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Sample records for capim-elefante pennisetum purpureum

  1. Estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum) emurchecido e tratado com inoculante microbiano Aerobic stability of wilted grass silages (Pennisetum Purpureum, Schum.) treated with microbial inoculant

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    Adriana Guim; Pedro Andrade; Ruben Pablo Iturrino-Schocken; Gumercindo Loriano Franco; Ana Cláudia Ruggieri; Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2002-01-01

    Para avaliar o efeito de um inoculante microbiano sobre a estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum) pré-seco, foi conduzido um experimento na UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal. O capim foi cortado com 96 dias de crescimento, permanecendo sob ação do sol, por aproximadamente 5 horas para o emurchecimento. Foram confeccionados silagens, em barricas plásticas de 200 L de capacidade, que receberam (CI) ou não (SI) o inoculante no momento da ensilagem. Para o est...

  2. FONTES ENERGÉTICAS PARA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE BEZERROS DESMAMADOS PRECOCEMENTE, MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM.) ENERGETIC SOURCES FOR SUPPLEMENTATION OF EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES KEPT ON ELEPHANT GRASS PASTURE (Pennisetum pupureum, SCHUM.)

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    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa; Ivan Luiz Brondani; Leonir Luiz Pascoal; João Restle; Luis Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes; Luiz Angelo Pizzuti; Emerson Dalla Chieza

    2008-01-01

    RESUMO: O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas sobre o desempenho de bezerros, desmamados precocemente, submetidos ao pastejo contínuo em capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum.) cv Taiwan A-146. As fontes energéticas testadas foram a casca de soja, o grão de milho moído e o farelo de arroz integral, além da mistura múltipla desses três alimentos, fornecidos ao nível de 1% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca. A pastagem apresent...

  3. Intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos por ingestão de Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante) e Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante) no sertão da Paraíba

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    Medeiros Rosane M. T.; Riet-Correa Franklin; Tabosa Ivon M.; Silva Zoélio A.; Barbosa Rossemberg C.; Marques Ana Valéria M.S.; Nogueira Francisco R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Descrevem-se três surtos de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos na região semi-árida do estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro surto foi causado por Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante) e os demais por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante) e ocorreram após um período prolongado de seca, após o início das primeiras chuvas. Em um dos surtos causado por Pennisetum purpureum, uma parte da área onde estava o pasto que continha níveis altos de nitratos havia sido fertiliza...

  4. Caracterização anatômica em diferentes frações de cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.

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    Brito Cláudio José Freixieiro Alves de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da anatomia das gramíneas forrageiras tropicais pode contribuir para sua melhor utilização na alimentação de ruminantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a área ocupada pelos diferentes tecidos presentes no colmo e na folha de três cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.. Cinco plantas de cada cultivar foram selecionadas e segmentadas em três partes (apical, mediana e basal, sendo o material coletado 10 semanas após corte de uniformização. O colmo foi separado em duas partes e as folhas foram subdivididas em bainha, limbo e quilha. Observou-se que o floema representa cerca de 2% da área total dos tecidos. Embora seja um tecido de elevada digestibilidade, esta pequena participação representa pouco para a qualidade final das plantas. A área de tecido epidérmico e tecido vascular lignificado é maior no limbo foliar, principalmente nas folhas jovens. A área de tecido vascular lignificado do colmo aumenta em direção a base da planta. A distância entre os feixes vasculares na bainha está acima de 500 µm, enquanto no limbo é de 140 µm. No colmo, a distribuição irregular dos feixes vasculares não permite que esta medida seja utilizada como padrão de comparação entre cultivares. A diferenciação de cultivares através da caracterização anatômica apresenta limitações. Mesmo assim, observou-se que o cultivar Testo apresenta maior área de tecido vascular lignificado e menor área de tecido parenquimático. Enquanto isto, o cultivar Areia apresenta a menor distância entre feixes vasculares na bainha e na quilha com maior área de floema nas folhas.

  5. Estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum emurchecido e tratado com inoculante microbiano Aerobic stability of wilted grass silages (Pennisetum Purpureum, Schum. treated with microbial inoculant

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    Adriana Guim

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito de um inoculante microbiano sobre a estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum pré-seco, foi conduzido um experimento na UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal. O capim foi cortado com 96 dias de crescimento, permanecendo sob ação do sol, por aproximadamente 5 horas para o emurchecimento. Foram confeccionados silagens, em barricas plásticas de 200 L de capacidade, que receberam (CI ou não (SI o inoculante no momento da ensilagem. Para o estudo da deterioração aeróbica, na abertura dos silos (T0, cada barrica foi subdividida em três profundidades e as silagens expostas ao ar em um sistema, usado para a determinação de CO2, por 2 (T2, 4 (T4, 6 (T6 e 8 (T8 dias. A silagem da camada superficial não apresentou diferenças no valor de pH e contagem de leveduras, em relação à da camada intermediária, porém ambas apresentaram valores superiores à camada mais profunda. O teor de N-NH3 da camada superior foi menor que o da intermediária e profunda, que não diferiram entre si. A interação significativa entre inóculo e tempo de exposição mostrou que nos primeiros tempos de aeração (T0; T2 e T4 as silagens inoculadas não diferiram das controle em termos de pH, teor de N-NH3 e contagem de bolores, mas com avanço do tempo (T6 e T8 passaram a apresentar menor valor de pH, menor contagem de fungos e tendência a menor produção de CO2, indicando menor velocidade de deterioração após seis dias de exposição aeróbica.An experiment was carried out at UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus to evaluate the effect of a microbial inoculant on aerobic stability of wilted grass silage (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. The grass was cut with 96 days of growing, remaining under sun action 5 hours to wilt. Silages were made in plastic silos, 0.2m³ capacity, that received (CI or not (SI inoculant at the ensilage time. For the study of aerobic deterioration, each silo was subdivided in three levels and the

  6. Intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos por ingestão de Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante e Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante no sertão da Paraíba

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    Medeiros Rosane M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos na região semi-árida do estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro surto foi causado por Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante e os demais por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante e ocorreram após um período prolongado de seca, após o início das primeiras chuvas. Em um dos surtos causado por Pennisetum purpureum, uma parte da área onde estava o pasto que continha níveis altos de nitratos havia sido fertilizada com esterco de bovino. No primeiro surto morreram 5 bovinos de um total de 11, no segundo morreram 21 de um total de 81 e no terceiro morreram 3 de um total de 19 bovinos. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizaram por anorexia, dispnéia, ranger de dentes, depressão ou hiperexitabilidade, tremores, contrações abdominais, salivação, corrimento nasal, andar cambaleante, mucosas cianóticas e, finalmente, decúbito. A presença de nitratos e nitritos foi detectada no sangue dos animais e nos pastos por meio da prova de difenilamina. Parece que o principal fator que determinou a concentração de altos níveis de nitratos nas plantas foi a ocorrência de chuvas depois de um longo período de seca. Outro fator importante no surto causado por Pennisetum purpureum foi a fertilização do solo com esterco.

  7. Anatomia quantitativa e degradação in vitro de tecidos em cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Quantitative anatomy and in vitro tissue degradation in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. cultivars

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    Cláudio José Freixieiro Alves de Brito

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho quantificaram-se as principais alterações histológicas ocorridas em cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetumpurpureum Schumach., em três estádios de desenvolvimento. A degradação dos tecidos foi avaliada após incubação em líquido ruminal de bovinos. As porcentagens de tecidos presentes em colmo, quilha, limbo e bainha foliares foram determinadas. A quilha e o colmo apresentaram maior proporção de tecido lignificado, enquanto o limbo foliar, maior quantidade de tecido epidérmico e tecido vascular não-lignificado. O tecido parenquimático foi encontrado em menor proporção na bainha foliar, principalmente pela presença do aerênquima, a partir da segunda coleta. A proporção de tecido lignificado aumentou com a maturidade do vegetal, sendo mais acentuado em colmos e limbos. Entre as principais alterações, destaca-se a grande área de degradação encontrada na bainha foliar, mesmo com o envelhecimento dos tecidos. Isto foi associado à presença do aerênquima encontrado nos estádios de desenvolvimento mais avançados. Os estômatos favoreceram a penetração dos microorganismos nos tecidos mais internos da folha (mesofilo. O espessamento e a lignificação da parede celular ocorreram com o envelhecimento das plantas, acompanhado de redução na área de degradação dos tecidos.In this research, the main histological changes that occurred in cultivars of elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. at three development stages were determined. The tissue degradation was evaluated after incubation in cattle ruminal fluid. The percentage of tissues presented in the stem, keel, leaf limbo and sheath were determined. The keel and the stem presented greater proportion of lignified tissues, while the leaf limbo presented higher amount of epidermal and non-lignified vascular tissues. The parenchymal tissue was found in minor proportion on the leaf sheath, mainly by the presence of aerenchyma, from the second

  8. Absorção e Níveis Críticos de Fósforo na parte aérea para manutenção da produtividade do Capim-Elefante (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier) Phosphorus absorption and critical levels in the shoot for the elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier) production maintenance

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    Luciano de Melo Moreira; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Janaina Azevedo Martuscello; Elcivan Bento da Nóbrega

    2006-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido, em campo, durante dois anos, para avaliar o efeito residual da adubação fosfatada de implantação sobre a absorção e os valores de níveis críticos de fósforo (P) na planta para manutenção do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier). Os tratamentos foram arranjados segundo o fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, em delineamento com blocos casualizados com três repetições, e consistiram de duas formas de aplicação de P (localizada no fundo do sulco e distribuída no sulc...

