Empruntée à l’appareil conceptuel de l’économie, la notion de capital désigne en première analyse l’ensemble des ressources dont disposent les individus et les groupes et qui affectent leurs trajectoires, notamment dans les domaines scolaire, professionnel, matrimonial et familial. La sociologie contemporaine se saisit le plus souvent du concept pour en souligner les différentes espèces : capital économique, capital culturel et capital social, principalement. Si le capital économique désigne ...
HOW easy it is for one who lives in Beijing, capital of the country, to have the impression that all things significant happen there! This is to forget how there are now many provincial capitals in China, that are rapidly modernizing. In order to achieve such modernization, these cities, like
Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek
This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…
Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Jensen, Benjamin; Engstrøm, Emma; Maas, Jannik; Majchrzak, Izabela
This project “Erotic Capital” concerns the topic and theory of Erotic Capital, coined by Catherine Hakim. The idea of Erotic Capital derives from Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of Personal Capitals – in this, Erotic Capital is discussed as an additional Personal Capital. In connection to the investigation of the theory Erotic Capital, certain theories of Feminism, Masculinity, Femininity, Gender and Cultural Differences are explored and examined. This is done in order to study how these theories...
Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj
Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...
Valerie A. Ramey; SHAPIRO, MATTHEW D
This paper studies the efficiency with which physical capital can be reallocated across sectors. It presents a model of a firm selling specialized capital in a thin resale market. The model predicts that the selling price depends not only on the sectoral specificity of capital, but also on the thinness of the market and the discount factor of the firm. It then provides empirical evidence on the sectoral mobility of capital based on equipment-level data from aerospace industry auctions. These ...
W. Erwin Diewert
The paper revisits Harper, Berndt and Wood (1989) and calculates Canadian reproducible capital services aggregates under alternative assumptions about the form of depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital and the treatment of capital gains. Five different models of depreciation are considered: (1) one hoss shay; (2) straight line depreciation; (3) declining balance or geometric depreciation; (4) linearly declining efficiency profiles and (5) linearly increasing maintenance profiles. The l...
This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)
Capitalism is a nimble shapeshifter. In this talk Jules Boykoff draws from the history of the Olympic Games to offer a theory of “celebration capitalism,” a form of modern-day economics that complements Naomi Klein’s “disaster capitalism” marked by neoliberalism: privatization, deregulation, and free-market rhetoric.
Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.
du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn
if they are to be sustained. Such logics are stabilized to the degree that they can pass the tests which they set themselves. The chapter shows how the projective city has increasingly failed these tests. It has instead created a privileged group of ‘mobile citizens’ working with mobile, global capital in ways......This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state...... expenditures, political legitimacy and financial markets. Boltanski and Chiapello's analysis of the projective city and connexionist logic captures important elements of capitalism in the era of neo-liberalism. However, as their analysis shows, any such logics require ‘spirit’, legitimacy and justification...
The work is focused on intellectual capital and its reporting of intangible assets. First part of the work defines the basic theoretical principles, which are an essential part of the work for understanding the issue. Literature review discusses the various components of intellectual capital and focuses on their function within organizations. Work also discusses various approaches of literature and the authors developing a complex theoretical basis for this issue. The following practical part...
Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung
Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...
Full Text Available The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the system of security and intelligence of BiH? Historical context implies greater responsibility of OSA BiH in realising its preventive function of protecting security of BiH and its citizens. Theoretical frame of the intelligence capital implies that the system of security and intelligence of BiH should be able to respond to strategic questions: to know-what, to know – why, to know – how, to know – who.
The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the system of security and intelligence of Bi...
Kevin A. Yelvington
[First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99) Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95) Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its histor...
... McAllen, TX The report looks at 3 important factors: Pollen score Allergy medication usage Availability of Board-certified allergists This year’s report named Jackson, Mississippi, as the top Spring Allergy Capital due to its: Higher than average pollen Higher ...
Howard, Robert W.
"Social capital" describes the strength of community as measured by the connections and levels of trust among its members. These connections are both formal and informal and the benefits include better health and better academic achievement. In this article, the author proposes two types of experiments to determine whether the relationship between…
China is on its way to establishing its own venture capital industry Venture capitalists will find no safe haven worldwide as the prospects for the majority of economies to pick up remain dim for the next two years. Still, if some of them have the money and
Kevin A. Yelvington
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and
Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
of capital means a coherent stock of capital, including social, cultural and physical capital, which belongs to a local community. The case of civic organization in rural Denmark 1800-1900 shows how the three capitals successively acted as driving forces: physical capital about year 1800, social capital....... The hypothesis is that three forms of capital have the potential to act as driving forces: social capital, cultural capital and physical capital, the latter operationalized as buildings. A new concept, triad of capital, is introduced to analyze the interrelationship between these three forms of capital. A triad...... about year 1880, and cultural capital about year 1900. In each case, one form of capital changed the two others in a chain reaction process, which ultimately led to a major reorganization of the triads of capital in the local rural communities....
... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted... Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition...
the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified......Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...
G Mohan; J Mohan
Metadata only record This paper looks at the relevance and contributions of social capital analysis to human geography and vise versa. The authors start by defining social capital and clarifying and distinguishing concepts, and critiques of Putnam's work. Social capital is simultaneously an economic, sociological, political, and geographical concept, but it must be distinguished from human capital, cultural capital, and networks. Social capital can be relevant to human geographers because ...
John M. Hartwick
National Accounting and Capital presents definitive solutions to current problems in national accounting practice. Professor Hartwick deals expertly with problems in accounting natural capital, financial capital and skills capital and communicates his solutions in specially designed national accounting tables or matrices.
What interpretation of human flourishing, what ideas of value does capitalism in practice embody and promote? To address this question the paper clarifies first that "capitalism" must be understood as more than merely a system of private property and markets. It contains "the prerogative of capital", in which surplus remains with the owners of capital, and "the perspective of capital", in which hired work is defined as a cost. The question must also be distinguished from more conventional one...
The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist soc...
Weber's thesis that the spirit of capitalism was preexistent to the rise of capitalism itself inspired many sociologist to search for the cultural background of contemporary forms of capitalism. In this paper, the author focuses on and makes comparisons of three approaches of such kind. The one approach draws from Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello who examine the development of 'new spirit of capitalism' by focusing on the interrelation of two macroactors - capitalism and critique; the other on...
The article considers the content and the structure of human capital. The term “human capital” is viewed as people’s abilities toparticipate in the production process in order to make use of their potential skills. A particular attention is paid to the meaning ofsocial capital and its role in the formation of human capital. It is proven that there is not much research on the connection betweenhuman and social capital. Human development index in Ukraine and 20 leading counties of the global ra...
Porter, M E
The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317
Keeney, Mary J.
Irish National Income and Expenditure Accounts do not contain information on capital stocks or capital services estimation. Estimates of the national capital stock and the depreciation of its fixed assets are basic macroeconomic aggregates and are integral components for many modelling exercises. This paper will present a detailed asset-level analysis of the stocks and depreciation of Irish fixed assets and the capital formation flows used to derive them. It will apply an improved perpetual i...
Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi
This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...
Christoph Deutschmann Kapitalistische Dynamik: Eine gesellschaftstheoretische Perspektive. Wiesbaden, VS Verlag, 2008 Geoffrey Ingham Capitalism. Oxford, Polity, 2008 John McMurtry The Cancer Stage of Capitalism. London, Pluto, 1999 Frederic L. Pryor The Future of U.S. Capitalism. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002
Full Text Available The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist society is immoral, that it cannot regulate itself and that the government’s assistance is needed to inoculate the ethics.
Yuheng LI; Westlund, Hans
This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall i...
Jonathan B. Berk; Richard Stanton; Josef Zechner
We derive a firm's optimal capital structure and managerial compensation contract when employees are averse to bearing their own human capital risk, while equity holders can diversify this risk away. In the presence of corporate taxes, our model delivers optimal debt levels consistent with those observed in practice. It also makes a number of predictions for the cross-sectional distribution of firm leverage. Consistent with existing empirical evidence, it implies persistent idiosyncratic diff...
HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER
Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...
Shapiro, Matthew D.
A firm may acquire additional capital input by purchasing new capital or by increasing the utilization of its current capital. The margin between capita accumulation and capital utilization is studied in a model of dynamic factor demand where the firm chooses capital, labor, and their rates of utilization. A direct measure of capital utilization -- the work week of capital -- is incorporated into the theory and estimates. The methodology advocated by Hansen and Singleton (1982) is used to obt...
textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by learning-by-doing. The human capital of an employee is subject to depreciation when knowledge of technologies becomes obsolete. After a shock in technology, the worker depreciates on his human capi...
Arndt, H. W.
The article analyses the problem of international capital mobility which the Asian crisis has highlighted. It points out that the problem of capital mobility ("hot money" panics) has a long history, but globalization, the opening up of national economies and technological advance have increased the risks. The article discusses four policy debated which are being pursued in the large Asian crisis literature: (i) the pros and cons of capital controls; (ii) the choice of exchange rate regime; (i...
Fuente, Ángel de la
This paper surveys the empirical literature on human capital and productivity and summarizes the results of my own work on the subject. On balance, the available evidence suggests that investment in education has a positive, significant and sizable effect on productivity growth. According to my estimates, moreover, the social returns to investment in human capital are higher than those on physical capital in most EU countries and in many regions of Spain.
Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.
Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon
Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...
Full Text Available The paper aims to provide a synthesis of Fukuyama's theory of social capital Three different conceptual issues are discussed in the article: definition paradigmatic framework, and methodology. Another aspect of Fukuyama's concept of social capital is discussed from the perspective of Fukuyama's great popularity in public policy since the nineties. The concluding part of the paper deals with Fukuyama's place in academic and policy discourse on social capital.
The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....
Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...
Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page questionnaire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the questionnaire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....
Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan
between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...
Correa, Juan; Lorca, Miguel; Parro, Francisco
Using Chilean manufacturing plants data, we�find: (1) the elasticity of substitution between capital and skilled labor is lower than the elasticity of substitution between capital and unskilled labor, and (2) the higher the technological component of the capital stock the larger the size of complementarity between capital and skilled labor. Our�findings show that capital, as an aggregate input, may under(over) state the complementarity between labor and the type of capital these workers actua...
Eliane A. Cardoso; Ilan Goldfajn
This paper creates an index of capital controls to analyze the determinants of capital flows to Brazil, accounting for the endogeneity of capital controls by considering a government that sets controls in response to capital flows. It finds that the government reacts strongly to capital flows by increasing controls on inflows during booms and relaxing them in moments of distress. The paper estimates a vector autoregression with capital flows, controls, and interest differentials. It shows tha...
Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…
This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been cha...
Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza
Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a comprehensive dataset on investments worldwide to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. We postulate that cross-border activity is shaped by macroeconomic factors in the venture ca
textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by
..., and 225 Regulations H, Q, and Y RIN 7100-AD 87 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized...-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...
Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon
This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian
How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...
Ángel de la Fuente
Este trabajo contiene un breve panorama de la literatura empírica sobre capital humano y productividad y resume los resultados de mi propio trabajo sobre el tema. En conjunto, la evidencia disponible sugiere que la inversión en educación tiene un efecto positivo, significativo y cuantitativamente importante sobre el crecimiento de la productividad. De acuerdo con mis estimaciones, además, la rentabilidad social de la inversión en capital humano es mayor que la del capital físico en la mayor p...
General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....
Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan
Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.
Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart
of social divisions. This leads to a discussion of four core questions: first, are there signs of a strong individualism and, correspondingly, a weak social structuring of lifestyles? The study does not find support for this view. Second, does classical highbrow culture play a central role as a marker......Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...
Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.
This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confidential data on the (internal) leverage of foreign affiliates of US multinationals, we find that thin capitalization rules affect multinational firm capital structure in a significant way. Specifically, restri...
Lorz, Jens Oliver
This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...
This paper enquires into the relation between capitalism, religion and the philosophy of science. We would tend to suppose that there are only superficial and accidental links between them. A closer analysis reveals, however, that the epistemology of contemporary science is still based on a certain interpretation of Christianity and linked to a particular type of capitalism. Science developed after Galileo and Descartes aims at universal truth but was founded on the notion of the Christian ...
Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.
Entrepreneurship is ultimately about the arrangement of resources into productive activi-ties. Much of the entrepreneurship literature, however, has focused on the demand side of the market. While resource heterogeneity is a feature of many theories of the firm, such theories are not built on a systematic theory of capital. We show how the approach to capital developed by the Austrian school of economics provides a natural bridge between theory of entrepreneurship and the theory of the firm. ...
Filho, Aécio Flávio Ferreira da Silva
This research was elaborated to evaluate entrepreneurship in the Capital of the Amazon State, Brazil. Its relevance is due to the non-existent literature in the subject of entrepreneurship, in the Northern Region of Brazil. The available Brazilian literary archive comprehends only the main cities located in the Southern and Northeastern Regions of the country. There is no research in the Northern Region – where the Amazon State and its Capital, Manaus, are found – and thus lies the reason for...
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of establishing a system of natural capital accounting. Natural capital is integral to the economy and yet it is routinely taken for granted because the goods and services it provides are generally freely available. The consequence is that without prices, these resources are not being allocated efficiently within the economy and opportunities for significant gains in well-being and the possibility of long-term future growth are being lo...
D. Bongaerts; E. Charlier
Regulatory capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the capital requirements directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under different approaches. F
Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas;
Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...
Naumik Ekaterina G.
The article offers suggestions for assessing communication capital productivity; the contradictions that affect the value of the communication efficiency of capital (the union of the agents of the market of communication services and products allows them to increase the communication capital productivity and to decrease communication capital productivity of competitors) are formulated; the dependence of productivity on the number of communication capital customers of the communication network...
Jacobs, B; Bovenberg, A.L.
This paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cyclemodel of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge-nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not onlylabor income but also capital income is optimal. The positive tax on capital incomeserves to alleviate the distortions of the labor tax on human capital accumulation.The optimal marginal tax rate on capital income is lower than that on labor inco...
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian
Bourdieu's (1986) seminal definition of social capital as "the aggregate of the actual or potential resources" is reflected in older definitions, as well as in many current within sociology (e.g. Portes, 2000) and organization (Adler & Kwon, 2002). The definition is interesting, because it directs...... a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital......, within a neo-capital framework that unifies the existing ‘plethora' of capitals....
Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom
Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian
This chapter presents a framework for understanding organizational networks and social capital through the lens of “social capital ownership” as well as the private and collective goods provided through this ownership. More specifically, it argues that ownership of social capital in organizations...... is closely connected to four types of social capital – two belonging to the bridging social capital type, and two belonging to the bonding social capital type. The chapter first reviews literature on organizational social capital and then directly focuses on ownership of social capital in organizations......, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...
problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de......This article argues that there is a fundamental contradiction between a profit-oriented economic system and long-term environmental sustainability. The 'solutions' that are proposed by mainstream environmental economists as well as their 'ecological economy' colleagues do not solve the central...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...
The work undertaken in this study empirically explores the determinants of regulatory bank capital bu®ers, and how they in°uence bank decisions. Focusing on bank capital management under the Basel I framework, this thesis serves to address some of the con- cerns that have been voiced regarding the implementation of the new regulation (Basel II) and the broader economic e®ects that could result. In particular, the research chapters of this thesis examine the cyclical behavior of European bank ...
Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike
of ‘‘highbrow’’ culture, cultural oppositions can nonetheless readily be detected. We point to nine oppositions, mostly shared between the nations. Three tensions between (a) participation and non-participation in cultural activities; (b) knowledge and ignorance in cultural issues (such as for music, literature...... than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features...
Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira
Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.
Paul Glasserman; Behzad Nouri
Contingent capital in the form of debt that converts to equity when a bank faces financial distress has been proposed as a mechanism to enhance financial stability and avoid costly government rescues. Specific proposals vary in their choice of conversion trigger and conversion mechanism. We analyze the case of contingent capital with a capital-ratio trigger and partial and ongoing conversion. The capital ratio we use is based on accounting or book values to approximate the regulatory ratios t...
B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital inco
Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confide
Flor, Christian Riis
post optimally sell the assets or re-optimize the capital structure. Ex ante, more uncertain asset value decreases leverage, but not firm value, and selling the assets becomes less likely. Firms should tend to invest in assets whose value is less correlated to changes in earnings and, in addition...
@@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.
Gaay Fortman, B. de
In the two ages of its existence capitalism has given proof of its reformability. It was, however, anti-capitalist blueprints and ideas that constituted a continuous spiritual driving force towards reform. Today, after the collapse of real existing socialism there is an urgent need for new alternati
This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...
To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…
Payne, Christopher T
When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements
Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.
Swagemakers, P.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.
The modernization of agricultural food production has diminished and is diminishing the sustainable use of the local natural resource base, resulting in the fragmentation of landscapes and the decline of biodiversity. In this paper we analyze the revitalization of ecological capital, which provides
Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland
We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...
Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland
Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...
Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine
Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for capital reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…
... Basel III, Minimum Regulatory Capital Ratios, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, and Prompt... Capital Ratios, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, and Prompt Corrective Action AGENCIES: Office of..., Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, and Prompt Corrective Action'' to facilitate the organization...
