WorldWideScience

Sample records for capital womens autonomy

  1. Social capital, women's autonomy and smoking among married women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rema A; Nakkash, Rima T; Khawaja, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    We sought to examine the associations between social capital, women's empowerment, and smoking behavior among married women in three low-income neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data from currently married women aged 15 to 59 years in the 2003 Urban Health Study were used. The dependent variable was cigarette smoking. The main independent variables were five social capital items and three women's empowerment indices. Other socioeconomic variables as well as mental distress, happiness, and community of residence were included as covariates. Bivariate associations were conducted on all variables using chi-square tests. Adjusted odds ratios from binary logistic regression models were then modeled on smoking behavior separately for younger and older women. More than one third (35.9%) of married women reported smoking cigarettes. At the bivariate level, a variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables predicted smoking. With respect to social capital, women who lacked trust and were dissatisfied with the number friends or relatives living nearby were more likely to smoke. As for women's autonomy, high decision making and high mobility were associated with smoking. When analyzed multivariately, social capital items were statistically significant for younger women but not for older women. And the mobility variables were significant for older women but not younger women. Our results support the conclusion that determinants of women's tobacco use are multilayered, and include social capital and women's autonomy. Our results also suggest that younger and older married women may be influenced by differential determinants. Reasons for these differences are explored. Interventions may need to be tailored to each age group separately. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Autonomy and interdependence: beliefs of Brazilian mothers from state capitals and small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mauro Luis; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Macarini, Samira Mafioletti; Martins, Gabriela Dal Forno; Lordelo, Eulina da Rocha; Tokumaru, Rosana Suemi; Oliva, Angela Donate

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate characteristics of Brazilian mothers' beliefs system, in the dimensions of autonomy and interdependence. A group of 600 women, half from state capitals and half from small towns, participated in the study. They were individually interviewed with Scales of Allocentrism, Beliefs about Parental Practices and Socialization Goals. Paired and Independent samples t tests and Multivariate GLM were performed. The results indicate that although mothers from both contexts value autonomy, mothers inhabiting small towns considered the relational dimension as the most important; whereas mothers inhabiting capitals valued equally both dimensions, either in their beliefs about practices or in the socialization goals for their children. Mothers from small towns have a higher mean score for allocentrism than mothers living in capitals. Thus, place of residence proved to be a relevant variable in the modulation of maternal beliefs. Educational level was not a significant factor in the variables considered and with this group of mothers. The study results are discussed in terms of their contribution to the understanding of the complex relationship between dimensions of autonomy and interdependence in mothers' beliefs system.

  3. the Effect of Egyptian Married Women's Decision-Making Autonomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    women's autonomy influences their use of modern contraception methods and to determine the mediating effect of education .... attention should be given to other social ..... possibly due to their greater exposure to media, ... prohibited in Islam.

  4. Managerial autonomy, optimal security issuance and capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we address two related puzzles: (i) why do firms issue equity when stock prices are high and (ii) why do firms so often not issue securities to counteract the mechanical effect of their stock returns on their leverage ratios? Our theory builds on the importance of managerial autonomy

  5. Education and Reproductive Autonomy: The Case of Married Nigerian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; De Clercq, Eva; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the influence of education on the exercise of married women's reproductive autonomy. We carried out 34 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with purposively sampled married Ikwerre women in Rivers State, Nigeria. The participants were between the ages of 22 and 60, had different educational backgrounds, and were in monogamous and polygynous marriages. Data were analyzed using MAXQDA 11 software. We found that although formal education enhanced women's ability to exercise reproductive autonomy, the culture of demanding absolute respect for men remains a major barrier. Formal education provides women with the knowledge that they need in order to access adequate health services for themselves and their children. Participants also believed that educating men was critical for the exercise of women's reproductive autonomy. The cultural aspects that promote female subordination and patriarchy should be addressed more openly in Nigeria.

  6. Managerial autonomy, allocation of control rights, and optimal capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the design of control rights of external financiers, and how these interact with the firm's security issuance and capital structure when the firm's initial owners and managers may disagree with new investors over project choice. The first main result is an ex ante managerial preference

  7. Women's autonomy and maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Fentanesh Nibret; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2017-11-13

    Most previous studies on healthcare service utilization in low-income countries have not used a multilevel study design to address the importance of community-level women's autonomy. We assessed whether women's autonomy, measured at both individual and community levels, is associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. We analyzed data from the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (N = 6058 and 7043, respectively) for measuring women's decision-making power and permissive gender norms associated with wife beating. We used Spearman's correlation and the chi-squared test for bivariate analyses and constructed generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to analyze the associations between women's autonomy indicators and maternal healthcare service utilization with control for other socioeconomic characteristics. Our multivariate analysis showed that women living in communities with a higher percentage of opposing attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to use all three types of maternal healthcare services in 2011 (adjusted odds ratios = 1.21, 1.23, and 1.18 for four or more antenatal care visits, health facility delivery, and postnatal care visits, respectively). In 2005, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.16 and 1.17 for four or more antenatal care visits and health facility delivery, respectively. In 2011, the percentage of women in the community with high decision-making power was positively associated with the likelihood of four or more antenatal care visits (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14). The association of individual-level autonomy on maternal healthcare service utilization was less profound after we controlled for other individual-level and community-level characteristics. Our study shows that women's autonomy was positively associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. We suggest addressing woman empowerment in national policies and programs would be the optimal solution.

  8. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  9. Women's Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Kutty, V Raman; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2016-01-01

    Despite various efforts for enhancing women's autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women's autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women's autonomy using a recently developed women's autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling technique were applied for assessing the association of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women and their autonomy. Mean score for women's autonomy was 23.34 ± 8.06 out of the possible maximum 48. It was found to be positively associated with higher age difference at marriage, advantaged caste/ethnicity, better employment for the husband, couple's education more than 10 years schooling, and higher economic status of the household. We found strong direct effect of women's education (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57), husband's education (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.69-4.10) and economic status of household (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.01-2.03) on women's autonomy. When we adjusted women's education for husband's education, the odds ratio decreased by around 22% {from (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57) to (OR = 6.32, CI = 2.77-14.46)} and was a mediator effect. The economic status of household also had mediator effect on women's autonomy through their education. Education status of women is a key predictor of women's autonomy in Kapilvastu district. Husband's education and economic status of the household are other important predictors of women's autonomy which have a mediator effect on women's autonomy. Improving educational status and economic conditions of both women and their husbands may be the best solution to promote women's autonomy.

  10. Association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome in couples residing in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671

  11. Effects of women's autonomy on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh: Evidence from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Qureshi, Zaina P; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to construct an index of women's autonomy to analyze its effect on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Empirical modeling of the study used instrumental variable (IV) approach to correct for possible endogeneity of women's autonomy variable. Data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 was used for the study. Women's autonomy variable was obtained through factor analysis of variables related to autonomy in decision making regarding healthcare, financial autonomy and freedom of movement. Conditional mixed process (CMP) models were fitted for three maternal healthcare indicators: at least four antenatal care (ANC) by trained personnel, institutional delivery and postnatal care (PNC) by trained personnel. Study sample consisted of 8753 women with 5.5 mean years of schooling. Women with no formal education, of Islamic faith, from poorest wealth quintile, residing in rural areas and with low autonomy used the maternal healthcare least. Marginal effect shows that if women's autonomy score is increased by one unit, probability of maternal healthcare utilization will increase by 0.14 for ANC, 0.14 for institutional delivery, and 0.13 for PNC. Women's autonomy is an important driver of maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Results suggest that women participating in social and economic activities enhances their autonomy. Other factors affecting women's autonomy are female literacy, educational attainment and households' economic status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Women's household decision-making autonomy and contraceptive behavior among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Mostofa, Md Golam; Hoque, Md Aminul

    2014-03-01

    Women's autonomy is a potentially important but less studied indicator of using contraception among women as well as ability to control their fertility. This study explores women's decision-making autonomy as a potential indicator of the use of contraception in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study utilizes data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) 2007. Information of 8456 currently married and non-pregnant women aged 15-40 years are analyzed to meet up the objective of this study. The mean age of the respondents is 27.19 years and majority of the respondents are from rural areas (62.7%) and also Muslim (90.2%). A large number of women (26.1%) and their husbands (29.0%) have no education and 27.2% respondents were working at the time of interview. The mean number of living children is 2.14. 48.9% of the respondents are currently using a modern method of contraception. More than one-third women are not involved in their household decision-making. Results of this study indicate that household decision-making autonomy is significantly associated with current use of modern contraception, future intention to use contraception and discuss contraception with husband. This measure of women's autonomy provides additional independent explanatory power of contraceptive behavior net of some other socio-demographic variables. This study argues in favor of increasing women's autonomy to increase contraception using rate in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Women's decision-making autonomy and children's schooling in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-03-24

    Women's decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women's autonomy and children's schooling. To examine the relationship between rural women's decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child's gender. The analysis uses data from a 2009 survey of rural households in four districts of Gaza province in southern Mozambique. Multilevel logistic models predict the probability of being in school for children between 6 and 14 years old. The results show a positive association of women's decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled in primary school for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women's autonomy is net of other women's characteristics typically associated with enrollment and does not mediate the effects of those characteristics. Based on the results, we argue that women with higher levels of decision-making autonomy may have a stronger preference for daughters' schooling and may have a greater say in making and implementing decisions regarding daughters' education, compared to women with lower autonomy levels. Results also illustrate a need for considering a broader set of autonomy-related characteristics when examining the effects of women's status on children's educational outcomes.

  14. "Women's autonomy and pregnancy care in rural India: a contextual analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Galal, Osman; Lu, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Studies in low-income countries have shown that women's autonomy (i.e. the freedom of women to exercise their judgment in order to act for their own interests) influences a number of reproductive and child health outcomes, including the use of pregnancy care services. However, studies have not examined the full spectrum of pregnancy care services needed for safe motherhood and have not accounted for community context. This study analyzed data on women and their villages from the cross-sectional population-based National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-1999) of rural India to investigate whether women's autonomy (measured in the 3 dimensions of decision-making autonomy, permission to go out, and financial autonomy) was associated with the use of adequate prenatal, delivery and postnatal care. The findings indicate women's autonomy was associated with greater use of pregnancy care services, particularly prenatal and postnatal care. The effect of women's autonomy on pregnancy care use varied according to the region of India examined (North, East and South) such that it was most consistently associated with pregnancy care use in south India, which also had the highest level of self-reported women's autonomy. The results regarding village level factors suggest that public investment in rural economic development, primary health care access, social cohesion and basic infrastructure such as electrification and paved roads were associated with pregnancy care use. Improvements in women's autonomy and these village factors may improve healthier child bearing in rural India.

  15. Women's autonomy in health care decision-making in developing countries: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Autonomy is considered essential for decision-making in a range of health care situations, from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. Evidence suggests that women in developing or low-income countries often have limited autonomy and control over their health decisions. A review of the published empirical literature to identify definitions and methods used to measure women's autonomy in developing countries describe the relationship between women's autonomy and their health care decision-making, and identify sociodemographic factors that influence women's autonomy and decision-making regarding health care was carried out. An integrated literature review using two databases (PubMed and Scopus) was performed. Inclusion criteria were 1) publication in English; 2) original articles; 3) investigations on women's decision-making autonomy for health and health care utilization; and 4) developing country context. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, including eleven from South Asia, five from Africa, and one from Central Asia. Most studies used a definition of autonomy that included independence for women to make their own choices and decisions. Study methods differed in that many used study-specific measures, while others used a set of standardized questions from their countries' national health surveys. Most studies examined women's autonomy in the context of reproductive health, while neglecting other types of health care utilized by women. Several studies found that factors, including age, education, and income, affect women's health care decision-making autonomy. Gaps in existing literature regarding women's autonomy and health care utilization include gaps in the areas of health care that have been measured, the influence of sex roles and social support, and the use of qualitative studies to provide context and nuance.

  16. Costs and benefits of flexibility and autonomy in working time: The same for women and men?

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011), the author scrutinizes the relations between women´s and men´s flexibility and autonomy in working time and two central work outcomes: overtime and income. Previously, research on flexibility and autonomy in working time mostly applied crosssectional data ignoring individuals self-selection into jobs. Furthermore, the association between flexibility and autonomy in working time and income has gener...

  17. Women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation: empirical evidence from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-10-01

    Women's autonomy is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, whereas there is no consistent empirical evidence to support this claim. This paper examines whether or not and how women's autonomy within the household affects the use of reproductive health care, using a household survey data from Tajikistan. Estimation is performed by the bivariate probit model whereby woman's use of health services and the level of women's autonomy are recursively and simultaneously determined. The data is from a sample of women aged 15-49 from the Tajikistan Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007. Women's autonomy as measured by women's decision-making on household financial matters increase the likelihood that a woman receives antenatal and delivery care, whilst it has a negative effect on the probability of attending to four or more antenatal consultations. The hypothesis that women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation are independently determined is rejected for most of the estimation specifications, indicating the importance of taking into account the endogenous nature of women's autonomy when assessing its effect on health care use. The empirical results reconfirm the assertion that women's status within the household is closely linked to reproductive health care utilisation in developing countries. Policymakers therefore need not only to implement not only direct health interventions but also to focus on broader social policies which address women's empowerment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dev R; Bell, Jacqueline S; Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R

    2010-07-15

    How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257). The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6), while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9). Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p make decision in own healthcare. Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access community resources, to challenge traditional norms and to access economic resources. This will lead the women to be more autonomous in decision making in the due course.

  19. Women's Autonomy and Skilled Attendance During Pregnancy and Delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Situ; Neupane, Subas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance during pregnancy and delivery in Nepal. Methods We adopt data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011). We include only married women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (N = 4148). Women's autonomy was assessed on the basis of four indicators of decision making: healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, household purchases and spending earned money. Each indicator was dichotomized (yes/no) and then summarized into a single variable to measure overall autonomy. Next, we measured health attendance (skilled vs. unskilled) during antenatal and delivery care. The association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance was analysed using a logistic regression model. Results Most women had a medium (40 %) and high (35 %) level of overall autonomy. The proportion of women accessing skilled providers during antenatal and delivery care was 51 and 36 %. Women with autonomy in healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, making household purchases and spending money earned were associated with a higher likelihood of receiving care from skilled providers during antenatal care and delivery. An elevated probability of access to skilled attendance during antenatal (aOR 1.33; 95 % CI 1.10-1.59) and delivery care (aOR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.12-1.70) was reported among women with higher levels of overall autonomy. Conclusion Women's autonomy was significantly associated with the maternal health care utilization by skilled attendants. This study will provide insights for policy makers to develop strategies in improving maternal health.

  20. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arpana

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14–45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting. PMID:24575305

  1. "Girl Power!": The Relationship between Women's Autonomy and Children's Immunization Coverage in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebot, Jane O

    2015-09-18

    Although immunizations are efficient and cost effective methods of reducing child mortality, worldwide, approximately 2 million children die yearly of vaccine-preventable diseases. Researchers and health organizations have detailed information on the positive relationship between women's autonomy and children's health outcomes in developing countries. This study investigates the links between women's household autonomy and children's immunization status using data from a nationally representative sample of children aged 12-30 months (N = 2941) from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. The results showed that women's socioeconomic status and household autonomy were significantly associated with children's immunization status. Overall, the implications of this study align with those of the Millennium Development Goal #3: improvements in women's household autonomy are linked to more positive child health outcomes.

  2. HIV stigma and social capital in women living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. PMID:27697368

  3. Autonomy and Reproductive Rights of Married Ikwerre Women in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-06-01

    A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and reproductive rights amongst the Ikwerre women in Nigeria. While some educated women were aware of their reproductive rights, cultural practices were reported to limit the exercise of these rights. Participants reported that Ikwerre culture is a patriarchal one where married women are expected to submit and obey their husbands in all matters; and a good married woman according to Ikwerre standard is one who complies with this culture. Women's refusal of sexual advances from their husbands is described as not being acceptable in this culture; and hence rape in marriage is not recognized in Ikwerre culture. Education and awareness creation on the importance of women's reproductive autonomy could improve their reproductive rights and autonomy in marital settings. Overcoming the patriarchal aspects of Ikwerre culture-for example, the greater value placed on male children than female children and treating women as incompetent individuals-is necessary to promote gender equality as well as help improve women's reproductive autonomy.

  4. Women's autonomy and husbands' involvement in maternal health care in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Deependra Kaji; Niehof, Anke

    2013-09-01

    Both increasing women's autonomy and increasing husbands' involvement in maternal health care are promising strategies to enhance maternal health care utilization. However, these two may be at odds with each other insofar as autonomous women may not seek their husband's involvement, and involved husbands may limit women's autonomy. This study assessed the relationship between women's autonomy and husbands' involvement in maternal health care. Field work for this study was carried out during September-November 2011 in the Kailali district of Nepal. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to investigate the extent of husbands' involvement in maternal health care. A survey was carried out among 341 randomly selected women who delivered a live baby within one year prior to the survey. The results show that husbands were involved in giving advice, supporting to reduce the household work burden, and making financial and transportation arrangements for the delivery. After adjustment for other covariates, economic autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy, while domestic decision-making autonomy was associated with both lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy and the husband's presence at antenatal care (ANC) visits. Movement autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of the husband's presence at ANC visits. Intra-spousal communication was associated with higher likelihood of discussing health with the husband during pregnancy, birth preparedness, and the husbands' presence at the health facility delivery. The magnitude and direction of association varied per autonomy dimension. These findings suggest that programs to improve the women's autonomy and at the same time increase the husband's involvement should be carefully planned. Despite the traditional cultural beliefs that go against the involvement of husbands, Nepalese husbands are increasingly entering into the area of maternal

  5. Women in engineering conference: capitalizing on today`s challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, S.S.; Martins, S.M. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Women in Engineering Conference: Capitalizing on Today`s Challenges, held June 1-4, 1996 in Denver, Colorado. Topics included engineering and science education, career paths, workplace issues, and affirmative action.

  6. University Autonomy in the Context of University-Society, State and Market/Capital Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle ÖZCAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how the concept university autonomy which constitutes one of the most tangible indicators of academic freedom is positioned in the context of university's relations with state, society and market and concentrates on the possibility of university autonomy. From the emergence of universities in the Middle Age to the modern universities of the present, the concepts of university autonomy and academic freedom have been maintaining their actuality with a growing interest. In the light of studies in Turkey, the purpose of this study is to discuss the change of university autonomy in the historical process and where it can be positioned in the context of building blocks of university autonomy concept and the recent relationship between universities and market-industry-business world.

  7. WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EFFECT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL, INNOVATION AND MARKET KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANAFSHEH DASTOURIAN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Women entrepreneurship plays a key role in the economic growth. This study investigates the mediatory role of innovation concerning the effect of social capital on entrepreneurship. The sample population included 130 female entrepreneurs in Ilam province, Iran. Using questionnaire as the main means of data collection, the correlation among variables of entrepreneurship, innovation, social capital and market knowledge was evaluated. Data analysis was performed by structural equation modeling in LISREL software. The findings showed that social capital and innovation had a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurship. However, the impact of social capital on innovation was not confirmed.

  8. [The autonomy of women: some reflections-statements on the goal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koninck, M

    1990-05-01

    The author reflects on women's reproductive autonomy and raises questions on the true significance of advancements in feminism in recent years. Does today's context of social interaction between sexes not promote a biologistical femininity characterized by a negative perception of the feminine body and of its reproductive potential? Does women's "liberation" not imply the rejection of the feminine body and of its difference? In order to avoid the perverse effects of the search for autonomy, it is not more appropriate to redefine the feminine body with reference to women instead of with reference to the male universe, as it seems to be the case today?

  9. Understanding gendered influences on women's reproductive health in Pakistan: moving beyond the autonomy paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    Recent research and policy discourse commonly view the limited autonomy of women in developing countries as a key barrier to improvements in their reproductive health. Rarely, however, is the notion of women's autonomy interrogated for its conceptual adequacy or usefulness for understanding the determinants of women's reproductive health, effective policy formulation or program design. Using ethnographic data from 2001, including social mapping exercises, observation of daily life, interviews, case studies and focus group discussions, this paper draws attention to the incongruities between the concept of women's autonomy and the gendered social, cultural, economic and political realities of women's lives in rural Punjab, Pakistan. These inadequacies include: the concept's undue emphasis on women's independent, autonomous action; a lack of attention to men and masculinities; a disregard for the multi-sited constitution of gender relations and gender inequality; an erroneous assumption that uptake of reproductive health services is an indicator of autonomy; and a failure to explore the interplay of other axes of disadvantage such as caste, class or socio-economic position. This paper calls for alternative, more nuanced, theoretical approaches for conceptualizing gender inequalities in order to enhance our understanding of women's reproductive wellbeing in Pakistan. The extent to which our arguments may be relevant to the wider South Asian context, and women's lives in other parts of the world, is also discussed.

  10. Associations between women's autonomy and child nutritional status: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gwen J; Kordas, Katarzyna; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, many women continue to experience low levels of autonomy. Recent literature has reported that the health consequences of low maternal autonomy extend beyond mothers and translate into health consequences for their children, and may be an important causal factor in child malnutrition. This review summarises the current knowledge of the relationship between maternal autonomy and children's nutritional status (defined as any measure that reflects the nutritional state of the body, such as birthweight or anthropometric scores) and child-feeding practices. The review also includes both discussion of the limitations found in the literature and directions for future research. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Results of the studies included in the review strongly suggest that raising maternal autonomy is an important goal for improving children's nutritional status, yet gaps in the current knowledge exist, further confounded by issues with how autonomy is measured and limitations of cross-cultural comparability. A thorough understanding of the consequences of restricting women's autonomy will inform programmes and policy worldwide, and speed progress towards both empowering women and alleviating the global burden of child malnutrition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Women's autonomy in health care decision-making in developing countries: a synthesis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamor PE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pauline E Osamor, Christine Grady Department of Bioethics, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Autonomy is considered essential for decision-making in a range of health care situations, from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. Evidence suggests that women in developing or low-income countries often have limited autonomy and control over their health decisions. A review of the published empirical literature to identify definitions and methods used to measure women’s autonomy in developing countries describe the relationship between women’s autonomy and their health care decision-making, and identify sociodemographic factors that influence women’s autonomy and decision-making regarding health care was carried out. An integrated literature review using two databases (PubMed and Scopus was performed. Inclusion criteria were 1 publication in English; 2 original articles; 3 investigations on women’s decision-making autonomy for health and health care utilization; and 4 developing country context. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, including eleven from South Asia, five from Africa, and one from Central Asia. Most studies used a definition of autonomy that included independence for women to make their own choices and decisions. Study methods differed in that many used study-specific measures, while others used a set of standardized questions from their countries’ national health surveys. Most studies examined women’s autonomy in the context of reproductive health, while neglecting other types of health care utilized by women. Several studies found that factors, including age, education, and income, affect women’s health care decision-making autonomy. Gaps in existing literature regarding women’s autonomy and health care utilization include gaps in the areas of health care that have been measured, the influence of sex roles and social support, and the

  12. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  13. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Women's Role in the Agricultural Household: Bargaining and Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods and empirical findings from economic analyses of women's contribution to social welfare and the determinants of their human capital. To understand better women's roles in agricultural households, three themes have gained prominence in the economics literature. First is the conceptualization of the unified family as coordinator of production and consumption over the lifecycle. Second is the role of separability of production and consumption decisions in the agric...

  15. Making capitated Medicare work for women: policy and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, A S; Clancy, C M

    2000-01-01

    Growth in capitated Medicare has special ramifications for older women who comprise the majority of Medicare beneficiaries. Older women are more likely than men to have chronic conditions that lead to illness and disability, and they often have fewer financial and social resources to cope with these problems. Gender differences in health status have a number of important implications for the financing and delivery of care for older women under both traditional fee-for-service Medicare and capitation. The utilization of effective preventive interventions, new therapeutic interventions for the management of common chronic disorders, and more cost-effective models of chronic disease management could potentially extend the active life expectancy of older women. However, there are financial and delivery system barriers to achieving these objectives. Traditional FFS Medicare has gaps in coverage of care for chronic illness and disability that disproportionately impact women. Managed care potentially offers flexibility to allocate resources creatively, to develop new models of care, and offer enhanced benefits with lower out-of-pocket costs. However, challenges to realizing this potential under Medicare managed care with unique implications for older women include: possible gender bias in capitation payments, risk selection, inadequacy of risk adjustment models, benefit and market instability, and disenrollment patterns.

  16. Inter-generational micro-class mobility during and after socialism : The power, education, autonomy, capital, and horizontal (PEACH) model in Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippényi, Zoltán; Gerber, Theodore P.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical model of how occupational mobility operates differently under socialism than under market regimes. Our model specifies four vertical dimensions of occupational resources-power, education, autonomy, and capital-plus a horizontal dimension consisting of linkages among

  17. Effect of Women's autonomy on maternal health service utilization in Nepal: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh

    2016-05-13

    Women's role has been a priority area not only for sustainable development, but also in reproductive health since ICPD 1994. However, very little empirical evidence is available about women's role on maternal health service utilization in Nepal. This paper explores dimensions of women's autonomy and their relationship to utilization of maternal health services. The analysis uses data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. The analysis is confined to women who had given birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (n = 4,148). Women's autonomy related variables are taken from the standard DHS questionnaire and measured based on decision in household about obtaining health care, large household purchases and visit to family or relative. The net effect of women's autonomy on utilization of maternal health services after controlling for the effect of other predictors has been measured through multivariate logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate only about a half of the women who had given birth in the past 5 years preceding the survey had 4 or more ANC check up for their last birth. Similarly, 40 % of the women had delivered their last child in the health facilities. Furthermore, slightly higher than two-fifth women (43 %) had postnatal check up for their last child. Only slightly higher than a fourth woman (27 %) had utilized all the services (adequate ANC visit, delivered at health institution and post natal check up) for their last child. This study found that many socio-demographic variables such as age of women, number of children born, level of education, ethnicity, place of residence and wealth index are predicators of utilizing the maternal health services of recent child. Notably, higher level autonomy was associated with higher use of maternal health services [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =1.40; CI 1.18-1.65]. Utilization of maternal health services for the recent child among women is very low. The study results suggest that policy

  18. Autonomy of educated urban women and their attitude towards female foeticide in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dweepika Kumari

    2015-01-01

    The Sex-ratio in India is continuously declining in spite of gradually increasing literacy among women. For long, it was thought that illiteracy and female subjugation is the reason why women are unable to stand for their rights. As such, large scale attempts and programs had been taken to increase the literacy of women. But in spite of the spread of female education and increasing women autonomy in Urban India, the female foeticide has continued to increase. Most of the results in the recent...

  19. HIV stigma and social capital in women living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total so...

  20. Reproductive autonomy of women and girls under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2018-01-01

    Women and girls with disabilities have historically been denied the freedom to make their own choices in matters relating to their reproduction. In the healthcare sector they experience multiple discriminatory practices. Women and girls with intellectual disabilities are particularly vulnerable to coerced or forced medical interventions. The present article considers the contribution the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities makes towards affirming the rights of women and girls with disabilities to enjoy reproductive autonomy, including autonomy related to reproductive health, on an equal basis with individuals without disabilities. The Convention is paradigm-setting in its maximal approach to affirming the rights of individuals with disabilities to make autonomous choices under conditions of equality and non-discrimination. The Convention is the first human rights treaty to clearly affirm that impairment of decision-making skills is not a justification for depriving a person with cognitive or intellectual disability of legal capacity. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Autonomy of educated urban women and their attitude towards female foeticide in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dweepika Kumari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sex-ratio in India is continuously declining in spite of gradually increasing literacy among women. For long, it was thought that illiteracy and female subjugation is the reason why women are unable to stand for their rights. As such, large scale attempts and programs had been taken to increase the literacy of women. But in spite of the spread of female education and increasing women autonomy in Urban India, the female foeticide has continued to increase. Most of the results in the recent reports suggest that child sex ratio is inversely linked to female literacy and female economic activity rate, especially in urban India. Thus, this study is an attempt to prove that simply increasing the female literacy and autonomy without bringing about the change in mind-set will not be completely successful in combating the problem of female foeticide. It explores the level of autonomy being enjoyed by the Women of Patna, their attitude towards female foeticide and also the factors which arouse the son-preference in them.

  2. Can women's autonomy impede male involvement in pregnancy health in Katmandu, Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta C; Hindin, Michelle J; Becker, Stan

    2005-11-01

    Women's empowerment programs focus primarily on increasing the decision-making power of women, while male involvement/couple-friendly programs emphasize communication and negotiation within couples in making decisions. In-depth-interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to investigate patterns of household decision-making and the context of male involvement behaviors in Katmandu, Nepal. A questionnaire focusing on household decision-making and husbands' roles during pregnancy was administered to 592 pregnant women receiving antenatal services at a large maternity hospital. Multivariate regression techniques were used to compare male involvement behaviors across varying levels of women's autonomy, represented by different decision-making patterns. Higher women's autonomy, as measured by her sole final decision-making power, was associated with significantly lower male involvement in pregnancy health. After adjustment for other covariates, each additional decision in which a woman had final say was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of her husband accompanying her to antenatal care (OR=0.70, pempowerment and/or women's health must consider the dynamics and ramifications of including or excluding males in their efforts. Involving husbands and encouraging couples' joint decision-making in reproductive and family health may provide an important strategy in achieving both women's empowerment and women's health goals.