  9. Efeito da inclusão de polpa cítrica peletizada na confecção de silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. Effect of pelleted citrus pulp inclusion on elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. ensiling

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    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos da idade de corte do capim-elefante cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e da inclusão da polpa sobre a qualidade fermentativa e a estabilidade aeróbia da silagem, além de elaborar um índice de recomendação da inclusão de polpa cítrica, em função do teor de umidade do capim, para reduzir os custos com esta tecnologia. Foram confeccionados silos de laboratório (capacidade de 6 litros e testados 20 tratamentos (quatro repetições, correspondentes a cinco idades de crescimento do capim (40, 60, 80, 100 ou 120 dias após corte de nivelamento e quatro níveis de inclusão de polpa cítrica peletizada (0, 3, 6 ou 9%, com base na matéria natural do capim, em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4. Houve efeito da interação idade de corte × nível de polpa sobre as concentrações de ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, a relação lático/acético, o pH, o nitrogênio amoniacal e a temperatura máxima, mas não para a concentração de álcool, a digestibilidade in vitro da MS, o tempo para atingir a temperatura máxima, a taxa para elevação da temperatura e o tempo para elevação da temperatura em 2ºC. A inclusão de polpa melhorou o perfil fermentativo das silagens, com efeito mais pronunciado em silagens produzidas com capins mais novos. Com base no teor de ácido acético e em derivações da equação de superfície gerada, foi possível obter a recomendação de inclusão de 0,7% de polpa cítrica (com base na matéria natural do capim para cada unidade percentual de MS que o capim possuir abaixo de 32. Portanto, o nível ótimo de inclusão de polpa que otimiza a qualidade da silagem é igual a (32 - MS x 0,7.The objectives of this trial were to evaluate the effects of regrowth age of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier, and citrus pulp addition on the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of their silage. In addition to that, this research also aimed

  10. Intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos por ingestão de Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante) e Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante) no sertão da Paraíba Nitrate and nitrite poisoning in cattle caused by the ingestion of Echinochloa polystachya and Pennisetum purpureum in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba

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    Rosane M.T. Medeiros; Franklin Riet-Correa; Ivon M. Tabosa; Zoélio A. Silva; Rossemberg C. Barbosa; Ana Valéria M.S. Marques; Francisco R.B. Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    Descrevem-se três surtos de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em bovinos na região semi-árida do estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro surto foi causado por Echinochloa polystachya (capim-mandante) e os demais por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante) e ocorreram após um período prolongado de seca, após o início das primeiras chuvas. Em um dos surtos causado por Pennisetum purpureum, uma parte da área onde estava o pasto que continha níveis altos de nitratos havia sido fertiliza...

  11. FONTES ENERGÉTICAS PARA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE BEZERROS DESMAMADOS PRECOCEMENTE, MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM. ENERGETIC SOURCES FOR SUPPLEMENTATION OF EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES KEPT ON ELEPHANT GRASS PASTURE (Pennisetum pupureum, SCHUM.

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    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas sobre o desempenho de bezerros, desmamados precocemente, submetidos ao pastejo contínuo em capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv Taiwan A-146. As fontes energéticas testadas foram a casca de soja, o grão de milho moído e o farelo de arroz integral, além da mistura múltipla desses três alimentos, fornecidos ao nível de 1% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca. A pastagem apresentou em média massa de forragem da planta inteira de 7286 kg de MS/ha, com 34,31% de folhas. O ganho de peso médio diário (GMD não foi influenciado significativamente pela fonte energética, sendo 0,867; 0,841; 0,753 e 0,817 kg para a casca de soja, grão de milho, farelo de arroz integral e mistura múltipla, respectivamente. O GMD apresentou comportamento quadrático (1,119-0,024X+0,00034X2 frente aos períodos experimentais. O peso final dos bezerros suplementados com grão de milho (162 kg foi maior que os suplementados com farelo de arroz integral (156 kg, ambos não diferindo dos suplementados com casca de soja (160 kg ou mistura múltipla (158 kg. O estado corporal final foi maior nos animais que receberam a casca de soja ou a mistura múltipla (3,62 e 3,64 pontos, respectivamente em relação àqueles que receberam milho ou farelo de arroz integral (3,48 e 3,43 pontos, respectivamente como suplemento. Palavras chaves: Casca de soja, estado corporal, farelo de arroz integral, ganho de peso, grão de milho ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effect of different energetic sources on the performance of early weaned beef calves, submitted to continuous grazing on pasture of Elephant Grass Taiwan A146. The energetic sources tested were ground corn grain, soybean hulls and rice bran, besides a mixture of the three energetic sources. The amount offered was equivalent to 1% of the live weight, dry matter basis

  12. Ocorrência e controle de lesmas do gênero Omalonyx (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pragas de capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae em Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas Occurrence and control of Omalonyx slugs (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pests of the elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae in Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas

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    Marcos Vinicius Bastos Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesmas do gênero Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 são hermafroditas, herbívoras, de distribuição neotropical e vivem em plantas aquáticas, nas demais vegetações adjacentes e em solo úmido próximo a ambientes de água doce. No presente trabalho reporta-se a ocorrência atípica de O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 e de Omalonyx sp. em área de terra firme, distante de ambiente aquático. Estas espécies aqui reportadas são simpátricas e devido à alta densidade populacional e prejuízos causados às folhas do capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, são caracterizadas como pragas agrícolas. No período da noite as lesmas se alimentavam das folhas do capim elefante e durante o dia permaneciam escondidas na base do caule, próximo a superfície úmida do solo. A aplicação de cal hidratada sobre agregados de indivíduos de Omalonyx spp foi um método efetivo para o controle das populações. As alterações ambientais dos ecossistemas amazônicos para uso agrícola e/ou urbanização tem promovido o aumento populacional de espécies que se adaptam a novos habitats e geralmente se tornam pragas de difícil controle.Slugs of the genus Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 are hermaphrodites, herbivorous, distributed on Neotropical regions, living on aquatic plants, moist soil and terrestrial vegetation close to freshwater systems. The present paper reports the atypical occurrence of O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 and Omalonyx sp. in an upland area far from any aquatic environment. Both species reported here are sympatric and due to the high populations density and damages caused on leaves of elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, they are recognized as agricultural pests. During the night, the slugs feed on the grass leaves and at the daylight they stayed hidden in the base of stems, near the moist soil surface. The use of hydrated lime distributed over the aggregations of Omalonyx spp. showed to be an effective method to control the populations. The

  13. Efeito da mistura da planta de girassol (Helianthus annuus L., durante a ensilagem do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. no valor nutritivo da silagem Effect of the mixture of the sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus L. during the ensiling with the elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Shum. on nutritive value of silage

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    Adauton Vilela Rezende

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O girassol foi misturado ao capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum na ensilagem. A colheita do capim-elefante foi realizada manualmente após 70 dias do corte de uniformização, à altura de 10 cm da superfície do solo. Para confecção da silagem, foram utilizados os híbridos de girassol M-742 e M-92007. As misturas capim-elefante e girassol foram feitas nas seguintes proporções de matéria verde: 100 e 0%, 75 e 25%; 50 e 50%; 25 e 75%; 0 e 100% de capim e girassol, respectivamente. As plantas foram picadas mecanicamente em partículas de 2,0 a 3,0 cm de tamanho, ensiladas por 30 dias, em silos de "PVC" de dez centímetros de diâmetro e quarenta centímetros de altura. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e valores de pH das silagens. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que as silagens de capim-elefante com mistura da planta de girassol apresentaram maiores porcentagens de MS, PB, EE e valores de pH, aumentos na DIVMS e menor porcentagem de FDN na matéria seca com o aumento dos níveis de substituição.A mixture sunflower and elephant grass has been used for ensiling. Elephant grass was harvested manually 70 days after a plot leveling a height of 10cm from soil surface. For silage making, the sunflower hybrids M-742 and M-92007 were utilized. The mixtures of sunflower and elephantgrass were done at the following ratios of green matter 100 and 0%; 75 and 25%; 50 and 50%; 25% and 75%;0 and 100%, of grass and sunflower, respectively. Plants were chopped mechanically in particles of 2.0 to 3.0 cm in size, ensiled for 30 days in PVC silos 10 centimeters in diameter and 40 centimeter height. The evaluated variables were as follow: Percentages of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in

  14. Anatomia quantitativa e degradação in vitro de tecidos em cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) Quantitative anatomy and in vitro tissue degradation in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cultivars

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    Cláudio José Freixieiro Alves de Brito; Roberto Antonio Rodella; Francisco Carlos Deschamps; Yedo Alquini

    1999-01-01

    Neste trabalho quantificaram-se as principais alterações histológicas ocorridas em cultivares de capim-elefante (Pennisetumpurpureum Schumach.), em três estádios de desenvolvimento. A degradação dos tecidos foi avaliada após incubação em líquido ruminal de bovinos. As porcentagens de tecidos presentes em colmo, quilha, limbo e bainha foliares foram determinadas. A quilha e o colmo apresentaram maior proporção de tecido lignificado, enquanto o limbo foliar, maior quantidade de tecido epidérmic...