The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding.
The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding. PMID:10187243
This paper, part of a series on Crony Capitalism and Contemporary India, examines the conceptual meaning of the term crony capitalism, which has acquired considerable popularity since it was used as an explanation for the East Asian crisis. The paper argues that the conception of crony capitalism as a description of a distinct kind of capitalism associated with the State playing a key role in the allocation process suffers from serious deficiencies and therefore does not provide a suitable fr...
Audretsch, David B; Keilbach, Max
The neoclassical model of the production function, as applied by Robert Solow to build the neoclassical model of growth, linked labor and capital to output. More recently, Romer and others have expanded the model to include measures of knowledge capital. In this paper we introduce a new factor, entrepreneurship capital, and link it to output in the context of a production function model. This paper explains what is meant by entrepre-neurship capital and why it should influence economic output...
The one-to-one mapping between cross-country differences in capital returns and the direction of international capital flows is broken in a multisector world where international factor price differences are driven by technology differences. A technology-backward or low-return-to-capital country will face capital inflows or outflows after financial integration depending on whether non-tradable demand is bossted or not
Jorge Selaive; Beatriz Velásquez; José Miguel Villena
In this work, we extend de jure measures of capital account restrictions previously assembled by Miniane (2004) to a set of 181 economies for the period 1996-2005. Additionally, we propose two new measures of capital account restrictions. The first excludes prudential regulation and the second weights the indices by a proxy for the enforcement of capital restrictions. We analyze global tendencies and the process of capital account liberalization in Chile. For the group of economies, we observ...
Employing data on over 100 banks for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during 1996-2011, we test the relation between risk and capital. The findings indicate that banks generally increase capital in response to an increase in risk, and not vice versa. Second, there is an uneven impact of regulatory pressure and market discipline on banks attitude towards risk and capital. Additionally, Islamic banks increased their capital as compared to conventional banks.
Yuan K. Chou
This paper proposes three theoretical growth models incorporating social capital, based on varied expositions on the concept of social capital and the empirical evidence gathered to date. In these models, social capital impacts growth by assisting in the accumulation of human capital, by affecting financial development through its effects on collective trust and social norms, and by facilitating networking between firms that result in the creation and diffusion of business and technological i...
Jeffrey A. Wurgler; Baker, Malcolm P.
It is well known that firms tend to raise equity when their market values are high relative to book and past market values. We document that the resulting effects on capital structure are very persistent. As a consequence, current capital structure is strongly related to past market valuations. The results are difficult to explain within traditional theories of capital structure and suggest that capital structure is the cumulative outcome of past attempts to time the equity market.
Edward Simpson Prescott
Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...
... on their capital adequacy and ability to continue to operate and remain credit intermediaries during... monitor and maintain their internal capital adequacy.\\2\\ \\1\\ The proposed amendments to Regulation Y would... capital adequacy that reflect a full understanding of their risks and ensure that they hold...
Madsen, Susan R.
Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…
De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.
We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management (redu
Lassen Hanan, Anne
This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...
Full Text Available Tax planners often choose debt over equity financing. As this has led to increased corporate debt financing, many countries have introduced thin capitalization rules to secure their tax revenues. In a general capital structure model we analyze if thin capitalization rules affect dividend and financing decisions, and whether they can partially explain why corporations receive both debt and equity capital. We model the Belgian, German and Italian rules as examples. We find that the so-called Miller equilibrium and definite financing effects depend significantly on the underlying tax system. Further, our results are useful for the treasury to decide what thin capitalization type to implement.
Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted f...
Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper
Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...
Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.
A healthcare organization's financial strategy should be defined within the context of the capital cycle and provide for the management of three critical components that will ensure the expansion and renewal of capital capacity--the design and implementation of the financial plan, the design and implementation of an appropriate capital structure, and a means to strategically utilize capital and reinvest it in the organization. The capital cycle comprises two parts--strategic planning and implementation, and the development of the support infrastructure that includes financial planning, capital structure, and capital allocation. The financial plan positions an organization within an area of financial equilibrium and defines its organizational capabilities. The financial infrastructure gives integrity and momentum to the capital cycle. Capital structure addresses critical funding and financing questions and is best defined as the combination of debt and equity that funds the strategic plan. In regard to capital allocation, healthcare organizations should follow a corporate "best practices" approach for such areas as financial objectives and policies, project review, and the capital expenditures approval process.
Full Text Available En la teoría económica existen distintas definiciones de capital: capital físico, el capital en recursos naturales, el capital financiero, el capital en infraestructura económica, el capital en infraestructura social y el capital humano. Todos ellos son condiciones necesarias para que un país alcance el desarrollo económico y social y un alto estándar y calidad de vida de sus habitantes, pero no suficientes puesto que hace falta una categoría adicional de capital. En los últimos años ha surgido el análisis de una nueva categoría: el Capital Social. El concepto se ha convertido en uno de los temas más debatidos de las ciencias sociales y políticas. Se refiere a un elemento invisible, etéreo, menos tangible que el capital humano (conocimientos y/o habilidades de los individuos o el capital físico (bienes materiales, pero que resulta decisivo para la actividad productiva, la satisfacción de las necesidades personales y el desarrollo comunitario y de una sociedad toda.
Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.
Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas
We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... in the presence of temporarypayment difficulties of borrowers. Banks offering lenient (less strict) loan termsmust have higher initial levels of capital and charge higher loan rates. Whencapital requirements are increased, both strict and lenient banks hold higher levelsof initial capital and they raise loan...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...
Iversen, Jens; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We argue that formal schooling and wage-work experience are complementary types of human capital for entrepreneurs. Strong empirical support is found for this hypothesis as the interaction term between schooling and actual wage-work experience enters positively and significantly in a Mincer equation, whereas the effect of schooling in the absence of wage-work experience is insignificant. These results are extremely robust towards more flexible specifications, including fixed-effects estimatio...
Rebecca Henderson; Karthik Ramanna
In a capitalist system based on free markets, do managers have responsibilities to the system itself? If they do, should these responsibilities shape their behavior when they are engaging in the political process in an attempt to structure the institutions of capitalism? The prevailing view-perhaps most eloquently argued by Milton Friedman-is that the first duty of managers is to maximize shareholder value, and thus that they should take every opportunity (within the bounds of the law) to str...
Timur Natkhov, Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor in the Subdepartment of Institutional Economics, National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: The paper presents a brief evolution of studies on the relationship between education and social capital in different countries. A distinctive feature of these studies is their interdisciplinary nature, as they combine theories and methods of different social sciences.To ide...
Milost, Franko; Novak, Matic
Investments in human capital (employees) include investments in the direct assurance of working abilities, investments in health and well-being and investments in loyalty to the company. These investments are crucial for the long-term existence and development of a company, but their value is not disclosed on the assets side of the classical balance sheet. The most important argument given by the proponents of this approach is that the economic benefits stemming from such investments are unce...
The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.
Full Text Available El capital intelectual es una concepción novedosa, tipificada como un activo intangible que agrega valor a la empresa; está formado por tres componentes: el capital organizacional, el humano y el relacional. El capital humano está relacionado con el desarrollo y los conocimientos del individuo, que permite diferenciar a un profesional de otro. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la formación del Contador Público egresado de la Universidad de Los Andes (ULA de Trujillo, como fuente de capital humano para su desempeño profesional. Los datos se recolectaron aplicando un cuestionario a una muestra aleatoria de 47 de estos profesionales, empleando para el análisis y presentación de los resultados técnicas estadísticas. La investigación evidencia que la mayoría de los encuestados poseen un nivel de satisfacción de medio a bajo con su formación de pregrado, señalando como principales debilidades del Plan de Estudio las áreas tributaria y cambiaria, el manejo instrumental del inglés y el conocimiento de las normativas que rigen el sistema económico. La formación en algunas de estas áreas la han mejorado a través de otras actividades de capacitación. No obstante reconocen algunas fortalezas tales como: el aprendizaje y dominio de conceptos y Principios Contables de Aceptación General, las matemáticas y estadística, el manejo de la contabilidad computarizada y las habilidades para analizar e interpretar problemas contables. Se concluye que a pesar de las deficiencias, la realización de cursos de actualización, junto con las fortalezas en la formación de la carrera, ha contribuido a que el contador público egresado de la ULA de Trujillo constituya un capital humano con ventaja competitiva.
The study analyses the capital income taxation of foreign-source income, where residence and source criteria are the two well-known tax criteria. The study presents a globally optimal tax rule which equalizes the shadow price of capital in the countries and which is assumed to be a weighted average of the return on savings and on investment, i.e. depending on the gross rate of return to the extent that capital contributes to the capital used, and on the net interest rate to the extent that ca...
Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society...... and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted from the economic gain following market forces. For example, the voluntary organization of small......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....
Dans ce texte j'analyse les relations entre la composante Santé du capital social et la reproduction élargie de l'économie. Il s'agit aussi de discuter des méthodes d'évaluation de santé des populations pour apprécier leur potentiel de travail. En s'appuyant sur des travaux en psychologie sociale, je cherche à appréhender les rythmes anthroponomiques de l'évolution économique.
Oscar Alejandro Goyes Viteri
Este documento busca dar a conocer el tema de la inversión en capital humano a través de la celebración de contratos atípicos y utilizando la fiducia mercantil y la titularización como vehículos financieros. Por medio de estos contratos un estudiante obtiene los recursos que requiere para financiar su educación superior, a cambio de entregar un porcentaje de sus ingresos después de su graduación a quien financió la operación.
Full Text Available En este artículo se buscan establecer las bases para una transformación del tradicional triángulo comunicativo emisor-mensaje-receptor, por un esquema que haga alusión a la dinámica social de la comunicación relacionada con lo público: actores-escenarios-sentidos. De esta forma, es posible conformar guías para la acción y encontrar en los actores ciudadanos de comunicación, la conformaciónde un capital social para la democracia.
Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren
$450 million dollars in less than an hour. Although it was ultimately saved from bankruptcy when it was acquired two days later, the terms of acquisition were very unfavourable to the company's shareholders. How did this happen? Could it have been prevented? What should the staff, the chief executive......It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...
I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... of a number of other variables and supplementing the sample with slightly older data from non-European countries. The evidence of the reverse causal direction is weak. I suggest that it is possible to build social capiatl through investing in education, interest in society and some level of income...
Oscar Alejandro Goyes Viteri
Full Text Available Este documento busca dar a conocer el tema de la inversión en capital humano a través de la celebración de contratos atípicos y utilizando la fiducia mercantil y la titularización como vehículos financieros. Por medio de estos contratos un estudiante obtiene los recursos que requiere para financiar su educación superior, a cambio de entregar un porcentaje de sus ingresos después de su graduación a quien financió la operación.
Sequeira, Tiago; Santos, Marcelo,; Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra
The determinants of human capital have been studied sparsely in the literature. Although there is a huge literature on the determinants of schooling linked with the quality of schooling, there are not many contributions that explore the deep determinants of investment in, quantity and quality of human capital. This paper investigates the relationship between human capital and the ancestral genetic diversity of populations. It highlights a strong hump-shaped relationship between genetic divers...
Freddy Heylen; Lorenzo Pozzi
This paper studies the effects of crises on human capital formation. Theoretically, a crisis undermines total factor productivity, which reduces the return to working and to accumulating physical capital. If the crisis is temporary, young agents will study now and work later. Human capital rises. To test our model we rely on inflation crises as our main empirical proxy. Using GMM panel procedures, our analysis for 86 countries in 1970-2000 confirms the positive effects of crises on human capi...
Full Text Available The concept of social capital has been used very often in sociological researches over the last two decades. Measuring social capital in civil society, neighborhoods and educational systems is merely a part of its popular usage. Many sociologists tend to use the concept of social capital very freely and therefore expand the definition of social capital. The author’s personal experience indicates that there have been a great number of academic discussions, research planning and public speeches implementing the notion of social capital without taking a detailed consideration of what that concept truly entails. By overviewing the available literature on social capital, it is actually no wonder that both sociologists and the noted concept were in this confusing situation. As Field stated in his book Social Capital (Key Ideas, published in 2008, his work was “the first attempt to provide an extended introduction on increasingly influential concept of social capital” (Field 1. Quibria notes that even though there is a vast number of research conducted on social capital in many academic fields and with various approaches ‘the concept of social capital remains largely elusive’’(1. That obviously is not an obstacle because there is a constantly growing interest in social capital. A vast body of research concerning, measuring, and defining social capital is available today, which helps a researcher to analyze and compare all of the perspectives concerning social capital. This can be of great importance when researchers approach a somewhat new subject of research such as online communication and, more specifically, online games.
Buch, Claudia M; Kuckulenz, Anja; Le Manchec, Marie-Helene
The debate on the risks and benefits of the globalisation of international capital markets has focused on the volume and the volatility of the main capital flows Â— foreign direct investment (FDI), portfolio investment, and foreign bank lending. Financial transfers in the form of worker remittances have received less attention in this context. This paper provides an analysis on the magnitude of remittances, their volatility, and their relationship to other capital flows. Moreover, we provide ...
Schmid, A. Allan; Robison, Lindon J.
Experiments and studies were conducted to investigate the role of social capital. Social capital (relationship to others) is a productive asset which is a substitute for and complement to other productive assets. The productivity of social capital leads to the expectation that firms and individuals invest in relationships. Data were collected to answer the following questions: Does the identity (relationship) of trading partners affect selling and buying prices; the acceptance of catastrophic...
Taylor, Scott D.
Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...
Malika Pant; Yanliang Miao
Capital flows data from Balance of Payments statistics often lag 3-6 months, which renders timely surveillance and policy deliberation difficult. To address the tension, we propose two coincident composite indicators for capital flows that improve upon existing proxies. We find that the most widely used proxy, the capital tracker, often overpredicts net flows by 30 percent. We augment the tracker into a composite indicator by assigning to it a lesser but optimally estimated weight while incor...
Holz, Carsten A
Data on physical capital are an indispensable part of economic growth and efficiency studies. In the case of China, fixed asset time series are usually derived either by aggregating gross fixed capital formation data over time, net of depreciation, or by correcting the limited official fixed asset data available. These procedures, to varying degrees, ignore that (i) gross fixed capital formation does not equal investment, (ii) investment does not equal the value of fixed assets newly created ...
It is argued in order to explain large differences in the level of the development and the growth of economies cannot be adequately explained only by looking the traditional inputs of labour, capital and natural resources. The hypothesis is that also the role of social capital needs to be taken into account. First the concept of social capital is defined and discussed. Then the role of social capital in the development process is explained. Empirical test based on the cross-country data of 27...
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
evidence for the first time for the population of workers in an entire economy (as opposed to case study evidence) on the effects of the nature and scope of human capital on career success (measured by appointments to top management). First, we confirm the beneficial effect of acquiring general human...... capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through...
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger
The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one...... catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....
Day, Ronald E.
Considers one concept in knowledge management, that of social capital, focusing on the problem of measure and value in capitalism, specifically within the period and conditions of post-Fordist production. Discusses the work of Antonio Negri and suggests the importance of knowledge management as a symptom of a turn in political economy. (Author/LRW)
B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear and non-linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heterogenous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also
Ferreira, Susana; Hamilton, Kirk
Existing wealth estimates show that in most countries intangible capital is the largest share of total wealth. Intangible capital is calculated as the difference between total wealth and tangible (produced and natural) capital. This paper uses new estimates of total wealth, natural capital, and physical capital for a panel of countries to shed light on the constituents of the intangible ca...
... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5200 Capital planning. (a) The Board...'s capital adequacy plan. Rather, the standards are intended to serve as minimum levels of capital... capital adequacy plan as a part of the financial plan required by § 618.8440 of this chapter. The...
Information technology and information capital are both neutral in character and can serve socialism as well as capitalism. As Karst pointed out, the information society is culturally and institutionally diverse. If in their transformation into social morphology information technology and capital may both end in socialism as well as capitalism, then what is the essential distinction between information capitalism and information socialism?
... Cease and Desist Order, as amended. See 74 FR 5597 (January 30, 2009). As a result, the definition of... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1225 RIN 2590-AA01 Minimum Capital AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... Soundness Act that provides for a temporary increase in the minimum capital level for entities regulated...
This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…
D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton structur
Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph
This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…
Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.
Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the fir
Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…
China's agriculture has contributed a lot to industrialization but it has suffered a long-run and severe capital loss.This paper provides an estimation model of capital loss in agriculture and gives some explanation in marginal approach.With an eye to a balanced and sustainable economy development, it is high time for government to do something for it.
Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc
In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...
... for any rating category (other than in a rating category specifically addressing capital adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.4 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital...
A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...
