Landhäußer, Sandra; Ziegler, Holger
This paper surveys research on social capital. We explore the concepts that motivate the social capital literature, efforts to formally model social capital using economic theory, the econometrics of social capital, and empirical studies of the role of social capital in various socioeconomic outcomes. While our focus is primarily on the place of social capital in economics, we do consider its broader social science context. We argue that while the social capital literature has produced many i...
Bolívar Espinoza, Gardy Augusto; Elizalde, Antonio
La perspectiva teórica del Capital, del siglo XIX, aparece alejada del capital social del siglo XXI. Ambas, con la misma raíz, sin embargo, pareciera que no se tocan, ni teórica ni prácticamente. Quizás, sería pertinente escudriñar esta relación. Desde la década de los noventa, el tema del “capital social” ha sido visto por muchos estudiosos de la realidad social contemporánea como una propuesta promisoria, transversal y hegemónica. Tanto desde la economía, las ciencias morales, la ciencia ...
Avalos-Lozano, José Antonio; Barrientos,Jaime; Bolívar Espinoza, Gardy Augusto; Brower Beltramin, Jorge; Cabrera, Cecilia; Caloca Osorio, Oscar Rogelio; Castro Sáez, Bernardo; Ceberio de León, Iñaki; Cleary, Eda; Córdova, María Gabriela; Cuéllar Saavedra, Óscar; Elizalde, Antonio; Flores Vega, Leonel; Gajardo Cornejo, Claudio; Garcés, Alejandro
Desde la década de los noventa, el tema del “capital social” ha sido visto por muchos estudiosos de la realidad social contemporánea como una propuesta promisoria, transversal y hegemónica. Tanto desde la economía, las ciencias morales, la ciencia y la sociología política, expertos de diversas instituciones internacionales han concurrido a este campo en busca de soluciones para el diseño de políticas públicas, que es donde parece brillar más este concepto. El “capital social”, sin embargo, –a...
Full Text Available En la teoría económica existen distintas definiciones de capital: capital físico, el capital en recursos naturales, el capital financiero, el capital en infraestructura económica, el capital en infraestructura social y el capital humano. Todos ellos son condiciones necesarias para que un país alcance el desarrollo económico y social y un alto estándar y calidad de vida de sus habitantes, pero no suficientes puesto que hace falta una categoría adicional de capital. En los últimos años ha surgido el análisis de una nueva categoría: el Capital Social. El concepto se ha convertido en uno de los temas más debatidos de las ciencias sociales y políticas. Se refiere a un elemento invisible, etéreo, menos tangible que el capital humano (conocimientos y/o habilidades de los individuos o el capital físico (bienes materiales, pero que resulta decisivo para la actividad productiva, la satisfacción de las necesidades personales y el desarrollo comunitario y de una sociedad toda.
The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....
Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page questionnaire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the questionnaire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian
How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...
Li, Peter Ping
This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal...
I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... redistribution, which in turn reduces corruption....
Book synopsis: \\ud \\ud This volume provides a collection of critical new perspectives on social capital theory by examining how social values, power relationships, and social identity interact with social capital. This book seeks to extend this theory into what have been largely under-investigated domains, and, at the same time, address long-standing, classic questions in the literature concerning the forms, determinants, and consequences of social capital.\\ud \\ud Social capital can be unders...
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian
This chapter presents a framework for understanding organizational networks and social capital through the lens of “social capital ownership” as well as the private and collective goods provided through this ownership. More specifically, it argues that ownership of social capital in organizations...... is closely connected to four types of social capital – two belonging to the bridging social capital type, and two belonging to the bonding social capital type. The chapter first reviews literature on organizational social capital and then directly focuses on ownership of social capital in organizations......, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...
Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...
Oscar Acera Manero
Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.
Bellemare, C.; Kroger, S.
This paper analyzes data for a random sample drawn from the Dutch population who reveal their propensity to invest and reward investments in building up social capital by means of an economic experiment.We find substantial heterogeneity and asymmetries in the propensity to invest and in the propensi
Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland
We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...
Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland
Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...
Chou, Yuan K.
This paper proposes three theoretical growth models incorporating social capital, based on varied expositions on the concept of social capital and the empirical evidence gathered to date. In these models, social capital impacts growth by assisting in the accumulation of human capital, by affecting financial development through its effects on collective trust and social norms, and by facilitating networking between firms that result in the creation and diffusion of business and technological i...
Lassen Hanan, Anne
This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...
The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.
Forrest, Ray; Kearns, Ade
Outlines key dimensions of social cohesion, exploring whether societies are facing a new crisis in this area. Examines where contemporary residential neighborhoods fit into social cohesion debates, particularly regarding the interaction between social cohesion and social capital. Outlines key debates over social capital, showing how it can be…
Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland
We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...... for cooperation preferences rather than beliefs about others' cooperation. To disentangle the preference and belief channels, we run a (standard) public goods game in which beliefs matter for cooperation choices and one (using the strategy method) in which they do not matter. We show that the "fairness question...
HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER
Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...
Full Text Available The concept of social capital has been used very often in sociological researches over the last two decades. Measuring social capital in civil society, neighborhoods and educational systems is merely a part of its popular usage. Many sociologists tend to use the concept of social capital very freely and therefore expand the definition of social capital. The author’s personal experience indicates that there have been a great number of academic discussions, research planning and public speeches implementing the notion of social capital without taking a detailed consideration of what that concept truly entails. By overviewing the available literature on social capital, it is actually no wonder that both sociologists and the noted concept were in this confusing situation. As Field stated in his book Social Capital (Key Ideas, published in 2008, his work was “the first attempt to provide an extended introduction on increasingly influential concept of social capital” (Field 1. Quibria notes that even though there is a vast number of research conducted on social capital in many academic fields and with various approaches ‘the concept of social capital remains largely elusive’’(1. That obviously is not an obstacle because there is a constantly growing interest in social capital. A vast body of research concerning, measuring, and defining social capital is available today, which helps a researcher to analyze and compare all of the perspectives concerning social capital. This can be of great importance when researchers approach a somewhat new subject of research such as online communication and, more specifically, online games.
This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...... capital is formed at spatial scales lower than the national or international, because the density of matrices of social relations increases with proximity. The paper also offers a discussion of how national and regional policies may be suited for promoting social capital....
Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society...... and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted from the economic gain following market forces. For example, the voluntary organization of small......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....
Murillo, David; Vallentin, Steen
capital are interrelated, turning social capital into a powerful instrument to better explain what academic literature has called silent CSR practices. The analysis that follows questions some of the basic tenets that underpin the branch of business ethics that deals with the nature of SMEs' approach...... this type of action d) Any study of this kind of practice requires a dual approach: a) normative when using tools developed by CSR; and b) descriptive and instrumental using the notion of social capital....
Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc
In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...
Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph
This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger
catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....
Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper
from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...
Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Overgaard, Charlotte;
Background The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. Methods We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007?2012 (n=9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...
Information technology and information capital are both neutral in character and can serve socialism as well as capitalism. As Karst pointed out, the information society is culturally and institutionally diverse. If in their transformation into social morphology information technology and capital may both end in socialism as well as capitalism, then what is the essential distinction between information capitalism and information socialism?
There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...
Luciene Dal Ri
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão critica da literatura sobre a relação entre Capital Social, Democracia e o Desenvolvimento. É relevante refletirmos sobre estes três temas, pois não se consegue ver um distanciamento entre ambos. Todavia, como meio para promover o capital social, o desenvolvimento e a democracia, é necessária que haja uma melhoria do bem-estar social, devendo ser associada com liberdades econômicas e abertura de mercado de modo a viabilizar o crescimento econômico e a melhoria na qualidade de vida da população.
Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.
Suzana Braga Rodrigues
Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.
Full Text Available Este documento es un tributo a 20 años de ediciones ininterrumpidas de la Revista de Ingeniería de la Universidad de los Andes. En estas dos décadas la revista ha guiado la construcción de capital social de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de los Andes. En este artículo se presentan algunas características del capital social de la facultad. Se estudian las relaciones de coautoría en libros, artículos en conferencias, artículos publicados en libros y artículos publicados en revistas indexadas en ISI Web of Knowledge durante los últimos 10 años. El propósito es estudiar la relación entre la producción científica de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de los Andes y su acumulación de capital social. Se propone que las relaciones de coautoría representen una red dinámica donde grupos de actores trabajan colectivamente en la producción de conocimiento. Las características estructurales (tamaño y conectividad de la red de coautorías proporcionan una representación del capital social. El estudio de la dinámica de la red da indicios de la acumulación de capital social y de las estrategias colectivas de producción de conocimiento. Los resultados muestran que existe una relación de dosis-respuesta entre la producción científica y las características estructurales de la red de coautorías. La conectividad de los autores y el tamaño de la red (números de nodos y número de arcos están relacionados positivamente con las dinámicas de producción de conocimiento.//This work is a tribute to the 20th anniversary of the Revista de Ingeniería de la Universidad de los Andes. In these two decades this journal has guided the construction of social capital of this School of Engineering. This work presents the relationship between the scientific production of the School of Engineering and its accumulation of social capital. Social capital is represented by coauthorships. These relations represent a dynamic
Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.
Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…
Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo
In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…
Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew
Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…
Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan
Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian
Bourdieu's (1986) seminal definition of social capital as "the aggregate of the actual or potential resources" is reflected in older definitions, as well as in many current within sociology (e.g. Portes, 2000) and organization (Adler & Kwon, 2002). The definition is interesting, because it directs...... a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...
Enfield, Richard P; Nathaniel, Keith C
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the community, and the development of social capital. They then discuss the trade-offs of defining the often amorphous concepts included in social capital as they select measurement scales. The constructs used in the survey are agency, belonging, engagement, and trust for bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital.
Full Text Available Este artículo está dirigido a caracterizar la dinámica de la gestión del capital social en empresas familiares ubicadas en Santa Ana de Coro, municipio Miranda del estado Falcón. Para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio de campo de tipo descriptivo, mediante el uso de la técnica de la encuesta, siendo la modalidad utilizada el cuestionario, con el interés de obtener datos e información directamente de las 08 empresas familiares que funcionan en este municipio. De esta manera se conoció que en las empresas familiares del municipio Miranda, el capital social representa significativamente una de las características conducentes a la sociabilidad y confianza entre los miembros de las familias conductoras de las organizaciones y los empleados no miembros de familia; y es precisamente esta dinámica la razón por la cual el capital social se convierte en un trascendental recurso para las empresas, permitiendo el acceso a otros recursos e impulsando la participación de todos los que hacen vida en la organización, y por ende el crecimiento y desarrollo económico se hace evidente, estimulando en los empleados el sentido de pertenencia, confianza, compromiso y reciprocidad, generando beneficios para la red de demandantes y consumidores.
Navarra, M.Q.; Niehof, A.; Vaart, van der W.
Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital among poor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital concept and its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used in evaluating the adaptation and integration of invo
Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded.
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more...
Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
be added to human and physical capital, or it might enter as a reduction in either transaction or monitoring costs. A direct and an indirect way to measure social capital are discussed. The crucial question is if social capital can be changed. That is, if self enforcement can replace third party......Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must...... enforcement, and it is discussed how much harm totalitarian regimes do to social capital, when they expand their area of central control....
Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T
In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.
Social capital can be useful when cooperation for mutual benefit can be facilitated by social network and norms of reciprocity (Putnam, 2000:21). In this context, both individuals and organisations agree to mobilise joint resources to achieve common outcomes which are more efficient and productive. However, the concept of social capital is not always positive.This article will discuss positive and negative social capital.
From the symposium: Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which role for the Civil Society Organizations and the State? - on 28 June 2000 in Geneva The title of the symposium is "Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which Role for Civil Society Organizations and the State?". The emphasis here is on poverty and whether poverty reduction can be obtained through a strategy of increased social capital. The emphasis is not on social development in general or the b...
Sherry L. Avery
Full Text Available Purpose – This study explores the impact of social capital on service firm supply chains.Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical underpinnings of social capital is reviewed from various disciplines, including sociology, management, and operations management. This is used to develop a conceptual model of the use of social capital in a service supply chain setting.Findings - Social capital is proposed to improve the operational performance of service firms as a source of both physical and information resources. The impact of social capital is projected to vary by firm size and service type. Small firms have limited resources and thus a need for resources obtained through social capital. Service firms that have high customization and customer contact are subject to process variations which can be mitigated by social capital. A conceptual model is presented to test several propositions related to social capital.Originality/value – The impact of social capital has not been widely studied in an operational setting. This is the first known study to specifically analyze the impact of social capital in service supply chains.
for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social......Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...
Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.
Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…
Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne
Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...
Gabbay, Shaul M.; Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.
Social capital in general and the study of social capital in the context of organizations has gained considerable attention in recent years. Despite the promise in the potency of the concept, its useful application suffers from the plethora of different definitions and approaches—both theoretical an
Alfred, Mary V.
This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of social capital on the status attainment process of young people at the start of their careers and examines how social class, gender and ethnicity affect the accumulation of social capital and thereby labour market stratification of young people. A sample of young Swedes graduating from vocational schools and universities between 2005 and 2006, was surveyed via the telephone about their experiences acquiring jobs. Two research questions are posed: (i Which characteristics (class, gender and ethnicity affect young people's access to more social capital? (ii How is social capital rewarded in the labour market? The results show that being female, coming from the lower social classes and being a member of a stigmatized immigrant groupare associated with a substantial social capital deficit. When socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds as well as the human capital of respondents are controlled, social capital is positively associated with salary level. The results indicate that social capital is a significant factor in the stratification process of young people.
Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Rose, Roderick A; Smokowski, Paul R
Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south. It was hypothesized that social capital factors would be associated with decreased substance use while social capital deprivation and anti-social capital factors would be associated with increased substance use. The hypotheses were tested using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. The findings indicated that for middle school youth, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. For high school students, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends and social capital deprivation in the form of neighborhood crime were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Violent behavior was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using marijuana. Females reported less substance use in both middle and high school; reports of use increased with age. Implications are discussed. Given the salience of social capital deprivation, substance use programs should emphasize the skills necessary to avoid or disengage from antisocial relationships.
Del Rey Calero, Juan
Social capital is the social structure which facilitates the actions of individuals, stimulates production and allows for success. Poverty maintains basic needs unmet (food, health, autonomy) over time and unvoluntarily. Social exclusion does not allow individuals to participate in society. The following dimensions are assessed: financial poverty, social inclusion, employment, health and education. Social participation, work integration, empowerment, self-esteem, and personal achievement should be promoted. In Europe 15% of people is exposed to poverty; in Spain corresponding figures are 13.4%, while for the elderly reached 21%. Extreme poverty affects 6.2% population and severe poverty 14.2%. Women and those living in Andalusia, Canary Islands and Extremadura are particularly affected, health inequality are for elderly, immigration, gender, social class, and should be reduced 10% for 2010. The Gini indez measures the income distribution; in the European Union (EU) it is 0.29 while in Spain is 0.33. Poverty and health are inversely correlated, health care expenditure in Spain is 7.5% og GDP. Life expectancy in U.E. is 75.5 years for men and 81.6 years for women, while in Spain it is 78 and 83.1 respectively. Infant mortality in EU is 4.5/1000, 4.1 per thousand in Spain. Lastly, the number of children per women in EU is 1.47 and in Spain 1.3.
Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.
This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...
Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…
Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.
This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…
Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…
Full Text Available This article reports on an analysis of data from a study conducted in Australia on the impact of Internet access on social capital. The debate regarding the definition of social capital is explored, and basic indicators of social capital resolved. The apparent emergence of the phenomenon of virtual social capital is also discussed. Australians overall have widely adopted the Internet as a source of information and communication. Data collected in a mass survey conducted in 2004 is analysed and considered. Factors associated with Internet access are: access to the Internet in the home and employment status. There are also strong links between the levels of education completed and use of the Internet. On the basis of the evidence, Australians with Internet access are more likely to engage in activities generally regarded as indicators of individual expressions of social capital.
A dynamic model of the social relations between workers and capitalists is introduced. The model self-organises into a dynamic equilibrium with statistical properties that are in close qualitative and in many cases quantitative agreement with a broad range of known empirical distributions of developed capitalism, including the power-law firm size distribution, the Laplace firm and GDP growth distribution, the lognormal firm demises distribution, the exponential recession duration distribution, the lognormal-Pareto income distribution, and the gamma-like firm rate-of-profit distribution. Normally these distributions are studied in isolation, but this model unifies and connects them within a single causal framework. The model also generates business cycle phenomena, including fluctuating wage and profit shares in national income about values consistent with empirical studies. The generation of an approximately lognormal-Pareto income distribution and an exponential-Pareto wealth distribution demonstrates that the power-law regime of the income distribution can be explained by an additive process on a power-law network that models the social relation between employers and employees organised in firms, rather than a multiplicative process that models returns to investment in financial markets. A testable consequence of the model is the conjecture that the rate-of-profit distribution is consistent with a parameter-mix of a ratio of normal variates with means and variances that depend on a firm size parameter that is distributed according to a power-law.
Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.
Rocco, L; F. Elena; Suhrcke, M
We assess the causal relationship between health and social capital, measured by generalized trust, both at the individual and the community level. The paper contributes to the literature in two ways: it tackles the problems of endogeneity and reverse causation between social capital and health by estimating a simultaneous equation model, and it explicitly accounts for mis-reporting in self reported trust. The relationship is tested using data from the first four waves of the European Social ...
. Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...... of organizational trust and participation. The article proposes a recalibration to encompass the political dynamics, and political survival theory is recommended as a way to address the hitherto underexplored governance dimension. Rather than using trust as the analytical pivot, this analytical entry point may...
Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L
Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.
Hofman, Peter S.; Moon, Jeremy; Wu, Bin
This article introduces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seemingly oxymoronic context of Chinese “authoritarian capitalism.” Following an introduction to the emergence of authoritarian capitalism, the article considers the emergence of CSR in China using Matten and Moon...
Etter, Michael; Fieseler, Christian
relies not only on communication in classical media alone but also on the various online channels summarized by the term “social media.” Utilizing a literature study and expert interviews, this article explores how organizations engage in creating and maintaining relational social capital...... by communicating their corporate social responsibility efforts through social media channels.......Stakeholder relationships become increasingly important as new communication technologies en-able interest groups to communicate their demands, organize themselves and voice their concerns with ease. In this changing stakeholder environment, the creation and maintenance of relational social capital...
W. Deng (Wendong)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a
Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn; Völker, Beate; Baerveldt, Chris
Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students' school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils' performance and well-being. The sample in this study consists of 1036 children in 60…
Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano
Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.
Many researchers link social capital theory to education and commonly use examples from the field of education to examine social capital theory. Accordingly, they accept that reflections and contributions of social capital can be observed in the field of education. This paper examines social capital's effects on academic success in education. In…
Full Text Available Social capital is a systematic set of organized links between the members of a group or a society which is based on specific norms and rules and results into obtaining individual and collective purposes. The category of social capital is different with from current concept of capital in sociology, law and economy. Features like cooperation, knowledge, participating in public affairs, tolerating others and group works are a kind of investment that has no individual owner and has its roots in the past. The writer of this article has studied Tarikh-e-Beihaghi written by Khaje Abolfazl Mohammad-ibn-e-Dabir known as Beihaghi; and has analyzed the different forms of social capital. He has also tried to reconstruct the signs of decline and rise of that period.
The "accordion effect" is an effect of language which allows us to describe one and the same thing more or less narrowly. Social capital has been conceived in terms of our access to institutional resources, but also in terms that extend to the levels of trust and related resources found in the social networks we are embedded in. The…
Svendsen, G.L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and ...
Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica
This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin’s (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide “umbrella” organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.
Shannon H. Rogers
Full Text Available The concepts of sustainability and sustainable development are frequently described as having three main components, sometimes referred to as the three pillars or the triple bottom line: environmental, economic, and social. Because of an historical focus in the sustainability field on correcting environmental problems, much consideration has been given to environmental issues, especially how they interface with economic ones. Frequently mentioned but rarely examined, the social aspects of sustainability have been considered the weakest and least described pillar. After a brief review of existing concepts and theories, this paper uses a case study approach to examine the third pillar more comprehensively and offers social capital as one measure of social sustainability. Specifically, social capital was used to measure the social-environmental interface of communities. The positive correlation between aspects of the built environment, specifically walkability, and social capital suggests that measuring a social aspect of sustainability may be feasible, especially in the context of community development.
Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Klyver, Kim
This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk...
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
One outcome of globalization is an increasing number of “boundaryless and borderless careers” (Morris & Wu 2009). This is particularly true in the case of international seafarers, who seldom are members of the same crew two voyages in a row but must cooperate with seafarers from many countries...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... are urging all social scientists to think more as social scientists rather than just as anthropologists, economists, historians, political scientists, or sociologists. Their effort to broaden the way social scientists think about social organization is an important step, especially for those of us interested...
Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...
Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles; Lopez-Nicolas, Carolina
This study explores how some uses of ICTs, as well as having social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development. The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...... to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how certain ICT uses complement personal relationships to enhance...
Steinfield, Charles; Scupola, Ada; López-Nicolás, Carolina
This study explores how some kinds of ICT uses, as well as social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development. The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...... to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how ICT use complements personal relationships to enhance...
Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.
. Secondly, it is necessary to determine whether social capital can or should be measured. Thirdly, the negative aspects of social capital should be explored and integrated into the existing research. Fourthly, the field between social capital of the individual and organizational social capital lacks......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and it identifies five main issues that need to be addressed...... in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research...
The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and identifying five main issues that need to be addressed...... in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research....... Secondly, it is necessary to determine whether social capital can or should be measured. Thirdly, the negative aspects of social capital should be explored and integrated into the existing research. Fourthly, the field between social capital of the individual and organizational social capital lacks...
Minckler, Cheri Hoff
This quantitative study explores the relationship between school leadership and the development and sustenance of teacher social capital. The literature review discusses aspects of leadership theory to elucidate understanding of how leadership influences teachers' working relationships. Quantitative methodology and analyses ascertain the…
Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
conditions for concepts to be good in a strict sense. Afterwards, an empirical section explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption of most definitions of social capital. This assumption is rejected in four separate tests at both the micro and macro level. A final section therefore discusses...
Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...
Alaimo, Katherine; Reischl, Thomas M.; Allen, Julie Ober
This study examined associations between participation in community gardening/beautification projects and neighborhood meetings with perceptions of social capital at both the individual and neighborhood levels. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional stratified random telephone survey conducted in Flint, Michigan (N=1916). Hierarchical linear…
Arriaza, Gilberto; Rocha, Christie
Sharing school supplies appears, indeed, a simple, even an irrelevant routine activity, but upon closer examination one realizes that deeper and complex issues are at stake. This article aims at explaining how seemingly uneventful classroom activities contain the potential to building social capital in the classroom, which occurs when and if…
Minckler, Cheri Hoff
This quantitative study explores the relationship between school leadership and the development and sustenance of teacher social capital. The literature review discusses aspects of leadership theory to elucidate understanding of how leadership influences teachers' working relationships. Quantitative methodology and analyses ascertain the…
Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S
Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (p<0.001). Trust is also negatively related to HMO enrollment and to many individual characteristics. The effect of HMOs is not uniform across all communities. Social capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.
Etter, Michael; Fieseler, Christian
Stakeholder relationships become increasingly important as new communication technologies en-able interest groups to communicate their demands, organize themselves and voice their concerns with ease. In this changing stakeholder environment, the creation and maintenance of relational social capital relies not only on communication in classical media alone but also on the various online channels summarized by the term "social media." Utilizing a literature study and expert interviews, this art...
Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens
Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect.
Prusak, L; Cohen, D
Business runs better when people within a company have close ties and trust one another. But the relationships that make organizations work effectively are under assault for several reasons. Building such "social capital" is difficult in volatile times. Disruptive technologies spawn new markets daily, and organizations respond with constantly changing structures. The problem is worsened by the virtuality of many of today's workplaces, with employees working off-site or on their own. What's more, few managers know how to invest in such social capital. The authors describe how managers can help their organizations thrive by making effective investments in social capital. For instance, companies that value social capital demonstrate a commitment to retention as a way of limiting workplace volatility. The authors cite SAS's extensive efforts to signal to employees that it sees them as human beings, not just workers. Managers can build trust by showing trust themselves, as well as by rewarding trust and sending clear signals to employees. They can foster cooperation by giving employees a common sense of purpose through good strategic communication and inspirational leadership. Johnson & Johnson's well-known credo, which says the company's first responsibility is to the people who use its products, has helped the company in time of adversity, as in 1982 when cyanide in Tylenol capsules killed seven people. Other methods of fostering cooperation include rewarding the behavior with cash and establishing rules that get people into the habit of cooperating. Social capital, once a given in organizations, is now rare and endangered. By investing in it, companies will be better positioned to seize the opportunities in today's volatile, virtual business environment.
Arp Fallov, Mia
as an instrument to achieve local social inclusion. The material consists both of an analysis of policy rationales based on policy documents and of interviews with professionals and residents involved in neighbourhood regeneration. The starting point for the paper based on a theoretical combination of Bourdieu...... to the capacities of inclusion. The first section of the paper discusses how active resident participation and the building of social capital in regeneration projects are constructed as legitimate and just means of achieving social inclusion. Furthermore, how slippages between social capital at different levels......; individual, communal and governmental becomes instrumental in these constructions. The second section of the paper discusses the national variations in relation to this route to inclusion and the different understandings of the relations between social capital and community cohesion in England and Denmark...
Teney, Celine; Hanquinet, Laurie
Social capital has been alleged to increase the capacity for political mobilization. Yet, until now, the empirical debate has not succeeded in rendering a detailed account of the relationships between social capital and political participation partly because of the use of a reductive conception and operationalization of both concepts. Using a multidimensional and relational technique (multiple correspondence analysis) and a detailed youth survey data from Belgium, the article demonstrates that youth draw on diverse forms of social capital and that these forms vary along socio-economic status and ethnic origin. Six classes based on the forms of social capital were identified. Two of them - the 'Committed' and 'Religious' are highly political active. The 'Committed' Class, based on a diversified social capital, consists mainly of non-immigrant youth with a high socio-economic background undertaking a large diversity of political activities. The 'Religious' Class, based on a narrow social capital built around religious activities, is mostly composed of ethnic minority youth with a low SES involved in more specific political activities.
Abenakyo, Annet; Sanginga, Pascal; Njuki, Jemimah M.; Kaaria, Susan; Delve, Robert J.
Social capital is an important characteristic of a community and is one of the components of the asset pentagon of the sustainable livelihood framework. The study aimed at assessing the levels and dimensions of social capital and how social capital influences other livelihood capitals. A Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 208 households was conducted in Masindi and Hoima Districts in Uganda to assess the current livelihood conditions and strategies for improving rural livelihoods. A...
Cheung, Chau-kiu; Chan, Raymond Kwok-hong
A way to clarify the measurement of social capital is the differentiation of its bases on opportunity and exchange. Social capital based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, trust, helping and continuing relationships, whereas social capital based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of…
van Tubergen, F.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271429534; Volker, Beate|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141888237
Whereas much research has been done on the benefits of social capital, less is known about the causes of the unequal distribution of social capital in people’s networks. This study examines inequalities in access to social capital in terms of the socio-economic resources that are embedded in persona
Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex
Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…
O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)
textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive. Specifically
Hjøllund, Lene; Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation...... and eventually to economic growth. The main results are: (r1) The differences in social capital between the two countries is similar by all social capital measures used. (r2) The level of beneficial social capital is roughly three times higher in the old democracy than in the former communist dictatorship. (r3......) Social capital matters in the earnings equation. In both countries it explains roughly 40% of what human capital explains in both countries....
Full Text Available Problem statement: The study aims to offer a discussion on social capital and guanxi, in order to illustrate the similarities and differences between these two concepts and how Chinese guanxi varies from Western preconceptions concerning social networking. Approach: The literature review and arguments were conducted to provide a systematic discussion of the guanxi and social capital relationship. Results: Both guanxi and social capital involve social relations; it is important to appreciate that guanxi does not relate exclusively to social capital, or that guanxi itself is simply another term for social capital. Conclusion: Both guanxi and social capital are similar concepts. Social capital is considered as both the attributes of individuals and organizations; thus, guanxi is distinctively about interpersonal relationships, which are often lost within the corporate environments of large organizations.