  15. Predição do consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack por vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em lactação Prediction of the voluntary intake of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack grazing by Holstein x Zebu lactating dairy cows

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    Fernando César Ferraz Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidas equações de predição de consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack por vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em lactação, utilizando-se procedimentos de stepwise em regressões múltiplas, aplicados a um banco de dados de experimentos conduzidos ao longo de três anos na Embrapa Gado de Leite (Coronel Pacheco, MG. As variáveis independentes disponíveis foram relacionadas a características inerentes às vacas (dias em lactação; teores de proteína, gordura e extrato seco total e produções destes componentes no leite; produção de leite in natura ou corrigida para 4% de gordura; ordem de lactação; peso vivo atual; peso vivo ao parto e grau de sangue Holandês x Zebu; ao manejo (dias de pastejo; disponibilidade de forragem e período de descanso da pastagem; ao ambiente (estação do ano e precipitação pluviométrica e à alimentação (digestibilidade in vitro e parâmetros da composição química do pasto de capim-elefante e da cana-de-açúcar - Saccharum officinarum (L. corrigida com 1% de uréia; consumos de suplemento volumoso (cana corrigida com uréia e concentrado; concentrações fecais de proteína bruta e de fibras em detergente neutro e ácido. Efeitos linear e quadrático e transformações logarítmicas foram adicionalmente incluídos no banco de dados. Foram obtidas equações de predição de consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (expresso em kg/vaca/dia ou % do peso vivo com coeficientes de determinação de 65,2 a 67,0%. As principais variáveis independentes incluídas nas equações foram o consumo do suplemento volumoso usado na estação seca do ano (cana corrigida com uréia; a digestibilidade in vitro do pasto de capim-elefante; a precipitação pluviométrica; a produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura; o peso vivo atual ou, em alternativa a este, o valor da pesagem realizada após o parto da vaca; além do consumo de suplemento concentrado, que evidenciou um

  16. Characterization of ashes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for potential added in mass red ceramic; Caracterizacao de cinzas de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum) para potencial adicao em massa de ceramica vermelha

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    Silva, A.M.F.D.; Sales, K.A.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F., E-mail: diasilva.a@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2012-07-01

    This work is in characterizing ash from biomass grass (Pennisetum purpureums) for incorporation into red ceramic masses. The ashes of elephant grass were generated from burning this dry biomass in an industrial furnace of red ceramic. The morphology of the material generated was observed by an optical microscope. The chemical composition was determined by fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, and the identification of phases by X-ray diffraction. The particle size distribution was obtained by sieving. Thermogravimetric analyzes were also conducted. The results indicate that these ashes are constituted of high quantities of SiO{sub 2}, MgO, CaO and K{sub 2}O, totaling approximately 75% of composition of matter. They have a particle size of 0.7 to 2.2mm featuring. The residue as a kind of coarse particles. Therefore, the results of this study can support future research to the addition of this residue in structural ceramics products (red ceramic)

  17. Valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-elefante cultivar Napier (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum inoculada com bactérias ácido-láticas Nutritional value of elephant-grass silage (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum inoculated with lactic acid bacteria

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    Félix Ribeiro de Lima

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo do presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da inoculação microbiana da silagem de capim-elefante sobre a digestibilidade total em carneiros. Doze carneiros machos e castrados foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, e os tratamentos corresponderam à silagem de capim-elefante (média de 17,2% de MS e 7,6% de PB, controle ou inoculada com o produto Pioneer 1174 (S. faecium e L. plantarum. O experimento teve duração total de 21 dias, sendo os 5 últimos destinados à coleta de fezes e urina. A inoculação não alterou a digestibilidade total da MS (inoculado = 49,9% vs. controle = 48,4%, PB (45,9% vs. 43,6%, EE (42,9% vs. 40,8%, FB (53,6% vs. 54,2%, FDN (48,6% vs. 48,0%, FDA (48,8% vs. 49,2%, amido (60,8% vs. 66,2%, NDT (44,5% vs. 41,8% ou o consumo de MS (1,36 vs. 1,63% do PV, mas tendeu (P = 0,0845 a aumentar a digestibilidade do ENN (47,3% vs. 40,6% e a diminuir (P = 0,0571 a retenção nitrogenada (–2,61 vs. –2,17 g de N/animal/dia. Os dados presentes não permitem recomendar a inoculação do capim-elefante com bactérias ácido-láticas para produção de silagens.The effects of microbial inoculated elephant-grass silage on total digestibility in sheep were evaluated. Twelve wethers were randomly assigned to two treatments: elephant-grass silage (average 17.2% DM and 7.6% CP control and microbial inoculated with Pioneer 1174 product (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Experimental period consisted of twenty-one days, the last five for feces and urine collection. Inoculation did not influence total digestibility of DM (inoculated=49.9% vs. control=48.4%, CP (45.9% vs. 43.6%, EE (42.9% vs. 40.8%, CF (53.6% vs. 54.2%, NDF (48.6% vs. 48.0%, ADF (48.8% vs. 49.2%, starch (60.8% vs. 66.2%, TDN (44.5% vs. 41.8% or DM intake (1.36 vs. 1.63% of BW. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.0845 of increasing digestibility of NFE (47.3% vs. 40.6% and decreasing (P = 0.0571 N retention (–2.61 vs. –2.17 g of N

  18. Aspectos produtivos do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo no brejo paraibano Productive aspects of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. var. Roxo in Paraíba swamp region

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    Estácio Alves dos Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes alturas de corte sobre a produtividade do capim-elefante cv. Roxo em épocas de seca e chuva no Brejo paraibano. O esquema experimental foi um fatorial 4 x 2, sendo quatro alturas de corte (0, 15, 30 e 45 cm, duas épocas (períodos seco e chuvoso e quatro blocos. Foram avaliadas as produções por hectare de massa verde (MV, matéria seca total (MS, de folhas (MSF e colmos (MSC e proteína bruta (PB. Após o corte de uniformização, efetuaram-se dois cortes no período seco em intervalos de 90 dias e três no período chuvoso em intervalos de 60 dias. Não houve interação entre altura de corte e a época. Entretanto, à medida que se elevou a altura do corte, reduziram-se as produções de MV, MS e MSC. As produções de PB e MSF não diferiram. Quando elevadas as alturas dos cortes de 0 para 45 cm, houve redução de aproximadamente 33% na produção para MV, 24,83% para MSF e 60% para MSC. Os cortes no período seco foram mais produtivos em relação aos da época chuvosa. As médias das produções de MS, MV, MSF, MSC e PB foram, respectivamente, 4,12; 21,19; 2,65; 1,47 e 0,32 t/ha no período seco e 12,44; 2,45; 1,81; 0,54 e 0,17 t/ha no período chuvoso.This work was carried to evaluate the effect of different cutting heights on the productivity of elephant grass var. Roxo in dry and rainy season in the Paraíba swamp region. A randomized complete block design in a 4 X 2 factorial, arrangement, with four cutting heights (0, 15, 30 and 45 cm, two periods (dry and rainy seasons and 4 blocks were used. It was evaluated the production/ha of fresh matter (FM, dry matter (DM, leaves (DML, stems (DMS and crude protein (CP. After the uniformity cut, two cuts in dry season with 90 days interval and three cuts in the rainy season with 60 days interval were made. There was no interaction between seasons and cutting heights. However, as cutting height increased, the values

  19. Morphogenesis and vegetative structuring in four elephant grass genotypes (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. Morfogênese e estruturação vegetativa em quatro genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.

