulls as a bulking component in the larval rearing media alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  13. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and two plant extracts, Nicandra physaloide and Dodonaea viscosa, on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata Wiedemann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum ether extract of the plant Nicandra Physaloide L. and the alcoholic plant extract of Dodonaea viscosa L. were subjected to the biological evaluation to assess their toxic effects on the reproductive abilities and survival survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata Wied., exposed to the treated diet in the larval stage. The produced full grown pupae (1-2 day old) were gamma irradiated (90 Gy). Neither percent pupation, adult emergence nor survival were affected by treating larvae with any of the two plant extracts alone at the tested concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 3,5 and 7 ppm).Applying each of the two plant extracts recorded insignificant effect on egg hatch. however, irradiating pupae produced from larvae subjected to the extracts significantly affected the male fertility and mating competitiveness

  14. Comparative Electrophoretic Study of Protein Profiles of Normal and Sterile Medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Treated with Various Concentrations of E-Selen Antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dietary effects of E-Selen on the protein profiles of normal and irradiated medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied .), were investigated in total body homogenates of the pupae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on artificial diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.5 mg of E-Selen. The appearance and disappearance of some high molecular weight protein fractions among the different samples tested due to the difference of antioxidant doses were detected. All bands of molecular weights ranging between 51.5 and 9.9 KDa were commonly found among all samples while the variations were detected only in the bands of higher molecular weights. Disappearance of some protein bands indicated may be due to non-production, utilization or the degradation of proteins to maintain amino acids concentrations in the body, while the appearance of new bands might indicate the synthesis of new proteins by the insect

  15. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  16. Obesity and sex interact in the regulation of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, V Alexandra; Pike, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, for which a number of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors have been identified. A significant modifiable risk factor is obesity in mid-life. Interestingly, both obesity and AD exhibit sex differences and are regulated by sex steroid hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests interactions between obesity and sex in regulation of AD risk, although the pathways underlying this relationship are unclear. Inflammation and the E4 allele of apolipoprotein E have been identified as independent risk factors for AD and both interact with obesity and sex steroid hormones. We review the individual and cooperative effects of obesity and sex on development of AD and examine the potential contributions of apolipoprotein E, inflammation, and their interactions to this relationship. PMID:26708713

  17. Development of traps and killing agents to improve the mass trapping technique against Ceratitis capitata Wied and Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the framework of a Joint FAO/IAEA Division Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) a number of countries have carried out experiments specially in the application of the various trapping methodologies to survey fruit flies of economic importance. Spain collaborated through an 'Agreement Contract' between 2000- 2005. Spain is world's number one citrus exporter to the European Community and other countries such as USA, Korea, and Japan. Nowadays 'Mass Trapping' is an important activity to control medfly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied) in citrus areas. Thousands of traps have been hung in citrus plantations and in isolated trees (figs), all managed and coordinated by the agricultural authorities. One of the highest costs of this technique is the manpower required to bait and place the traps. Under the standard research protocol of the CRP we have developed a trap in order to facilitate the manipulation of the attractants and hanging the traps on the trees. 'Easy Trap' is the name of the new trap. It is composed of a transparent and a yellow part. When assembled a rectangular box is formed. It has two invaginated opposite holes on the upper part. An adaPTable hanger allows traps to be easily and quickly hang on the fruit trees. Mass trapping experiments were conducted for control of medfly as well as for olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). This paper presents the results of the experiments carried out in Spain during the last year (2004) with this trap. The Easy trap baited with Ammonium Acetate and Trimethylamine using Deltamethrine as killing agent was the best trap against C. capitata in a mango orchard. The same trap baited with NuLure 9% + borax 3% solution was the best trap when it was tested in an olive grove against B. oleae. (author)

  18. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, T.D.; Keim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  19. Nestling sex ratios in the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, Tracy; Keim, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts.

  20. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  1. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2016-01-01

    This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  2. Safer Sex Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barriers. Be sure to use water-based lubricants. Oral sex has low risk of transmitting HIV, but it ... you are willing to take. Know how much protection you want to use during different kinds of ...