  3. Childhood vaccination in rural southwestern Ethiopia: the nexus with demographic factors and women's autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination can reduce child mortality significantly and is a cost effective way to improve child health.Worldwide, more than 22 million children do not receive the basic recommended vaccinations.Vaccination coverage in Ethiopia remains low. Research on child health has focused on socio-economic factors such as maternal education and access to health care, but little attention has been given to demographic factors and women's autonomy within the household. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of demographic factors and women's autonomy on the completion of childhood vaccination in rural Ethiopia. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a Health and Demographic Survelliance System (HDSS) in southwestern Ethiopia. Data were drawn from a random sample of women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 889). Information on maternal socio-demographic characteristics and household variables were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards or mother's recall. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of independent variables with completion of childhood vaccination. Of 889 children aged 12-24 months, 690 (78%) had received at least one vaccination. Only 37% (95% CI, 33.5-39.9) were fully vaccinated. Women's decision making autonomy, number of under-five children in the household, mother's education, use of antenatal care services and proximity to health facility were the main factors associated with full vaccination status. Completion of basic vaccination series is very low in the study area. Initiatives that enhance women's autonomy within the household and that promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies may help in improving child health through vaccination.

  4. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.

  5. An investigation of the relationship between autonomy, childbirth practices, and obstetric fistula among women in rural Lilongwe District, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julika Ayla; Kandodo, Jonathan; Sclafani, Joseph; Raine, Susan; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; Norris, Alison; Norris-Turner, Abigail; Chemey, Elly; Beckham, John Michael; Khan, Zara; Chunda, Reginald

    2017-06-19

    Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury caused by prolonged obstructed labor that results in destruction of the tissue wall between the vagina and bladder. Although obstetric fistula is directly caused by prolonged obstructed labor, many other factors indirectly increase fistula risk. Some research suggests that many women in rural Malawi have limited autonomy and decision-making power in their households. We hypothesize that women's limited autonomy may play a role in reinforcing childbirth practices that increase the risk of obstetric fistula in this setting by hindering access to emergency care and further prolonging obstructed labor. A medical student at Baylor College of Medicine partnered with a Malawian research assistant in July 2015 to conduct in-depth qualitative interviews in Chichewa with 25 women living within the McGuire Wellness Centre's catchment area (rural Central Lilongwe District) who had received obstetric fistula repair surgery. This study assessed whether women's limited autonomy in rural Malawi reinforces childbearing practices that increase risk of obstetric fistula. We considered four dimensions of autonomy: sexual and reproductive decision-making, decision-making related to healthcare utilization, freedom of movement, and discretion over earned income. We found that participants had limited autonomy in these domains. For example, many women felt pressured by their husbands, families, and communities to become pregnant within three months of marriage; women often needed to seek permission from their husbands before leaving their homes to visit the clinic; and women were frequently prevented from delivering at the hospital by older women in the community. Many of the obstetric fistula patients in our sample had limited autonomy in several or all of the aforementioned domains, and their limited autonomy often led both directly and indirectly to an increased risk of prolonged labor and fistula. Reducing the prevalence of fistula in Malawi

  6. Endogenous Women's Autonomy and the Use of Reproductive Health Services: Empirical Evidence from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Kamiya

    2010-01-01

    Though gender equity is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, little empirical evidence has been presented to support this claim. This paper investigates whether or not and how female autonomy within the household affects women's use of reproductive health care in Tajikistan, where the situation of maternal health and gender equity is worse compared with neighbouring countries. Estimation is performed using bivariate probit models in which woman's...

  7. Contemporary art, capitalization and the blockchain: On the autonomy and automation of art’s value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lotti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses contemporary art as a means to investigate how, and to what extent, financial logic impacts upon the socio-cultural sphere. Its contribution is twofold: on the one hand, the article shows that contemporary art’s valuation practices increasingly reflect the logic of capitalization; on the other hand, it assesses the emancipatory potential of blockchain technology for the cultural sphere. In relation to the latter I argue that, in spite of the technological novelty of blockchain-based art projects, these nonetheless fail to challenge a received logic of finance. This exposes the limitations to technological determinism as a means of countering financial power in the socio-cultural sphere, and points to new problems for art’s valuation methods in relation to the liquid logic of algorithmic finance.

  8. Between affiliation and autonomy: navigating pathways of women's empowerment and gender justice in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeer, Naila

    2011-01-01

    Inasmuch as women's subordinate status is a product of the patriarchal structures of constraint that prevail in specific contexts, pathways of women's empowerment are likely to be "path dependent." They will be shaped by women's struggles to act on the constraints that prevail in their societies, as much by what they seek to defend as by what they seek to change. The universal value that many feminists claim for individual autonomy may not therefore have the same purchase in all contexts. This article examines processes of empowerment as they play out in the lives of women associated with social mobilization organizations in the specific context of rural Bangladesh. It draws on their narratives to explore the collective strategies through which these organizations sought to empower the women and how they in turn drew on their newly established "communities of practice" to navigate their own pathways to wider social change. It concludes that while the value attached to social affiliations by the women in the study is clearly a product of the societies in which they have grown up, it may be no more context-specific than the apparently universal value attached to individual autonomy by many feminists.

  9. Health care decision making autonomy of women from rural districts of Southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu M; Meskele M

    2017-01-01

    Mihiretu Alemayehu, Mengistu Meskele School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Introduction: Millions of women have little health care decision making autonomy in many cultures and tribes. African women are often perceived to have little participation in health care decisions. However, little has been investigated to identify factors contributing to decision making autonomy. Hence, it is important to obtain inf...

  10. Does company-sponsored egg freezing promote or confine women's reproductive autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    A critical ethical analysis of the initiative of several companies to cover the costs of oocyte cryopreservation for their healthy employees. The main research question is whether such policies promote or confine women's reproductive autonomy. A distinction needs to be made between the ethics of AGE banking in itself and the ethics of employers offering it to their employees. Although the utility of the former is expected to be low, there are few persuasive arguments to deny access to oocyte cryopreservation to women who are well informed about the procedure and the success rates. However, it does not automatically follow that it would be ethically unproblematic for employers to offer egg banking to their employees. For these policies to be truly 'liberating', a substantial number of conditions need to be fulfilled, which can be reduced to three categories: (1) women should understand the benefits, risks and limitations, (2) women should feel no pressure to take up the offer; (3) the offer should have no negative effect on other family-friendly policies and should in fact be accompanied by such policies. Fulfilling these conditions may turn out to be impossible. Thus, regardless of companies' possible good intentions, women's reproductive autonomy is not well served by offering them company-sponsored AGE banking.

  11. International migration of partner, autonomy and depressive symptoms among women from a mexican rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Casique, Irene

    2009-07-01

    The emigration of Mexicans to the USA has increased in the last decades, and little is known about the effect of this on the mental health of those who stay behind. To evaluate the association of emigration of husband and depressive symptoms (DS) among women who stay in Mexico. We also tested the hypothesis that the husband's migration would increase the woman's autonomy, which in turn would decrease DS. A survey was conducted in a rural area in Mexico. Participants (n = 418) were selected through probabilistic sampling in three stages: localities, households and individuals. DS were evaluated using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Having a partner in the USA was associated with higher odds of scoring above the cut-off point in CES-D (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.92-7.43). Economic autonomy was also associated with DS (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). Migration of husband was associated with DS among women. The construct of autonomy and its operational definition should be further explored.

  12. Women's autonomy, education and employment in Oman and their influence on contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Riyami, Asya; Afifi, Mustafa; Mabry, Ruth M

    2004-05-01

    Since 1970 political and economic changes have brought about great improvements in health and education in Oman, and since 1994 the government has provided free contraceptives to all married couples in primary health care centres. Despite rapid socio-economic development, the fertility rate was 4.2 in 2001. The aim of this study was to define baseline data on ever-married women's empowerment in Oman from a national study in 2000, analyse the correlates of women's empowerment and the effect of empowerment on unmet need for contraception. Two indicators of empowerment were used: women's involvement in decision-making and freedom of movement. Bivariate analysis was used to link these measures and their proxies, education and employment status, with use of a family planning method. Education was a key indicator of women's status. Unmet contraceptive need for women exposed to pregnancy was nearly 25%, but decreased significantly with educational level and paid employment. While empowered women were more likely to use contraception, women's education was a better predictor of "met need" than autonomy, as traditional factors and community influence remain strong. For nearly half the 1,830 women in the study, the husband decided whether contraception was used. Fewer than 1% were using contraception before their first child as women are expected to have a child within the first year of marriage.

  13. The Influence of Education and Depression on Autonomy of Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Hermes de Freitas; Nogueira, Antonio Alberto; e Silva, Júlio César Rosa; Poli Neto, Omero Benedicto; dos Reis, Francisco José Candido

    2016-01-01

    Patient autonomy has great importance for a valid informed consent in clinical practice. Our objectives were to quantify the domains of patient autonomy and to evaluate the variables that can affect patient autonomy in women with chronic pelvic pain. This study is a cross sectional survey performed in a tertiary care University Hospital. Fifty-two consecutive women scheduled for laparoscopic management of chronic pelvic were included. Three major components of autonomy (competence, information or freedom) were evaluated using a Likert scale with 24 validated affirmatives. Competence scores (0.85 vs 0.92; p = 0.006) and information scores (0.90 vs 0.93; p = 0.02) were low for women with less than eight years of school attendance. Information scores were low in the presence of anxiety (0.91 vs 0.93; p = 0.05) or depression (0.90 vs 0.93; p = 0.01). Our data show that systematic evaluation of patient autonomy can provide clinical relevant information in gynecology. Low educational level, anxiety and depression might reduce the patient autonomy in women with chronic pelvic pain.

  14. Effect of social capital on poverty alleviation: A study of women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entrepreneurial performance of women in developing countries is influenced by microfinance factors such as social capital. However, there are mixed findings on the effect of social capital on poverty alleviation. Thus, this study assessed the effect of social capital on self-employment, education, training and skills ...

  15. State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2000-01-01

    The authors compare changes in gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and the Republic of Korea. Around 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. They adopted very different paths of development, which are well known to have profoundly affected development outcomes....

  16. Safe delivery care practices in western Nepal: Does women's autonomy influence the utilization of skilled care at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Kutty, V Raman; Sarma, P Sankara; Dangal, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    Despite various efforts to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants (SBA), nearly two-thirds of deliveries take place at home without the assistance of SBAs in Nepal. We hypothesized that the ability of women to take decisions about their own lives-women's autonomy-plays an important part in birth choices. To know this, we conducted a community-based cross-sectional study for assessing women's autonomy and utilization of safe delivery care service in Kapilvastu district of Nepal from June to October 2014. We used multivariate modeling to associate socioeconomic factors and women's autonomy with the utilization of safe delivery care services. Just over one-third of women sought institutional delivery care during the birth of their last child. Out of the total deliveries at health facilities, nearly 58% women visited health facility for self-reported emergency obstructive care. Only 6.2% home deliveries were handled by health workers and 14.7% women used the safe delivery kit for home delivery care. Higher levels of women's education had a strong positive association (odds ratio = 24.11, CI = 9.43-61.64) with institutional delivery care. Stratified analysis showed that when the husband is educated, women's education seems to work partly through their autonomy in decision making. Educational status of women emerged as one of the key predictors of the utilization of delivery care services in Kapilvastu district. Economic status of household and husband's education are other dominant predictors of the utilization of safe delivery care services. Improving the economic and educational status may be the way out for improving the proportion of institutional deliveries. Women's autonomy may be an important mediating factor in this pathway.

  17. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women's autonomy and their BMI in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.

  18. Inter-generational micro-class mobility during and after socialism: The power, education, autonomy, capital, and horizontal (PEACH) model in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippényi, Zoltán; Gerber, Theodore P

    2016-07-01

    We propose a theoretical model of how occupational mobility operates differently under socialism than under market regimes. Our model specifies four vertical dimensions of occupational resources-power, education, autonomy, and capital-plus a horizontal dimension consisting of linkages among occupations in the same economic branch. Given the nature of state socialist political-economic institutions, we expect power to exhibit much stronger effects in the socialist mobility regime, while autonomy and capital should play greater stratifying roles after the market transition. Education should have stable effects, and horizontal linkages should diminish in strength with market reforms. We estimate our model's parameters using data from surveys conducted in Hungary during and after the socialist period. We adopt a micro-class approach, though we test it against approaches that use more aggregated class categories. Our model provides a superior fit to other mobility models, and our results confirm our hypotheses about the distinctive features of the state socialist mobility regime. Mobility researchers often look for common patterns characterizing mobility in all industrialized societies. Our findings suggest that national institutions can produce fundamentally distinct patterns of mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Capitalizing on Bourdieu: How Useful Are Concepts of "Social Capital" and "Social Field" for Researching "Marginalized" Young Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Andrea C.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and "social fields", comparing and contrasting his use of these concepts with that of James Coleman and Robert Putnam. It examines how Bourdieu's ideas offer a different way of understanding the lives of economically disadvantaged young women designated as "at…

  20. Autonomy of action among elderly women on physical activity programs in Brazil and Belgium: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p107 Autonomy of action is important for quality of life. This study compared the autonomy of action of elderly female participants on physical activity programs in Brazil (IMMA, n=47, age=75±5 years and Belgium (ISEPK, n=77; age=69±7 years, using the Senior System for Evaluation of Autonomy of Action (SysSen. The SysSen is composed of a questionnaire (QSAP about the aerobic power and upper limb strength needed for a life perceived as autonomous, and a fi eld test (TSMP, in which the subject walks 800 m carrying predetermined loads. The QSAP results are used to calculate an Index of Expressed Autonomy (IAE and the TSMP to calculate an Index of Potential Autonomy (IAP. The ratio of IAP to IAE then gives an Index of Autonomy of Action (IAP/IAE=ISAC. An ISAC of 1.0 or more defi nes the subject as independent. IMMA and ISEPK data were compared with ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman ANOVA, depending on distribution (p<.05. The results revealed that: a the IAP was lower for women on the IMMA than for those on the ISEPK, whereas their needs in terms of physical activities (IAE were similar; b Most of the IMMA subjects had ISAC<1.0, in contrast with those on the ISEPK program; c In both groups, the activities related to aerobic power made a greater contribution to the IAE than those depending on upper limb strength; d All four parts of the QSAP made similar contributions to the IAE. In conclusion, the elderly women from IMMA had defi cits in autonomy of action, mainly as a result of insuffi cient physical fi tness for the declared demands of daily activities.

  1. Autonomy and self-esteem of women who donate to an oocyte cryopreservation bank in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjolein R; Maas, Joyce; Bekker, Marrie H; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Fauser, Bart C; Bos, Annelies M

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, oocyte donors donate voluntarily or receive varying amounts of money for donation. This raises ethical questions regarding the appropriateness of financial compensation, and the possibility of undue inducement and exploitation of oocyte donors. Are these donors capable of making an independent, well-considered decision? Regarding this matter, it is important to examine aspects such as autonomy-connectedness and self-esteem. In this cross-sectional study, demographic characteristics and donation motivations were assessed in 92 women who attended the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht as potential oocyte donors between June 2012 and July 2016. Demographic characteristics were assessed. Motivations were recorded in semi-structured interviews (response rate 59%). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess level of self-esteem. The Autonomy-Connectedness Scale was used to measure the level of autonomy-connectedness. The typical oocyte donor at the UMC Utrecht is a well-educated, employed, 31-year-old woman living with her partner in a completed family with two children, and donating on altruistic grounds. The donors showed higher autonomy-connectedness scores than the average female Dutch population and do not lack self-esteem (questionnaire response rate 66%). Concerns regarding exploitation and attraction of women with lower socioeconomic status, with shortcomings in autonomy-connectedness and self-esteem, could not be confirmed in this group. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: when does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.

  3. Negotiating Professionalism: The Gendered Social Capital of Flexible Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, Carroll; Ferris,Kerry

    1995-01-01

    From a sample of 1,000 New York attorneys, data from 553 men and 129 women suggest that professional autonomy depends on social capital arrangements that assume overtime, open-ended work demands, and release from private obligations. Access to time is qualitatively different for men and women, especially married women with children. (SK)

  4. Health care decision making autonomy of women from rural districts of Southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

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    Alemayehu M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mihiretu Alemayehu, Mengistu Meskele School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Introduction: Millions of women have little health care decision making autonomy in many cultures and tribes. African women are often perceived to have little participation in health care decisions. However, little has been investigated to identify factors contributing to decision making autonomy. Hence, it is important to obtain information on the contributing factors of decision making autonomy and disparities across different socio-cultural contexts. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita and Dawro zones, Southern Ethiopia from February to March 2015. A total of 967 women were selected through multi-stage sampling. A survey was administered face-to-face through an interview format. EpiData v1.4.4.0 and SPSS version 20 were used to enter and analyze data, respectively. Proportions and means were used to describe the study population. Variables with P-value <0.2 in bivariate analysis were selected for multivariable regression. Finally, variables with P-value <0.05 in multivariable logistic regressions were identified as independent predictors. Odds ratios along with confidence intervals were used to determine the presence of association. Result: It was determined that 58.4% of women have autonomy, while 40.9% of study participants’ health care decisions were made by their husbands. The husband’s education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.91 [1.10, 3.32], wealth index (AOR =0.62 [0.42, 0.92], age (AOR =2.42 [1.35, 4.32] and AOR =7 [3.45, 14.22], family size (AOR =0.53 [0.33, 0.85] and AOR =0.42 [0.23, 0.75], and occupation (AOR =1.66 [1.14, 2.41], were predictors of health care decision making autonomy. Conclusion: Even though every woman has the right to participate in her own health care decision making, more than two fifths of them have no role in making health care

  5. Effects of eight weeks of functional training in the functional autonomy of elderly women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Matos, Dihogo G; Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Moreira, Osvaldo C; DE Oliveira, Cláudia E; DE Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; DA Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Aidar, Felipe J

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of eight weeks of practical training on the functional autonomy of the elderly. The study included 52 elderly women, 65.42±10.31 years, 65.29±11.30 kg body mass, 1.58±0.07 height, 26.30±4.52 body mass index, 86.48±10.96 cm waist circumference. These elderly women received a specific functional training protocol where their functional autonomy was assessed at three specific times (0, 10 and 20 sessions). The evaluation consisted of a set of five tests defined by the Latin-American Development Group for the Elderly (GDLAM) to determine the functional autonomy of the elderly: walk 10 meters (C10m); stand up from a chair and walk straightaway (SUCWA); dress and undress a T-shirt (DUT); stand up from a sitting position (SUSP); stand up from a lying position (SULP). In each test, the time taken to complete the task was measured. There were statistically significant differences in all functional autonomy tests after 20 training sessions: C10m (pre: 8.10±1.27; post: 7.55±1.10); SUCWA (pre: 40.98±2.77; post: 38.44±2.57); DUT (pre: 13.25±0.88; post: 11.85±0.82); SUSP (pre: 10.74±0.52; post: 8.98±056) and SULP (pre: 3.86±0.37; post: 2.82±0.37). It was determined that 20 functional training sessions were enough to improve the functional autonomy of elderly women. However, we believe that higher volume and intensity of training could be interesting alternatives for even stronger results in future interventions.

  6. Factors associated with women's autonomy regarding maternal and child health care utilization in Bale Zone: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Dabere; Gebremariam, Abebe; Abera, Muluemebet; Setegn, Tesfaye; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-07-03

    Women's autonomy in health-care decision is a prerequisite for improvements in maternal and child health. Little is known about women's autonomy and its influencing factors on maternal and child health care in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess women's autonomy and identify associated factors in Southeast Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 19th until March 28th, 2011. A total of 706 women were selected using stratified sampling technique from rural and urban kebeles. The quantitative data were collected by interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for window version 16.0. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with women's autonomy for health care utilization. Out of 706 women less than half (41.4%) had higher autonomy regarding their own and their children's health. In the multiple logistic regression model monthly household income >1000 ETB [adjusted odds ratio(AOR):3.32(95% C.I: 1.62-6.78)], having employed husband [AOR: 3.75 (95% C.I:1.24-11.32)], being in a nuclear family structure [AOR: 0.53(95% C.I: 0.33-0.87)], being in monogamous marriage [AOR: 3.18(95% C.I: 1.35-7.50)], being knowledgeable and having favorable attitude toward maternal and child health care services were independently associated with an increased odds of women's autonomy. Socio-demographic and maternal factors (knowledge and attitude) were found to influence women's autonomy. Interventions targeting women's autonomy with regards to maternal and child health care should focus on addressing increasing awareness and priority should be given to women with a lower socioeconomic status.

  7. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  8. Strategic venture capital in the financial industry : A multiple-case study on autonomy and its implications

    OpenAIRE

    KONGSHÖJ, MATILDA; LJUNGQVIST, EMILIE

    2016-01-01

    Den tidigare stabila finansbranschen har snabbt blivit hotad av den digitala transformationen. Ett strategiskt verktyg som används av etablerade banker som står inför denna nya och föränderliga miljö är strategiska riskkapitalinvesteringar i det närliggande området av finansiella teknologier (FinTech). Denna studie undersöker strategiskt riskkapital i termer av organisatorisk design; närmare bestämt graden av autonomi i riskkapitalverksamhetens investeringsprocess. Studien undersöker koncepte...

  9. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  10. Women's autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua.

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaei, S; Contreras, M; Zelaya Blandón, E; Persson, L.Å,; Hjern, A; Ekström, EC

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item...

  11. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswan SP

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saritha P Viswan,1 T K Sundari Ravindran,1,2 Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala,1,3,4 Max G Petzold,1,5 Sharon Fonn1 1School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; 3Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 4Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 5Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Context: The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women’s autonomy such as education and occupation.Data and methods: Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis.Results: The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV

  12. Empowerment of Indigenous Women in the Federal Capital Territory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's development of the new Federal Capital Territory in the central part of the country named Abuja 8,000 km² in size greatly impacted on all spheres of lives of the host communities. However, the host communities of 845 settlements with over 316,000 people were exposed to urban violence and there was fear that ...

  13. Health care decision making autonomy of women from rural districts of Southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Mihiretu; Meskele, Mengistu

    2017-01-01

    Millions of women have little health care decision making autonomy in many cultures and tribes. African women are often perceived to have little participation in health care decisions. However, little has been investigated to identify factors contributing to decision making autonomy. Hence, it is important to obtain information on the contributing factors of decision making autonomy and disparities across different socio-cultural contexts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita and Dawro zones, Southern Ethiopia from February to March 2015. A total of 967 women were selected through multistage sampling. A survey was administered face-to-face through an interview format. EpiData v1.4.4.0 and SPSS version 20 were used to enter and analyze data, respectively. Proportions and means were used to describe the study population. Variables with P -value autonomy, while 40.9% of study participants' health care decisions were made by their husbands. The husband's education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.91 [1.10, 3.32]), wealth index (AOR =0.62 [0.42, 0.92]), age (AOR =2.42 [1.35, 4.32] and AOR =7 [3.45, 14.22]), family size (AOR =0.53 [0.33, 0.85] and AOR =0.42 [0.23, 0.75]), and occupation (AOR =1.66 [1.14, 2.41]), were predictors of health care decision making autonomy. Even though every woman has the right to participate in her own health care decision making, more than two fifths of them have no role in making health care decisions about their own health. Husbands play a major role in making health care decisions about their wives. A comprehensive strategy needs to be implemented in order to empower women, as well as to challenge the traditional male dominance. Special attention has to be given to women living in rural areas in order to reduce their dependency through education and income generating activities.

  14. Association between social capital and health in women of reproductive age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza; Hosseni, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Women's health is a public health priority. The origins of health inequalities are very complex. The present study was conducted to determine the association between social capital and health status in reproductive-age women in Tehran, Iran. In this population-based, cross-sectional study, the Social Capital Integrated Questionnaire, the SF-36 and socio-demographic questionnaires were used. Analysis of data by one-way ANOVA test and stepwise multiple linear regression showed that the manifestation dimensions of social capital (groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation) can potentially lead to the outcome dimensions of social capital (social cohesion and inclusion, and empowerment and political action), which in turn affect health inequities after controlling for socio-demographic differences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Types of cultural capital and self-rated health among disadvantaged women in outer Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2007-01-01

    This study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type, and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g. drawing, theatre performance), and consuming art or literature (e.g. attending exhibitions, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for sociodemographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI 1.07-3.22) for not watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.06) for not consuming art. As expected, health-risk factors, age, social support, and community of residence were also associated with health status. Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self-perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income, and other relevant risk factors.

  16. Italian law on medically assisted reproduction: do women's autonomy and health matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, Irene; Neri, Margherita; Bello, Stefania; Pomara, Cristoforo; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2016-07-23

    In Italy in 2004, a very restrictive law was passed on medically assisted reproduction (MAR) (Law 40/2004) that placed Italy at the most conservative end of the European spectrum. The law was widely criticized and many couples seeking MAR brought their cases before the Italian Civil Courts with regard to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), donor insemination and the issue of consent. Ten years on, having suffered the blows of the Italian Constitutional Court, little remains of law 40/2004. In 2009, the Constitutional Court declared the maximum limit of the number of embryos to be produced and transferred for each cycle (i.e. three), as stated in the original version of the law, to be constitutionally illegitimate. In 2014, the same Court declared as unconstitutional the ban on donor insemination, thus opening the way to heterologous assisted reproduction. Heterologous MAR is therefore perfectly legitimate in Italy. Finally, in 2015 a further ruling by the Constitutional Court granted the right to access MAR to couples who are fertile but carriers of genetic diseases. However, there is still much room for criticism. Many couples and groups are still, in fact, excluded from MAR. Same-sex couples, single women and those of advanced reproductive age are, at the present time, discriminated against in that Italian law denies these subjects access to MAR. The history of Law 40/2004 has been a particularly troubled one. Numerous rulings have, over the years, dismantled much of a law constructed in violation of the rights and autonomy of women and couples. However, a number of troubling issues still exist from what is left of the law and the debate is still open at national and transnational level regarding some of the contradictions and gaps in the law highlighted in this article. Only by abolishing the final prohibitions and adopting more liberal views on these controversial yet crucial issues will Law 40/2004 become what it should have been from the start, i.e. a

  17. Body, sex and reproduction. Te notion of women autonomy questioned: abortion and other sensitive situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Leonor Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the sexual and reproductive health autonomy issues are crucial, personal and sometimes very problematic. Our interest is to research different conceptions of "being a patient," put into play as political and social issues of the first order, for example, having to do with the forms of autonomy and social relations of subordination. And issues that have to do with the social construction of the body, individuation and citizenship. Here we explore some empirical and conceptually ideal patient types, depending on their autonomy as an individual capable of judgment and action, and as a subject of rights and responsibilities. Analysis of different situations - some limit (such as the case of abortion - allow us to problematize what is meant by "autonomus person" in the field of health and disease. We present the results of analysis on one hand problematize the notion of autonomy of the liberal matrix separating it and putting it in relation to the body and emotions in the context of interpersonal relationships, and secondly, allow patient operationalize the typology defined according of autonomy from which we (taxpayer, consumer / user, and peer-citizen.

  18. Symbolic capital and health: the case of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoebenau, Kirsten

    2009-06-01

    Public health research on sex work has been criticized both for representing sex work as a monolithic entity and for focusing only on individual behavioral determinants of health. When broader determinants are acknowledged, they are often described in solely economic terms (ie, comparing health risks of higher class versus lower class sex workers). Drawing from Pierre Bourdieu, I describe women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar as a social 'field' and demonstrate that this field is both highly complex and highly structured. Fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork (December 2002-December 2003; May-June 2004) in Antananarivo with women sex workers (n approximately 60) and community members (n approximately 85) informed a description of the community's understanding of the sex work field and its contrast to the lived experience of key informant sex workers. Women who sell sex were categorized by their communities into three social positions--ambony (high), antonony (middle) and ambany (low)--which were differentiated by economic capital (earnings per sexual exchange) and symbolic capital (prestige associated with race, ethnicity and moral demeanor). Women who occupied the antonony social position held the greatest volumes of symbolic capital both because they were identified as belonging to the local dominant ethnic group, and because they demonstrated discretion and shame in their sex work practice. Alternatively, women who occupied the ambony and ambany positions openly practiced their sex work and were associated with ethnic or racial minority identities, contributing to their lower volumes of symbolic capital. Symbolic capital influenced unique health vulnerabilities, such as to sexually transmitted disease, by social position through mechanisms operating from the institutional to the interpersonal level. This analysis illustrates the value of examining sex work as a social field, specifically the importance of capturing more than economic capital in order

  19. Women's autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women's social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles. Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua. A total of 1371 children 0-35 months of age. Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller. While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.

  20. Impact of social capital on depression trajectories of older women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Jin

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the impact of social capital on depressive symptoms trajectories among Korean women aged 65 years or older. It also examines the difference in depressive symptoms and social capital by economic status (poverty group, non-poverty group) among community-dwelling older women in Korea. This study used 2435 older women of the Korean Welfare Panel Study from 2006 (wave 1) to 2013 (wave 8) data using latent growth modeling. Social capital variables were cognitive (interpersonal trust, reciprocity) and structural (the size of family, the number of friends or neighbors, participation in leisure and volunteer activities). The results showed both intra- and inter-individual variability in depressive symptoms over time. Interpersonal trust and reciprocity as cognitive social capital had an effect on the change of depressive symptoms in intercept and slope. The size of family, participation in leisure activities among structural social capital were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in intercept and slope. The results of this study suggest some practical implications for depression intervention and prevention and further research on late-life depression.

  1. Maternity Capital as an Economic Factor, Forming Social Expectation of Women with Two or More Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Svetlichnaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of sociological study devoted to the evaluation of the social expectations of women associated with the realization of their right to maternity capital. Different social attitudes and intentions of 308 women who have two and more children with respect to realization of the program of the maternity capital were investigated. Characteristics of cognitive, emotional and behavioral readiness to participate in the governmental program of increasing fertility were assessed. The results confirm the adequacy and objectivity of the social expectations of women. They made the decision about the birth of a second child without taking into account the expected payment of the maternity capital (for 33.8% respondents maternity capital had “no meaning”; for 36.4% respondents it was just a “pleasant additional payment”. The reproductive behavior of women was based on family traditions (91.9% respondents were born in big families with two or more children and awareness of their personal responsibility for bearing and raising children (45.8% respondents were ready “for any difficulties for their children”, 23.1% respondents consider their children as “happiness and meaning of their lives”. However, 22.0% of women made their decision about the birth of the second child with expectations for the maternity capital. They were the women from the low-income families (29.6%. Promotion the childbirth in low-income families may lead to the increasing number of dysfunctional families and children who find themselves in difficult life situations. All this facts may lead to different social problems in the future.