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    I.R. Haddade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics (total in marked tillers of leaves (NFT, expanded leaves (NCE, green leaves (NFV and dead leaves (NFS and number of tillers per plant (NPP and morphogenic variables (tillering (TApPP and rates of total leaf (TApFT, expanded leaf (TApFE and live leaf (TApFV appearance were evaluated in four elephantgrass genotypes (Napier, Cameroon and Pioneiro cultivars and clone CNPGL 91 F27 05. Greenhouse evaluations were carried out every three days, from the 3rd to the 60th day after standardization cutting, according to a completely randomized block design under a factorial treatment scheme (four genotypes and 21 measurement days. The NFT and NCE of the CNPGL 91 F27 05 and Pioneiro genotypes were larger than those of Cameroon and Napier genotypes. The average TApFT was 0.249 leaves/day. The NFS increased progressively and equaled the growth of NCE 44 days after the standardization cut. Number of leaves and number of tillers per plant were positively correlated. The highest values for NFV were about eight and nine. A great potential for leaf density was observed for the Pioneiro cultivar.Avaliaram-se as características estruturais (número total de: folhas (NFT, folhas completamente expandidas (NCE, folhas vivas (NFV e folhas senescentes (NFS por perfilho e o número de perfilhos por planta (NPP, e caracterizaram-se as variáveis morfogênicas (taxas de aparecimento total de: folhas (TApFT, folhas completamente expandidas (TApFE, folhas vivas (TApFV e folhas de perfilhos (TApPP, em quatro genótipos de capim-elefante (Napier, Cameroon, Pioneiro e CNPGL 91 F27 05. As avaliações foram realizadas em casa de vegetação, a cada três dias, do terceiro ao 60º dia pós-uniformização, seguindo delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial (quatro genótipos e 21 dias de medição. O NFT e o NCE dos genótipos Pioneiro e CNPGL 91 F27 05 foram maiores do que os dos genótipos Cameroon e Napier. A média da

  20. PRODUÇÃO E CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum SCHUM PARA ENSILAGEM EM DIFERENTES IDADES DE CORTE PRODUCTION AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEPHANT GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum SCHUM FOR ENSILAGE IN DIFFERENT HARVEST AGES

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    Sidnei Roberto de Carvalho Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para avaliar o efeito de três idades de corte (90, 128 e 146 dias após o plantio sobre a produção e as características químicas do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Cameroon, cultivado em latossolo vermelho-amarelo, visando a sua ensilagem, realizou-se este experimento no Departamento de Produção Animal da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no município de Goiânia - GO. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 16 repetições, para avaliar a altura das plantas, a produção de matéria seca, os conteúdos de matéria seca, de proteína bruta, de fibra bruta, de cálcio e de fósforo e os teores de carboidratos solúveis e o poder tampão das plantas antes da ensilagem. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a viabilidade do aproveitamento da forragem colhida, nos cortes de diferimento, armazenada na forma de silagem.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Altura; carboidratos solúveis; proteína bruta; matéria seca; poder tampão.

    This trial was carried out in the Departamento de Produção Animal at the Universidade Federal de Goiás, in Goiânia-Goiás. Its purpose was to evaluate the effects of three different harvest ages after the plantation upon the elephant grass cv. Cameroon production and its chemical characteristics, cultivated in red-yellow latossol, aiming to the ensilage. It was used a completely randomized design, with 16 repetitions, to evaluate the plants height, the dry matter production, the contents of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, calcium and phosphorus and the soluble carbohydrates contents and the buffering capacity before ensilage. The results obtained suggest the viability of the harvest forage utilization in the three closing out dates, stored as ensilage.

  1. Adubação fosfatada e níveis críticos de fósforo no solo para manutenção da produtividade do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier Phosphorus fertilization and soil phosphorus critical levels for the maintenance of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier crop productivity

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    Luciano de Melo Moreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito residual da adubação fosfatada de implantação sobre a produção de MS e os valores de níveis críticos de fósforo no solo para manutenção do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier. Os tratamentos foram arranjados segundo fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, em blocos casualizados com três repetições, e consistiram de duas formas de aplicação de fósforo (localizada no fundo do sulco e distribuída no sulco com incorporação, dois espaçamentos entre linhas de plantio (0,5 e 1,0 m e cinco doses de fósforo (0, 30, 60, 100 e 150 kg/ha de P e a 0, 60, 120, 200 e 300 kg/ha, para as aplicações localizada e distribuída, respectivamente. Foram efetuadas sete colheitas (cortes das plantas nos sulcos (linhas centrais da parcela, correspondente a 2 m². Após pesagem da forragem colhida, amostras foram retiradas para determinação dos teores de MS. Amostras de solo também foram colhidas sobre as linhas de plantas após cada corte, para determinação dos teores de fósforo disponível pelo extrator Mehlich-1. Após cada corte, foi feita adubação em cobertura com nitrogênio e potássio (67 kg/ha de N e K2O utilizando-se sulfato de amônio e cloreto de potássio. A adubação fosfatada apresentou efeitos residuais sobre a produção de MS do capim-elefante durante dois anos após o estabelecimento da forrageira. Maiores produções foram verificadas no espaçamento de 0,5 m entre linhas de plantio. A forma de aplicação do fertilizante não influenciou o rendimento de MS. Os níveis críticos de fósforo no solo mostraram-se estáveis com a sucessão de cortes, apresentando maiores valores para o espaçamento de 1,0 m e na forma distribuída e incorporada no sulco para os dois espaçamentos.The experiment was conducted over two years to evaluate the residual effect of phosphate fertilizer application on the DM yield and the soil P critical levels for maintenance of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv

  2. Massas de lâminas foliares nas características produtivas e qualitativas da pastagem de capim-elefante "Pennisetum purpureum, Schum" (cv. "Taiwan" e desempenho animal Mass of leaf lamina in the produtive and qualitative characteristics of Elephantgrass "Pennisetum purpureum, Schum" (cv. Taiwan pasture and animal performance

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    Regis Luis Míssio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, para avaliar produtiva e qualitativamente a pastagem de capim elefante e o desempenho animal sob pastejo. A área experimental foi composta de oito piquetes de 0,443ha cada de capim-elefante (Pennisetun purpureum, Schum. cv. "Tawian", onde pastejaram 36 novilhos das raças Charolês, Nelore e suas cruzas, com três animais "testers" por piquete, em duas repetições. Foram estudadas as variáveis relacionadas à produtividade e à qualidade da pastagem e ao desempenho animal. As massas reais de lâminas foliares (MLF de capim-elefante foram: 1.167; 1.543; 1.926 e 2.248kg MS LF/ha, o que constitui os tratamentos. A carga animal suportada pela pastagem, pode ser descrita pela equação y=2.243,14 - 0,32MLF (R2=0,4. O peso vivo final em kg apresentou resposta quadrática (PF=103,41 + 0,114x - 0,00003x², R2=0,5 com o acréscimo da MLF. O ganho de peso diário médio apresentou comportamento linear positivo (GMD = 0,25 + 0,0002MLF, R2=0,2. O aumento na massa de lâminas foliares de capim-elefante acarreta diminuição na carga animal suportada pela pastagem e aumenta o ganho de peso médio diário.The experiment was conducted at the animal science department of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, to evaluate productive and qualitative characteristics of elephantgrass pasture and animal performance under grazing. The experimental area consisted of eight paddocks of 0.443 ha of elephantgrass (Pennisetun purpureum, Schum. cv. Taiwam, where 36 Charolais, Nelore and crossbred were kept, with three tester animals per paddock, with two repetitions. Variables related to pasture production and quality and animal performance were studied. Real leaf lamina masses (LLM of elephantgrass were: 1.167; 1.543; 1.926 and 2.248kg of dry matter of leaf lamina/ha, constituting the treatments. Stocking rate (y=2.243.14 - .32LLM, R2=.4, showed a negative linear relationship

  3. Composição Bromatológica, Disponibilidade de Forragem e Índice de Área Foliar de 17 Genótipos de Capim-Elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. sob Pastejo, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

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    Silva Manoel Messias Pereira da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido entre outubro de 1998 e janeiro de 1999, no setor de forragicultura da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Foram avaliados os teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido, a produção de matéria seca da forragem disponível e o índice de área foliar de 17 genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., 15 clones de capim-elefante: CNPGL 91-19-1, CNPGL 91-10-5, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-02-5, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-13-2, CNPGL 91-25-3, CNPGL 91-10-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-11-2, CNPGL 91-34-1, CNPGL 91-27-1, CNPGL 91-28-1, CNPGL 91-06-3, CNPGL 91-17-5 e duas cultivares, MINEIRO e TAIWAN A-146, provenientes do BAGCE da EMBRAPA Gado de Leite. Os genótipos foram submetidos ao pastejo, na época das águas, por grupos de 10 a 13 vacas secas com peso vivo médio de 500 kg, por um período de 1 a 2 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em três ciclos de pastejo. Os genótipos CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-10-2, CNPGL 91-25-3, CNPGL 91-10-5 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram maiores teores de proteína bruta e menores valores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido. De modo geral, a composição bromatológica foi influenciada negativamente pelo ciclo após ciclo de pastejo. Não houve diferenças na produção de matéria seca dos genótipos. Os genótipos CNPGL 91-02-5 e CNPGL 91-11-2 apresentaram IAF extremos de 7,08 e 6,67, respectivamente. Houve diferenças do primeiro para os demais ciclos de pastejo, tanto para a produção de matéria seca como para o índice de área foliar.