Hawdon, James; Ryan, John
A neighborhood-level model of crime that connects the central dimensions of social capital with specific forms of social control is developed. The proposed model is tested using a structural equation model that predicts changes in empirical Bayes log odds of neighborhood victimization rates between 2000 and 2001 in 41 neighborhoods in South…
This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...
Social capital is a difficult concept to define, and the task of defining the social capital of youth is even more complicated. The concept has not only been poorly researched but is also imperfectly understood. This article examines the problems faced in the use of adult indicators in youth social capital research and explores current…
Carpiano, Richard M; Fitterer, Lisa M
Health research on personal social capital has often utilized measures of respondents' perceived trust of others as either a proxy for one's social capital in the absence of more focused measures or as a subjective component of social capital. Little empirical work has evaluated the validity of such practices. We test the construct validity of two trust measures used commonly in health research on social capital-generalized trust and trust of neighbors-with respect to measures of people's general network-, organization-, family-, friend-, and neighborhood-based social capital and the extent to which these two trust measures are associated with self-rated general health and mental health when social capital measures are included in the same models. Analyses of 2008 Canadian General Social Survey data (response rate 57.3%) indicate that generalized trust and trust of neighbors are both positively-yet modestly-associated with measures of several domains of network-based social capital. Both trust measures are positively associated with general and mental health, but these associations remain robust after adjusting for social capital measures. Our findings suggest that (a) trust is conceptually distinct from social capital, (b) trust measures are inadequate proxies for actual personal social networks, and (c) trust measures may only be capturing psychological aspects relevant to-but not indicative of-social capital. Though links between perceived trust and health deserve study, health research on social capital needs to utilize measures of respondents' actual social networks and their inherent resources.
Cemalcilar, Zeynep; Göksen, Fatos
This article examines the effects of social capital on the likelihood of dropping out from the compulsory education system (Grades One through Eight) in Turkey. It focuses on the question of whether school-related social capital can provide the means to stay in school in the presence of risk factors such as socioeconomic status, race, or gender…
Vergeer, M.R.M.; Lim, Y.S.; Park, H.W.
The Web has expanded the research agenda for communication scholars to study social capital. In this field of Internet studies, new indicators of social behavior and social relations have surfaced to describe and understand how social capital develops online and what the consequences are for social
Song, Lijun; Lin, Nan
Does social capital, resources embedded in social relationships, influence health? This research examines whether social capital impacts depressive symptoms and overall perceived health status over and above the effects of social support. Our analyses use unique data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey collected in 1997, and measures social…
Antonio De la Peña García
Full Text Available This article offers a critical review of the concept of social capital, focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of the communitarian approach. It argues that this approach has a culturalist bias that omits key issues of inequality, conflict and power, making it a tool that is unlikely to contribute significantly to poverty reduction or development. As an example, it describes the adoption of the concept by the World Bank and provides a case study of rural community organization in Ecuador.
Lauridsen Lolle, Elisabeth
by educational institutions as platforms for offering educations on different locations in the periphery. How do these new possibilities affect the social capital of small communities and thus the regional development? Does it enhance the sense of community cohesion, or is this just another way of communicating......? This article will examine these questions through three case studies covering the educational (schools) and cultural (museums) sector in different settings in rural Denmark....
Kushner, Howard I; Sterk, Claire E
Recent applications of social capital theories to population health often draw on classic sociological theories for validation of the protective features of social cohesion and social integration. Durkheim's work on suicide has been cited as evidence that modern life disrupts social cohesion and results in a greater risk of morbidity and mortality-including self-destructive behaviors and suicide. We argue that a close reading of Durkheim's evidence supports the opposite conclusion and that the incidence of self-destructive behaviors such as suicide is often greatest among those with high levels of social integration. A reexamination of Durkheim's data on female suicide and suicide in the military suggests that we should be skeptical about recent studies connecting improved population health to social capital.
Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger
Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....
Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina
Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.
Gjerding, Allan Næs
-disciplinary. Regarding the Danish national system of innovation, social capital plays an important role, and a number of features facilitating social capital prevail. However, a number of challenges are present and calling for political action and future research. The main argument of the paper is that social capital......The paper explores the concept of social capital and applies it to the Danish national system of innovation. It is argued that social capital is important to the working of the national system of innovation, and that the way in which the concept of social capital informs the study of national...... systems of innovation is in accordance with fundamental contributions in the field. Reviewing a number of approaches to social capital, the paper shows that even though different views exist there seem to be a number of common features that will facilitate research both within individual fields and cross...
Full Text Available The concept of social capital has gained wide acceptance and use in social sciences, particularly in sociology, political science and institutional economics. Its popularity should be primarily attributed to various societal benefits, theoretically and empirically well explored, linked to the production and persistence of social capital. This paper reconsiders the dynamics of social capital in Croatia presented in a previous article (Štulhofer, 2003a. Using data from two cross-sectional nationally representative social surveys (World Values Survey - Croatia 1995, and South East European Social Survey, 2003, the authors focus on the dynamics of social capital during the 1995-2003 period. In spite of economic growth increasing political stability and advancing democratization in the observed period, the findings point to the erosion of social capital. The main factors behind the negative dynamics of social capital in Croatia seem to be growing perception of corruption and declining religiousness.
Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio
In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries.
Leeves, Gareth D.
The returns to education have been increasing. It is suggested that high-skilled workers' social capital investment has been adversely affected by the increasing incentives to devote human capital to career development. Lower social capital is linked to reduced economic growth and innovation and higher transaction costs and is detrimental to…
Plagens, Gregory K.
Scholarly work on student and school performance poses a variety of explanations for observed variations. One explanation receiving too little attention is social capital, an intangible resource argued to grow out of social relations and social structure. The seedbed of social capital is argued to reside with John Dewey, who in 1900 used the term…
The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…
Full Text Available The social capital as new research paradigm contributes to find out answers to big differences between social and economic development. International institutions and countries have intensified on these researches since the eighty´s decade. The specific purposes are: 1. Analyzing the concept of social capital as a new and universal research paradigm; 2. Enhance the results of measurements and research made in Colombia with Professor John Sudarsky’s leadership since 1997; 3. Compare the national measurements of social capital with those of other countries and regions; 4. Establish the structural reasons of the Colombian low social capital, making some reflections towards its improvement.
Rajennd A/L Muniady
Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in Japan. This is because the growing recognition of the social determinants of health has stimulated research on social capital and mental health. In recent years, systematic reviews have found that social capital may be a useful factor in the prevention of mental illness. Despite these studies, evidence on the association between social capital and mental health is limited as there have been few empirical discussions that adopt a multilevel framework to assess whether social capital at the ecological level is associated with individual mental health. The aim of this study was to use the multilevel approach to investigate the association between neighborhood social capital and mental health after taking into account potential individual confounders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a multilevel analysis on 5,956 individuals nested within 199 neighborhoods. The outcome variable of self-reported mental health was measured by the one dimension of SF-36 and was summed to calculate a score ranging from 0 to 100. This study showed that high levels of cognitive social capital, measured by trust (regression coefficient = 9.56, and high levels of structural social capital, measured by membership in sports, recreation, hobby, or cultural groups (regression coefficient = 8.72, were associated with better mental health after adjusting for age, sex, household income, and educational attainment. Furthermore, after adjusting for social capital perceptions at the individual level, we found that the association between social capital and mental health also remained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that both cognitive and structural social capital at the ecological level may influence mental health, even after adjusting for individual potential confounders including social capital perceptions. Promoting social capital may contribute to enhancing the mental health of
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes in th...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena.......Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do...
B. Cousin; S. Chauvin
The Symbolic Economy of Social Capital Drawing from several studies dealing with upper-class sociability (in particular an investigation of Milan’s traditional social clubs and Rotary clubs), this article develops a relational analysis of social capital, i.e. one that is attentive to the distinctive
J. Fidrmuc; K. Gërxhani
Social capital in Central and Eastern Europe lags behind that in Western European countries. We analyze the determinants of individual stock of social capital - measured by civic participation and access to social networks - and find that this gap persists when we account for individual characterist
Ayios, A.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Manning, P.; Spence, L.J.
Social capital has as its key element the value of social relationships to generate positive outcomes, both for the key parties involved and for wider society. Some authors have noted that social capital nevertheless has a dark side. There is a moral element to such a conceptualisation, yet there is
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the theoretical framework of the social capital concept, based on different approaches identified in the literature and highlight the direct influence social capital has on the entrepreneurial personality characteristics of individuals and organizations. The objectives of the paper focus first on conceptualizing the notion of social capital, by acknowledging the social capital structure and components in the acceptation of the most popular scholars in the research field, the sources of social capital and its role in building social economy; further on, the article explores the influence of social capital in the creation of innovation and economic growth, its dimensions in the entrepreneurial process and the definition of the instruments of measurement, including indicators of trust-generalized and institutional, number of social networks, associational activities-passive and active membership and civic norms. The paper gathers some of the outcomes of different researches conducted in the literature with respect to the positive relationship between social capital dimensions and entrepreneurship, through attracting the right potential of human capital and the required level of financial capital, reducing the transaction costs, identifying new market opportunities and leveraging the social networks, transfer and knowledge overflow and information channels, enabling the launch and the survival of business venture and help gain competitive advantage that would ensure sustainability and success. The case studies referenced in this article use various approaches of highlighting the social capital as a key enabler and not necessarily a generator of entrepreneurial activity, by analyzing the likelihood to launch new ventures based on the interactions with key partners and exchange of information, the sustainability and success of a start up or push/pull factors that determine an entrepreneur to enter the new
Jing Han; Xiaoyuan Chu; Huicun Song; Yuan Li
This study internalized social capital on the basis of traditional study of the influence of economic factors on self-efficacy, and studied the relationship among the family socio-economic status, social capital and self-efficacy. Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, the paper studied the intermediate effect of social capital in the relationship between the socioeconomic status and self-efficacy. We draw on the following conc...
Hjøllund, L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
The purpose of this paper is to suggest a standard method of measurement for social capital. Various authors have investigated the influence of social capital on economic growth but still social capital has not been measured in any satisfactory way. So far, each survey has used its own ad hoc...... methodology due to the heterogeneity of the very definition of the concept of social capital. A consensus concerning a standardized method of measurement has not yet been reached. Based on the existing theoretical and empirical approaches, we suggest the use of a questionnaire where the principal component...... analysis should be applied as the most appropriate method of measurement....
Villalonga-Olives, E; Kawachi, I
Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach or a collective approach. Social capital can be further classified according to bonding versus bridging social capital (e.g. relationships between individuals who are homogeneous or heterogeneous with respect to social class, race/ethnicity, or other attributes). We conducted a systematic review via Pubmed, the ISI web of knowledge and OVID of the studies that examined bridging social capital in public health settings. Our results indicate lack of consistency or uniformity in the operationalization of bridging social capital. We identify some promising approaches to measurement that should be further investigated in future studies.
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
A person may develop a vocational intention – whether to become entrepreneur – based on human capital in form of competencies, such as self-efficacy, opportunity-alertness and risk-propensity obtained partly through education, and on social capital in form of networking, such as knowing...... an entrepreneur. The person’s human and social capital depends on social context, specifically whether the person resides in home country or in the diaspora. An indigenous person is embedded in own country, but a migrant has a dual embeddedness, in the old home country and in the new host country, which may...... and entrepreneurial intention. With regard to the social capital in form of social networks, our results show that Chinese in China are more likely to have more social networks in intending phase. This study seems the first comprehensive and global study comparing human and social capital of the Chinese in diaspora...
Sharif, Behjat A.
Quality of life is directly influenced by the quality of social relationships. Social capital, a reflection of the cohesiveness of social networks, is considered a significant determinant of health outcomes. Among social beings, lack of quality social connections correlates with poor health consequences. Membership in social networks and social…
Full Text Available The influence of social capital on an individual’s educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman’s (1988 or Bourdieu’s (1986 theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman’s approach has its roots in structural functionalism, Bourdieu’s approach contains elements of conflict theory. A number of authors, starting with Bourdieu, attempt to explain and prove that, when connected with the education of individuals, the activity of social capital facilitates social reproduction. Other authors support the notion that social capital is, in fact, a powerful weapon that encourages social mobility. A third group of researchers emphasise that neither of these approaches in isolation can entirety explain the influences of social capital on an individual’s education (Ho, 2003. The present paper offers a review of research focusing on the influences of social capital on educational achievements, while outlining the fundamental differences between the two theoretical approaches that are most frequently used for research of this topic. The aim of the paper is to explain the influence of social capital on an individual’s educational achievements under Bourdieu’s and Coleman’s theoretical concepts, and to establish whether combining the approaches is possible. The conclusion and arguments show that it is legitimate to use all three theoretical approaches.
Full Text Available While neighbourhood differences in social capital have been mapped, few empirical studies have considered the nexus between specific physical characteristics of communities and social capital. In this study we hypothesised that social capital would be positively associated with a more walkable street network design, but inversely associated with negative experiences and perceptions of neighbourhood environments. Data was gathered through a random cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (n=339 from three suburbs with differing street network design. Although there was some relationship between street network layout and social capital, this was not always as hypothesised by previous studies. Perceived incivilities, lower levels of trust and support were among factors that may have countered some of the positive influences of a walkable street network design on social capital. Overall, our findings suggest that the built environment may influence neighbourhood social capital at both a real and perceived level. While the actual presence and type of facilities, neighbourhood design and walkability may impact on social capital formation and maintenance, so too can perceptions of the physical and social environment. Understanding the complex intertwining of physical neighbourhood features, perceptions and social dynamics is relevant to growing public policy interest in strengthening social capital for enhanced community wellbeing.
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Paldam, Martin
Social capital is defined as mutual trust. It is related to production by a key hypothesis: social capital determines how easily people work together. An easy-to-use proxy (Putnam's Instrument) is the density of voluntary organizations. Social capital might be a new production factor which must...... be added to human and physical capital, or it might enter as a reduction in either transaction or monitoring costs. A direct and an indirect way to measure social capital are discussed. The crucial question is if social capital can be changed. That is, if self enforcement can replace third party...
Drushel, Bruce E
The prospects for online social networks as sites of information-gathering and affiliation for persons with AIDS and others concerned about HIV/AIDS not only represent the latest development in a trend toward circumventing traditional media and official information sources, but also may offer hope for a revitalization of HIV/AIDS discourse in the public sphere. This article provides an overview of three decades of information-seeking on the pandemic and its social and personal implications, as well as case studies of three examples of social networking surrounding HIV/AIDS. It finds preliminary evidence of the formation of strong and weak ties as described in Social Network Theory and suggests that the online accumulation of social capital by opinion leaders could facilitate dissemination of messages on HIV/AIDS awareness and testing.
Sang Putu Kaler Surata
Full Text Available Abstract: Social Network Analysis for Assessing Social Capital in Biosecurity Ecoliteracy. Biosecurity ecoliteracy (BEL is a view of literacy that applies ecological concepts to promote in-depth understanding, critical reflection, creative thinking, self consciousness, communication and social skills, in analyzing and managing issues around plant health/living, animal health/living and the risks that are associated with the environment. We used social network analysis (SNA to evaluate two distinct forms of social capital of BEL: social cohesion and network structure. This study was executed by employing cooperative learning in BEL toward 30 undergraduate teacher training students. Data then was analyzed using UCINET software. We found the tendency of social cohesion to increase after students participated in BEL. This was supported by several SNA measures (density, closeness and degree and these values at the end were statistically different than at the beginning of BEL. The social structure map (sociogram after BEL visualized that students were much more likely to cluster in groups compared with the sociogram before BEL. Thus BEL, through cooperative learning, was able to promote social capital. In addition SNA proved a useful tool for evaluating the achievement levels of social capital of BEL in the form of network cohesion and network structure. Abstrak: Analisis Jaringan Sosial untuk Menilai Ekoliterasi Ketahanan Hayati. Ekoliterasi ketahanan hayati (EKH adalah literasi yang mengaplikasikan berbagai konsep ekologi untuk mempromosikan pemahaman yang mendalam, refleksi kritis, kesadaran diri, keterampilan sosial dan berkomunikasi, dalam menganalisis, dan mengelola isu yang terkait dengan kesehatan/kehidupan tanaman, kesehatan/kehidupan binatang, dan risiko yang terkait dengan lingkungan. Analisis jaringan kerja sosial (AJS telah digunakan untuk mengevaluasi dua bentuk model sosial EKH: kohesi sosial dan struktur jaringan kerja. Untuk itu
Desafíos para el trabajo social en américa latina en los momentos decisivos de capital y el avance del conservadurismo = Latin America Social work challenges in equity critical moments and the progress of conservatism
Full Text Available El artículo despliega diversas consideraciones conceptuales sobre el Trabajo Social y formula distintas propuestas para ser tenidas en cuenta en la construcción de una suerte de posible agenda para la profesión en América Latina. Aborda aspectos referidos a la formación profesional de los trabajadores sociales, como así también lo inherente al ejercicio profesional en las instituciones y a la organización de la categoría profesional
Poulsen, Tine; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke
on community-dwelling older populations and to study the distribution of these three measurements of social capital in 34 municipalities. Data are from a Danish prospective cohort study on preventive home visits among 4,034 old people 75? in 34 municipalities in Denmark. The measurements of aspects of social....... There are interesting patterns in distribution of the three measurements. The two extreme groups of municipalities (high and low social capital) differ with regard to demography, social and structural conditions in the municipalities. We believe that the proposed measures of social capital will be relevant in future...
The purpose of this article is to examine work-family conflict among low-income, unmarried mothers. Analyzing the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national sample of nonmarital births, I examine how social capital affects work-family conflict and how both social capital and work-family conflict affect employment. Results show that…
Dolfsma, W.A.; van der Eijk, R.; Jolink, A.
The concept of social capital helps to explain relations within and between companies but has not crystallized yet. As such, the nature, development, and effects of such relations remain elusive. How is social capital created, how is it put to use, and how is it maintained? Can it decline, and if so
H.D. Pruijt (Hans)
textabstractSocial capital is predominantly seen as a public good. Internet communication tends to complement real-world interaction. Therefore, concerns that it might contribute to a decline of social capital seem unfounded. Internet communication can support and enhance communities that to some ex
Deller, Steven; Deller, Melissa
We explore the role of social capital in explaining patterns of rural larceny and burglary crime rates. We find consistent evidence that higher levels of social capital tend to be associated with lower levels of rural property crime rates. We also find that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the underlying data-generating process. This…
Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G
In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions.
Hunecke, Claudia; Engler, Alejandra; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Poortvliet, Marijn
Recently, social capital has gained importance in explaining technology adoption decisions by farmers. In this paper, we examine the impact of social capital on the adoption of irrigation technology and irrigation scheduling among wine producers in Central Chile. We propose three hypotheses: that
This article explores how mentors and mentees create and maintain social capital during the mentoring process. I employ a sociological conceptual framework and rigorous qualitative analytical techniques to examine how students of color and first-generation college students access social capital through mentoring relationships. The findings…
Roskruge, Matthew; Grimes, Arthur; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques
Prior studies suggest that homeownership positively impacts on social capital formation. However, many studies find it difficult to control adequately for selection effects in the form of factors, some of which may be unobserved, that encourage both homeownership and investment in social capital by
This article investigates the association between social capital and education in Jhabua, a tribal dominated district of central India. The case study analysis showed a disconnection between social capital and education in the majority of the villages. However, two of the fourteen villages showed that empowerment of the civil society made formal…
Locke, John L; Flanagan, Catherine M
Van de Vliert embraces a "supply side" model of human needs, underplaying a "demand" model whereby individuals, motivated by psychological needs, develop coping strategies that help them meet their personal goals and collectively exert an influence on social and economic systems. Undesirable climates may inflate the value of financial capital, but they also boost the value of social capital.
D'Agostino, Maria J.
Service-learning has been put forth as one of the proposed solutions to increasing social capital. However, service-learning research has not significantly addressed the impact of service learning on social capital. Unlike most previous studies, this research used quantitative analysis to measure the effect of university service-learning programs…
Rocco, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Elena; Suhrcke, Marc
We assess the causal relationship between health and social capital, measured by generalized trust, both at the individual and the community level. The paper contributes to the literature in two ways: it tackles the problems of endogeneity and reverse causation between social capital and health by e
Shahrier, Shibly; Kakinaka, Makoto
Cooperation and competition are core issues in various fields, since they are claimed to affect the evolution of human societies and ecological organizations. A long-standing debate has existed on how social behaviors and preferences are shaped with culture. Considering the economic environment as part of culture, this study examines whether the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, called “capitalism,” affects the evolution of people’s social preferences and behaviors. To test this argument, we implemented field experiments of social value orientation and surveys with 1002 respondents for three different areas of Bangladesh: (i) rural, (ii) transitional and (iii) capitalistic societies. The main result reveals that with the evolution from rural to capitalistic societies, people are likely to be less prosocial and more likely to be competitive. In a transitional society, there is a considerable proportion of “unidentified” people, neither proself nor prosocial, implying the potential existence of unstable states during a transformation period from rural to capitalistic societies. We also find that people become more proself with increasing age, education and number of children. These results suggest that important environmental, climate change or sustainability problems, which require cooperation rather than competition, will pose more danger as societies become capitalistic. PMID:27792756
Shahrier, Shibly; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto
Cooperation and competition are core issues in various fields, since they are claimed to affect the evolution of human societies and ecological organizations. A long-standing debate has existed on how social behaviors and preferences are shaped with culture. Considering the economic environment as part of culture, this study examines whether the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, called "capitalism," affects the evolution of people's social preferences and behaviors. To test this argument, we implemented field experiments of social value orientation and surveys with 1002 respondents for three different areas of Bangladesh: (i) rural, (ii) transitional and (iii) capitalistic societies. The main result reveals that with the evolution from rural to capitalistic societies, people are likely to be less prosocial and more likely to be competitive. In a transitional society, there is a considerable proportion of "unidentified" people, neither proself nor prosocial, implying the potential existence of unstable states during a transformation period from rural to capitalistic societies. We also find that people become more proself with increasing age, education and number of children. These results suggest that important environmental, climate change or sustainability problems, which require cooperation rather than competition, will pose more danger as societies become capitalistic.
Fragkandreas, Thanos; Larsen, Karin
The social capital literature usually perceives social capital as dues ex machine for economic performance. In this paper we use existing social capital theory to develop a conceptual framework to explain; (i) the importance of organizational capital as the ‘missing link’ between social capital and economic performance, and (ii) the phenomenon of ‘complementarity’ of different forms of capital (i.e. Physical, Financial, Human, Social, Organizational and Economic Capital) as a prerequisite for...
Tim R. Wind
Full Text Available Background : Despite national and international policies to develop social capital in disaster-affected communities, empiric evidence on the association between social capital and disaster mental health is limited and ambiguous. Objective : The study explores the relationship between social capital and disaster mental health outcomes (PTSD, anxiety, and depression in combination with individual factors (appraisal, coping behavior, and social support. Design : This is a community-based cross-sectional study in a flood-affected town in northern England. The study is part of the MICRODIS multi-country research project that examines the impact of natural disasters. It included 232 flood-affected respondents. Results : The findings showed that a considerable part of the association between cognitive and structural social capital and mental health is exerted through individual appraisal processes (i.e. property loss, primary and secondary appraisal, social support, and coping behavior. These individual factors were contingent on social capital. After the inclusion of individual characteristics, cognitive social capital was negatively related to lower mental health problems and structural social capital was positively associated to experiencing anxiety but not to PTSD or depression. Depression and anxiety showed a different pattern of association with both components of social capital. Conclusions : Individual oriented stress reducing interventions that use appraisal processes, social support, and coping as starting points could be more effective by taking into account the subjective experience of the social context in terms of trust and feelings of mutual support and reciprocity in a community. Findings indicate that affected people may especially benefit from a combination of individual stress reducing interventions and psychosocial interventions that foster cognitive social capital.
Phulari, S S; Deshmukh, N K; Bhalchandra, P U; Lokhande, S N; Shinde, A R
Online communities are the gatherings of like-minded people, brought together in cyberspace by shared interests. The shared interest has hidden social capital aspects and can be of bridging or bonding type. Creating such communities is not a big challenge but sustaining member's participation is. This study examines the formation and maintenance of social capital in social network sites. In addition to assessing bonding and bridging social capital, we explore a dimension of social capital that assesses one's ability to stay connected with members of a previously inhabited community, which we call maintained social capital. Such dimension is enacted here in terms of Hypothesis.
Falk, Ian; Harrison, Lesley
A case study in a rural Australian township attempted to determine indicators verifying the existence of social capital. Social capital is provisionally defined as the networks, norms, and trust that constitute the capacity of individuals, workplaces, groups, organizations, and communities to strive for sustainable futures in a changing…
La educación de adultos en Australia y su impacto en la diversidad, la inclusión social y el capital social (Australian adult education and its impact on diversity, social inclusion and social capital
Full Text Available ResumenEl vínculo que hay entre la población y la diversidad cultural, los procesos de inclusión social, el desarrollo del capital social y la educación de adultos es único y proporciona la oportunidad de ampliar el debate del capital social para asegurar que sea más que simple terminología retórica y política. El capital social tiene el potencial de ser un marco determinante para examinar las comunidades diversas y complejas del siglo XXI en Australia y otros lugares del mundo, y las políticas, organizaciones y prácticas que contribuyen a la inclusión y la exclusión social en el contexto de las comunidades.AbstractThe linking of population and cultural diversity, processes of social inclusion, social capital development and adult education is a unique one and provides the opportunity to expand the social capital argument to ensure that it is more than rhetoric and policy terminology. Social capital has the potential to be a purposeful framework for the examination of complex, diverse twenty first century communities in Australia and around the world and the range of policies, organisations and practices that can contribute to social inclusion and exclusion in a community context.ResumoO vínculo que há entre a população e a diversidade cultural, os processos de inclusão social, o desenvolvimento do capital social e a educação de adultos é único e proporciona a oportunidade de ampliar o debate do capital social para assegurar que seja mais que simples terminologia retórica e política. O capital social tem o potencial de ser um marco determinante para examinar as comunidades diversas e complexas do século XXI na Austrália e outros lugares do mundo, e as políticas, organizações e práticas que contribuem à inclusão e a exclusão social no contexto das comunidades.
von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke
We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…
Abbasi, Alireza; Hossain, Liaquat; Wigand, Rolf
Studies on social networks highlight the importance of network structure or structural properties of a given network and its impact on performance outcome. One of the important properties of this network structure is referred as "social capital" which is the "network of contacts" and the associated values attached to these networks of contacts. In this study, our aim is to provide empirical evidence of the influence of social capital and performance within the context of academic collaboratio...
Crescenzi, Riccardo; Gagliardi, Luisa; Percoco, Marco
Social capital has remained relatively underexplored in innovation literature due to the lack of consensus on the most suitable operationalisation for the analysis of innovative dynamics. This paper aims to fill this gap by looking at social capital as propensity towards civicness and prosocial behaviour that facilitates the circulation of nonredundant knowledge among otherwise disconnected groups. The quantitative analysis of the innovative performance of Italian provinces shows that social ...
This paper analyses inclusive growth that focuses on the creation of opportunities for all. Inclusive growth allows people to contribute to and benefit from economic growth, while pro-poor growth approaches focusing on welfare of the poor only to reduce inequality. Recently, economics literature incorporates social capital for explaining regional disparities. Economic development of country depends on the impact of social capital which includes social culture, norms and regulations that promo...
Andrews, Arlene Bowers
Notes that, during sentencing phase of capital trial, social worker can have potentially powerful influence on proceedings by presenting comprehensive, reliable social history, and expert opinion based on accepted theory and research regarding human behavior in social environment. Reviews social worker's role as expert witness, ethical issues,…
Loch, Mathias Roberto; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Martinez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
The present study examined the relationship between indicators of social capital and health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,062 participants representative of the population aged 40 years or older from a city in Southern Brazil. The following indicators of social capital were examined: number of friends, number of people they could borrow money from when in need; extent of trust in community members; number of times members of the community help each other; community safety; and extent of membership in community activities. Also, an overall score of social capital including all indicators was calculated. A poor social capital was associated with insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.07-2.70), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24), and smoking (OR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.21-3.21). No clear association was found between capital social and binge drinking. A score of social capital showed an inverse relationship with the number of prevalent risk behaviors (p social capital.