  2. Social Capital, Acculturation, Mental Health, and Perceived Access to Services among Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Simoni, Jane M.; Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether individual-level social capital--the intangible resources in a community available through membership in social networks or other social structures and perceived trust in the community--was associated with acculturation, depression and anxiety symptoms, and perceived access to services among women of Mexican…

  3. Nation's Capital to cover low-income women's abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-15

    Sharon Pratt Kelly, the mayor of the District of Columbia, has announced that, effective May 1, 1994, the city will use its Medical Charities Fund to pay for "medically appropriate" abortions for women with annual incomes of US$13,200 who do not have health insurance that covers abortions. This income level represents 185% of the federal poverty level for single women. The determination as to whether an abortion is "appropriate" will be made by the woman's physician. From 1989-93, there was a ban on the use of District of Columbia tax monies to cover abortions for local women. In 1988, however, approximately 4000 District women received funding for their abortions. The US$1 million Medical Charities Fund was originally set up to cover emergency room bills for low-income District residents who did not qualify for Medicaid. $650,000 is expected to be added to the fund; in addition, the District's 1995 budget will allocate funding earmarked for abortion coverage for low-income women.

  4. State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, the Republic of Korea, and India, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

    This paper compares the influence of state policies on gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and South Korea. In 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. The three countries followed very different paths of development,…

  5. Autonomia funcional de idosas praticantes de Pilates Functional autonomy of elderly women practicing Pilates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Guedes de Siqueira Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do método Pilates na autonomia funcional de idosas. Foram selecionadas 52 voluntárias, submetidas à avaliação geral e ao protocolo de avaliação da autonomia funcional do Grupo Latino-Americano de Desenvolvimento para Maturidade (GDLAM, que consiste em cinco testes (caminhada de 10 m, levantar-se da posição sentada, levantar-se da cadeira e locomover-se pela casa, levantar-se da posição de decúbito ventral e vestire tirar uma camiseta; em seguida, foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo Pilates (GP, n=27; idade 66,9±5,3 anos e grupo controle (GC, n=25; idade 65,2±3,9 anos. O GP foi submetido a uma série de dez exercícios de Pilates, por oito semanas, duas vezes por semana. Os dois grupos foram reavaliados após esse período. O nível de significância considerado foi de p?0,05. O GP obteve resultados significativamente melhores em todos os testes e no índice geral do GDLAM (p=0,035 após a intervenção. O GC obteve escore significativamente melhor (p=0,042 apenas no teste de caminhada de 10 m, tendo mantido sua classificação inicial de funcionalidade regular. Comparando-se os escores dos grupos após a intervenção, encontraram-se diferenças significativas em favor do GP, inclusive no índice GDLAM (pThe purpose of the study was to assess the effect of the Pilates method on elderly women's functional autonomy. Fifty-two volunteers were submitted to the evaluation protocol of the Latin-American Group for Maturity Development (GDLAM, which consists of five tests: a 10-meter walk, get up from the sitting and lying down positions, get up and walk around at home, and to put on and take off a t-shirt. They were then divided into Pilates group (PG, n=27, mean age 66.9±5.3 years and control group (CG, n=25, mean age 65.2±3.9 years old. PG underwent a series of 10 Pilates exercises twice-weekly for eight weeks, both groups being reassessed thereafter. The level of significance was set at p?0

  6. The Healing Arts and Social Capital: The Paston Women of Fifteenth-Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwell, Ashlee

    2018-01-01

    In late-medieval England, women's informal and gratis healthcare services helped them to accumulate and recompense social capital, which improved their families' and their own status and resources. Given the precariousness of health, special skills in the healing arts had a particular power to create a sense of gratitude and obligation. Evidence comes from the 15th-century letter collection of the Pastons, an ambitious gentry family from Norfolk. The Paston women appear both performing as healers in their kin networks and sending medical recipes and advice to their male and female relatives. Furthermore, seeking patronage at court, male relatives solicited medical secrets from the Paston women to pass along to their betters in an effort to advance their social status. This article argues that healthcare was a distinctly feminine form of participation in the Paston family's quest for social capital.

  7. Decision-making for non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: Hong Kong Chinese women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, J Y C; Yi, H; Ahmed, S

    2016-05-01

    Individual autonomy in antenatal screening is internationally recognized and supported. Policy and practice guidelines in various countries place emphasis on the woman's right to make her own decision and are related to concepts such as self-determination, independence, and self-sufficiency. In contrast, the dominant perspective in Chinese medical ethics suggests that the family is pivotal in making medical decisions, hence providing support for relational autonomy. This study explored Hong Kong Chinese pregnant women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome. A qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured interviews with 36 women who had undertaken NIPT in Hong Kong. The findings show that most Hong Kong Chinese women valued aspects of both relational and individual autonomy in decision-making for NIPT. Women expected support from doctors as experts on the topic and wanted to involve their husband in decision-making while retaining control over the outcome. Somewhat surprisingly, the findings do not provide support for the involvement of family members in decision-making for NIPT. The adequacy of current interpretations of autonomy in prenatal testing policies as an individual approach needs discussion, where policy developers need to find a balance between individual and relational approaches. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Jeppesen, Rikke Schou; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories (“I,”“we” and “they”) as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical...... exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks...

  9. Women autonomy and aids: motivations for pregnancy in a HIV serodiscordant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Soraia de Menezes Cabral

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Few studies discuss, through participation and advocacy of HIV-positive individuals, situations involving conflict about their reproductive rights and the work of health care teams. This study aimed at understanding the motivations that led a serodiscordant woman to choose pregnancy, even being aware of the risks to mother and fetus. It’s a qualitative study, adopting the case study as a methodological strategy. The historical and dialectical materialism served as theoretical framework for the analysis. The discussions were based on the model of principlist bioethics. Reflections on autonomy point to a conflicting issue between individual rights and risks for the future baby; gender and power; feminine submission and dependence, and social stigma about the disease still prevails. We concluded that professionals should be based on actual historical and social conditions, providing autonomy and recognizing rights and cultural values of those involved.

  10. Trinidadian capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  11. Women's household decision-making autonomy and safer sex negotiation in Nigeria: An analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-01

    Although married women's safer sex negotiation with their husbands is critical in reducing new HIV infections in Nigeria, its linkage to women's household decision-making autonomy is less explored in Nigeria. Drawing data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and using the logistic regression technique, we examined the associations between women's household decision-making autonomy and two indicators of the ability to engage in safer sex including whether married women 1) can refuse sex and 2) ask for condom use during sexual intercourse with husbands. Findings indicate that 64% and 41% of married women can refuse sex and ask for condom use, respectively. While the impact of women's household decision-making autonomy on the ability to refuse sex remained statistically significant after controlling for theoretically relevant variables (OR = 1.15; p < 0.001), its impact on the ability to ask for condom use became weakly significant once socioeconomic variables were controlled (OR = 1.03; p < 0.1). Based on these results, we have two suggestions. First, it may be important that marital-based policies and counselling promote environments in which married women can establish equal power relations with their husbands. Second, it is also important to eliminate structural barriers that hinder married women's economic opportunities in Nigeria.

  12. Female autonomy as a contributing factor to women's HIV-related knowledge and behaviour in three culturally contrasting States in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L

    2007-07-01

    Factors contributing to India's vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in India: Kerala (n=2884), Karnataka (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of India, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by Karnataka and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in Karnataka. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in India.

  13. Cultural capital and self-rated health in low income women: evidence from the Urban Health Study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.

  14. The voices of older women in a disadvantaged community: issues of health and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneham, Margaret Anne; Sixsmith, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    The voices of older women are rarely heard in debates about the health of disadvantaged groups. Despite growing interest in health in old age, the health experiences of older women as gendered social beings have yet to be fully explored. Their potential to contribute positively to family and community health is seldom acknowledged. The aim of this article is to present findings from a qualitative British Health Development Agency funded project on the relationship between social capital, health and gender, focusing on the health and social networks of older women in a socially disadvantaged community in the north of England. Seventy-seven community members were interviewed, of these 19 were older women aged 55-78 years. Their accounts of ill health in the context of ageing were analysed to explore the intricate ways in which social capital was created, maintained and linked to health. Findings suggest that social constructions of motherhood and caring underpinned responsibility for their own and others' health. Their experiences of dealing with health matters, together with frequent health talk, gave the women confidence as lay health experts, enabling them to contest medical advice. Drawing on personal experiences of trust and reciprocity, they recognised the importance of social networking in alleviating the problems of loneliness and isolation. At stressful times in their lives they were able to draw on existing support networks and, in spite of occasional personal conflicts, some benefited from the empowering and health-enhancing role of formal and informal participation in community life. These findings indicate that older women can operate autonomously in health matters and can substantially influence the development of healthy communities, although this can sometimes be at a personal cost.

  15. If times change, should we throw away the hearthstone?Exploring (Dis continuities in autonomy and decision-making in the lives of Ghanaian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosua K Darkwah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate continuities and discontinuities between traditional and modern representations of womanhood and female gender roles focusing primarily on family and work settings. Using approaches informed by Sociology, Cultural Psychology, and African Studies, the paper explores traditional views of womanhood encapsulated in (and also transmitted intergenerationally through proverbs. This customary perspective is contrasted with the results of the Everyday Lives Survey from the Pathways of Women's Empowerment Ghana project. The survey investigated the nature of everyday life– education, work, decision making, access to institutions, and autonomy in relationships - in six hundred (600 adult women in both rural and urban communities in three regions of Ghana. We argue that although the times are changing, Ghanaian women who live in a culture that values an interdependent way of being have not changed statistically significantly so far as issues of autonomy and decision-making are concerned.

  16. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an immigrant background : The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  17. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an Immigrant background: The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; Saharso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  18. "Without bodily autonomy we are not free": exploring women's concerns about future access to contraception following the 2016 US presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Colleen P; Wolgemuth, Tierney E; Hamm, Megan E; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-11-01

    Following the 2016US presidential election, social media posts and news stories amplified concerns about the potential for reduced access to contraception under the incoming administration and urged women to seek long-acting reversible contraception. We aimed to describe women's concerns about future access to contraception, in their own words. A social-media-based, anonymous online survey assessing thoughts and concerns about future access to contraception was distributed to reproductive-aged US women for 1 week in mid-January 2017. Participants who were concerned about future access to contraception could share their thoughts and feelings in an open-ended comments box. We qualitatively analyzed 449 written responses for content and themes, with the goal of characterizing key concerns. Women who provided written comments had a mean age of 28years; 85% were white, 88% had at least a college degree, and 93% identified as Democratic or Democratic-leaning. Women were highly concerned about future affordability of contraceptive methods due to potential loss of insurance, reduced insurance coverage for contraceptive methods and reduced access to low-cost care at Planned Parenthood. Many also worried about increased restrictions on abortion. Participants' concerns regarding access to contraception and abortion centered around themes of reproductive and bodily autonomy, which women described as fundamental rights. Women in this study expressed considerable fear and uncertainty regarding their future access to contraception and abortion following the 2016US presidential election. The potential for restricted access to affordable contraception and abortion was viewed as an unacceptable limitation on bodily autonomy. As the future of US health care policy is debated, many women are concerned about the impact of policy changes on their ability to access affordable contraception and abortion, which many view as essential to the preservation of bodily and reproductive autonomy

  19. Ethical challenges in FASD prevention: Scientific uncertainty, stigma, and respect for women's autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzo, Natalie; Racine, Eric

    2017-11-09

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD. In this paper, we share initial thoughts on how primary care physicians can tackle this complex challenge. First, we recommend honest disclosure of scientific evidence to women and the tailoring of information offered to pregnant women. Second, we propose a contextualized, patient-centred, compassionate approach to ensure that appropriate advice is given to patients in a supportive, non-stigmatizing way.

  20. Making the American Aristocracy: Women, Cultural Capital, and High Society in New York City, 1870-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Bibby, Emily Katherine

    2009-01-01

    For over three decades, during the height of Gilded Age economic extravagance, the women of New York High Society maintained an elite social identity by possessing, displaying, and cultivating cultural capital. Particularly, High Society women sought to exclude the Nouveaux Riches who, after amassing vast fortunes in industry or trade, came to New York City in search of social position. High Society women distinguished themselves from these social climbers by obeying restrictive codes of spee...

  1. Experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement in care by HIV-infected women of color, and the need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, E Byrd; Messer, Lynne C; Adimora, Adaora A; Roytburd, Katya; Bowditch, Natasha; Parnell, Heather; Seay, Julia; Bell, Lynda; Pierce, Jonah K

    2013-07-01

    Self-determination theory examines the needs of people adopting new behaviors but has not been applied to the adoption of HIV healthcare behaviors. The current study applied self-determination theory to descriptions of healthcare behaviors adopted by ethnic minority women after an HIV diagnosis. Women of color were asked to describe their experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement-in-care in qualitative interviews and focus groups. Participants were mostly African-American (88%), over 40 years old (70%), had been diagnosed for more than 6 years (87%) and had disclosed their HIV infection to more than 3 people (73%). Women described unmet self-determination needs at different time points along the HIV Continuum of Care. Women experienced a significant loss of autonomy at the time of HIV diagnosis. Meeting competency and relatedness needs assisted women in entry and engagement-in-care. However, re-establishing autonomy was a key element for long-term engagement-in-care. Interventions that satisfy these needs at the optimal time point in care could improve diagnosis, entry-to-care, and retention-in-care for women living with HIV.

  2. Women's status and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: a mixed methods study using cultural health capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Treleaven, Emily; Melo, Jason; Singh, Kanksha; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-10-28

    Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients' reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention. Patients' perception of the quality of care is dependent, not only on the content of care, but importantly, on women's expectations of care. This study uses rich, mixed-methods data to explore women's characteristics and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth among slum-resident women in Uttar Pradesh, India. To understand the ways in which women's social and cultural factors influence their expectations of care and consequently their perceptions of respectful care, we adopt a Cultural Health Capital (CHC) framework. The quantitative sample includes 392 women, and the qualitative sample includes 26 women. Quantitative results suggest high levels of mistreatment (over 57 % of women reported any form of mistreatment). Qualitative findings suggest that lack of cultural health capital disadvantages patients in their patient-provider relationships, and that women use resources to improve care they receive. Participants articulated how providers set expectations and norms regarding behaviors in facilities; patients with lower social standing may not always understand standard practices and are likely to suffer poor health outcomes as a result. Of importance, however, patients also blame themselves for their own lack of knowledge. Lack of cultural health capital disadvantages women during delivery care in India. Providers set expectations and norms around behaviors during delivery, while women are often misinformed and may have low expectations of care.

  3. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…

  4. International careers and career success of Indian women in science & technology : The importance of career capital and organizational capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, R.; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on international careers and career success of Indian women in Science & Technology (S&T). We conducted interviews with 30 (upper) middle class Indian women in New Delhi and Bangalore (India) who pursued careers abroad as self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Important

  5. Autonomy @ Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation that highlights autonomy across the 15 NASA technology roadmaps, including specific examples of projects (past and present) at NASA Ames Research Center. The NASA technology roadmaps are located here: http:www.nasa.govofficesocthomeroadmapsindex.html

  6. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  7. Discrimination-related health inequality and role of social capital among marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-10-26

    This study aimed to evaluate whether social capital could alleviate health inequality against racial discrimination and identify the critical nature of social capital that generates health inequality differences within the social context of South Korea. Using the data of the 2009 National Survey of Multicultural Families, a nationally representative sample in which 40,430 foreign wives participated, the concentration index (CI) was used to measure the discrimination-related inequalities in self-rated health and was decomposed into contributing factors. The results showed a significant concentration of poor self-rated health unfavorable to foreign wives who were highly discriminated (CI 0.023, standard error [SE] 0.001, p inequality in health was observed among the group of linking social capital (CI 0.008, SE 0.008, p .332). The total differential decomposition method showed two major factors that generate differences in health inequality between the groups of non-linking and linking social capital: protest against discrimination (35.8 %); experiences of discrimination (28.3 %). The present results indicated that linking social capital can be a useful resource of health resilience factor that equalizes discrimination-related health inequality among marriage migrant women in South Korea. This study provides additional evidence that social capital needs to be placed in its political context.

  8. Insecure positions, heteronomous autonomy and tourism-cultural capital: a Bourdieusian reading of tour guides on BBC Worldwide's Doctor Who Experience Walking Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Ross

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes towards debates concerning media tourism and tour guiding by using Pierre Bourdieu’s (1993) arguments regarding field and capital to analyse performed tour guide identities on BBC Worldwide’s Doctor Who Experience Walking Tour in Cardiff Bay. The article pursues three core arguments: firstly, that a Bourdieusian framework provides an enhanced understanding of the insecure positions that tour guides occupy in what is referred to throughout as the tourism field. Secondl...

  9. Functional autonomy of elderly women enrolled in a physical activity program - doi 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i2.8387

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estélio Herinque Martin Dantas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effects of a physical activity program on the functional autonomy of elderly women. The sample was divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 20; 68.51 ± 5.02 years; BMI = 27.01 ± 4.35 submitted to a physical activity program, and a control group (CG; n = 20; 67.01 ± 3.51 years; BMI = 26.71 ± 5.74. Functional autonomy was assessed using tests from the GDLAM autonomy protocol: 10 meter walk test (10MW, rising from a sitting position (RSP, rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP, rising from a chair and moving around the house (RCMH and putting on and taking off a t-shirt (PTT, after which the autonomy index (AI was calculated. In the EG, ANOVA showed significant reductions in execution times for the RSP (∆ = -3.92 s; p = 0.0001, RCMH (∆ = -9.61 s; p = 0.0001, 10MW (∆ = -0.94 s; p = 0.038 and RVDP (∆ = -1.15 s; p = 0.036 tests, as well as the AI (∆ = -6.27; p = 0.0001. This was not observed in the CG. Intergroup comparisons demonstrated that execution times for the RSP (∆% = -36.63; p = 0.0001, RCMH (∆% = -20.27; p = 0.0001, 10mW (∆% = -12.54; p = 0.002 and RVDP (∆% = -25.10; p = 0.005 tests and the AI (∆% = -21.37; p = 0.0001 of the EG were shorter than those of the CG. These results indicate that elderly subjects in the EG showed improved performance in activities of daily living after engaging in physical exercise.  

  10. Professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, A E

    1998-02-01

    Professional autonomy may represent the first step to implementing measures that will allow CRNAs to attain a level of independent practice consistent with their clinical and educational training. Autonomy is regarded as an essential ingredient of professionalism and confers independent function at the individual practitioner level. The principle of autonomy refers to the individual's capacity to make independent decisions based on the assumption that he or she possesses the cognitive, psychological, and emotional faculties to make rational decisions. Nursing practice meets the first two criteria of professionalism--competence and dedication to an important social good. The third criterion of professionalism, autonomy, has been a focal point for controversy since the late nineteenth century, in which obedience to supervisors and physicians remained a central focus of nursing ethics teaching until the advent of feminism in the 1970s. This article presents a thorough analysis of these concepts with some thoughts on how understanding the fundamental precepts and further research may not only help maintain the current level of CRNA professional autonomy but serve to guide us to become more autonomous in the future.

  11. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  12. The role of individual differences in particular autonomy-connectedness in women's and men's work-family balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Willemse, Jolanda J P; De Goeij, Jacqueline W J M

    2010-05-01

    Individual differences are increasingly considered important in the relationship between work-family balance and health. The present study examined the role of autonomy-connectedness in positive and negative work-family interaction and family-work interaction. We also investigated the relationship of work-family interaction and family-work interaction with positive and negative affect, coping patterns, and demographic characteristics. All variables under study were measured with questionnaires in a Dutch sample of 205 respondents. As expected, the individual difference factors were substantially associated with work-family interaction and family-work interaction; together they accounted for 10 to 39% of their variance. In particular, negative affect and the autonomy-connectedness components Sensitivity to others and Capacity for managing new situations appeared to be strongly related to work-family interactions. Health implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations for further research are presented.

  13. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Rural Suburbs of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egenti NB

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The feeding of an infant with breast milk only, to the exclusion of all other feeds - liquids or solids, including water - except prescribed medications; within the first half year of life is referred to as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. Despite its numerous benefits, not many mothers practiced it because of one barrier or the other. This study estimated the prevalence of EBF established the major barriers thereof and determined the link between socio-demographic characteristics and the practice of EBF among women living in the rural suburbs of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was descriptive cross-sectional in design. Results: Among the 370 subjects, 49% practiced EBF. None of the respondents made PNC visit specifically for the purpose of learning or asking questions about breastfeeding. Nonetheless, 18.5% received breastfeeding education during PNC visit. A large proportion of the subjects did not practice EBF because they were not aware (21.1% of it. Medical reasons, which included HIV positive mothers and those with breast disease constituted the least barriers (1.3%. EBF was prominently linked with maternal education, type of work, delivery place, skilled attendance at birth, husband’s education, and occupation (p<0.05. Conclusion: Capacity building for healthcare personnel on breast feeding, establishment of facilities as close to the communities as possible with their active participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of EBF practice is recommended. Emphasis should be laid on the need for breastfeeding during antenatal period and then postnatal just before discharge.

  14. Autonomy of action among elderly women on physical activity programs in Brazil and Belgium: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Souza Lima da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy of action is important for quality of life. This study compared the autonomy of action of elderly female participants on physical activity programs in Brazil (IMMA, n=47, age=75±5 years and Belgium (ISEPK, n=77; age=69±7 years, using the Senior System for Evaluation of Autonomy of Action (SysSen. The SysSen is composed of a questionnaire (QSAP about the aerobic power and upper limb strength needed for a life perceived as autonomous, and a fi eld test (TSMP, in which the subject walks 800 m carrying predetermined loads. The QSAP results are used to calculate an Index of Expressed Autonomy (IAE and the TSMP to calculate an Index of Potential Autonomy (IAP. The ratio of IAP to IAE then gives an Index of Autonomy of Action (IAP/IAE=ISAC. An ISAC of 1.0 or more defi nes the subject as independent. IMMA and ISEPK data were compared with ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman ANOVA, depending on distribution (p Resumo A autonomia de ação é importante para a qualidade de vida. O presente estudo comparou a autonomia de ação de idosas participantes de programas de atividades físicas no Brasil (IMMA, n=47, idade=75±5 anos e na Bélgica (ISEPK, n=77; idade=69±7 anos, utilizando o Sistema Sênior de Avaliação da Autonomia de Ação (SysSen. O SysSen é composto por questionário (QSAP, voltado para as necessidades de potência aeróbia e força de membros superiores em atividades compatíveis com uma vida percebida como autônoma, e teste de campo (TSMP, no qual se caminha 800 m transportando cargas pré-determinadas. O QSAP fornece um Índice de Autonomia Exprimida (IAE e o TSMP um Índice de Autonomia Potencial (IAP que, cruzados, defi nem o Índice de Autonomia de Ação (IAP/IAE=ISAC. Um ISAC≥1,0 caracteriza o sujeito como autônomo. IMMA e ISEPK foram comparados por ANOVA para medidas repetidas ou ANOVA Friedman, conforme a natureza dos dados (p<0,05. Os resultados revelaram que: a O IAP foi menor para o IMMA que para o ISEPK

  15. Cultural Capital and the Consumption of Cultural Goods: Strategies Used for Status Consumption Among New Middle Class Brazilian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivânia Filomeno Ponte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Holt (1998 investigated the application of  the concept of consumption of cultural products as a means of acquiring status by conducting research in the United States and Turkey (Üstüner & Holt, 2010. This present research was based on this latest study and aimed to study the relationship between the consumption of cultural products and the consumption of status among Brazilian women in the new middle class. It was concluded that the cultural capital acts as a determining factor in the consumption of status, being converted in tastes and consumption practices. The consumption of cultural products is critical to the building of the status strategies, however, the cultural products used may vary according to the greater or lesser cultural capital of the interviewees.

  16. [Risk factors associated among anemia in pregnancy women of network public health of a capital of Brazil Northeastern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; De Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women receiving public health care in a capital city in Northeastern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 428 patients obtained on the basis of the estimated prevalence of anemia during pregnancy (50%), a 95% confidence interval (95%CI), an error of 5% and a sample loss of 20%. Pregnant women who lived in the city and were served by the municipal public health network were considered to be eligible for the study. Socioeconomic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data and dietary iron intake were obtained, and capillary hemoglobin was determined. Anemia was identified as a hemoglobin level public health system of the city is a moderate public health problem, requiring the planning of effective measures for its control.

  17. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  18. African American women in STEM: Uncovering stories of persistence and resilience through an examination of social and cultural capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Danielle Stevens

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the key factors that successful African American women said influenced their persistence and resilience in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field at two key time periods; before beginning post-secondary education and during post-secondary education. Many researchers have expressed concern about missing out on the creativity and innovation of African American women that could be used to enhance or lead to scientific discoveries (Hanson, 2004; Ong et al., 2011; Perna et al., 2008). While there has been a fair amount of research on the lack of representation of African American women in the STEM field, it is very limited in its breathe and depth. Very few of these studies include the "voice" of African American women and most of the studies rely heavily on quantitative data. Therefore in this study, I used a qualitative, case study approach to interpret the stories of eight African American women currently working in a variety of STEM fields to understand how each of the factors that they said aided in their persistence and resilience related to the concepts of social and cultural capital. Furthermore, this study investigated the role cultural brokers played in their lives and the strategies these women used to create resilience. Narratives for each woman were created to provide insight into their experiences. Before beginning post-secondary education four themes emerged from this study; 1. Two parent households were important, 2. Science experiences outside of school sparked their interest, 3. All of the women participated in extracurricular activities, and 4. Religion was important. Cultural brokers were beneficial for some but not all of the women. During post-secondary education five themes emerged; 1. The majority of the women had a desire to help others, 2. Scholarships played an important role, 3. Parents were supportive, 4. Sexism/racism became evident, and 5. Religion was still

  19. Autonomy as Aesthetic Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lütticken, S.

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines various conceptions of autonomy in relation to recent artistic practices. Starting from the apparent opposition between modernist notions of the autonomy of art and theorizations of political autonomy, the text problematizes the notion of the autonomy of art by using Jacques

  20. The association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health: a longitudinal study in Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamarca Gabriela A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social conditions, social relationships and neighbourhood environment, the components of social capital, are important determinants of health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health in women between the first trimester of pregnancy and six months postpartum. Methods A multilevel cohort study in 34 neighbourhoods was performed on 685 Brazilian women recruited at antenatal units in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-rated health (SRH was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (baseline and six months after childbirth (follow-up. The participants were divided into two groups: 1. Good SRH – good SRH at baseline and follow-up, and, 2. Poor SRH – poor SRH at baseline and follow-up. Exploratory variables collected at baseline included neighbourhood social capital (neighbourhood-level variable, individual social capital (social support and social networks, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviours and self-reported diseases. A hierarchical binomial multilevel analysis was performed to test the association between neighbourhood and individual social capital and SRH, adjusted for covariates. Results The Good SRH group reported higher scores of social support and social networks than the Poor SRH group. Although low neighbourhood social capital was associated with poor SRH in crude analysis, the association was not significant when individual socio-demographic variables were included in the model. In the final model, women reporting poor SRH both at baseline and follow-up had lower levels of social support (positive social interaction [OR 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90] and a lower likelihood of friendship social networks [OR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37-0.99] than the Good SRH group. The characteristics that remained associated with poor SRH were low level of schooling, Black and Brown

  1. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  2. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  3. Leveraging social capital: multilevel stigma, associated HIV vulnerabilities, and social resilience strategies among transgender women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; McLean, Sarah A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Huerta, Leyla; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Lama, Javier R

    2017-02-28

    In Peru, transgender women (TW) experience unique vulnerabilities for HIV infection due to factors that limit access to, and quality of, HIV prevention, treatment and care services. Yet, despite recent advances in understanding factors associated with HIV vulnerability among TW globally, limited scholarship has examined how Peruvian TW cope with this reality and how existing community-level resilience strategies are enacted despite pervasive social and economic exclusion facing the community. Addressing this need, our study applies the understanding of social capital as a social determinant of health and examines its relationship to HIV vulnerabilities to TW in Peru. Using qualitative methodology to provide an in-depth portrait, we assessed (1) intersections between social marginalization, social capital and HIV vulnerabilities; and (2) community-level resilience strategies employed by TW to buffer against social marginalization and to link to needed HIV-related services in Peru. Between January and February 2015, 48 TW participated (mean age = 29, range = 18-44) in this study that included focus group discussions and demographic surveys. Analyses were guided by an immersion crystallization approach and all coding was conducted using Dedoose Version 6.1.18. Themes associated with HIV vulnerability included experiences of multilevel stigma and limited occupational opportunities that placed TW at risk for, and limited their engagement with, existing HIV services. Emergent resiliency-based strategies included peer-to-peer and intergenerational knowledge sharing, supportive clinical services (e.g. group-based clinic attendance) and emotional support through social cohesion (i.e. feeling part of a community). This study highlights the importance of TW communities as support structures that create and deploy social resiliency-based strategies aimed at deterring and mitigating the impact of social vulnerabilities to discrimination, marginalization and HIV risk for

  4. Autonomy and reason: treatment choice in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Mary

    2012-10-01

    The practice of offering choice to those women with breast cancer for whom either breast conserving surgery or mastectomy would be equally beneficial has come to be seen as an important aspect of medical care. As well as improving satisfaction with treatment, this is seen as satisfying the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. A number of studies, however, show that women are not always comfortable with such choice, preferring to leave treatment decisions to their surgeons. A question then arises as to the extent that these women can be seen as autonomous or as exercising autonomy. This paper argues, however, that the understanding of autonomy which is applied in current approaches to breast cancer care does not adequately support the exercise of autonomy, and that the clinical context of care means that women are not able to engage in the kind of reasoning that might promote the exercise of autonomy. Where respect for autonomy is limited to informed consent and choice, there is a danger that women's interests are overlooked in those aspects of their care where choice is not appropriate, with very real, long-term consequences for some women. Promoting the exercise of autonomy, it is argued, needs to go beyond the conception of autonomy as rational individuals making their own decisions, and clinicians need to work with an understanding of autonomy as relational in order to better involve women in their care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Women's Environmental Literacy As Social Capital In Environmental Management For Environmental Security of Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteria, Donna; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.