  4. Produção e composição do leite de vacas em pastagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum) suplementado com diferentes fontes de carboidratos

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    G.A.G. García; R.B. Reis; A.B.D. Pereira; H.M. Saturnino; S.G. Coelho

    2010-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho e da substituição parcial ou total de milho seco por polpa de citrus sobre a produção e a composição do leite de vacas mantidas em pastejo de capim-elefante, manejado intensivamente. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, "de alta cruza" distribuídas em quatro tratamentos, em delineamento do tipo quadrado latino. Todas as vacas receberam concentrados que diferiram nas fontes de carboidratos: milho-grão seco moído, polpa de citr...

  5. Adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre a composição química e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2080 Microbial inoculants addition on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2080

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    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de dois inoculantes microbianos e 1 inoculante enzimo-microbiano no capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum, ensilado em 16 silos experimentais e confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. O capim foi cortado aos 97 dias de crescimento, homogeneizado e submetido a tratamentos com 4 repetições: controle, Sil-All® (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 120 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Embora de magnitude pequena, o Sil-All® aumentou a MS, o Pioneer aumentou as concentrações de NIDA e o Silobac® aumentou a FDA e a celulose. Em comparação com o tratamento-controle, o Pioneer e o Silobac melhoraram consideravelmente a relação lático:acético, o Pioneer baixou o pH e melhorou a estabilidade aeróbia.Elephant grass was harvested at 97th day and ensiled in 16 plastic experimental silos, consisting of 4 treatments: control, Sil-All® (Streptococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp., and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 120 days after ensiling and sampled to proceede chemical analyses. Sil-All increased DM, Pioneer increased ADIN concentration and Silobac increased ADF and cellulose contents of silage. Comparing to control Pioneer and Silobac improved consistently the lactic:acetic ratio, Pioneer decreased pH and improved aerobic stability.

  6. Características fotossintéticas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), em estresse hídrico = Photosynthetic characteristics of dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) genotypes under different hydric conditions

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    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo; Hernan Maldonado Vasquez; Eliemar Campostrini; Alena Torres Netto; Bruno Borges Deminicis; Érico da Silva Lima

    2010-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as trocas gasosas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão, em diferentes condições hídricas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Foram avaliados três genótipos de capim-elefanteanão (Mott, CNPGL 94-34-3 e CNPGL 92-198-7) em duas condições de umidade do solo: irrigado (I) e não-irrigado (NI). Foi observada diferença entre os tratamentos I e NI para todos os genótipos em relação à taxa fotossintética, co...

  7. Digestão do feno de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott sob diferentes níveis de consumo em ovinos Dwarf elephant grass hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott digestion by sheep at different levels of intake

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    Jucileia Aparecida da Silva Morais

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados doze ovinos Texel × Corriedale machos, castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso vivo (PV inicial médio de 27kg, mantidos em gaiolas de metabolismo, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, conduzido em dois períodos, para avaliar o efeito do nível de consumo (base matéria seca (MS de feno de capim elefante anão (CEA (1,50; 1,75; 2,00; 2,25; 2,50% do PV e ad libitum sobre a digestão nesses animais. A digestibilidade aparente da MS, da matéria orgânica (MO e do nitrogênio (N, bem como a digestibilidade verdadeira do N, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e a síntese de proteína microbiana ruminal não foram afetados, mas a retenção de N (em g dia-1 e como % do N consumido foi sempre positiva e aumentou linearmente (PTwelve one year old Texel x Corriedale castrated male sheep, with 27kg mean live weight (LW, housed in metabolic cages, were used in a completely randomized experiment, carried out in two periods, to evaluate the effect of level of intake (dry matter (DM basis of dwarf elephant grass (1.5; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.5% of LW and ad libitum on digestion. DM, organic matter (OM and nitrogen (N apparent digestibility, as well as the N true digestibility, total digestible nutrients (TDN contents and rumen microbial protein synthesis were not affected by level of hay intake. N retention (as g day-1 and as % of N intake was always positive and increased linearly (P<0.05 as the level of hay intake increased. However, neutral (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF apparent digestibility, as well as OM true digestibility decreased linearly (P<0.05 with increasing intake. Passage rate and mean retention time in the cecum-colon were not affected, whereas passage rate through the reticulum-rumen increased and mean retention time decreased (P<0.05 as the level of intake increased. Fibre and OM true digestibility decreased as hay intake increased (P<0.05, mainly due to a decreasing in retention time of particles into the

  8. Avaliação de clones de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e de um híbrido com o milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. submetidos a estresse hídrico. 2. Valor nutritivo Evaluation of elephant grass clones (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and an elephant grass x pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. hybrid submitted to water stress. 2. Nutritive value

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    Glesser Porto Barreto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo de três cultivares de capim-elefante (Cameroon, Roxo de Botucatu e Mott e de um híbrido de capim-elefante com o milheto (híbrido HV-241, cultivados sob diferentes condições de umidade (com e sem estresse hídrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Na parcela principal, estudou-se o efeito dos regimes de umidade e nas subparcelas, os diferentes clones. Foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (% MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. Os materiais submetidos a estresse hídrico apresentaram elevado grau de dessecação (mais de 58% de MS, sobretudo os cultivares de capim-elefante. As plantas submetidas a estresse hídrico apresentaram teores de PB (17,58% significativamente superiores aos das irrigadas (14,45%, sendo que, entre os cultivares, apenas o Cameroon (14,68% PB diferiu dos demais (16,46% PB. Quanto aos teores de FDN, não se verificou diferença entre os dois regimes de umidade, mas os cvs. Mott e Cameroon apresentaram teores superiores (61,79% aos do cv. Roxo de Botucatu e do híbrido HV-241 (56,60%. Não foi verificada diferença na DIVMS entre os regimes de umidade nem entre os diferentes clones, sendo o valor médio de 53,07%.This trial aimed to study the nutritive value of three Elephant grass clones (Cameroon, Roxo de Botucatu and Mott and an Elephant grass with pearl millet hybrid (HV-241 cultivated under two different humidity conditions (with and without water stress. A randomized block design with split plots and three replicates was used. In the main plot, the effect of the humidity regimes was studied and in the split plot, the different clones. The dry matter (DM; crude protein (CP and of neutral detergent fiber (NDF content; and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD were analyzed. The materials submitted to water stress showed a

  9. Características fotossintéticas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), em estresse hídrico - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.8961 Photosynthetic characteristics of dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) genotypes under different hydric conditions - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.8961

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    Alena Torres Netto; Eliemar Campostrini; Hernan Maldonado Vasquez; Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo; Bruno Borges Deminicis; Érico da Silva Lima

    2009-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as trocas gasosas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão, em diferentes condições hídricas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Foram avaliados três genótipos de capim-elefante anão (Mott, CNPGL 94-34-3 e CNPGL 92-198-7) em duas condições de umidade do solo: irrigado (I) e não-irrigado (NI). Foi observada diferença entre os tratamentos I e NI para todos os genótipos em relação à taxa fotossintética, c...