A summary of the operating economics of the Winter Cummings Sand Pool, a horizontal well development project with a sustained rate of development, was presented. A total of 58 horizontal wells have been drilled over a time span of seven years. The production performance of the first pilot wells indicated that development of the pool by horizontal wells could be economically viable. Since its inception the Winter field development was considered to have become a capital treadmill with an incremental rate of return on the incremental investment of 240 percent (a 24 million dollar net operating cash flow for a 10 million dollar investment). Current development status and production forecasts were also discussed. 21 figs
How do professions affect the configuration of political economies worldwide? This study addresses the question through interviews with members of a new transnational profession - wealth management - whose innovations are reshaping the balance of power in global finance. Wealth managers specialize...... in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from...... and international policy-making bodies to advance the interests of the profession and its wealthy clients; and 3) by writing the fiscal legislation of some jurisdictions. Through these mechanisms, the profession has reconfigured political and economic power trans-nationally, shifting the world’s financial center...
This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...... capital is formed at spatial scales lower than the national or international, because the density of matrices of social relations increases with proximity. The paper also offers a discussion of how national and regional policies may be suited for promoting social capital....
Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte;
BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...
We present a model in which a government's current capital controls policy signals future policies. Controls on capital outflows evolve in response to news on technology, conditional on government attitudes towards taxation of capital. When there is uncertainty over government types, a policy of liberal capital outflows sends a favorable signal that may trigger a capital inflow. This prediction is consistent with the experience of several countries that have liberalized their capital account
Césaire A. Meh; Terajima, Yaz
This paper studies the capital accumulation and welfare implications of reducing capital income taxation in a general equilibrium economy with uninsurable investment risks. It has been shown that, with uninsurable investment risks, under-accumulation of capital may result compared to the complete markets economy. We show that reducing somewhat the capital income tax rate increases the capital stock and leads to a welfare gain. The complete elimination of the capital income tax, however, is no...
This paper develops a stochastic dynamic model to examine the impact of capital regulation on banks' financial decisions. In equilibrium, lending decisions, capital buffer and the probability of bank failure are endogenously determined. Compared to a flat-rate capital rule, a risk-sensitive capital standard causes the capital requirement to be much higher for small (and riskier) banks and much lower for large (and less risky) banks. Nevertheless, changes in actual capital holdings are less pr...
In this paper we investigate the effect of corruption on human capital accumulation through two channels. The first channel is through the effect of corruption on the public expenditure on education and the second channel is through the effect of corruption on the physical capital investment. Public expenditure on education affects positively human capital, while physical capital can obsolete human capital. Initially, we construct an endogenous two-sector growth model with human capital accum...
Somayeh Boostani; Shabnam Fotovvat; Karam Safari
This paper investigates different components on intellectual capital including human capital, structural capital and customer capital in banking industry in city of Salmas, Iran. The study uses the questionnaire developed by Bontis (1998) [Bontis, N. (1998). Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36(2), 63-76.] to measure the effects of human capital. The questionnaire consists of 42 questions and all of them are designed in Likert s...
... Policy Analyst, (202) 906-5740, Capital Risk, or Marvin Shaw, Senior Attorney, (202) 906-6639...-in of the regulatory capital effects of the accounting changes, among other issues.\\9\\ \\9\\ 74 FR... Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C). In the NPR, the agencies...
National Capital Planning Commission — Transcripts of the monthly (with the exception of August) National Capital Planning Commission meeting transcripts are provided for research to confirm actions...
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.
Full Text Available This paper investigates different components on intellectual capital including human capital, structural capital and customer capital in banking industry in city of Salmas, Iran. The study uses the questionnaire developed by Bontis (1998 [Bontis, N. (1998. Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36(2, 63-76.] to measure the effects of human capital. The questionnaire consists of 42 questions and all of them are designed in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas for human capital, structural capital and relationship capital were calculated as 0.79, 0.76 and 0.72, respectively. The implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were normally distributed. Using t-student test, the study determined that while management team did not pay enough attention on human capital, there were some statistically significant evidence that social and relationship capitals gained good attention.
A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with
Adrián Osvaldo Ravier
Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.
The outsourcing of activities have been taking a peculiar shape recently. Human capital has remote control of the factories which are produced according to the local technology, and it defines the home technology in which it commits these factories and is committed itself. We introduce this idea in a hierarchical model of international trade with two countries, three factors and two final goods: the traditional one produced with labour and capital and the modern one produced with a non traded...
Although the criminal career paradigm has explored various crime types, little effort has been conducted to systematically examine the pattern of drug trafficking careers. Ethnographic studies on drug trafficking have proposed that different forms of capital have an impact on the patterns of drug trafficking careers. The effects of conventional and criminal capital, however, have been the subject of much less empirical attention. Drawing from information on the criminal careers of 182 incarce...
Dewaelheyns, Nico; Van Hulle, Cynthia
Recent empirical evidence has shown that internal capital markets within multinational corporations are used to reduce overall financing costs by optimizing the mix of internal and external debt of affiliates in different countries. We show that this cost saving use of internal capital markets is not limited to multinationals, but that domestic business groups actively optimize the internal/external debt mix across their subsidiaries as well. We use both subsidiary and group level financial s...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.
Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo
's success, but is not verifiable. Asa result, the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capitalsupport. The capital gains tax becomes especially harmful, as it further impairsadvice and causes a first-order welfare loss. Once the capital gains tax is in place,limitations on loss off......-set may paradoxically contribute to higher quality of venturecapital finance and welfare. Subsidies to physical investment in VC-backed startupsare detrimental in our framework.Keywords: Venture capital, capital gains taxation, double moral hazard.JEL-Classification: D82, G24, H24, H25......In this paper we set up a model of start-up finance under double moral hazard.Entrepreneurs lack own resources and business experience to develop their ideas.Venture capitalists can provide start-up finance and commercial support. The effortput forth by either agent contributes to the firm...
Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto
We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...
In this paper, we analyze the determinants of international movements of physical capital in a model with uncertainty and international trade in goods and securities.In our model, the world allocation of capital is governed, to some extent, by the asset preferences of risk averse consumer-investors. In a one-good variant in the spirit of the MacDougall model, we find that relative factor abundance, relative labor force size and relative production riskiness have separate but interrelated infl...
The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.
IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,
Google’s highly successful business model is based on selling words that appear in search queries. Organizing several million auctions per minute, the company has created the first global linguistic market and demonstrated that linguistic capitalism is a lucrative business domain, one in which billions of dollars can be realized per year. Google’s services need to be interpreted from this perspective. This article argues that linguistic capitalism implies not an economy of attention but an ec...
Full Text Available Created in the United States of America, Venture Capital is an asset class which attracted recently the attention of the policy makers all over the world. But the concept is still not clearly defined and understood. This paper attempts at introducing in the concept, its characteristics, and reviewing some of the benefits Venture Capital investments can bring at both the macroeconomic level, by looking at the correlation with the economic growth, and at the microeconomic level, for the portfolio companies.
Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin
Full Text Available In the article, the main theoretical questions of the organizational capital of the enterprise are considered. The concept of «organizational capital of the enterprise» as a system consisting of three subsystems (organization of production, labour organization and management is introduced. It is shown that the organizational capital forms the labour relations system at the enterprise consisting of the cooperation, technological, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of workers’ responsibility. The model of cyclic evolution of crisis at the enterprise caused by shortcomings of the organizational capital is revealed. It is shown that the organizational capital is a basis for the realization of the human capital, which creates value added. A considerable attention is paid to the experience of the creation and functioning of the organizational capital at the enterprises of the Japanese corporation «Toyota». The Russian economic literature on crisis management quite often considers only the financial aspects of diagnostics, proposing the optimization of cash flows, elimination of excess stocks, transition to the medium-term budgeting and others. However, the deep reasons of crisis need to be found not only in financial streams, but also in the system of the work relationships. The shortcomings in the development of technological, cooperation, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of responsibility directly reflects the shortcomings in the development of the elements of the organizational capital as they «are adjusted» by these elements. In turn, organizational problems affect the product quality leading to the customer attrition and decrease in the enterprise’s financial performance. The lack of financial resources cause the need to save costs (first of all, on personnel, that was brightly shown by the economic crisis of 2009 that even more weakens the enterprise and system of labour relations. Finally, the
There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...
Bersem, Mario; Perotti, Enrico; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig
, the rest receives only lab or income; and (ii) voters have different vintages of human capital. We identify young workers as the decisive voter group, with preferences in between capitalists who favor a free capital market, and old workers, who favor restricted capital mobility. We show that capital market...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other capital. 32.4540 Section 32.4540... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4540 Other capital. This... capital stock, capital recorded upon the reorganization or recapitalization of the company and...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital adequacy. 208.4 Section 208.4 Banks and... Requirements § 208.4 Capital adequacy. (a) Adequacy. A member bank's capital, as defined in appendix A to this...) Standards for evaluating capital adequacy. Standards and guidelines by which the Board evaluates the...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the...
The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs
Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduce or retire capital stock or capital debt... RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.241 Reduce or retire capital stock or capital... or preferred stock, or to retire any part of its capital notes or debentures pursuant to section...
Jeremiah U. Idialu; Amos O. Arowoshegbe
This is study is designed to provide basis for determining a reliable cost of capital. Corporate finance textbooks typically devote several chapters to the problems of capital budgeting, cash flow estimation and the determination of a firm’s cost of capital. However, it can be difficult in practice to obtain reliable estimates of the inputs required to perform capital budgeting as recommended by the textbooks. Also, the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is commonly presented in a way th...
This paper has two ambitions. First, we review the economic literature on tax coordination. Second, we argue that the taxation of capital is not an issue of efficiency, but instead an issue of equity. In particular, capital tax coordination can alter the vertical distribution of income between the production factors capital and labour. Capital is in perfectly elastic supply in a small open economy. Therefore the tax incidence falls to the immobile factor, labour. By contrast, capital is in in...
FENICHEL, ELI P.; Abbott, Joshua K.
Current efforts to value ecosystem services have contributed little to the valuation of natural capital, suggesting that in practice "nature is capital" primarily serves as a metaphor. We provide a theoretically motivated approach for recovering natural capital prices that expands beyond idealized management to encompass current, likely inefficient, management institutions. Theoretically consistent capital valuation requires adjusting for the net marginal productivity of the natural capital a...
Asta Znakovaitė; Arnoldina Pabedinskaitė
This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital) are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellec...
Fabbri, Giorgio; Iacopetta, Maurizio
We present an application of the Dynamic Programming (DP) and of the Maximum Principle (MP) to solve an optimization over time when the production function is linear in the stock of capital (Ak model). Two views of capital are considered. In one, which is embraced by the great majority of macroeconomic models, capital is homogeneous and depreciates at a constant exogenous rate. In the other view each piece of capital has its own ﬁnite productive life cycle (vintage capital). The interpretatio...
The contribution of this paper to the social capital literature is threefold. It first develops an innovative framework for measuring social capital, which allows for quantification of five different components of the multidimensional concept of social capital. Secondly, it provides a single, synthetic measure capturing that particular configuration of social capital which the literature generally associates with positive economic outcomes. Thirdly, it maps Italian social capital endowments f...
Sen Amartya Kumar
En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse si...
Jonathan Berk; Johan Walden
The non-tradability of human capital is often cited for the failure of traditional asset pricing theory to explain agents' portfolio holdings. In this paper we argue that the opposite might be true --- traditional models might not be able to explain agent portfolio holdings because they do not explicitly account for the fact that human capital does trade (in the form of labor contracts). We derive wages endogenously as part of a dynamic equilibrium in a production economy. Risk is shared in l...
Three things happen when emerging economies open their stock markets to foreign investors. First, the aggregate dividend yield falls by 240 basis points. Second, the growth rate of the capital stock increases by an average of 1.1 percentage points per year. Third, the growth rate of output per worker rises by 2.3 percentage points per year. Since the cost of capital falls, investment booms, and the growth rate of output per worker increases when countries liberalize the stock market, the incr...
Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Peigang; Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; FANG, XIAOYI; Kaljee, Linda
Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surv...
This article is a trial of taking share in discussion about the importance of foreign capital for the economy of kujawsko-pomorskie voivodship through the presentation of companies with foreign capital on the background of companies without foreign capital. The aim of this paper is comparing the companies with foreign capital and companies without foreign capital from kujawsko-pomorskie voivodship according to: capital resources, employment, investment outlays and financial results.
M.N. Murthy; Sucheta Murthy
This paper attempts to show that the cultural heritage is a capital good and it is a fusion of human skill capital and social capital. While the role of human skill capital in economic development is well known, the definition and the role of social capital has not yet clearly understood. Heritage capital consisting of performing and visual arts has public good characteristics. In addition the visual arts are subjected to cost disadvantage in the free market because of rigid input output rela...
Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian
Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista
We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...... measurement problems are particularly severe for economies still far from their steady state. This drawback of the Solow residual is thus most acute in applications in which its accuracy is most highly valued. As an application, we compute and compare TFP growth measures for developing countries in the Heston...... investment expenditures: one eliminates the capital stock by direct substitution, while the other employs generalized differences of detrended data and the Malmquist index. In short samples, these measures can exhibit consistently lower root mean squared errors than the Solow–Törnqvist counterpart. Capital...
Full Text Available The current crisis seems to shake the foundations of contemporary society as a whole and generated increasingly more opinions that show the capitalist society has begun and continues to lose ground. This is because capitalism has changed something inside so deeply that eternal truths of capitalism – economic growth, full employment, financial stability – seem to have crashed like the New York twin towers. Beyond all the shortcomings, quite a lot in numbers, known and recognized, the world and those who analyze it agree that , at least so far, has not been invented a better mechanism to obstruct and retain tyranny and so it is possible to consider the evolution of capitalism only in and through democracy.
Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.
Sen, Amartya Kumar
En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse si...
Luciene Dal Ri
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão critica da literatura sobre a relação entre Capital Social, Democracia e o Desenvolvimento. É relevante refletirmos sobre estes três temas, pois não se consegue ver um distanciamento entre ambos. Todavia, como meio para promover o capital social, o desenvolvimento e a democracia, é necessária que haja uma melhoria do bem-estar social, devendo ser associada com liberdades econômicas e abertura de mercado de modo a viabilizar o crescimento econômico e a melhoria na qualidade de vida da população.
Sen Amartya Kumar
Full Text Available En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse simplemente como un incremento del PIB sino como la expansión de la capacidad humana para llevar una vida mas libre y mas digna.In this article the relationships and the differences between the concept of 'human capital' and the concept of 'human capability' are examined. The concept of human capital is more limited since it only conceives human qualities in relation to economic growth, whereas the concept of capabili ties puts emphasis on the expansion of human freedom to live the kind of life that people judge valuable. Whenthis broader vision is adopted, the process of development cannot be seen as simply an increase in the GNP, but rather as the expansion of the human capability to live a more free and worthy life.
This paper is concerned with the inequalities experienced by mothers in the performance of educational care work for their children. It is argued that the caring work carried out by mothers at transfer to second-level schooling is shaped by their ability to activate the significant resource of emotional capital; a gendered resource involving…
Yamaguchi, Rintaro; Ueta, Kazuhiro
In this note, we investigate how the depreciation of a manufactured stock and the related accumulation of a waste stock can alter the optimal path of the capital-resource economy. It is shown that the optimal consumption path is aected by how the disuse pattern of the manufactured stock in question is distributed, specifically with forward-looking terms.
Suzana Braga Rodrigues
Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.
M. Campello; E. Giambona
We characterize the relation between asset structure and capital structure by exploiting variation in the salability of corporate assets. To establish this link, we distinguish across different assets in firms’ balance sheets (machinery, land, and buildings) and use an instrumental approach that inc
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some of our research results concerning the intellectual capital of universities. This is an important topic of the intellectual research area since universities are knowledge intensive organizations. They contain b
A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…
Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo
In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…
Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura
In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...
Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike
- the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference...
Full Text Available Economic life of achieving economic and financial effects of an investment opportunity presents the period in which selected investment option remains economically superior from the other alternative investment opportunity. Time period in which the investment project needs to prove its justification, presents an extremely critical factor in the profitability of the investment project, therefore, special attention must be paid to the assessment of the economic and financial time period. The aim of this study was to prove that critical factor in achieving profitability is in direct relation with economic or financial life. The results which arise from this study suggest on the fact that during analysis investor must determine financial life to achieve economic and financial effects of capital investment, because the length of the economic life does not have to match the profitability or with financial efficiency, and that is not appreciated sufficiently in practice. This paper presents examples of calculating the financial profitability of capital investment, using the residual value, ie the discounted residual value and the results of empirical studies that show the difference in preference of life effectuation of capital investment between theoreticians and practitioners in the field of capital budgeting.
Coffé, Hilde R.
Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the num
Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe
When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...
Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike
This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register the ...
The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)
Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen
We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...
Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.
in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...
....4 percentage points and the average peak- to-trough ] decline in GDP was 2.2 percent; the stress... assets. \\1\\ 76 FR 35351 (June 17, 2011). \\2\\ The amendments to Regulation Y are codified at 12 CFR 225.8... (Pillar 2) Related to the Implementation of the Basel II Advanced Capital Framework, 73 FR 44620 (July...
Murphy, James Peter
Employee capital need not be a reoccurring nightmare for bar owners if they create a system for managing their employee capital which deals with recruitment, placement, training and development for all hospitality staff members.
National Capital Planning Commission — The National Capital Planning Commission library catalog is a compilation of titles, authors, years of publication and topics of books, reports and NCPC publications.