  3. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  4. Sex-role and opposite-sex interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, J P; Francis, P L; Brown, S

    1988-12-01

    Androgynous, traditional, and undifferentiated male and female subjects indicated their attraction to three opposite-sex strangers who were described as having an androgynous, traditional, and undifferentiated sex-role. Subjects' ability to describe the sex-roles of the strangers was also measured. Androgynous strangers were most preferred, undifferentiated strangers least preferred. The least preferred undifferentiated strangers' sex-role was most accurately described. Subjects were least successful in describing the androgynous sex-role. PMID:3226838

  5. True hermaphroditism in a 46, XY individual, caused by a postzygotic somatic point mutation in the male gonadal sex-determining locus (SRY): Molecular genetics and histological findings in a sporadic case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.; Kammerer, S.; Cleve, H.; Loehrs, U.; Schwarz, H.P.; Kuhnle, U. (Univ. of Munich (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    Recently, the gene for the determination of maleness has been identified in the sex-determining region on the short arm of the Y chromosome (SRY) between the Y-chromosomal pseudoautosomal boundary (PABY) and the ZFY gene locus. Experiments with transgenic mice confirmed that SRY is a part of the testis-determining factor (TDF). The authors describe a sporadic case of a patient with intersexual genitalia and the histological finding of ovotestes in the gonad, which resembles the mixed type of gonadal tissue without primordial follicle structures. The karyotype of the patient was 46,XY. By PCR amplification, they tested for the presence of SRY by using DNA obtained from histological gonadal slices. The SRY products of both DNA preparations were further analyzed by direct sequencing. All three parts of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome could be amplified from leukocytic DNA. The patient's and the father's SRY sequences were identical with the published sequence. In the SRY PCR product of gonadal DNA, the wild-type and two point mutations were present in the patient's sequence, simulating a heterozygous state of a Y-chromosomal gene: one of the mutations was silent, while the other encoded for a nonconservative amino acid substitution from leucine to histidine. Subcloning procedures showed that the two point mutations always occurred together. The origin of the patient's intersexuality is a postzygotic mutation of the SRY occurring in part of the gonadal tissue. This event caused the loss of the testis-determining function in affected cells. 37 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  7. Biological Control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina: Releases of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Fruit-Producing Semi-Arid Areas of San Juan

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Suarez; Fernando Murua; Natalia Lara; Jorge Escobar; Gustavo Taret; José Luis Rubio; Guido Van Nieuwenhove; Laura Bezdjian; Pablo Schliserman; Sergio Marcelo Ovruski

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is one of the major pests of fruit crops in Argentina and it is a phytosanitary barrier to the export of fresh fruits. In the Province of San Juan, located in the central-eastern region of Argentina known as Cuyo, control strategies against Medfly in fruit-producing irrigated-valleys have been implemented by the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (ProCEM) jointly with the provincial gov...

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Reveals Possible Conservation of Vertebrate Sex Determination in a Mollusc

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Na; Xu, Fei; Guo, Ximing

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of sex in animal kingdom, we have only limited understanding of how sex is determined and evolved in many taxa. The mollusc Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exhibits complex modes of sexual reproduction that consists of protandric dioecy, sex change, and occasional hermaphroditism. This complex system is controlled by both environmental and genetic factors through unknown molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genes related to sex-determining pathways in C...

  9. Darwin's contributions to genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-S; Zhou, X-M; Zhi, M-X; Li, X-J; Wang, Q-L

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's contributions to evolutionary biology are well known, but his contributions to genetics are much less known. His main contribution was the collection of a tremendous amount of genetic data, and an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for its interpretation. Darwin clearly described almost all genetic phenomena of fundamental importance, such as prepotency (Mendelian inheritance), bud variation (mutation), heterosis, reversion (atavism), graft hybridization (Michurinian inheritance), sex-limited inheritance, the direct action of the male element on the female (xenia and telegony), the effect of use and disuse, the inheritance of acquired characters (Lamarckian inheritance), and many other observations pertaining to variation, heredity and development. To explain all these observations, Darwin formulated a developmental theory of heredity - Pangenesis - which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories, but also is supported by recent evidence. PMID:19638672

  10. Same sex families and children

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership) and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal ...