Bolin, Kristian; Lindgren, Björn; Lindström, Martin; Nystedt, Paul
This paper develops a theoretical model of the family as producer of health- and social capital. There are both direct and indirect returns on the production and accumulation of health- and social capital. Direct returns (the consumption motives) result since health and social capital both enhance individual welfare per se. Indirect returns (the investment motives) result since health capital increases the amount of productive time, and social capital improves the efficiency of the production technology used for producing health capital. The main prediction of the theoretical model is that the amount of social capital is positively related to the level of health; individuals with high levels of social capital are healthier than individuals with lower levels of social capital, ceteris paribus. An empirical model is estimated, using a set of individual panel data from three different time periods in Sweden. We find that social capital is positively related to the level of health capital, which supports the theoretical model. Further, we find that the level of social capital (1) declines with age, (2) is lower for those married or cohabiting, and (3) is lower for men than for women.
The questions of how social capital is measured and how it is generated have received ample attention in recent years. This article is an attempt at making a modest contribution towards addressing these issues and specifically also as a contribution from the fields of Liturgical and Ritual Studies. It is argued that commensality can be taken as both lens/barometer with regard to the presence or absence of social capital, as well as being a potential generator of social capital. In order to ar...
Full Text Available The questions of how social capital is measured and how it is generated have received ample attention in recent years. This article is an attempt at making a modest contribution towards addressing these issues and specifically also as a contribution from the fields of Liturgical and Ritual Studies. It is argued that commensality can be taken as both lens/barometer with regard to the presence or absence of social capital, as well as being a potential generator of social capital. In order to arrive at this conclusion regarding food and the eating habits of humankind, the phenomenon of commensality and its relation to social capital is approached here from three different angles, namely Social Anthropology, New Testament Studies and Ethnography.
Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders
Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…
Jaime C Sapag
Full Text Available América Latina enfrenta problemáticas de desarrollo y salud comunes. La equidad y la superación de la pobreza son cruciales en la búsqueda de soluciones integrales y de alto impacto. El artículo analiza el concepto de capital social, su relación con salud, sus limitaciones y potencialidades, desde una perspectiva de desarrollo comunitario y promoción de salud en América Latina. También, se identifican desafíos prioritarios, como la medición y fortalecimiento del capital social. Se discute cómo y por qué el capital social pudiera ser crítico en una estrategia global de promoción de la salud, donde el empoderamiento y la participación comunitaria, el trabajo interdisciplinario e intersectorial permitirían avanzar en los objetivos de salud pública y en la concreción de un cambio social sustentable. Igualmente, se identifican algunas de las potenciales limitaciones del concepto de capital social en el contexto de promoción de la salud en América Latina.Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified.
Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa
The development of social capital in young people is positively associated with educational attainment, achievement, and psychosocial factors. Prior research has explored factors that contribute to social capital, such as offline social networks. To a lesser extent, studies have analyzed the relationship between online social networks and…
Vini Wiratno Putri
Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing the model of organizational effectiveness in university through social capital and competitive advantage. The populations of this study are the head of study programs and the structural officials in some Universities in Semarang. In this case, We used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM in AMOS 21.0 program as the analysis tool. The result of the study and model analysis showed that even though the social capital had significant positive influenced to the competitive advantage in the university, the improvement of social capital and competitive advantage at university could not improve the university organizational effectiveness. Then, between two factors which influenced the competitive advantage (internal social capital and external social capital, it is obtained that external social capital got the dominant influenced factor to competitive advantage. The managerial implication suggested the policies should focus on improving the quality of cooperative relationships with external parties in the university. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membangun model efektifitas organisasi pada perguruan tinggi melalui modal sosial dan keunggulan bersaing. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah ketua program studi maupun pejabat struktural pada perguruan tinggi di Semarang. Alat analisis data yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modelling (SEM pada program AMOS 21.0.Hasil pengujian dan analisis model menunjukkan bahwa pada meskipun modal sosial memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap keunggulan berasingn pada perguruan tinggi namun peningkatan modal sosial dan keunggulan kompetitif pada perguruan tinggi belum mampu meningkatkan efektifitas organidsasi perguruan tinggi tersebut. Selanjutnya diantara kedua faktor yang mempengaruhi keunggulan bersaing (internal social capitaldan external social capital, didapatkan bahwa external social capital merupakan faktor yang paling dominan pengaruhnya terhadap keunggulan
Wenjing; LUAN; Honghong; LU; Yulin; TONG; Danna; LU
With urbanization and socio-economic development,new generation migrant workers play an increasingly important role in urban construction. However,for a long time,their social integration situation in inflow places is not ideal. Academic circle has done a lot of researches,but no effective strategy is so far put forward. Through analysis of domestic and foreign researches,it is found that social capital and human capital have an important influence on social integration of new generation migrant workers. This paper takes this as starting point,combines characteristics of new generation migrant workers,and overviews theories and empirical researches of domestic and foreign famous scholars,to explore the relationship between social capital and human capital and social integration of new generation migrant workers.
Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
An entrepreneur’s innovative work tends to benefit from the entrepreneur’s human capital in the form of entrepreneurial competencies partly based on education, and the entrepreneur’s social capital in the form of a network in the public sphere and a network in the private sphere, although this may...... also be a liability. The entrepreneur’s human and social capital depend on the social context, specifically whether the entrepreneur is residing in the home country or in the diaspora. An indigenous entrepreneur is embedded in own country, but a migrant entrepreneur has a dual embeddedness, in the old...... home country and in the new host country. Such dual embeddedness may have a reinforcing or a countervailing impact on the benefits of human and social capital for innovation. Using a sample of 3,593 Chinese entrepreneurs in China and 177 Chinese entrepreneurs residing abroad, we examine the benefits...
Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T
Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... present a high degree of complexity – and European legislation requires multi-stakeholder involvement in decision-making processes. Thus, the dilemma: on the one hand, there is a demand to engage and consult many actors; on the other hand, low social capital contributes to an administrative culture...... with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative...
A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve...... collective action problems. However, these micro-level effects of social capital are more often assumed or postulated than empirically demonstrated. Using the collective action problem of organizing for the furthering of a common (collective) interest or good among non-western first-generation immigrants...... in Denmark this paper provides empirical evidence that the number of memberships in voluntary com¬mon-interest associations - i.e. the propensity to choose the cooperative strategy of joining this type of associations - is indeed positively and significantly related to the individual’s social capital...
Latin america social work challenges in equity critical moments and the progress of conservatism = Desafíos para el trabajo social en América Latina en los momentos decisivos de capital y el avance del conservadurismo = Os desafios para o serviço social na américa latina em tempo de crise do capital e avanço do conservadurismo
Full Text Available The article presents several conceptual considerations on Social Work and lays down different proposals to be taken into account in the construction of a possible agenda for the profession in Latin America. It addresses aspects referring to the professional training of social workers as well as the professional activity in institutions and professional category organization
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital components, social trust, social cohesion, social participation and social security, and sustainable development in city of Salmas, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who live in this city. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression technique, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between three components of social capital and sustainable development including social cohesion, social participation and social security. However, the study does not confirm the relationship between social trust and sustainable development.
An ethnographic study explored the social dynamics behind the discipline statistics provided by referrals. This paper describes the social context that creates the educational environment where social capital is generated and/or denied, starting with the application of detention as the initial step toward issuing referrals, considered a more…
This paper explores the association between social capital and average happiness in the United States. Social capital is measured as a multidimensional concept consisting of social trust and two different indicators of sociability. In order to employ the variation both over time and across states......, the data are organized in either a panel of nine US Census regions over the period 1983-1998 or in averages over this period in a cross-section of 48 states. The results show that social trust is positively associated with happiness while the potential effects of informal sociability at the level...... of society only appear significant in the regional estimates. The findings document the importance of social trust for average happiness but also hold more general implications for social capital theory....
Massey, Douglas S; Aysa-Lastra, María
We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances.
Ogden, Jessica; Morrison, Ken; Hardee, Karen
This article recounts the development of a model for social capital building developed over the course of interventions focused on HIV-related stigma and discrimination, safe motherhood and reproductive health. Through further engagement with relevant literature, it explores the nature of social capital and suggests why undertaking such a process can enhance health policy and programmes, advocacy and governance for improved health systems strengthening (HSS) outcomes. The social capital process proposed facilitates the systematic and effective inclusion of community voices in the health policy process-strengthening programme effectiveness as well as health system accountability and governance. Because social capital building facilitates communication and the uptake of new ideas, norms and standards within and between professional communities of practice, it can provide an important mechanism for integration both within and between sectors-a process long considered a 'wicked problem' for health policy-makers. The article argues that the systematic application of social capital building, from bonding through bridging into linking social capital, can greatly enhance the ability of governments and their partners to achieve their HSS goals.
This paper discusses the concept of social capital as a potential factor in understanding the controversial relationship between income inequality and individual health status, arguing a positive, important role for social capital. Most of the health research literature focuses on individual health status and reveals that social capital increases individual health. However, the difficulty in measuring social capital, together with what may be the nearly impossible task of attributing causality, should relegate the concept to a more theoretical role in health research. Nonetheless, social capital receives academic attention as a potentially important factor in health research. This paper finds that the mixed results of empirical research on income inequality and health status remain a problem in the context of defining a stable relationship between socioeconomic status and health status. Clearly, further research is needed to elaborate on the income inequality and health relationship. In addition, focused, rigorous examination of social capital in a health context is needed before health researchers can comfortably introduce it as a concept of influence or significance.
The study examines two issues of the relationship between social capital and educational performance: the different effects of bridging and bonding social capital on urban educational performance and the contextual effects of social capital. The main argument states that bonding and bridging social capital are differently related to educational…
Carrasco, Maria A; Bilal, Usama
Among various social factors associated with health behavior and disease, social cohesion has not captured the imagination of public health researchers as much as social capital as evidenced by the subsuming of social cohesion into social capital and the numerous studies analyzing social capital and the comparatively fewer articles analyzing social cohesion and health. In this paper we provide a brief overview of the evolution of the conceptualization of social capital and social cohesion and we use philosopher Erich Fromm's distinction between "having" and "being" to understand the current research focus on capital over cohesion. We argue that social capital is related to having while social cohesion is related to being and that an emphasis on social capital leads to individualizing tendencies that are antithetical to cohesion. We provide examples drawn from the literature where this conflation of social capital and cohesion results in non-concordant definitions and subsequent operationalization of these constructs. Beyond semantics, the practical implication of focusing on "having" vs. "being" include an emphasis on understanding how to normalize groups and populations rather than providing those groups space for empowerment and agency leading to health.
Starobin, Soko S.; Smith, Dimitra Jackson; Laanan, Frankie Santos
This qualitative study explored the experiences of female transfer students majoring in STEM areas at a midwestern university by highlighting the role of Transfer Student Capital in their academic and social adjustment. The authors further deconstructed the notion of Transfer Student Capital by looking at how cultural and social capital intersect…
Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed the rise of social capital as an important concept in academic and policy debates. Social capital is not necessarily a static and un-changing concept, and will vary considerably across space and time. The purpose of the present article was to consider social capital implications in different aspects specifically in the sport domain. It was systematic literature review and has taken archival and internet-based online materials into consideration. Obviously, Sport plays an important role in creating ‘social capital’ and helping communities develop trust, openness and respect for different individuals and groups. This can lead to greater cooperation and a higher level of unity and social cohesion within those communities.
Giacomo Degli Antoni; Elisa Portale
This paper analysis the effect of corporate social responsibility on social capital by carrying out an empirical study on a specific kind of nonprofit organizations: the social cooperatives. With respect to the previous studies on the relationship between participation in nonprofit organizations and creation of social capital, this contribution reveals two main reasons of interest. The first one concerns the indices of social capital. In particular this paper takes into account all the three ...
Hamada, Jun; Takao, Soshi
We discuss the concept of social capital, which has received much attention recently. Social capital is important for the following 2 key reasons:(1) a highly democratic polity and a strong economic performance that attaches great importance to the public good can be achieved on the basis of high social capital;and (2) social capital can effect health status in the human population, and widening of income inequality harms human health through the erosion of social capital. In addition, there are 3 political implications of social capital for Japanese society:(1) social capital has implications for the political decision of whether Japanese society should adopt a "medium burden for medium welfare" or a "low burden for small welfare" model together with the concept of social overhead capital;(2) reciprocity, which is one of the primary components of social capital, is similar to the philosophy underlying the health care system of Japan;(3) Japanese society needs to change from a society that emphasizes the relationships between its members to a society that is open to outsiders and has sufficient opportunities.
Full Text Available We discuss the concept of social capital, which has received much attention recently. Social capital is important for the following 2 key reasons:(1 a highly democratic polity and a strong economic performance that attaches great importance to the public good can be achieved on the basis of high social capital;and (2 social capital can effect health status in the human population, and widening of income inequality harms human health through the erosion of social capital. In addition, there are 3 political implications of social capital for Japanese society:(1 social capital has implications for the political decision of whether Japanese society should adopt a “medium burden for medium welfare” or a “low burden for small welfare” model together with the concept of social overhead capital;(2 reciprocity, which is one of the primary components of social capital, is similar to the philosophy underlying the health care system of Japan;(3 Japanese society needs to change from a society that emphasizes the relationships between its members to a society that is open to outsiders and has sufficient opportunities.
Robert Putnam showed that a social capital index, created as a weighted sum of 14 variables chosen to describe the civic degree of sociability and community mindedness, is correlated with many community outcomes, such as education, child well-being, crime, and the total mortality rate. Although correlation does not establish causation, we can find that in a large number of studies this index, a selection of its elements, or similar measures register as significantly correlated with health variables, virtually always in a direction consistent with the hypothesis that social capital improves health. The potential benefit of this relationship is substantial, especially if it proves to be robust to differences in time and place, statistical contexts, and ultimately if the relation can be supported to be causal. This paper subjects the social capital and health hypothesis to an expanded set of rigorous tests, which, by surviving, it becomes stronger or, by failing, its weaknesses are better revealed. The paper seeks to extend this body of research by a combination of study characteristics that are each relatively unusual in social capital and health research. Though causality cannot be established by these tests, the work shows that the association of social capital with health is quite robust when challenged in the following ways: (1) seven different health measures are studied, including five mortality rates; (2) the 48 contiguous states are observed at six points in time covering the years from 1978 to 1998 over four year intervals, thus forming a panel; (3) the multivariate tests feature economic variables from the production of health literature; and (4) a statistical method (instrumental variables) is applied to account for the possibility that omitted variables are confounding the social capital estimates. The results and the discussion find cases for which the social capital and health hypothesis performs only weakly, but, on the whole, the hypothesis is
Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.
Over the last two decades, social capital has received increasing attention in the international literature. Despite the popularity of the construct, problems concerning definition, theoretical conceptualisation, and measurement continue to plague research and policy in this area. This investigation aimed to address this gap by developing a new…
Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison
Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
economy theory accentuating the role of formal institutions cannot stand on its own. This implies a socio-economic approach in the study where we supplement the formal institutional thesis with Bourdieu's idea of material and immaterial forms of capital. Such new socio-economics - which might be termed...... a 'Bourdieuconomics' - implies the usage of a capital theory that, methodologically, operates with material and immaterial forms of capital at the same level. Here, we stress the particular importance of an immaterial form of capital, namely social capital, which facilitates informal human exchange thereby......Why are some countries richer than others? We suggest in the line of political economy theory that traditional production factors cannot explain the observed differences. Rather, differences in the quality of formal institutions are crucial to economic wealth. However, this type of political...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The silver ornaments is the well known handicraft for Chum Chon Ban Choke, Tambon Khawao Sinrin, Amphoe Khawao Sinrin and Surin province. The study of social capital concerning silver ornaments at Ban Choke community, the Khmer ethnic focused on the low quality of the making the silver ornaments. The silver craftsmen earned less income because the capital productions were higher. Some craftsmen stopped making the silver ornaments to find new jobs for getting more income. That was the problem for the remaining of a silver ornaments handicraft. The purpose of the study was to study the management of social capital of silver ornament making at Chum Chon Ban Choke. Approach: It was qualitative and carried out using documentary studies, surveys, observations, and interviews and focused group discussions, 47 research informants were community and silver market leaders, silver craftsmen, shop owners, buyers, government and private personnel over looking promotion and development of silver ornaments in Surin Province. The analysis of data was done descriptively. Results: The social capital was divided into 2 categories internal and external. The internal social capital included the traditional skills of making silver ornaments and social and cultural coherence of the people. The second one came from capitalism and economic development, such as, roads, vehicles, electricity, mass media and markets. To some extent, Chum Chon Ban Choke changed. People picked up a new habit of buying goods from outside, Spending more with limited income made people go into debt. What made things even worse were low prices of their farm produce and severe droughts. The people who were in the business of silver ornaments came up with a plan bringing government and private entrepreneurs to revitalize social capital by running workshop trainings and using appropriate technology, such as, setting up a village fund, farm machinery and establish community
Smits, Coco; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø
of a Social License to Operate addresses the acceptance of an activity by local communities and other stakeholders. This manuscript explores the role human capital development in obtaining and maintaining a Social License to Operate in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. As trust and legitimacy...... are the two fundamental principles on which a Social License to Operate is based, these are being examined more closely. On the basis of three case studies, this manuscript explores how human capital development can contribute to the legitimacy of Arctic energy development and trust building between various...
David Barbosa Ramírez
Full Text Available Globalization and financial capitalism keep a synergy in a global context whose problems such as environmental degradation, social inequity, economic crises and corruption are intensified. Corporate Social Responsibility emerges as a mechanism that seeks to mitigate some of these problems, although its effectiveness and impact today are challenged. The system which globalization, financial capitalism and social responsibility are a part of, is currently facing a number of structural tensions that contribute to the analysis, understanding and solving of the mentioned problems. This paper identifies and analyzes four of the aforementioned structural tensions.
Estrin, S.; Mickiewicz, T; Stephan, U
We model and test the relationship between social and commercial entrepreneurship drawing on social capital theory. We propose that the country prevalence rate of social entrepreneurship is an indicator of constructible nation-level social capital and enhances the likelihood of individual commercial entry. We further posit that both social and commercial entrepreneurial entry is facilitated by certain formal institutions, namely strong property rights and (low) government activism, albeit the...
Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz; Stephan, Ute
We model and test the relationship between social and commercial entrepreneurship drawing on social capital theory. We propose that the country prevalence rate of social entrepreneurship is an indicator of constructible nation-level social capital and enhances the likelihood of individual commercial entry. We further posit that both social and commercial entrepreneurial entry is facilitated by certain formal institutions, namely strong property rights and (low) government activism, albeit the...
Barton, Siew Mee
This is a study of the influence of social and cultural factors on the adoption of e-learning in higher education in Malaysia, Indonesia, Turkey, Singapore and Australia. Particular attention in each case was given to factors relating to social capital, attitudes and patterns of behavior in leadership, entrepreneurialism, and teaching and to…
Baker, Barbara; Johannes, Elaine M.
This article provides a detailed description of how to implement a ripple mapping activity to assess youth program effects on community capital and concludes with examples from Maine and Kansas. The maps lead to group reflection on project outcomes and further research and evaluation questions for group members. The results from five Maine…
Ren, Li; Hu, Guangwei
Social capital--the social relations between people--is an important component of the family environment and is crucial for the creation of human capital for the next generation. Drawing on James S. Coleman's theory of family capital, this study focuses on parents' utilization of social capital to support children's literacy acquisition in four…
Full Text Available The concept of development is not only referred to the level or to the growth rate of GDP of a country, but it concerns different aspects of individual and social life. Development leads to a changing of values, culture, behaviours and attitudes of people interested in it. That is to say that not only quantitative dimensions, but also qualitative ones became relevant in fostering development trajectories. Reasoning in these general terms a long and rich intellectual debate grow up in social sciences within which we focused the social capital and firm network debate. Social capital is a multidimensional determinant at base of the industrial district framework as the â€œnetwork capitalâ€ represent a driver of firmâ€™s network framework. By moving from social capital, as a local development driver, to network capital, as a global development driver, the present paper analyzes the firmsâ€™ networks determinants by identifying the conditions for some European countries. The methodology through which the results are obtained is the multidimensional scaling method which allows to define relations between countries in terms of proximity/distance with respect to the considered determinants providing a spatial representation of them.
Ma. del Consuelo Chapela
Full Text Available A partir de un análisis de los conceptos de los autores más connotados en el campo del capital social, este trabajo presenta dos maneras de entender este concepto e identifica algunas características de la universidad pública que la convierten en este tipo de capital para las naciones. Se argumenta que las definiciones operativas de capital social son una forma de homogeneizar y reducir la riqueza cultural de los grupos sociales que atenta contra sus posibilidades de resistencia y autonomía y se aplica esta argumentación al caso específico de la universidad pública. Asimismo, se discute acerca de la adopción de contenidos y prácticas de las agendas internacionales, por parte de la universidad pública, que ha resultado en una modificación importante de su capital social. Finalmente, se anotan tres posibles escenarios a futuro en donde el capital social universitario adquiere dimensiones y características diferentes
This article examines the role that social capital plays in school success and in the explanation of social and ethnic inequalities in the German educational system. Based on Coleman's well-known concept of social capital, different aspects of social capital are distinguished, including social network composition, parent-school interaction…
This article examines the role that social capital plays in school success and in the explanation of social and ethnic inequalities in the German educational system. Based on Coleman's well-known concept of social capital, different aspects of social capital are distinguished, including social network composition, parent-school interaction and…
Full Text Available Developing countries are facing dilemmas such as un-sustainability, and poverty, (especially rural poverty. Poor people are often seen as compelled to exploit their surrounding for short-term survival and are assumed to be the ones most exposed to natural resources degradation. In order that at the first; we review the extensive theoretical literature on social capital, poverty and sustainability and demonstrate the nuanced treatment these concepts have received in this literature. Problem Statement: Current research and observations indicate that (these dilemmas un-sustainability and rural poverty are linked. The only feasible way out of current crisis is to integrate resources. The linkage among environment/agriculture, poverty and social capital are complex and in many cases, poorly understood. The developing countries have been criticized for their inability to reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable agricultural development. Approach: there is a need for improving of social capital to integrate environment and people to alleviate poverty and receive to sustainable development. Social capital has come to be defined in a variety of ways, all of which have been linked to collective norms, values and relationships reflecting the involvement of human individuals in a common life based on family and community. Results: This study argue that social capital as a concept has over the last decade or more been gaining significance in relation to a number of linked fields of analyses, including the identification of factors influencing educational attainment, explanations of differing levels of participation, rural development and poverty alleviation. Conclusions/Recommendations: social capital enhancement appears to have direct links with farmer education in that community development is generally defined as a social learning process which serves to empower people and to involve them as citizens in collective activities aimed at socio- economic
Giordano, Giuseppe Nicola; Lindström, Martin
The positive association between social capital and general health outcomes has been extensively researched over the past decade; however, studies investigating social capital and psychological health show less consistent results. Despite this, policy-makers worldwide still employ elements of social capital to promote and improve psychological health. This United Kingdom study investigates the association between changes in psychological health over time and three different individual-level proxies of social capital, measures of socio-economic status, social support and the confounders age and gender. All data are derived from the British Household Panel Survey data, with the same individuals (N = 7994) providing responses from 2000-2007. The data were split according to baseline psychological health status ('Good' or 'Poor' psychological health - the dependent variable). Using Generalised Estimating Equations, two separate models were built to investigate the association between changes from baseline psychological health over time and considered variables. An autoregressive working correlation structure was employed to derive the true influence of explanatory variables on psychological health outcomes over time. We found that generalised trust was the only social capital variable to maintain a positive and highly significant association with psychological health in multivariable models. All measures of socioeconomic status and social support were rendered insignificant, bar one. We therefore argue that the breakdown of the traditional family unit (and subsequent reduction in family capital investment), along with psychosocial pathways, demonstrate plausible mechanisms by which a decrease in generalised trust could lead to an increasing trend of worse psychological health in youth over successive birth cohorts. Policy makers, while providing welfare solutions in response to breakdown in traditional family structure, must also consider perverse incentives they
Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of folk festivals in transforming interconnections between people, space and culture. It interlinks three sets of theoretical ideas: social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia to suggest a new conceptual framework that will help to frame a deeper understanding of the nature of celebration. Qualitative data were collected at two long-established folk festivals, Sidmouth Folk Festival in southern England and the Feakle Traditional Music Festival in western Ireland, in order to investigate these potential links. Although Foucault did not fully develop the concept of heterotopia, his explanation that heterotopias are counter-sites, which, unlike utopias, are located in real, physical, space-time, has inspired others, including some festival researchers, to build on his ideas. This study concludes that the heterotopian concept of the festival as sacred space, with the stage as umbilicus, may be linked to the building of social capital; while it is suggested that both social capital and appropriate cultural capital are needed to gain full entry to the heterotopia.
2011. [SG11] Joseph E Stiglitz and Mauro Gallegati. Heterogeneous interacting agent models for understanding monetary economies. Eastern Economic...incorporate the network of interacting individuals, the structure of their interactions, and the consequences of network activity [Kir10]. Stiglitz and...as financial capital. As Stiglitz and Gallegati [SG11] note, “Some network designs may be good at absorbing small shocks, when there can be systemic
Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof
Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities.
Pedersen, Kurt; Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
It is generally assumed that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more volatile than local firms. From the viewpoint of host countries, the volatility of MNE subsidiaries is often seen as a problem. Therefore it becomes relevant to look for ways to reduce the volatility of multinational activity...... across borders. We review the literature and identify a gap regarding social capital as a potential instrument for reducing the level of volatility. An existing stock of social capital may be advantageous not only to the host country but also to the MNE in the sense that optimal in-company resource...... allocation and profits could be improved even further. Thus, the dominating theory of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), the eclectic paradigm as developed by John Dunning, offers a relevant opportunity to fill a gap in the literature and include social capital in FDI decisions as a new location factor....
Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.
This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…
Using the concepts of human, social and cultural capital this paper will review the literature on these theories and evaluate their application to nurse education in the United Kingdom (UK). Each concept will be explored before considering the impact and application within nurse education. Issues of sponsorship via mentoring and increased skills and contribution to the knowledge economy alongside the delivery of quality care by nursing students will be discussed with reference to theory and current policy drivers. As nursing education moves to a graduate profession in the UK this paper evaluates the drivers of human, social and cultural capital that affect this development.
José Luis Porrata
En este estudio se examinan las puntuaciones en deseabilidad social de niños y adultos puertorriqueños. Deseabilidad social es la tendencia a contestar en formas socialmente deseables. Cuando los ciudadanos de un país obtienen puntuaciones altas en deseabilidad social se interpreta como una tendencia a conformar en esa sociedad. Al comparar las puntuaciones en deseabilidad social entre puertorriqueños y británicos, los puertorriqueños puntúan más alto que sus contraparte bri...
Based on a sample survey, this paper, analyzes the impact of human capital, social capital and social exclusion on the opportunity of Hong Kong families with youth members to leave poverty. Educational attainment of the youth members and adult family members, as well as the quantity and quality of social networks were found to have significant positive impacts, while social exclusion from the labor market of the adult members was found to have significant negative impact on their opportunity to leave poverty. Among all factors, quality of social network is the most influential. The author suggests that in order to help families out of poverty and enable positive development of youth members, poverty alleviation policies or programs should be targeted to help the youth in poor families to build up a quality social network.
Rojas, Yerko; Carlson, Per
Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1,009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.
Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Social capital, measured as the level of trust among people, may be regarded as a new production factor alongside the traditional ones of human and physical capital. With appropriate levels of social capital, monitoring and transaction costs can be saved and thus economic growth stimulated. Via....... However, the comparison of the present level of social capital indicates that the level of social capital is significantly higher in Denmark than in Poland. The paper concludes that the reason for this difference is due to the fact that the original accumulation of social capital in Poland was destroyed...... linking social capital to rural development and comparing the cases of agricultural cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland, this paper identifies possible roots of building social capital and suggests that social capital was built through a lengthy process in both countries during the 19th century...
Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer
Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might
Full Text Available This study aims at providing a theoretical and methodological preamble to the more ample issue concerning the research project entitled „Modele de interacţiune între capitalul social informal şi formal; investigarea rolului de suport şi mediator al familiei lărgite (kinship" (Models of interactions between formal and informal social capital; investigating its role as support and mediator of kinship networks. However, it also includes certain empirical data from field studies and official statistics, especially concerning the Romanian single parent family. In the first part of the article, I outline the current trends in the development of the domestic group, while also commenting on the important issue of "right" and "wrong" in the structure and dynamics of the contemporary family and, as a consequence, I discuss the sensitive issue of "family values." At the same time I point out the major challenges in understanding social capital and, subsequently, of the forms thereof, and I suggest certain conceptual-theoretical solutions. The second part brings together classical ideas, but also innovations in the methodology and even in the epistemology of the optimal socio-human investigation in general, and concerning family social capital in particular. The third part focuses on certain functional mechanisms of social capital, especially in the case of the single parent family in Romania, by carrying out relevant comparisons with other countries.