... retirable at the sole discretion of the board, provided minimum permanent capital adequacy standards... association's funding bank in conjunction with any agreement for a transfer of capital between the...
M. Hekimoğlu (Mustafa)
textabstractSpare parts are critical for operations of capital products such as aircraft, refineries, trucks, etc/, which require maintenance regularly. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) bear the responsibility of undisrupted maintenance service and spare parts flow for their capital products.
Riddell, Sheila; Baron, Stephen; Wilson, Alastair
Outlines social capital theories in functionalist and Marxist traditions and their implications for people with learning difficulties. Identifies multiple factors influencing their ability to access social capital, including ability/inability to conform to social norms and economic inequities. (SK)
This paper carries out an empirical assessment of the relationship between social capital and labour productivity in small and medium enterprises in Italy. By means of structural equations models, the analysis investigates the effect of different aspects of the multifaceted concept of social capital. The bonding social capital of strong family ties and the bridging social capital shaped by informal ties connecting friends and acquaintances are proved to exert a negative effect on labour produ...
International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and int...
Marijan Karic; Maja Karic
Working (operating) capital available for use is an important factor in the success of the business firm and the whole supply chain. Effective working capital management helps in balancing usage of capital, not only for the firm, but for the suppliers and the consumers too, that is in the best interests of all parties in the supply chain. The effects of such working capital management are particularly important for trading businesses. In this paper we discuss issues of the cash conversion cyc...
Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Ariell Reshef; Bent Sorensen; Oved Yosha
We study the determinants of net capital income flows within the United States. We analyze a simple multi-state neoclassical model in which total factor productivity varies across states and over time and capital flows freely across state borders. The model predicts that capital will flow to states with relatively high output growth. Since relative growth patterns are persistent such states are also high output states, which implies that high output will be associated with inflows of capital ...
Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo
In recent years, venture capital has increasingly become a factor in the financing of new firms. We examine how the value of mature firms determines the incentives of entrepreneurs to start up new firms and of venture capitalists to finance and advise them. We examine how capital gains taxes as well as subsidies to start-up costs of new firms affect venture capital-backed entrepreneurship. We also argue that dividend and capital gains taxes on mature firms have important con...
This paper analyzes capital mobility within Japan based on the consumption-based correlation method developed by Obstfeld (1994). This thoery suggests that consumption in one region is closely related to that in other regions if the capital market is open. We test this theoretical implication in the panel data context using the dynamic factor model which enables us to estimate unobservable common factors. Then we provide evidence of perfect capital mobility and capital integration having adva...
Aamir Rafique Hashmi
I add intangible capital to a variant of the neoclassical growth model and study the implications for cross-country income differences. I calibrate the parameters associated with intangible capital by using new estimates of investment in intangibles by Corrado et al. (2006). When intangible capital is added to the model, the TFP elasticity of output increases from 2.14 to 2.64. This finding implies that the addition of intangible capital increases the ability of the neoclassical growth model ...
A convex marginal adjustment cost allows the neoclassical growth model to match observed transition paths for output growth, savings, investment, the real interest rate, and the shadow value of installed capital. Such an adjustment cost need apply only to one of two complementary capital inputs with minimal factor income share. The interaction of complementary capital inputs blurs the distinction between capital accumulation and productivity growth.
Mauro, Luciano; Pigliaru, Francesco
By studying the interaction between social capital and decentralization, we show that political decentralization can be a source of divergence across heterogeneous regions. In particular, we claim that since the local endowments of social capital display their effect on the economy mainly through the functioning of local institutions, decentralization enhances (hampers) growth wherever social capital is high (low). We define our hypothesis within a growth model with public capital, and use th...
Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Munasib, Abdul B.A.
While a substantial amount of research has been devoted to showing what social capital does, research explaining social capital itself lags behind. In this paper we examine whether local economic development can explain the variation in social capital across various geographical clusters in the state of Georgia. The findings show that even after accounting for various demographic and economic characteristics, the HDI explains the variation in a number of social capital levels (especially thos...
Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Anil, Bulent; Munasib, Abdul B.A.
While a substantial amount of research has been devoted to showing what social capital does, research explaining social capital itself lags behind. The literature has a long tradition of examining the effect of social capital on local economic growth and development. In this paper we examine whether local economic development can explain the variation in social capital across various geographical clusters in the state of Georgia. We begin by devising a measurement tool, a Human Development In...
Dewaelheyns, Nico; Van Hulle, Cynthia
Dynamic models of capital structure assume that companies trade-off the advantages of a leverage adjustment to its costs. Private companies are expected to have more restricted access to capital markets and are therefore likely to adjust their capital structure less frequently than public ones. However, private companies that are part of a business group have access to both internal and external capital markets and may face lower adjustment costs. We find significant differences in the levera...
Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.
This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on organizational structures of venture capital firms, and the relationship between general and limited partners. It discusses the work on the returns to venture capital investments. It also examines pu...
Lorenzo Serrano Martínez
This paper analyses the regional wages in Spain and tests their relationship with the different regional human capital endowments, using an approach that takes into account the possible measurement error in human capital indicators. The results indicate that, when allowing for the possibility of regional differences in the utility provided by an equal wage, wages show a unitary elasticity respect to human capital. Therefore, with such a similar regional utility by unit of human capital, there...
D'Arack, Francesco; Levasseur, Sandrine
Banking capital ratios show a steadily decline in almost Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) since 2001, despite unchanged capital adequacy rules. Using a dynamic panel-analysis based on country-level data for CEECs, we empirically assess the determinants of capital buffers. Main results are as follows. First, there are large and significant adjustment costs in raising capital. Second, banks behave pro-cyclically, depleting their buffers in upturns to benefit from unanticipated inv...
Glasserman, Paul; Wang, Zhenyu
The Capital Assistance Program (CAP) was created by the U.S. government in February 2009 to provide backup capital to large financial institutions unable to raise sufficient capital from private investors. Under the terms of the CAP, a participating bank receives contingent capital by issuing preferred shares to the Treasury combined with embedded options for both parties: The bank gets the option to redeem the shares or convert them to common equity, with conversion mandatory after seven yea...
Keuschnigg, Christian; Kohler, Wilhelm
Abstract: This paper explores some links between trade, human capital investment and innovation-based growth in the context of Eastern European economies in transition. Specifically, we calibrate a two region model with trade in differentiated high-tech products and a homogeneous traditional commodity. Human capital, or the quality of the skilled labour force, as well as physical capital are accumulated. Human capital remains finite in the long-run but depends endegenously on education and is...
Guglielmo Barone; Guido de Blasio; Paolo Sestito
The volume collects the essays presented at the conference "Social capital, economics and political economy" held in Rome on 27 June 2014. The first session analyzes definition and measurement issues about social capital. The second and third sessions examine its determinants and economic effects, respectively. The fourth session is devoted to the relationship between social capital and the public sector while the last session concentrates on the role of social capital in credit markets.
@@ Emerging Asia's capital markets have posted rapid gains as the pace of economic recovery in the region has increased,drawing massive investment from overseas.Governments in emerging Asia should remain vigilant and be ready to act if volatile capital inflows threaten to destabilize the region's financial markets,said the Asia Capital Markets Monitor,Asian Development Bank's annual assessment of the performance and outlook for the region's capital markets released on May18.Edited excerpts follow:
This thesis considers how refugee-led community organisations generate social capital for their service users. The concept of social capital has become popular in policy debates in recent years, and previous research has attributed social capital creation for their service users to refugee community organisations (RCOs). This research aimed to analyse the process by which social capital is created by refugee community organisations, and what this means for the members of these organisations i...
Pelkonen, Lea; Ylonen, Sakari
Recent investigations of regional growth have paid a great attention to convergence of per-capita income. These studies have shown the human capital to be a significant factor in addition to labour force, capital and technical progress when explaining the economic growth. This paper examines the convergence, and in particular the impact of human capital on regional growth in Finland. We estimate a standard neoclassical growth model extended by a human capital accumulation. The regional growth...
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Klyver, Kim
This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk...... aversion, do not seem to influence entrepreneurs' intended level of export...
Roberto Perli; Plutarchos Sakellaris
In this paper we show that a two sector model with human capital is able to generate persistence in output growth comparable to that observed in the postwar U.S. data. The key feature is a relatively low elasticity of substitution between human capital and raw labor in the production of human capital.
Mukoyama, Toshihiko; Şahin, Ayşegül
This paper constructs a general equilibrium search-matching model with heterogeneous workers. Workers choose whether to invest in general human capital or specific human capital when they enter the labor market. We analyze how unemployment benefits affect the choice of the type of human capital investment.
M. Bersem; E. Perotti; E.L. von Thadden
In this paper we develop a positive theory of capital market frictions. We focus on a political conflict that arises between citizens with different vintages of human capital. Once human capital is sunk in a firm- or sector specific technology, stakeholders will resist the emergence of newer sectors
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital leases. 32.2681 Section 32.2681... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2681 Capital leases. (a) This account shall include all property acquired under a capital lease. A lease qualifies as a...
... capital (``SC'') from non-natural person members and nonmembers. 61 FR 50696 (Sept. 27, 1996). The Board intended that SC accounts provide LICUs with additional means to accumulate capital. 61 FR 3788 (Feb. 2, 1996); 71 FR 4234 (Jan. 26, 2006). Accumulated capital could be used to expand lending and...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital leases. 69.310 Section 69.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.310 Capital leases. Capital Leases in Account 2680 shall be...
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan
Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…
Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…
Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew
Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…
Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.
In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…
Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.
Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive capitalism…
Examines the concept of human capital as an economic construct. Suggests that human capital contributes to economic development, as do physical capital or natural resources, in that its development reinforces individuals' future economic output. Suggests that this perspective may prove useful for human service professionals because funding…
In this article a figured pillar capital with gigantomachy scenes will be discussed. This unique capital represents an iconographic curiosity with its gigantomachy representations on two opposite sides of the square block. Apollo and Moira are represented. The capital must date from the second quart
... they considered lower-risk, such as derivative transactions hedging interest rate risk. The commenters... volatility in banking organizations' capital ratios due in large part to fluctuations in benchmark interest... liquidity and interest rate risk and to maintain compliance with legal lending limits....
ZHOU Shaobo; XUE Minggao
The paper develops an endogenous economic growth model about allcation of physical and human capital in three sectors. Optimal allocation of physical capital and human capital in three sectors is derived, the fraction of physical and human capital in each sector is positively related. The balanced values and the growth rates at steady state are given under certain conditions.Finally relations between the fractions of human capital and parameters are analyzed elaborately.
Nsikan E Bassey; C.J. Arene; B.C. OKPUKPARA
The study examines and compares the capital structure and efficiency of capital employed between listed and unlisted agro-based firms in Nigeria. Data collected from 88 agro-based firms using random sampling technique for the period 2005-2010 were analysed using Z-test, Capital Structure Ratio (CSR) and Return on Capital Employed Ratio (ROCE) analysis as well as descriptive statistics. The result revealed significant differences between the capital structure of listed and listed agro-based fi...
Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.
Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo
In recent years, venture capital has increasingly become a factor in thefinancing of new firms. We examine how the value of mature firms determinesthe incentives of entrepreneurs to start up new firms and of venture capitaliststo finance and advise them. We examine how capital gains taxes as well...... assubsidies to start-up costs of new firms affect venture capital-backedentrepreneurship. We also argue that dividend and capital gains taxes onmature firms have important consequences for start-up firms as well.JEL Classification: D82, G24, H24 and H25Keywords: double moral hazard, entrepreneurship, taxes...... and venture capital...
Gonzyus S. N.
Full Text Available The modified production function including the immaterial capitals is offered. Diagrams of capitals, including "core" and "fringe" of the capitals are formed of the material and immaterial capitals. The analysis is carried out and positive experience of innovative development of a number of the known Russian companies according to the corporate reporting is revealed. It's proved that the development of corporation of knowledge economy is provided by a dominating role of financial, human, and also the institutional and cultural and moral capitals
... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a NMVC... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC...
The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the U...... and other non-Euro Member States, as well as a commitment to the Single Market.......The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the UK...
Hansen, Per H.
–1931 and of financialization from around 1980 to today. Finance capitalism and financialization were enabled by a dominant narrative that legitimized the power of finance. The shifts in the role of finance happened when crises undermined the meaning of the existing narrative and created for a new narrative able to make sense...... narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance as a master was the characteristic of finance capitalism from around 1900...... of the crisis and point society in a new direction. This sense-making process stabilized when a new narrative was established that could explain the crisis and legitimize and shape a new role for finance. The article is based on my presidential address presented at the Business History Conference’s annual...
Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.
On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development
Ioana Julieta Josan
Full Text Available The new organizational changes caused by social, economic and politic reforms led to a shift in the strategic management of the companies. The growing need for professionals, who know how to generate profits, is growing and increase confidence of partners and clients, find new ideas and adapt to a dynamic market. Therefore, internally, we need an efficient management of human resources to find and retain the most suitable and efficient people which will increase productivity and face the increased acting globally competition. Currently, companies that succeed are the ones that integrate in their business strategy, an important component of development and valuation human capital. The paper aims to analyze and highlight the importance of human capital in the new organizational strategies, focused on achieving a high level of competitiveness, innovation and excellence.
Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must...... be added to human and physical capital, or it might enter as a reduction in either transaction or monitoring costs. A direct and an indirect way to measure social capital are discussed. The crucial question is if social capital can be changed. That is, if self enforcement can replace third party...... enforcement, and it is discussed how much harm totalitarian regimes do to social capital, when they expand their area of central control....
Rocha, Rudi; Ferraz, Claudio; Soares, Rodrigo R.
This paper examines the role of human capital persistence in explaining long-term development. We exploit variation induced by a state-sponsored settlement policy that attracted a pool of immigrants with higher levels of schooling to particular regions of Brazil in the late 19th and early 20th century. We show that municipalities that received settlements experienced increases in schooling that persisted over time. One century after the policy, localities that received state-sponsored settlem...
Algan, Yann; Cahuc, Pierre; Shleifer, Andrei
We use several data sets to consider the effect of teaching practices on student beliefs, as well as on organization of firms and institutions. In cross-country data, we show that teaching practices (such as copying from the board versus working on projects together) are strongly related to various dimensions of social capital, from beliefs in cooperation to institutional outcomes. We then use micro-data to investigate the influence of teaching practices on student beliefs about cooperation a...
Yann Algan; Pierre Cahuc; Andrei Shleifer
We use several data sets to consider the effect of teaching practices on student beliefs, as well as on organization of firms and institutions. In cross-country data, we show that teaching practices (such as copying from the board versus working on projects together) are strongly related to various dimensions of social capital, from beliefs in cooperation to institutional outcomes. We then use micro-data to investigate the influence of teaching practices on student beliefs about cooperation b...
Algan, Yann; Cahuc, Pierre; Shleifer, Andrei
We use several data sets to consider the effect of teaching practices on student beliefs, as well as on organization of firms and institutions. In cross-country data, we show that teaching practices (such as copying from the board versus working on projects together) are strongly related to various dimensions of social capital, from beliefs in cooperation to institutional outcomes. We then use micro-data to investigate the influence of teaching practices on student beliefs about cooperation a...
Audretsch, David B.
This paper shows how and why the Solow growth accounting framework is useful for linking entrepreneurship capital to economic growth. The knowledge filter impedes the spillover of knowledge for commercialization, thereby weakening the impact of knowledge investments on economic growth. By serving as a conduit for knowledge spillovers, entrepreneurship is the missing link between investments in new knowledge and economic growth. Entrepreneurship is an important mechanism permeating the knowled...
Gennaioli, Nicola; LaPorta, Rafael; L??pez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Schleifer, Andrei
We investigate the determinants of regional development using a newly constructed database of 1569 sub-national regions from 110 countries covering 74 percent of the world's surface and 96 percent of its GDP. We combine the cross-regional analysis of geographic, institutional, cultural, and human capital determinants of regional development with an examination of productivity in several thousand establishments located in these regions. To organize the discussion, we present a new model of reg...
Diewert, Erwin; Huang, Ning
The next international version of the System of National Accounts will recommend that R&D (Research and Development) expenditures be capitalized instead of being immediately expensed as in the present System of National Accounts 1993. An R&D project creates a new technology, which in principle does not depreciate like a reproducible asset. A new technology is however subject to obsolescence, which acts in a manner that is somewhat similar to depreciation. The paper looks at the net benefits o...
Leaver, Clare; Jewitt, Ian; Bar-Isaac, Heski
An increasingly important organisational design problem for many firms is to recoup general human capital rents while maintaining attractive career prospects for workers. We explore the role of information management in this context. In our model, an information management policy determines the statistic of worker performance that will be available to outside recruiters. Choosing different statistics affects the extent of regression to the mean which, we show, in turn affects the incidence...
Ester Villalonga-Olives; Ichiro Kawachi
Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance) that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the ex...
Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan
Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...
Bevelander, Pieter; Pendakur, Ravi
It is widely held that voter turnout among immigrants and ethnic minorities is lower than among the native born. The goal of our paper is to explore the determinants of voting, comparing immigrant, minority and majority citizens in Canada. We use the 2002 wave of the Equality Security Community Survey to explore the relationship between personal characteristics (age, sex, education, and household type) work characteristics, social capital attributes (trust in government, belonging, civic awar...