    2016-02-01

    This study is about experience of women's role in environmental management to raise environmental security and form of women's emancipation movement. Environmental concerns conducted by residents of urban women who become environmental activists based on environmental literacy. Because of that, women's experience in interacting with both physic and social environment have differences in managing the environment including managing household waste by applying the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) and their persuasive efforts on their communities. This is the key to achieving sustainable development by anticipating environmental problem and preserving the environment. This study is conducted qualitative research method and its type is descriptive-explanative. The result of this study is environmental literacy of women activist on pro-environment action in their community that has achieved spiritual environmental literacy. Environmental literacy may differ due to internal and external condition of each individual. Pro-environment activities conducted as a form of responsibility of environmental concern such as eco-management, educational, and economic action, by persuading residents to proactively and consistently continue to do environmental management and develop a sense of community in shaping the networks of environmental concern in local context for global effect.

  6. Productive Tensions in a Cross-Cultural Peer Mentoring Women's Network: A Social Capital Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnard, Talia; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Beck, Makini; Wu, Ke; Unterreiner, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of researchers documents the unique barriers women face in their academic career progression and the significance of mentoring networks for advancement of their academic trajectories as faculty. However, few researchers explore the embedded tensions and conflicts in the social processes and relations of mentoring networks, and the…

  7. Importance of social capital at the workplace for return to work among women with a history of long-term sick leave: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Ingela; Dalheim Englund, Lotta; Dellve, Lotta; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The workplace is an essential source of social capital for many people; it provides mutual support and gives meaning to life. However, few prospective studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social capital in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between aspects of social capital (social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership) at the workplace, and work ability, working degree, and vitality among women with a history of long-term sick leave from human service organizations. A longitudinal cohort study was performed among women with a history of long-term sick leave. The study started in 2005, and the women were followed up at 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years using self-reported questionnaires (baseline n  = 283). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of prospective degree of work ability, working degree, and vitality. Analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership and time. Social capital in terms of quality of leadership (being good at solving conflicts and giving high priority to job satisfaction), sense of community (co-operation between colleagues) and social support (help and support from immediate superiors and colleagues) increased the women's work ability score (WAS) as well as working degree over time. Additionally, social capital in terms of quality of leadership increased the women's vitality score over time. A sustainable return-to-work process among individuals with a history of long-term sick leave, going in and out of work participation, could be supported with social support, good quality of leadership, and a sense of community at the workplace. The responsibility for the rehabilitation process can not be reduced to an individual problem, but ought to include all stakeholders involved in the process, such as managers

  8. University autonomy as sensemaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jonas Krog

    The formal autonomy of universities in Europe has generally increased over recent decades. However, new forms of accountability measures and more indirect state steering have accompanied this development, making it difficult to assess the actual autonomy. The article addresses this problem...... by applying the sensemaking approach to the study of organizational autonomy. Enacted autonomy is suggested as a new conceptualization that challenges the basic assumption in studies on formal autonomy that autonomy is only about external constraints on action. It does so by insisting on the active subjects...... in the enactment of the environment, thereby questioning the validity of a clear distinction between what is internal and what is external to an organization. By acknowledging the subjective dimension of autonomy, a set of stylized identities is developed as a tool for understanding the enactment of autonomy...

  9. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  10. Is women's human capital valued more by markets than by planners?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münich, Daniel; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2005), s. 278-299 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : women * earnings * markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.086, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2005.03.009

  11. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the

  12. Functional autonomy of elderly women enrolled in a physical activity program = Autonomia funcional de mulheres idosas participantes de um programa de atividades físicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bacellar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effects of a physical activity program on the functional autonomy of elderly women. The sample was divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 20; 68.51 ± 5.02 years; BMI = 27.01 ± 4.35 submitted to a physical activity program, and a control group (CG; n = 20; 67.01 ± 3.51 years; BMI = 26.71 ± 5.74. Functional autonomy was assessed using tests from the GDLAM autonomy protocol: 10 meter walk test (10MW, rising from a sitting position (RSP, rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP, rising from a chair and moving around the house (RCMH and putting on and taking off a t-shirt (PTT, after which the autonomy index (AI was calculated. In the EG, ANOVA showed significant reductions in execution times for the RSP (∆ = -3.92 s; p = 0.0001, RCMH (∆ = -9.61 s; p = 0.0001, 10MW (∆ = -0.94 s; p = 0.038 and RVDP (∆ = -1.15 s; p = 0.036 tests, as well as the AI (∆ = -6.27; p = 0.0001. This was not observed in the CG. Intergroup comparisons demonstrated that execution times for the RSP (∆% = -36.63; p = 0.0001, RCMH (∆% = -20.27; p = 0.0001, 10mW (∆% = -12.54; p = 0.002 and RVDP (∆% = -25.10; p = 0.005 tests and the AI (∆% = -21.37; p = 0.0001 of the EG were shorter than those of the CG. These results indicate that elderly subjects in the EG showed improved performance in activities of daily living after engaging in physical exercise.O objetivo do estudo foi verificar os efeitos de um programa de atividade física sobre a autonomia funcional em mulheres idosas. A amostra foi distribuída em grupo experimental (GE; n = 20; 68,51 ± 5,02 anos; IMC = 27,01 ± 4,35 submetido a um programa de atividade física e grupo controle (GC; n = 20; 67,01 ± 3,51 anos; IMC = 26,71 ± 5,74. A autonomia funcional foi avaliada por meio dos testes do protocolo de autonomia GDLAM, caminhar 10 m (C10 m, levantar-se da posição sentada (LPS, levantar-se da posição decúbito ventral (LPDV, levantar-se da cadeira

  13. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  14. Syphilis prevalence among women in the prison system of a northeastern Brazilian capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Evangelista de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of syphilis and associated factors in inmates of the women's prison of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2013. The population consisted of inmates from the referred penitentiary (n=131. Data were collected through a form composed of closed-ended and mixed questions. The mean age was 33.1 years, 60.3% affirmed not having a stable relationship, and 93.1% had children. Alcohol use was reported by 70.8%, and the use of illicit drugs, by 56.2%. It was evidenced that 38.5% of women never use a condom during sexual intercourse, and that 62.2% do not know how the transmission of syphilis happens. The high prevalence of syphilis, 25.2%, is statistically associated with marital status, illicit drug use and their consumption before sex, demonstrating that unfavorable socioeconomic conditions are important risk and vulnerability factors to sexually transmitted diseases.

  15. The Evolution of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    There can be little doubt, at least in the Western world, that autonomy is theruling principle in contemporary bioethics. In spite of its 'triumph' however,the dominance of the utilitarian concept of autonomy is being increasinglyquestioned. In this paper, I explore the nature of autonomy, how it came todisplace the Hippocratic tradition in medicine and how different conceptsof autonomy have evolved. I argue that the reduction of autonomy to'the exercise of personal choice' in medicine has led to a 'tyranny of autonomy' which can be inimical to ethical medical practice rather than conducive to it.I take the case of Kerrie Wooltorton as an illustration of how misplacedadherence to respect for patient autonomy can lead to tragic consequences.An analysis of autonomy based on the work of Rachel Haliburton isdescribed and applied to the role of autonomy in a recent bioethicaldebate--that arising from Savulescu's proposal that conscientious objection by health-care professionals should not be permitted in the NHS. Inconclusion, I suggest Kukla's concept of conscientious autonomy as onepromising pathway to circumvent both the limitations and adverse effectsof the dominance of current (mis)understandings of autonomy in biomedical ethics.

  16. The Future of Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josephine; Zacharias, Rachel L

    2017-12-01

    In a project The Hastings Center is now running on the future of prenatal testing, we are encountering clear examples, both in established law and in the practices of individual providers, of failures to respect women's reproductive autonomy: when testing is not offered to certain demographics of women, for instance, or when the choices of women to terminate or continue pregnancies are prohibited or otherwise not supported. But this project also raises puzzles for reproductive autonomy. We have learned that some clinicians and patients do not discuss the fact that prenatal testing can lead to a decision about whether to terminate a pregnancy-they just don't talk about it. And while the decision whether to agree to prenatal screening and diagnostic testing is to be made with women's free and informed consent, many screening tests have been routinized in such a way that some women do not even recall agreeing to testing, while others feel that agreeing to testing is what their clinicians expect of them or that the testing is necessary to protect themselves and their families from the significant financial hardship of raising a child with a disability. In the face of these pressures, can one really say that women are freely choosing to undergo testing or are freely choosing to continue or terminate a pregnancy following receipt of test results? The reality of these pressures is requiring us to consider expanding the scope of our investigation beyond the clinical encounter to the broader context-to think harder about what reproductive autonomy means and how best to enhance it. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  17. Women's Land Tenure Security and Household Human Capital: Evidence from Ethiopia's Land Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of Ethiopia's gendered land certification programs on household consumption of healthcare, food, education, and clothing. Ethiopia embarked on a land tenure reform program in 1998, after years of communism during which all land was nationalized. The reform began in Tigray region where land certificates were issued to household heads, who were primarily male. In a second phase carried out in 2003-2005, three other regions issued land certificates jointly to household heads and spouses, presenting variation in land tenure security by gender. Results using household panel data show that joint land certification to spouses was accompanied by increased household consumption of healthcare and homegrown food and decreased education expenditure, compared to household-head land certification. Joint land certification was also accompanied by increased consumption of women's and girls' clothing, and decreased men's clothing expenditures indicating results may be explained by a shift in the gender balance of power within households. Analysis on the incidence and duration of illness indicates that increased healthcare expenditures after joint land certification may be due to joint certification households seeking more effective treatment than head-only certification households for household members who fell ill or suffered injuries.

  18. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  19. Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  20. Autonomy and job satisfaction for a sample of Greek teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustelios, Athanasios D; Karabatzaki, Despina; Kousteliou, Ioanna

    2004-12-01

    Analysing the relation between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy in a sample of 300 Greek teachers (114 men and 186 women, 28 to 59 years old) from primary and secondary schools, showed statistically significant positive correlations between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy. Particularly, Autonomy was correlated with Job Itself (.21), Supervision (.22), and the Organizational as a Whole (.27), aspects of Job Satisfaction. Findings are in line with previous studies conducted in different cultural contexts. Percent common variance accounted for is small.

  1. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental......NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  2. "The Pleasure Is All Mine": Music and Female Sexual Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Strube, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To analyze sexual autonomy this paper concentrates on the recent concept of relational autonomy, which is different from the classic tradition in its multilevel perspective on persons as embodied, desiring, creative as well as rational creatures. I then apply this concept to music asking in which way women performers are both relational and (sexually) autonomous.

  3. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  4. Physicians’ Perceptions of Autonomy across Practice Types: Is Autonomy in Solo Practice a Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians’ autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked “spell” data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996–2005) (n=16,519) I examine how physicians’ perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. PMID:24444835

  5. Physicians' perceptions of autonomy across practice types: Is autonomy in solo practice a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians' autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked "spell" data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996-2005) (n = 16,519) I examine how physicians' perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. Copyright © 2013

  6. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  7. Women’s decision-making autonomy and children’s schooling in rural Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Luz; Victor Agadjanian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women's decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women's autonomy and children's schooling. Objective: To examine the relationship between rural women's decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child's gender. Methods: The analysis uses data...

  8. Impact of liposomal doxorubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy on autonomy in women over 70 with hormone-receptor-negative breast carcinoma: A French Geriatric Oncology Group (GERICO) phase II multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Etienne G C; Mertens, Cécile; Girre, Véronique; Rousseau, Frédérique; Blot, Emmanuel; Abadie, Sophie; Uwer, Lionel; Bourbouloux, Emmanuelle; Van Praagh-Doreau, Isabelle; Mourey, Loic; Kirscher, Sylvie; Laguerre, Brigitte; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Luneau, Sylvia; Genève, Jean; Debled, Marc

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a disease of ageing. Functional independence in elderly patients, measured with the Katz activities of daily living (ADL) scale, predicts overall survival and the need for welfare support. Few prospective studies have examined the feasibility of adjuvant chemotherapy and its impact on autonomy in women over 70 years of age with high-risk breast cancer. This multicentre phase II trial was designed to assess the impact of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy on these patients' autonomy. In a two-stage Fleming design, women aged ≥70 years with histologically proven hormone-receptor-negative early breast cancer and a significant risk of recurrence (pN+ or "high risk" pN0) received 4 cycles of nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks postoperatively, on an outpatient basis. The primary endpoint was the change in the ADL score during chemotherapy. Secondary endpoints include comprehensive geriatric, quality-of-life and acceptability assessments, tolerability, and long-term outcome. The results for the primary endpoint and other scales at completion of adjuvant chemotherapy are reported here, while long-term follow-up is not yet complete. Forty patients (median age 75 [70-82]) were enrolled between February 2006 and November 2007. Chemotherapy had no deleterious impact on ADL, cognition, mental status, or the frequency of comorbidities. In contrast, the number of patients at risk of malnutrition, based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment, more than doubled between baseline and the end of chemotherapy, rising from 15% to 38%. Quality-of-life deteriorated in terms of social and role functioning, likely owing to fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. Treatment acceptability was good. The main adverse effect was neutropenia, 15% of the patients experiencing febrile neutropenia. No cardiac toxicity or toxic deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an adjuvant chemotherapy

  9. Entrepreneurial autonomy and its dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Founding and owning an independent business does not automatically provide the owner/founder with autonomy. Autonomy-motivated entrepreneurs must often make an effort to achieve and maintain autonomy. The aim of this research is to investigate the experience of autonomy, its variations over time,

  10. Changing professional autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway......The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway...

  11. Anagogy of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A L

    2000-07-01

    The philosophical and ethical concept of autonomy is herein examined, ex post facto, using an existential lens to examine the process of a personal friend's dying. Anagogy, defined as interpretation of a word, passage, or text that finds beyond the literal, allegorical, and moral senses a fourth and ultimate spiritual or mystical sense, is intended to enlarge the understanding of the use of autonomy in this case. The idea of personhood linked inextricably to reason is, therefore, understood as empowering an individual to choose among various actions, to define and redefine life goals, and to give priority to selected values and moral tenants, which reveal a moral hermeneutic. Conditions and circumstances, existentially exposed, limit choice in unexpected ways, such that the predicted value of autonomy is vulnerable to misuse or misunderstanding. The intent to respect the dignity of every person is central to the philosophy of Respect for Persons ethics, and assumes that autonomy, as freedom of the moral agent, is a moral duty. Implicit reality of freedom is, in a practical sense, essential to being rational agents who can thereby exercise informed choice. The moral law, law of freedom, involves the autonomy of the will and an ultimate end to which all action is directed. Defined as the highest good, morality unites virtue and happiness by ascribing the ultimate end sought as God. The freedom to use rational will finds principles within its own rational nature. The ability to create maxims is autonomy of the will, which equates with the dignity of persons. My recent experience as a companion to a personal friend with a terminal illness inspired me to re-evaluate the concept of autonomy as it is too often interpreted in modern ethical discourse as a individualistic right of choice as opposed to the hermeneutic of dignity of person. This paper describes a shift of position in understanding the paradox of autonomy in this existential context.

  12. Autonomy and hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.; Baehre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter for the development of hyperthyroidism was investigated. (1) In 171 of 426 consecutive patients high-resolution quantitative scintiscans showed signs suggestive of autonomy. With increasing 99mTc uptake by the thyroid their TT3 levels were found to rise progressively during suppression, while their pre-suppression TSH levels dropped progressively. This suggests global sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroid during suppression to be a useful indicator of the functional significance of autonomy. (2) Based on 326 patients with hyperthyroidism a system for differentiating between autonomy-related and immunogenic disease was developed and validated prospectively in another 162 patients with hyperthyroidism by assaying for thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). TSAb was found to be present in 82% of the 77 patients diagnosed as having immunogenic hyperthyroidism and in only 8% of the 85 patients with autonomy-related hyperthyroidism. Our results support the assumption that autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter plays a major role in the development of hyperthyroidism, while autoimmune processes appear to be of secondary importance. (Author)

  13. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Understanding nurse practitioner autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A

    2015-02-01

    This Gadamerian hermeneutic study was undertaken to understand the meaning of autonomy as interpreted by nurse practitioners (NPs) through their lived experiences of everyday practice in primary health care. A purposive sample of nine NPs practicing in primary health care was used. Network sampling achieved a broad swath of primary care NPs and practice settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Because NP autonomy is concerned with gender and marginalization, Gilligan's feminist perspective was utilized during interpretive analysis. Having Genuine NP Practice was the major theme, reflecting the participants' overall meaning of their autonomy. Practicing alone with the patient provided the context within which participants shaped the meaning of Having Genuine NP Practice. Having Genuine NP Practice had four subthemes: relationships, self-reliance, self-empowerment, and defending the NP role. The understanding of Having Genuine NP Practice will enable NPs to articulate their autonomy clearly and better influence healthcare reform. Implications for advanced practice nursing education include integrating findings into classroom discussion to prompt self-reflection of what autonomy means and socialization to the NP role. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. Autonomy in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control. In this account, chimpanzees make knowledge-based choices reflecting a richly information-based and socially sophisticated understanding of the world. Finally, two major theories of autonomy (Kantian theory and two-level theory) are rejected as too narrow to adequately address these issues, necessitating the modifications made in the present approach.

  16. Changes in access to structural social capital and its influence on self-rated health over time for middle-aged men and women: a longitudinal study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin; Ng, Nawi

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, most studies on social capital and health have been cross-sectional making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. This longitudinal study used data from 33,621 individuals (15,822 men and 17,799 women) from the Västerbotten Intervention Program, to analyse how changes in access to individual social capital influence self-rated health (SRH) over time. Two forms of structural social capital, i.e. informal socializing and social participation, were measured. Age, sex, education, marital status, smoking, snuff, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, and body mass index were analysed as potential confounders. The association between changes in access to structural social capital and SRH in the follow-up was adjusted for SRH at baseline, as well as for changes in the socio-demographic and health-risk variables over time. The results support that changes in access to structural social capital over time impact on SRH. Remaining with no/low level of informal socializing over time increased the odds ratio for poor SRH for both men and women (OR of 1.45; 95%CI = 1.22-1.73 among men and OR of 1.56; 95%CI = 1.33-1.84 among women). Remaining with no/low levels of social participation was also detrimental to SRH in men and women (OR 1.14; 95%CI = 1.03-1.26 among men and OR 1.18; 95%CI = 1.08-1.29 among women). A decrease in informal socializing over time was associated with poor SRH for women and men (OR of 1.35; 95%CI = 1.16-1.58 among men and OR of 1.57; 95%CI = 1.36-1.82 among women). A loss of social participation had a negative effect on SRH among men and women (OR of 1.16; 95%CI = 1.03-1.30 among men and OR of 1.15; 95%CI = 1.04-1.27 among women). Gaining access to social participation was harmful for SRH for women (OR 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-1.31). Structural social capital has complex and gendered effects on SRH and interventions aiming to use social capital for health promotion purposes require an awareness of its gendered nature

  17. The Discriminant Analysis: an Exploratory Study Concerning the Degree of Financial Autonomy of Companies in the Context of the Romanian Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Marinela Mironiuc; Mihaela Robu; Ion Robu

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing the evolution of financial autonomy on a sample of 80 companies quoted in the Bucharest Stock Exchange, between 2006-2008. Classically, financial autonomy is measured using the global and day-to-day rates of financial autonomy. However, this study has tested the dependency between the global rate of financial autonomy (Own Capital/ Total debts) and a series of economic and financial indicators, with the purpose of obtaining both a score function that would help ma...

  18. [What is patient autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Guillaume

    What does patient autonomy mean? If an autonomous choice is defined as an objective and rational choice, is the doctor's prescription not always the best route? Our contemporary democracies are marked by moral and religious pluralism which obliges society to respect a multiplicity of choices of existence. Three levels are important in terms of autonomy: a range of intellectual capacities, freedom with regard to constraints (external and internal), the capacity to be in control of one's existence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. LEGAL PROTECTON OF WOMEN CIVIL CERVANTS OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THE ERA OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY IN THE DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION SUMBAWA - WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Dahlan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aware of gender discrimintaion of women and students of women in different countries, so they protest and movement finally manage to do some conference that have produced Convention On The Elimination Of All Form Of Diskrimination Against Women   (CEDAW. Indonesia has ratified CEDAW with Law No. 7, 1984. But until now gender discrimination still occurs in all facets of life and society. One of them is a fimale civil servant in Sumbawa regency. Discrimination that has accurred not given the opportunity to accupy the fimale civil servant echelon-echelon II and III. In connection with the second echelon echelon II or III on Sumbawa Regency :      1 What are the forms of gender discrimination against fimale civil servants. 2 What factors are causing it, and 3 What is the form of legal protection against civil servants are women from gender discrimination. This study includes empirical legal research aims to determine the effectiveness of the law and the legal vacuum in the administration and management of government, particularly in women civil servants in positions echelon II or III. Dates collected were analyzed with descriptive analytic techniques. These form of discrimination against women in Sumbawa civil servants include marginalization and subordination, the factors that cause it was a mistake in the interpretation and implementation   gender equality, influence the understanding and application of Islamic teachings, political and cultural factors shame, geographical factors tough, close relationship with the ruling factor, factor in the civil servants streotif women and a heavier workload factor for women. Moderate forms of legal protection can be seen from the substance of the law, the legal structure and legal culture.

  20. LEGAL PROTECTON OF WOMEN CIVIL CERVANTS OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THE ERA OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY IN THE DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION SUMBAWA - WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Dahlan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aware of gender discrimintaion of women and students of women in different countries, so they protest and movement finally manage to do some conference that have produced Convention On The Elimination Of All Form Of Diskrimination Against Women   (CEDAW. Indonesia has ratified CEDAW with Law No. 7, 1984. But until now gender discrimination still occurs in all facets of life and society. One of them is a fimale civil servant in Sumbawa regency. Discrimination that has accurred not given the opportunity to accupy the fimale civil servant echelon-echelon II and III. In connection with the second echelon echelon II or III on Sumbawa Regency :      1 What are the forms of gender discrimination against fimale civil servants. 2 What factors are causing it, and 3 What is the form of legal protection against civil servants are women from gender discrimination. This study includes empirical legal research aims to determine the effectiveness of the law and the legal vacuum in the administration and management of government, particularly in women civil servants in positions echelon II or III. Dates collected were analyzed with descriptive analytic techniques. These form of discrimination against women in Sumbawa civil servants include marginalization and subordination, the factors that cause it was a mistake in the interpretation and implementation   gender equality, influence the understanding and application of Islamic teachings, political and cultural factors shame, geographical factors tough, close relationship with the ruling factor, factor in the civil servants streotif women and a heavier workload factor for women. Moderate forms of legal protection can be seen from the substance of the law, the legal structure and legal culture.

  1. Status of serum vitamin D and calcium levels in women of reproductive age in national capital territory of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem, associated with lack of sunlight exposure in spite of abundant sunshine usually accompanied by reduced dietary intake. In women of reproductive age, Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Aims: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the levels of serum Vitamin D 25(OH D and calcium in women of reproductive age from India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried on a total of 224 healthy nonpregnant and nonlactating women in the reproductive age group of 20–49 years. Materials and Methods: Demographic, socioeconomic class, and biochemical parameters for the estimation of serum 25(OHD and calcium levels in women of reproductive age were studied. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was utilized for conducting the statistical analysis of the data. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml was present in 88% of women. Women from middle socioeconomic class had the lowest mean serum 25(OH D levels (9.6 ± 6 ng/ml as compared to women from upper middle (11.4 ± 8 ng/ml, lower (11.2 ± 8 ng/ml, and upper (10 ± 8.6 ng/ml socioeconomic class. Serum calcium levels were found in the normal range of 8.5–10.5 mg/dl for all the study subjects. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among women of reproductive age. These women may possibly have a higher risk of development of osteoporosis and pregnancy-related complications in future life.

  2. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    discussion of challenges. The other outcome is the extent to which academic colleagues in a wide-range of disciplines and not directly engaged with research on university autonomy may not perceive or engage with the wider autonomy outcomes of their work and as a result their own case studies may not fully...... identify the autonomy impact real or potential. Many academic staff take for granted university autonomy without questioning its sometimes contradictory assumptions and impacts....

  3. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  4. Measuring Capital

    OpenAIRE

    W. Erwin Diewert

    2003-01-01

    The paper revisits Harper, Berndt and Wood (1989) and calculates Canadian reproducible capital services aggregates under alternative assumptions about the form of depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital and the treatment of capital gains. Five different models of depreciation are considered: (1) one hoss shay; (2) straight line depreciation; (3) declining balance or geometric depreciation; (4) linearly declining efficiency profiles and (5) linearly increasing maintenance profiles. The l...

  5. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  6. Senegal : School Autonomy and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Senegal has accelerated the decentralization of education since 1996. Budgetary autonomy is latent. Autonomy over the management of operational budgets has been delegated to the communes, but salaries for teachers are managed at the central level. Autonomy in personnel management is latent. Both school directors and teachers are appointed at the central level. The role of the school counci...

  7. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  8. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-15

    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  9. Feminism and Psychological Autonomy: A Study in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Susan R.; Eisenstein, Hester

    Women seeking to realize the feminist goal of autonomy, defined as self-interested decision-making, encounter conflict and anxiety. This study reports a group experience, using life-space drawings and force-field analyses to reduce anxiety and foster autonomous decision-making. Of the 15 women participants in the year-long study, 100% reported at…

  10. Capital gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blishen, C.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)

  11. Understanding Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state expend...

  12. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  13. Law, autonomy and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Lindy; White, Ben; Mathews, Ben

    2010-12-01

    The principle of autonomy underpins legal regulation of advance directives that refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The primacy of autonomy in this domain is recognised expressly in the case law, through judicial pronouncement, and implicitly in most Australian jurisdictions, through enactment into statute of the right to make an advance directive. This article seeks to justify autonomy as an appropriate principle for regulating advance directives and relies on three arguments: the necessity of autonomy in a liberal democracy; the primacy of autonomy in medical ethics discourse; and the uncontested importance of autonomy in the law on contemporaneous refusal of medical treatment. This article also responds to key criticisms that autonomy is not an appropriate organising principle to underpin legal regulation of advance directives.

  14. From Credit to Collective Action: The Role of Microfinance in Promoting Women's Social Capital and Normative Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Paromita

    2009-01-01

    Can economic ties positively influence social relations and actions? If so, how does this influence operate? Microfinance programs, which provide credit through a group-based lending strategy, provide the ideal setting for exploring these questions. This article examines whether structuring socially isolated women into peer-groups for an…

  15. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  16. Autonomy and the emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Tappolet, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Can actions caused by emotions be free and autonomous? The rationalist conception of autonomy denies this. Only actions done in the light of reflective choices can be autonomous and hence free. I argue that the rationalist conception does not make room for akratic actions, that is, free and intentional actions performed against the agent’s best judgement. I then develop an account inspired by Harry Frankfurt and David Shoemaker, according to which an action is autonomous when it is determined...

  17. The Autonomy of Deportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Genova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As ostensibly unwanted or undesirable non-citizens, the utter disposability of deportees appears to be finally and conclusively verified by deportation as a sovereign state power’s perfunctory and mundane act of 'taking out the trash.' Hence, it is no accident that, etymologically, the origins of the very word 'deportation' would indicate a carrying away, a removal, a disposal. The eradication of deportees’ individual lives — their personal identities and life trajectories — emerges as a frightfully routine and prosaic fact of deportation. In spite of the sheer violence of the ruptures inflicted though deportation, however, those who have been rendered the objects of this power persistently reassert their own subjectivity. Ethnographic insights into the lived struggles of the deported (as well as their loved ones and communities elucidates the enduring subjectivity of those who have been made the objects of such sovereign acts of state power and subjected to deportation's techniques of eradication, and illustrates the stubborn incorrigibility of human life against the myriad forces that would seek to enforce its precarity and disposability. In the post-deportation condition, we confront anew the elementary and elemental human freedom of movement, and the incorrigibility of the autonomy and subjectivity of migration. Much as the autonomy of migration instigates a contest in which state power never has the first word, what we may now conceive as the autonomy of deportation — an autonomy and subjectivity of the deported within and against their predicaments of deportation — similarly ensures that state power never has the last word, either.

  18. Perspectives on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda

    2009-09-01

    This department, sponsored by the AONE, presents information to assist nurse leaders in shaping the future of healthcare through creative and innovative leadership. The strategic priorities of AONE anchor the editorial content. They reflect contemporary healthcare and nursing practice issues that challenge nurse executives as they strive to meet the needs of patients. This article describes how 9 Magnet-hospital, chief nursing officers perceive their autonomy and its importance in accomplishing their work.

  19. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Autonomy, recognition and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitório Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Honneth’s concept of autonomy from two dimensions of his work, distinct, though inseparable. The first one is suggested through the subject’s positive practical self-relation linked to the patterns of reciprocal recognition of love, right and social esteem; the second is formulated as non-centered autonomy opposed to the present-day criticism of the modern autonomous subject encompassing three levels, namely: the capacity of linguistic articulation, the narrative coherence of life and the complementation of being guided by principles with some criteria of moral sensitivity to the context. We defend the position that, by metaphysically anchoring the concept of autonomy onto the intersubjective assumptions of his/her theory of the subject, and exploring it linked to the subject’s positive practical self-relation and to a non-centered meaning, Honneth has managed to renew it, which allows drawing important consequences of such effort to the field of education.