Manoel Leonardo Santos
Full Text Available Recentemente é possível encontrar esforços no sentido de aproximar duas abordagens até então tomadas como antagônicas e inconciliáveis. Trata-se de uma tentativa de intermediar visões que, de um lado, enfatizam a importância das escolhas estratégicas dos indivíduos, e de outro as que privilegiam a importância histórica de normas e instituições sócio-culturais nos resultados sociais e políticos. Esse artigo procura se inserir nesse debate e, nesse contexto, a pergunta a cultura importa? faz todo o sentido. Partindo dessa questão procuramos analisar empiricamente a relevância estatística de um valor cultural específico, o capital social, para a qualidade da democracia. O esforço realizado consiste em esclarecer empiricamente se o capital social (aqui entendido a partir dos indicadores de confiança interpessoal, confiança nas instituições e confiança política está relacionado com a qualidade da democracia (aqui mensurada a partir de dois indicadores - Freedom Housee The Economic Inteligence Unit. Como conclusão o artigo sugere que se levarmos em consideração exclusivamente o conceito de confiança interpessoal como medida para o capital social, não podemos definitivamente considerar que o capital social é um valor cultural relevante para democracia. No que diz respeito à confiança nas instituições, a sua correlação negativa com o grau de democratização dos países estudados mostra claramente que o circulo virtuoso sugerido por Putnam não se confirma. A erosão da confiança nos governos em regimes democráticos é uma forte evidência de que não há associação positiva, virtuosa, entre confiança, cultura cívica, ou qualquer outra denominação que se sugira dar na tentativa de construir um mecanismo causal entre capital social e democracia. Não obstante os resultados negativos e os limites apontados em relação ao alcance da teoria do capital social, o texto aponta para um debate em construção e
LiHuamin,; ZhaoBaohua; DavidKelly
Investment in social capital refers to the payments--of time, energy and monetary cost—made by individuals in a bid to obtain social capital, and the sustained efforts they make for incessant identification of social relations with other people. The return on investment of social capital is seen in the following:
This article discusses conceptual considerations for social capital research in education from a social network perspective. Specifically, the article raises three key conceptual issues that call for further elaboration of concepts of social capital: redefining potential resources as accessible but un-utilized sources of social capital;…
This paper presents an analysis of the policy themes of service integration, social justice and social inclusion which underpin the integrated community schools policy initiative in Scotland. That initiative is identified as an important vehicle for the Scottish Executive Government's aim of integrating children's services with the overarching…
Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners.......Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners....
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é o de avaliar os diferentes canais pelos quais o capital humano afeta o nível e a taxa de crescimento da renda por trabalhador. A análise empírica é baseada em um modelo que incorpora canais em que a primeira variável afeta a segunda via: 1 melhora na produtividade marginal do trabalho; 2 criação de tecnologia, e 3 difusão de tecnologia. A consideração de variados canais em que o capital humano afeta a taxa de crescimento da renda se deve à complexidade da relação entre estas. Assim, caso ocorra a omissão de alguns canais, podemos estar incorrendo em erros de especificação do modelo e obter coeficientes tendenciosos.The objective of this study is to evaluate the different channels wherein human capital affects income per worker level and growth. The empirical analysis is based in a model that incorporates several channels in which human capital affects the rate of income per worker growth: 1 improving the marginal productivity of labor; 2 through creation of technology; and 3 diffusion of technology. The consideration of several channels wherein human capital affects income is due to the complexity of the relationship between these two variables. Therefore, if we rule out any channel we can incur in model specification errors.
Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
An entrepreneur’s innovative work tends to benefit from the entrepreneur’s human capital in the form of entrepreneurial competencies partly based on education, and the entrepreneur’s social capital in the form of a network in the public sphere and a network in the private sphere, although this may...... home country and in the new host country. Such dual embeddedness may have a reinforcing or a countervailing impact on the benefits of human and social capital for innovation. Using a sample of 3,593 Chinese entrepreneurs in China and 177 Chinese entrepreneurs residing abroad, we examine the benefits...... considered in this study, we found that only the more specific entrepreneurial competencies showed different dynamics for innovation in the diaspora compared to the home country....
Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.
Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun
Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.
de un nuevo modo de gobierno estratégico-social, en el que los recursos intangibles que componen el Capital Intelectual cobran un papel crítico en la creación de valor. En este nuevo enfoque surge el Capital Social de la organización, como suma de las relaciones poseídas y a desarrollar que aquella mantiene con sus partícipes y agentes sociales. Concepto que se sustenta en un conjunto de valores y sus correspondientes indicadores basados en la confianza, la lealtad, la sinceridad, el compromiso, la transparencia, la solidaridad, la responsabilidad, la honestidad y la ética, entre otros conceptos.
Full Text Available El importante papel adquirido por el capital social en los últimos años, debido a las características del entorno competitivo actual, así como las redes sociales a partir de las cuales se desarrolla, lleva a plantear un estudio como el presente. En este sentido, teniendo en cuenta la importancia de obtener recursos y conocimientos derivados de las interacciones entre los empleados de una organización, parece interesante analizar su relevancia dentro del proceso de innovación de producto por las exigencias competitivas del ámbito empresarial. De este modo, se propone un modelo teórico y empírico de capital social, basado en el Enfoque de Capital Intelectual, pero considerando estudios específicos sobre tal concepto, a partir del cual se pueda identificar su influencia sobre la innovación de producto. Así, este estudio arroja resultados positivos respecto a la relación entre las tres dimensiones de capital social: 1 red social, 2 visión compartida y 3 confianza y apoyo social, y la innovación de producto en los sectores españoles manufactureros de alta y media-alta tecnología.
Wilkinson, Jennifer; Bittman, Michael
Robert Putnam's view of social capital considers the decline in volunteering as a crisis for democracy. However, data on volunteering in Australia from 1974-1997 indicate that there is likely to be a significant increase in total volunteer hours. Beyond the contribution to democratic society, the values implicit in volunteering increase the…
Nganga, Stanley; Bulte, Erwin H.; Giller, Ken E.; Ndiwa, Nicholas N.; Kifugo, Shem C.; McIntire, John M.; Herrero, Mario; Rufino, Mariana C.
We use data from 500 households in Samburu County (Kenya) to explore how natural environment and market accessibility affect coping and adaptation strategies of pastoralists. In particular, we ask whether households accumulate livestock wealth and invest in structural and cognitive social capital
Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen
In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…
Vlies, R.D. van der; Maas, G.J.
State-of-the-art products commonly outperform construction products that are used in day to day building practice. Also construction products appear to have a diffusion curve that differs from consumer products, slower at first, more rapid later. The social capital theory helps us to understand why
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the United States has witnessed increasing wealth concentration in the hands of the ultra-rich. Measured at the state level, the top 10 percent of income earners amassed roughly 43% of total income, and economic growth only enhanced this inequality between the ultrarich and the rest of citizens. This paper examines whether social capital plays a positive role in mitigating income inequality at the state level, with an emphasis on racial diversity and its relation to church attendance. The empirical findings demonstrate that social capital, whether measured by Robert Putnam’s state-level social capital index (SCI, or a new measure that improves SCI’s original measurement, fails to improve income equality. In comparison, racial diversity is found to be a consistent contributor of income inequality. In states with a greater proportion of minority population, the ultra-rich tend to share more wealth and social capital potentially facilitates the ultra-rich to enjoy the benefit of economic growth.
Bjork, Lars G.; Lewis, Wayne D.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Donkor, Anthony
This article examines the relationship between schools and society in the United States and uses human, social, and cultural capital theories to reframe the discussion of the role of schools in nurturing parent engagement. We argue that the ramifications of parent engagement in schools transcend functionalist ideas of complying with state and…
H. Bansha Dulal (Hari); R. Foa (Roberto)
textabstractIn recent years there has been growing interest in including estimates of "intangible" capital, such as knowledge, skills, and institutions, in national asset accounting. In accordance with these efforts, this paper attempts to provide the first worldwide evaluations of "social" institut
Algan, Yann; Cahuc, Pierre; Shleifer, Andrei
We use several data sets to consider the effect of teaching practices on student beliefs, as well as on organization of firms and institutions. In cross-country data, we show that teaching practices (such as copying from the board versus working on projects together) are strongly related to various dimensions of social capital, from beliefs in…
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
some forms of drinking (‘controlled drunkenness’) while restricting others (drinking alone, drinking ‘for the wrong reason’, losing control often). Furthermore, the idea behind this article is that social capital is both a background factor influencing participants’ relationship to alcohol...
Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.
Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…
Ehlen, Corry; van der Klink, Marcel; Roentgen, Uta; Curfs, Emile; Boshuizen, Henny
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of a conceptual model on relations between organisational innovation, knowledge productivity and social capital. It explores processes of knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation and associated HRD implications in knowledge intensive organisations, taking the perspective that…
In recent years, an increasing number of researchers have chosen to examine various sociological dimensions of music education (e.g., inclusion, civic engagement) through the lens of social capital. Yet, there has been no systematic discussion of the capacity and limitations of this conceptual framework to shed light on these sociological…
Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning
This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...
Koebley, Sarah Cotton
This study sought to uncover teacher perceptions of social capital within a high school mathematics department utilizing a research design that acknowledged the complex environment faced by high school teachers and their subsequent interpretations of how and from whom they sought access to professional resources. Through an analysis of narratives…
This paper examines how social capital formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in China were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices (support, pressure, help, monitoring and…
Gretzinger, Susanne; Matiaske, Wenzel; Royer, Susanne;
In the center of the investigation of this research is the emergence of entrepreneurial milieus and social capital within industry clusters. The motivation of the research initiative is to shed some light on the action patterns in innovation processes within multiple domain settings. This paper...
Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde
Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…
Ricardo Contreras-Soto; Alberto Valdés-Cobos; Alejandra López-Salazar
El presente trabajo es parte de un estudio amplio sobre empresas familiares realizado en Celaya, Guanajuato México (año 2011) con una muestra de 343 entrevistas a dueños o directivos responsables. En este estudio se analiza la relación concreta del capital social que tienen las empresas familiares con las distintas asociaciones empresariales, ya que supuestamente es el fin social de dichas asociaciones. El análisis se basa en la pregunta abierta: ¿Tiene su empresa comunicación con las asociac...
Jackson, Grace Louise
Popular culture is rife with messages telling couples that they alone have the power to improve their relationship. But couples are embedded in a physical and social context that can also exert both subtle and direct influence. This dissertation serves to enhance our understanding of how two external forces influence marital functioning. The first two papers examine financial resources, and the second two examine social resources. The first paper describes the challenges low-income couples fa...
Atkinson, A. B.
This paper consists of two parts. Part I (“The economics of achieving social inclusion in changing labour and capital markets”) provides an economic analysis of the challenge of meeting the Europe 2020 objectives with regard to employment and social inclusion. Part II (“Putting people first and macro-economic policy”) is concerned with the objectives of macro-economic policy and their communication to the citizens of the EU.
Li, Cui(University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, People's Republic of China)
Over the past ten years, mainly as a result of developments in digital technology and social media, academics and practitioners have become more interested in communities. The number of studies investigating online brand communities (OBCs) has been increasing with most attention being paid to the characteristics, functions and benefits associated with OBCs. However, an important aspect of OBCs has been overlooked, which is the contribution of social capital to the communities and the impact o...
Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives. The in......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....
Reza Ostad Rahimi
This kinds of social capital has various positive and negative effects. Thus general trust of people to the country should be increased. Also reliability of people should be increased by increasing their general trust and the strengthening of social capital.
Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill
Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.
Full Text Available One of the key questions of contemporary society is how to foster and develop social interactions which will lead to a strong and inclusive society, one which accounts for the diversity inherent in local communities, whether that diversity be based on differences in interest or diversity in language and culture. The purpose of this paper is to examine three concepts which are used in the exploration of social interactions to suggest ways in which the interplay of these concepts might provide a richer understanding of social interactions. The three concepts are everyday cosmopolitanism, complexity theory and social capital. Each provides a partial approach to explanations of social interactions. Through focussing on social networking as a significant example of social interactions, we will demonstrate how the concepts can be linked and this linking brings potential for a clearer understanding of the processes through which this inclusive society may develop.
Vânia Cardoso da Motta
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as alterações operadas nas abordagens de políticas públicas para os países de 'capitalismo dependente', na virada do século, conduzidas pelos principais organismos multilaterais e materializadas nas 'políticas de desenvolvimento do milênio' (PDMs. Identifica-se que neste conjunto de políticas foram introduzidas novas bases ideológicas calcadas na 'teoria do capital social' de Robert Putnam. No âmbito da educação, compreende-se que esse processo de ajuste vai deflagrar uma nova etapa de rejuvenescimento da ideologia do capital humano que alarga as atribuições da escola e restringe a dimensão política que insere a ação pedagógica. A tese apresentada é que as PDMs são mecanismos de hegemonia de função de direção intelectual e moral, com ações concretas e definições de metas focadas nas camadas de trabalhadores 'excluídos' do processo produtivo, mas que ainda possuem condições produtivas, com a finalidade de instaurar um processo mais intensivo de educar para o conformismo. Toma-se como base de análise categorias de Gramsci.This article analyzes the changes the main multilateral agencies made, in the turn of the century, to the public policy approaches in countries where there was 'dependent capitalism,' changes materialized in the 'millennium development policies' (MDP. It is noticeable that new ideological bases, underpinned by Robert Putnam's 'social capital theory,' were introduced in these policies. In the realms of education, it is thought this adjustment process will trigger a new stage of renewal of the human capital ideology, one that increases the attributions of the school and limits the political dimension that inserts pedagogic action. The thesis is that the MDPs are intellectually- and morally-driven function hegemony mechanisms, with concrete actions and goal definitions focused on the tiers of workers who are 'excluded' from the productive process but, none-theless, are still able
Molina, Leonardo; Ipiña, María Julia; Reyna, Cecilia; Guzmán, Rogelio
El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el desempeño social de niños con sordera profunda asistentes a tres instituciones especializadas de la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina) y evaluar el acuerdo entre distintos informantes (docentes - alumnos) acerca de la competencia social de los niños. La muestra no probabilística estuvo formada por 32 niños con edadescomprendidas entre los 7 y 12 años, sus padres y docentes/profesionales (n= 15). Los niños asistían a instituciones con características part...
Leonardo Gomes de Deus
Full Text Available Resumo Com a publicação de textos inéditos de Marx, tem sido possível avaliar com maior precisão seu itinerário intelectual. O presente artigo investiga os momentos que conduziram o autor a um plano consistente e logicamente articulado para O Capital, em meio à redação de uma série de planos e manuscritos. Utilizam-se para tanto os Grundrisse, o Manuscrito de 1861-1863 e manuscritos redigidos nos anos seguintes, recentemente publicados. Explora-se assim uma perspectiva sobre os planos de redação da obra econômica de Marx, diferente daquela formulada por Roman Rosdolsky.
Full Text Available When the level of trust in government is low, government cannot effectively provide services, since the policy goals and the process of implementations are not fully understood by the people. This study hypothesizes that the level of trust in government may increase if the level of social capital increases. It also hypothesizes that the impact of social capital on the level of trust in government may differ depending on the type of social capital. The study examined the relationship between the level of trust in government and types of social capital, including bonding social capital and bridging social capital. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that bonding social capital shows a negative relationship with the level of trust in government, while a bridging social capital has a positive relationship with the level of trust in government. In addition, the study examined the variances of the perceptions of each group based on the degree of social cohesion on the level of trust in government by employing ANOVA. It showed that there are no significant differences in bonding social groups, while bridging social capital groups showed variances in their perception of the level of trust in government.
Objetivos: evidenciar, estadísticamente, cómo el Capital Social contribuye a la reducción de la probabilidad de que un hogar sea pobre en Ecuador, entre 2010 y 2012. Las redes sociales que crean las personas entre sí, son consideradas como uno de los factores que permiten minimizar la exposición de los hogares a la pobreza. Este fenómeno de cohesión se denomina capital social.Metodología: enfoque cuantitativo, se estimó un modelo probabilístico para encontrar la relación que existe entre ser ...
Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.
Herreros Vázquez, Francisco
En este artículo se ofrece una definición del concepto de capital social. Capital social es entendido como recursos -obligaciones de reciprocidad e información- derivados de la pertenencia a redes sociales. Igualmente, se ofrecen varios argumentos en contra de algunas de las definiciones más corrientes de capital social presentes en la literatura. In this article it is presented a definition of the concept of social capital. Social capital is understood as resources -obligations of recipro...
Despite the acknowledgment that social capital is an important predictor of good health and overall well being in wealthy countries, little empirical research has been conducted in developing countries, particularly in Africa, to examine this relationship. This study examines the association between cognitive (trust) and structural (membership in organization) social capital on health at both the individual and contextual levels. Health was measured using answers to a subjective question on physical health and anxiety/worry suffered by individuals within the last 30 days. This study utilized Afrobarometer data collected in Kenya in 2005 to examine this relationship using multilevel logistic statistical modeling. Upon controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, social capital was found to be significantly associated with anxiety/worry and physical health in Kenya. Membership in organizations was associated with increased odds (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.02-1.76) of physical health problems, while individual trust was associated with a 6% (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.90-0.99) reduction in the likelihood of physical health problems. Conversely, generalized trust was associated with a 37% reduction in the odds (OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99) of anxiety/worry, while individual trust was associated with a 5% reduction (OR = 0.95, 95%CI: 0.90-1.00) of anxiety/worry. With the exception of membership in an organization that exacerbates physical health, both individual level trust and generalized trust were associated with better health outcomes in Kenya. The availability of social organizations at the contextual level was associated with worsening anxiety/worry although the effect size was small. These results show that social capital, particularly trust, is a concept that can apply to different social and cultural contexts and can potentially be harnessed to improve health in settings that suffer from resource poverty.
Potapchuk, William R.; Crocker, Jarle P.; Boogaard, Dina; Schechter, William H.
Social capital is the glue that holds a community together. It is the network of relationships among persons that can be used to get things done. Social capital is a necessary, but not sufficient, ingredient of community building. A community must mobilize its social capital and the mechanisms of its infrastructure to face and resolve collective…
Nakamura, Yoshie Tomozumi; Yorks, Lyle
Social capital has been receiving increasing attention in the field of human resource development (HRD). However, little is known as to how social capital has been formed or has grown over time with HRD interventions. There is limited research and discussion on how reflective practices play a role in the development of social capital as…
Pearrow, Melissa M.; Zoino-Jeannetti, Julia; Minami, Takuya
This study examines differences in social capital between two demographically disparate groups: future education professionals and youth leaders living in urban communities. This is important because there is growing scholarly evidence of a positive relationship between social capital and student achievement. "Social capital," defined as…
Richmond, Tracy K.; Milliren, Carly; Walls, Courtney E.; Kawachi, Ichiro
Background: Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). Methods: Analyzing data…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010
This good practice guide is based on research that looked at how to teach adult literacy and numeracy using a social capital approach. The guide suggests ways vocational education and training (VET) practitioners can adopt a social capital approach to their teaching practice. A social capital approach refers to the process in which networks are…
Based on a double case-study, this paper discusses the role of social capital in the creation of organisational absorptive capacity. Bridging social capital makes it possible to acquire new knowledge whereas bonding social capital assists the exploitation of that knowledge. In addition, this study...
Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Kawachi, I; McKee, M; Rutter, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Feuillet, T; Oppert, J-M; Nijpels, G; Brug, J
We compared ecometric neighbourhood scores of social capital (contextual variation) to mean neighbourhood scores (individual and contextual variation), using several health-related outcomes (i.e. self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours). Data were analysed from 5,900 participants in the European SPOTLIGHT survey. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. The associations of ecometric and mean neighbourhood-level scores of these constructs with self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours were analysed using multilevel regression analyses, adjusted for key covariates. Analyses using ecometric and mean neighbourhood scores, but not mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, yielded similar regression coefficients. Higher levels of social network and social cohesion were not only associated with better self-rated health, lower odds of obesity and higher fruit consumption, but also with prolonged sitting and less transport-related physical activity. Only associations with transport-related physical activity and sedentary behaviours were associated with mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores. As analyses using ecometric scores generated the same results as using mean neighbourhood scores, but different results when using mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, this suggests that the theoretical advantage of the ecometric approach (i.e. teasing out individual and contextual variation) may not be achieved in practice. The different operationalisations of social network and social cohesion were associated with several health outcomes, but the constructs that appeared to represent the contextual variation best were only associated with two of the outcomes.
Full Text Available Knowledge and intellectual capital are increasingly recognised as the main sources of competitive advantages in the knowledge-based economy. Businesses, particularly those that are small- or medium-sized, find that they need to give increasing attention to knowledge management and social capital — social capital being a mediating variable between knowledge management processes and firm performance. This study examined knowledge management, social capital and firm performance through the use of a questionnaire directed to small- and medium-sized enterprises — all of them situated within the Multimedia Super Corridor in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The results based on 289 usable questionnaires demonstrated the following: (i knowledge management processes influence social capital positively; (ii social capital enhances firm performance; and (iii social capital is a mediator between knowledge management processes and firm performance. The research demonstrated that knowledge management processes and social capital can be integrated to enhance firm performance.
Dominga Márquez Fernández
Full Text Available RESUMEN:La globalización de los fenómenos económicos, políticos y sociales se enmarca dentro de unos planteamientos geográficos con el fin de establecer un equilibrio entre el crecimiento económico, el desarrollo sociopolítico y el bienestar de la sociedad. La emergencia de una nueva gobernabilidad base de una estructura de desarrollo sostenible, ha de fundamentarse en cambios profundos de comportamientos,estructuras y procedimientos en los que el capital social es el eje fundamental. PALABRAS CLAVE:Desarrollo rural, Multifuncionalidad, Capital social, Participación, Calidad de vida. ABSTRACT:The globalization of the economic, political and social phenomena is framed within geographic expositions with the purpose of establishing a balance between the economic growth, the social and politic development and the well-being of the society. The emergency of a new governability bases of a structure of sustainable development, has to be based on deep changes of behaviours, structures and procedures in which the social capital is the fundamental axis. KEY WORDS:Rural development, multifunctionality, social capital, participation, quality of live. RÉSUMÉLa globalisation des phénomenes économiques, politiques et sociaux est encadrée dans des approches géographiques afín d'établir un équilibre entre la croissance économique, le développe- ment socio-politique et le bien-etre de la société. L'urgence d'un nouveau gouvernement de base d'une structure de développement soutenable, doit etre fondée des changements profonds comportements, structures et procédures dans lesquelles le capital social est l'axe fondamental. MOTS CLÉ:Développement rural, multifuncionalite, capitale sociale, participacion, qualité de vie.
Full Text Available Background: Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%. It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results: Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8, and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9. Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9. However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions: In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified
Full Text Available Desarrollado en los países capitalistas avanzados, el concepto de capital social -también denominado como redes sociales- adquirió peso en las ciencias sociales latinoamericanas en los años noventa. Los organismos internacionales como el Banco Mundial y el Banco Interamericano tuvieron su influencia en el interés otorgado a este concepto (HINTZE, 2004. El auge que cobró este concepto se debe a que el mismo concentró la atención en las consecuencias positivas de la sociabilidad a la vez que dejó de lado sus rasgos menos atractivos. De este modo, muchas investigaciones sobre capital social no consideraron de manera suficiente los costos del intercambio social ni las relaciones de poder en las que las redes se insertan. El objetivo del presente trabajo busca mapear y problematizar los distintos paradigmas que han abordado este concepto, haciendo hincapié en sus fortalezas y debilidades. Para lo que realizamos um relevamiento bibliografico de diversos autores que se han abocado a investigar a este concepto desentrañando las distintas concepciones de capital social que se corresponden con determinadas perspectivas sobre el orden social. Desde el paradigma sostenido por los organismos internacionales, las relaciones de poder quedan excluidas como elemento explicativo de las prácticas sociales. Es decir, encorsetadas en una mirada de la realidad social que se centra en el orden y en el funcionamiento armonioso de los individuos y de los colectivos, están totalmente ausentes herramientas analíticas capaces de dar cuenta de las fuentes de poder y de conflicto. En contraposición, la noción de capital social que utilizamos se sustentó en la perspectiva teórica bourdieusiana. Matriz teórica que permite contemplar las relaciones de poder y conflicto constitutivas de la sociedad. De este modo, el concepto de capital social sostenido desde la perspectiva de Pierre Bourdieu constituye una herramienta fundamental y superadora de otras
José Luis Porrata
Full Text Available En este estudio se examinan las puntuaciones en deseabilidad social de niños y adultos puertorriqueños. Deseabilidad social es la tendencia a contestar en formas socialmente deseables. Cuando los ciudadanos de un país obtienen puntuaciones altas en deseabilidad social se interpreta como una tendencia a conformar en esa sociedad. Al comparar las puntuaciones en deseabilidad social entre puertorriqueños y británicos, los puertorriqueños puntúan más alto que sus contraparte británicos. Se ven estos resultados como una personalidad del puertorriqueño que muestra cohesión social, pero que necesita estar más seguro al aumentar su habilidad para resolver problemas
Full Text Available Muchos estudios han resaltado los efectos negativos potenciales del turismo sobre la cultura local. Los eventos culturales son un área de preocupación particular dado que pueden parecer "inauténticos" al ser vistos por los turistas, además de perder el significado para los residentes locales. Estos argumentos tienden a pasar por altola capacidad de las comunidades locales para usar el turismo de manera creativa como medio para exponer y fortalecer su identidad local (friedman, 1994. Uno de las más importantes indicadores de resistencia de las comunidades locales es el nivel del capital social presente en la población receptora, lo cual es importante a la hora de crear cohesión social y asegurar una distribución más equitativa de los beneficios del turismo. Este artículo presenta un estudio del capital social, redes locales y turismo en Cataluña. Encuestas a residentes locales y visitantes a las fiestas indican un nivel relativamente alto de capital social entre los residentes locales, particularmente en términos de membresías a asociaciones culturales. Existe una relación directa entre membresía de asociaciones culturales, participación activa en eventos culturales y actitudes positivas hacia cambios culturales y hacia el turismo. Esta investigación plantea que el desarrollo del capital social puede ser una manera de desarrollar relaciones más positivas entre el turismo y la cultura, tomando en cuenta que el papel de las asociaciones y redes locales es esencial en este proceso.
This paper reviews the literature on social inclusion and social capital to develop a framework to guide the selection of items and measures for the forthcoming SA Department of Human Services Survey of Social Inclusion to be held in the region of Northern Adelaide in South Australia. Northern Adelaide is a region with areas of high socio-economic…
Guillen, L.; Coromina Soler, L.; Saris, W.E.
The concept of social capital has become very popular but its definition and measurement are still rather unclear. We frame our study in one of its components, social participation. In this article we develop an optimal measure for social participation based on the questions asked in the first round
Using the General Social Survey on Social Engagement conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003, this paper examines social capital derived from informal networks and its variation among men categorized as: (1) men with no children, and (2) men living with children in (a) intact, (b) step, and (c) lone parent families. The focus on men stems from a…
Roskruge, Matthew; Grimes, Arthur; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques
In this article, we link unique data on local social infrastructure expenditure with microlevel individual survey data of self-reported social capital measures of trust and participation in community activities. We use both probit and tobit models to estimate the impact of social infrastructure expe
S. Roggeveen (Suzanne); M.J. van Meeteren (Masja)
textabstractIn this paper we scrutinize the social networks and the social capital invested within these, of a relatively new and understudied immigrant group in the North-European context. We show how the social networks of Brazilian immigrants in Amsterdam are segmented along strong dividing lines
The debate about social environment, sustainability and health has been highlighted by the interest in social capital. It has been suggested that social capital varies from place to place and that such variations are relevant for explaining variations in health. This paper explores the association between neighbourhood social capital (making a distinction between linking, bonding and bridging social capital) and self-rated health. The study has involved 4,577 residents in 143 neighbourhoods of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between social capital and self-rated health. The results show that social capital was strongly associated with self-rated health, even after an adjustment for individual attributes. It is not possible to divorce health planning from urban planning and from the promotion of social capital. A sense of place, identity and belonging needs to be at the core of all healthy planning interventions.