The demographic transition that swept the world in the past 140 years has been identified as one of the prime forces in the transition from stagnation to growth. The unprecedented increase in population growth during the early stages of industrialization was ultimately reversed. The rise in the demand for human capital in the second phase of industrialization brought about a significant reduction in fertility rates and population growth in various regions of the world, enabling economies to c...
Ayman Chit PhD
Full Text Available The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this “hidden” cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D.
Full Text Available Este artículo está dirigido a caracterizar la dinámica de la gestión del capital social en empresas familiares ubicadas en Santa Ana de Coro, municipio Miranda del estado Falcón. Para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio de campo de tipo descriptivo, mediante el uso de la técnica de la encuesta, siendo la modalidad utilizada el cuestionario, con el interés de obtener datos e información directamente de las 08 empresas familiares que funcionan en este municipio. De esta manera se conoció que en las empresas familiares del municipio Miranda, el capital social representa significativamente una de las características conducentes a la sociabilidad y confianza entre los miembros de las familias conductoras de las organizaciones y los empleados no miembros de familia; y es precisamente esta dinámica la razón por la cual el capital social se convierte en un trascendental recurso para las empresas, permitiendo el acceso a otros recursos e impulsando la participación de todos los que hacen vida en la organización, y por ende el crecimiento y desarrollo económico se hace evidente, estimulando en los empleados el sentido de pertenencia, confianza, compromiso y reciprocidad, generando beneficios para la red de demandantes y consumidores.
Intellectual capital and relational capital: The role of sustainability in developing corporate reputation Intellectual capital and relational capital: The role of sustainability in developing corporate reputation Intellectual capital and relational capital: The role of sustainability in developing corporate reputation
Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque; Patricia Martínez García de Leaniz
Purpose: Intellectual capital offers a potential source of sustainable competitive advantage and is believed to be the source from which economic growth may sprout. However, not many papers analyze the effect of sustainability in the elements involving intellectual capital. This paper seeks to highlight the key role played by corporate sustainability on corporate reputation as one of the key components of relational capital based on the knowledge-based theory.Design/methodology/approach: Auth...
Jones, Gareth A
This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor.
Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T
In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.
Jones, Gareth A
This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor. PMID:25516349
One of the main tasks of the transition economies is to catch up with the advanced levels of highly developed economies. The lack of social capital is a major impediment to this process, as it does not allow taking advantage of the comparatively high level of human capital in these countries. The purpose of the current paper is to study the interrelationships between human capital and social capital, with the main emphasis on how social capital affects the accumulation of human capital. In ge...
Maria Thereza Pompa Antunes
Full Text Available Muito se tem comentado que os relatórios fornecidos pela Contabilidade Financeira não retratam certas realidades das empresas atualmente, tendo em vista o fato de o valor contábil das ações estar muitas vezes abaixo do seu valor de mercado. Esse contraste entre os dois valores vem sendo identificado como Capital Intelectual e apresentado como um novo conceito de administração de empresas que conduz à necessidade de aplicação de novas estratégias, de nova filosofia de gestão e novas formas de avaliação do valor da empresa. Este trabalho evidencia a verdadeira relação existente entre a Contabilidade e o Capital Intelectual. Desmistifica-se a novidade do conceito, pois comprova-se que o capital Intelectual é parte integrante do Goodwill, conceito secularmente conhecido e estudado pela Contabilidade. Os elementos intangíveis sempre foram abordados pela Contabilidade e, da mesma forma, como nunca se desprezou a sua importância, nunca se subestimou a sua complexidade. Portanto, a Contabilidade não é falha na divulgação das informações por ela registradas. Deve-se entender a finalidade de cada uma das Demonstrações Contábeis, bem como os Princípios subjacentes a elas. A falta de conhecimento, por vezes, conduz a conclusões precipitadas e errôneas. Por outro lado, qualquer que seja o rótulo atribuído aos elementos intangíveis, que sempre fizeram parte das organizações, entende-se e aceita-se que hoje, cada vez mais, o conhecimento e o gerenciamento desses elementos são relevantes para a gestão das empresas, pois o momento atual é caracterizado pela ampla aplicação do recurso do conhecimento pelo homem, que se materializa em novas tecnologias, sistemas e serviços (entendidos como ativos intangíveis que agregam valor às organizações.It has been said many times that the statements provided by Financial Accounting do not give a picture of certain realities of companies nowadays, considering the fact that, often
Balázs István Tóth
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.
Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias which has resulted...... in too optimistic results in previous research. After controlling for family and individual fixed effects, the author reports that (1) six indicators of cultural capital have mostly positive direct effects on children’s reading and math test scores; (2) the effect of cultural capital is smaller than...... previously reported; and (3) the effect of cultural capital varies in high- and low-SES environments. Results mostly support cultural reproduction theory (cultural capital more important in high-SES environments) for cultural capital indicators capturing familiarity with legitimate culture and mostly support...
Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 in the USA turned into a global economic crisis in a short time. As such, it had a big impact on the financial stability of Croatia, primarily on capital market. Capital market includes securities trading, primarily stocks and bonds, whose market value is influenced by the market capitalization of capital market and vice versa. Macro economically, market capitalization had an influence on the fall in the value of the entire capital market, and micro economically, it had an influence on the fall of the prices of stocks, bonds and other financial instruments of companies. The volume of trade decreased, but there was an increase in the number of transactions. In other words, people traded more and in smaller quantities. Therefore, the risk increased, and investors became more cautious.
Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...
Serge Coulombe; Jean-François Tremblay
We derive synthetic time series over the 1960-1995 period on the literacy level of labor market entrants from the demographic profile of the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey. This information is then used as a measure of investment in education in a two-way error correction panel data analysis of cross-country growth for a set of 14 OECD countries. The central result of the paper is that direct measures of human capital based on literacy scores outperform measures based on years of sc...
This thesis examines various issues related to venture capital (VC) firms. The thesis consists of three essays that try to answer the following questions: Do local VC firms benefit from their syndication experience with foreign partners? Do VC firms benefit from their directorships in mature public companies? What do we know about the failure of VC firms? The first essay examines the benefits of cross-border syndication to ‘local’ (in the context of the first essay, Asian) VC firms. The main ...
This dissertation is a collection of three stand-alone research papers on the composition of human capital in newly founded firms. The papers are all empirical but they are closely related to two theoretical approaches. The first approach is the jack-ofall-trades model by Lazear (2005) and the second the O-ring theory introduced by Kremer (1993) and applied to new firms by Fabel (2004a,b) and Fabel and Weber (2005). Besides contributing to the search of stylised facts about the effects of the...
Peter Henry; Diego Sasson
For three years after the typical developing country opens its stock market to inflows of foreign capital, the average annual growth rate of the real wage in the manufacturing sector increases by a factor of seven. No such increase occurs in a control group of developing countries. The temporary increase in the growth rate of the real wage drives up the level of average annual compensation for each worker in the sample by 609 US dollars—an increase equal to 25 percent of their annual pre-libe...
Anusha Chari; Peter Blair Henry; Diego Sasson
For three years after the typical emerging economy opens its stock market to inflows of foreign capital, the average annual growth rate of the real wage in the manufacturing sector increases by a factor of three. No such increase occurs in a control group of countries. The temporary increase in the growth rate of the real wage drives up the level of average annual compensation for each worker in the sample by 487 US dollars--an increase equal to nearly one-fifth of their annual pre-liberaliza...
Magda Jiménez; Henri Piña Zambrano
Este artículo está dirigido a caracterizar la dinámica de la gestión del capital social en empresas familiares ubicadas en Santa Ana de Coro, municipio Miranda del estado Falcón. Para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio de campo de tipo descriptivo, mediante el uso de la técnica de la encuesta, siendo la modalidad utilizada el cuestionario, con el interés de obtener datos e información directamente de las 08 empresas familiares que funcionan en este municipio. De esta manera se conoció que en las...
This article critiques the concepts of communitarianism and social capital as used in the United States and in Europe. For the United States, the author focuses on Robert Putnam's understanding of both concepts, showing that the apolitical analysis of the Progressive Era, of the progressive developments in Northern Italy, and of the situation of labor unions in the United States is not only insufficient but wrong. The critique also includes the difference between U.S. communitarianism and its European versions, Christian democracy and New Labour, and the limitations of both approaches. The uses and misuses of these concepts in the political debate are discussed. PMID:12211285
El término “capital”, originalmente utilizado en el campo de la economía y las finanzas, constituye un vocablo ampliamente difundido para representar diversos dominios. En este sentido, por ejemplo, la expresión “capital psicológico” es utilizada por los psicólogos organizacionales para designar los recursos psíquicos individuales que representan la valoración positiva de las circunstancias y la probabilidad de éxito basada en el esfuerzo y la perseverancia. En el marco de la psicología organ...
Lueg, Klarissa; Nielsen, Camilla
Social Network Sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in the European business world, especially with respect to cross-cultural impression management. Departing from the Bourdieusian concept of “capital,” this paper analyzes the differences in the use of two popular business SNS: XING...... in Germany and LinkedIn in Denmark. We summarize those differences and relate them to different cultural contexts and impression management practices. Our sample consists of Danish Higher Executives (HEs)/managers (e.g., CEOs) and companies that have profiles on both SNS, thus reaching out to both the German...
Ciccone, Antonio; Peri, Giovanni
We combine growth theory with US Census data on individual schooling and wages to estimate the aggregate return to human capital and human capital externalities in cities. Our estimates imply that a one-year increase in average schooling in cities increases their aggregate labor productivity by 8 to 11 percent. We find no evidence for aggregate human capital externalities in cities however although we use three different approaches. Our main theoretical cont...
Luo, Yong; Zhu, Bo; Tang, Yong
We investigate the problem of dynamic optimal capital growth of a portfolio. A general framework that one strives to maximize the expected logarithm utility of long term growth rate was developed. Exact optimization algorithms run into difficulties in this framework and this motivates the investigation of applying simulated annealing optimized algorithm to optimize the capital growth of a given portfolio. Empirical results with real financial data indicate that the approach is inspiring for capital growth portfolio.
Lau, Morten I.; Poutvaara, Panu
While the effect of social security systems on retirement decisions has received much attention, the impact of these systems on individuals’ incentives to invest in their human capital has not been analyzed. We integrate human capital investment and retirement decisions in a simple analytical life-cycle model with full certainty and investigate how different social security schemes may a¤ect welfare, human capital investment and labor supply. We analyze and compare three different social secu...
This article proposes to redefine celebrity as a kind of capital, thereby extending Bourdieu’s field theory. This redefinition is necessary, it is argued, because one of the main limitations shared by current definitions of celebrity is their lack of explanatory power of the convertibility of celebrity into other resources, such as economic or political capital. Celebrity capital, or broadly recognizability, is conceptualized as accumulated media visibility that results from recurrent media r...
Hughes, John S.; Liu, Jing; Liu, Jun
We investigate the effects of information and diversification on cost of capital in a noisy rational expectations model. Assuming a factor structure for risky asset payoffs and two classes of investors, informed and uninformed, we show that in large economies the APT (Ross, 1976) holds and i) information from private signals about idiosyncratic shocks has no effect on cost of capital and ii) information from private signals about systematic factors affects cost of capital only through factor ...
Schulze, Gunther G
This paper analyses capital export controls under majority voting. It is shown that individuals vote according to their factor endowment ratio. An individual’s optimal restriction is tighter, the lower their capital-labour ratio and the larger the country; it is also tighter if unemployment prevails. If there is illegal immigration, however, results are dramatically reversed: the conflict of interests collapses and all individuals favour unrestricted capital export until immigration is elimin...
William K. Carroll
Full Text Available This paper describes a technique for simulating capitalism within the classroom, using familiar materials and creating a participatory, reflexive learning space. It situates ‘Playdough Capitalism’ within the theory/practice of experiential education/radical pedagogy and the Marxist analysis/immanent critique of capitalism as a historically-formed system of class exploitation and alienated labour. The paper discusses both the value of simulating capitalism within the classroom and its limits as a transformative pedagogy.
Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the 21st century" has been the most important book economy in recent times. Its aim integrates the debate theories of growth, income distribution, inequality and differences between the extremes income and income of the majority. The work predicts a slow increase in the share of capital income and inequality. His proposal for a global tax on capital is a way to evaluate such tendencies.
Abstract: In this study, I examine three issues: (1) whether the probability of bank failure is increasing in the proportion of regulatory capital composed of deferred tax assets (DTA), (2) whether market participants incorporate the increased failure risk associated with the DTA component of capital into their assessments of credit risk, and (3) whether the rules governing the inclusion of DTA into capital encourage risk-taking behavior. Using a sample of U.S. commercial banks, I find that b...
Giam Pietro Cipriani
This paper studies new mechanisms through which human capital and longevity interact with child labour and endogenous fertility. When children provide old age support in the form of care and companionship, the economy may display multiple development regimes: a development trap with low human capital and large use of child labour or a high steady state with high longevity and human capital and low child labour. A situation with indeterminacy of equilibrium outcomes may also occur if child mor...
Tatsuya Yonetani; Yuko Katsuo
This paper was presented at the conference "Financial services at the crossroads: capital regulation in the twenty-first century" as part of session 1, "Impact of capital requirements on bank risk taking: empirical evidence." The conference, held at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on February 26-27, 1998, was designed to encourage a consensus between the public and private sectors on an agenda for capital regulation in the new century.
This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the use of temporary controls on capital outflows as a crisis resolution measure my examining the outcome of Malaysia’s radical response to the 1997-98 financial crisis. The analysis suggests that carefully designed temporary capital controls were successful in providing Malaysian policy makers a viable setting for aiding the recovery process through the standard Keynesian therapy. Capital controls also assisted banking and corporate restructurin...
Ching Choo Huang; Zubaidah Zainal Abidin; Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Human capital information which is vital for effective management of resources is usually only accessible internally within an organization. However, information regarding human capital or human resource investments and the return on these investments are currently not presented in the annual reports systematically and consistently. This paper examines the extent of the disclosure of human capital in the annual reports of Malaysian top companies based on the concept of Human Resource Costin...
Human capital and its management are important because give the possibility to organizations to use more productively the personnel by means of measurements, analysis and evaluations than by suppositions. We notice in parallel that the increasing interest towards human capital of the company is more and more obvious. The success, the performance and competition of the companies depend in great measure on the content and quality of human capital management, That is why, the key-word of human c...
Entrepreneurial activities within firms have been a centre of attraction for researchers in past years. Human capital is yet another unexplored prospective affecting and contributing towards entrepreneurship. To understand how individual operate entrepreneurially within firm, we intend to explore how human capital is developed and how structure and practices in internal and external environment of the firm (in this case focusing on Samsung Electronics Corporation) affects human capital develo...
Alin Marius Andrieş
Full Text Available All participants in capital markets are asking how to finance investments or to invest money available. The answer to these questions depends on the situation you have: deficit or surplus capital. This article addresses issues concerning the place and role of capital market within the financial markets and in financing investments, trying to highlight the growing importance of this subsystem, shown both to economic agents and to all categories of investors.
Do certain regions inherently enjoy an advantage in venture capital investment decisions? And how do industry characteristics affect venture capital activity? These questions fall under the reemerging study of economic geography, which suggests the importance of industrial location to economic decision making. Through the lens of economic geography, this paper examines the impact of industrial and regional characteristics on venture capital activities from 1996 to 2005. Analyzing venture capi...
We investigate the partial effects of institutions and human capital on growth. We find that cross-country regressions of the log-level of per capita GDP on instrumented measures of institutions and schooling are uninformative about the relative importance of institutions and human capital in the long run because of multicollinearity problems. Using dynamic panel regressions we show that both institutions and human capital have significant effects on growth. Using Rodrik's (2005) four-way par...
This paper discusses Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations. This paper overviewed the Social Capital studies, especially early studies in sociology field, proposed the framework to evaluate Social Capital in a capital. Social Capital has the merit to reduce transaction costs, and should be clearly positioned as a component of capital of corporation. Using the concept of the Corporate Social Capital, to rethink the definition of Public Relations, this paper proposed the following defin...
With the Chinese Government, on a regional basis, specifying “minimum amounts” for registered capital contributions in order to establish foreign-invested enterprises in China, and with a similar occurrence concerning total invested capital requirements,
Full Text Available This paper show result of empirical analysis application of cost of capital for capital structuring in Croatian firms. Intensity of this applications is highly unrespectable because Croatian firms usually calculated cost of capital in their capital budgeting process. Analysis also show low inconsistency of Croatian firm’s capital structures with peaking order theory. The paper shows that Croatian firm’s employ debt in their capital structure close to the debt equity ratio 1:1, with the significant portion of trade credit and short term bank credits. This short term liabilities are greater than 60% of total used debt in analyzing firms. Finally, paper shows that with degree of using the cost of capital in capital structuring rise profitability of analyzing firms.
van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P
In many countries the concept of capitating health care insurers is receiving increasing attention. In a competitive environment, capitation should induce insurers to concentrate more on cost containment instead of indulging in risk selection. The necessary premium-replacing capitation payments should account for predictable variations in annual per-person health care expenditures as far as these are related to health status. Various studies have shown that crude capitation models based on e.g. age, sex and place of residence, do not reflect expected costs accurately. This implies inefficient pricing possibly leading to risk selection and windfall profits or losses for insurers, thereby undermining the objectives of a capitation system. Using Dutch micro data on some 200,000 individuals, this article stimulates various alternative capitation models based on, among others, diagnostic information from previous hospitalizations. Results suggest that the problems of both risk selection and windfall profits/losses may be mitigated substantially by using this type of information together with data on prior costs. These results are not only relevant for situations where competing insurers are capitated, as intended in the Netherlands, but also when providers are capitated, as in the UK, or when HMOs are capitated, as in the US.
Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.
This article presents an empirical investigation of the role of IT（Information Technology）capital in the Japanese macroeconomy, with a particular focus on the adjustment of IT capital stock. We use the Translog model in this study and treat IT capital as the only quasi-fixed factor. We found that the shadow price of IT capital was largely decreased, and that there was a significant difference in the shadow prices between the beginning of the measurement periods and in recent years. There ...
Mendonca, Kamila Vieira; Pinheiro, Jose Cesar
O presente estudo verificou e avaliou o grau de acumulação de capital social como fator de desenvolvimento local, do assentamento Che Guevara, localizado no município de Ocara, no Estado do Ceará. O índice de capital social (ICS) foi calculado com base nas respostas de um questionário elaborado com variáveis mensuráveis e que refletem o estoque de capital social. A comunidade dispõe de um grau mediano de capital social.-------------This study verified and evaluated the degree of accumulation ...
Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne
Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...
of representation is calculus and mathematical rules. To illustrate the importance of describing a firm by not only using numbers the article illustrates the differences between intellectual capital statements and traditional balance sheets. The intellectual capital statement is often accused of not being a valid...... document to assess a company's value by, but this article argues that although intellectual capital statements make use of another way of presenting arguments than traditional balance sheets do they are still valid for describing a firm. The article argues that the intellectual capital statement uses...
Bohlmann, R C
Access to capital for group or network development is generally through one of three sources: current revenue, borrowing, or outside investors. Groups often have not planned well for their financial future, and consequently when integration or managed care opportunities arise, they can be without the necessary funds. This article addresses the acquisition of capital in the context of application (need), access (resources), and attitudes (concerns). Determining capital needs is the starting point, followed by investigating institutional resources, and then investigating the attitudes of the group toward accessing the needed capital. PMID:10159459
Full Text Available Creative Capitalism, Multitudinous Creativity, Radicalities and Alterities, Edited by Giuseppe Cocco and Barbara Szaniecki, Lexington Books, Lanham. Boulder. New York. London, 2015, 269p.
Janiak, Alexandre; Wasmer, Etienne
Employment protection (EPL) has a well known negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a non-monotonic relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and then negative. We explore the theoretical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a firm facing labor fri...
Janiak, Alexandre; Wasmer, Etienne
Employment protection (EPL) has a well known negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a non-monotonic relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and then negative. We explore the theoretical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a firm facing labor fri...
Alexandre Janiak; Etienne Wasmer
Employment protection (EPL) has a well known negative impact on labor flows as well as an ambiguous but often negative effect on employment. In contrast, its impact on capital accumulation and capital-labor ratio is less well understood. The available empirical evidence suggests a hump-shaped relation between capital-labor ratios and EPL: positive at very low levels of EPL, and then negative. We explore the theoretical effects of EPL on physical capital in a model of a firm facing labor frict...
ZHANG Junxia; YU Jialin; CHEN Ying
The rural human capital refers to the condensation of the physical body, knowledge, skills, and all the abilities that can improve the capacity of the rural labor productivity. The ability is a form of human capital stock and it plays an important role in China＇s development of rural economy and society, but at present the situation of investment in human capital in rural areas is not optimistic. A lot of problems need to be solved such as the inadequate total investment and the irrational structure, as to these issues, strategies and recommendations were proposed in order to strengthen the human capital investment.
Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
(Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...
Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...
The Taiwanese venture capital industry has played a critical role in the development of the Taiwan it industry. The purpose of this study is to construct and prioritize the intellectual capital measures of venture capital in Taiwan and to formulate a strategy map based on these measures. A thorough interview was used to collect the data, while the content analysis method and the analytic hierarchy process were used to analyze the data. Intellectual capital can be categorized into three dimens...
Al-Halak, A; Al-Karaghouli, W; Ghoneim, A; Koufopoulos, D
Human capital and its impact on the organisation structure capital are of paramount importance in the modern business organisations. This research in progress, which investigates and analyses the role that human capital plays in the determination of the organisation structure capital. The study is based on wide spectrum of current literature, which presents theoretical and practical research on the subject of study. Knowledge Management (KM) is systematic process based on models and technolog...
J. Augusto Felicio; Eduardo Couto; Jorge Caiado
This research evaluates the human capital and social capital of managers and its influence on the performance of small and medium-sized Portuguese companies. We resorted to the structural modeling methodology approach applied to a sample of 192 small and medium companies aged between four and fifteen years from five different activity sectors. It was concluded that human capital affects social capital and the experience and cognitive ability influence personal relations and complicity. The or...
González-Páramo Martínez-Murillo, José Manuel
We characterize the role of capital and labor mobility in the shifting of capital taxes in a 2x2 general-equilibrium model with partially-mobile factors. This is done by means of an intuitive decomposition of the incidence of a selective capital tax into a "specificity effect" and a "mobility effect".
Horne, John; Lingard, Bob; Weiner, Gaby; Forbes, Joan
This paper draws on a research study into the existence and use of different forms of capital--including social, cultural and physical capital--in three independent schools in Scotland. We were interested in understanding how these forms of capital work to produce and reproduce "advantage" and "privilege". Analysis is framed by a multiple capitals…
Hinton, Kip Austin
Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....
... Maintain Adequate Capital § 263.82 Establishment of minimum capital levels. The Board has established minimum capital levels for state member banks and bank holding companies in its Capital Adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of minimum capital levels....
... capital requirements. (a) The capitalization bylaws shall enable the institution to meet the capital adequacy standards established under subparts H and K of this part and the total capital requirements... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital requirements....
... qualifying total capital to risk-weighted assets, as determined under the Capital Adequacy Guidelines, shall... qualifies as tier 2 capital under the Capital Adequacy Guidelines. ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending limits and capital requirements....
Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Dinh, Hinh T.
Links between social capital, human capital, and product imitation are studied in an overlapping generations model of endogenous growth where the key benefit of social capital is to promote imitation. There is also a two-way interaction between imitation and human capital. Building social capital (which brings direct utility) requires time. Because life expectancy is endogenously related t...
Alfred, Mary V.
This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital...
Andrianovа E. P.
Full Text Available This article reveals the question of the need of increase of capitalization and pre-capitalization of commercial banks in detail. A question of participation of the state in the development of the banking system of Russia has been considered as well
Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.
Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…
Sólrún H. Guðmundsdóttir 1988
Þessi lokaritgerð rannsakar hugtakið heimsborgaraauður (e. Cosmopolitan Capital) í sambandi við menntunartækifæri íslenskra ungmenna. Heimsborgaraauður er þá þær fjölþjóðlegu bjargir, eins og hæfni í tungumálum, jákvæðni gagnvart menningarlegri fjölbreytni og alþjóðleg reynsla sem gerir fólki kleift að afla sér því menningarlæsi og hæfni sem að nútímahnattvæðing krefst. Hugtakið er kannað á tveimur grundvöllum, það er í fyrsta lagi hlutverk innflytjenda á heimsborgaraauð landsins í heild og í...
Jeremiah U. Idialu
Full Text Available This is study is designed to provide basis for determining a reliable cost of capital. Corporate finance textbooks typically devote several chapters to the problems of capital budgeting, cash flow estimation and the determination of a firm’s cost of capital. However, it can be difficult in practice to obtain reliable estimates of the inputs required to perform capital budgeting as recommended by the textbooks. Also, the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC is commonly presented in a way that creates difficulties in calculating the estimate. The most cumbersome component of WACC estimation is the cost of capital. Practitioners therefore have to rely on more abstract and indirect methods to estimate cost of capital. In the study, we reviewed alternative methods of deriving reliable estimates of cash flow and cost of capital. Our review of relevant literature reveals procedures that will lead to methods that are less intensive in terms of the time and computations required to calculate a WACC estimate. We also establish methods that require fewer inputs and/or calculations that are based on subjective judgments of the analyst or the firm’s management.
an environment where both investment and asset liquidity are determined endogenously. This provides a natural framework to analyze the interaction between capital reallocation and liquidity in response to aggregate shocks, which I assess quantitatively. The search model of capital reallocation exhibits strong internal propagation, and can generate substantial changes in factor utilization following aggregate shocks.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors survey capital structure theories, from the start-up point, which is considered Modigliani and Miller’s capital structure irrelevance theorem, to recent theories, such as the pecking order and the market timing theory. For each t
.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 13, 2011, FTA published an NPRM in the Federal Register (76 FR 56363-81... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 633 RIN 2132-AA92 Capital Project Management AGENCY... Capital Project Management to December 2, 2011, to allow interested parties time to carefully review...
... September 1, 1989, at 49 CFR part 633 (54 FR 36708). At the time, UMTA's capital programs were comparatively... agency published on September 10, 2009, at 74 FR 46515-21. This proposed rule would transform the current... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 633 RIN 2132-AA92 Capital Project Management AGENCY:...
Hansen, Per H.
Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...
Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of social capital on the status attainment process of young people at the start of their careers and examines how social class, gender and ethnicity affect the accumulation of social capital and thereby labour market stratification of young people. A sample of young Swedes graduating from vocational schools and universities between 2005 and 2006, was surveyed via the telephone about their experiences acquiring jobs. Two research questions are posed: (i Which characteristics (class, gender and ethnicity affect young people's access to more social capital? (ii How is social capital rewarded in the labour market? The results show that being female, coming from the lower social classes and being a member of a stigmatized immigrant groupare associated with a substantial social capital deficit. When socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds as well as the human capital of respondents are controlled, social capital is positively associated with salary level. The results indicate that social capital is a significant factor in the stratification process of young people.
Henningsson-Yousif, Anna; Aasen, Solveig Fredriksen
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare methods of working with pedagogical capital in teacher and mentor education. The author makes an account of the development of the concept of pedagogical capital and relates it to the theoretical context of practice theory. Empirical data will substantiate the theoretical discussion of teachers'…
Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin
The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…
Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.
We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…
Stam, Christiaan; Andriessen, Daan
In 2004 the report Intellectual capital of the European Union was published (Andriessen and Stam, 2004). This report provided insight in the value of the intellectual capital of the 15 countries of the European Union, in relationship to the goals set by the European Council in March 2000. Since this
Pennell, Summer Melody
This article takes the concept of cultural capital from Yosso's (2005) work and transforms the model for queer communities. While Yosso identified five forms of cultural capital in communities of color (familial, aspirational, navigational, resistant, and linguistic), the author identifies an additional form: transgressive. Queer cultural capital…
Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…
Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.
This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…
Grimpe, Christoph; Mendonça, Joana
- and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing...
Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…
Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka
Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…
Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.
This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on or
Potter, Mary Jo; Wesslund, Rick
As health systems continue to embrace disruptive innovation, they are increasingly likely to consider making a move into venture capital. Working in venture capital can benefit a health system in several ways, including: Allowing it to operate outside of bureaucracy and align projects with its core values. Encouraging innovation within the organization. Enabling it to respond quickly to changes in the market.
Cristina Gabriela SUSANU
Global capitalism constitutes a concept surrounded by contention and controversy, fact which is evidenced by the abundance of studies regarding it, and probably the main feature which is nowadays questioned is its moral behaviour. The present study intends to provide an opposite explanation regarding the ethics of global capitalism by associating it with the contemporary movement of post-modernity.
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...
This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital t
T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)
textabstractThis thesis consists of four studies on the interactions of capital structure and product market competition, and on several aspects of governance, firm financing and growth. The first study investigates how competitive behavior and market uncertainty affect the capital structure of a fi
Potter, Mary Jo; Wesslund, Rick
As health systems continue to embrace disruptive innovation, they are increasingly likely to consider making a move into venture capital. Working in venture capital can benefit a health system in several ways, including: Allowing it to operate outside of bureaucracy and align projects with its core values. Encouraging innovation within the organization. Enabling it to respond quickly to changes in the market. PMID:27382708
In Hungary the capital structure of enterprises changed significantly since 1990, but it is true, that their decisions about the capital can not fit with neither theoretical appeal totally. There is no universal theory of the debt-equity choice, and no reason to expect one.
Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja
This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…
Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars; Hansen, Ronnie Fibæk
An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however...... of a broad conception of the knowledge economy which goes beyond high-tech industries....
This paper examines the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its relation to the development of human capital in Malaysia as a country undergoing transformation into an ICT-driven and knowledge-based society. Education and training, being the key variable of human capital, is examined in terms of the government…
Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)
You Wanlong; Alice
@@ After thirty yeas "going out" of China overseas investment,we learn from our failed lessons and also successful experience.Chinese enterprises are now standing at a new starting point of "going out".China is transforming from "capital input power" to "capital output power".
Domeij, David; Floden, Martin
We use the neoclassical growth framework to model international capital flows in an economy with exogenous demographic change. We compare model implications and actual current account data and find that the model explains a small but significant fraction of capital flows between OECD countries, in particular after 1985.
Le Grange, L.
In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…
Today, Intellectual Capital plays a principal role in the delivery of corporate performance. This importance is reflected in the fact that companies, without the force of any regulations, start to produce intellectual capital statements to communicate their performance; accounting guidelines are bei
Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera
Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…
Nurmet, M.; Roots, J.; Huirne, R.B.M.
Empirical tests are provided to determine the optimal leverage adjustment in transitional economy. Econometric model of agricultural firm capital structure is specified and estimated in order to analyze, how different factors affect agricultural firm’s capital structure. Issues in financial structur
Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.
This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…
Gabriela Victoria Anghelache; Ana Cornelia Olteanu
This paper aims to present how to quantify the minimum capital requirement for operational risk using three approaches proposed by the Basel Committee to identify optimal allocation of capital, given that until recently to this risk has been allocated a minimum attention, considering that it has a low impact on the business of financial institutions.
Vergílio Frederico Perius
Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.
Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.
Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…
This paper describes the RAROC system developed at Bank of America (B of A) in order to examine how risk-based capital allocation models work. I begin by discussing the economic rational for allocating capital in a diversified organization like the B of A. Drawing on recent work by Froot and Stein (1995) and Stein (1996), I argue that the capital budgeting process used by the B of A resembles the operation of an internal capital market in which businesses are allocated capital with the object...
A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.
West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D
In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799
Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.
Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...... performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...... and aggregate level. We conclude that even if social capital has been a remarkably productive idea, it is not a good concept as most popular conceptualizations define social capital as several distinct phenomena or as phenomena that already have been conceptualized under other labels....
Mohamed Ali Boujelbene
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of intellectual capital disclosure (IC on cost of Equity capital. The empirical research is based on companies listed in the French SBF 120 stock market index. The findings confirm our hypotheses that stipulate the existence of a significant and negative association between intellectual capital disclosure with its two components (human capital, structural and the cost of equity. However, the negative impact of the relational capital disclosure is not validated. The results in this paper are of considerable importance to both policy makers and firms. In fact, the understanding of the impact of Intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital helps policy makers in the evaluation of the costs and benefits of disclosure. Moreover, with regard to managers of firms, the results show the benefit of enhanced IC disclosure regarding the reduction in their cost of capital. This study is one of the very first to provide empirical evidence of the association between Cost of equity capital and the level of disclosure in the three individual intellectual capital categories (human; structural and relational capital.
Carl Sanders; Christopher Taber
Wages grow rapidly for young workers, and the human capital investment model is the classic framework to explain this growth. While estimation and the theory of human capital have traditionally focused on general human capital, both have evolved toward models of heterogeneous human capital. In this article, we review and evaluate the current state of this literature. We exposit the classic model of general human capital investment and extend it to show how a model of heterogeneous human capit...
The paper analyzes the optimal mix of capital and wage taxation when policymakers maximize the political support of workers and capitalists, subject to a fixed revenue requirement. Capital market integration increases the efficiency costs of a tax on capital but simultaneously changes the political equilibrium through its effect on the distribution of factor incomes. These distributional effects are directly opposed in the capital importing and the capital exporting region. While the capital ...
Abel Elizalde; Rafael Repullo
We analyze the determinants of regulatory capital (the minimum required by regulation), economic capital (that chosen by shareholders without regulation), and actual capital (that chosen with regulation) in a dynamic model of a bank with a loan-portfolio return described by the single-risk-factor model of Basel II. We show that variables that only affect economic capital, such as the intermediation margin and the cost of capital, can account for large deviations from regulatory capital. Actua...