  1. Ignorance, information and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Keywood, K

    2001-09-01

    People have a powerful interest in genetic privacy and its associated claim to ignorance, and some equally powerful desires to be shielded from disturbing information are often voiced. We argue, however, that there is no such thing as a right to remain in ignorance, where a fight is understood as an entitlement that trumps competing claims. This does not of course mean that information must always be forced upon unwilling recipients, only that there is no prima facie entitlement to be protected from true or honest information about oneself. Any claims to be shielded from information about the self must compete on equal terms with claims based in the rights and interests of others. In balancing the weight and importance of rival considerations about giving or withholding information, if rights claims have any place, rights are more likely to be defensible on the side of honest communication of information rather than in defence of ignorance. The right to free speech and the right to decline to accept responsibility to take decisions for others imposed by those others seem to us more plausible candidates for fully fledged rights in this field than any purported right to ignorance. Finally, and most importantly, if the right to autonomy is invoked, a proper understanding of the distinction between claims to liberty and claims to autonomy show that the principle of autonomy, as it is understood in contemporary social ethics and English law, supports the giving rather than the withholding of information in most circumstances.

  2. CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky-Nagy Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.

  3. Autonomy and autonomy competencies: a practical and relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kim

    2006-10-01

    This essay will address a general philosophical concern about autonomy, namely, that a conception of autonomy focused on freedom of the will alone is inadequate, once we consider the effects of oppressive forms of socialization on individuals' formation of choices. In response to this problem, I will present a brief overview of Diana Meyers's account of autonomy as relational and practical. On this view, autonomy consists in a set of socially acquired practical competencies in self-discovery, self-definition, self-knowledge, and self-direction. This account provides a distinction between choices that express unreflectively internalized social norms and those that are the result of a critical 'self-reading'. I conclude that this practical conception of autonomy makes much higher demands upon nurses (and patients) than has previously been thought. In fact, if nurses are to be expected to genuinely promote autonomy, they are going to need specific training in counselling-type communication skills.

  4. Are there limits to respect for autonomy in bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the significance of respect for personal autonomy in bioethics with reference to its practical expression: rational informed patient choice. The question is whether, given the apparent practical limitations to this notion, bioethical autonomy should be seen as an absolute. After a historical review of informed consent and its development, I discuss the requirements for informed consent. Some inherent tensions are evaluated, as is the applicability of the notion that in order to be legitimate, autonomy should do some ethical work. Limits to the notion of informed consent are explored with reference to six examples: the right of women to reproductive autonomy; the autonomy of legally minor Jehovah's Witnesses; autonomy in cosmetic surgery; inappropriate treatment; autonomy and human medical research, and euthanasia and other end-of-life options. The discussion is within a South African framework with reference to other jurisdictions and decisions where appropriate. I conclude that whilst some unusual instances of limitation of bioethical informed consent might be ethically justifiable, the arguments presented point to the opposite: the unfounded limitation of informed consent.

  5. Guia prático de excercícios de alongamento como promotor de autonômia em um grupo de mulheres / Promoting autonomy in a group of women with a practical guide to stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tialhes Farias Marconato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A Terapia Ocupacional desenvolve sua prática e estudo sobre as atividades humanas com a utilização de recursos e instrumentos terapêuticos, que podem beneficiar o processo de envelhecimento. Nesse sentido, o estudo visou reconhecer e descrever a percepção de mulheres com idade entre 40 e 60 anos de idade, participantes de um grupo de Terapia Ocupacional, quanto às repercussões da utilização de um Guia Prático de Alongamento, no desempenho das atividades cotidianas. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória e descritiva, por meio de Grupo Focal. Verificou-se que a utilização do Guia influenciou no controle da dor, na autonomia para realização de atividades de vida diária e na percepção do próprio corpo das participantes do estudo. Conclui-se que o Guia Prático de Alongamento é uma ferramenta simples, porém relevante para melhorar a consciência corporal, a autonomia e independência de indivíduos em processo de envelhecimento, sugerindo-o como um instrumento indicado para outras populações. AbstractOccupational Therapy carries out the practice and study of human activities by employing therapeutic resources and instruments, which can benefit the aging process. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify and describe the perception of women between the ages of 40 and 60 in an Occupational Therapy group regarding the effects of using a Practical Guide to Stretching on the performance of their daily activities. In that sense, a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive Focus Group research was carried out. It was verified that the use of the Practical Guide had an influence on participants’ pain control, autonomy to perform daily activities and body perception. It was concluded that the Practical Guide to Stretching is a simple but relevant tool that helps aging individuals improve their body awareness, autonomy and independence. It is also a suitable tool for other populations.Keywords: Muscle

  6. Venture Capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, M. J; Andreassen, A; Bales, Shanda; Biddle, J. G; Chang, M. M; McCormick, R; Packard, W. J; Sun, T

    2006-01-01

    Leveraging venture capital to the advantage of the Naval Services should be viewed as part of the larger project of reforming the acquisition system to permit rapid introduction of new technologies...

  7. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  8. Autonomy, Social Interactions and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, Annalisa; Navarra, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The present paper, using a social interactions model, studies the impact of culture on autonomy of immigrants. The results suggest that: (i) immigrants' autonomy is largely influenced by the autonomy of individuals living in a host country; (ii) some immigrants are better off in countries and regions with better institutional environments. The results are robust to sensitivity checks. The contributions of the paper are as follows. First, we estimate a social interactions model that models bot...

  9. Women?s status and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: a mixed methods study using cultural health capital theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhinaraset, May; Treleaven, Emily; Melo, Jason; Singh, Kanksha; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients? reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention. Patient...

  10. Architecture for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  11. Autonomy, Automation, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.

    1987-02-01

    Aerospace industry interest in autonomy and automation, given fresh impetus by the national goal of establishing a Space Station, is becoming a major item of research and technology development. The promise of new technology arising from research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has focused much attention on its potential in autonomy and automation. These technologies can improve performance in autonomous control functions that involve planning, scheduling, and fault diagnosis of complex systems. There are, however, many aspects of system and subsystem design in an autonomous system that impact AI applications, but do not directly involve AI technology. Development of a system control architecture, establishment of an operating system within the design, providing command and sensory data collection features appropriate to automated operation, and the use of design analysis tools to support system engineering are specific examples of major design issues. Aspects such as these must also receive attention and technology development support if we are to implement complex autonomous systems within the realistic limitations of mass, power, cost, and available flight-qualified technology that are all-important to a flight project.

  12. Autonomy and social norms in a three factor grief model predicting perinatal grief in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India.

  13. A Mediational Model of Autonomy, Self-Esteem, and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Christina M.; Grow, Virginia M.

    1996-01-01

    Findings from a study of the relationships among autonomy deficits, low self-esteem, and eating disorders of 71 college women supported a mediational model in which lack of autonomy was related to decreased global self-esteem, which in turn was associated with bulimia and body dissatisfaction. (SLD)

  14. Compulsory autonomy-promoting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schinkel (Anders)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the

  15. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  16. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  17. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter-re...

  18. The Principalship, Autonomy, and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses in educational administration have exponentially grown the number of adjectival leaderships, challenged traditional organisational structures, and offered autonomy as a solution to performance issues. In this theoretical paper, I ask "what does the principalship look like after autonomy?" Despite the range of…

  19. Teacher Autonomy: Power or Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the issue of teacher autonomy in relation to its potential for freedom or control. It examines the concept of empowerment as applied to education, arguing that, although it is traditionally cast as a means of achieving autonomy, an alternative approach sees empowerment as part of the disciplinary apparatus of late modern…

  20. Developing a Mass Media Campaign to Promote Mammography Awareness in African American Women in the Nation's Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Oppong, Bridget; Iddirisu, Marquita; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2017-12-26

    This study developed and examined the reach and impact of a culturally appropriate mass media campaign pilot, designed to increase awareness about the importance of mammography screening and the available community mammography services for low-income African American women ages 40 and above. We conducted formative research using focus groups to inform campaign development, resulting in five emergent themes-good breast health, holistic views of healthiness, cancer fatalism, fear of mammogram machines, and mammogram affordability. The campaign targeted specific low-income African American communities in the District of Columbia via print ads in Metro stations and on buses, print ads in the Washington Informer, and online ads on a local TV network website. Data were collected before, during, and after campaign implementation to assess reach and impact. Reach was measured by number of impressions (number of people exposed to the campaign), while impact was assessed via online ad click-through rates, website use and referrals, and mammography center calls. The campaign was successful in reaching the target audience, with a total combined reach from all media of 9,479,386 impressions. In addition, the mammography center received significant increases in new website visitors (1482 during the campaign, compared to 24 during the preceding period) as well as 97 calls to the dedicated phone line. Further research involving a more long-term investment in terms of funding and campaign run time, coupled with a more robust evaluation, is needed to assess if culturally appropriate mass media campaigns can generate increased mammography screening rates and decrease breast-cancer-related mortality.

  1. Intention, autonomy, and brain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2009-07-01

    Informed consent is the practical expression of the doctrine of autonomy. But the very idea of autonomy and conscious free choice is undercut by the view that human beings react as their unconscious brain centres dictate, depending on factors that may or may not be under rational control and reflection. This worry is, however, based on a faulty model of human autonomy and consciousness and needs close neurophilosophical scrutiny. A critique of the ethics implied by the model takes us towards a 'care of the self' view of autonomy and the subject's attunement to the truth as the crux of reasoning rather than the inner mental/neural state views of autonomy and human choice on offer at present.

  2. The Challenge of University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduce the reader to the book, providing a historical perspective and a current understanding of university autonomy. While appreciating the central role of the four dimensions of university autonomy – organisational, financial, human resource, and academic – the authors conjecture...... that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a holistic view of the complex inter-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and, equally, pull in opposite directions. This holistic view is represented in a model of institutional university autonomy......, which is discussed at length in the chapter. The authors conclude by presenting international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are genuinely global....

  3. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter......-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and equally pull in opposite directions. The holistic view is expressed in a model of institutional university autonomy that brings together the traditional basic four pillars of autonomy, and five interfaces: government–university; university......–university staff; academic staff–students; university–business; and university–internationalisation. This model is explored through international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are complex, interactive and genuinely...

  4. Patient-Perceived Autonomy and Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Use: A Qualitative Assessment in a Midwestern, University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeal, Carley; Higgins, Jenny A; Newton, Shaunna R

    2018-01-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are the most effective contraceptives and are first-line recommendations for most women. However, young women use these methods at relatively low rates. Given concern with contraceptive coercion, an underexamined factor contributing to LARC attitudes is women's perceived reproductive and bodily autonomy in regard to LARC. We conducted focus group discussions and interviews regarding LARC perceptions and knowledge with 50 women between the ages of 18 and 29. We used a modified grounded theory approach to analyze young women's impressions of autonomy in relation to contraceptives more generally and LARC more specifically, both among ever-users and never-users. Four themes emerged regarding women's perceived autonomy with LARC. Control over pregnancy, active participation versus external agent, control over bleeding patterns, and autonomy in the provider/patient relationship. Within most themes, women made both positive and negative associations between perceived autonomy and LARC. The provider/patient relationship was a modifier of other themes, in that cooperative relationships may overshadow other perceived reductions in autonomy, and more unbalanced relationships may heighten perceived reductions in autonomy. Ever-users were more likely to report increased autonomy with LARC use, whereas never-users were more likely to express concerns about loss of autonomy with LARC. This study suggests that perceived autonomy may influence women's perceptions of LARC as well as their uptake of these contraceptive methods, with several factors both positively and negatively related to women's perceived autonomy. We encourage the integration of these findings into patient-centered counseling as well as educational materials for LARC.

  5. Patient-Perceived Autonomy and Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Use: A Qualitative Assessment in a Midwestern, University Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley Zeal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs are the most effective contraceptives and are first-line recommendations for most women. However, young women use these methods at relatively low rates. Given concern with contraceptive coercion, an underexamined factor contributing to LARC attitudes is women's perceived reproductive and bodily autonomy in regard to LARC. We conducted focus group discussions and interviews regarding LARC perceptions and knowledge with 50 women between the ages of 18 and 29. We used a modified grounded theory approach to analyze young women's impressions of autonomy in relation to contraceptives more generally and LARC more specifically, both among ever-users and never-users. Four themes emerged regarding women's perceived autonomy with LARC. Control over pregnancy, active participation versus external agent, control over bleeding patterns, and autonomy in the provider/patient relationship. Within most themes, women made both positive and negative associations between perceived autonomy and LARC. The provider/patient relationship was a modifier of other themes, in that cooperative relationships may overshadow other perceived reductions in autonomy, and more unbalanced relationships may heighten perceived reductions in autonomy. Ever-users were more likely to report increased autonomy with LARC use, whereas never-users were more likely to express concerns about loss of autonomy with LARC. This study suggests that perceived autonomy may influence women's perceptions of LARC as well as their uptake of these contraceptive methods, with several factors both positively and negatively related to women's perceived autonomy. We encourage the integration of these findings into patient-centered counseling as well as educational materials for LARC.

  6. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  7. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  8. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to face one of the season’s biggest problems: tree pollen . Common symptoms of springtime allergies include: Runny nose Itchy eyes Sneezing Congestion “Our Spring Allergy Capitals report is a valuable tool to help identify cities where seasonal allergy symptoms can create challenges,” ...

  9. Capital Unchained

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryan, Dick; Rafferty, Michael; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    on measuring (by accountants), managing (by corporations) and monitoring (by International Political Economy scholars and regulators), this article explores the longer term implications of accumulation of internationalised capital in intangible and abstract forms, and the prominent role of finance and offshore...

  10. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  11. partial capitalness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    A world away, in the Cape Winelands, architects of Stellenbosch struggle for the identity of the city, the capital of the unique cultural landscape. Here the traditional African culture is mixed with three century-long tradition of winegrowing and winemaking. This wonderful mixture was placed on the UNESCO Tentative List of World Heritage Sites. The authors of the project use cultural heritage protection laws to protect their city from chaotic development.

  12. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  13. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  14. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  15. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  16. Institutional Financial Autonomy in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwebs, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals how university autonomy may in practice prove to be restrictive for units within the university. The need to implement and interpret external regulations and protect the institution may, argued in the paper, lead to a risk averse, conservative approach which is experienced...... by departments as bureaucratic and hampering effective research. Thus autonomy has produced new internal tensions between the central management/administration and the departments which it is argued is counter-productive and not beneficial for research and could be seen as a perverse aspect of greater autonomy....... Indeed because university policy and ‘interference’ is much closer to the researcher than in former less autonomous times and the university may now exercise other direct incentives through resource allocation, promotion and salary enhancement, the department and the individual may view autonomy...

  17. Learning for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Jose

    1989-12-01

    There is a need for a new concept of post-literacy which goes beyond the learning of codes. The target population is defined on the basis of their need to be given the capacity to take decisions on essential economic, civic, political and day-to-day aspects of their lives. The main arena of post-literacy lies in the countries of the Third World, where the economic crisis has serious effects on the quality of life and impairs the motivation to learn. Particular reference is made to the concept of participation and to the ability to determine four types of basic educational need: fundamental needs, productivity needs, social service needs and community organization needs. Four Latin American programmes linked to these four types of need are presented and discussed in terms of their particular features: popular participation in decision making; the search for methods and techniques which give the population a certain degree of autonomy; and respect for the cultures and world visions of the communities in the conduct of post-literacy, educational innovation and other activities. The programmes are: post-literacy in Nicaragua (fundamental education needs); research on post-literacy and employment in 13 countries (productivity needs); the CIPCA project for peasants in Piura, on the northern coast of Peru (social service needs); and the `Talking Maps' project developed with the Paez community in Cauca, Colombia (community organization needs).

  18. Development of women's human capital and its impact on economic growth and total factor productivity: A case study of selected OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mostafaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of developed countries and various studies in the context of economic growth of developing countries have shown that economic growth is not only explained by physical capital and labor force but also, and more importantly, by human capital. The later variable should be entered, as a major determinant, in the endogenous growth model. With the concern of important role of human capital in this research, the primary objective of this paper is to explore the effect of gender discrimination of human capital on economic growth and factor productivity in Iran and the selected OECD countries. More specifically, to indicate the economic capability of educated females, we use data of the considered countries over the period 1974-2008, to estimate the relevant models of growth and productivity. The implication is to compare the empirical results obtained for Iran and the selected developed countries.

  19. The association between oxytocin and social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is known to be related to social behaviors, including trust. However, few studies have investigated the association between oxytocin levels and social capital. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous oxytocin levels are positively associated with social capital. We also considered whether the association differed across gender because previous studies have shown differential effects of OT on social behaviors depending on gender. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of 50 women and 31 men in Japan via community sampling from whom we obtained urine sample with which to measure oxytocin levels. Individual-level cognitive social capital (social trust and mutual aid and structural social capital (community participation were assessed using a questionnaire. We used multivariate regression, adjusted for covariates (age, number of children, self-rated health, and education, and stratified by gender to consider associations between oxytocin and social capital. RESULTS: Among women, oxytocin was inversely associated with social trust and mutual aid (p<0.05. However, women participating in only 1 organization in the community showed higher oxytocin than women who participated in either no organizations (p<0.05 or 2 or more organization (i.e. inverse-U shape association. Among men, no association was observed between oxytocin and either form of cognitive and structural social capital. CONCLUSION: Women who perceived low cognitive social capital showed higher oxytocin levels, while structural social capital showed inverse-U shape association with oxytocin. No association between oxytocin and social capital was found among men. Further study is needed to elucidate why oxytocin was inversely associated with cognitive social capital only among women.

  20. Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Employment survey data show that, although training intensity in the first three months of employment is similar for men and women, women are employed in positions with shorter training and less capital. These differences and lower market valuation for women's work experience account for much of the wage gap. (SK)

  1. Effects of task autonomy on performance: an extended model considering motivational, informational, and structural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfred, Claus W; Moye, Neta A

    2004-12-01

    A model explaining the relationship between task autonomy and performance is proposed that incorporates 3 different causal mechanisms. The performance benefits of task autonomy may be realized by increased motivation (motivational mechanisms), by capitalization of information asymmetries (informational mechanisms), or by better alignment with task and organizational structures (structural mechanisms). Further, it is proposed that these performance benefits are moderated by a variety of variables ranging from individual traits to organizational design. This model may provide a means for accounting for the sometimes inconsistent findings in the empirical literature exploring the relationship between autonomy and performance. The model also offers guidance in the search for additional boundary conditions as well as prescriptive guidelines for the allocation of autonomy in practice. 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Autonomy, positive relationships, and IL-6: evidence for gender-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Segerstrom, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research centre for blood draws. In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that moderate autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men. In the US national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, moderate autonomy was again associated with higher IL-6 in men only. Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. What is already known on this subject? A host of previous work indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women. Further, there is some evidence suggesting that well-being consistent with gender-linked values is more health protective, such that relationships are more protective for women than for men, while

  3. Women’s decision-making autonomy and children’s schooling in rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women’s decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women’s autonomy and children’s schooling. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between rural women’s decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child’s gender. METHODS The analysis uses data from a 2009 survey of rural households in four districts of Gaza province in southern Mozambique. Multilevel logistic models predict the probability of being in school for children between 6 and 14 years old. RESULTS The results show a positive association of women’s decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled in primary school for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women’s autonomy is net of other women’s characteristics typically associated with enrollment and does not mediate the effects of those characteristics. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results, we argue that women with higher levels of decision-making autonomy may have a stronger preference for daughters’ schooling and may have a greater say in making and implementing decisions regarding daughters’ education, compared to women with lower autonomy levels. Results also illustrate a need for considering a broader set of autonomy-related characteristics when examining the effects of women’s status on children’s educational outcomes. PMID:26491400

  4. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  5. [Autonomy for financial management in public and private healthcare facilities in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Madeira, Fátima Carvalho; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert; Bakr, Felipe; Oliveira, Klivia Brayner de; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de

    2014-01-01

    Autonomy in financial management is an advantage in public administration. A 2009 National Healthcare Facility Survey showed that 3.9% of Brazil's 52,055 public healthcare facilities had some degree of financial autonomy. Such autonomy was more common in inpatient facilities (17.8%), those managed by State governments (26.3%), and in Southern Brazil (6.6%). Autonomy was mainly partial (for resources in specific areas, relating to small outlays, consumables and capital goods, and outsourced services or personnel). 74.3% of 2,264 public facilities with any financial autonomy were under direct government administration. Financial autonomy in public healthcare facilities appears to be linked to local political decisions and not necessarily to the facility's specific legal and administrative status. However, legal status displays distinct scopes of autonomy - those under direct government administration tend to be less autonomous, and those under private businesses more autonomous; 85.8% of the 45,394 private healthcare facilities reported that they were financially autonomous.

  6. THE CHALLENGE OF AUTONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE VARIOUS DIMENSIONS OF AUTONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristi IFTENE

    2009-01-01

    There are various dimensions of autonomy (policy, financial, structural, personnel, legal, institutional) as different scholars demonstrated (Christensen 2001, Verhoest et. al. 2004). In the present paper we will focus only on political and financial autonomy. As Yesilkagit and van Thiel demonstrated there is a difference between formal and de facto autonomy. They found that formal autonomy does not reinforce de facto autonomy and that organizations with less autonomy report higher levels of ...

  7. The Women's Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Catharine R.; And Others

    Barnard College has created a Women's Center that devotes itself to the task of reaffirming the dignity, autonomy, and equality of women. For too long society has held that women are less rational than men, less capable than men, and thus that educating women is less useful than educating men. Replacing myth with fact is the responsibility of…

  8. Triads of capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    of capital means a coherent stock of capital, including social, cultural and physical capital, which belongs to a local community. The case of civic organization in rural Denmark 1800-1900 shows how the three capitals successively acted as driving forces: physical capital about year 1800, social capital...... about year 1880, and cultural capital about year 1900. In each case, one form of capital changed the two others in a chain reaction process, which ultimately led to a major reorganization of the triads of capital in the local rural communities....

  9. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  10. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  11. Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2014-02-01

    When studied separately, research shows that both teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are associated with adaptive motivational and emotional outcomes. This study tested whether teacher self-efficacy and teacher autonomy are independently associated with engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. 2,569 Norwegian teachers in elementary school and middle school (719 men, 1,850 women; M age = 45.0 yr., SD = 11.5) were administered the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, the Teacher Autonomy Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The analysis revealed that both teacher autonomy and self-efficacy were independent predictors of engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. This study suggests that autonomy or decision latitude works positively but through different processes for teachers with high and low mastery expectations.

  12. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  13. The Effect of Gender on Resident Autonomy in the Operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Shari L; Sternbach, Joel M; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Bender, Edward M

    Discrimination against women training in medicine and surgery has been subjectively described for decades. This study objectively documents gender differences in the degree of autonomy given to thoracic surgery trainees in the operating room. Thoracic surgery residents and faculty underwent frame of reference training on the use of the 4-point Zwisch scale to measure operative autonomy. Residents and faculty then submitted evaluations of their perception of autonomy granted for individual operations as well as operative difficulty on a real-time basis using the "Zwisch Me!!" mobile application. Differences in autonomy given to male and female residents were elucidated using chi-square analysis and ordered logistic regression. Seven academic medical centers with thoracic surgery training programs. Volunteer thoracic surgery residents in both integrated and traditional training pathways and their affiliated cardiothoracic faculty. Residents (n = 33, female 18%) submitted a total of 596 evaluations to faculty (n = 48, female 12%). Faculty gave less autonomy to female residents with only 56 of 184 evaluations (30.3%) showing meaningful autonomy (passive help or supervision only) compared to 107 of 292 evaluations (36.7%) at those levels for male residents (p = 0.02). Resident perceptions of autonomy showed even more pronounced differences with female residents receiving only 38 of 197 evaluations (19.3%) with meaningful autonomy compared to 133 of 399 evaluations (33.3%) for male residents (p autonomy granted to residents. Evaluations of operative autonomy reveal a significant bias against female residents. Faculty education is needed to encourage allowing female residents more operative autonomy. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The ADEPT Framework for Intelligent Autonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricard, Michael; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    ...) architecture for intelligent autonomy. Intelligent autonomy is the ability to plan and execute complex activities in a manner that provides rapid, effective response to stochastic and dynamic mission events...

  15. Using eHealth to Increase Autonomy Supportive Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Blom, Karina Fischer; Lee, Anne

    2018-01-01

    eHealth solutions are increasingly implemented in antenatal care to enhance women's involvement. The main aim of this study was to evaluate women's assessment of autonomy supportive care during the antenatal care visits among low-risk pregnant women. An intervention study was conducted including...... a control group attending standard antenatal care and an intervention group having access to an eHealth knowledge base, in addition to standard care. A total of 87 women were included in the control group and a total of 121 women in the intervention group. Data were collected using an online questionnaire 2...... weeks after participants had given birth. Data were analyzed using χ tests and Wilcoxon rank sums. Use of an eHealth knowledge base was associated with statistically significant higher scores for women's overall assessment of antenatal care visits, the organization of antenatal care visits, confidence...

  16. Full autonomy; Autarkie im Komplettpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2011-05-31

    Normally, those who talk of full solar autonomy refer to the annual balance of a house. Now, architect Timo Leukefeld and Helma Eigenheimbau AG presented a really autonomous solar house which is available on a turnkey basis for 363,000 Euros.

  17. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  18. Student Perceptions of Their Autonomy at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, D. C.; Morrell, L. J.; Scott, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    Learner autonomy is a primary learning outcome of Higher Education in many countries. However, empirical evaluation of how student autonomy progresses during undergraduate degrees is limited. We surveyed a total of 636 students' self-perceived autonomy during a period of two academic years using the Autonomous Learning Scale. Our analysis suggests…

  19. School Autonomy, Leadership and Learning: A Reconceptualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Ko, James; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for reconceptualising research on school autonomy to redress the limitations of traditional research, strengthen the conceptual links between school autonomy and learning outcomes and offer a range of new strategies for studying the interplay of school autonomy, leadership and learning.…

  20. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments

  1. Rawls: The Problem of Autonomy and Coherentism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnora Gondim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the idea of autonomy into that of justice as equality modifies the work of Rawls taken as a whole. Thus, while in the Theory of Justice, a Kantian- type of autonomy is adopted, in Political Liberalism, autonomy is extended to the sphere of the political.

  2. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  3. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  4. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND STRATEGIC PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: WOMEN ON THE BOARD AND FEMALE LEADERSHIP, CEO OVERCONFIDENCE, LAYOFF DECISIONS Capital Market Perception and Shareholder Wealth Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Anna Verena

    2017-01-01

    The present dissertation deals with selected aspects of corporate governance and personnel management and provides an in-depth analysis of capital markets’ perception of these issues and the effects on shareholder wealth. Subjects of the investigation are the role and effects of gender diversity on corporate boards and female leadership, CEO overconfidence and corporate layoff decisions. Chapter 2 offers a comprehensive overview of existing research on the effects of an increased female ...

  5. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women’s Autonomy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Women’s autonomy has frequently been linked with women’s opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women’s autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition—Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women’s religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women’s empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings. PMID:26973353

  6. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  7. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  8. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  9. Enhancing autonomy in paid surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, Jennifer; Sorensen, Kelly

    2008-06-01

    The gestational surrogate--and her economic and educational vulnerability in particular--is the focus of many of the most persistent worries about paid surrogacy. Those who employ her, and those who broker and organize her services, usually have an advantage over her in resources and information. That asymmetry exposes her to the possibility of exploitation and abuse. Accordingly, some argue for banning paid surrogacy. Others defend legal permission on grounds of surrogate autonomy, but often retain concerns about the surrogate. In response to the dilemma of a ban versus bald permission, we propose a 'soft law' approach: states should require several hours of education of surrogates--education aimed at informing and enhancing surrogate autonomy.

  10. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  11. Autonomy and the akratic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, C J

    1993-01-01

    I argue that the distinction which is current in much writing on medical ethics between autonomous and non-autonomous patients cannot cope comfortably with weak-willed (incontinent) patients. I describe a case involving a patient who refuses a blood transfusion even though he or she agrees that it would be in his or her best interests. The case is discussed in the light of the treatment of autonomy by B Brody and R Gillon. These writers appear to force us to treat an incontinent patient either as autonomous, just like a rational agent whose decisions are in accordance with his beliefs or as non-autonomous, like comatose patients or children. Though neither is entirely satisfactory I opt for describing such patients as autonomous but point out that in cases like this the principle of respect for autonomy does not give a determinate answer about how the patient ought to be treated. PMID:8308874

  12. Reproductive autonomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive autonomy (RA has been challenged by the availability of genetic information, disability and the ethics of selective reproduction. Utilitarian and rights-based approaches, as well as procreative beneficence (PB fail to provide compelling reasons for infringing RA, and may even be likened to dangerous eugenics. Parents are not morally obliged to prevent the birth of a disabled child. Society should rather adopt inclusivity, recognising and providing persons with disabilities opportunities for capability and worthwhile lives.

  13. The many faces of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    2012-02-01

    What does autonomy mean from a moral point of view? Throughout Western history, autonomy has had no less than four different meanings. The first is political: the capacity of old cities and modern states to give themselves their own laws. The second is metaphysical, and was introduced by Kant in the second half of the 18th century. In this meaning, autonomy is understood as an intrinsic characteristic of all rational beings. Opposed to this is the legal meaning, in which actions are called autonomous when performed with due information and competency and without coercion. This last meaning, the most frequently used in bioethics, is primarily legal instead of moral. Is there a proper moral meaning of the word autonomy? If so, this would be a fourth meaning. Acts can only be called moral when they are postconventional (using the terminology coined by Lawrence Kohlberg), inner-directed (as expressed by David Riesman), and responsible (according to Hannah Arendt). Such acts are autonomous in this new, fourth, and to my mind, the only one proper, moral meaning. The goal of ethics cannot be other than forming human beings capable of making autonomous and responsible decisions, and doing so because they think this is their duty and not because of any other nonmoral motivation, like comfort, convenience, or satisfaction. The goal of ethics is to promote postconventional and mature human beings. This was what Socrates tried to do with the young people of Athens. And it is also the objective of every course of ethics and of any process of training.