  10. Introdução e avaliação de clones de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Introduction and evaluation of clones of elephant grass (Pennisetun purpureum Schum. in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

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    Rogério Figueiredo Daher

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinze novos clones de capim-elefante e duas cultivares-testemunhas foram avaliados em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi realizado no Setor de Forragicultura do LZNA/CCTA da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, no período de fevereiro de 1995 a dezembro de 1997, totalizando 12 cortes. Avaliaram-se produção de matéria seca (MS, em kg/ha/corte, média de 12 cortes; produção de MS da época da seca, em kg/ha; participação da produção da época da seca em relação ao total anual, proporção de folhas na planta, altura das plantas (m, diâmetro do colmo na base (mm e número de perfilhos por metro linear. Com exceção dos clones CNPGL 91: F28-1, F01-2, F13-2 e F10-2 e da cultivar Mineiro, todos os demais destacaram-se quanto à produção de MS por corte, enquanto as variáveis produção de MS da época da seca, participação da produção da época da seca em relação ao total anual e proporção de folhas na planta (com base em MS não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os clones avaliados. A análise multivariada demonstrou a superioridade dos clones dos grupos 2 (Pioneiro e CNPGL 91 F27-5 e 5 (CNPGL 91 F25-3 e CNPGL 91 F06-3 para produção de matéria seca, constituindo-se em grupos contrastantes e altamente adaptados às condições edafoclimáticas de Campos dos Goytacazes. As variáveis diâmetro do colmo, altura das plantas no corte na época das águas e altura das plantas no corte na época da seca foram consideradas as mais importantes para explicar a dispersão dos clones no plano bidimensional.Fifteen intra specific hybrids and two cultivars of elephant grass were evaluated in a randomized block design with four replicates. The experiment was carried out at the Forage Production Section of LZNA/CCTA of Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, from February/95 to December/97, resulting on 12 harvests. The

  11. Características fotossintéticas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., em estresse hídrico - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.8961 Photosynthetic characteristics of dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. genotypes under different hydric conditions - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.8961

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    Alena Torres Netto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as trocas gasosas de genótipos de capim-elefante anão, em diferentes condições hídricas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Foram avaliados três genótipos de capim-elefante anão (Mott, CNPGL 94-34-3 e CNPGL 92-198-7 em duas condições de umidade do solo: irrigado (I e não-irrigado (NI. Foi observada diferença entre os tratamentos I e NI para todos os genótipos em relação à taxa fotossintética, condutância estomática, transpiração e déficit de pressão de vapor. O genótipo CNPGL 94-34-3 apresentou maior tolerância ao estresse hídrico, seguido pelos genótipos Mott e CNPGL 92-198-7. Todos os genótipos avaliados apresentaram, em condições ideais de umidade do solo, alta taxa fotossintética, caracterizando, deste modo, os genótipos estudados como plantas de elevada eficiência fotossintética.The experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate the gas exchange of dwarf elephant grass genotypes under different hydric conditions, in a randomized design with three replications. Genotypes of dwarf elephant grass (Mott, CNPGL 94-34-3 and CNPGL 92-198-7 were analyzed under two hydric conditions: irrigated (I and non-irrigated (NI. Differences between treatments I and NI were observed for all genotypes for photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water vapor pressure deficit. Genotype CNPGL 94-34-3 presented highest tolerance to hydric stress, followed by Mott and CNPGL 92-198-7 genotypes. All genotypes presented high photosynthetic rate, under ideal conditions of soil humidity, thus characterizing the analyzed dwarf elephant grass genotypes as plants with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  12. Silagem de capim-elefante com a adição de casca de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Paulo Guataçara da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo, apresentar uma alternativa à confecção de silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.), sem se fazer a pré-secagem, quando a planta apresenta grande quantidade de água. O baixo teor de matéria seca no estádio vegetativo dessa forragem é o maior problema no processo fermentativo. O aumento da matéria seca, através da adição da casca de soja, resíduo alimentar barato e de baixo teor de umidade, tem por finalidade controlar as fermenta...

  13. Relação entre variáveis na regulação do consumo de vacas Holandês × Zebu em lactação sob pastejo em capim-elefante Relationship between variables concerning elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. dry matter intake by grazing Holstein × Zebu lactating cows

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    F.C.F. Lopes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise fatorial de componentes principais (CP foi usada no exame do relacionamento entre variáveis de um banco de dados da Embrapa Gado de Leite. As variáveis disponíveis foram relacionadas às vacas (dias em lactação, teores lácteos de gordura e extrato seco total, produção de leite, ordem de lactação, peso vivo e grau de sangue, ao manejo (dia de pastejo, disponibilidade e períodos de descanso da pastagem, ao ambiente (estação do ano, precipitação pluviométrica e ao alimento (consumo de nutrientes do concentrado e da cana × uréia, consumo de MS de pastagem de capim-elefante, composição química e digestibilidade in vitro da pastagem e concentração fecal de PB, FDN e FDA. O primeiro CP (33,7% da inércia dos dados representou o uso da suplementação volumosa (cana × uréia da pastagem em resposta à redução sazonal da disponibilidade e do consumo de capim-elefante. O segundo CP (15,3% da inércia foi relacionado ao consumo de nutrientes do concentrado. O terceiro CP (8,5% da inércia representou efeitos do manejo sobre a composição química da pastagem. A interpretação gráfica dos resultados favoreceu a percepção mais dinâmica da intensidade da associação e do antagonismo entre as variáveis contextualizadas no estudo.The principal component (PC analysis was used to study the relationship between variables in a database of trials carried out at Embrapa Gado de Leite. The variables studied were concerning animal factors (days in milk, fat and total solid contents in milk, live weigh, Holstein × Zebu gene fraction, milk yield and parity, management factors (occupation day of paddock, pasture allowance, resting periods, environmental factors (season of the year, rainfall and feed factors (DM, CP, NDF, ADF and digestible DM intake of concentrate and of sugarcane plus urea, DM intake of elephantgrass pasture, DM, CP, NDF, ADF contents and in vitro digestibility of elephantgrass, and fecal CP, NDF and ADF

  14. FRACIONAMENTO DE PROTEÍNAS DE SILAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE EMURCHECIDO OU COM FARELO DE CACAU PROTEIN FRACTIONING OF SILAGE OF ELEPHANTGRASS WILTED OR WITH COCOA MEAL

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Desenvolveu-se o experimento para determinar as frações que compõem as proteínas da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Camaroon submetido ao emurchecimento ou à adição de diferentes níveis de farelo de cacau. O capim-elefante utilizado foi colhido aos 50 dias de rebrota após o corte de uniformização e submetido aos seguintes tratamentos: capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por oito horas, e capim-elefante sem emurchecimento com níveis de 0 %, 7 %, 14%, 21 % e 28 % de farelo de cacau (FC (% da matéria natural. Acondicionou-se o material em silos de PVC com capacidade para 5,3 litros, que foram abertos após 45 dias. Para todas as frações de proteínas estimadas, o tratamento emurchecido apresentou valores semelhantes (P>0,05 ao do tratamento sem emurchecimento. As frações protéicas foram influenciadas pelas adições de FC, verificando-se redução dos teores das frações A e B1+B2 e aumentos das frações B3 e C, para os níveis crescentes de FC.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conservação de forragens, forrageira, Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon, subproduto, Theobroma cacao L.

    The experiment was conducted to determine the fractions that compose the protein of silage on the submitted elephant grass forage to wilting under the sun light for eight hours. Other treatments involved the same elephant grass without exposing to sun light but with addition of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of cocoa meal (CM at the ensilage processing. The PVC silos used in the experiment were 5.3 liters in capacity, and were opened in 45 days. To all protein-estimated fractions, the wilted treatment showed similar values (P>.05 to the treatment without wilting. The protein fractions were influenced by CM addictions, verifying reduction in contents of A and B1+B2 fractions and increase in B3 and C fractions, with CM increasing levels

  15. Divergência genética entre acessos de um banco de germoplasma de capim-elefante

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    Shimoya Aldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a divergência genética entre 99 acessos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum do Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa, em Coronel Pacheco, MG. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições de 99 tratamentos (97 genótipos e duas testemunhas. Foram avaliadas 17 características quantitativas. Utilizaram-se as análises multivariadas: distância de Mahalanobis, método de Tocher e variáveis canônicas. Pelo método de Tocher, 99 genótipos de capim-elefante foram agrupados em 18 grupos. Pela análise de variáveis canônicas, 81,80% da variância acumulada foi explicada pelas sete primeiras variáveis canônicas. Quanto à importância relativa das características avaliadas, diâmetro do colmo, largura da lâmina no meio da folha mediana adulta, largura da lâmina na base da folha mediana adulta, comprimento da arista, comprimento da espigueta, comprimento da folha mediana adulta e largura da folha-bandeira foram as que menos contribuíram; porém, não foram descartadas, uma vez que no novo agrupamento realizado após descarte de diâmetro do colmo houve alteração no número de grupos e na posição dos genótipos estabelecidos pelo método de Tocher. Foram indicados vários cruzamentos envolvendo a testemunha G98 e os genótipos promissores divergentes, visando ao aumento da variabilidade e a possibilidade de identificação de segregantes transgressivos.

  16. Genomic homeology between Pennisetum purpureum and Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae

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    Gabriela Barreto dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pennisetum (Richard, 1805 includes two economically important tropical forage plants: Pennisetum purpureum (Schumacher, 1827 (elephant grass, with 2n = 4x = 28 chromosomes and genomes A'A'BB, and Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus, 1753 (pearl millet, with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes and genomes AA. The genetic proximity between them allows obtaining hybrids (2n = 3x = 21 that yield forage of higher quality in relation to the parents. The study of genomic relationships provides subsidies for the knowledge about phylogenetic relations and evolution, and is useful in breeding programs seeking gene introgression. Concerning elephant grass and pearl millet, the homeology between the genomes A and A', and between these and the genome B, has been reported by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the degree of homeology between these genomes by means of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH. The results confirmed the homeology between the genomes A of pearl millet and A'B of elephant grass, and showed that there are differences in the distribution and proportion of homologous regions after hybridization. Discussion regarding the evolutionary origin of P. purpureum and P. glaucum was also included.