  11. An equal sex ratio followed by differential sex mortality causes overestimation of females in gall midges: no evidence for sex ratio regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Ashouri, Ahmad; Qolizadeh, Majid

    2012-06-01

    Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, has been recognized for nearly 80 years. The genetic nature of gall midges' sex determination predicts an equal numbers of male-producing and female-producing females in the populations such that the overall sex ratio is expected to be nearly 1:1. However, observations of some strictly monogenous populations with biased sex ratio, mainly toward females, have raised the question of whether gall midges are able to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to changes in environmental conditions, and some authors have even considered sex ratio regulation as a strong force in the course of the evolution of monogeny. In this paper, first, by studying the sex ratio variations of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza within a generation, we showed that adult males emerge up to 1 day earlier and have shorter life span than females (less than 4 days and up to 6 days, respectively). Although, the sex ratio of A. aphidimyza at the time of emergence was nearly 1:1 (52.41 % males), a simple population simulation indicated that the differential mortality of sexes can lead to a female-biased sex ratio estimation (57.88 % females) under random sampling in the natural environments. Our results imply that the primary sex ratio of monogenous gall midges is nearly 1:1 and that the arrhenogenic/thelygenic gall midges are not able to alter the number of their male/female progenies in response to changes in environmental conditions.

  12. Verification of sex from harvested sea otters using DNA testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Green, B.A.; Gorbics, C.; Bodkin, J.

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to determine the sex of 138 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) harvested from 3 regions of Alaska from 1994 to 1997, to assess the accuracy of post-harvest field-sexing. We also tested each of a series of factors associated with errors in field-sexing of sea otters, including male or female bias, age-class bias, regional bias, and bias associated with hunt characteristics. Blind control results indicated that sex was determined with 100% accuracy using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using primers that co-amplify the zinc finger-Y-X gene, located on both the mammalian Y- and X-chromosomes, and Testes Determining Factor (TDF), located on the mammalian Y-chromosome. DNA-based sexing revealed that 12.3% of the harvested sea otters were incorrectly sexed in the field, with most errors (13 of 17) occurring as males incorrectly reported as females. Thus, female harvest was overestimated. Using logistic regression analysis, we detected no statistical association of incorrect determination of sex in the field with age class, hunt region, or hunt type. The error in field-sexing appears to be random, at least with respect to the variables evaluated in this study.

  13. Biological factors underlying sex differences in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Hannah; Harley, Vincent; Lee, Joohyung

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of many neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions differ significantly between males and females. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson's disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Until recently, these sex differences have been explained solely by the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in females. Emerging evidence however indicates that the sex chromosome genes (i.e. X- and Y-linked genes) also contribute to brain sex differences. In particular, the Y-chromosome gene, SRY (Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome) is an interesting candidate as it is expressed in dopamine-abundant brain regions, where it regulates dopamine biosynthesis and dopamine-mediated functions such as voluntary movement in males. Furthermore, SRY expression is dysregulated in a toxin-induced model of PD, suggesting a role for SRY in the pathogenesis of dopamine cells. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between sex-specific hormones and sex-specific genes in healthy and diseased brain. In particular, better understanding of regulation and function of SRY in the male brain could provide entirely novel and important insights into genetic factors involved in the susceptibility of men to neurological disorders, as well as development of novel sex-specific therapies. PMID:26028290

  14. 结球甘蓝减数分裂中染色体异常行为分析%Analysis on Chromosome Abnormal Behavior in Meiosis of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵治亮