  14. Women’s Autonomy and its Relationship to Children’s Nutrition Among the Rendille of Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNSON, EMILY K.; SHELL-DUNCAN, BETTINA; STEELE, MATTHEW

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effect of women’s autonomy on children’s health. Research was conducted among the Rendille, a traditionally nomadic pastoralist population living in northern Kenya. Using data collected from 435 women and 934 of their children, we tested the hypothesis that women with higher levels of autonomy would have children with better nutrition. Results of our study indicated that while women’s autonomy had no effect on younger—ages 0–35 months—children’s nutrition as measured b...

  15. Social capital and health during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Rheinlaender, Thilde; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dimensions of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy are sparsely described in the literature.This study explores dimensions of social capital and the mechanisms in which they could affect the health of ruralSri Lankan pregnant women.Methods: An exploratory qualitative study......-diary interviews.Sixteen key informant interviews were conducted with public health midwives and senior community dwellers.We identified ten cognitive and five structural constructs of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy. Domesticand neighborhood cohesion were the most commonly expressed constructs....... Social support was limited to supportfrom close family, friends and public health midwives. A high density of structural social capital was observed in themicro-communities. Membership in local community groups was not common. Four different pathways by whichsocial capital could influence health...

  16. Decentralization and public expenditure: Does special local autonomy affect regional economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martapina Anggai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between public expenditure within regional autonomy policy and economic growth in West Papua and Papua provinces. We distinguish two kinds of expenditure’s decentralization – operational and capital – and also private expenditures. We use an unbalanced panel data over the period of 2007-2010 to investigate those expenditures, whether they enhance regional economic growth or not. We find that the government’s operating and private expenditures have a positive effect on local economic growth, but there is no relationship between capital expenditure’s decentralization on economic growth. The findings did not conform to a-priori efficiency expectations, which suggest needing to reform regional autonomy and fiscal decentralization policy in both provinces.

  17. Women’s Health Decision-Making Autonomy and Skilled Birth Attendance in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kwabena Ameyaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivering in health facility under the supervision of skilled birth attendant is an important way of mitigating impacts of delivery complications. Empirical evidence suggests that decision-making autonomy is aligned with holistic wellbeing especially in the aspect of maternal and child health. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between women’s health decision-making autonomy and place of delivery in Ghana. We extracted data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive and logistic regression techniques were applied. The results indicated that women with health decision-making autonomy have higher tendency of health facility delivery as compared to those who are not autonomous [OR = 1.27, CI = 1.09–1.48]. However, those who have final say on household large purchases [OR = 0.71, CI = 0.59–0.84] and those having final say on visits [OR = 0.86, CI = 0.73–1.01] were less probable to deliver in health facility than those without such decision-making autonomy. Consistent with existing evidence, wealthier, urban, and highly educated women had higher inclination of health facility delivery. This study has stressed the need for interventions aimed at enhancing health facility delivery to target women without health decision-making autonomy and women with low education and wealth status, as this can play essential role in enhancing health facility delivery.

  18. Autonomy, Positive Relationships, and IL-6: Evidence for Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centered aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centered aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health-protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. Methods In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States (U.S.) underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research center for blood draws. Results In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that average autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men, providing support for our hypothesis only at above average levels of IL-6. In the U.S. national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, higher autonomy was associated with lower IL-6 in men only. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. PMID:22908985

  19. Commercial surrogacy and the human right to autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifris, Ronli

    2015-12-01

    Arguments against commercial surrogacy frequently focus on the rights of the surrogate. For-example, those opposed to commercial surrogacy often argue that surrogacy arrangements amount to the exploitation of women and the commodification of their wombs. Phrased in the language of rights, such arguments draw on the right to be free from degrading treatment and the right to be free from discrimination. In contrast, those who support commercial surrogacy refute the arguments relating to exploitation and commodification and cite the right to work and more commonly the right to privacy/autonomy as the key rights in question. This article focuses on the human right to autonomy and interrogates whether prohibitions on commercial surrogacy violate the right of a woman to choose to be a surrogate.

  20. Women’s autonomy in health care decision-making in developing countries: a synthesis of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Autonomy is considered essential for decision-making in a range of health care situations, from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. Evidence suggests that women in developing or low-income countries often have limited autonomy and control over their health decisions. A review of the published empirical literature to identify definitions and methods used to measure women’s autonomy in developing countries describe the relationship between women’s autonomy and their health care decision-making, and identify sociodemographic factors that influence women’s autonomy and decision-making regarding health care was carried out. An integrated literature review using two databases (PubMed and Scopus) was performed. Inclusion criteria were 1) publication in English; 2) original articles; 3) investigations on women’s decision-making autonomy for health and health care utilization; and 4) developing country context. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, including eleven from South Asia, five from Africa, and one from Central Asia. Most studies used a definition of autonomy that included independence for women to make their own choices and decisions. Study methods differed in that many used study-specific measures, while others used a set of standardized questions from their countries’ national health surveys. Most studies examined women’s autonomy in the context of reproductive health, while neglecting other types of health care utilized by women. Several studies found that factors, including age, education, and income, affect women’s health care decision-making autonomy. Gaps in existing literature regarding women’s autonomy and health care utilization include gaps in the areas of health care that have been measured, the influence of sex roles and social support, and the use of qualitative studies to provide context and nuance. PMID:27354830

  1. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  2. Autonomy and the Sources of Political Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Contemporary political liberals argue for extending the scope of reasonable disagreement to include also the principle of autonomy that was central in classical liberal theory. I take outset in Charles Larmore, The Autonomy of Morality (2008), which argues that liberal theory can dispense...... with the commitment to autonomy that one finds in Locke, Kant, and Mill, because "the essential convictions of liberal thought lie at a more fundamental level," namely in the principle of respect for persons. The main question I address is whether we can see the commitment to respect for persons as separable from...... the commitment to autonomy. My focus is the Kantian conception of autonomy, and I argue for understanding this conception practically and politically, rather than metaphysically and theoretically. In this way we can separate the principle of respect for persons from the metaphysical idea of autonomy as self...

  3. Autonomy and structure can enhance motivation of volunteers in sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Wu, Kou Hsien; Wang, Yi Ching; Hsiao, Chia Huei; Wu, Hui Chin

    2013-12-01

    The goal was better understanding of the motivational factors of volunteers in non-profit sport organizations. The roles of two factors provided by supervisors to their subordinates were examined: autonomy support, i.e., the encouragement of self-initiation and emphasis on choice rather than control, and structure, i.e., the introduction of order, definite procedures, and rules. 489 sport volunteers (289 men, 200 women; M age = 31.2 yr., SD = 7.4) were administered questionnaires assessing their perceived autonomy support, structure, and motivation. Regression analysis indicated that perceived autonomy support predicted motivation. Structure also mediated the effect of perceived autonomy support on motivation. Supervisors of sport organizations should provide adequate structure for their volunteers.

  4. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms w...

  5. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan

    1996-01-01

    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  6. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  7. The Discriminant Analysis: an Exploratory Study Concerning the Degree of Financial Autonomy of Companies in the Context of the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Mironiuc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the evolution of financial autonomy on a sample of 80 companies quoted in the Bucharest Stock Exchange, between 2006-2008. Classically, financial autonomy is measured using the global and day-to-day rates of financial autonomy. However, this study has tested the dependency between the global rate of financial autonomy (Own Capital/ Total debts and a series of economic and financial indicators, with the purpose of obtaining both a score function that would help making a classification of the companies subject to our analysis, in performance groups (companies with a high financial autonomy, companies with a medium financial autonomy, companies with a low financial autonomy, and companies with no financial autonomy, and quantifying the influence of the relative variations of these economic and financial indicators on the relative variation of financial autonomy. In order to calculate the results, the statistic instrument SPSS 15.0 was used, and the work method was the discriminant analysis and the regression and multiple correlation analysis.

  8. State Capitalism in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.

    2017-01-01

    The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.

  9. Adolescents, Graduated Autonomy, and Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy takes many shapes. The concept of “graduated autonomy” is conceived as comprising several unique features: (1 it is incremental, (2 it is proportional, and (3 it is related to the telos of the life stage during which it occurs. This paper focuses on graduated autonomy in the context of genetic testing during adolescence. Questions can be raised about other life stages as well, and some of these questions will be addressed by discussing a possible fourth characteristic of graduated autonomy, that is, its elasticity. Further scholarship and analysis is needed to refine the concept of graduated autonomy and examine its applications.

  10. Characteristics of Law-Autonomy Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Stephan, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines several characteristics of foreign subsidiaries with low autonomy. Data derived from a survey of 381 MNC subsidiaries located in Denmark, Germany and the UK demonstrate that low-autonomy subsidiaries are highly embedded in their respective MNC networks and that they establish ...... relationship between lower autonomy and the production activities carried out by the subsidiary. In fact, low-autonomy subsidiaries appear to be specialized in that they focus on a few value-chain activities and they typically serve as marketing outlets....

  11. An intercultural nursing perspective on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on an empirical study regarding ethical challenges in intercultural nursing. The focus is on autonomy and disclosure. Autonomy is a human capacity that has become an important ethical principle in nursing. Although the relationship between autonomy and patients' possibly harmful choices is discussed, the focus is on 'forced' autonomy. Nurses seem to equate respect with autonomy; it seems to be hard to cope with the fact that there are patients who voluntarily undergo treatment but who actively participate neither in the treatment offered nor in making choices regarding that treatment. Nurses' demand for patients to be autonomous may in some cases jeopardize the respect, integrity and human worth that the ethical principle of autonomy is meant to ensure. Even though respect for a person's autonomy is also respect for the person, one's respect for the person in question should not depend on his or her capacity or aptitude to act autonomously. Is autonomy necessarily a universal ethical principle? This article negates this question and, through the issues of culture, individualism versus collectivism, first- and second-order autonomy, communication and the use of family interpreters, and respect, an attempt is made to explain why.

  12. Professional Autonomy versus Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Nygaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism and bureaucracy tend to be understood as incompatible systems of work organization, represented by the ideals of collegiality and auton-omy versus control and supervision. I present a historical case study from early 20th century Norway examining the potential clash between efforts made toward professionalization and bureaucratization in industry. Based on my findings, I argue that there is neither an inherent conflict between professionalism and bureaucracy nor static national trajectories at the level of professional versus bureaucratic work organization.

  13. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  14. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  15. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  16. Motivating Proteges' Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in proteges' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and proteges' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 proteges in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the proteges'…

  17. Individual autonomy in work teams : the role of team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Task autonomy is long recognized as a means to improve functioning of individuals and teams. Taking a multilevel approach, we unravelled the constructs of team and individual autonomy and studied the interplay between team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support in determining individual

  18. University Reform and Institutional Autonomy: A Framework for Analysing the Living Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Peter; Gornitzka, Åse; Fumasoli, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss recent university reforms aimed at enhancing university autonomy, highlighting various tensions in the underlying reform ideologies. We examine how the traditional interpretation of university autonomy has been expanded in the reform rationales. An analytical framework for studying how autonomy is interpreted and used…

  19. Mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting: evidence from semi-urban communities in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Nomura, Marika; Ogino, Hina; Yoshikawa, Kanako; Siengsounthone, Latsamy; Xangsayarath, Phonepadith

    2018-05-22

    Childhood stunting (height-for-age z-scores below - 2), a form of chronic undernutrition, remains a global health burden. Although a growing literature has examined the association between mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting, these studies have been limited to countries in South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa where women have relatively lower social status than do men. Little research has analyzed the effect of mothers' autonomy on childhood stunting in Lao PDR, where women's social status is relatively high compared to that in other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire and body scale measurement targeting 100 mothers and their 115 children (autonomy, we measured self-esteem, self-efficacy, decision-making power, freedom of mobility, and control of money. We then analyzed how each dimension was associated with the likelihood of childhood stunting. The likelihood of childhood stunting was significantly lower if mothers had higher self-efficacy for health care (OR = 0.15, p = 0.007), self-esteem (OR = 0.11, p = 0.025), or control of money (OR = 0.11, p = 0.041). In contrast, mothers' decision-making power and freedom of mobility were not significantly associated with childhood stunting. We clarified which dimensions of women's autonomy were associated with childhood stunting in Lao PDR. A closer examination of mothers' autonomy will aid proper understanding of the determinants of childhood stunting.

  20. Female autonomy and reported abortion-seeking in Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Gupta, Mira; Aborigo, Raymond; Adongo, Phillip; Engman, Cyril; Hodgson, Abraham; Moyer, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    To investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination in Ghana and thereby appreciate the correlates of abortion-seeking in order to understand safe abortion care provision. In a retrospective study, data from the Ghana 2008 Demographic and Health Survey were used to investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination. Variables on an individual and household level were examined by both bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. A five-point autonomy scale was created to explore the role of female autonomy in reported abortion-seeking behavior. Among 4916 women included in the survey, 791 (16.1%) reported having an abortion. Factors associated with abortion-seeking included being older, having attended school, and living in an urban versus a rural area. When entered into a logistic regression model with demographic control variables, every step up the autonomy scale (i.e. increasing autonomy) was associated with a 14.0% increased likelihood of reporting the termination of a pregnancy (P health system barriers might play a role in preventing women from seeking safe abortion services, autonomy on an individual level is also important and needs to be addressed if women are to be empowered to seek safe abortion services. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Agency is Distinct from Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cummins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both autonomy and agency play central roles in the emerging enactive vocabulary. Although some treat these concepts as practically synonymous, others have sought to be more explicit about the conditions required for agency over and above autonomy. I attempt to be self-conscious about the role of the observer (or scientist in such discussions, and emphasise that the concept of agency, in particular, is deeply entwined with the nature of the observer and the framing of the observation. This is probably well known to enactivists, but runs the risk of being badly misunderstood if it is not made explicit. A heightened awareness of the role of the observer in the attribution of agency may allow us to make advances in questions in which progress is hindered by assuming a single split between subject and object. I argue that human experience is characterized by our embedding in webs of meaning arising from our participation in systems of many sorts, and that this richness demands a corresponding lightness of touch with respect to the identification of agentive subjects.

  2. Autopoiesis: Autology, Autotranscendence and Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and 1990s – particularly in a French context. While his work has remained (to date) at distance from the rising number of suggestions, especi- ally regarding social and cultural theory, that have come out of these debates on self-organization, Castoriadis made a speci¿c and original contribution to them...... ‘reality-modeling’ (John Casti) – whether via cognitive frameworks or models of society and culture. Secondly, attempts to adapt debates within the humanities, e.g. in philosophy, social theory and cultural studies, have tended to end in anti-humanism, ranging from Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘abstract machine......’s philosophy. She argues that a focus on the self-organization of the living being implies not only a distinct move towards an ontology of radical physis in Castoriadis’s later work, but also, along with it, a revised version of his project of autonomy. Autonomy, like autology and the other theme of this issue...

  3. Skill acquisition, capacity building and women economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and women economic empowerment: a case study of Women Education Center, ... eradication of gender related barriers and women empowerment at all levels. ... on human capital development particularly on women, increase expenditure ...

  4. Netherlands: Steady decline in job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.; Hooftmann, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that job autonomy has predominantly positive effects, such as the prevention of stress, burnout and cardiovascular disease. Employees with a good deal of autonomy generally report better well-being, are more productive, more creative, have more self-esteem and have higher work

  5. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  6. Scaffolding Learner Autonomy in Online University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Elisa; Bezanilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the question in what ways teachers and course designers can support the development and exertion of learner autonomy among online university students. It advocates that a greater attention to learner autonomy could help more students to complete their course successfully and thus contribute the decrease of the high dropout…

  7. Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.; Ryg, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of…

  8. On the Compatibility of Autonomy and Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relation of autonomy to naturally occurring social interactions in two studies: the first investigated college students' interactions with parents, and the second examined interactions across all relationships. Autonomy was significantly related to more positive and naturally occurring interaction, whereas control related more to…

  9. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  10. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  11. Progress in medicine: autonomy, oughtonomy and nudging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I argue that we need a new perspective in the debate on autonomy in medicine, to understand many of the problems we face today - dilemmas that are situated at the intersection of autonomy and heteronomy, such as why well informed and autonomous people make unhealthy lifestyle choices. If people do not choose what they want, this is not simply caused by their lack of character or capability, but also by the fact that absolute autonomy is impossible; autonomous individuals are 'contaminated' by heteronymous aspects, by influences from 'outside'. Consequently, there are many good reasons to question the widely accepted hierarchical opposition of autonomy (progress) versus heteronomy (paternalism) in medicine. In an earlier article an analysis is made of the neologism 'oughtonomy' to support the thesis that when it comes down to human existence, autonomy and heteronomy are intertwined, rather than being merely opposites. In this article, I reflect upon how social conditions might improve our 'choice architecture', what Thaler & Sunstein have called 'nudging': how to change individual health choices without being paternalistic? I explore the extent to which both oughtonomy and nudging are able to challenge the question of autonomy in today's medicine. Autonomy may and should be a shared target in today's medicine, but we should never forget that it is always intertwined with heteronomy. Starting from this perspective, progress in medicine demands far more than the increase of autonomy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…

  13. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  14. Autonomy in place of birth: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Wilson, Margaret E; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2015-11-01

    This article examines one of the relevant concepts in the current debate on home birth-autonomy in place of birth-and its uses in general language, ethics, and childbirth health care literature. International discussion on childbirth services. A concept analysis guided by the model of Walker and Avant. The authors suggest that autonomy in the context of choosing place of birth is defined by three main attributes: information, capacity and freedom; given the antecedent of not harming others, and the consequences of accountability for the outcome. Model, borderline and contrary cases of autonomy in place of birth are presented. A woman choosing place of birth is autonomous if she receives all relevant information on available choices, risks and benefits, is capable of understanding and processing the information and choosing place of birth in the absence of coercion, provided she intends no harm to others and is accountable for the outcome. The attributes of the definition can serve as a useful tool for pregnant women, midwives, and other health professionals in contemplating their moral status and discussing place of birth.

  15. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Willigenburg, Theo; Delaere, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients. Autonomy is understood in this context in terms of sovereignty ("governing" or "managing" oneself). After critically analyzing this idea of autonomy in the context of various forms of self-commitment and pre-commitment, we argue that what is at stake in using Ulysses contracts in psychiatry is not autonomy as sovereignty, but autonomy as authenticity. Pre-commitment directives do not function to protect autonomous self-control. They serve in upholding the guidance that is provided by one's deepest identity conferring concerns. We elucidate this concept of autonomy as authenticity, by showing how Ulysses contracts protect the possibility of being "a self."

  16. Autonomy and independence in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...

  17. Indications for treatment of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on pathophysiological findings and considerations it is attempted to review critically the present state of indications and therapeutic modalities in cases of thyroid autonomy. If hyperthyroidism occurs or has occurred in autonomy, definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery is indicated. In cases of autonomy with euthyroidism, treatment planning and indication of definite therapy are difficult still today, because the risk to develop hyperthyroidism cannot as yet be sufficiently estimated. A useful indicator in such cases seems to be the percentage of global thyreoidal uptake of 99m-technetium under supression. If autonomy is severe surgical treatment today is superior to radio-iodine therapy, but is associated with a higher rate of manifest hypothyroidism. Further research into both the risk of hyperthyroidism in thyroid autonomy and the optimization of radio-iodine therapy are needed. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Systems capabilities on ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) and autonomy have traditionally been addressed separately. This means that ISHM functions, such as anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and comprehensive system awareness have not been considered traditionally in the context of autonomy functions such as planning, scheduling, and mission execution. One key reason is that although they address systems capabilities, both ISHM and autonomy have traditionally individually been approached as independent strategies and models for analysis. Additionally, to some degree, a unified paradigm for ISHM and autonomy has been difficult to implement due to limitations of hardware and software. This paper explores a unified treatment of ISHM and autonomy in the context of distributed hierarchical autonomous operations.

  19. The Autonomy Activity Status of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzikowska, Marlena; Gammelgaard, Jens; Jindra, Björn

    Research concerning the autonomy of subsidiaries has been concentrated on the possession of decision-making rights. Building on the definitional and empirical argumentation, we claim that so understood autonomy has a prospective character, is not equal to the implementation of actual actions (or...... lack of thereof) and neglects the issue of the scope of potential actions. This paper aims to fill in the current literature gap by offering a holistic stance in which we assert that subsidiaries can be meaningfully differentiated according to their levels of autonomy and corresponding actions. We base...... this argumentation on the findings of real option theory and competitive dynamics perspective, develop a typology specific to a subsidiary’s autonomy activity status (the position of a subsidiary in terms of its autonomy level confronted with the extent of actions taken in a corresponding area). We evaluate...

  20. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  1. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  2. [Is autonomy ground of human dignity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo Alvarez-Valdés, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the conditions of autonomy if this is to be the foundation of human dignity. Since Kant Modernity has dissociated nature from morality and has tried to support autonomy in its purely formal aspect. To forget nature has voluntarist consequences that affect the way in which autonomy is understand. But autonomy does not consist of not having links, but of knowing how to assume one's own links freely and to be conscious of one's own limits. Autonomy and liberty are the very thing of the rational being, capable of discerning good and bad, and this must direct our actions. Reason directs as and distances us from reality to recognize the advisable thing in the human being.

  3. Effective means of planning for and implementing autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehof, Lars Adam

    1991-01-01

    Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights......Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights...

  4. Predicting individual differences in autonomy-connectedness: the role of body awareness, alexithymia, and assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Croon, Marcel A; van Balkom, Esther G A; Vermee, Jennifer B G

    2008-06-01

    Autonomy-connectedness is the capacity for being on one's own as well as for satisfactorily engaging in interpersonal relationships. Associations have been shown between autonomy-connectedness components (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and the capacity for managing new situations) and various indices of psychopathology. Both in a theoretical sense as well as for enhancing treatment and prevention, it is relevant to identify which factors most powerfully predict individual differences in autonomy-connectedness: body awareness, alexithymia, or assertiveness. The present study examined this question in a clinical sample of women who were diagnosed as having autonomy problems (N=52) and in a female nonclinical community sample (N=59). In line with expectations, assertiveness was a strong predictor of (all three components of) autonomy-connectedness, as was emotionalizing, one of the alexithymia-components, but the latter in an opposite direction than we had expected: the higher an individual's ability to emotionalize was, the less self-aware and capable to manage new situations that person was, and the more sensitive to others. Cognitive alexithymia contributed to self-awareness as well as to the capacity for managing new situations, and one of the components of body awareness appeared to predict capacity for managing new situations. Our results indicate that assertiveness training and the enhancement of emotion regulation are important elements of autonomy-connectedness targeted interventions. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Autonomy of imagery and production of original verbal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatena, J

    1976-08-01

    90 college students (31 men and 59 women) were categorized as moderately autonomous, less autonomous (less highly controlled) and non-autonomous (high controlled) imagers according to the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control Moderately autonomous imagers produced significantly more original verbal images than less autonomous and non-autonomous imagers with less autonomous imagers scoring higher than non-autonomous imagers as measured by Onomatopoeia and Images. There were no significant sex main effects of interaction of autonomy of imagery level X sex.

  6. Are the benefits of autonomy satisfaction and the costs of autonomy frustration dependent on individuals' autonomy strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Audenaert, Elien; De Schryver, Maarten; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-29

    From a self-determination theory perspective, individuals are assumed to benefit and suffer from, respectively, the satisfaction and frustration of the psychological need for autonomy, even if they score low on autonomy strength. Yet, previous studies on need strength are scarce, operationalized need strength differently, and produced inconsistent findings. In two studies among 224 South African adults (M age  = 24.13, SD = 4.25; 54.0% male) and 156 Belgian prisoners (M age  = 38.60, SD = 11.68; 88.5% male), we investigated the moderating role of autonomy valuation and desire in the relations of autonomy satisfaction and frustration with a variety of well-being and ill-being indicators. Study 1 provided some evidence for the moderating role of mostly explicit autonomy desire (rather than explicit autonomy valuation). In Study 2, neither explicit nor implicit autonomy desire played a consistent moderating role. Overall, these findings are congruent with a moderate (albeit not with a strong) interpretation of the universality claim made within self-determination theory, provide initial evidence for a differentiation between deficit-based and growth-oriented interpersonal differences in need strength, and indicate that the potential moderating role of need strength deserves continued attention before any firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  8. University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    This book introduces four evaluation studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. For the purpose of these evaluation studies, a research methodology was developed by the EUniAM project team and used by the Task Force teams to collect and analy...... in Moldova. Preliminary findings of the evaluation studies were presented at the International Conference on “A Quest to (Re)define University Autonomy” organized by the EUniAM project. At the same time, these findings had an impact on the context of the new Code of Education....... the data. Unobtrusive data in the form of laws regulating directly or indirectly the higher education system in Moldova, governmental and ministerial decrees, university chapters and organizational structures, and education records were collected and analysed. A total number of 144 documents have been...

  9. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  10. Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Autonomy and Postpartum STD Prevention Among Young Couples: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S

    2018-03-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  11. Care, Autonomy, and Gender in Nursing Practice: A Historical Study of Nurses' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Estragués, Paola; Comas-d'Argemir, Dolors

    2017-10-01

    Care is the essence of the nursing role and is closely related to the concept of professional autonomy. Autonomy is implicated in power relations between doctors and nurses and between men and women. These relationships are closely linked to care practices and the inequality of nursing and medicine. The aim of this study was to analyze nursing discourse regarding the concept of care and its relationship to the concept of autonomy and gender. This is a historical study based on oral interviews that took place between November 2008 and February 2011. We interviewed 19 nursing professionals who currently worked at the Hospital of the Holy Spirit (near Barcelona) or had worked there between 1961 and 2010. Semistructured interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. We highlight four main themes: "a real nurse"; "more technology, less care"; "the fragility of autonomy"; and "the invisibility of nursing work." These themes show the contradictions in the nursing profession that are based on the concept of care. However, in daily practice, the concept of care varies. Time pressure distances the nursing practice from its theoretical context. Changes in the concept of care are related to transformations in the health system and nursing work. Changes related to the autonomy of nursing are related to changes in the concept of care. In practice, care has a biomedical orientation. Care has become technologized and bureaucratized, which reduces the time that is spent with the patient. In a context in which medical authority predominates, nursing's struggle for autonomy is based on the recognition of the value of care. When care becomes invisible, the autonomy of nursing as a profession is threatened. This conclusion allows reflections about shifts in the concept of care and how they affect clinical practice and the autonomy of the nursing profession.

  12. Autonomy and the human element in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    productivity. Extended operations can in turn enhance critical technologies and contribute to the competitive economic abilities of the United States. A high degree of automation and autonomy may be required to reduce dependence on ground systems, reduce mission costs, diminish complexity as perceived by the crew, increase mission lifetime and expand mission versatility. However, technologies dealing with heavily automated, long duration habitable spacecraft have not yet been thoroughly investigated by NASA. A highly automated station must amalgamate the diverse capabilities of people, machines, and computers to yield an efficient system which capitalizes on unique human characteristics. The station also must have an initial design which allows evolution to a larger and more sophisticated space presence. In the early years it is likely that AI-based subsystems will be used primarily in an advisory or planning capacity. As human confidence in automated systems grows and as technology advances, machines will take on more critical and interdependent roles. The question is whether, and how much, system autonomy will lead to improved station effectiveness.

  13. The Effect of Cognitive and Relational Social Capital on Structural Social Capital and Micro-Enterprise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajennd A/L Muniady

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.

  14. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....... environments than in low-achieving ones), cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments), and cultural resources (cultural capital yields the same returns in different environments). We analyze PISA data from six countries and find that returns to cultural capital tend...

  15. Shared decision-making and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five different aspects of autonomy: (1) self-realisation; (2) preference satisfaction; (3) self-direction; (4) binary autonomy of the person; (5) gradual autonomy of the person. It is argued that both individually and jointly these aspects will support the models called shared rational deliberative patient choice and joint decision as the preferred versions from an autonomy perspective. Acknowledging that both of these models may fail, the professionally driven best interest compromise model is held out as a satisfactory second-best choice.

  16. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....

  17. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  18. ACCOUNT INSTRUMENT CAPITAL BORROWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Gheorghe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.

  19. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  20. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  1. Piketty’s Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...

  2. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  3. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  4. The Role of Capital Structure in Company’s Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in capital structure and in financial components of a company have a particular importance in choosing optimal financing decision, in determining the impact of changes in capital structure and of elements within balance sheet. To quantify such an impact in the literature have been considered many factors as debt-equity ratio, profitability, self financing capacity and the ability to earn profit. Using the comparative method over a period of three years to five companies acting in the metallurgical sector in this paper has been analyzed the evolution of debt capacity ratio, return on equity ratio, financial long term debt ratio, interest coverage ratio and long-term financial autonomy ratio. Based on these findings it was concluded that the variation of capital structure and performance of the companies affects and influences funding arrangements considered by the companies’ managers.

  5. Ageing and exercise: building body capital in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergland, Astrid; Fougner, Marit; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Research that provides better understanding of the motivational processes in older age to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is sought after. We apply theoretical approaches to cultural capital, active and healthy aging health to shed light on the women's experiences in maintaining physical capabilities through an active lifestyle, and thereby facilitating their own inclusion in society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore why older home dwelling women over the age of 70 years or more spend time in physical exercise and their experiences about the importance of participating in group exercise for their daily life.This paper reports on a qualitative study based on interviews with 16 older women aged 70 years or more and regularly attending group exercise classes in the community at an established workout center. The data were analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis approach. Three overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Building body capital for independence", "Building body capital to maintain vitality and being in control" and "Building resources for social interaction". The findings suggest that group exercise is important for building body capital. The group exercise helped the women in building bodily ability to manage everyday life, maintain vitality, being in control, pursue social interaction and live independently. These body resources were important for these older women's experience of the manageability and meaningfulness of daily life. This study has provided insights into older women's understanding and experiences of the challenges of everyday life within a theoretical framework of cultural capital and health. The women acquired cultural health capital, and more specifically body capital, by participating in the group exercise classes. The women's investment in body capital through regular physical activity created resources which facilitated social participation. Therefore professionals need to be

  6. Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicholas Ron

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives, feelings, and perceptions and provides students with information and opportunities for choice, while minimizing external pressures. It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (beta=0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (beta=-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (vs. controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to vs. had to; beta=0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (beta=0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (beta=0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable experience in the course. If greater autonomy support was in fact the cause of a more favorable student experience, as suggested by Self-determination Theory and experimental studies in other contexts, these results would have implications for instruction and instructor professional development in similar contexts. I discuss these implications. Study II, an experimental study, investigated the effect

  7. Reproductive autonomy: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Women are encouraged to expect a 'perfect baby', disability ... inclusivity, recognising and providing persons with disabilities opportunities for capability and worthwhile .... have other consequences, e.g. affecting employment or insurance.