This research is a survey study. The statistical population includes all citizens of Yasouj who are 18 years old and older. Sample size includes 381 individuals, who were selected by means of random multi-stage sampling method. The instrument is a 58-item questionnaire, designed on the basis of a combination of researcher-made questions and standards measurement scales. Clark and Stark's religious identity scale is a 19-item questionnaire that assesses the construct of religious identity and is scored on a five-point Likert scale. For assessing the significance of religion, four aspects, including ritual (5 questions, faith (5 items, emotional (5 items and outcome (4 questions are used. Confirmatory factor analysis and varimax rotation were used to assess the validity of the questionnaire. KMO test is equal to .902 for the construct of religious identity, which indicates the adequacy of the sampling. Bartlett’s significance test indicates that there exists correlation between the variables. Reliability of religious identity construct was measured using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, equal to .91, which means the internal consistency of the scale is acceptable. The construct of social capital was developed in the form of a 32-item scale, including four dimensions of social trust, social networks, social participation and social awareness. KMO test is equal to .725 for this construct, which indicates the adequacy of the sampling. Bartlett’s significance test indicates that there exists correlation between variables. Reliability score is equal to .71 which indicates that the internal consistency of the scale is provided. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Discussion of Results & Conclusions The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between religious identity and Social capital in Yasouj. Results showed that only 7 percent of the respondents have a low level of social capital and 8/55 percent have a moderate level of social capital and 39
Full Text Available O artigo trata de um estudo empírico em que a análise de redes sociais é utilizada para mapear o capital social de atores envolvidos em processos de governança ambiental na Amazônia brasileira. Por meio de entrevistas, foi mapeada a rede de relações de diálogo sobre questões socioambientais de um conjunto de 505 atores no Território Portal da Amazônia. Foram identificadas 3384 relações de diálogo, com uma média de 6,7 parceiros de diálogo por ator. A análise dos aspectos estruturais da rede de diálogo foi utilizada para construir indicadores de capital social de ligação, com mapeamento da organização interna dos atores de um mesmo município, e de conexão, com a caracterização das relações entre atores de municípios diferentes. Em nível municipal, a distribuição das duas formas de capital social permitiu caracterizar os grupos de atores de acordo com as suas atuações diferenciadas na governança ambiental do Território. Em nível territorial, o padrão de conectividade entre os 16 municípios mostra um equilíbrio entre as duas formas de capital social e revela o potencial de comunicação e organização dos atores, como demonstrado no exemplo dos projetos de Agendas 21 locais. Estes resultados demonstram como a análise de redes sociais pode contribuir na definição (ou redefinição das fronteiras dos territórios de modo a incluir um conjunto de municípios cujos atores mantêm relações sociais efetivas. Ações de governança no Portal da Amazônia são propostas com potencial para fortalecer os processos de diálogo, diminuir os conflitos e promover o uso sustentável dos recursos naturais na Amazônia.The article presents an empirical study where social network analysis is used to map social capital among actors involved in environmental governance processes in the Brazilian Amazon. Using interviews, we carried out the mapping of the dialogue network regarding socio-environmental issues among 505
Francisco Ganga Contreras
Full Text Available Lately, it has been seen progress in Latin America, mainly from an economic perspective. Currently, it has been conducted research aimed at sustaining the growth, but focused on the country's development, which can be converted into social capital. Democracy becomes a key factor on this challenge and thus confidence in individuals and institutions. In this sense, the central purpose of this paper is to analyze the most relevant aspects of trust, social capital and its impact on democracy and development. To achieve these objectives, it is primarily used secondary sources of information, which involved review of articles addressing this issue. The conclusion is that a society that aspires the development should coordinate institutions to solve the society’s problems and demands, so that society responds with appropriate confidence levels.
Full Text Available Desde la perspectiva económica la confianza entre los miembros de una sociedad está asociada al funcionamiento eficiente de los mercados, al reforzamiento de contratos y, en general, a la capacidad para generar desarrollo y bienestar. En este artículo exploramos empíricamente los determinantes de la confianza en México, en particular, aislamos la relación entre dos medidas de capital social, una para el individuo y otra para su entorno. Nuestros resultados muestran que la confianza aumenta con estas medidas de capital social y con ausencia de se - gregación es mayor en comunidades pequeñas, a mayor edad y para habitantes del centro-occidente, entre otras.
Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde;
municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust......, moderate trust and low trust. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with parents' occupational class as the independent variable and daily emotional symptoms as the dependent variable were conducted stratified by level of trust in the school class. The prevalence of emotional symptoms was higher among...... of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two...
Renato P. Saul
Full Text Available O trabalho examina o movimento intelectual que envolveu a reflexão científica nas ciências sociais a partir dos anos 1960 e suas vinculações com as transformações que, na mesma época, agitam as relações econômicas e políticas no plano mundial, com seu foco principal apontado para os Estados Unidos. Duas das expressões mais significativas desse movimento são localizadas em questões relativas à identificação de uma crise institucional na democracia americana e com a verificação do processo de reavaliação do papel da Sociologia, seja desde o ponto de vista institucional, seja como instrumento de explicação da realidade social do país e do mundo. A crise política americana é visualizada como tendo por pano de fundo a reorganização do poder econômico do país, resultante do desenvolvimento tecnológico e do processo de globalização. A partir da constatação de que os fundamentos da democracia americana parecem estar ameaçados por mudanças comportamentais e estruturais internas, desenvolve-se no país considerável quantidade de pesquisas e estudos abordando diferentes perspectivas da atuação das grandes corporações. Como contraponto à percepção da degradação da comunidade política interna, esse esforço é marcadamente orientado para a identificação dos compromissos do circuito empresarial com o comportamento cívico e com a democracia, quer na afirmação da ética nos negócios, quer na perspectiva do desenvolvimento de uma política social mais compatível com as estratégias corporativas. Este é o contexto em que a noção de capital social adquire o sentido de articulador principal das disputas políticas e teóricas em torno do desenvolvimento econômico e das transformações verificadas na atividade industrial resultantes da expansão de novas tecnologias e de seus efeitos em termos da necessidade de redimensionamento do direito de propriedade intelectual.This work examines the intellectual
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cuáles son los factores que influyen sobre la segunda de las etapas del proceso de creación empresarial establecidas por Shane y Venkataraman (2000, es decir, sobre el descubrimiento de oportunidades de creación empresarial. Para ello, por un lado, se analiza la influencia que pudiera tener sobre esta etapa tanto el capital humano como el capital social. Por otra parte, también se pretende analizar la existencia de diferencias de género en el descubrimiento de oportunidades empresariales. Para ello, se utiliza una muestra de 28.888 individuos provenientes del Proyecto Gem (2009, que permite concluir que los individuos que poseen un mayor stock de capital humano, así como aquellos que están inmersos en amplias redes sociales, descubrirán más oportunidades de creación empresarial. asimismo, este trabajo muestra que existen diferencias de género en cuanto al descubrimiento de oportunidades de creación empresarial.
Flores, David V; Torres, Luis R; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Ren, Yi; Haider, Ali; Bordnick, Patrick S
This article describes social capital in a cohort of 227 Mexican American men who are long-term injection heroin users. Social capital scores for current and former users were similar, suggesting equal absolute values of capital, but associated with illicit activities in current users and with cessation efforts in former users. Stable drug-using relationships provided high negative capital, whereas conventional relationships provided positive capital. Thus, social capital functions dichotomously in positive and negative contextualized roles. This study provides an alternative understanding of the dynamic interactions between individuals, environment, and drug abuse and can inform prevention and treatment interventions for an important demographic group.
Kim, Chang-O; Cho, Byong-Hee
The growing number of people living in deprived urban neighborhoods, which often have unhealthy environments, is of growing concern to inequality researchers. Social capital could be a resource to help such communities get ahead. In this study, we examined the differential effects of bonding and bridging social capital on self-rated health using two operational definitions, which we call personal and geographic social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital were operationally distinguished as respondents' perceived similarity to other members of a group with respect to personal characteristics (personal social capital) or as structural similarity with respect to geographical location (geographic social capital). The results showed that although both bonding and bridging social capital as defined by person-based criteria were associated with increased odds of self-rated health compared to those who reported zero participation, when defined by place-based criteria, only bridging social capital was associated with increased odds of self-rated health; no clear association was found between health and belonging to groups within the neighborhood, so-called geographic bonding social capital. The present study suggests that geographic bridging social capital can function as linking social capital that enables an upward approach depending on the political and economic contexts of urbanization.
Shoji, Megan N; Haskins, Anna R; Rangel, David E; Sorensen, Kia N
Scholars suggest that racial/ethnic and class disparities in school-based social capital contribute to educational inequalities. Previous studies demonstrate that social capital (relations of trust, mutual expectations, and shared values) between parents and schools supports children's development. Yet we know little about the emergence of social capital, that is, the processes through which it develops. In this study, we explore mechanisms of social capital emergence in predominantly low-income Latino school communities. We draw data from an experimental study that manipulated social capital through an after-school family engagement program. Based on interviews and focus groups with participating parents, teachers, and program staff in two elementary schools, we identified four types of interactions that act as mechanisms of social capital emergence: (1) responsive communication; (2) reciprocal communication; (3) shared experiences; and (4) institutional linkage. The article connects these mechanisms to theoretically linked sources of social capital and discusses implications for theory and practice.
Wagner, Cheryl L; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E
Recent research suggests that community-based collaboration may build social capital-defined as trust, norms of reciprocity, and networks. Social capital may improve a group's ability to collaborate, manage risk, innovate, and adapt to change. We used mail surveys of group participants and key informant interviews to assess whether the following collaborative group characteristics affected social capital built within 10 collaborative groups in northwest Colorado: perceived success, conflict, activeness, stakeholder diversity, previous collaboration experience, similar values and beliefs, group size, group age, and initial social capital. Perceived success and initial levels of social capital were the strongest predictors of current levels of and changes in social capital over time. Collaboration experience negatively influenced current levels of trust. Our results suggest that collaborative groups may need to consider the outcomes of collaborative interactions in order to build social capital.
E. Arampatzi (Efstratia); M.J. Burger (Martijn); N.A. Novik (Natallia)
textabstractCan online social contacts replace the importance of real-life social connections in our pursuit of happiness? With the growing use of social network sites (SNSs), attention has been increasingly drawn to this topic. Our study empirically examines the effect of SNS use on happiness for d
Full Text Available In recent decades, social capital has been a key element within academic discourses and social policy programs. However, the operationalization of the concept varies from one place to another, thus generating debates regarding its likely contributions —both theoretical and empirical—. The paper argues that a contextual definition of the term contributes to the construction of a more sophisticated idea regarding poverty alleviation, supporting other academic work, which questionstraditional approaches. The latter is shown through the results of ethnographic fieldwork in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, which included in depth interviews to household members defined as representatives of different poverty levels by a previous survey.
The paper studies the interplay between corruption and social capital (measured as trust), using data from a lab experiment. Subjects play either a harassment bribery game or a strategically identical but differently framed ultimatum game, followed by a trust game. In a second experiment, the trust...... spillover effect of corruption on trust, but not vice-versa, and the effect increases with decrease in social appropriateness norm of the bribe demand; b) lower trust in the bribery game treatment is explained by lower expected return on trust; c) surprisingly, for both the bribery and the ultimatum game...
Full Text Available This essay attempts at a general understanding of contemporary capitalism and some of its social and mental consequences. It works through combinations and variations of concepts from classical and contemporary social theory. Some key concepts are Mammonism, acceleration, ubiquity, self-dynamics, precariat, inertia, conformity, flexibility, specter of uselessness. The text refers to classical modern thinkers like Marx, Simmel, Musil, Benjamin, and to contemporary ideas in the works of Deleuze, Rosa, Crouch, Illouz, Standing, Hochschild. It is summoned up by asking some important, complex questions that regard democracy, community and autonomy.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Denmark exemplifies the puzzle of socioeconomic success in Scandinavia. Populations are thriving despite the world’s highest levels of tax and generous social benefits. Denmark would appear to be a land of paradise for free-riders and those who want ‘money for nothing’. However, the national...... personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight...
Full Text Available El vínculo que hay entre la población y la diversidad cultural, los procesos de inclusión social, el desarrollo del capital social y la educación de adultos es único y proporciona la oportunidad de ampliar el debate del capital social para asegurar que sea más que simple terminología retórica y política. El capital social tiene el potencial de ser un marco determinante para examinar las comunidades diversas y complejas del siglo XXI en Australia y otros lugares del mundo, y las políticas, organizaciones y prácticas que contribuyen a la inclusión y la exclusión social en el contexto de las comunidades.
Desde la mitad de los años 1990, una abundante literatura científica se ha desarrollado en torno al concepto de capital social. Existe una pluralidad de perspectivas que declinan esta noción: desde los recursos que un individuo puede movilizar como consecuencia de su pertenencia a un grupo, hasta la reciprocidad, la solidaridad o la confianza entre los miembros de un grupo, pasando por las características institucionales e incluso culturales de una sociedad. En este sentido, el objetivo de es...
Mariana Zuleta Ferrari
Full Text Available Over the last decades, there is a growing public perception that some of the democratic institutions and frameworks, which were once taken for granted, are now showing their flaws, inefficiencies, increasingly struggling to keep up with society’s demands and expectations. This has led to a generalized feeling of uncertainty and disappointment, resulting in a lack of trust institutions. The implications of these circumstances on legal theory cannot be overlooked; this article aims to address the problem from an innovative perspective. A unique tool is presented in this article, which proposes a methodological agenda for approaching trust in legal institutions, from the perspective of the social capital theory. To this end, different variables and social capital dynamics will be identified and discussed in relation to trust in legal institutions. The aim is to, on one hand, provide an innovative methodological contribution to better understand the trust crisis, and in particular, the public perception towards legal institutions, and on the other, expand the analysis of social capital dimensions. Durante las últimas décadas, ha sido posible observar una creciente percepción general de que instituciones y estructuras democráticas que años atrás eran dadas por sentadas, presentan, hoy en día, fallas e ineficiencias que dificultan su capacidad de acompañar las demandas y expectativas de la sociedad. Ello ha llevado a un estado generalizado de incertidumbre y decepción, que resulta en la falta de confianza en las instituciones. Las implicancias de estas circumstancias para la teoría legal no pueden ser subestimadas. Este artículo aborda el problema desde una pespectiva innovadora. Presenta una herramienta única que propone una agenda metodológica para aproximarse a la temática de la confianza en las instituciones legales, desde la perspectiva de la teoría del capital social. A este fin, distintas variables y dinámicas del capital
Farahbod, Farzin; Goudarzvand Chegini, Mehrdad; Kouchakinejad Eramsadati, Leila; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra
Social capital is a multi-faceted phenomenon in social sciences that massively affects many social fields. It can be a helpful factor in promoting health. Among the groups with high burnout, nurses have always shown higher levels of burnout. Studies have revealed that social capital can be an important factor affecting burnout. This study aimed to determine the extent of the effect of social capital on burnout in nurses of a trauma referral teaching hospital in Rasht. This was a descriptive correlational study conducted on 214 nurses of a trauma referral teaching hospital. Maslach standard questionnaire and the social capital questionnaire devised by Boyas and colleagues were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and linear regression analysis to determine the extent of the effect of social capital on burnout. The study showed an inverse association between social capital and burnout. The intensity of the relationship was -0.451 (Pburnout variable showed that the regression coefficient of social capital equaled -0.34. The determination coefficient of this regression model indicated that social capital explained 20% of burnout changes. The results showed high burnout in emotional exhaustion dimension and an inverse association between social capital and burnout. Thus, attempts should be made to promote social capital dimensions among nurses. Given the inevitability of job stress in a nursing environment, and managers should plan on improving the working conditions and training techniques to deal with such stress.
Full Text Available AbstractThis article aims to explain the relationship between social responsibility and social capital ofthe young with the age range of 18 to 29 in the Shiraz city. Development of social responsibilityand commitment are important subjects which are considered more than cognitive subjects byscholars (Fathi Azar, 1373:180. Social responsibility is a part of socialization process. The mostimportant factors which have major roles in socialization are culture, family and social institutions.Social responsibility is a skill of doing behavior which is evaluated by people. These skills canmake positive and successfully results and lead to personal and group’s satisfaction. Otherwise, thelake of social responsibility results to less confidence and cooperation. In this article theresearchers used survey method and questionnaire to collect the data. Sample size is 386 youngwhich were selected randomly. The result of multiple regression showed the effects of the variablesare as follows: social capital (beta=0.27, self esteem (beta=0. 27, age (beta=0. 21 and gender(beta=0. 22 have significant and positive relations with social responsibility. These variablesexplain 20 percent of the variation of social responsibility (R2=0.20. In path analysis model,maximum direct effect belongs to social capital and maximum indirect effect belongs to mother’seducation.
Whittaker, Colin Grant; Holland-Smith, David
This study explored the influence social capital had over parental sports volunteers who are considered to be of paramount importance in the delivery of UK sports initiatives. A review of the relevant literature identifies and discusses the complexities within the debate to define social capital while human and cultural capital emerge as an…
Roberts, Kate; Lacey, Justine
The concepts of human capital and social capital have come to be widely used across government policy and academia in relation to their perceived roles in community engagement and social well being. However in understanding the nature of these two distinct forms of capital there seems to be a pervasive notion that by simply increasing the stocks…
Jing; GAO; Yingliang; ZHANG; Changzheng; HE
Using the multivariate ordered logistic and probit regression method,based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,we analyze the impact of social capital ( namely the social network) on the farmers’ recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities and property of entrepreneurial opportunities. The research results show that the scale of farmers being embedded in social network has a positive effect on the probability of farmers to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities. The higher the frequency of contact and the greater the size of weak ties network in the social network,then the greater the possibility of farmers to find innovative opportunities. But strong ties network has no significant effect on replicating-type entrepreneurial opportunities. At the same time,the entrepreneurial farmers’ education experience, migrant worker experience,innovation capability,and deep entrepreneurial atmosphere,are all important factors affecting the farmers’ opportunity recognition behavior
Scheepers, Peer; Grotenhuis, Manfred te; Gelissen, John
We set out to describe and explain differences in the amount of some dimensions of social capital within and between European societies. Social capital refers to a wide range of social phenomena; however, we focus on social contacts with family and friends. We derive hypotheses about cross-national
Flap, Henk; Völker, Beate
This paper addresses the question “To what extent can job satisfaction be explained as the revenue of social capital?” By conceiving someone’s social network as social capital we specify conditions under which social ties do lead to job satisfaction. We inquire into the idea of goal specificity of s
Scheepers, P.L.H.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.
We set out to describe and explain differences in the amount of some dimensions of social capital within and between European societies. Social capital refers to a wide range of social phenomena; however, we focus on social contacts with family and friends. We derive hypotheses about cross-national
Francisca Tejedo Romero
Full Text Available Intangible resources have become the most important in the process of generating business' wealth in a sustainable way, namely the Human Capital. However, the success and survival of the companies is subject to the approval of its stakeholders. This means that companies take steps to ensure that their actions are perceived as legitimate, and one way is by providing voluntary information. Therefore, under the framework of the Theory of Legitimacy and Stakeholders, our goal is to analyze how Spanish companies are voluntarily reporting on its Human Capital in annual reports, information about the generation of intangibles (knowledge and social responsibility. Thus, using the methodology of content analysis, the empirical evidence shows that companies are reporting relatively little information on topics related to Human Capital being the topics related to training and development of employees the most disclosure. However, with regard to social responsibility, there is a rising trend to provide information concerning the policy of equality and diversity, risk prevention and the relationship between employers and employees.
Xu, Qingwen; Norstrand, Julie A; Du, Yan
Social capital has been connected with positive health outcomes across countries, including China. Given the rise in the number of seniors living alone, there is a need to examine the health benefits of social capital, accounting for living arrangements. Data from the 2005 Chinese General Social Survey were used to test research hypotheses. Controlling for demographics, elders living alone possessed similar level of social capital compared with elders living with others. While bonding and linking social capital were significant factors in urban areas and linking social capital was a significant factor in rural areas, the relationship between living alone and health did not differ based on the level of social capital possession. When the traditional intergenerational living arrangement has not been a valid option for many older adults in China, seeking new way of family caring, and developing appropriate social and institutional structures to assist elders living alone, becomes critical.
Full Text Available Social capital is a key component in understanding therelationship between European sport governing bodies andcivil society. A core concept in sociology, political science,organizational behaviour and business, social capital is relatively new in the context of European sport governance. Inexploring the boundaries of both sport and social capital intheory and practice, one can see sport as a form of positivesocial capital that promotes social cohesion, trust, socialties, etc. However, it could also be perceived as «dark» social capital since the politics of sport do not always deliverthe social benefits they proclaim due to the «exclusionary»vs. inclusive factors: commercialization, doping, institutionalized gender personification, the leaky pipeline and the glassceiling in SGBs and in competitive sports. Sport has not yetevolved into a form of social capital which can be nurturedand reproduced to raise social cohesion and eliminate socialexclusions.
Marcelo Afonso Vieira Brunozi
Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre a estrutura de capital das empresas possuem participação significativa e relevante na área de Finanças. Diversas abordagens empíricas e teóricas buscam explicar os determinantes e as escolhas das estruturas de capital nas firmas. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo analisou os fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital nas empresas do setor de serviços brasileiras com a argumentação teórica da Pecking Order (POT. Discutiu-se a hierarquia das fontes de financiamentos nas empresas. Metodologicamente, a pesquisa considerou empresas de capital aberto do setor de serviços no período de 2007 a 2013. Com a aplicação de Dados em Painel consideraram-se para a composição do modelo as variáveis de endividamento (dependente, tamanho, tangibilidade, market to book, lucratividade, liquidez (folga financeira, ciclo operacional e giro do ativo (independentes. Os resultados mostraram a aceitação parcial das hipóteses. Observou-se que, somente tangibilidade não se apresentou como métrica explicativa para a estrutura de capital. As variáveis folga financeira e lucratividade foram significativas e corroboraram com as pressuposições da POT. Em contrapartida, apesar de apresentarem significâncias com a estrutura de capital, as variáveis, market to book, indicando preferências para a emissão de ações e, tamanho, ciclo operacional e giro do ativo, com direcionamentos às dívidas, contradisseram a POT.
This article examines the democratic potential of online communities by investigating the influence of network heterogeneity on social tolerance in an online gaming environment. Online game communities are potential sources of bridging social capital because they tend to be relatively heterogeneous. Causal analyses are conducted using structural…
Steinfield, Charles; Ellison, Nicole B.; Lampe, Cliff
A longitudinal analysis of panel data from users of a popular online social network site, Facebook, investigated the relationship between intensity of Facebook use, measures of psychological well-being, and bridging social capital. Two surveys conducted a year apart at a large U.S. university, complemented with in-depth interviews with 18 Facebook…
Paldam, M.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
The transition of the »Old Communist« countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor of pr...... collapsed and so did most of the control systems. This allowed a flourishing of the grey/black networks, which can be harmful to the operations of a market economy. The available data are still scanty, but they confirm the argument....... of production. The Communist system replaced it with an official organization of society. Further, the communist system needed a set of grey/black networks of »fixers« to give it the necessary flexibility. These networks were tolerated, but controlled. When the Communist regime ceased the official organizations...
Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
The transition of the "Old Communist" countries of East and Central Europe has been disappointingly slow given the amount of physical and human capital available at the start of the transition. We argue that this slowness is caused by the lack of social capital, which is an important factor of pr...... organizations collapsed and so did most of the control systems. This allowed a flourishing of the grey/black networks, which can be harmful to the operations of a market economy. The available data are still scanty, but they confirm the argument....... of production. The Communist system replaced it with an official organization of society. Further, the communist system needed a set of grey/black networks of "fixers" to give it the necessary flexibility. These networks were tolerated but nevertheless controlled. When the Communist regime ceased, the official...
Full Text Available Sociological predictors of fear of crime among a clustered sample of 1800 participants residing in 60 different neighborhoods in İstanbul have been examined in this study. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that women, elderly and those who have been victimized in the last five years havehigher rates of fear than males, younger people and those who were not victimized in the last five years respectively. Among sociological factors, while social capital decreases individuals’ fear of crime; unexpectedly, social control increases fear of crime. Perceived physical and social disorder in the neighborhood, on the other hand, increases fear of crime. Based on a comparative investigation of the relationships among fear,social capital, and social control with Western countries, thisstudy also presents policy implications and suggestions for future studies aimed at decreasing fear of crime and increasing social organization and social control in Turkish society.
early pioneer in social capital thought, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu defined social capital as …the aggregate of the actual or potential...Online] available from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/ HumanCapital.html, accessed October 15, 2006. 18 Pierre Bourdieu deserves credit for his...2002): 17-18. 17 P. Bourdieu , "The Forms of Capital," Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (1986): 248. 14 James
This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.
Lima, Carla Hoehne Silva
A pesquisa aqui sintetizada analisa os fatores que contribuem para que os trabalhadores não sejam o público mais enfatizado no discurso de responsabilidade social empresarial. A pesquisa realizada com dez gestores e profissionais de uma empresa revela que há avanços a fazer no que diz respeito à RSE com os trabalhadores. À frente da RSE na empresa está a área de Comunicação e não há grande integração com outras áreas, em especial a de Recursos Humanos (RH), no tratamento dessas questões....
Bertotti, Marcello; Harden, Angela; Renton, Adrian; Sheridan, Kevin
There has been much enthusiasm over the past 10 years for the potential contribution of social enterprises to the regeneration of disadvantaged urban areas. This enthusiasm has far outstripped the availability of empirical evidence. This paper reports a qualitative study of one social enterprise, a community café, and its contribution to building social capital in a disadvantaged urban area in London. The analysis reveals how the café builds 'bonding' and 'bridging' social capital whilst also addressing 'downside' social capital. Overall, the manager of the social enterprise played a considerable role in facilitating the development of social capital, thus emphasising the importance of individuals and their attitudes, skills, and background in urban regeneration. However, the role of the social enterprise in building 'linking' social capital was minor. In this instance, more effective mechanisms of community engagement need to be put in place in order to empower local residents and organisations.
Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning
In 1989 Mitton suggested that success for start-ups not only depends on who you are but also on whom you know. To study the importance of social capital and networks in relation to entrepreneurial activities, research in a Danish start-up context in two knowledge-intensive sectors has been carried...... to entrepreneurial networking activities in new technology-based small firms shows that teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters', that networking patterns and resource acquisition are highly influenced by entrepreneurs' attitude to and perception of networking....
En el marco del análisis del capital social, el presente artículo aborda el tema de los criterios apropiados para evaluar el papel de la confianza en las asociaciones civiles. Propone dos niveles: por una parte, la capacidad de estas asociaciones de generar confianza interna con rasgos cívicos y de coadyuvar al desarrollo de confianza generalizada y de actitudes y conductas cívicas; por otra parte, reflexiona sobre la conveniencia de utilizar la distinción entre diversos tipos ...
Full Text Available The present articLe attempts to reLate three main concepts: migration, codeveLopment and sociaL capitaL, using anaLyticaL frameworks of poLiticaL science and socioLogy. Those con-cepts enabLe the construction of theoreticaL principLes for a strategy, based on empiricaL evidence, intended for Linking the worLds within which migrants Live and deveLop them-seLves and their societies.
Mawson, E.; Best, D.; Beckwith, M.; Dingle, G. A.; Lubman, D I
Background It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on ‘personal identity’. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Methods Twenty participants aged 18–21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment ser...
Full Text Available Resumo: Projetos culturais, de arte-educação ou socioeducativos, cujos públicos-alvo são a juventude pobre e negra vêm ocupando cada vez mais espaço na mídia e no imaginário social. Objetos de entusiasmo na mídia por pregar a paz social, são criticados em círculos menores, considerados mais politizados. Apresenta-se primeiro, neste trabalho, uma análise que procura driblar essa polarização e, mesmo assim, descrevê-los de maneira crítica. Por considerar essa análise ainda bastante superficial, nos voltamos para o trabalho de Stuart Hall, autor de obras importantes sobre questões parecidas de juventude, imaginário e violência na cultura britânica, em busca de um método “mais científico” de investigação. São apresentadas então considerações sobre o método de Hall, que ele conceitua a partir de uma leitura de um texto de Marx, e a partir desse método são levantadas questões analíticas mais incisivas sobre o significado social dos projetos no atual momento.