    2009-01-01

    对300多个纯合二倍体结球甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂各时期的染色体进行观察,发现自然条件下纯合二倍体甘蓝花粉母细胞在减数分裂的双线期、终变期以及中期Ⅰ出现了高频率的1~3个四价体和中期Ⅰ有高频率的1~3对染色体提早分离和滞后分离2种异常现象,探讨了甘蓝结实率不高与染色体异常行为之间的关系.%The chromosomes from more than 300 pollen mother cells of homozygous diploid of Brassica oleraces var. Capitata L were observed in every period of meiosis. It was found that altofrequent 1-3 quadrivalent appeared in diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I of meiosis of pollen mother cells of B. oleraces var. Capitata under natural conditions, and 2 kinds of abnormal phenomenas such as altofrequent 1-3 pairs of chromosomes separated early or late in metaphase I of meiosis. The relationship between low seed setting rate of B. oleraces var. Capitata and chromosome abnormal behavior was explored.

  15. Sex differences in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Kathryn M; Drake, Richard; Goldstein, Jill M

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests sex differences in schizophrenia reflect differences in both neurodevelopmental processes and social effects on disease risk and course. Male:female incidence approximates 1.4:1 but at older onset women predominate. Prevalence differences appear smaller. Men have poorer premorbid adjustment and present with worse negative and less depressive symptoms than women, which may explain their worse medium term outcome according to a range of measures. Substance abuse is a predominantly male activity in this group, as elsewhere. Findings of sex differences in brain morphology are inconsistent but occur in areas that normally show sexual dimorphism, implying that the same factors are important drivers of sex differences in both normal neurodevelopmental processes and those associated with schizophrenia. There are sex differences in antipsychotic responses but sex-specific endocrine effects on illness and response to antipsychotics are potentially complex. Oestrogen's role as an adjunctive medication is not yet clear due to methodological differences between the few randomized controlled trials. Services that are sensitive to differences in gender can better meet their patients' specific needs and potentially improve outcome. PMID:21047156

  16. Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Traut, W.; Sahara, K.; Marec, František

    1[2007], č. 6 (2008), s. 332-346. ISSN 1661-5425 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : balanced lethal * butterfly * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008

  17. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  18. Novel associations in disorders of sex development: findings from the I-DSD registry

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Kathryn; Bryce, Jillian; Jiang, Jipu; Rodie, Martina; Sinnott, Richard; Alkhawari, Mona; Arlt, Wiebke; Audi, Laura; Balsamo, Antonio; Bertelloni, Silvano; Cools, Martine; Darendeliler, Feyza; Drop, Stenvert; Ellaithi, Mona; Guran, Tulay

    2014-01-01

    Context: The focus of care in disorders of sex development (DSD) is often directed to issues related to sex and gender development. In addition, the molecular etiology remains unclear in the majority of cases. Objective: To report the range of associated conditions identified in the international DSD (I-DSD) Registry. Design, Setting, and Patients: Anonymized data were extracted from the I-DSD Registry for diagnosis, karyotype, sex of rearing, genetic investigations, and associ...

  19. Corruption and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović-Bojanić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the difference between the ancient and modern (even postmodern understandings of corruption, I am curious to explore why the bond linking corruption and sex seems so obvious. I have no intention of investigating both phenomena in the context of any moral category. What then did Flaubert have on his mind when he wrote that Rodolphe “treated Emma quite sans façon. He made of her something supple and corrupt.” What underpins the irresistible attraction between corruption and sex? Why is it impossible to eradicate corruption and repress sex and perceive them as solely functional strategies of generation and reproduction? This short outline follows certain philosophical remarks of Luce Irigaray and her thematization of the sexual difference in the demarcation of generation and corruption.