  8. Oppression, Autonomy and the Impossibility of the Inner Citadel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for a conception of autonomy that takes social oppression seriously without sapping autonomy of its valuable focus on individual self-direction. Building on recent work in relational accounts of autonomy, the paper argues that current conceptions of autonomy from liberal, feminist and critical theorists do not adequately account…

  9. Heteronomous Citizenship: Civic Virtue and the Chains of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I distinguish personal autonomy from heteronomy, and consider whether autonomy provides a suitable basis for liberalism. I argue that liberal government should not promote autonomy in all its citizens, on the grounds that not all members of liberal democracies require autonomy for a good life. I then outline an alternative option…

  10. How important is Autonomy to Professional Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Mastekaasa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption is that autonomy is crucial to professional workers. I examine this using survey data on a sample of public sector welfare professionals, viz. medical doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers. Comparisons are made with general population data from the International Social Survey Programme. Two methods of assessing the importance of work autonomy are employed; respondents’ direct ratings and statistical associations between work autonomy (and other job characteristics on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other. Findings: Autonomy is not rated as more important among the professionals than in the general population, and neither is it more strongly related to job satisfaction. Interesting work and workplace social support appear to be more central.

  11. Autonomy, nudging and post-truth politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2017-11-16

    In his excellent essay, 'Nudges in a post-truth world', Neil Levy argues that 'nudges to reason', or nudges which aim to make us more receptive to evidence, are morally permissible. A strong argument against the moral permissibility of nudging is that nudges fail to respect the autonomy of the individuals affected by them. Levy argues that nudges to reason do respect individual autonomy, such that the standard autonomy objection fails against nudges to reason. In this paper, I argue that Levy fails to show that nudges to reason respect individual autonomy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K L

    2000-06-01

    Depression is quite common among young people in Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the association between emotional autonomy and depressive symptomatology among Chinese young people in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 young people between 16 and 18 years of age from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Significant bivariate relationships were found between depressive symptomatology and three dimensions of emotional autonomy (individuation, nondependency on parents, and deidealization of parents). Using multiple regression models, the author found that depressive symptomatology was associated with two aspects of emotional autonomy: individuation and deidealization of parents. Results indicate that the relationships between depressive symptomatology and these three aspects of emotional autonomy are similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  13. [The medical autonomy of elderly in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan.

  14. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  15. Fiscal autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    current system of decentralisation entrenches the financial autonomy of urban ..... of the UCA to deploy auditors to inspect the accounts of urban councils ..... Act; the payment of compensation; the liquidation of the principal monies owing on.

  16. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  17. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  18. Venture capital and internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, A.G.; Tykvova, T.

    Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a comprehensive dataset on investments worldwide to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. We postulate that cross-border activity is shaped by macroeconomic factors in the venture

  19. La escritura capital cursiva

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell Boria, María José

    1989-01-01

    Estado de la cuestión de los trabajos sobre la Capital Cursiva. Análisis de la misma y muestras de su existencia y uso en la cultura occidental, incluida España. The matter of the study of Italic Capital letters. Its analysis, samples, and use in Western cultur, including Spain.

  20. Futility, autonomy, and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, J M

    1994-03-01

    If clinicians deem a treatment medically futile, is it appropriate to mention such a treatment to patients? Do healthcare professionals violate informed consent if they do not offer patients an opportunity to decline futile treatments? The notion of futility involves an assessment of patient best interest--both short-term and long-term therapeutic benefit for a patient and the community in which he or she intends to survive and flourish. Although survival interests may be construed as long term, a treatment that offers survival without any promise of flourishing is not the goal of medicine and is futile. Flourishing requires some cognitive and affective function. The goal of informed consent practices is to ensure that patients accept the benefits of treatment with cognizance of the burdens and risks. Given the impact of illness on the emotional and psychological states of patients and their families and their resultant vulnerability, the omission of futile options from treatment plans is logical and exemplifies the best of paternalistic behavior. The claim that requests for futile treatment must be honored is based on a perverse understanding of patient autonomy. Rational medicine demands that patients' requests be reasonable from a clinical perspective, as well as from a subjective one. The practice of informed consent can be implemented as a balance between these two interests.

  1. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J; Bradley, S; Nguyen, A N

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  2. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Joseph T.F.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights ...

  3. The Changing Scope of Professional Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Wrede, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter.......Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter....

  4. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Czarniak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by ...

  5. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  6. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation......, as those adhering to the preferences that are most typical for the cultural elite tend to simultaneously avoid or mark distance to popular expressions of taste. Fourth, are there traces of new forms of cultural capital? The study uncovers a cleavage between a global orientation or a form of cosmopolitanism...

  7. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...

  8. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...

  9. Understanding critical care nurses' autonomy in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharmeh, Mahmoud

    2017-10-02

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian critical care nurses' experiences of autonomy in their clinical practice. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive correlational design was applied using a self-reported cross-sectional survey. A total of 110 registered nurses who met the eligibility criteria participated in this study. The data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Findings A majority of critical care nurses were autonomous in their decision-making and participation in decisions to take action in their clinical settings. Also, they were independent to develop their own knowledge. The study identified that their autonomy in action and acquired knowledge were influenced by a number of factors such as gender and area of practice. Practical implications Nurse's autonomy could be increased if nurses are made aware of the current level of autonomy and explore new ways to increase empowerment. This could be offered through classroom lectures that concentrate on the concept of autonomy and its implication in practice. Nurses should demonstrate autonomous nursing care at the same time in the clinical practice. This could be done through collaboration between educators and clinical practice to help merge theory to practice. Originality/value Critical care nurses were more autonomous in action and knowledge base. This may negatively affect the quality of patient care and nurses' job satisfaction. Therefore, improving nurses' clinical decision-making autonomy could be done by the support of both hospital administrators and nurses themselves.

  10. Autonomy and informed consent: a mistaken association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur

    2007-09-01

    For decades, the greater part of efforts to improve regulatory frameworks for research ethics has focused on informed consent procedures; their design, codification and regulation. Why is informed consent thought to be so important? Since the publication of the Belmont Report in 1979, the standard response has been that obtaining informed consent is a way of treating individuals as autonomous agents. Despite its political success, the philosophical validity of this Belmont view cannot be taken for granted. If the Belmont view is to be based on a conception of autonomy that generates moral justification, it will either have to be reinterpreted along Kantian lines or coupled with a something like Mill's conception of individuality. The Kantian interpretation would be a radical reinterpretation of the Belmont view, while the Millian justification is incompatible with the liberal requirement that justification for public policy should be neutral between controversial conceptions of the good. This consequence might be avoided by replacing Mill's conception of individuality with a procedural conception of autonomy, but I argue that the resulting view would in fact fail to support a non-Kantian, autonomy-based justification of informed consent. These difficulties suggest that insofar as informed consent is justified by respect for persons and considerations of autonomy, as the Belmont report maintained, the justification should be along the lines of Kantian autonomy and not individual autonomy.

  11. Feminist ethics and menopause: autonomy and decision-making in primary medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Hepworth, Julie

    2003-04-01

    The construction of menopause as a long-term risk to health and the adoption of discourses of prevention has made necessary a decision by women about medical treatment; specifically regarding the use of hormone replacement therapy. In a study of general practitioners' accounts of menopause and treatment in Australia, women's 'choice', 'informed decision-making' and 'empowerment' were key themes through which primary medical care for women at menopause was presented. These accounts create a position for women defined by the concept of individual choice and an ethic of autonomy. These data are a basis for theorising more generally in this paper. We critically examine the construct of 'informed decision-making' in relation to several approaches to ethics including bioethics and a range of feminist ethics. We identify the intensification of power relations produced by an ethic of autonomy and discuss the ways these considerations inform a feminist ethics of decision-making by women. We argue that an 'ethic of autonomy' and an 'offer of choice' in relation to health care for women at menopause, far from being emancipatory, serves to intensify power relations. The dichotomy of choice, to take or not to take hormone replacement therapy, is required to be a choice and is embedded in relations of power and bioethical discourse that construct meanings about what constitutes decision-making at menopause. The deployment of the principle of autonomy in medical practice limits decision-making by women precisely because it is detached from the construction of meaning and the self and makes invisible the relations of power of which it is a part.

  12. Perceived autonomy in the first semester of mathematics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liebendörfer, Michael; Hochmuth, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We focus on the perceived autonomy of mathematics students in their first semester at university. According to self-determination theory by Deci and Ryan (1985), students have to satisfy their need for autonomy in order to develop intrinsic motivation. Using two facets of autonomy, we analyse interview data to explore which situations foster or hinder the students' perceived autonomy. The main factors affecting students' autonomy are briefly discussed.

  13. Autonomy (vs. sociotropy) and depressive symptoms in quitting smoking: evidence for trait-congruence and the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmaas, J Lee; Ferrence, Roberta; Wild, T Cameron

    2006-10-01

    According to Beck's cognitive theory of depression, autonomy (high achievement concerns) and sociotropy (high interpersonal concerns) are vulnerability factors for depression when achievement or interpersonal stressors, respectively, are experienced. This hypothesis was tested among men and women attempting to quit smoking, an achievement stressor that can provoke depressive symptoms. Smokers recruited from the community (N=210) provided information about their quit attempt through mailed questionnaires. For the 48-h period following the quit, relationships among autonomy, sociotropy, coping, depressive symptoms and lapsing were assessed. Structural equation models supported the trait-congruence hypothesis because greater autonomy, but not sociotropy, was associated with elevated depressive symptoms among both men and women smokers. However, results were stronger for men (beta=.47, p=.0001) than for women (beta=.20, p=.05). After accounting for autonomy's relationship with depressive symptoms, greater autonomy was inversely associated with lapsing among men (beta=-.35, p=.01), but not women. Results point to the potential usefulness of a theoretical approach to understanding relationships between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation, and indicate that autonomous personality may be an important factor in smoking cessation in men.

  14. Recent estimates of capital flight

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David

    1993-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...

  15. Regional resources buffer the impact of functional limitations on perceived autonomy in older adults with multiple illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Westland, Josh N; Wurm, Susanne; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Retaining perceptions of autonomy is a key component of successful aging. Perceived autonomy refers to the capacity to make and enact self-directed decisions. These perceptions are often threatened in older adults with multiple illnesses, when functional limitations resulting from these illnesses impede the enactment of self-directed decisions. Regional resources (in Germany specifically at the level of administrative districts) might counteract these impediments of autonomy. Economically stronger districts can provide more-concrete support resources for older adults, buffering the negative effect of functional limitations on self-perceived autonomy. This study assessed participants aged over 65 with 2 or more chronic conditions. In total, N = 287 provided data (Mage = 73.3, SD = 5.07), and n = 97 were women. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was used as a proxy measure of administrative district wealth in Germany. Hierarchical multilevel regression analyses with cross-level interactions were conducted. Results suggest that the detrimental effect of functional limitations on perceived autonomy is less pronounced for participants residing in higher GDP districts. Conversely, for participants in lower GDP districts, the effect is exacerbated. This finding suggests that districts with greater financial resources might be better able to invest in supports that promote and facilitate autonomy and, thus, provide a buffer against threats to individual perceived autonomy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Social Capital and Vulnerable Urban Youth in Five Global Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Beth Dail; Astone, Nan; Blum, Robert; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Olumide, Adesola; Wang, Ziliang

    2015-01-01

    Background Social capital is essential for the successful development of young people. The current study examines direct measures of social capital in young people in five urban global contexts. Methods The Well Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people aged 15 to 19 years living in disadvantaged, urban settings. Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) was used to recruit approximately 500 participants from each site. The sample included 2339 young people (mean age 16.7 years; 47.5% female). We examined the associations between social capital in four domains -family, school, peers and neighborhood -and demographic characteristics using gender stratified Ordinary Least Squares regression. We also examined associations between self-reported health and the four social capital domains is minimal. School enrollment was positively associated with social capital for young women in Baltimore, Delhi, and Shanghai: the association was less consistent for young men. The same pattern is true for perceived wealth. Unstable housing was associated with low familial social capital in all groups except young women in Shanghai and young men in Ibadan and Johannesburg. Being raised outside a two-parent family has a widespread, negative association with social capital. Self-reported health had a mainly positive association with social capital with the most consistent association being neighborhood social capital, Conclusions Different types of social capital interact with social contexts and gender differently. Strategies that aim to build social capital as part of risk reduction and positive youth development programming need to recognize that social capital enhancement may work differently for different groups and in different settings. PMID:25453999

  17. Social capital and vulnerable urban youth in five global cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Beth Dail; Astone, Nan; Blum, Robert W; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Olumide, Adesola; Wang, Ziliang

    2014-12-01

    Social capital is essential for the successful development of young people. The current study examines direct measures of social capital in young people in five urban global contexts. The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments is a global study of young people aged 15-19 years living in disadvantaged, urban settings. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit approximately 500 participants from each site. The sample included 2,339 young people (mean age 16.7 years; 47.5% female). We examined the associations between social capital in four domains-family, school, peers, and neighborhood and demographic characteristics-using gender-stratified ordinary least-squares regression. We also examined associations between self-reported health and the four social capital domains, which was minimal. School enrollment was positively associated with social capital for young women in Baltimore, Delhi, and Shanghai; the association was less consistent for young men. The same pattern is true for perceived wealth. Unstable housing was associated with low familial social capital in all groups except young women in Shanghai and young men in Ibadan and Johannesburg. Being raised outside a two-parent family has a widespread, negative association with social capital. Self-reported health had a mainly positive association with social capital with the most consistent association being neighborhood social capital. Different types of social capital interact with social contexts and gender differently. Strategies that aim to build social capital as part of risk reduction and positive youth development programming need to recognize that social capital enhancement may work differently for different groups and in different settings. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlled Autonomy: Novice Principals' Schema for District Control and School Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jennie M.; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how a group of novice principals, all in schools that deployed principles of autonomy as mechanisms for improvement, conceptualized what the authors label "controlled autonomy"--a condition in which school leaders are expected to both make site-based decisions and be accountable…

  19. Investigating the Status of Social Capital in Tehran in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yahya shadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Today, the role of social capital has been proved to be undeniable in the health . The World Health Organization (WHO in 2000 declared that almost 60% of the causes of disease and mortality were related to the social factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the status of social capital as one of the social determinants of health in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods:   The study participants, who aged over 18 years, lived in 22 districts of Tehran in 2010. The study data were collected on social capital and socioeconomic variables in Iran. Different dimensions of social capital as well as the mean score of social capital was measured in various groups using the SC-IQ. The study data were analyzed using Stata statistical software: release 13.0. Results: In this study, 2.484 participants were selected via multistage random sampling. The mean age of participants was 41.38±17.7, and the mean score of social capital was slightly more in men (31.18 than women (30.41. Social capital was demonstrated to be lower within poor participants than other groups. In terms of marital status, the divorced had the lowest social capital (26.50. The mean social capital in those with university education was higher compared to individuals with other levels of education. Conclusion: Social capital is regarded as one of the factors affecting health. To promote the level of this valuable capital, the factors affecting the  social capital level should be identified and all appropriate measures should be taken into account in order to ultimately enhance the level of public health.

  20. The interplay of intention, autonomy, and sex with dietary planning: A conditional process model to predict fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Daniela; Corbett, Jana; Lippke, Sonia; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Dietary intentions are supposed to engender planning processes, which in turn stimulate dietary behaviour change. However, some studies failed to find such mediation effects, which suggest more complex and not yet unravelled relationships between these factors. One explanation may be that mediation works better under certain circumstances or only for specific subgroups. This study addresses this reasoning by examining autonomy beliefs and sex as putative moderators of the hypothesized mediation chain. In a longitudinal design with three measurement points in time (1 week and 1 month apart), 912 women and 214 men were surveyed. Planning, intention, dietary autonomy beliefs, and sex were used to predict fruit and vegetable intake within a conditional process model designed to identify mechanisms of change. The intention-planning-behaviour chain was qualified by a triple interaction involving autonomy beliefs and sex as moderators between intention and planning. Higher dietary autonomy resulted in higher levels of planning fruit and vegetable intake. For men, even in case of higher intention, at least medium levels of autonomy beliefs were necessary to facilitate planning processes. For women, already lower levels of autonomy beliefs can engender postintentional planning strategies and seem to even compensate lower intention. Intention and planning are key predictors of dietary change. However, these variables work better under specific conditions (with a sufficient level of autonomy), and differently in subgroups (men vs. women). These results may explain the inconsistent findings of previous studies on the mediating effect of planning and allow for a better description of the mechanisms by which intentions may influence behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The adoption of health-enhancing dietary behaviours can be facilitated by intentions and planning. Planning to eat more fruit and vegetable helps to translate intentions into

  1. The Genesis of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    2004-01-01

     This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been...... characterized by a dual process: unanticipated origin (cultural and historical) and anticipated progress (political economy). The point of departure of this paper is that although the advancement of market capitalism is a process of societal development involving historical, cultural and religious causes...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first...

  2. Unsustainable growth, unsustainable capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...... between capital and surplus value, which constitutes a strong mechanism driving the capitalist economy toward limitless growth....

  3. Prioritization of Capital Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaVielle, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Public works capital projects in the U,S, naval forces are not prioritized and funded in a way that best uses limited operations resources and maintenance dollars, This thesis develops a linear model...

  4. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  5. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  6. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  7. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  8. Young women's use of medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2009-01-01

    as the norms for medicine use at home and among peers, and how these perceptions are reflected in their own use of medicine. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young Danish women between the ages of 16 and 20. During the interviews, participants described their perceptions regarding usual medicine...... taking practices and ideas about appropriate medicine use within their family and peer group. Young women possessed a keen awareness of medicine-related norms, although medicine use was a topic only rarely discussed with others. At the interface of these themes pertaining to family and peer norms......, a unifying concept involving growing autonomy in medicine use emerged. This concept consisted of three parts: the great influence of family norms when autonomy was limited, growing autonomy under changing influences and assertion of autonomy and positioning of own behaviour relative to the norm. This study...

  9. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  10. The question of autonomy in maternal health in Africa: a rights-based consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2015-06-01

    Maternal mortality is still very high in Africa, despite progress in control efforts at the global level. One elemental link is the question of autonomy in maternal health, especially at the household level where intrinsic human rights are undermined. A rights-based consideration in bioethics is an approach that holds the centrality of the human person, with a compelling reference to the fundamental human rights of every person. A philosophical and sociological engagement of gender and the notion of autonomy within the household reveals some fundamental rights-based perplexities for bioethical considerations in maternal health. The right to self-determination is undermined, and therefore women's dignity, freedom and autonomy, capacities, and choices are easily defiled. This study applies a rights-based approach to maternal health and demonstrates how rights concerns are associated with negative outcomes in maternal health in Africa. The discussion is situated at the household level, which is the starting point in health care. The paper submits that beyond legal and political rights within the context of the state, rights-based issues manifest at the household level. Many of those rights issues, especially relating to women's autonomy, are detrimental to maternal health in Africa. Therefore, a rights-based approach in the social construction of maternal health realities will contribute to alleviating the burden of maternal mortality in Africa.

  11. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  12. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  13. The development of autonomy in children's education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of autonomy in the education of the child and focuses on the analysis of empirical data collected in some services for children in North and South of Italy (Trento, Bologna, Caltagirone, through the administration of semi-structured interviews with educators of the nursery and kindergarten teachers. The returned responses were read in the light of the phenomenological paradigm that permitted to highlight two major kinds of considerations: the one refers to as "parents support and encourage the development of the autonomy of their child more in words than deeds"; the other to as the educators and teachers interviewed showed an explicit difficulty to attribute a clear meaning to the concept of adult autonomy. The incoming in this set of considerations first of all emphasize the important role of adult education and its path of reflexivity and growth.

  14. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  15. School nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school nurses surveyed perceived themselves to have a high degree of autonomy and a moderate degree of empowerment, and they reported that their access to informal power structures was higher than their access to formal power structures in their school systems. School nurses can benefit by understanding factors that can increase their empowerment in the workplace. They need to understand the organizational structure of their workplace to increase their effectiveness and job satisfaction.

  16. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...

  17. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...

  18. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  19. Mammonist Capitalism – Ubiquity, Immanence, Acceleration. And the Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Isenberg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts at a general understanding of contemporary capitalism and some of its social and mental consequences. It works through combinations and variations of concepts from classical and contemporary social theory. Some key concepts are Mammonism, acceleration, ubiquity, self-dynamics, precariat, inertia, conformity, flexibility, specter of uselessness. The text refers to classical modern thinkers like Marx, Simmel, Musil, Benjamin, and to contemporary ideas in the works of Deleuze, Rosa, Crouch, Illouz, Standing, Hochschild. It is summoned up by asking some important, complex questions that regard democracy, community and autonomy.

  20. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital..., 2013, a document adopting a final rule that revises its risk-based and leverage capital requirements... risk-based and leverage capital requirements for banking organizations. An allowance for additional...

  1. Capital effectiveness in a capital intensive project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarossi, M.E. (IPA Institute, The Hague (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    The technical difficulty of incorporating new technology in capital intensive projects has been underestimated. Bio-refineries projects are no exemption. These projects in many occasions have assigned inadequate project resources, such as lean project teams and overly optimistic contingencies. Furthermore, project developers have set unrealistic expectations; for example: aggressive schedule duration, low cost targets and optimistic operability targets. These project drivers set before project's authorization compromise the project's outcome. In many cases, this translates into lower return on investment, higher costs, and lower operability. In order to counteract these outcomes, it is critical for capital intensive projects, like bio-refineries, to have a well define project which will enable to increase its chance of success. IPA's research has shown that bio-refineries projects have poor project performance due to poor project practices, lack of owner project controls and inadequate change management. An adequate risk analysis during definition is a critical component of a project's success, especially when there is new technology, like biomass conversion. It is of outmost importance to asses this technology and set realistic expectations. parallel to this, there is a need to have a well established execution strategy, which should be maintained throughout the execution of the project. In conclusion, IPA's research has indicated that bio-refineries, as any other capital intensive project, need to assign adequate resources at an early state of project development, by making sure there is and adequate team in place, reasonable schedule, technical difficulties evaluation, and keeping control during execution. Although these elements might be seen as common practices that should be taken into account when developing a project, many projects being their execution without having a proper foundation, and thus affecting the project

  2. Pobreza, capital humano, capital social e familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, Giancarlo; Fonseca, Ricardo; Porreca, Wladimir

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo investiga a pobreza partindo de uma análise dos recursos que os pobres dispõem em sua realidade, analisando os temas do capital humano, social e familiar, procurando estabelecer conexões e elucidar fatores da realidade pouco considerados em estudos e  projetos de combate à pobreza e à exclusão social. O presente artigo, em seu conjunto, procura compreender porque, em condições semelhantes de pobreza, algumas pessoas conseguem elaborar um projeto de vida enquanto outras se es...

  3. Changing Professional autonomy in the Context of Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi

    The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts......The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts...

  4. Autonomy support and autonomous motivation in the outpatient treatment of adults with an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Howard; Sansfaçon, Jeanne; Thaler, Lea; Leonard, Niamh; Cottier, Danaëlle; Kahan, Esther; Fletcher, Emilie; Rossi, Erika; Israel, Mimi; Gauvin, Lise

    2017-09-01

    Across diverse clinical problems, therapists' autonomy support has been found to increase patients' autonomous motivation for change. Being self-motivated has, in turn, been linked to superior treatment response. In people undergoing outpatient eating disorder (ED) treatment, we examined associations among ratings of autonomy support received from therapists and other carers, self-reported engagement in therapy, and clinical outcomes. Ninety-seven women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or a related ED provided measures of motivational status and clinical symptoms at the beginning and end of time-limited (12-16 weeks) segments of specialized treatment. At mid-treatment, patients also rated the extent to which they perceived their individual therapists, group therapists, group-therapy peers, family members, friends, and romantic partners as being autonomy supportive. Overall, multiple regression analyses indicated autonomy support to moderate (rather than mediate) the link between initial autonomous motivation and later change in autonomous motivation-with results indicating that, independently of ED diagnosis or treatment intensity, greater perceived autonomy support (from therapists and nontherapists alike) coincided with larger increases in autonomous motivation over the course of therapy. In turn, higher autonomous motivation at end-of-therapy coincided with larger reductions in eating symptoms. Findings suggest that the experience of autonomy support (from therapists and nontherapists) is associated with increasing motivation in people undergoing ED treatment, and that becoming self-motivated is linked to better outcomes. Such results indicate that support from therapists, relatives, and peers can favorably influence personal engagement in individuals undergoing ED treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Results of a TcTUs-optimized radioiodine therapy of multifocal and disseminated functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Endlicher, D.; Prillwitz, A.; Rudolph, F.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: The presented study prospectively evaluates the efficacy of optimized radioiodine therapy in patients (pts) with multifocal (MFA) and disseminated (DISA) autonomy. The target dose was related to the total thyroid volume and was increased in moderate and nonlinear increments for 150 to 300 Gy dependent on the pretherapeutic Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs). Patients with focal autonomy were treated with a target dose independent of TcTUs and were used as control group. Methods: The data of 641 pts (518 women, 123 men) were evaluated, 466 pts with MFA or DISA and 175 pts with focal autonomy. In pts with MFA and DISA the target dose was increased in four steps: TcTUs 3-6%: 200 Gy, >6-12%: 250 Gy and >12%: 300 Gy. In pts with focal autonomy a fixed target dose of 300 or 400 Gy was applied. The radioactivity to be administered was calculated using a modified Marinelli formula. The follow-up examination was performed at the earliest after four, on average after eight months. Normalization of TSH was the only criterion for successful therapy. Results: The success rate in pts with latent or manifest hyperthyroidism in focal autonomy was 91.5%, thereby was not successful in 5.1% and hypothyroidism occurred in 3.4%. The average success rate in pts with MFA and DISA was 91.5%, therapy failed in 7.5% and a very low rate of 1% with hypothyroidism was seen. Conclusion: The presented optimized therapy concept with calculated, nonlinear increase of the target dose according to the TcTUs-level guaranteed even in MFA and DISA a high success rate comparable to that in focal autonomy along with a very low rate of hypothyroidism. (orig.) [de

  6. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disre...

  7. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  8. Thinking strategically about capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, P

    1997-05-01

    All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although capitation is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For capitation to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The capitation structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.

  9. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  10. The autonomy: A challenge in shared spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena NITRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as a goal, to study a few up- dated alternatives on the field of Teaching Coaching toe the focus of reflection. From the concept to autonomy we built and implement teaching strategies focussing on the development of autonomous working projects and tutorial systems, whose aim is placed in the creation of shared spaces which allow decision-taking.

  11. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  12. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  13. The Development of Personal Autonomy throughout Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that autonomy entails universal psychological needs pertaining to agency and identity formation, expressed in different ways over different developmental periods. As children develop skills and abilities related to psychological needs for self-expression and competence, they will claim areas related to the exercise of these…

  14. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  15. The Charter School Experience: Autonomy in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tonya Senne

    2013-01-01

    While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…

  16. Autonomy in the case of enthyreotic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1981-01-01

    To identify, quantify, and exclude thyroidal autonomy, under enthyreotic conditions (positive TRH-test), the in-vivo diagnosing with radionuclides is the only method available to assess the thyroidal trap in connection with the suppression test. Its application is urgently necessary for any goiter patient in the iodine lacking region, the methodical proceeding depends on the individual circumstances. (orig.) [de

  17. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and

  18. How Sex Selection Undermines Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2017-06-01

    Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex. Yet gender essentialism, a set of unfounded assumptions about the sexes which pervade society and underpin sexism, prevents parents from realising this freedom. In other words, unfounded assumptions about gender constrain not only a child's autonomy, but also the parent's. To date, reproductive autonomy in relation to sex selection has predominantly been regarded merely as the freedom to choose the sex of one's child. This paper points to at least two interpretations of reproductive autonomy and argues that sex selection, by being premised on gender essentialism and/or the social pressure on parents to ensure their children conform to gender norms, undermines reproductive autonomy on both accounts.

  19. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  20. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  1. Educating for Well-Being and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque

    2008-01-01

    Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…

  2. Agility and adaptive autonomy in networked organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der

    2010-01-01

    In any multi-actor environment, there is an inevitable trade-off between achieving global coordination of activities and respecting the autonomy of the actors involved. Agile and resilient behavior demands dynamic coordination capabilities, but task and resource allocation quickly becomes

  3. Adjustable Autonomy: Controling Influences on Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological developments we foresee future systems where groups of actors coordinate their actions in a dynamic manner to reach their goals. Our aim is to develop a reasoning model for artificial actors in such systems. Starting point is the relation between autonomy of individuals and

  4. Autonomy and the Working-Class Freelance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In taking into account the realities of the writing process in the ways teachers organize their classrooms, they inescapably find themselves involved with the notion of student autonomy. Some guidelines for supporting independent-minded adolescents in the classroom suggest themselves, and this article provides other suggestions for planning…

  5. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  6. Autonomy under threat: a revised Frankfurtian account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s Harry Frankfurt argued that so-called ‘coercive threats’ cause a violation of their victim's autonomy, thereby excluding him from moral responsibility. A person is therefore not responsible for doing what he is forced to do. Although this seems correct on an intuitive level, I

  7. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  8. Patient autonomy: a view from the kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhkamp, Rita M

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary liberal ethics patient autonomy is often interpreted as the right to self-determination: when it comes to treatment decisions, the patient is given the right to give or withhold informed consent. This paper joins in the philosophical and ethical criticism of the liberal interpretation as it does not regard patient autonomy as a right, rule or principle, but rather as a practice. Patient autonomy, or so I will argue, is realised in the concrete activities of day-to-day health care, in the material and technological context of care, in arrangements of health care institutions, in the physical training of people with disabilities, as well as in the concrete activities of care-giving. This move from conversations in the consultation room to other sites and situations in the practice of care takes seriously the empirical reality of medical care and intends to show that patient autonomy is practically realised in a much richer and more creative way than most ethical theory seems to assume.