Conrad, Klaus; Seitz, Helmut
According to the "public capital hypothesis" public investment crowds in private investment by increasing the rate of return to private capital. The present paper uses an extended cost function with public capital included as an unpaid fixed factor of production to ex- amine the impact public capital has on the private economy. Using a panel of four highly aggregated sectors of the West German Economy, it is shown, that the provision of public capital raises the demand for private capital, as...
Nehring, Richard; Butault, Jean-Pierre; Ball, V. Eldon; San Juan Mesonada, Carlos
This paper provides a farm sector comparison of relative levels of capital input for seventeen OECD countries for the period 1973-2011. The starting point for construction of a measure of capital input is the measurement of capital stock. Estimates of depreciable capital are derived by representing capital stock at each point of time as a weighted sum of past investments. The weights correspond to the relative efficiencies of capital goods of different ages, so that the weighted components of...
We extend the celebrated Chamley-Judd result of zero capital income tax and show that the steady state optimal capital income tax is nonzero, in general. In particular, we find that the optimal plan involves zero capital income tax in investment sector and a nonzero capital income tax in consumption sector. In a two sector neoclassical economy, interdependence of labour and capital margins allows the government to choose an optimal policy that involves nonzero tax on capital income. The disto...
Kawai, Masahiro; Takagi, Shinji
How to manage capital inflows remains an important policy issue for many emerging market economies. This paper presents a brief survey of the literature on managing capital inflows, with a focus on developing and emerging market economies. The paper, after discussing the economic characteristics of capital inflows, provides an overview of the evolution of thinking on capital account liberalization, the use of capital controls as an instrument of managing capital inflows, and the effectiveness...
Metadata only record In this video, Keith M. Moore discusses community-driven development and social capital. He first describes the process of a development project gaining a community’s trust. He then describes two types of social capital: bonding and building capital. Bonding capital refers to linkages within a community, while building capital refers to linkages that are external to the community. These forms of social capital are plotted on a graph, and the characteristics of villages...
吴程涛; 段铸; 张景宇; 张曙光
Pressured by a slowdown in exports, cost increases and dwindling returns to manufacturing investments, China’s manufacturing capital has begun to shift to the real-estate and stock markets. As a matter of fact, the stock market had already felt a shock a couple of years ago when top domestic manufacturers like Midea, Gree, TCL and LMZ started to invest their idle capital in the real-estate and stock markets. Investments of manufacturing capital in both the real estate and stock markets have increased fluid capital and pushed up the value of both markets. Booms in both markets have in turn guaranteed investment returns of manufacturing capital, which further increased the stock market valuations of manufacturing capital. Such a cycle has created interest chains between listed manufacturers, the stock market and the real-estate market. Along with the ups and downs of the stock and real-estate markets, manufacturing capital now faces a dilemma: to escape or to persist? Where should it escape? When can the markets be profitable again? Just like the classic Shakespearean question: to be or not to be, that is the question.
Although one may ask four financial experts their opinion on the future of the hospital capital market and receive five answers, the blatant need for financial strategic planning is evident. Clearly, the hospital or system with sound financial management will be better positioned to gain and/or maintain an edge in the competitive environment of the health care sector. The trends of the future include hospitals attempting to: Maximize the efficiency of invested capital. Use the expertise of Board members. Use alternative capital sources. Maximize rate of return on investments. Increase productivity. Adjust to changes in reimbursements. Restructure to use optimal financing for capital needs, i.e., using short-term to build up debt capacity if long-term financing is needed in the future. Take advantage of arbitrage (obtain capital and reinvest it until the funds are needed). Delay actual underwriting until funds are to be used. Better management of accounts receivable and accounts payable to avoid short-term financing for cash flow shortfalls. Use for-profit subsidiaries to obtain venture capital by issuing stock. Use product line management. Use leasing to obtain balance sheet advantages. These trends indicate a need for hospital executives to possess a thorough understanding of the capital formation process. In essence, the bottom line is that the short-term viability and long-term survival of a health care organization will greatly depend on the financial expertise of its decision-makers.
S. Khayat Moghadam
Full Text Available In knowledge-based economy, intellectual capital is used in order to create and increase enterprise value and the success of an organization depends on its ability to manage this scarce resource. In addition, one of the important features of an organization that can assist in the creation and sharing of knowledge and compared to other organizations creates them sustainable competitive advantage, is the organizational learning capability. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between intellectual capital and organizational learning capability (OLC. Data were collected from Khorasan Razavi Regional Water Autoraty and the research data was collected through questionnaires. Statistical sample size is considered equal to 150, validity of questionnaires was examined by Cronbach's alpha and results are generated by structural equations model (SME method. Results show that human capital and structural capital have a significant relationship with organizational learning capability but there is not significant relationship between relational capital with organizational learning capability. Human capital is the greatest factor among these three types of intellectual capital in governmental organization. This study also provides managerial implications and limitations to data collection.
Full Text Available Since 2003, New European Union Member States have made large capital inflows, which led to a credit crunch and recession. Whether they are foreign direct investment, or banking flows, capital inflows ultimately affect GDP, depending on how they are invested. In the specialty literature, analysis of capital flows was done especially in terms of their structure, with a lack of analysis in terms of final destination of capital inflows. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of capital inflows on GDP in the New Member States of the European Union (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia over the last economic cycle. Based on experiences of the new Member States during the recent boom and crisis, the paper studies the impact of capital inflows on GDP growth, inflows channeled to economic sectors, such as real estate and corporate investment sector. The results of this research tries to highlight the extent to which the final destination of capital flows is important for the evolution of GDP.
Stewart, Louis J
This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing. PMID:22515040
Stewart, Louis J
This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing.
Full Text Available JEREMIE (Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises program was implemented as a part of the EU cohesion policy in the framework of 2007-2013 programming period. The primary objective of the program was to enhance the financing prospects of SME’s through structural funds that provide financial engineering instruments like loan, guarantee and venture capital. This paper focuses on the effects of JEREMIE on Hungary’s venture capital market. Since 2010, 28 JEREMIE backed venture capital funds were founded in four rounds and 130 billion HUF capital was allocated into these funds with the contribution of Hungarian government. A well-established venture capital market can boost entrepreneurship and innovation, therefore economic growth which is the foundation of government involvement. On the other hand, there is an extensive literature highlighting the limits and possible drawbacks of the active role of public sector in the venture capital market. There is a consensus in the literature that in the long run the extensive role of government in venture capital industry is counterproductive. Substituting market participants by government agencies will hardly result in a competitive and efficient market. However, temporarily as a catalyst public sector can contribute to the development of venture capital market. Direct government intervention supportable temporarily only in the infancy of the industry. The primary objective of every program must be to develop the market to the level where it becomes self-sustaining. This way the success of these programs must not be measured only by the amount of invested capital, financial performance of venture capital funds and venture capital backed companies. Raising private sector awareness and the progress of necessary institutions are also the criteria of a successful program. During the design and implementation of venture capital agendas these aspects must be taken into consideration. This
Francisco JAVIER ESCRIBÁ-PÉREZ; José RAMÓN RUIZ-TAMARIT
In this paper, we intend to offer a critical review of the different concepts of capital and the different methods which are used to measure it. At the same time, we propose an endogenous approach which tries to measure the capital stock in terms of value, explicitly referring to depreciation as an economic variable decided by the firm. Applying this procedure to the Spanish macroeconomic data, we observe a big capital destruction since the mid-seventies which is not mentioned in official sta...
Growiec, Jakub; Groth, Christian
Based on a general framework for computing the aggregate human capital stock under heterogeneity across population cohorts, the paper derives aggregate human capital stocks in the whole population and in the labor force, and relates these variables to average years of schooling and average work...... experience. Under the scenarios considered here, the "macro-Mincer" (log-linear) relationship between aggregate human capital and average years of schooling is obtained only in cases which are inconsistent with heterogeneity in years of schooling and based on empirically implausible demographic survival laws...
Full Text Available The research in accounting with specific application on capital markets represents a special resort of accounting research. The development of such studies was favored by the evolution and strong growth of capital markets in our daily contemporary life and by the extention of base accounting concepts to international level. In such circumstances, studies regarding the evolution of concepts like value relevance, efficient markets, accounting information and its dissemination, fair value, are welcomed on the field of accounting research with applicability to the capital markets. This study comes to outline some positions regarding this topic of accounting research.
Frank, O R
Fee for service and capitation systems are usually regarded as different methods of medical remuneration, however, they can be seen to differ mainly in the degree to which they 'bundle' or 'package' medical services. A capitation system for general practice services in Australia could be established by the creation of a Medicare item and benefit for a year's general practice care. This would allow doctors to assess the benefits of capitation without a total and potentially traumatic commitment, and may encourage innovation in the efficient delivery of primary health care. PMID:1605766
Mihaela Tania SANDU
Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of infl uence exerted by human capital oneconomic growth of a country, to base decisions regarding the need to invest in such type of capital there are conducted studies and used different models for analysis related to a series of macroeconomic and demographic indicators.We present the main indicators and dynamics of human capital, placedin the economic context of Romania, with reference, in bringing out statistics data, to an average period of time (between 1994-2008 characterized at macroeconomic level, both by recession and economic growth periods. There were also highlighted indicators and dynamics, both at national and individual level.
AURA EMANUELA DOMIL
Full Text Available In this workpaper we discussed about tax implications of a capital outlay at the time of acquisition depend on the type of investment being acquired. Many capital outlays, such as introduction of a new product, are combinations of a variety of smaller investments. Governments periodically introduce investment tax credit programs to spur investment. We also discussed about the adjustments that need to be made for corporate taxes at the capital acquisition stage, the operating or asset usage stage and the disposal stage.
Full Text Available The financial shifts encountered in the last decade, increase the importance of capital markets in emerging countries, which is also Romania’s case. The banking system was for a long period of time the main source of liquidity for the economy. Meanwhile, the situation is changing due to the importance that capital market has in financing the economy. Through this paper we analyze the transactions’ evolution made by financial intermediaries on Romanian capital market, by highlighting the Societies for Financial Services and Investments (SSIF. Based on this evolution, we identified the main significant differences and similarities between the SSIFs existing on the market.
A dynamic model of the social relations between workers and capitalists is introduced. The model self-organises into a dynamic equilibrium with statistical properties that are in close qualitative and in many cases quantitative agreement with a broad range of known empirical distributions of developed capitalism, including the power-law firm size distribution, the Laplace firm and GDP growth distribution, the lognormal firm demises distribution, the exponential recession duration distribution, the lognormal-Pareto income distribution, and the gamma-like firm rate-of-profit distribution. Normally these distributions are studied in isolation, but this model unifies and connects them within a single causal framework. The model also generates business cycle phenomena, including fluctuating wage and profit shares in national income about values consistent with empirical studies. The generation of an approximately lognormal-Pareto income distribution and an exponential-Pareto wealth distribution demonstrates that the power-law regime of the income distribution can be explained by an additive process on a power-law network that models the social relation between employers and employees organised in firms, rather than a multiplicative process that models returns to investment in financial markets. A testable consequence of the model is the conjecture that the rate-of-profit distribution is consistent with a parameter-mix of a ratio of normal variates with means and variances that depend on a firm size parameter that is distributed according to a power-law.
Full Text Available The paper proposes sythesizing the most important correlations between the dimensions of human capital, in order to provide a better theoretical basis for assessing realistic valence motivated human resources sustainable development of society. In terms of conceptual work based on the fundamental role of health capital and the neglect that often has its problems, especially in developing countries. Based on the review abstract theory of human capital, research establishes correlations between dimensions. It shows the importance of ethical component in professionalism and existence of moral capital rooted in medical ethics. Specific breakdowns of health capital, referring to the health of the population and medical services. The research findings highlight the profound connection between morality and productivity seemingly nonexistent (customized to the case of medical services, about joint economic approaches ignored. It also means that the moral, professional and medical staff working in social capital formation influence the health of a nation.
Nsikan E. BASSEY
Full Text Available The study examines and compares the capital structure and efficiency of capital employed between listed and unlisted agro-based firms in Nigeria. Data collected from 88 agro-based firms using random sampling technique for the period 2005-2010 were analysed using Z-test, Capital Structure Ratio (CSR and Return on Capital Employed Ratio (ROCE analysis as well as descriptive statistics. The result revealed significant differences between the capital structure of listed and listed agro-based firms. Listed agro-based firms recorded the highest debt to equity ratio than their unlisted counterpart. Short term debts also constituted a greater percentage of the total debt ratios of both sample groups. Unlisted agro firms were more efficient than listed firms in terms of return on capital employed. Accordingly, series of recommendations have also been offered.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Kjeldsen, Chris; Noe, Egon
capital accumulation, usage and conversion, with special attention to social and economic capital. The question becomes: How do local entrepreneurs transform social capital into economic capital? We find that social capital is the ‘master capital’, which gives access to the other forms of capital......, including economic capital. Theoretically, we apply a simple Prisoner’s Dilemma model on four different cases. This in order to explain why one entrepreneur succeeds in capitalizing social capital by establishing profitable win-win cooperation with other local and regional entrepreneurs, and why others don’t.......In economic sociology, Bourdieu’s neo-capital theory (Bourdieu, 1986) has regularly been applied by sociologists, who reject the rational action theory (Anheier et al., 1995). However, we claim that Bourdieu’s key finding that forms of tangible and intangible capital (e.g. physical, economic...
Lyon, Thomas P.
Using data on the 20 Italian regions for the period 1970-1995, I examine whether the presence of social capital, as reflected in a number of different measures collected by Putnam (1993), affects economic productivity. I find three types of effects. First, social capital, when treated as an input to regional production, has a positive and significant effect in the South, but a much weaker effect in the North. Second, some forms of social capital can significantly increase regions propensitie...
Abstract. What Wells summarized in the first quote above was Eurocentric capitalism. It has now become the principal source of instability and inequality in the world. Speculation, not profit, is its driver; profit has taken a back-seat. Capital market, the arena for speculation, is disconnected from the real economy, particularly the labor market which rewards less and less the workers and producers. Rewards, as private wealth are increasingly in speculative capital gains which accrue to the...
Adela Suzana Artene; Costicã Roman
Human capital management is a pragmatically new approach of what used to be called personnel management. Human capital represents the only inexhaustible resource of creativity, solutions, and new, innovating and valuable ideas. The Harvard approach recognizes a common element in every business, the fact that human capital (personnel) represents a group of important stakeholders in an organization, and they have their own needs and preoccupations as the other groups of stakeholders, such as cu...
Froot, Kenneth A.; Jeremy C. Stein
We develop a framework for analyzing the capital allocation and capital structure decisions facing financial institutions such as banks. Our model incorporates two key features: I) value-maximizing banks have a well-founded concern with risk management; and ii) not all the risks they face can be frictionlessly hedged in the capital market. This approach allows us to show how bank-level risk management considerations should factor into the pricing of those risks that cannot be easily hedged. W...
This paper provides a novel microeconomic foundation for pecuniary human capital externalities in a labor market model of monopsonistic competition. Multiple equilibria arise because of a strategic complementarity in investment decisions.
NANJING City in South China's Jiangsu Province, capital of six dynasties, has since ancient times been noted for the beautiful plum blossom, its official flower. It has become the custom for Nanjing citizens to go on outings to admire
W. Deng (Wendong)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a
Madsen, Erik Strøjer
Human capital is an important growth factor for developing and developed countries and measuring the return to education is essential in evaluating the growth impact from human capital. Most studies use the length of education measured by the years of schooling as an indicator of human capital....... However, the quality of education varies a lot across universities and business schools as well as across student within an education institution. The high variations in grades among students reflect the heterogeneity in human capital among students and this study verify how this heterogeneity...... is reflected in the post performance of students in the labor market. To estimate the post graduate performance the study uses a sample of 1000 business student with their labor market status after 1 and 5 years. Besides the return to the mark level the study also evaluate the importance of the alignment...
Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L
Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.
Szydlowski, M; Szydlowski, Marek; Krawiec, Adam
We investigate the dynamics of growth models in terms of dynamical system theory. We analyse some forms of knowledge and its influence on economic growth. We assume that the rate of change of knowledge depends on both the rate of change of physical and human capital. First, we study model with constant savings. The model with optimised behaviour of households is also considered. We show that the model where the rate of change of knowledge depends only on the rate of change of physical capital can be reduced to the form of the two-dimensional autonomous dynamical system. All possible evolutional paths and the stability of solutions in the phase space are discussed in details. We obtain that the rate of growth of capital, consumption and output are greater in the case of capital dependent rate of change of knowledge.
Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp
This study examines income convergence in regional GDP per capita for a sample of 269 regions within the European Union (EU) between 2003 and 2010. We use an endogenous broad capital model based on foreign direct investment (FDI) induced agglomeration economies and human capital. By applying...... a Markov chain approach to a new dataset that exploits micro-aggregated sub-national FDI statistics, the analysis provides insights into regional income growth dynamics within the EU. Our results indicate a weak process of overall income convergence across EU regions. This does not apply to the dynamics...... within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics....
Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina ...... reform lowers welfare it lowers market access as well, thereby compromising a second goal that is typically connected with trade liberalisation.JEL-Classification: F11, F13, F15Key words: Trade Policy Reform, International Factor Mobility, Welfare, MarketAccess......We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina...
Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.
Zuleta LA; Londono JL; Uribe JD
ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, capital goods, technology, industrial development, trends, 1955-1978, Colombia - supply and demand, choice of product, Innovation, technology transfer, obstacles, tariff policy, research policy. Bibliography, diagram, statistical tables.
Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.
The ode “To Autumn” written by Keats in September of 1819,seemingly describes the work and effect of Autumn on specific aspects of nature.Indeed,the poet wants to satire the capitalism in his contemporary times by singing the praises of a season bestowed with the ability to bless.It’s known to the word that the autumn is the climax of the year.While the capitalism in that time is in the state like the autumn,reaching the peak of its development.The word“climax”means the beginning of the down.So Keats’ pretending to praise autumn,in fact,implies a prophet given to his contemporary capitalism:although the autumn harvests all in the world,what the capitalism has achieved is preparing itself for death like the autumn’s malevolent job of being ready for wintry death.
The ode "To Autumn" written by Keats in September of 1819,seemingly describes the work and effect of Autumn on specific aspects of nature.Indeed,the poet wants to satire the capitalism in his contemporary times by singing the praises of a season bestowed with the ability to bless.It’s known to the word that the autumn is the climax of the year.While the capitalism in that time is in the state like the autumn,reaching the peak of its development.The word "climax" means the beginning of the down.So Keats’ pretending to praise autumn,in fact,implies a prophet given to his contemporary capitalism: although the autumn harvests all in the world,what the capitalism has achieved is preparing itself for death like the autumn’s malevolent job of being ready for wintry death.
Full Text Available Various scientists in the modern age of management have launched different models for evaluating intellectual capital, and some of these models are analysed critically in this study, too. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. In a spectral dynamic analysis, organisational intellectual capital is structured in: organisational knowledge, organisational intelligence, organisational values, and their value is built on certain mechanisms entitled integrators, whose chief constitutive elements are: individual knowledge, individual intelligence and individual cultural values. The organizations, as employers, must especially reconsider those employees’ work who value knowledge because they are free to choose how, and especially where they are inclined to invest their own energy, skills and time, and they can be treated as freelancers or as some little entrepreneurs .
Gerald H. Anderson; Bryan, Michael F.
An analysis of the role of foreign investment in U.S. resource allocation, finding that the large influx of foreign capital in the 1980s has been used predominantly to fund domestic investment and consumer investment spending.
Full Text Available Social capital is a systematic set of organized links between the members of a group or a society which is based on specific norms and rules and results into obtaining individual and collective purposes. The category of social capital is different with from current concept of capital in sociology, law and economy. Features like cooperation, knowledge, participating in public affairs, tolerating others and group works are a kind of investment that has no individual owner and has its roots in the past. The writer of this article has studied Tarikh-e-Beihaghi written by Khaje Abolfazl Mohammad-ibn-e-Dabir known as Beihaghi; and has analyzed the different forms of social capital. He has also tried to reconstruct the signs of decline and rise of that period.
Lauridsen Lolle, Elisabeth
One of the main theorists in the field of social capital defines the concept as referring to: “Connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them” (Putnam 2000, p. 19). Several surveys show that Denmark has the world record...... in social capital and that Danes are among the world’s most trusting people (Ex. European Values Survey and World Value Survey, World Bank). Despites of this world record, it is not all bliss. For instance, citizens are protesting and marching to demonstrate discontent with local school closings......, and the inequalities between cities and rural areas are getting more pronounced. If Denmark is to keep its social capital and strengthen the regional development, we need to examine the condition of the social capital and find ways to maintain or maybe even strengthen its stock. However, it is difficult to measure...
Full Text Available Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting information is more reliable in this framework. Following recent regulations, Romanian entities activating on capital market as investors in capital market instruments, or whose shares are traded on a regulated market, must prepare their individual financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards. The study provides some conclusions that could enlarge the utility of fair value related to entities that activate on Romanian capital market.
Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R
This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers. PMID:10711318
... Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory Capital Ratios, Capital Adequacy, Prompt... Regulatory Capital Rules: Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and Disclosure... 12 CFR Part 324 RIN 3064-AD96 Regulatory Capital Rules: Standardized Approach for...
Gabriela-Victoria ANGHELACHE; Andreea NEGRU (CIOBANU); Catalina Claudia SAVA
The efficiency of the capital market aims the relation existing between the mechanism of the market prices forming and the existing information on the market at the respective moment. According to the theory of the years '60, a market may be considered as efficient if the prices of the transacted financial assets on the market incorporate entirely the available information, either public or private. The efficiency of the capital market is a sine qua non condition for the efficient allocation ...
This paper recognizes two main factors that cause the capital requirement to affect the weighted average cost of capital and hence the investment behavior of banks: underpriced debt resulting from the deposit insurance and information asymmetry between managers and the stock market. For a bank enjoying a low cost of debt (deposits), an increased proportion of equity financing raises the weighted average cost ofcapital. When the stock market underestimates the value of a bank due to informatio...
Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.
Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence comprises its social capital.Individuals are trustworthy when they perform actions they have promised, even if these do not maximize their payoffs.The usual focus on incentive structures in motivatin...
Social capital, proximity and team performance improvement Jakub Wojnar Ph.D. student of the Systems Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Newelska 6, 01-447 Warsaw, Poland email: The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first part translates some theoretical concepts of social capital into business terms and explains its daily usage in international corporations. The second and main objective of the paper is a description of a method of recruiting new me...
The main subject of the following article is to introduce one of Polish most popular way of divestment used by venture capital funds - the Initial Public Offering. Venture capital, considered as an innovative source of financing, supporting especially SMEs, is also an important mechanism of introducing companies on the Stock Market. Entrepreneurs are often interested this form of divestment, as it is associated with numerous benefits, which strengthen the position of a company and deepen the ...
This study comparatively examines the determinants of working capital management for listed vs. unlisted firms, and assesses the impact of this policy on profitability by focusing on the cash conversion cycle, a commonly used measure of working capital management. By using a large UK public and private firm sample, it is found that private firms have significantly lower cash conversion cycles than their public counterparts, and that traditional determinants of the cycle significantly differ b...
This paper extends the income fluctuations problem to an economy with endogenous growth. In the present setup, individuals, instead of owning an stream of endowments, accumulate capital with an investment irreversibility constraint and face uninsurable idiosyncratic risks to the return to capital. Money provides both a risk diversification and a liquidity role. Balanced growth paths exist despite the increasing dispersion of the wealth distribution. The return to money cannot be equated to th...
Jaap Bikker; Iman van Lelyveld
The new Basel Capital Accord will result in more risk sensitive regulatory capital for banks. Likewise, financial conglomerates' internal models will become more important in group-wide supervision. Such models are relatively well developed for market and credit risk but for others, such as operational risk, many issues remain to be resolved. An even greater challenge is the development of models that aggregate risks across risk areas and business units, in particular across bank and insuranc...
Azariadis, Costas; Pissarides, Christopher
We study the response of domestic unemployment rates to shocks in total factor productivity for economies with high capital mobility and low labour mobility. We show that rapid capital movements across national borders, like those experienced by developed nations in the last twenty years, substantially amplify the impact on the domestic unemployment rate of domestic fluctuations in total factor productivity relative to what would have happened in a closed economy, shorten the duration of the ...
This paper develops a structural credit risk model of a bank that issues deposits, shareholders' equity, and fixed or floating coupon bonds in the form of contingent capital or subordinated debt. The return on the bank's assets follows a jump-diffusion process, and default-free interest rates are stochastic. The equilibrium pricing of the bank's deposits, contingent capital, and shareholders' equity is studied for various parameter values haracterizing the bank's risk and the contractual term...
Hayne E. Leland
The joint determination of capital structure and investment risk is examined. Optimal capital structure reflects both the tax advantages of debt less default costs (Modigliani-Miller), and the agency costs resulting from asset substitution (Jensen-Meckling). Agency costs restrict leverage and debt maturity and increase yield spreads, but their importance is relatively small for the range of environments considered. Risk management is also examined. Hedging permits greater leverage. Even when ...
LUÍS AGUIAR-CONRARIA; KARL SHELL
Capital gains play an essential role in the intertemporal allocation of resources, but they can also fuel self-fulfilling bubbles. The simple case of 2 "identical" capitals is analyzed in an overlapping generations model. The only trajectory in which expectations are realized at every date is the one in which blue machines and red machines have the same price. If ever their prices differ, then there is a "bubble" which must burst in finite time.
BELENESI (BUMBA) MARIOARA; POPA DORINA; CHIRA (CHIŞ) ANCA OANA; AVRAM (BOITOS) CAMELIA
In a highly competitive economy, driven by globalization, the abundance of digital information and communication facilities, the investor directs its capital to those companies that promise added value of the invested capital. Even so, companies seek to obtain favorable terms of financing by rendering sensitive the investors. To achieve their goal, they must provide information about their financial and non financial performance with sufficient regularity to meet the information needs of actu...
Gulie Alexandra Emanuela
The human factor created by physical work and/or intellectual property of all existing material, is unequivocally active value of any work, ie human capital translates into different activities, specialized or not, it creates these individuals. History of the term human capital has experienced over time a series of ups and downs, as agreed or rejected by academia and the political class. Although known affirmation and its conceptual structure only after the seventh decade of the twentieth cen...
Poulsen, Anders; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
In order to explain excess co-operation in the one-shot prisoner's dilemma game, we first question the standard assumption of stable and selfish preferences by introducing the concept of social capital. This analysis leads to a model that explains excess co-operation through an accumulation of social capital. We allow preferences and norms to change over time and hence endogenise them. Our results depend on individuals being able to acquire enough information to allow them to ascertain the so...
Irma Potočnik Slavič
Full Text Available In the last two decades, the concept of social capital has become very popular amongst researchers and in politics as well. Its measurement is very complex in spite of relatively simple and apparently useful concept. Analysis of social capital indicators in selected Slovenian rural areas (Upper Savinja Valley, Suha krajina, Goriška brda, Brkini have demonstrated its positive impact on local community capacity building, being the starting point for activation of endogenous development potentials.
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Kraft, Kornelius
"The present paper discusses the effects of dispersed versus concentrated capital ownership on investment into innovative activity. While the market for equity capital might exert insufficient control on top managements’ behavior, this weakness may be mitigated by a suitable degree of debt financing. We report the results of an empirical study on the determinants of innovative activity measured by patent applications. Using a large sample of German manufacturing firms, we find that companies ...
Sureth, Caren; Langeleh, Dirk
This paper investigates the influence of different systems of current income and capital gains taxation on investor's decision to either carry out an investment in corporate shares or to invest funds alternatively on the capital market. Three basic tax systems are analyzed, a classical corporate tax system with double taxation of profits on corporate and personal level, a shareholder relief system, that reduces double taxation completely. It can be shown that general analytical solutions for ...
Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.
Proponents of the varieties of capitalism literature maintain that capitalist countries whose institutions best fit either the liberal market economy or coordinated market economy types will perform the best. Countries whose institutions are more mixed will perform less well. This paper challenges....... The dynamic interaction of elements found in both liberal and coordinated types of capitalism have contributed to its success. This is demonstrated by analyses of the institutions that coordinate Danish labor markets, vocational training, and industrial policy....
Milanovic, Milan; Dorovic, Milutin; Stevanovic, Simo
The strategies and policies of agricultural and rural development, within the overall long-term area development, traditionally lean on natural-resource capital and certain differential-rent advantages. New dimensions of the agricultural and rural multifunctionality of areas in the zones of large industrial and urban agglomerations and the inevitable processes of degradation of natural capital, stress the role of science in the process of sustaining the level of overall production potential. ...
Ligia ANTONESCU; Daniela SIMINICA
The notion of commercial capital is used in present bookkeeping law in Romania and it represents the part from the commercial capital that is not mentioned in other elements of patrimony, but which take part at the maintenance or the development of the unity as: the customers, the commercial good custom, the reputation, outlets. For the evaluation of the commercial fund must be taken into account the fact that the requests stated in the international standards of applicable bookkeeping, the s...
Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Rault, Christophe; Sova, Robert; Sova, Anamaria
We contribute to the finance literature in two main ways. First, we present a theoretical capital asset pricing model (CAPM) to price assets in different market structures. Second, we use our model to analyze whether when markets are partially segmented using the local or the global CAPM yields significant errors in the estimation of the cost of capital for a sample of firms from developed and emerging countries.
All over the world, the problem of human capital acknowledge, it’s ways and means of shaping in order to improve it’s creative potential, tends to occupy a suitable place in the ensemble of all the organization’s management science and practice concerns. This study aims that, according to the theoretical ang pragmatical aquisitions, to present conceptual boundries about the human capital involvement in the knowledge based management. It starts with presenting the relations ballance and philos...
Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda; Martín Ramírez Urquidy
The hypothesis that human capital increases productivity is tested using data from a sample of low value-added microenterprises. A special attribute of this paper is the join treatment of formal learning or training in education institutions, and informal training by experience of the owner in the firm management. Following previous studies, the relation between human capital and productivity is determined by estimating production functions with the inclusion of dummy variables to control for...
Capital Market is usually depicted as a place for experts, for people with high trading skills. This is a half truth. There are entities established and functioning under strict scrutiny of Romanian National Securities Commission (RNSC), in compliance with Capital Market Law and regulations. There are also the investors, in many cases individuals involved in shares/financial instruments trade. In both cases disputes can rise. Disputes are inevitable a part of human interaction, hence the need...
Michael Hudson; Kris Feder
This working paper seeks to elucidate the role of real estate in the capital gains issue, indicating the quantitative orders of magnitude involved. We offer two main observations. First, generous capital consumption allowances (CCAs) greatly magnify the proportion newly constructed buildings, of course, but also on land and old buildings being sold and resold. Our tax code allows for properties to be re- depreciated by their new owners after a sale or swap, permitting real estate investors to...
Nisiyama, Edelcio Koitiro; Nakamura, Wilson Toshiro
Capital Structure is still one of controversial themes in corporate finance, which allows many research activities both on the theories that have been widely discussed but also on the several interrelationships with other corporate aspects. The aim of this article was to review the most recent academic publication of researches involving capital structure of the firms. This study focuses on the last 3 years, from 2011 to 2013, and on the international scientific journals in Finance that pres...
Cox, James C.; Orman, Wafa Hakim
Trust is a crucial component of social capital. We use an experimental moonlighting game with a representative sample of the U.S. population, oversampling immigrants, to study trust, positive, and negative reciprocity between first-generation immigrants and native-born Americans as a measure of immigrant assimilation. We also survey subjects in order to relate trusting and trustworthy behavior with demographic characteristics and traditional, survey-based measures of social capital. We find t...
This essay provides a critical Marxist reformulation, internal to the cultural tradition of Western Marxism, of Marx’s theoretical treatment of value and capital. It implies the abandonment of the ‘pure’ labour theory of value of the young Marx in favour of a ‘mixed’ labour-and capital theory of value reflecting the different theoretical perspective shown by the mature Marx, after his epistemological break described by Althusser. The accounting practice of defining and measuring income and ca...
Aznar-Márquez, J.; Ruiz-Tamarit, Jose
We study an extended version of the one-sector AK growth model introducing adjustment and maintenance costs. Agents are allowed to under-use the installed capital and to vary the depreciation rate. The model is analyzed using particular functional forms and is solved in closed-form. We find that adjustment and maintenance costs (e?- ciency) reduce (increases) investment, depreciation, capital utilization and the rate of growth; impatience reduces the rate of growth but increases depreciation ...
The value of CUlTent organizations and industries is increasingly located in intangibles (human capital, structural capital and relational capital) and basically,knowledgehasbecomea factor of production and a main asset. This Intellectual Capital does not appear on balance sheets,but ultimately does have an enormous impact and is basic to match the requirements of knowledgeintensiveeconomiesin Asia and Europe.
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction for capital gains. 1.1202-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1202-1 Deduction for capital gains. (a) In computing gross income, adjusted gross income, taxable income, capital gain net income (net capital gain...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash working capital. 36.182 Section 36.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS... Cash Working Capital § 36.182 Cash working capital. (a) The amount for cash working capital, if...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial operating capital. 3560.304 Section 3560.304... capital. (a) Purpose. To provide a source of capital for start-up costs, such as the purchase of equipment... initial operating capital contribution to the general operating account as described in § 3560.64....
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NPSL capital account. 220.010 Section 220.010... § 220.010 NPSL capital account. (a) For each NPSL tract, an NPSL capital account shall be established and maintained by the lessee for NPSL operations. The NPSL capital account shall include debit...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital Fund formula (CFF). 905.10... DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING CAPITAL FUND PROGRAM § 905.10 Capital Fund formula (CFF). (a) General. This section describes the formula for allocation of capital funds to PHAs. The formula is referred to as...
... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5206 Permanent capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation....
... standards. See, e.g. 12 CFR part 208, subpart D. (1) A total risk-based capital ratio, as defined in... capital to average total consolidated assets, as calculated in accordance with the capital adequacy... capital adequacy guidelines of the correspondent's primary federal supervisor. (2) For a...