  17. Genomic homeology between Pennisetum purpureum and Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Gabriela Barreto; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Torres, Giovana Augusta; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Pereira, Antônio Vander; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2014-01-01

    The genus Pennisetum (Richard, 1805) includes two economically important tropical forage plants: Pennisetum purpureum (Schumacher, 1827) (elephant grass), with 2n = 4x = 28 chromosomes and genomes A'A'BB, and Pennisetum glaucum (Linnaeus, 1753) (pearl millet), with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes and genomes AA. The genetic proximity between them allows hybrids to be obtained (2n = 3x = 21) that yield forage of higher quality in relation to the parents. The study of genomic relationships provides subsidies for the knowledge about phylogenetic relations and evolution, and is useful in breeding programs seeking gene introgression. Concerning elephant grass and pearl millet, the homeology between the genomes A and A', and between these and the genome B, has been reported by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the degree of homeology between these genomes by means of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The results confirmed the homeology between the genomes A of pearl millet and A'B of elephant grass, and showed that there are differences in the distribution and proportion of homologous regions after hybridization. Discussion regarding the evolutionary origin of P. purpureum and P. glaucum was also included. PMID:25349671

  18. Qualidade bromatológica das silagens de capim-elefante aditivadas com raspa de batata Bromatologic qualities of elephant grass silages added with potato scrapings

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    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A raspa de batata foi misturada ao capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. na ensilagem. A colheita do capim-elefante foi realizada manualmente após 80 dias do corte de uniformização a uma altura de 10 cm da superfície do solo. As misturas capim-elefante e raspa de batata foram feitas nas seguintes proporções de matéria verde: 100 e 0%, 93 e 7%; 86 e 14%; 79 e 21%; 72 e 28% de capim e raspa de batata, respectivamente. As plantas foram picadas em partículas de 2,0 a 3,0 cm de tamanho, ensiladas por 30 dias, em silos de "PVC" de dez centímetros de diâmetro e quarenta centímetros de altura. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de matéria seca (MS, valores de pH, perda de gases, perda de efluentes, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, das silagens. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que as silagens de capim-elefante com raspa de batata apresentaram maiores porcentagens de MS, PB, valores de pH e DIVMS e menor porcentagem de perda de gases, perda de efluentes, FDN e FDA na matéria seca com o aumento dos níveis de adição.Potato scrapings were mixed with elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum in silage. Elephant grass was harvested manually on the 80th day after leveling mowing had been done at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface. The mixtures of elephant grass and potato scrapings were made in the in the following ratios of green matter: 100% and 0%; 93% and 7%; 86% and 14%; 79% and 21%; and 72% and 28% of grass and potato scrapings, respectively. The plants were chopped in 2-3 cm particles and ensiled for 30 days in 10 cm wide x 40 cm high "PVC" silos. The following variables of the silage were evaluated: percentage of dry matter (DM, pH values, loss of gases, and of efluent, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and in

  19. Níveis críticos de fósforo no solo e na parte aérea no estabelecimento de capim- elefante Critical soil and shoot phosphorus levels for the establishment of elephant grass

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Azevedo Martuscello; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Luciano de Melo Moreira; Rodrigo Froede Ruppin; Daniel de Noronha Figueiredo Vieira da Cunha

    2009-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da forma de aplicação de fósforo, da amostragem do solo e do espaçamento entre linhas de plantio sobre os níveis críticos de fósforo no solo e na planta para o estabelecimento de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) cv. Napier. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em três blocos ao acaso e consistiram de cinco níveis de fósforo (0; 1; 2; 3,3 e 5, correspondentes às doses de 0, 30, 60, 100 e 150 kg/ha de P, na aplicação loca...

  20. Utilização de resíduos da indústria de couro como fonte nitrogenada para o capim-elefante Use of leather industry residues as nitrogen sources for elephantgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Quintão Lima de Oliveira; Kele Tatiane Gomes Carvalho; Ana Rosa Ribeiro Bastos; Luiz Carlos Alves de Oliveira; João José Granate de Sá e Melo Marques; Robervone Severina de Melo Pereira do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Uma grande variedade de produtos tóxicos é emitida durante o processo de tratamento do couro nos curtumes que usam o cromo III para obter o couro wet blue. O resíduo sólido (raspas e aparas) contém cerca de 3 % de Cr III, que representa um sério problema ambiental e não tem, atualmente, destino adequado. O resíduo de couro após extração de Cr (colágeno) foi utilizado como fonte nitrogenada para o capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Napier), em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, aplican...

  1. Produção forrageira e composição bromatológica de combinações genômicas de capim-elefante e milheto Fodder production and bromatological composition of genomic combinations in elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar o comportamento agronômico de combinações genômicas oriundas do cruzamento entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (E. Leek, visando determinar o potencial de Pennisetum glaucum para o melhoramento da qualidade forrageira do capim-elefante. Três cultivares de capim-elefante e 11 combinações genômicas foram avaliadas para produção de matéria verde total (PMV, produção de matéria seca total (PMS, percentagem de matéria seca (%MS, produção de matéria seca de folhas (PMSF, produção de matéria seca de caule (PMSC, relação caule/folha (RFC, altura (ALT, vigor fenotípico (VF, número de perfilhos (NP, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, proteína bruta (PB e digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS. Excetuando RFC e NP, todas as demais características apresentaram diferenças significativas para os genótipos (p The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of genomic combinations from elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (E. Leek, in order to determine the Pennisetum glaucum potencial as a germoplasm for elephant grass improvement. Three cultivars and eleven genomic combinations were evaluated for fresh forage production (PMV, total dry matter production (PMS, dry matter ratio (%MS, leaves dry matter production (PMSF, stem dry matter production (PMSC, leaf/stem ratio (RFC, height (ALT, plant vigor (VF, number of tillers (NP, acid detergent fiber ratio (FDA, Neutral detergent fiber ratio (FDN, crude protein ratio (PB and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS. All characteristics, except for RFC and NP, showed significant difference for genotypes (p < 0.05, point out to the genetic variability among the evaluated genotypes. As to forage dry matter production, the HCM-5x-2 genomic combination outstood the pentaploids while the HCM-4x-2 outstood

  2. Blood constituents of holstein cows fed with corn or elephant-grass silages / Constituintes sangüíneos de vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com silagens de milho ou de capim-elefante

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    Valter Harry Bumbieris Júnior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of corn (Zea mays L. silage and elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silage on the nutrition of cows during lactation, over some of the blood constituents (glucose, triglycerides and urea. The treatments were three silages (corn silage, elephant-grass silage with bacterial inoculating, elephant-grass silage with enzyme-bacterial inoculating. Nine Holstein cows, with a medium weight of 520 kg, were distributed in experimental delineation of simultaneous triple Latin square. The blood glucose rates were considered normal, independents of the silage used. Concerning the triglicerides levels, it was verified that they are below normal to the different silages. One of the reasons would be the low fat level on the diet. The blood levels of urea observed on the three treatments are considered normal. There was not significant difference among the different kinds of silage in relation to the blood levels of urea, glucose and triglycerides.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de silagem de milho (Zea mays L. e silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum na alimentação de vacas em lactação, sobre alguns dos constituintes sangüíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos e uréia. Os tratamentos foram três silagens (silagem de milho, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante bacteriano, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas da raça holandesa, com peso médio de 520 kg, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de triplo quadrado latino simultâneo. As taxas de glicose sangüínea das vacas foram consideradas normais, independente do volumoso utilizado. Em relação aos níveis de triglicerídeos, verificou-se que estão abaixo do normal para os diferentes volumosos. Uma das razões seria o baixo nível de gordura na dieta. Os níveis sangüíneos de uréia observados nos três tratamentos são considerados normais

  3. Mancha foliar em capim-elefante no Cerrado do Brasil Central causada por Bipolaris maydi Leaf spot in elephantgrass in the Cerrado Region of Central Brazil caused by Bipolaris maydis

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    Maria José d´Avila Charchar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker foi consistentemente isolado de plantas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum., com sintomas de manchas foliares, no Cerrado, em 2005 e 2006. Testes de patogenicidade em mudas sadias de capim-elefante, em casa de vegetação, e o subseqüente reisolamento do fungo confirmaram que B. maydis era o agente causal das lesões foliares observadas. Os primeiros sintomas apareceram dois dias após a inoculação. Onze outras espécies de gramíneas foram suscetíveis ao fungo.Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker was consistently isolated from elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. showing leaf spot symptoms in the Cerrado of Central Brazil in 2005 and 2006. Pathogenicity tests, under greenhouse conditions, and subsequent re-isolation of B. maydis from artificially infected elephant grass seedlings confirmed that this fungus was the causal agent of the disease. First symptoms of leaf spot appeared two days after inoculation. Eleven other grass species proved to be susceptible to the fungus.