De Clercq, Bart; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea
We sought to determine whether social capital at the individual-, school- and community-level can explain variance in adolescent smoking and accounts for social inequalities in smoking. We collected data as part of the 2005/6 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of high school pupils in Belgium (Flanders). Social capital was assessed by structural and cognitive components of family social capital, a four-factor school social capital scale and a cognitive community social capital scale. We fitted non-hierarchical multilevel models to the data, with 8453 adolescents nested within a cross-classification of 167 schools and 570 communities. Significant variation in adolescent regular smoking was found between schools, but not between communities. Only structural family social capital and cognitive school social capital variables negatively related to regular smoking. No interactions between socio-economic status and social capital variables were found. Our findings suggest that previously observed community-level associations with adolescent smoking may be a consequence of unmeasured confounding. Distinguishing nested contexts of social capital is important because their associations with smoking differ.
This article proposes an analytical consideration for social capital research in education by exploring a pragmatic combination of social network analysis (SNA) and symbolic interactionism (SI) as a research method. The article first delineates the theoretical linkages of social capital theory with SNA and SI. The article then discusses how SNA…
Fitts, Shanan; McClure, Greg
In this article, we examine the social networks of immigrant Latinas from two women's groups in northwestern North Carolina. We explore how participants built social capital and confidence in self through sharing knowledge and experiences in intimate, "mujerista" spaces. We argue that traditional analyses of social capital, framed in…
Thomason, Jessica D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel
Social capital was examined as a mediator of the association between youth development program participation and gains in self-concept in a sample of 86 primarily African American female adolescents in the Cool Girls, program, and 89 comparisons. Two dimensions of social capital (the diversity of girls' social networks and the number of life…
... relationships is commonly referred to in social and economic literature as social capital. A baseline of existing social capital in the groundfish fishery in the Northeast Region was conducted in 2010 by the Gulf... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request;...
Social capital is frequently offered up as a variable to explain such educational outcomes as academic attainment, drop-out rates and cognitive development. Yet, despite its popularity amongst social scientists, social capital theory remains the object of some scepticism, particularly in respect of its explanatory ambitions. I provide an account…
Moschetti, Roxanne Venus; Hudley, Cynthia
Social capital, the value of a relationship that provides support and assistance in a given social situation (Stanton-Salazar, 2001), is a useful theory for understanding the experiences of low-income adolescents who are the first in their families to attend college. According to social capital theory, networks of relationships can help students…
Thomason, Jessica D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel
Social capital was examined as a mediator of the association between youth development program participation and gains in self-concept in a sample of 86 primarily African American female adolescents in the Cool Girls, program, and 89 comparisons. Two dimensions of social capital (the diversity of girls' social networks and the number of life…
In this study, the influence of interracial socialization and race on interracial bridging social capital among Malaysian students of a multicultural Malaysian public university was examined. Results reveal a narrowed level of interracial bridging social capital among the students. The minority Chinese and the majority Malays do not differ in…
This paper considers the role of social capital in the aspirations for higher education of a group of socially disadvantaged girls. Drawing on data from a longitudinal, ethnographic case study of an underperforming secondary school, the paper considers current conceptualisations of social capital and its role in educational ambitions. The paper…
Williams, Bonita; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M.
This article reviews research and offers program examples for developing social capital in youth with a range of vulnerabilities: emotional, physical, social, and developmental. Protective factors provided by developing social capital at the individual level include access to support networks, transition to employment, and community connectedness.…
Robbins, Blaine; Pettinicchio, David
This article draws from an ongoing debate over explanations of homicide. Within this debate, we investigate the pro-social effects of civil society and social capital. Few cross-national studies explore whether elements of social capital either increase or decrease homicide. The cross-national work that does is often characterized by small,…
Waverijn, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Klerk, M. de
Differential provision of local services and amenities has been proposed as a mechanism behind the relationship between social capital and health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social capital and collective efficacy are related to the provision of social support services and amen
Tatarko, A. N.
Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of m
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.
Marco Alberto Núñez-Ramírez; Rosario del Carmen Realpozo-Reyes; Gloria Esthela González-Quirarte
The aim of this research is to assess the social capital of intercultural nursing students. We made a quantitative, exploratory and transverse study with a non-experimental design. A sample was taken composed of 55 intercultural nursing students of the Intercultural University of the State of Tabasco at Oxolotán, during the months of November and December 2014. A questionnaire for measuring social capital for indigenous peoples was administered. We found high levels of social capital; however...
von Carnap-Bornheim, Tillmann
Practicing agriculture requires organisation and coordination. To analyse the extent to which differences in agricultural practices can account for variation in social capital, a large survey containing indicators of social capital is combined with detailed agricultural statistics. The main factor under analysis is irrigation, together with prevalent grain sorts, thereby building on prior research. The richness of the datasets allows to explore various dimensions of social capital in geograph...
Souto-Maior Fontes, Breno Augusto
Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva analisar as inserções em redes egocentradas de indivíduos de uma comunidade de baixa renda na cidade do Recife. A partir de algumas considerações iniciais sobre redes egocentradas, ensaiamos uma análise de redes construídas em uma comunidade de baixa renda. Os dados de que dispomos para análise foram extraídos de uma pesquisa empírica em uma comunidade de baixa renda na cidade do Recife. O nosso objetivo é verificar o quão de particular existe nessas populações de baixa renda, e o que se pode extrair de regularidades em redes egocentradas, e também observar, a partir de índices de capital social construídos, que posições diferenciadas na estrutura social podem existir quando se introduz a variável "rede social". Interessa-nos particularmente discutir as hipóteses de FLAP sobre relações sociais como recursos ou como capital. Os índices construídos nos remeterão a três grandes blocos de questões: (a o número de relações onde se inscrevem capacidades potenciais para ajudas; (b a extensão das redes de ajuda, função da intensidade das relações; e (c os recursos que podem ser alocados a partir dessas relações. As bases empíricas desse artigo dizem respeito a informações extraídas de redes egocentradas da comunidade de Chão de Estrelas, Recife. Foram aplicados 295 questionários, a partir de amostra aleatória simples em um universo de 1.131 domicílios (sendo escolhida uma pessoa adulta por domicílio.
André Luiz Paulilo, Brasil
Full Text Available Este artigo discute os rumos dos serviços escolares do Departamento de Educação do Distrito Federal entre 1931 e 1935, com base nos resultados estatísticos de rendimento escolar. Assim, aborda-se a produção das estatísticas oficiais para compreender a organização dos serviços de Recenseamento, Matrícula e Frequência, na Divisão de Obrigatoriedade Escolar e Estatística, e de Medida e Eficiência Escolares, na Divisão de Pesquisas Educacionais e, também, as estratégias para conter a evasão e a repetência. A análise da documentação permite concluir que o Departamento de Educação do Distrito Federal se projeta como aparelho estratégico de controle da população escolar.Palavras-chave: reformas educativas, estatísticas escolares, processos de escolarização, Anísio Teixeira.SCHOOL FAILURE AND SCHOOL SERVICES FROM THE FEDERAL CAPITAL IN 1930 AbstractThis article discusses the paths of school services of the Department of Education of the Federal District from 1931 to 1935 based on the statistical results of school performance. This raises the issue of the production of official statistics to understand the organization of the Census, Registration and frequency services, in the School Division and Statistics and Compulsory School, and Measurement and School Efficiency, in the Educational Research Division, and also the strategies for curb dropout and repetition. The analysis of the documentation shows that the Department of Education of the Federal District projects itself as a strategic instrument of control of the school population.Key-words: educational reforms, school statistics, schooling processes, Anísio Teixeira.LA REPETICIÓN Y LOS SERVICIOS ESCOLARES DE LA CAPITAL FEDERAL EN LA DÉCADA DE 1930 ResumenEste artículo analiza los itinerarios de los servicios escolares del Departamento de Educación del Distrito Federal entre 1931 y 1935 sobre la base de los resultados estadísticos del rendimiento escolar. As
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon that involves not only economic activity but also social mechanisms. The intention to become an entrepreneur is a matter not only of one’s individual personality but also of one's interaction with the social environment. This study has three main objectives: predicting the existence of entrepreneurial behavioural intentions in different socio-economic conditions; examining how entrepreneurial behavioural intentions formulate entrepreneurial behaviour; and identifying how social capital influences this relationship. It also aims to reveal the differences between entrepreneurs in a relatively mature free market economy (Taiwan and a newly emerging free market economy (Mongolia. The analysis shows that socio-economic conditions affect the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. There are different approaches to building social capital in a relatively mature market and its newly emerging counterpart. The tendency of having high trust and social ties was found in Taiwanese entrepreneurs, while monitoring is commonly found among Mongolian entrepreneurs.
The career planning plays an important role in little village official’s development. The study uses stata SE12 statistical software based on the sample survey of little village official in China. And it studies the relationships of human capital,social capital and career planning of little village official. It shows that:( i) After the village work,to be civil servant is the preferred way for little village official,and the female and unmarried choosing this are more than others. The probability of taking the civil service exam diminishes with age,but increases with the increasing human capital and social capital.( ii) Working in institution is the second choice of little village official. The female,married and older have greater proportion than the others. The trend is diminishing with increased human capital and social capital.( iii) The male,married,older,or little village officials employed by provincial government or working in the central and western regions of China choosing to be selected as township deputies are more than others.( iv) The married and older would like to remain in office,but this probability diminishes with the increased human capital and social capital.( v) The male,older,or the little village official working in the central region,employed by municipal government and employed by county government would like to start up their own businesses.( vi) Few of them choose their jobs by themselves,continue further education,or choose enterprise work and social work. There are more little village officials graduating from " 985 project" or " 211 project" universities choosing to work in enterprises.
Van Hout, Marie Claire
The Irish Traveller community experiences severe marginalization, poverty, discrimination, and compromised health. Research indicates a distinct lack of structural understanding of Traveller negotiation of conflict within dominant sedentarist societal norms and values. Gender-based focus groups (n = 12) of Travellers (n = 57) were conducted as part of a large scale regional needs analysis for Travellers and substance use in Ireland and analyzed thematically using the social capital framework in terms of Traveller experiences within settled communities, exposure to drugs, and drug using contexts. Discriminatory experiences, low levels of institutional trust, and an influx of drug activity in Traveller communities are contributing to the neutralization of drug taking risk and the development of normative and reciprocal relationships in drug activities. A holistic, inter-governmental approach is needed to address social exclusion factors by reducing marginalization, preserving the Traveller ethnic identity, minimizing racist and discriminatory instances, understanding the Traveller risk environment, and fostering inclusive relationships with settled communities.
Social capital is often operationalised as social participation in the activities of the formal and informal networks of civil society and/or as generalised trust. Social participation and trust are two aspects of social capital that mutually affect each other, according to the literature. In recent years there has been an increased attention to the fact that generalised trust decreases for every new birth cohort that reaches adulthood in the USA, while social participation may take new forms such as ideologically much narrower single-issue movements that do not enhance trust. The phenomenon has been called "the miniaturisation of community". The effects of similar patterns in Sweden on self-reported health and self-reported psychological health are analysed. The odds ratios of bad self-reported global health are highest in the low-social capital category (low-social participation/low trust), but the miniaturisation of community and low-social participation/high-trust categories also have significantly higher odds ratios than the high-social capital category (high-social participation/high trust). The odds ratios of bad self-reported psychological health are significantly higher in both the low-social capital category and the miniaturisation of community category compared to the high-social capital category, while the low-social participation/high-trust category does not differ from the high-social capital reference group.
Full Text Available In post-socialist countries, overqualification is a current and relevant issue, butdespite its importance, this topic is not sufficiently addressed in the literature,especially in the post-communist region. Starting from the theory of professionalreorientation strategies, one can assume that the lack of social capital may be one ofthe causes of overqualification. In this study, I will investigate this hypothesis. Theanalysis of the issue was performed on the database of the “MOZAIK2001”sociological survey. The long period of time that has lapsed since the collection of thedata requires the verification of the assumptions on a much more recent database,namely the Cultural Consumption Barometer 2010. In order to identify the necessaryworkplace educational training, I used the occupation classification method.Overqualification was determined by comparing the educational training acquiredwith the occupation performed. Although the importance of relational resources on thelabour market is discussed in several studies in the field, the research was only partlyable to prove the positive role of social capital in avoiding overqualification.
Requena Santos, Félix
Este artículo señala la multidimensionalidad del concepto de capital social. A pesar de que existen importantes diferencias en el consenso de una definición de capital social, es fundamental buscar indicadores empíricos para su medida. En este trabajo se muestran y se analizan las dimensiones del capital social sobre las que pregunta la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida en el Trabajo que realiza el Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, y se comparan las dimensiones de la definición de capital s...
Full Text Available Social capital is one of the most important assets of any organization and it plays essential role in reaching organizational objectives. In this paper, we present an empirical study to study the effect of social capital on job satisfaction and citizenship behavior. The proposed study is performed among 240 employees who work for Allameh Tabataba’i University in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among selected employees and, using structural equation modeling, investigates the role of social capital on job satisfaction as well as citizenship behavior. The preliminary results of our survey indicate that social capital positively influences on both mentioned variables.
Full Text Available Desde la mitad de los años 1990, una abundante literatura científica se ha desarrollado en torno al concepto de capital social. Existe una pluralidad de perspectivas que declinan esta noción: desde los recursos que un individuo puede movilizar como consecuencia de su pertenencia a un grupo, hasta la reciprocidad, la solidaridad o la confianza entre los miembros de un grupo, pasando por las características institucionales e incluso culturales de una sociedad. En este sentido, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar la originalidad y las carencias de la teoría del capital social de Robert Putnam. Si este autor revela la vinculación empírica de redes y normas, y la influencia tanto del asociacionismo como de la participación cívica en el desarrollo económico y la cohesión social de una sociedad, su teoría se caracteriza por ciertos deslizamientos, la debilidad de su tesis principal, la confusión y circularidad del concepto de capital social, la ambigüedad de su discurso político y su tentación retorica; sin olvidar su uso cuestionable de ciertos indicadores. Putnam intenta responder a estas críticas realizando algunas adecuaciones de su enfoque teórico y, sobre todo, desarrollando una amplia campaña de comunicación para difundir sus ideas y marginar las críticas.
Azeem Fazwan Ahmad Farouk
Full Text Available Proponents of social capital have argued that individuals boundtogether in dense social networks, infused with norms of reciprocity and trust, are better able and more inclined to act collectively for mutual benefit and social purposes as opposed to atomised individuals. This is due to the fact that the existence of social capital enables groups and individuals to deal smoothly and efficiently with various economic and social issues. Social capital is therefore seen as “sociological superglue” that holds society together. The social capital thesis, however, is based on studies done mainly in mature Western democracies where ethnic and racial cleavages do not figure prominently in the social structure. Questions such as what are the necessary requisites for social capital to flourish in a society that is divided along racial, ethnic, and religious lines and what are its repercussions (the existence or absence of social capital have not been adequately addressed. Does the existence of social capital in such society have a moderating effect or will it polarise the society further?There is no doubt that norms of reciprocity and trust exist in all societies but do individuals in a highly polarised society trust other individuals from different ethnic or religious groups? In a modest attempt to address these issues, this article looks at the role of the state in generating social capital across racial, ethnic, and religious lines at the grass-roots level in the northern state of Penang, Malaysia. We argue that the creation of a “semi-autonomous” community organisations or a “state-induced social capital” plays a crucial role in fostering face-to-face interactionamong individuals of different ethnic and religious lines in an otherwise a highly polarised society. This line of argument calls into question the social capital thesis which takes the existence of social capital as a given and cannot be generated by institutional conditions.
Lan, Gui-Lian; Yuan, Zhao-Kang; Clements-Nolle, Kristen D; Cook, Angelie; Yuan, Ling-Ling; Xu, Qun-Ying; Jiang, Hong-Ying; Zheng, Hui-Lie; Wang, Li; Yang, Wei
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 261 people living with HIV (PLWH) in Southeast China. A social capital questionnaire was used to measure social capital dimensions (trust, social connection, and social participation). A Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) was used to assess Quality of Life (QoL); Physical Health Summary Scores (PHS) and Mental Health Summary Scores (MHS) were calculated. Multiple regression assessed whether social capital and its dimensions were associated with PHS and MHS. After controlling for sociodemographics and HIV-related factors, lower PHS scores were found among participants with low overall social capital (P Southeast China, including the promotion of social capital.
Other researches like Richard Rose (2000 concluded that social capital has greater effect on happiness than other variables. He believed that social capital includes social relational networks, friendships and social trust. Social networks provide a great amount of social and mental support. In our research, economic capital has the least effect on happiness among independent variables. Various studies show that money is necessary to happiness but only a certain amount of money. Some researchers believe that by increasing their wealth, people become happier. However, after getting to a certain point, we no longer observe more happiness.
Saeid Jabbarzadeh Kangarlouei
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC, social capital and psychological capital (PC on competitive advantage of vehicle industries in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. Considering the features of today world, increasing competitive advantage is absolute challenge of firms because more emphasis on natural resources and relative advantages may not lead to value creation. In this regard, firms should consider competitive advantage and the factors of its creation. The research method of this study is correlation and population consists of four vehicle companies of Bahman Group, Saypa, Irankhodro and Tractorsazi. SPSS software and Pierson coefficient of correlation and multiple regressions are used to test hypotheses. The results of the study show that there is not a significant relationship between IC and competitive advantage. However, there is positive and weak relationship between social capital and competitive advantage. In addition, our findings show that PC explains 13 percent of competitive advantage.
In an "ideal" democratic society, publicly funded schools serve many purposes. Aside from its educational mandate, schools are places for neighbourhood integration, social capital formation and the fostering of civil society. For newly arrived immigrants, especially those with young children, schools are important sites of settlement experiences.…
Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny
A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)
Garforth, Lisa; Kerr, Anne
Recent discussions about disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity in the social sciences have tended to map and critique methods, theories and approaches to knowledge production, but spend less time exploring the ways in which institutional constraints and personal trajectories produce different kinds of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity. In this paper we present findings on interdisciplinarity from UK research undertaken as part of an EC project on knowledge, gender and institutions. The research involved a small survey (n = 14), in-depth interviews (n = 5), two focus groups (n = 7) and observation of social scientists in one university department between June 2006 and April 2007. We reflect on the unwillingness of social scientists to confront the conditions of our academic labour in an account of our difficulties with gaining access and respondents in this study, before moving on to consider some of the different ways in which interdisciplinarity and disciplinary commitments were related to particular forms of scientific and symbolic capital. We go on to discuss this in relation to the autonomy of academic teaching-and-research staff compared to contract researchers, and consider the implications of our findings for the future of interdisciplinarity and the social sciences.
Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Ito, Katsuhisa; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori
The growing recognition of the social determinants of health has stimulated research on social capital and mental health. We explored new empirical evidence regarding whether social capital was a determinant of psychological distress. Baseline surveys examining psychological distress were conducted in two towns in 2006–2007 (participation rates for those aged 20 or over were 27.6 per cent, 6.1 per cent). We also conducted follow-up surveys in 2008 to capture the social capital measured by trust. By linking these data and excluding the missing data, 141 males and 234 females remained as the subjects of our study. Results showed that the odds ratios of psychological distress was higher in groups with low social capital measured by trust (odds ratio 2.17; 95 per cent CI, 1.40-3.36), than those in groups with high social capital. Further, we examined the interaction effect of social capital and social support. The odds ratios of psychological distress was higher in groups with some social support/lower trust (odds ratio 2.21; 95 per cent CI, 1.36-3.58) or no social support/lower trust (odds ratio 2.07; 95 per cent CI, 1.06–4.05), than those in groups with some social support/higher trust. These findings reinforce the hypothesized discussion regarding pathways from social capital to psychological distress via supportive relationships.
El artículo intenta una aproximación conceptual entre los Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, particularmente entre el llamado Constructivismo Social de Sistemas Tecnológicos y la Teoría del Círculo Crédito-Credibilidad, con algunos desarrollos conceptuales del Capital Social, específicamente las nociones de "Cierre de Relaciones", "Confianza Particularizada/Confianza Generalizada", "Dilema Social" y "Bien Público". Propone un modo de acercamiento de ambos campos de estudio para ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000-02 (response rate 68%. We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records. We used multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models to examine cross-sectionally whether these features were associated with social capital between individuals and work units. Fixed effects models were used for longitudinal analyses in a subsample of 12,108 individuals to examine the effects of changes in workplace characteristics on changes in social capital between 2000 and 2004. RESULTS: After adjustment for individual characteristics, an increase in work unit size reduced the odds of high levels of individual workplace social capital (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.98 per 30-person-year increase. A 20% increase in the proportion of manual and male employees reduced the odds of high levels of social capital by 8% and 23%, respectively. A 30% increase in temporary employees and a 20% increase in employee turnover were associated with 11% (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.17 and 24% (95% confidence interval 1.18-1.30 higher odds of having high levels of social capital respectively. Results from fixed effects models within individuals, adjusted for time-varying covariates, and from social capital of the work units yielded consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that workplace social capital is contextually patterned. Workplace demographic and employment patterns as well as the size of the work unit are important in understanding variations in workplace social capital between individuals and workplaces.
Held, Mary L; Cuellar, Matthew
Objective This study examined the direct and mediating effects of maternal social capital on health and well-being for native- and foreign-born Latina mothers and their children. Methods Data were drawn from the baseline and nine-year follow up waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. The study included a sample of 874 Latina mothers. Mplus7 was used to perform structural equation modeling to determine whether exogenous indicators (age, education, and economic well-being) predicted social capital, whether social capital predicted mother and child well-being, and whether mediating effects helped explain each relationship. Results For native-born Latinas (n = 540), social capital did not predict maternal or child well-being. However, social capital significantly mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal well-being. For foreign-born Latinas (n = 334), social capital was a significant predictor of maternal well-being. Social capital also mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal, but not child well-being. Younger and foreign-born Latinas who report higher educational attainment and economic well-being have greater social capital, and thus better self-reported health. Conclusion Findings suggest that social capital is particularly relevant to the health of foreign-born Latinas. For all Latina mothers, social capital may serve as a protective mitigating factor to better health. Health service providers should evaluate the potential to integrate programs that promote social capital accumulation for Latinas. Further research should examine factors to improve the health of Latinas' children.
Luisa Vega Caro
Full Text Available Estudios previos han mostrado los riesgos de exclusión digital de comunidades rurales y personas mayores y cómo las motivaciones de uso influyen en las prácticas y hábitos de uso de las tecnologías. Con este trabajo queremos analizar cómo las motivaciones, que impulsan a las mujeres adultas de entorno rural a usar las redes sociales, favorecen el desarrollo de su capital social potenciando diferentes formas de participación en la cultura digital. Partiendo de una investigación más amplia sobre 478 mujeres andaluzas de zonas rurales de 18 a 65 años, este trabajo presenta un estudio cualitativo en profundidad de 13 de ellas mediante entrevistas autobiográficas sobre su experiencia en las redes. Los resultados muestran que el uso de las redes sociales descubre oportunidades de participación social vinculadas a diversas inquietudes, revelando las redes sociales como un espacio significativo para promover su participación en la vida cultural y social de sus comunidades.
Santiago Bianca Marques
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.
Afzali, Mansoure; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzeghardeshi, Zeinab
Background: Social capital as a social context based concept is a new component in addition to the previous factors including the biologic–environmental, the genetic and the individual behavior factors that influence health and society. Social capital refers to the information that makes people believe being interesting & being paid attention to, & respected, valued, and belonging to a network of bilateral relations. Health issue is greatly affected by the existence of social capital. High risk behaviors refer to the ones enhancing the probability of negative and devastating physical, psychological and social consequences for an individual. Negative & overwhelming results mean keeping one’s distance from social norms as a result rejection and labeling (social stigma) and finally, to distance oneself from the benefits of social life in the individuals with high risk behaviors. The present study reviews social capital in the groups having high risk behaviors. Methods: The present study is a narrative review in which researchers conducted their computer search in public databases like Google Scholar, and more specifically in Pubmed, Magiran, SID, Springer, Science Direct, and ProQuest using the keywords: social capital, social support, risk behaviors, addicts, HIV, AIDS, and selected the articles related to the study subject from 2004 to 2014. Overall 96 articles have been searched. Researchers reviewed the summary of all articles searched, & ultimately, they applied the data from 20 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Article review results led to organizing the subjects into 6 general categories: Social capital and its role in health; Social capital in groups with high risk behaviors (Including: substance abusers, AIDS patients, the homeless and multi-partner women); Social capital in different social groups; measurement tools for social capital and risk behaviors; the role of health in helping people with risky behaviors with the focus on
Diogo Henrique Helal
Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o papel do capital social na superação da pobreza em áreas urbanas. Diferente de outros estudos que adotam uma perspectiva macro para capital social, este o analisa como algo inerente à esfera das interações entre indivíduos, sendo capaz também de trazer retornos individuais. Capital social é mensurado com base na associação dos indivíduos em diversos tipos de organizações sociais. A hipótese, de que, mesmo controlando-se por variáveis de capital humano e origem socioeconômica, quanto maior o estoque de capital social de um indivíduo maior será sua chance de obter uma renda que lhe permita superar a linha de pobreza, foi testada por meio de um modelo de regressão logística, que estimou o efeito de variáveis (teste e de controle na probabilidade de um indivíduo superar a linha da pobreza. Os dados para este estudo são secundários, oriundos da edição de 2002 da Pesquisa da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (PRMBH/UFMG. Os resultados mostram que ser membro de organizações sociais (redes de relacionamento tem um efeito significativo nas chances de se escapar da pobreza em uma grande região metropolitana do Brasil (Belo Horizonte. A conclusão destaca, neste sentido, a importância dos retornos individuais das redes sociais.
Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper, drawing on Coleman's concept of social capital and Bourdieu's concept of cultural capital, theeffects of different components of family social and cultural capital (i.e. family expectations of student'sacademic aspirations, family involvement in student's academic activities,… on academic achievement ofhigh school students were studied.Using a questionnaire, data were gathered on the academic performance of393 students who were selected (on the basis of cluster sampling from different boys and girls high schoolsin the city of Isfahan in the academic year of 1385-86 (2006-7.Research findings showed that the coefficientof direct effect of capital (which included social and cultural capital on academic achievement was 0.43 andthat its difference from zero was statistically significant. Therefore, the major hypothesis of the study thatfamily social and cultural capitals have a positive influence of academic performance was supported.
Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer
Depression is the most common mental illness worldwide, and although aspects of the social environment, including social capital, have been linked to depression, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we assessed whether (1) network and psychosocial dimensions of individual social capital were each associated with depressive symptoms, and (2) the association varied according to the location of the capital, i.e., outside or inside a person's neighbourhood. The current study used data from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Ageing Study (MoNNET-HA). MoNNET-HA consisted of a representative sample of 2707 adults from 300 census tracts in the Montreal Metropolitan Area. The CESD-10 instrument was used to assess the presence of depressive symptoms with a cut off of more than three symptoms used to indicate depressive symptomatology. Name and position generator instruments were used to assess the existence of a core tie, core tie diversity, and network social capital both inside and outside the neighbourhood. Questions on generalized trust, trust in neighbours, and neighbourhood cohesion were used to assess psychosocial dimensions of social capital inside and outside the neighbourhood. Community and general group participation were also included as structural dimensions of social capital. Analyses adjusted for a range of socio-demographic and economic characteristics. Results from multilevel logistic regressions indicated that the core tie diversity as well as the psychosocial dimensions of generalized trust, trust in neighbours, and perceptions of neighbourhood cohesion reduced the likelihood of depressive symptoms in urban-dwelling adults. Network and psychosocial components of social capital within neighbourhood contexts should be considered when examining social capital and depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available La comunidad, o en un espacio más amplio la propia sociedad, en cualquiera de sus dimensiones, no es un espacio cerrado sin conexiones e interconexiones; más bien puede concebirse como una red de relaciones. En este sentido, desde las Ciencias Sociales ha ido creciendo el interés por el estudio de las redes sociales; esto ha permitido comprender mejor como se construyen y mantienen las relaciones sociales entre la población. Junto al concepto de redes sociales aparece también el de capital social; un recurso creado por los propios individuos que representa un poder a la hora de ocupar espacios sociales, acceder a recursos, cubrir necesidades, resolver problemas sociales, etc. La existencia de redes sociales fuertes favorece los vínculos democráticos, el nexo entre los diversos agentes e instituciones del territorio, la coordinación de las acciones colectivas y, consecuentemente, la construcción de capital social.