  20. How to sell safer sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars. PMID:12284682

  1. Effects of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies on Brain Development: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the…

  2. Identifying new sex-linked genes through BAC sequencing in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blavet, Nicolas; Blavet, Hana; Muyle, A.; Käfer, J.; Cegan, R.; Deschamps, C.; Zemp, N.; Mousset, S.; Aubourg, S.; Bergero, R.; Charlesworth, D.; Hobza, Roman; Widmer, A.; Marais, G.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, JUL 25 (2015), s. 546. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/12/2220 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sex chromosomes * Sex-linked genes * Plant Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  3. Prenatal management of disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Lyn S; Chatelain, Pierre; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Aigrain, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) rarely present prenatally but, as they are very complex conditions, management should be directed by highly specialised medical teams to allow consideration of all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and ethical issues. In this brief review, we present an overview of the prenatal presentation and management of DSD, including the sonographic appearance of normal genitalia and methods of determining genetic sex, the prenatal management of pregnancies with the unexpected finding of genital ambiguity on prenatal ultrasound and a review of the prenatal management of pregnancies at high risk of DSD. As this is a rapidly developing field, management options will change over time, making the involvement of clinical geneticists, paediatric endocrinologists and urologists, as well as fetal medicine specialists, essential in the care of these complex pregnancies. The reader should also bear in mind that local social, ethical and legal aspects may also influence management. PMID:23131529

  4. Ethical considerations in sex selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  5. A genetic study of the effects of the repair-deficient mei-9sup(a) mutation in Drosophila on spontaneous and X-ray-induced paternal sex chromosome loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repair-deficient mutant, mei-9sup(a) in Drosophila melanogaster was investigated regarding its effect on spontaneous and X-ray induced chromosome loss in male postmeiotic cells. From matings of males carrying a mei-9sup(a) or an ordinary ring-X and a doubly marked Y chromosome (Bsup(s)Yy+) with mei-9sup(a) or ordinary females, the spontaneous frequencies of complete loss, partial loss, and inferred ring-X loss (based on shifts in sex ratio female:male) were significantly higher with mei-9sup(a) than with non-mei-9sup(a). When males were given 3000 rad X-irradiation, frequencies of induced partial loss, inferred ring-X loss and the reduction in the number of progeny per femal were significantly greater with mei-9sup(a) than with non-mei-9sup(a). The result provide evidence that the mei-9sup(a) is a potentiator of both spontaneous and X-ray-induced chromosome lesions in sperm of the Drosophila male. Evidence is presented which implicates the presence of mei-9sup(a) in the P1 female and not the male as (at least) largely responsible for the characteristic mei-9sup(a) effects. (orig.)

  6. Sex Disparities in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    between 2003 and 2012 (N=79 617), and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Information was available on age, sex, marital status, stroke severity, stroke subtype, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk profile. We studied only deaths due to the index stroke, with the assumption that death.......5%) or 1 month (6.9%), respectively. After the age of 60 years, women had more severe strokes than men. Up to ages in the mid-60s, no difference in the risk of death from stroke was seen between the 2 sexes. For people aged >65 years, however, the risk gradually became greater in men than in women and...

  7. Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jong-Kuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male, XYh (hermaphrodite, and XX (female. The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460 F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5 Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4 Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5 Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5 Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4 Mb (89% DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The

  8. SEX DETERMINATION IN DACTYLOPIUS COCCUS COSTA (HEMIPTERA: DACTYLOPIIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Molero, Sally; Guevara, Misael; Bracamonte, Olga; Flores, Lourdes; Rodrigo, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    The coccids have different sex-determining mechanisms, including the heterochromatinization haplodiploidy of chromosomes of paternal origin, characteristic of the family Dactylopiidae. The heterochromatinization in coccids seems to be a mechanism by which part of a chromosome, the entire chromosome, or several chromosomes will become genetically inactive during development of the individual. In the first division immediately after fertilization, the chromosomes of embryos appear ...