  9. Supporting Student Autonomy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana; Webster, Collin A.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of motivation among students is a common challenge in physical education. Studies drawing on the self-determination theory consistently show that perceived autonomy facilitates adaptive motivation in students, which can lead to a wide range of desired educational outcomes. However, instructional strategies designed to support student…

  10. Autonomi og informeret samtykke i sygeplejepraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Morville, Annette

    2006-01-01

    is described as freedom from compulsion and other forms of regulatory influence. In relation to autonomy and informed consent, information is a defined nursing responsibility in connection with self-managed nursing duties, nursing research and duties where nurses have had been entrusted with responsibility...

  11. Introducing, Defining and Balancing 'Autonomy vs. Paternalism'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); A.I. Ogus (Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAutonomy is generally regarded as the fundamental right of individuals to shape their own future through voluntary action. In private law, it is associated with freedom of contract and the concept of casum sentit dominus (the loss lies where it falls). As such, it is opposed to legal

  12. Construction of a Personal Autonomy Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpfer, D. J. W.

    The inventory contains three factural scales: independence of judgement, moral relativism, and adventurousness. The item pool was based upon descriptions of the need for autonomy (positive) and for independence (negative). The preliminary English form included the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and was completed by 233 English-speaking…

  13. Independence through social networks: bridging potential among older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Most studies of older adults' social networks focus on their access to dense networks that yield access to social support. This paper documents gender differences in the extent to which older adults maintain a related, but distinct, form of social capital-bridging potential, which involves serving as a tie between two unconnected parties and thus boosts independence and control of everyday social life. I use egocentric social network data from a national sample of 3,005 older adults--collected in 2005-2006 by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project--to compare older men's and women's network bridging potential using multivariate regression analysis. Older women are more likely than older men to have bridging potential in their networks-between both kin and non-kin contacts. These gender differences increase with age. Older women are also more likely to have network members who are not connected to or monopolized by their spouse or partner. Some, but not all, of these gender differences are due to the fact that older women have larger social networks and maintain more ties to people outside of the household. These findings raise important questions about the relational advantages older women have over older men, including greater autonomy, and contradict stereotypes about women having more closely knit, kin-centered networks than men.

  14. Autonomy and Complexity at Sandia Executive Summary of Academic Alliance Workshop on Autonomy and Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Sandia has identified autonomy as a strategic initiative and an important area for providing national leadership. A key question is, “How might autonomy change how we think about the national security challenges we address and the kinds of solutions we deliver?” Three workshops at Sandia early in 2017 brought together internal stakeholders and potential academic partners in autonomy to address this question. The first focused on programmatic applications and needs. The second explored existing internal capabilities and research and development needs. This report summarizes the outcome of the third workshop, held March 3, 2017 in Albuquerque, NM, which engaged Academic Alliance partners in autonomy efforts at Sandia by discussing research needs and synergistic areas of interest within the complex systems and system modeling domains, and identifying opportunities for partnering on laboratory directed and other joint research opportunities.

  15. Autonomy and Interests: The Social Life of a Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddiford, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Examines the arguments that students should determine their own curriculum. Reviews the case for student autonomy based on philosophical anarchism and Immanuel Kant's views on autonomy. Argues that curriculum should be a result of the shared autonomy of students and teachers. (CFR)

  16. Fathers' Autonomy Support and Social Competence of Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between paternal autonomy support and four aspects of adolescent social competence and responsibility at age 16 were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. With controls on maternal autonomy support, significant relations were observed between paternal autonomy support and three of the four…

  17. Lessons for Hospital Autonomy : Implementation in Vietnam from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Health; Health Strategy and Policy Institute; World Bank; World Health Organization

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Vietnam sees hospital autonomy policy as important and consistent with current development trends in Vietnam. It is based on government policies as laid out in government Decree on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities; and to 2006, it is replaced by decree on professional, organizational, human resource management and financial autonomy of reve...

  18. Advancing Learner Autonomy in TEFL via Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui

    2015-01-01

    The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…

  19. Charter School Autonomy: The Mismatch between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2007-01-01

    In theory, the charter school concept is based on a trade-off or exchange: greater autonomy for increased accountability. Although charter schools have been operating for more than 10 years, little is known about charter school autonomy in practice. This mixed-methods study used survey and case study data to examine the degree of autonomy of…

  20. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening of ‘‘high......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening...

  1. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  2. Interpersonal motives in anorexia nervosa: the fear of losing one's autonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeyer Timo; Grosse Holtforth Martin; Bents Hinrich; Kämmerer Annette; Herzog Wolfgang; Friederich Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined the widely held but insufficiently studied hypothesis of autonomy disturbances in anorexia nervosa. METHOD A total sample of 112 participants comprising patients with acute anorexia nervosa (AN) women recovered from anorexia nervosa (REC) clinical controls (CC) and healthy controls (HC) completed measures of dependency and intimacy strivings as well as measures of frustrations of these same strivings. RESULTS In comparison to HC and CC AN showed a stronger motiva...

  3. Women’s autonomy and maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most previous studies on healthcare service utilization in low-income countries have not used a multilevel study design to address the importance of community-level women’s autonomy. We assessed whether women’s autonomy, measured at both individual and community levels, is associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. Methods We analyzed data from the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (N = 6058 and 7043, respectively for measuring women’s decision-making power and permissive gender norms associated with wife beating. We used Spearman’s correlation and the chi-squared test for bivariate analyses and constructed generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to analyze the associations between women’s autonomy indicators and maternal healthcare service utilization with control for other socioeconomic characteristics. Results Our multivariate analysis showed that women living in communities with a higher percentage of opposing attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to use all three types of maternal healthcare services in 2011 (adjusted odds ratios = 1.21, 1.23, and 1.18 for four or more antenatal care visits, health facility delivery, and postnatal care visits, respectively. In 2005, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.16 and 1.17 for four or more antenatal care visits and health facility delivery, respectively. In 2011, the percentage of women in the community with high decision-making power was positively associated with the likelihood of four or more antenatal care visits (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14. The association of individual-level autonomy on maternal healthcare service utilization was less profound after we controlled for other individual-level and community-level characteristics. Conclusions Our study shows that women’s autonomy was positively associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. We suggest addressing woman

  4. LEARNER AUTONOMY IN THE INDONESIAN EFL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Sri Lengkanawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy in Indonesian educational institutions has not commonly been listed as a teaching-learning objective, and most teachers seem to be hardly acquainted with learner autonomy (LA.  Therefore, it is very essential  to conduct a study of LA as perceived and experienced by school teachers and to find out the importance of LA training for professional development. A questionnaire was used to collect the data about English teachers’ perceptions regarding LA and LA-based practices. In addition, an LA training was conducted to see its significance for professional development.  After the data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, it was found that the participating teachers tended to maintain that autonomy should be inculcated among learners, and that the LA concept should not be misinterpreted as learning without a teacher. Concerning choices and decisions by  the learners, it was believed that learners’ making choices about how they learned and what activities they did, and involving them to decide what and how to learn could promote autonomy among learners. As regards LA-based teaching-learning practices, it was revealed that most teachers desired to implement LA principles in their teaching-learning contexts, although they identified that many of the LA principles were not that feasible to apply in their situation. It was also found that LA training could improve the teachers’ perceptions regarding LA concepts and principles. There were some constraints which could make learner autonomy difficult to develop among Indonesian learners in general: limited time allotted for the implementation of the curriculum, learners’ lack of autonomous learning experience, too much focus on national examinations, and insufficient proficiency of English.  LA-based teaching-learning practices were most desired; however, many were considered as having insufficient feasibility. In this respect, commitment is certainly the key to

  5. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  6. [Autonomy and dementia Part II: autonomy and representation: a possible combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaux, Natalie

    2011-06-01

    This paper, based on a critical review of the medico-social literature, questions the representation of patients with dementia in relation to the autonomy perspectives presented in a previous article. In the canonical perspective of autonomy (defined as a rational decision-making by a stand alone self), the surrogate is the spokeperson of the subject's wills when he was competent because he knows these wills through advance directives or assuming them via substituted judgment. Best patient's interest is then depreciated because it is focused on the present incompetent self. In the relational perspective, where autonomy is constructed through a dialogue with others, the surrogate is the present interlocutor, making the decisions with the patient and care-givers in a way varying with the disease process. He represents the subject with dementia as he was before the disease but also as he has become. Therefore, there is a continuum between autonomy and representation. Autonomy and well being are both the surrogate aims. The relational perspective allows care continuity of patients with dementia even when considered as incompetent. It offers a more balanced perspective on the patient autonomy since it is embedded in all others, and opens a richer view on what good life is, untill the end of dementia.

  7. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Veronese, Guido; Nevonen, Lauri; Fiore, Francesca; Centorame, Franceso; Favaretto, Ettore; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61) and Swedish (n = 31) female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism) and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism). Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.

  8. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sassaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61 and Swedish (n = 31 female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism. Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.

  9. School Autonomy and District Support: How Principals Respond to a Tiered Autonomy Initiative in Philadelphia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Cox, Amanda Barrett

    2017-01-01

    A tiered autonomy policy was recently implemented in Philadelphia, where select principals were granted autonomy to manage school operations while others were promised greater district support to improve school functioning. This article provides evidence on how principals used their autonomy and the extent of district support for non-autonomous…

  10. From political capitalism to clientelist capitalism? The case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Cvijanovic; Denis Redzepagic

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the typology of capitalism in Croatia. The Croatian form of capitalism is specific, in form and origin, with links between the pre-independence and post-independence periods, implying that capitalism has gradually evolved – from the political during the eighties towards current clientelistic capitalism. The manufacturing focus aims to facilitate the analysis of institutional, political and economic changes over the past forty years, emphasising the implications of instituti...

  11. Green Capital: Student Capital student-led evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Runkle, Q.; Haines, T.; Piper, K.; Leach, S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess and evaluate the impact of the Green Capital: Student Capital project, the partnership (the University of the West of England, the University of Bristol, the Students’ Union at UWE, and Bristol Students’ Union) worked with NUS to train a team of students from both universities to lead an evaluation process. There were two key aims for the evaluation: \\ud \\ud • To verify the quantitative outputs of the Green Capital: Student Capital project; \\ud • And to make a qualitative assessment...

  12. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  13. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  14. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...

  15. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2012-01-01

    Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...

  16. Governing Global Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from...

  17. Reporting on intellectual capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der; Zijlstra, Siebren M.

    2001-01-01

    In today’s knowledge-based economy intellectual capital (IC) is becoming a major part of companies’ value. Being able to manage and control IC requires that companies can identify, measure and report internally on IC. As financial accounting rules ban full disclosure of IC in the annual report the

  18. Capital projects coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the difficulties of managing modem capital projects and endeavors to reduce the complexities to simpler and more understandable terms. It examines the project environment, defines project management and discusses points of difference from traditional management. In the second part of the paper are presented fundamentals for project success for different types of projects.

  19. Reggio Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the…

  20. Reproduction and Fixed Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the 'sixties, the reproduction model was often the subject of analysis and discussion in economic literat­ ure. Discussion was by criticism of the neo-classical concept of capital as well as by a renewed interest in the labour theory of value. Criticism of the use of a homogeneous concept of

  1. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  2. Is capitalism possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    1998-01-01

    In the two ages of its existence capitalism has given proof of its reformability. It was, however, anti-capitalist blueprints and ideas that constituted a continuous spiritual driving force towards reform. Today, after the collapse of real existing socialism there is an urgent need for new

  3. Social Capital in Organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Oteman

    2008-01-01

    In my belief the effectiveness of organizations has more to do with managing people in a more ethical, sustainable and effective way than what is common these days. For example employees values like trust, respect and commitment are rarely considered as values that can contribute to social capital

  4. Understanding your capital options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  5. Capital Structure and Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes a firm's capital structure choice when assets have outside value. Valuable assets implicitly provide a collateral and increase tax shield exploitation. The key feature in this paper is asset value uncertainty, implying that it is unknown ex ante whether the equity holders ex p...

  6. Antecedents of Relational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....

  7. On the capitalization and cultivation of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2008-01-01

    a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...

  8. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using

  9. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital

  10. Sympathetic distrust : Cultural diversity and the sexual autonomy of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Baukje

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of feminists agree with Susan Moller Okin’s claim that multiculturalism is ‘bad for women’ (Okin 1998; 1999), because it locks them up within the confines of their traditional, often patriarchal communities and hands them over to the power of the men within that community. Okin

  11. How venture capital works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding.

  12. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  14. Capitalism: A System of Conspiracy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2010-01-01

    There are some myths about American capitalism. Some of them are (1) Capitalism made America the richest nation, (2) Capitalism is based on self interest, and (3) America has democracy. We show that the survival of capitalism is based on several powerful conspiracy theories. We briefly describe these conspiracies. Our analysis is based on the following principles: (a) Laws of conservation, (b) System theoretic concepts, and (c) The global space time (GST) environment. Using these princip...

  15. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  16. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  17. Does Venture Capital Spur Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Kortum; Josh Lerner

    1998-01-01

    While policymakers often assume venture capital has a profound impact on innovation, that premise has not been evaluated systematically. We address this omission by examining the influence of venture capital on patented inventions in the United States across twenty industries over three decades. We address concerns about causality in several ways, including exploiting a 1979 policy shift that spurred venture capital fundraising. We find that the amount of venture capital activity in an indust...

  18. Maternal-Newborn and Surgical Nurses’ Perceptions of Professional Autonomy During the Development of Shared Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    dependent, and deferent beings--hardly characteristics associated with autonomy. Despite the emergence of the feminist movement, these stereotypes...recently, most women have not had occupational roles. Even though Erikson’s model does not stand well from a feminist perspective, many women define...patient clnc.perinetal clinic. AKU. IVF) g. suep"" Nurse Regisry h. Other (MA. Oiech Planning, Ed. Coord.. Adm. Mgmt. Shift Manager. IV Therapy

  19. Factors Affecting Women's Autonomous Decision Making In Research Participation Amongst Yoruba Women Of Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele S; Nordström, Karin; Lanre-Abass, Bolatito; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-04-01

    Research is a global enterprise requiring participation of both genders for generalizable knowledge; advancement of science and evidence based medical treatment. Participation of women in research is necessary to reduce the current bias that most empirical evidence is obtained from studies with men to inform health care and related policy interventions. Various factors are assumed to limit autonomy amongst the Yoruba women of western Nigeria. This paper seeks to explore the experience and understanding of autonomy by the Yoruba women in relation to research participation. Focus is on factors that affect women's autonomous decision making in research participation. An exploratory qualitative approach comprising four focus group discussions, 42 in-depth interviews and 14 key informant interviews was used. The study permits a significant amount of triangulation, as opinions of husbands and religious leaders are also explored. Interviews and discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was employed for data analysis. Findings show that concepts of autonomy varied amongst the Yoruba women. Patriarchy, religion and culture are conceived to have negative impact on the autonomy of women in respect to research participation. Among the important findings are: 1) male dominance is strongly emphasized by religious leaders who should teach equality, 2) while men feel that by making decisions for women, they are protecting them, the women on the other hand see this protection as a way of limiting their autonomy. We recommend further studies to develop culturally appropriate and workable recruitment methods to increase women's participation in research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  1. Bank capital management : International evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.

    We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management

  2. Working Paper on Social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Hanan, Anne

    This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...

  3. Social Capital and Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Safferling, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We use data from an online game economy and econometric matching methods to test whether social capital of players has an impact on game success. Membership in a 'clan', a voluntary organization of players, positively impacts game success. Hence, social capital has a positive effect on outcomes. Yet, top performers do not gain from access to this social capital.

  4. Cultural Capital: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko

    2017-07-01

    Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be capital in a community. Cultural capital is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural capital" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural capital" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural capital included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural capital's identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural capital's consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural capital is defined as capital characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural capital are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural capital reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social capital. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provides funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies.

  6. Venture capital and innovation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provide funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company's choice of innovation strategies.

  7. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly

  8. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended

  9. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph T F

    2017-12-30

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon demonstration of competence. In this paper, I present a risk-sensitive account of competence as a means of grounding rights to non-interference. On a risk-sensitive account of competence individuals demonstrate their competence by exercising three capacities to the extent necessary to meet a threshold determined by the riskiness of the decision. These three capacities are the capacity to (i) acquire knowledge, (ii) use instrumental rationality, and (iii) form and revise a life plan.

  10. Focus on energy autonomy in overseas districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    As French overseas territories have also had a role of leader in the development of renewable energies, and as the French law on energy transition states that energy autonomy is an objective by 2030 for these territories, with 50 per cent of renewable energies by 2020, this publication proposes an overview of the situation in these territories which still strongly depend on imported energies, notably for transports. The publication outlines the specificities of these islands with respect to the metropolitan territory in terms of electric power system: small territories, high production costs, strong consumption increase. It describes how the new energy policy plans evolutions to reach this autonomy: development of renewable energies and of smart grids, development of vehicles fuelled with electricity, biofuels or hydrogen, management of energy consumption in housing and through the use of renewable energies

  11. [Euthanasia and the paradoxes of autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2008-01-01

    The principle of respect for autonomy has proved very useful for bioethical arguments in favor of euthanasia. However unquestionable its theoretical efficacy, countless aporiae can be raised when conducting a detailed analysis of this concept, probably checkmating it. Based on such considerations, this paper investigates the principle of autonomy, starting with its origins in Greek and Christian traditions, and then charting some of its developments in Western cultures through to its modern formulation, a legacy of Immanuel Kant. The main paradoxes of this concept are then presented in the fields of philosophy, biology, psychoanalysis and politics, expounding several of the theoretical difficulties to be faced in order to make its applicability possible within the scope of decisions relating to the termination of life.

  12. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D M

    1999-12-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.

  13. Building up Autonomy Through Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Izquierdo Castillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions, when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading comprehension and promotes their autonomy in the learning process. The results show that these learners developed some autonomous features such as making decisions for learning and doing assigned homework, increasing reading awareness and motivation. Additionally, the training on reading strategies allowed them to succeed in their reading comprehension. We conclude that these reading strategies are tools that take learners along the path of autonomy.

  14. [School nutrition and autonomy - challenges and opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Najla Veloso Sampaio; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa; Soares, Maria Cláudia Veiga; Pinto, Anelise Regina Royer

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to emphasize school food as an important policy to promote student autonomy by means of food and nutrition education included in the curriculum, integrated with different actors and based on the standpoint of citizenship. It seeks to return to fundamental concepts in the context of school food reflecting on them through theoretical assumptions to identify possible strategies to promote citizenship and autonomy in school. The strategies involved food and nutrition education with the daily presence of quality and suitability in school meals, discussions on the various dimensions of food in the curriculum and integrating food in the pedagogical project extended to various areas of the education system. School food fosters the need for integration of actions, actors and the various social spaces interested in the food issue, such as ministries, education systems, departments and schools, so that they may tackle the demands of contemporary reality in an integrated, systematic, consistent and efficient manner.

  15. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... countercyclical capital buffer was designed to take into account the macro-financial environment in which large... ability to raise capital to meet the increased minimum requirements in the current environment and upon...

  16. Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers' and Siblings' Psychological Need Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Demonstration of Human-Autonomy Teaming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert Jay

    2016-01-01

    Known problems with automation include lack of mode awareness, automation brittleness, and risk of miscalibrated trust. Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) is essential for improving these problems. We have identified some critical components of HAT and ran a part-task study to introduce these components to a ground station that supports flight following of multiple aircraft. Our goal was to demonstrate, evaluate, and refine HAT principles. This presentation provides a brief summary of the study and initial findings.

  18. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and strategies for rehabilitation practice. Results: The focus of rehabilitation for people with a chronic disabling condition is shifting from a biomedical to a client-centred perspective. Conceptions o...

  19. [Carers and the policy for autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiditch, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Long-time invisible, the role of informal carers in providing assistance to elderly patients losing their autonomy is gaining recognition. A policy in favour of carers coordinated with that aimed at the people being cared for is necessary, but it is struggling to establish itself in France. Some progress can however be seen with the French bill on adapting society to the ageing of the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Autonomy-How much is too much

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-22

    Autonomous Robots Automatically Operated Car (1977) The first demonstration of a driverless car occurred in 1977 in Tsukuba, Japan[19][20] The car ...is autonomy? Brief history of autonomous robots Current field use of robots Current state-of-the-art for autonomous robots Barriers to the use of... autonomous robots Considering the human factor Outlook for the future 19 June 2007 Systems & Software Technology

  1. Autonomy and purity in Kant's moral theory

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Carolyn Jane

    2010-01-01

    Kant believed that the moral law is a law that the rational will legislates. This thesis examines this claim and its broader implications for Kant’s moral theory. Many are drawn to Kantian ethics because of its emphasis on the dignity and legislative authority of the rational being. The attractiveness of this emphasis on the special standing and capacities of the self grounds a recent tendency to interpret Kantian autonomy as a doctrine according to which individual agents create binding ...

  2. [From dependency to autonomy, a geriatric pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Antoine; Da Costa Ribeiro, Florence; Pedra, Maryse; Chassaigne, Marie-Christine; Berbon, Caroline

    Preventing dependency is essential in our ageing society. One of its components is the avoidable dependency which develops during a period of hospitalisation. Caregivers play an important role in helping the elderly person regain their autonomy. Various actions have been undertaken on this theme within the gerontology unit of Toulouse university hospital, including the creation of a multi-disciplinary group of experts among the caregivers working in the unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Maximing Learning Strategies to Promote Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.

  4. Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn; Helgasson, Helgi

    2012-05-01

    One of the original goals of artificial intelligence (AI) research was to create machines with very general cognitive capabilities and a relatively high level of autonomy. It has taken the field longer than many had expected to achieve even a fraction of this goal; the community has focused on building specific, targeted cognitive processes in isolation, and as of yet no system exists that integrates a broad range of capabilities or presents a general solution to autonomous acquisition of a large set of skills. Among the reasons for this are the highly limited machine learning and adaptation techniques available, and the inherent complexity of integrating numerous cognitive and learning capabilities in a coherent architecture. In this paper we review selected systems and architectures built expressly to address integrated skills. We highlight principles and features of these systems that seem promising for creating generally intelligent systems with some level of autonomy, and discuss them in the context of the development of future cognitive architectures. Autonomy is a key property for any system to be considered generally intelligent, in our view; we use this concept as an organizing principle for comparing the reviewed systems. Features that remain largely unaddressed in present research, but seem nevertheless necessary for such efforts to succeed, are also discussed.

  5. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  6. Performance systems and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...

  7. Leveraging organisational cultural capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scheel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.

  8. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...

  9. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and...

  10. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Ghana: the role of decision-making autonomy and community norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Story, William T; Singh, Kavita

    2014-11-27

    In Ghana, the site of this study, the maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate remain high indicating the need to focus on maternal and child health programming. Ghana has high use of antenatal care (95%) but sub-optimum levels of institutional delivery (about 57%). Numerous barriers to institutional delivery exist including financial, physical, cognitive, organizational, and psychological and social. This study examines the psychological and social barriers to institutional delivery, namely women's decision-making autonomy and their perceptions about social support for institutional delivery in their community. This study uses cross-sectional data collected for the evaluation of the Maternal and Newborn Referrals Project of Project Fives Alive in Northern and Central districts of Ghana. In 2012 and 2013, a total of 2,527 women aged 15 to 49 were surveyed at baseline and midterm (half in 2012 and half in 2013). The analysis sample of 1,606 includes all women who had a birth three years prior to the survey date and who had no missing data. To determine the relationship between institutional delivery and the two key social barriers-women's decision-making autonomy and community perceptions of institutional delivery-we used multi-level logistic regression models, including cross-level interactions between community-level attitudes and individual-level autonomy. All analyses control for the clustered survey design by including robust standard errors in Stata 13 statistical software. The findings show that women who are more autonomous and who perceive positive attitudes toward facility delivery (among women, men and mothers-in-law) were more likely to deliver in a facility. Moreover, the interactions between autonomy and community-level perceptions of institutional delivery among men and mothers-in-law were significant, such that the effect of decision-making autonomy is more important for women who live in communities that are less supportive of

  11. Outside Entrepreneurial Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Cosh; Douglas Cumming; Alan Hughes

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the internal versus external financing decisions among 1900 early stage privately held UK firms in 1996-1997. We study the factors that affect rejection rates in applications for outside finance among the different types of investors, taking into account the non-randomness in a firm’s decision to seek outside finance. The data support the traditional pecking order theory; firms with greater capital expenditures / profits are more likely to seek finance and apply for mo...

  12. Who "Owns" the University? Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom in an Age of Knowledge Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Cris; Taitz, Mira

    2012-01-01

    The neoliberal reframing of universities as economic engines and the growing emphasis on "third stream" commercial activities are global phenomena albeit with significant local variations. This article uses the concept of "ownership" to examine how these processes are impacting on institutional self-understandings and…

  13. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  14. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  15. Young Women and Political Participation in Tunisia : Institutional ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is supporting a ... institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. ... (social, cultural and economic capital) differently than older women and young men?

  16. Reproduction, functional autonomy and changing experiences of intimate partner violence within marriage in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Hindin, Michelle J

    2013-12-01

    The literature on intimate partner violence in resource-poor contexts relies primarily on cross-sectional studies. Because changes in women's status and empowerment are hypothesized to influence violence vulnerability, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the potential benefits and harms associated with such changes. Data were collected prospectively from a representative cohort of 4,749 married women in rural areas of four socially and demographically diverse states in India in 1998-1999 and 2002-2003. A multinomial regression model including social and demographic characteristics and intersurvey changes and events related to functional autonomy and reproduction was fitted to a categorical outcome measuring the absence (reference), initiation, cessation and continuation of intimate partner violence. Continued freedom of movement, increased freedom of movement and continued financial autonomy between baseline and follow-up were associated with a lower risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (relative risk ratio, 0.7 for each). Having a first child was associated with lower risk of violence initiation and continuation rather than no violence (0.6 and 0.2, respectively). Women who reported that their relative economic contribution to the household decreased or increased and women who experienced an unwanted pregnancy had a higher risk of violence continuation rather than no violence (1.8, 1.8 and 1.5, respectively). The death of a child was associated with higher risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (1.4). Future research to inform interventions to reduce intimate partner violence should consider how changes in women's reproductive experiences and functional autonomy may be linked to changes in intimate partner violence.

  17. Towards a Poietics of Resolution: On embodied risk, contingent autonomies and renegade collectives as forms of technological and artistic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Nestler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artistic practice has the potential to immerse in modes of research, exchange, compilation, and presentation. It weaves a multiplicity of approaches and investigations into a fabric made of concepts, notions, objects, materials – and the relations between them. It opens new pathways into artistic expression beyond marketable branding strategies and the enclosures of capital, but also undermines the established notion of the autonomy of art and its own logics of production. This foregrounds the question of aesthetics that can deliver means for perceiving and appreciating forms of engagement and agency by bringing together theory, science, and art in new ways. This text proposes an approach in which autonomy is reconceptualised as a dynamic, open, sometimes aleatoric and instantaneous process (acts connected to a multitude of contingent moments. It purposely integrates ambiguous heteronomous influences in order to make resolution in the full meaning of the term.

  18. Sources of Regional Banks Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Miroshnichenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching of sources to increase the capitalization of Russian banks is an important economic problem for both the national and regional economy. Moreover, a strong capital base allows to credit institutions to meet the demands of economic agents for banking service. The research focuses on the choice of sources of regulatory capital for the banks of Tyumen region in the context of changing supervisory requirements in the period of 2005–2016, in different phases of the business cycle. We apply econometric methods of statistical information using IBM SPSS Statistics software. We have calculated the individual correlations of regional banks’ capital with gross domestic product (GDP (excluding gross regional product (GRP and GRP (with the exception of the effect of GDP. These calculations have shown that the capital of regional banks is related only to GDP. The increase in the capital of regional banks is accompanied by a change in its structure: the share of authorized capital has halved, and the share of subordinated debt has grown. All sources of capital, other than the reserve fund, are related to GDP. Authorized capital is associated with the profit of profitable lending institutions; retained earnings in the capital of regional banks — with the aggregated amount of risks of the banking system of the Russian Federation. Subordinated debt, like capital as a whole, is negatively affected by the profitability of the banking sector. The change in the capital of regional banks is determined by the change in retained earnings, subordinated debt and reserve fund. Modelling of these relations has allowed to obtain a system of equations. This system synthesizes linear regression models of changing the capital of regional banks in the context of their sourcing. The results of this study are significant for theoretical justification and practical development of a balanced financial policy of regional banks. Our research will contribute to

  19. Seeding Social Capital? Urban Community Gardening and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...

  20. Rethinking the economics of capital mobility and capital controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I. Palley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reexamines the issue of international financial capital mobility, which is today's economic orthodoxy. Discussion is often framed in terms of the impossible trinity. That framing distorts discussion by representing capital mobility as having equal significance with sovereign monetary policy and control over exchange rates. It also distorts discussion by ignoring possibilities for coordinated monetary policy and exchange rates, and for managed capital flows. The case for capital mobility rests on neo-classical economic efficiency arguments and neo-liberal political arguments. The case against capital mobility is based on Keynesian macroeconomic inefficiency arguments, neo-Walrasian market failure arguments, and neo-Marxian arguments regarding distortion of the social structure of accumulation. Close examination shows the case for capital mobility to be extremely flimsy, pointing to the ideological dimension behind today's policy orthodoxy.