Gesthuizen, Maurice; Meer, Tom van der; Scheepers, Peer
To what extent does education affect formal and informal social capital, what is the influence of educational expansion, and welfare state contexts, and to what extent do educational effects on social capital differ under varying educational expansion and welfare state contexts? Multilevel estimates
The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process.......The article seeks to address how industry affiliation affects the way in which social and human capital is used by technology- and knowledge-based entrepreneurs in the internationalisation process....
Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey); Jong, de T
Studies on social capital have produced major evidence for the contention that a firm's social capital has an important implication on organisational performance and innovation (Leana and Van Buren, 1999). More recently, there is research that suggest that there are highly significant links between
Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.; Cooc, North
The effects of social capital on school improvement make it important to understand how teachers forge, maintain, or forfeit collegial relationships. Two common explanations focused on formal organizational features and individual characteristics do not address how social capital accrues from informal dynamics of teachers' interactions in…
Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby
Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…
Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Yeo, Yeong Hun; Manturuk, Kim R.; Despard, Mathieu R.; Holub, Krista A.; Greeson, Johanna K. P.; Quercia, Roberto G.
This study examined the relationship between homeownership and social capital among low- and moderate-income (LMI) households. Using data from the Community Advantage Panel Study, the authors used propensity score weighting and regression analyses to explore the relationship between LMI homeownership, neighborhood conditions, and social capital.…
Rijn, van F.C.
In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration of k
Full Text Available Social capital plays an important role in the profit formation of business entity in the context of the implementation of integrated reporting. The purpose of the research is to examine the problematic aspects of accounting and analytical support of social capital in the context of sustainable development which involves the study of «social capital» and «social networks» concepts, the definition of the functions of social capital in the structure of company’s capital, the disclosure of social capital assessment peculiarities. To achieve the goal of article the author uses the methods of induction, deduction, analogy, comparison, the systematic approach to the assessment of economic phenomena, the historical method, the data grouping method, and the process approach. The accounting tasks in the context of sustainable socio-economic and environmental development are identified. The essence of «social capital» concept, its importance in the formation of an integrated enterprise reporting, and its elements are characterized. The problematic issues of social capital assessment are analyzed and the possible solutions are discussed. The necessity of introduction of new facilities and new accounting approaches to the organization of accounting are proved.
van Emmerik, Hetty; Jawahar, I. M.; Schreurs, Bert; de Cuyper, Nele
Purpose: Drawing on social capital theory and self-identification theory, this study aims to examine the associations of two indicators of social capital, personal networks and deep-level similarity, with team capability measures of team efficacy and team potency. The central focus of the study is to be the hypothesized mediating role of team…
Gamoran, Adam; Lopez Turley, Ruth N.; Turner, Alyn; Fish, Rachel
Following the seminal writing of James Coleman (1988), a number of scholars have suggested that inequality in child and adolescent development reflects differences in social capital among families from different backgrounds (e.g., Sampson, Morenoff, & Earls, 1999; Crosnoe, 2004; Kao, 2004). By "social capital," Coleman referred to…
Saegert, Susan, Ed.; Thompson, J. Phillip, Ed.; Warren, Mark R., Ed.
This collection of papers shows the significant achievements that can be made through collective strategies that empower the poor to become active partners in revitalizing their neighborhoods. The 12 chapters are: (1) "The Role of Social Capital in Combating Poverty" (Mark R. Warren, J. Phillip Thompson, and Susan Saegert); (2) "Social Capital and…
To what extent can different forms of social capital help immigrants make headway on the labour market? An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income an
Liu, Ying Chieh; Li, FengChia
Although research on virtual teams is becoming more popular, there is a gap in the understanding of how social capital affects knowledge sharing and creating, and their impacts on virtual team performance. To fill in this gap, this study establishes a framework by incorporating social capital with the SECI model and further examines it with an…
Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Volker, Beate; Flap, Henk; Subramanian, S. V.; Groenewegen, Peter P.
We examined the influence of both individual and neighbourhood social capital on individual health and analysed whether effects of one type of social capital are contingent upon the other. The Dutch 'Housing and Living Survey' (WoON 2006, n = 53,269) was used and combined with information on neighbo
Carpiano, Richard M.; Kimbro, Rachel T.
Neighborhood social capital--resources inherent within community networks--has been identified as a potential facilitator of personal well-being. We test hypotheses concerning how neighborhood social capital moderates the influence of parenting strain on mastery (individuals' understanding of their ability to control personal life circumstances)…
Zhang, Xiao Ying; DeBlois, Lucie; Deniger, Marc-Andre; Kamanzi, Canisius
Social capital is a term widely used in diverse contexts and in diverse meanings. For the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 1998), social capital is defined as networks with shared norms and values that facilitate cooperation (Cote & Healy, 2001); for Putnam (1995), as networks, norms, and trust that enable members of…
Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Bulsara, Max K.
Both children and adults benefit from living in communities and neighborhoods that are rich in social capital. However, the research literature is relatively silent with respect to the influence that children may play as catalysts for the formation and maintenance of community or family stocks of social capital. This article investigates whether…
Rienties, Bart; Johan, Novie; Jindal-Snape, Divya
Although many international students experience transitional issues, most research assumes these issues will disappear over time. Using principles of social capital theory, this study addressed whether after three years of study students were able to build multi-national and host social capital links. In this quantitative study of 81 students from…
Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby
Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi
Background: The global literature has revealed that cultural orientation, adaptation and social capital may influence HIV-related sexual behaviours among migrants. However, whether cultural orientations influence adaptation and social capital and thereby affect sexual behaviour is not well understood. Method: This study examined whether…
Tonkaboni, Forouzan; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges
The current research is intended to describe and recognize the concept of social capital in higher education based on theoretical method in a descriptive-analytical approach. Description and Recognition of the data, gathered from theoretical and experimental studies, indicated that social capital is one of the most important indices for…
Owen, Stephen S.
This article explores the relationship between the use of corporal punishment in the public schools and the amount of social capital (i.e., residents degree of involvement in community matters) in a state. Existing state-level data regarding social capital and incidents of corporal punishment were utilized. Results show a statistically significant…
Evangelinos, Konstantinos I.; Jones, Nikoleta
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the theory of social capital for the challenges presented during environmental management initiatives in higher education institutions (HEIs). In particular, the paper utilises the fundamental components of social capital theory and assesses a hypothesis that higher stocks of…
Chenoweth, Lesley; Stehlik, Daniela
This paper seeks to ascertain the usefulness of the theory of social capital as a framework for developing and sustaining the inclusion of people with disabilities and families in community life. We discuss the theoretical elements of social capital and assess its relevance when understanding both the experiences of people with disabilities and…
Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena; Falk, Ian
The Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia is investigating the elements of social capital and developing a set of indicators that show when social capital is building. The indicators can be used where groups or organizations with a shared purpose engage in productive interactions that benefit not only the individual member groups…
Kwon, Min-Woo; D'Angelo, Jonathan; McLeod, Douglas M.
This study employs the uses and gratification approach to investigate how different forms of Facebook use are linked to bridging social capital and bonding social capital. A survey of 152 college students was conducted to address research questions and to test hypotheses. Factor analysis identified six unique uses and gratifications: (a)…
Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna
This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…
Koc, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann
This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet cafe use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet cafe usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafes. Social capital, on the other hand, was…
Gooderham, Paul; Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben
The aim of this paper is to extend social capital approaches to knowledge transfer by identifying governance mechanisms that managers can deploy to promote the development of social capital. In order to achieve this objective, insights from the micro-level, knowledge governance approach are combi...
Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen
Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…
Kessels, Joseph W.M.; Poell, Rob F.
The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a
Daniela Meirelles Andrade
Full Text Available No estudo aqui relatado identificaram-se os fatores que levam à formação do capital social familiar em empresas familiares. Para atingir o objetivo proposto, utilizou-se, como aporte teórico, a teoria do capital social e do capital social familiar. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa exploratória, do tipo survey, em 120 empreendimentos familiares. Aplicou-se questionário, sob a forma de entrevista, a todos os empresários. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise fatorial. Os resultados foram apresentados em dois blocos: primeiro, a caracterização da amostra em relação ao perfil do respondente e ao perfil do empreendimento, bem como a apresentação da frequência de cada uma das assertivas; na segunda parte, foi feita a análise fatorial, após a qual foram identificados sete fatores relacionados com a formação do capital social familiar. São eles: diálogo colaborativo, rede familiar, infraestrutura moral, confiança, normas éticas, ideias próprias e canais de informação externos. O capital social familiar é solidificado por meio do diálogo colaborativo, a partir do qual é possível enraizar, na família e na empresa, as normas éticas, originando o que se chama de infraestrutura moral, quando a família e a empresa estão em sintonia interna e externa. Em um sentido contraditório, a ausência do diálogo colaborativo gera autoritarismo por parte dos dirigentes e membros da família, prevalecendo ideias próprias, as quais foram identificadas como fator contraditório à formação do capital social familiar.
Waverijn, Geeke; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Klerk, Mirjam
Differential provision of local services and amenities has been proposed as a mechanism behind the relationship between social capital and health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social capital and collective efficacy are related to the provision of social support services and amenities in Dutch municipalities, against a background of decentralisation of long-term care to municipalities. We used data on neighbourhood social capital, collective efficacy (the extent to which people are willing to work for the common good), and the provision of services and amenities in 2012. We included the services municipalities provide to support informal caregivers (e.g. respite care), individual services and support (e.g. domiciliary help), and general and collective services and amenities (e.g. lending point for wheelchairs). Data for social capital were collected between May 2011 and September 2012. Social capital was measured by focusing on contacts between neighbours. A social capital measure was estimated for 414 municipalities with ecometric measurements. A measure of collective efficacy was constructed based on information about the experienced responsibility for the liveability of the neighbourhood by residents in 2012, average charity collection returns in municipalities in 2012, voter turnout at the municipal elections in 2010 and the percentage of blood donors in 2012. We conducted Poisson regression and negative binomial regression to test our hypotheses. We found no relationship between social capital and the provision of services and amenities in municipalities. We found an interaction effect (coefficient = 3.11, 95% CI = 0.72-5.51, P = 0.011) of social capital and collective efficacy on the provision of support services for informal caregivers in rural municipalities. To gain more insight in the relationship between social capital and health, it will be important to study the relationship between social capital and differential provision of
Corning, Peter A
The accumulating scientific evidence -- across many disciplines -- regarding human evolution and the dualities and complexities of human nature indicates that the core ideological assumptions of both capitalism and socialism are simplistic and ultimately irreconcilable. A biologically grounded approach to social justice enables us to articulate a new ideological paradigm that I call ''Fair Shares.'' This paradigm consists of three complementary normative principles. First, goods and services should be distributed to each according to his or her basic needs. Second, surpluses beyond the provisioning of our basic needs should be distributed according to merit. And, third, each of us is obliged in return to contribute to the ''collective survival enterprise'' in accordance with his or her ability. Though none of these three principles is new, in combination they provide a biologically informed middle way between capitalism and socialism. Some of the many issues that are raised by this formulation are also briefly addressed.
Marjolijn L. Antheunis
Full Text Available The relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital has received substantial scholarly attention over the past decade. This attention has resulted in a large body of empirical work that gives insight into the nature of Facebook as a social networking site and how it influences the social benefits that people gather from having social relationships. Although the extant research provides a solid basis for future research into this area, a number of issues remain underexplored. The aim of the current article is twofold. First, it seeks to synthesize what is already known about the relationship between Facebook use and micro-level social capital. Second, it seeks to advance future research by identifying and analyzing relevant theoretical, analytical and methodological issues. To address the first research aim, we first present an overview and analysis of current research findings on Facebook use and social capital, in which we focus on what we know about (1 the relationship between Facebook use in general and the different subtypes of social capital; (2 the relationships between different types of Facebook interactions and social capital; and (3 the impact of self-esteem on the relationship between Facebook use and social capital. Based on this analysis, we subsequently identify three theoretical issues, two analytical issues and four methodological issues in the extant body of research, and discuss the implications of these issues for Facebook and social capital researchers.
Dufur, Mikaela J.; Parcel, Toby L.; Hoffmann, John P.; Braudt, David B.
A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics. PMID:27594731
Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho
This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.
Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A
This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.
Fisher, William P
Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.
Full Text Available As mulheres ocupam menos de 10% das cadeiras na Câmara dos Deputados no Brasil, contrastando com uma tendência internacional de aumento na representação política feminina. Este artigo considera fatores culturais, particularmente aqueles relacionados à cultura política e ao capital social para tratar dessa questão. A partir da análise dos dados de um survey nacional de 2006, o artigo analisa como o capital social é estruturado por gênero, e discute suas possíveis consequências para a representação política de homens e mulheres. Os resultados indicam que homens e mulheres participam em diferentes tipos de redes associativas: os homens tendem a se organizar em grupos voltados à esfera pública e as mulheres naqueles que lidam com questões práticas do cotidiano familiar e comunitário.Women occupy less than 10% of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and the Brazilian situation contrasts with an international trend of growth in the political representation of women. In dealing with this issue, this article considers cultural factors, in particular those related to the political culture and social capital. Using data from a national survey of 2006, the article analyses how social capital are structured by gender and considers the likely implication of this factor for men and women's political representation. Results indicate that men and women participate in different types of associations. Men tend to organize themselves into social groups more geared towards the public sphere whereas women involve themselves in groups which deal with practical daily issues related to the family and community life.
Antonia de Lourdes Colbari
Full Text Available A construção do artigo ancora-se em uma análise de documentos institucionais produzidos pelo Sebrae, tornando possível efetuar o mapeamento dos conteúdos retóricos que fundamentam a incorporação do empreendedorismo e da cooperação como eixos de atuação da referida instituição. Originalmente referenciados por padrões distintos de interesses e valores, esses fenômenos se articulam na modelagem de um discurso que, simultaneamente, afirma a importância e a legitimidade dos pequenos empreendimentos e das estratégias individuais e coletivas não assalariadas de inclusão produtiva. No delineamento de um quadro explicativo-compreensivo que associa empreendedorismo e cooperação, destaca-se o conceito de capital social, uma referência cada vez mais presente na discussão das políticas públicas de desenvolvimento e de promoção social. Abstract: This article construction has been anchored on an analysis of Sebrae’s institutional documents, which allowed us to carry on a mapping of the rhetorical contents that found entrepreneurship and cooperation incorporation as the institution performance axis. These phenomena have originally been placed by distinct standards of interests and values, and they fit into a discourse mode that, simultaneously, set the importance and legitimacy of small businesses, and also of non-salary individual and collective strategies of productive inclusion. On an explanatory-comprehensible picture design that associates entrepreneurship and cooperation, one can highlight the social capital concept as an ever-greater current reference in the debates on social development and promotion public policies. Resumen: La construcción de este artículo se basa en un análisis de los documentos institucionales producidos por el Sebrae, por lo que es posible llevar a cabo el mapeo del contenido retórico que subyacen a la incorporación de el empreendedorismo y la cooperación como ejes de acción de la
Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development.
Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries.
Nienke M. Moolenaar
Full Text Available In research on educational reform implementation, scholars have highlighted the importance of teacher collaboration in support of increased student achievement. In this study, we examine whether teachers’ knowledge exchange in social networks is related to key elements that have been associated with increased student achievement, namely teacher self-efficacy and commitment. Drawing on social capital theory, we study teachers’ social networks to assess whether greater access to resources, as captured by a more central network position, is related to a greater sense of teacher efficacy and commitment. We collected survey and social network data from eight elementary schools in the Netherlands (N=114, which were then analyzed using social network analysis and correlational analysis. Results suggest positive relationships between teachers’ social network indicators, teacher self-efficacy, and commitment to the organization and to students. Our findings yield directions for more relationally oriented educational policy instruments.
Recent research studies have proposed the concept of social capital-broadly defined as social networks, community cohesion, and participation-as a social risk factor for health disparities and the high rates of schizophrenia among individuals of Caribbean heritage in England. However, many of the existing studies lack sociohistorical contexts and do not capture the experiential dimensions of individuals' social capital. This paper adds to the debate by examining the mechanisms and sociocultural processes that shape the understandings and experiences of social capital in a sample of British African-Caribbeans. Drawing on ethnographic and survey data collected over 2 years in a North London community, the paper focuses on participants' every day experiences and the stories they tell about their community and social fragmentation. These stories suggest that social changes and historical forces interact to affect the social capital and emotional well-being of local African-Caribbean residents. I argue that my participants' collective narratives about their social environment contribute to the emotional tone of the community, and create added stressors that may impact their mental health.
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as distorções teóricas que surgem quando se examina o processo e construção democrática no Brasil unicamente por meio do enfoque institucional. Esta abordagem não consegue explicar a ambigüidade entre o surgimento de uma economia de mercado e uma sociedade passiva e desconfiada dos representantes eleitos e das instituições políticas. Tal situação produz condições adversas para o fortalecimento democrático e a institucionalização de uma cultura política participativa. Nesse contexto, é possível desenvolver a capacitação política dos cidadãos via capital social como dispositivo alternativo de cidadania? Os resultados aqui apresentados não são muito alentadores a esse respeito.In this article we analyse the theoretical distortions that emerge when the Brazilian democratic construction process is analyzed utilizing exclusively the institutional approach. This approach does not explain the ambiguities between the emergence of a market economy and a passive and distrustful society of their elected officials and political institutions. In that context, adverse political conditions are produced that do not contribute for the democratic strengthening and the institutionalization of a participative political culture. The question to answer is: is it possible to develop political capacity of citizens through social capital as an alternative mechanism of citizenship? The results of the data examined in this paper are not too convincing.
Social capital has been seen as having a positive effect on health, and the concept of social capital has been viewed as of central importance to debates about healthy, sustainable communities. More generally, behaviour and its relationship with health has become much more central to policy-making, as illustrated in the Choosing Health White Paper (2005), and the concept of social capital has been one influence on the concept of social exclusion. Robert Putnam's arguments, both those expressed in Making Democracy Work (1993) and the revised version seen in Bowling Alone (2000) have been taken up by numerous social scientists and policy-makers. But despite the explicitly historical perspective that Putnam employs in Bowling Alone in particular, the history of social capital remains rather neglected in the available literature. This article is concerned with providing a historical perspective on social capital, especially the ways in which social investigators have viewed the relationships between health, poverty and behaviour. The article puts social capital alongside that of 'underclass' concepts such as the culture of poverty thesis, and examines how the latter has been invented and reinvented in the U.K. and the U.S.A. over the last 120 years. It argues that there are important similarities between the culture of poverty and social capital, but also significant differences, and these have implications for current policy initiatives. One way of analysing concepts like social capital and social exclusion more rigorously is by locating them within this longer-term history of social investigation, in which debates about health, poverty, and culture have been of
Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J
This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness.
Full Text Available Health-protective behaviors, such as receiving a vaccine, wearing a face mask, and washing hands frequently, can reduce the risk of contracting influenza. However, little is known about how social capital may influence health-protective behavior in the general population. This study examined whether each of the social capital dimensions (bonding, bridging, and linking contributed to the intention to adopt any of the health-protective behaviors in an influenza pandemic. The data of this study were from the 2014 Taiwan Social Change Survey. A stratified, three-stage probability proportional-to-size sampling from across the nation, was conducted to select adults aged 20 years and older (N = 1,745. Bonding social capital was measured by the frequency of neighborly contact and support. Bridging social capital was measured based on association membership. Linking social capital was measured according to general government trust and trust in the government's capacity to counter an influenza pandemic. Binary logistic regressions were used to assess the multivariate associations between social capital and behavioral intention. The study results indicate that social capital may influence the response to influenza pandemic. Specifically, the intention to receive a vaccine and to wash hands more frequently were associated with the linking dimension and the bonding dimension of social capital, while the intention to wear a face mask was associated with all forms of social capital. The findings of this study suggest that government credibility and interpersonal networks may play a crucial role in health-protective behavior. This study provides new insights into how to improve the effectiveness of influenza prevention campaigns.
State and social capital in Latin America: In which way the features and actions of the State explain the social capital levels in Latin America? Estado y capital social en América Latina: ¿En qué medida las características y comportamientos del estado explican los niveles de capital social en la región?
María Cecilia GÜEMES
Full Text Available By focusing on the importance of social capital to development, this paper examines the role of the State and Public Policy in the creation of social capital. After a brief summary about social capital definitions, weakness and usefulness, its relevance to development and its problematic creation, the paper pays specific attention to the role of the State as a promoter of social capital. Second we bear out the empiric links between State performance and social capital in Latin America. Then, we use state’s efficacy indicators, variables traditionally associated with welfare stat (especially public spending and inequality and interpersonal trust. We finish by pointing the previous findings and shedding light in order to continue the research about social capital reproduction.El presente trabajo se propone indagar en qué medida el Estado y las políticas públicas son capaces de potenciar la creación del capital social. Tras reseñar la importancia del capital social para el desarrollo, los debates en torno a su definición, sus debilidades y sus promesas, la primera parte de este artículo se centra en su problemática reproducción, prestando especial atención al papel del Estado y las políticas públicas como catalizadores o promotores del mismo. En vista a ello, la segunda parte del trabajo propone una modesta aproximación empírica a la correlación entre Estado y capital social en el contexto de América Latina. Se utilizan al efecto indicadores de desempeño/eficacia estatal, otros asociados al bienestar social (principalmente gasto público y desigualdad y percepciones ciudadanas en referencia a la confianza interpersonal. Se concluye retomando los resultados del abordaje empírico y proponiendo futuras líneas de problematización en la materia.
Gutiérrez, Nicolás L; Hilborn, Ray; Defeo, Omar
One billion people depend on seafood as their primary source of protein and 25% of the world's total animal protein comes from fisheries. Yet a third of fish stocks worldwide are overexploited or depleted. Using individual case studies, many have argued that community-based co-management should prevent the tragedy of the commons because cooperative management by fishers, managers and scientists often results in sustainable fisheries. However, general and multidisciplinary evaluations of co-management regimes and the conditions for social, economic and ecological success within such regimes are lacking. Here we examine 130 co-managed fisheries in a wide range of countries with different degrees of development, ecosystems, fishing sectors and type of resources. We identified strong leadership as the most important attribute contributing to success, followed by individual or community quotas, social cohesion and protected areas. Less important conditions included enforcement mechanisms, long-term management policies and life history of the resources. Fisheries were most successful when at least eight co-management attributes were present, showing a strong positive relationship between the number of these attributes and success, owing to redundancy in management regulations. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of prominent community leaders and robust social capital, combined with clear incentives through catch shares and conservation benefits derived from protected areas, for successfully managing aquatic resources and securing the livelihoods of communities depending on them. Our study offers hope that co-management, the only realistic solution for the majority of the world's fisheries, can solve many of the problems facing global fisheries.
This paper examines the idea, commonly expressed in the Library and Information Services (LIS) literature, that public libraries have a growing role as developers of social capital, and brings to bear some of the growing body of research into public libraries and social capital. It reviews definitions of social capital by writers outside the LIS…
This paper explores the resources and support that parents in the UK are able to access through their social networks, and analyses how these networks are organized and sustained. Concern over a perceived demise in community relations and trust have driven many recent UK family policy initiatives and have underpinned proposals to increase parenting support services. However drawing on data from the project "Resources in Parenting: Access to Capitals" it will be suggested that parents remain t...
Newday's in addition to different human, financial and economical capital, there is another capital called" Social capital" which is used .this concept points to the connections and relationships between the members of a network as a valuable capital which aims at a achieving the members purpose through the creation of norms and mutual reliance social, is viewed as a suitable context for reaching success and profiting from human and physical capital. Managers and those who contestability soci...
Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J
Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times.
Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.
En los últimos años se ha producido un cierto resurgir de los movimientos sociales en Madrid, muy por debajo todavía del nivel que requieren los problemas que van surgiendo en nuestra sociedad. Es lo que gráficamente plasmaba una pancarta en una de las movilizaciones contra los parquímetros, la cual rezaba «gracias Gallardón por habernos despertado».
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the association between individual-level social capital and physical activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In February 2009, data were collected in a population-based cross-sectional survey in Okayama city, Japan. A cluster-sampling approach was used to randomly select 4,000 residents from 20 school districts. A total of 2260 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57.4%. Individual-level social capital was assessed by an item inquiring about perceived trust of others in the community (cognitive dimension of social capital categorized as low trust (43.0%, mid trust (38.6%, and high trust (17.3%, as well as participation in voluntary groups (structural dimension of social capital, which further distinguished between bonding (8.9% and bridging (27.1% social capital. Using logistic regression, we calculated the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for physical inactivity associated with each domain of social capital. Multiple imputation method was employed for missing data. Among total participants, 68.8% were physically active and 28.9% were inactive. Higher trust was associated with a significantly lower odds of physical inactivity (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.42-0.79 compared with low trust. Both bridging and bonding social capital were marginally significantly associated with lower odds of physical inactivity (bridging, OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.62-1.00; bonding, OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.48-1.03 compared with lack of structural social capital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low individual-level social capital, especially lower trust of others in the community, was associated with physical inactivity among Japanese adults.
Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms.
Contreras, Humberto Silvano Herrera
O objetivo desta dissertação é estudar, a necessidade, as possibilidades e os limites de uma Educação Popular para além do Capital Social como um movimento para a desreificação humana frente a uma forma de educar as pessoas para se adequarem às instituições sociais do capitalismo. A atualidade do objeto de estudo da pesquisa, Educação Popular e Capital Social, é tão concreta por estas apresentarem-se na conjuntura atual como processos de formação humana, que ao mesmo tempo que contraditórios ...
Full Text Available La orientación emprendedora ha sido uno de los aspectos que mayor interés ha suscitado en los últimos años en el campo del entrepreneurship. La revisión de la literatura nos permite señalar la necesidad de abordar la ambigüedad y la complejidad de la relación entre la orientación emprendedora y los resultados empresariales. En este trabajo planteamos esta relación desde un enfoque configuracional, abordando la coherencia de factores relacionales —capital social— y organizativos —capacidades tecnológicas y de marketing— con la orientación emprendedora. El objetivo del trabajo consiste en desarrollar un modelo configuracional que explique el efecto moderador conjunto del capital social y las capacidades empresariales sobre la efectividad de la orientación emprendedora. Se establecen 3 modelos teóricos —universal, contingente y configuracional— que se definen mediante proposiciones teóricas. Exploramos y ejemplificamos empíricamente las relaciones establecidas mediante un estudio de casos de empresas agroalimentarias españolas. Finalmente, extraemos diversas conclusiones a partir de los modelos planteados y proponemos futuras líneas de investigación.
strongly and robustly associated with happiness. Moreover, the effect of investing in social capital is remarkably strong compared to the alternatives. I conclude that the populations in a few Northern European countries are probably the happiest in the world because of their high levels of social capital......I examine why the populations of certain countries are so much more satisfied with their lives than the rest of the world. In cross-country analyses, income per capita, economic uncertainty and expectations for the future are robust predictors of happiness while a social capital measure emerges...
Carmeli, Abraham; Ben-Hador, Batia; Waldman, David A; Rupp, Deborah E
This study examined how leader relational behaviors (i.e., relational leadership) cultivate bonding social capital among organizational members and the way bonding social capital augments feelings of vigor at work. In addition, the authors examined how vigor enhances employee job performance. Using a sample of 209 participants in Israeli community centers, the results of structural equation modeling indicate a 2-stage mediation model in which leader relational behaviors are positively related to bonding social capital; this, in turn, results in feelings of vigor, which are positively associated with manager ratings of employee job performance.
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.
Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández
Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391
Sally H. Rankin
Full Text Available With one of the highest rates of poverty and HIV in the world, Malawi faith-based organizations (FBOs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, and community-based organizations (CBOs are expected to provide tangible and emotional support to people living with HIV (PLWH. Using Lin’s social capital theoretical approach, we examine the perspective of PLWH regarding the adequacy of support responses. Forty-six rural Malawi HIV+ adults provided interviews that were recorded digitally, translated, and transcribed by Malawi research assistants. Atlas.ti was used to organize the data and to aid in the analytic process. Participants expressed disappointment in the lack of resources that could be accessed through the FBOs although their expectations may have been unrealistic. Outcomes from accessing and mobilizing the FBO network were negative in terms of stigmatization by FBO leaders and members, whereas outcomes related to CBOs and NGOs were generally positive in terms of empowerment through HIV information and attendance at support groups.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between family and social development in Serbia and Macedonia at the time of post-socialist transformation, stressing the ambivalence between risk and capital. The theoretical starting point is provided, first, by the theory of structuration by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu and an analysis of traditional and modern patriarchate by feminists author Carol Patmen. The paper d eals with three issues: 1. the role of extended families; 2. retraditionalisation of the woman’s role in the family; and 3. violence against women as a health risk: the risks of birth control and symbolic risks (of strengthening traditional authority and marital power of men. The study relied on the following data sources: 1. statistical data for Serbia and Macedonia; 2. research findings by Vera Ehrlich, “Family in the Transformation - the Study of Three Hundred Yugoslav Villages”; 3. findings from two sample investigations: a the study by the Institute for Sociological Research of the Faculty of Philosophy on a representative sample, b the study of the position of rural women on the sample of 580 rural families under observation in six districts of the central Serbia (Zlatiborski, Šumadijski, Rasinski, the City of Belgrade, Nišavski and Borski. Special attention will be paid to the regions of Macedonia along the border with Serbia - Pološki, Skopje and the Northeastern.
Full Text Available El artículo intenta una aproximación conceptual entre los Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, particularmente entre el llamado Constructivismo Social de Sistemas Tecnológicos y la Teoría del Círculo Crédito-Credibilidad, con algunos desarrollos conceptuales del Capital Social, específicamente las nociones de "Cierre de Relaciones", "Confianza Particularizada/Confianza Generalizada", "Dilema Social" y "Bien Público". Propone un modo de acercamiento de ambos campos de estudio para diseñar una estrategia teórico metodológica para el análisis y promoción de redes tecnocientíficas y tecnoeconómicas.
Maria José de Rezende
Full Text Available A obra Os sertões tem sido amplamente discutida em vários campos de interpretação do Brasil, ou seja, na literatura, na sociologia, na antropologia e na história. Este artigo visa demonstrar que o modo de caracterização da existência social do sertanejo fez deste trabalho de Euclides da Cunha um marco na formação das ciências sociais no país. Ao buscar compreender, a partir do evolucionismo spenceriano, os (descaminhos da mudança social no país o autor contribuiu com a fundação dos primeiros pilares de uma reflexão acerca das singularidades socioculturais brasileiras.Os sertões has been amply discussed in various fields of interpretation in Brazil, be it in literature, sociology, anthropology or history. This article aims to demonstrate that the means of characterization of the social existence of the peasant from the arid countryside has turned this work of Euclides da Cunha's into a landmark in the formation of the social sciences in Brazil. Based on Spencerian evolutionism, the author analyzes the (misdirection of social change in the country, as a means to contribute towards the reflection on Brazilian socio-cultural singularities.
This study examines the role of human and social capital in the economic performance of immigrants. It improves upon previous research in several ways. First, it distinguishes between human capital acquired in the country of origin and destination. Second, it focuses not only on immigrants’ contacts
Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and are unemployed less often. Some researchers believe that education improves a worker's productivity (or "human capital"), making them more desirable on the job market, while others believe that it improves a worker's network (or "social capital"), giving them more…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of social capital in the urban development in Sardasht. The sample was chosen among young people aged over 18 in Sardasht and for this purpose, 375 participants were selected using the number of statistical population and Morgan table. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data. To determine the validity of the questionnaires, opinions of 7 teachers and experts in urban planning were used and cronbach’s alpha was used to assess the reliability of variables. To analyze the data, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between social capital and urban development. The findings suggested that there is a significant and positive relationship between the dimensions of social capital (social trust, social participation, social cohesion, social knowledge, piety and urban development in Sardasht.
Flores, David V.; Torres, Luis R.; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Ren, Yi; Haider, Ali; Bordnick, Patrick S.
This article describes social capital in a cohort of 227 Mexican American men who are long-term injection heroin users. Social capital scores for current and former users were similar, suggesting equal absolute values of capital, but associated with illicit activities in current users and with cessation efforts in former users. Stable drug-using relationships provided high negative capital, whereas conventional relationships provided positive capital. Thus, social capital functions dichotomously in positive and negative contextualized roles. This study provides an alternative understanding of the dynamic interactions between individuals, environment, and drug abuse and can inform prevention and treatment interventions for an important demographic group. PMID:23768430
Cesar Marcelo BAQUERO JACOME
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between political culture and social capital in Brazil. It emphasizes the importance of constructing a political system founded in the interpersonal or reciprocal trust, as well as the confidence in the political institutions. After examining the main controversies about the definition of social capital, this article defends the idea of reterritorializing this concept, giving a strategic value insofar as the instrumental dimension is concerned, which is, the empowerment of the citizens so as to help to construct and institutionalize a participant political culture. After examining surveys carried out in Porto Alegre, Brazil, the main conclusion is that the levels of social capital in this city, and probably extensive to the country, are very low compromising, in the short run, the possibility of gerating a critical and participative citizenship.El presente artículo examina la relación entre cultura política y capital social en Brasil. Se enfatiza la importancia de construir un sistema político fundamentado en la confianza recíproca o interpersonal así como la confianza con relación a las instituciones políticas. Después de examinar las controversias sobre la conceptualización de capital social, este trabajo defiende la idea de la reterritorialización de ese concepto, valorizando su dimensión instrumental, es decir, el empoderamiento de los ciudadanos objetivando el desarrollo e institucionalización de una cultura política participativa. Tras desarrollar un análisis de encuestas llevadas a cabo en Porto Alegre, Brasil, se llega a la conclusión de que los niveles de capital social en el país son muy bajos comprometiendo, a corto plazo la posibilidad de generar una ciudadanía crítica y participativa.
Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro
Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan.
Hindhede, Anette Lykke
This paper addresses the use of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood renewal programmes which aim to influence social and health-related processes. Based on a social network analysis of 17 groups comprising 133 members, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participants...... to consider the kinds of patterns and connections that build up in a neighbourhood renewal project in a small, deprived neighbourhood of a provincial town in Denmark. Results show that outcomes of community participation depend on the kind of social capital generated and on who is excluded from...... participation and volunteering, could have the unintended consequence of increasing social and health inequalities rather than reducing them....
Full Text Available A teoria do capital social enfatiza a confiança interpessoal como um facilitador da cooperação entre os indivíduos, crucial para a formação de organizações autônomas da sociedade civil e para o engajamento dos cidadãos em questões de interesse público. Em que pese a centralidade da confiança para o conceito de capital social, pesquisas empíricas recentes têm demonstrado que o seu efeito sobre a participação cívica é, na melhor das hipóteses, fraco. Este artigo propõe um modelo empírico interativo, onde o efeito da confiança interpessoal é condicionado por elementos motivacionais da participação (expectativas de benefícios e percepções de custos. Usando dados do British Election Study (BES de 2005, um survey conduzido no Reino Unido, testo o efeito condicional da confiança sobre a disposição dos indivíduos a se engajarem em diferentes tipos de ações coletivas. Os resultados apontam que o efeito condicional da confiança varia não apenas de acordo com variáveis motivacionais, mas, também, com o tipo de engajamento em questão.
Phongsavan, Philayrath; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick
High levels of social capital may be associated with positive mental health in adults. However, quantifying the various dimensions of social capital has presented a challenge due in part to the diverse definitions and measures used. Data from a representative, population-wide survey of Australian adults aged 16 years and older were used to investigate the links between dimensions of social capital and mental health morbidity. Social capital comprised three constructs and was measured at the individual level: feelings of trust and safety, community participation and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity. Mental health was measured by the 10-item Kessler (K10) instrument and assessed symptoms of psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) over the previous month. Community participation showed a weak, and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity a moderate association with distress. Having higher levels of trust and feeling safe were consistently associated with low levels of psychological distress, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that having trust in people, feeling safe in the community and having social reciprocity are associated with lower risk of mental health distress. The implications for conceptualising and measuring the individual and collective (contextual) dimensions of social capital are discussed. The findings also suggest the importance of examining the interrelationships between socio-economic status, social capital and mental health for community-dwelling adults.
Marco Alberto Núñez-Ramírez
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the social capital of intercultural nursing students. We made a quantitative, exploratory and transverse study with a non-experimental design. A sample was taken composed of 55 intercultural nursing students of the Intercultural University of the State of Tabasco at Oxolotán, during the months of November and December 2014. A questionnaire for measuring social capital for indigenous peoples was administered. We found high levels of social capital; however, there were not significant differences according the State of provenance and the pertinence to a native group using student’s t distribution. Also we noted the need for the mediator intervention of the University to employ social capital as a strategic element to promote community development and ensure an inclusive access to public health through empowered nursing professionals who are subject of action for common good.
Gyan, Sylvia Esther; Ahorlu, Collins; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S; Fayorsey, Clara K
This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy. In addition, resilient girls tended to rely on multiple sources of social capital. It is recommended that stakeholders and policymakers in Ghana ensure that these significant sources of social capital in adolescent girls' sexual experience are equipped with the right information to help girls decrease the risk of teenage pregnancy.
Idrovo, Alvaro J; Camacho-Avila, Anabel; García-Rivas, Javier; Juárez-García, Arturo
Most studies on social capital and health are carried out with large home-based surveys, neglecting that many interactions among individuals occur in the workplace. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of a scale in Spanish used to measure social capital at work. The scale designed by Kouvonen et al was translated into Spanish and tested under classical test theory, item response theory, and confirmatory factorial analysis; 152 public health workers from different socio-cultural contexts participated in the survey. Internal consistency was high (Chronbach's alpha = 0.88). Social capital at work correlated properly with two Job Content Questionnaire dimensions. A ceiling effect was detected and item difficulty was quantified. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected theoretical components of social capital: bonding, bridging and trust. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties, thus it can be used in future studies.
Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels
A study of three slaughterhouses with below average absenteism, labour turnover and strikes. The results seem to indicate that the explanation for the positive results can be found in the development of social capital based on trust, respect, and recognition....
Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.
Fetter, Sibren; Berlanga, Adriana; Sloep, Peter
Fetter, S., Berlanga, A. J., & Sloep, P. B. (2010). Fostering Social Capital in a Learning Network: Laying the Groundwork for a Peer-Support Service. International Journal of Learning Technology, 5(4), 388-400.
Full Text Available Nowadays the concept of social capital is one of the most popular concepts in sociological studies. Some experts believe that social capital is among the most important factors with a significant part in individuals’ success in achieving their goals. So, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes. For this purpose, the theoretical framework and hypotheses of the research are set based on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory. The statistical population of the research includes 2300 athletes in the 2014 Sports Championship held at Shahid Beheshti University; 310 persons were selected by means of Morgan’s table and the stratified sampling method. The survey method and questionnaires were employed to collect the data. The findings of the research indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes.
Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious-ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Este artigo descreve um projeto de pesquisa que explorou a relevância da definição de Putnam (1993 de capital social (como algo que consiste de redes sociais, normas de confiança, reciprocidade, engajamento cívico e participação em comunidades com crianças e jovens de áreas socialmente desfavorecidas. O artigo também apresenta dados de um estudo sociológico empírico que buscou explorar o significado e a relevância de diferentes aspectos do "capital social" para jovens de 12 a 15 anos que vivem em duas áreas carentes de uma cidade no sudeste da Inglaterra. Baseia-se em descrições que os jovens fazem de seu dia-a-dia e concentra-se em quatro elementos: relatos sobre os pais e a centralidade das mães, diferenças de gênero em relatos sobre o significado e a natureza da amizade, diferenças de gênero em experiências de espaços do bairro e recursos locais e diferenças de gênero nas aspirações dos jovens para o futuro.This paper describes a research project that explored the relevance of Putnam's (1993 definition of social capital (as consisting of social networks, norms of trust, reciprocity, civic engagement and participation in communities with children and young people in disadvantaged areas. Also, the paper presents data from an empirical sociological study that attempted to explore the meaning and relevance of different aspects of "social capital" for 12-15 year olds living in two deprived areas of a town in SE England. It is based on young people's descriptions of their everyday lives, and focuses on four elements: accounts of parents and the centrality of mothers; gender differences in accounts of the meaning and nature of friendship; gender differences in experiences of neighbourhood spaces and local facilities; and gender differences in young people's aspirations for the future.
Agneessens, Filip; Wittek, Rafael
Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective, adv
Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social capital assessed in early adulthood in linking self-control in childhood with psychological and social functioning in middle age. Data collected at ages 8, 27, and 42 years were based on the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (159 females, 177 males).…
Hottell, Derek L.; Martinez-Aleman, Ana M.; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.
We know that social-networking sites, especially Facebook, offer all students the means to accumulate social capital through connection strategies. Developing social and academic connections through Facebook is particularly important for first-generation college students (FGCS), who may find participating in traditional engagement activities and…
Social capital refers to the attributes and qualities of family, social and community networks that facilitate cooperation between individuals and communities. The quality of these networks and the extent to which individuals are engaged with them are believed to have an impact on the educational and social development of children and young…
Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Simoni, Jane M.; Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David T.
Objective: We examined whether individual-level social capital--the intangible resources in a community available through membership in social networks or other social structures and perceived trust in the community--was associated with acculturation, depression and anxiety symptoms, and perceived access to services among women of Mexican…
Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios
The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital
Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Ulla;
To analyze the impact of social capital measures (bonding, bridging, and linking) on all-cause mortality at 8-year follow-up among older people aged 75 and 80 at baseline.......To analyze the impact of social capital measures (bonding, bridging, and linking) on all-cause mortality at 8-year follow-up among older people aged 75 and 80 at baseline....
The objective of this essay is to demonstrate bonds between the literature which deals with business ethics and the one that deals with social capital, beginning with Sánchez Vázquez’s focus on moral and ethics, in order to contribute with the perception of political, institutional, corporate and community processes, turned to the broadening of the sense of citizenship. In addition, it intends to point out the borderline of such bonds, concluding that the social capital, generated in the proc...
Western theoretical traditions can benefit from systematic engagement with non-Western concepts: This is shown through an analysis of the Chinese concept guanxi. After considering the general nature of guanxi, including its possible association with corrupt practices and its particular cultural characteristics, the paper goes on to identify the elements of its general form which have universal representation. The possibility of conceiving guanxi as a variant form of social capital is explored. This shows the way in which both the expressive and instrumentalized forms of guanxi indicate otherwise neglected aspects of social and economic relationships not always recognized and addressed by analogous terms current in social theory but which are none the less important for its advancement.
Mothering and methadone can occur together with the right resources and support. Methadone mothers need to be seen in the context of their social risks and environment. Societal attitudes, social capital, and other contextual variables can be changed through policy. The purpose of this article is to describe the contextual risks experienced by drug abusing mothers in order to direct further research and policy changes that protect their children. Research has focused on biological or genetic determinants, but now social risks and environmental factors are shaping current literature about substance abuse in pregnancy. Significant risk factors, taken from the literature, are detailed, such as intimate partner violence and mental health co-morbidities. Racial differences and the effect of place on pregnant substance abusers are also discussed. Policy recommendations address the barriers substance abusing women face in their journey toward a healthy pregnancy.
Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter
During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…
Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo
Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Putnam, 2007) that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed...... and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic...... diversity tend to have lower levels of social trust, fewer memberships in social organizations, deteriorated social norms and structure, hence, lower overall social capital stock....
In this dissertation I employ an ecological framework to understand the co-occurring influence of the individual, family, and community on child and maternal well-being. Specifically, I investigate the relationship of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital as it applies to child behavior problems, child academic skills, and maternal depression, while also accounting for individual and family characteristics. In all three studies, I analyze data from the Los Angles Family...
The aim of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between indicators of different components of social capital at the individual, household, and area levels and self-esteem while adjusting for various confounders at multiple levels. Respondents participating in Wave 1 (2009) and 2 (2010) of the Seoul Welfare Panel Study were used in the analysis. The final sample for the current study includes a total of 5127 participants in 2738 households within 25 administrative areas. This study shows that only a small amount of variance in self-esteem was attributed to the area level (7.6%). On the other hand, a relatively large amount of variance in self-esteem was attributed to the household level (52.5%). It has also shown that all individual-level social capital indicators including perceived helpfulness, organizational participation, and volunteer work were positively associated with self-esteem. Among household-level indicators of social capital, only organizational participation was associated with self-esteem. However, none of the area-level social capital indicators were associated with self-esteem. The main finding of the current study suggested that the association between social capital and self-esteem varied depending on both dimensions and levels of social capital indicators.
Mohamad Taghi Toghraee
Full Text Available Marketing and specially, market orientation known as a main agent of business performance. As the lack of market orientation and skills in small businesses often results in lower performance and higher risks of failure. strong social capital plays a vital role in quick access and convenient scheduling to a variety of information. Secure Communication prepares access to numerous resources, and promote information receiving and improve people’s comprehension about their knowledge in a certain range. Social capital facilitates give rise to access to information, (information received from reliable people, who generally are accurate, relevant and reliable that is one of key components of entrepreneurial opportunities. So far, it hasn't been done any research on social capital and entrepreneurial marketing. Research Innovation is conjoined study of entrepreneurial marketing and social capital using concept mapping method. Conceptual mapping tools are used to organize and present the knowledge. The results illustrate the critical position of social capital and Dimensions in entrepreneurial marketing activities. The results showed that social capital plays a big role in the seven elements of entrepreneurial marketing (innovation, informal, opportunity-oriented, experience, customization, flexibility and networking,. This role is more evident in the innovation and non-formal elements.
Tatyana B. Ruseva
Full Text Available As an important component in collaborative natural resource management and nonprofit governance, social capital is expected to be related to variations in the performance of land trusts. Land trusts are charitable organizations that work to conserve private land locally, regionally, or nationally. The purpose of this paper is to identify the level of structural and cognitive social capital among local land trusts, and how these two types of social capital relate to the perceived success of land trusts. The analysis integrates data for land trusts operating in the U.S. south-central Appalachian region, which includes western North Carolina, southwest Virginia, and east Tennessee. We use factor analysis to elicit different dimensions of cognitive social capital, including cooperation among board members, shared values, common norms, and communication effectiveness. Measures of structural social capital include the size and diversity of organizational networks of both land trusts and their board members. Finally, a hierarchical linear regression model is employed to estimate how cognitive and structural social capital measures, along with other organizational and individual-level attributes, relate to perceptions of land trust success, defined here as achievement of the land trusts' mission, conservation, and financial goals. Results show that the diversity of organizational partnerships, cooperation, and shared values among land trust board members are associated with higher levels of perceived success. Organizational capacity, land trust accreditation, volunteerism, and financial support are also important factors influencing perceptions of success among local, nonprofit land trusts.
Story, William T
This study examines the association between social capital and the utilization of antenatal care, professional delivery care, and childhood immunizations using a multilevel analytic sample of 10,739 women who recently gave birth and 7403 children between one and five years of age in 2293 communities and 22 state-groups from the 2005 India Human Development Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and validate six social capital measures that were used in multilevel logistic regression models to examine whether each form of social capital had an independent, contextual effect on health care use. Results revealed that social capital operated at the community level in association with all three care-seeking behaviors; however, the results differed based on the type of health care utilized. Specifically, components of social capital that led to heterogeneous bridging ties were positively associated with all three types of health care use, whereas components of social capital that led to strong bonding ties were negatively associated with the use of preventive care, but positively associated with professional delivery care.
Marketing and specially, market orientation known as a main agent of business performance. As the lack of market orientation and skills in small businesses often results in lower performance and higher risks of failure. strong social capital plays a vital role in quick access and convenient scheduling to a variety of information. Secure Communication prepares access to numerous resources, and promote information receiving and improve people’s comprehension about their knowledge in a certain range. Social capital facilitates give rise to access to information, (information received from reliable people, who generally are accurate, relevant and reliable that is one of key components of entrepreneurial opportunities. So far, it hasn't been done any research on social capital and entrepreneurial marketing. Research Innovation is conjoined study of entrepreneurial marketing and social capital using concept mapping method. Conceptual mapping tools are used to organize and present the knowledge. The results illustrate the critical position of social capital and Dimensions in entrepreneurial marketing activities. The results showed that social capital plays a big role in the seven elements of entrepreneurial marketing (innovation, informal, opportunity-oriented, experience, customization, flexibility and networking,. This role is more evident in the innovation and non-formal elements.
Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo
This article analyses the marketing activities of three Danish architectural firms in Germany during the 1990s from a perspective that is new to project marketing, in that the Bourdivan concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the offerings and activities of firms. In architecture......, cultural capital accumulation entails such things as building visible buildings, winning design competitions, or obtaining important tenders, whereas social capital is accumulated through the recognition by other construction industry actors that one is a member of their circles. The cases presented...... are best viewed as distinct project marketing milieus....
Lee, Seungyoon; Chung, Jae Eun; Park, Namkee
Previous studies have demonstrated the role of social networks, social capital, and social support in individuals' well-being. However, the ways in which these related constructs simultaneously influence one's well-being outcomes and relate to one another have not been closely examined. This study pays particular attention to the structural characteristics of personal networks, distinction between offline and online social capital, and different indicators of well-being outcomes. Based on survey data collected from 574 college students, the study found that two dimensions of personal networks-density and gender homophily-and social capital in the form of offline bonding capital explained perceived social support. Further, perceived social support consistently predicted well-being outcomes and played a mediating role between personal network density and well-being, as well as between offline bonding capital and well-being. The results offer implications for a more nuanced understanding of the role of individuals' interpersonal and social environments in well-being outcomes.
Andrés Valdez Zepeda
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se hace un análisis, a la luz de la teoría sobre capital social, del movimiento de protesta por la defensa de los recursos públicos y el Estado Laico que se realizó en el estado de Jalisco, durante los primeros meses del 2008, a raíz de la donación por parte del gobierno del estado de Jalisco de 30 millones de pesos (de 90 prometidos de recursos públicos para la construcción del Santuario de los Mártires Cristeros en el Cerro del Tesoro en Tlaquepaque, Jalisco. Se concluye, que el éxito de las movilizaciones ciudadanas, al logrársela devolución del donativo el 23 de junio del 2008, ayudó a crear una mayor confianza colectiva sobre las protestas y movilizaciones sociales, empoderando a la sociedad y, en consecuencia, coadyuvan a la creación de un mayor capital social y fortalecen el proceso de democratización de la entidad.
Social capital refers to access and use of resources available through one's networks to solve problems, and the norms that reflect inclusive or exclusive access to those networks and resources. Research has found positive relationships between social capital, academic achievement, and attainment. Studies, however, have generally examined social capital through factors that occur outside the classroom; students who have social capital, acquired through their family and community relationships, seem to be more successful academically. Limited research has explored what if any factors within the classroom might impact the production, and nature of social capital, or its workings in a classroom. The purpose of this study was to explore the workings and nature of classroom social capital, including its possible relationships to engagement and cognition among 5 student participants. Using methods of qualitative data collection, mixed methods were used to analyze information resources, participants' networking, student work, and classroom discourse. Eight interdependent networking factors and 3 overarching patterns of norms were discovered. The networking factors reflected the structure, content, processes, purposes, and acceptability of participants' networking. The norms, also working interdependently, appeared to promote or inhibit among other things, engagement in networking, help seeking, access, sharing, and intertextual use of diverse, often complex sources of information. Through interaction of the 8 factors and 3 overarching norms, ongoing outcomes of networking appeared to include the creation of bridging (inclusive) and bonding (exclusive) forms of social capital, and depth of scientific conceptual understanding, in this case, about birds. Bridging social capital appeared related to willingness to engage in strong and weak tie networking, help seeking, intertextuality, and possibly to mastery goal orientation for all participants, regardless of reading level
Mithen, Johanna; Aitken, Zoe; Ziersch, Anne; Kavanagh, Anne M
The poor mental and physical health of people with disabilities has been well documented and there is evidence to suggest that inequalities in health between people with and without disabilities may be at least partly explained by the socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g. low education, unemployment) experienced by people with disabilities. Although there are fewer studies documenting inequalities in social capital, the evidence suggests that people with disabilities are also disadvantaged in this regard. We drew on Bourdieu's conceptualisation of social capital as the resources that flow to individuals from their membership of social networks. Using data from the General Social Survey 2010 of 15,028 adults living in private dwellings across non-remote areas of Australia, we measured social capital across three domains: informal networks (contact with family and friends); formal networks (group membership and contacts in influential organisations) and social support (financial, practical and emotional). We compared levels of social capital and self-rated health for people with and without disabilities and for people with different types of impairments (sensory and speech, physical, psychological and intellectual). Further, we assessed whether differences in levels of social capital contributed to inequalities in health between people with and without disabilities. We found that people with disabilities were worse off than people without disabilities in regard to informal and formal networks, social support and self-rated health status, and that inequalities were greatest for people with intellectual and psychological impairments. Differences in social capital did not explain the association between disability and health. These findings underscore the importance of developing social policies which promote the inclusion of people with disabilities, according to the varying needs of people with different impairments types. Given the changing policy environment, ongoing
Di Falco, Salvatore; Bulte, E.H.
We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and ‘free-rider’
Falco, Di Salvatore; Bulte, Erwin
We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and ‘free-ride
Maria Eliana Labra
Full Text Available El artículo discute, en primer lugar, concepciones relativas al capital social, sus aplicaciones y limitaciones. En segundo lugar, aborda esas concepciones como recurso teórico utilizado por académicos para reflexionar sobre posibles salidas frente al desencanto y a la apatía ciudadana con las frágiles instituciones políticas que han acompañado los procesos de redemocratización en América Latina. En tercer lugar, examina los consejos de salud de Brasil buscando escudriñar en qué medida esa amplia y rica experiencia de movilización y participación popular contribuiría al fomento del capital social y, por tanto, a la adhesión a valores cívicos y a la cooperación generalizada.This article begins by discussing the concept of social capital and its applications and limitations. Second, it examines these theoretical contributions as approaches actually used by scholars to analyze the disenchantment with the fragile political institutions and citizens' apathy that emerged together with re-democratization processes in Latin America. Third, it focuses on the role of the Brazilian health councils, seeking insights from this vast and rich experience of popular mobilization and participation to shed light on the councils' contributions in fostering behaviors inherent to social capital, such as civic values and cooperation.
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze some approaches of Ziya Gökalp in the context of social capital, which became one of the prominent concepts of social sciences in the last two decades. ZiyaGökalp has an important place in Turkish intellectual life with his ideas. He witnessed the destruction of the Ottoman Empire and took an active role in various positions in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. Overall, in the concept of social capital, social relations are evaluated in a pragmatic context. In general Ziya Gökalp’s ideas are products aimed to find solutions to the problems in practice in a pragmatic way. In this context, Gö-kalp’s ideas are assessed in the scope of social capital and his approaches which are considered to be discussed in this scope are analyzed here.
Full Text Available The problem of institutional change is one of the focal points of post-socialist transformation and the major axes of it's sustainability. In Serbia this problem was expressed through the question of how to use the social energy that was concentrated in civic movement throughout the 90's for (rebuilding of stable social institutions. In this paper, my intention is to test whether the social capital that was apparently accumulated in Serbia in the civic protests can persist in the form of positive value orientation towards building of democratic and market oriented society. Out of many ways to understand social capital I am referring to the most wide one, the one that assumes collective trait of the social capital (Štulhofer 2000. Data from couple of surveys conducted in Serbia, during civic protests and after political change of 2000, are used to test the relation from the title empirically.
Among Canada's visible-minority population 65 years of age or older, nearly four out of ten are Chinese. However, little research has been devoted to the examination of the role of the housing environment in building social capital for older Chinese despite the increase in this population and related social issues. The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese elders' experience of social capital and how it is affected by their residential environment in a Canadian context. In this qualitative study, forty-three Chinese elders in a Canadian context were interviewed with a focus group approach. Findings indicate that the environments in which these older adults lived either hindered or assisted them in building or increasing their social capital. A culturally and linguistically homogeneous residential environment does not necessarily provide positive support to older Chinese for their acquisition of social capital. Adversities in the environment, such as maltreatment or lack of support from their immediate micro environment (family), tended to motivate older adults to improve their social capital for problem-solving. The study offers implications from research findings to social work practice and concludes with an analysis of limitations.