  9. Sex Differences and Science: The Etiology of Science Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Are there sex differences in the etiology of high performance in science in childhood that could contribute to the under-representation of women in scientific careers? In this study the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences on high performance in science in both boys and girls were assessed using standard twin…

  10. Biotinylated Y chromosome specific probe for human sexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human chromosome DNA from WBC or fetus chorion samples were digested with Hae III and hybridized with biotinylated Y chromosome specific probe by Southern blotting, and hybridization signals were developed by the ABC (Avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase complex) system. The hybridization signal for 0.1 μg of male DNA could be detected clearly, while the signal for even 5 μg of female DNA could not. Parallel tests showed that the sexing results using 32P-labeled and biotinylated Y probe were identical. This suggests that the biotinylated Y probe can be applied to the determination of X-linked genetic diseases and sex abnormality, forensic analysis, sex determination of sportsmen and women, heterosexual transplanation of bone marrow, etc. It could become a convenient means for genetic diagnosis

  11. 甘蓝LFY基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of LFYZQ from Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤青林; 王志敏; 任雪松; 宋明; 王小佳

    2011-01-01

    DNA and RNA were extracted from bolting stem apex of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L.var. capitata L. ) cultivar ZQ and LFYzQ gene fragments were cloned by RT-PCR respectively with 2 pairs of primers. LFYzQ of DNA and cDNA sequence fragments assembly were respectively 2 560 bp and 1 239 bp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence by BLAST on line indicated that homology of LFYzQ was up to 91% between Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L., up to 87 % between it and Arabidopsis thaliana, up to 86 % between it and Brassicajuncea Coss., and up to 87 % between it and Raphanus sativus L. Analysis of gene structure by DNAstar indicated that LFYzQ including 3 extrons ( 452, 394, 393 bp )which totally coded 412 amino acids and 2 introns ( 514, 807 bp )which were unanimous with nucleotide splicing rules of GT-AG. Analysis of amino acids among LFYzQ and other 12 kinds of Brassicaceae LFY on line were divided into 2 classes: class Ⅰ with 3 plants ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., Jonopsidium acaule ) and class Ⅱ with other 10 plants. Molecular relativity quality of LFYzQ was 46 kD. LFYzQ was an unstable and hydrophobic protein with 4 kinds of active sites: N-myristoylation site, protein kinase C phosphorylation site, Casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation site and Amidation site.%以甘蓝ZQ启动抽薹的茎尖为材料,分别提取DNA和RNA,以两对引物扩增并序列拼接得到甘蓝LFYZQ基因DNA序列和cDNA完整编码区,长度分别为2 560、1 239 bp,与花椰菜、拟南芥、芥菜和萝卜同源性分别达到91%、87%、86%、87%.该基因含有3个外显子(452、394、393 bp)和2个内含子(514、807 bp),共编码412个氨基酸,内含子剪接位点均符合经典GT-AG法则.将LFYZQ与网上公布的12种十字花科植物LFY氨基酸序列按分子进化分成两类:甘蓝LFYZQ与花椰菜以及Jonopsidium属植物Jonopsidium acaule这3个分为一类;其余10种植物分

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on sex chromatin body appearance and the sex chromosome aberrations in the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W. Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)

  13. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied (Chapter 3). Additionally, we studied life history traits of male and female clones to detect sex-specific differences that might have contributed to the sex ratio bias observed in the field. Our res...

  14. Methods for Embryos Sexing and Their Applications in Animal Breeding: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Wakchaure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the sex at the time of conception necessary and efficient so that all offspring would be of the desired sex. Sexing of embryos before transfer and has great potential for the livestock industry. The genetic sex of an individual is set at fertilization and depends on whether the X-bearing ovum is fertilized by a Y or X- bearing spermatozoa. The perfect method for controlling the sex ratio is by separation of X- bearing and Y- bearing spermatozoa. Many method have been evolved for sexing the embryos, but practical methods of sex diagnosis should have reliable result, simple and time saving, non harmful for embryos, efficient and accurate.

  15. Avanços metodológicos na seleção do sexo de espermatozóides bovinos para utilização no melhoramento genético e na produção animal Methodological advances on spermatozoa sexing for using in genetic improvement and animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Fernanda Martins Hossepian de Lima

    2007-07-01

    technology for spermatozoa sexing that can be inserted in the industry to production of frozen semen and that has the following features: a does not change sperm viability; b it be compatible with freezing of spermatozoa after treatment for sexing; c it allows the spermatozoa sexing after their thawing; d it allows the production of various doses of sexed frozen semen per day at a compatible cost for the market. The importance of this technology to maximize animal production at lower cost is a challenge of the research and it has been studied for many years. The possibility to produce, in commercial scale, semen doses enriched with X or Y spermatozoa will increase the benefits of the use of artificial insemination (AI for its decisive role to maximize the genetic progress between generations, according to the requirements of each genetic improvement program and livestock capacity. Different technological routes are taken in the attempt to select gender in mammals, both for zootechnical interest species and for endangered species and pet animals. There are two alternatives for that: to separate X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa from those Y- chromosome-bearing spermatozoa; or to sex pre-implanted embryos.The availability of sexed semen in cattle has been eagerly anticipated for many years, and recent developments have brought this technology to the brink of commercial application. Limitations still exist, namely conception rates in field. This limits the willingness of producers to pay a premium price for the product. The focus of this paper is to discuss potential breeding schemes that can lead to widespread usage of sexed semen, in spite of its aforementioned limitations.

  16. How Sex Attitudes Develop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, Helene S.

    1976-01-01

    Excerpt from "The Roots of Love" (Helene S. Arnstein, 1975). Book is concerned with feelings that are part of child's developmental stages. Included in excerpt are: genital self-discovery, masturbation, discovery of sex differences, and birth fantasies. Stresses importance of parent's feelings which are communicated to child.

  17. When Sex Meets Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ma Yaohai,an associate professor of computer science at Nanjing University of Technology in east China's Jiangsu Province,was sentenced to three and a half years in prison on May 20 for organizing group-sex parties,renewing nationwide debate on sexual freedom in China.

  18. The Opposite of Sex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Can women and men truly be friends? Hollywood this year has been in love with the idea of friends"with benefits,"and it seems like people have forgotten that women and men have friendships where sex never enters the equation.But is the idea of a platonic

  19. Teenage sex talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, A

    Although an international study recently revealed that 87% of the UK's teenage mothers are unmarried, the highest figure in the world according to Alan Guttmacher Institute data of 1998, the teen conception rate in the country has declined considerably over the past 25 years and the number of teen mothers has been almost halved. Teens, as well as couples in other age groups, are increasingly cohabiting outside of marriage rather than getting married; more than two-thirds of babies born to teenagers are jointly registered by both parents. However, despite the decline in teenage conceptions since 1970, the UK still has one of the highest rates in Europe. The UK's real scandal is its failure to give young people the information they need to manage their sexual health. International research has proven that sexual health can be improved if societies are open about sex, accept teenage sexuality, and permit discussion about sex without embarrassment. Moreover, sex and relationships education should start at an early age, and young people should have easy access to free and confidential sex advice. Individuals under age 16 years have the right to the same degree of confidentiality as that afforded to adults. Vast potential exists for nurses to increase teenagers' use of services by removing the key obstacles which deter them from seeking advice: fears about confidentiality, lack of service publicity, and inappropriate opening times. PMID:9749022

  20. Investigation of SRY Gene in Sex Reversed Syndrome Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金东; 单祥年; 蒋清; 鲁晓宣; 邱定红; 严明; 郑谷; 王世浚

    1995-01-01

    SRY (sex-determining region Y chromosome) is considered as a strong candidate for the TDF (testis determining factor) and has been cloned following another candidate ZFY (zinc finger protein gone). In this study,eight cases of sex reversal, including four 46, XX males and four 46, XY females were examined for the presence of SRY sequence and a Y-repeated DNA locus. Our data indicated that the genomie DNA of the four classical 46,XX males had the SRY sequences. On the other hand, both SRY sequences and Y-repeated DNA sequences were present in aii four 46, XY females.These results suggest that SRY sequences were responsible for the sex reversal of 46, XX males whereas there may be other genetic mechanisms for the sex reversal of 46, XY females without the lack of SRY sequences.