  4. Avaliação agronômica de híbridos interespecíficos entre capim-elefante e milheto Agronomic evaluation of interespecific hybrids of elephant grass and pearlmillet

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    Fausto de Sobrinho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento agronômico de híbridos entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (P. glaucum (E. Leek, a fim de determinar seu potencial para o melhoramento da forragem e a seleção de híbridos para futuras avaliações. Foram utilizadas 12 cultivares de milheto e 11 clones de capim-elefante, cruzados em esquema de dialelo parcial. As 132 combinações híbridas, além de duas testemunhas, foram avaliadas em experimentos em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Anotaram-se dados de produção de matéria seca, altura de plantas, porcentagem de matéria seca, relação entre folha e caule e de qualidade da forragem (porcentagem de proteína bruta, porcentagem de fibra em detergente neutro e ácido e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica. Foi verificada existência de variabilidade entre os híbridos interespecíficos de capim-elefante e milheto, na maioria das características. A superioridade de alguns híbridos, em relação às testemunhas, demonstra o potencial do cruzamento entre P. purpureum e P. glaucum para a obtenção de cultivares melhoradas. Considerando-se tanto características de produção como de qualidade da forragem, os melhores híbridos avaliados foram 108 (F91-2-5 x M-60, 53 (F93-4-2 x M-27, 35 (F94-28-3 x M-42, 36 (F94-28-3 x M-60 e 4 (F92-101-2 x M-35.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of hybrid from elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and pearlmillet (P. glaucum (E. Leek in order to determine its potential for forage enhancement. Twelve cultivars of pearlmillet and 11 clones of elephant grass were crossed using a partial dialel design. The 132 hybrids combinations along with two test hybrids were evaluated in casual block design experiment with three replications. Dry matter production, plant height, dry matter percent, leaf:stem relation and forage quality information, such as crude protein, fiber

  5. Bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante: qualidade das silagens e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Cassava bagasse in elephant grass ensilage: quality of the silage and digestibility of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 16 novilhas ¾ Holandês-Zebu com idade média de 15 meses e peso médio inicial de 144kg, para avaliar o efeito da adição de diferentes níveis (5; 10; 15 e 20% de bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum sobre a qualidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas contendo, como volumoso, silagem de capim-elefante com quatro diferentes níveis de bagaço de mandioca, mais concentrado balanceado, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Avaliou-se a qualidade das silagens, os consumos de nutrientes das dietas e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes das silagens e das dietas totais. O bagaço de mandioca elevou o teor de matéria seca (MS da silagem, preservando-a com o pH que variou de 3,85 a 4,07 e a relação N-NH3/NT de 6,2 a 7,85. Os consumos médios diários de MS e proteína bruta (PB não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA apresentaram comportamento linear decrescente (P0,05 na digestibilidade da MS (DMS, da FDN (DFDN e da FDA (DFDA das silagens. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das silagens foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da PB (DPB, do extrato etéreo (DEE e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DCNF das silagens decresceu linearmente (P0,05 na DMS, DPB, DFDN, DFDA, DEE, DCNF e NDT entre as dietas experimentais. O nível de adição de 5% de bagaço de mandioca à silagem de capim-elefante é satisfatório para sua preservação, propiciando boa digestibilidade.Sixteen ¾ Holstein-Zebu heifers aging 15 month-old averaging 144kg were used to evaluate the effect of the additions of different levels of cassava bagasse (5; 10; 15 and 20% to elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum ensilage on the diet quality and nutrients digestibility. The treatments consisted of four diets containing, as roughage, elephant grass

  6. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

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    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55

  7. Capacidade combinatoria de capim elefante com base em caracteres morfoagronomicos

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    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao grande potencial de produção de biomassa do capim elefante, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar genitores para geração de híbridos superiores. Para tanto, foram estimados os efeitos da capacidade geral de combinação (CGC dos genitores e da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC de híbridos de capim elefante por meio de análise dialélica adaptada a dialelos parciais. Foram avaliados 16 híbridos e oito genitores utilizando delineamento em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Verificou-se a presença de variabilidade genética entre os híbridos e genitores, com predominância do efeito gênico de dominância para a maioria das características. De forma geral, os melhores resultados na CGC são os genitores Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. Os melhores cruzamentos com base na CEC são Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  8. Degradação ruminal de silagem de capim-elefante com adição de vagem de algaroba triturada Ruminal degradation of elephant grass silage with mesquite pods

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    Aníbal Coutinho do Rêgo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada visando-se avaliar a degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN de silagens de capim-elefante colhido aos 70; 90 e 110 dias após rebrota, com inclusão de 0; 5; 10 e 15% de vagem de algaroba triturada, com base na matéria natural, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado arranjado em parcelas subdivididas. Amostras de cada silagem foram incubadas no rúmen de duas vacas Jersey por 3; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72 e 96 h, sendo os saquinhos referentes ao tempo zero apenas lavados em água para determinação da fração solúvel. Não houve interação (P > 0,05 tempo de incubação x inclusão de vagem de algaroba x idade de corte para degradabilidade da MS, embora tenha ocorrido interação destes fatores para degradabilidade da PB e FDN. A maior degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS (42,54% foi observada para 15% de inclusão de vagem de algaroba. A DE da PB foi maior (69,04% para silagem de capim-elefante com 70 dias de idade com 15% de vagem de algaroba. A inclusão de vagem de algaroba triturada à silagem de capim-elefante melhora a degradabilidade da MS, PB e FDN, enquanto o avanço da idade após rebrota resulta em redução destes parâmetros.This research was carried out to evaluate the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of silages of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cutting in 70; 90 and 110 days after regrowth with inclusion of 0; 5; 10 and 15% of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora meal, based on natural matter in a completely randomized design, in split plot arrangement. Samples of silages were incubated in the rumen of two Jersey cows for 3; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72 and 96 h, and the bags at time "zero" were only washed with water to determine the soluble fraction. There was not interaction (P > 0.05 incubation time × inclusion of mesquite pods × cutting age of the grass for DM degradability, there was only

  9. Mixoploidia em híbridos de capim-elefante x milheto tratados com agentes antimitóticos Mixoploidy in napiergrass x pearl millet hybrids treated with antimitotic agents

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    Juscélio Clemente de Abreu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar métodos de duplicação cromossômica, com uso de agentes antimitóticos e diversos materiais botânicos como explantes dos híbridos entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. Utilizaram-se soluções de colchicina a 50 mg L-1 e 100 mg L-1, e de ciclohexamida 25 mg L-1:8-hidroxiquinoleína 300 mg L-1 (1:1, aplicadas in vitro em segmentos nodais, e in vivo em plântulas e perfilhos, com diferentes períodos de exposição. O efeito dos antimitóticos foi avaliado por meio da taxa de sobrevivência, do número cromossômico e da presença de anomalias no ciclo celular, em meristemas de raízes das plantas sobreviventes. A colchicina apresentou melhor efeito sobre as plântulas, enquanto a ciclohexamida:8-hidroxiquinoleína (1:1 atuou melhor sobre os perfilhos. Observou-se ocorrência de mixoploidia em células que apresentaram de 14 até 42 cromossomos, o que indica que houve duplicação seguida de eliminação cromossômica, confirmada pelas aberrações cromossômicas. Das células analisadas 86,4%, em média, apresentaram número cromossômico diferente de 21.The objective of this work was to evaluate methods of chromosome duplication, using antimitotic agents and several botanical materials as explant hybrids between napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Shum. and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. Colchicine (50 mg L-1 and 100 mg L-1 and cycloheximide:8-hydroxyquinoline (1:1 (25 mg L-1:300 mg L-1 solutions have been applied in vivo to shoots and in vitro to seedlings and tillers. The antimitotic effect has been evaluated through survival rate, chromosome number and presence of cell cycle anomalies at the root tips of surviving plants. The best results have been obtained when seedlings have been treated with colchicine and tillers with cycloheximide: 8-hydroxyquinoline. Mixoploidy has been observed in cells having 14 to 42 chromosomes, indicating

  10. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

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    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  11. Modelagem comparativa da cinética da fase sólida do capim-elefante picado, suplementado ou não com concentrados, e fornecido a vacas Holandês x Zebu em lactação Comparative modeling of chopped elephantgrass particulate kinectics in crossbred lactating cows receiving or not concentrate supplement

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    F.C.F. Lopes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas as estimativas da cinética da fase sólida do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. picado, mordentado com cromo (Cr, obtidas do ajuste de dois modelos não-lineares (bicompartimental tempo-independente e multicompartimental tempo-dependente a resultados de excreção fecal de vacas Holandês x Zebu em lactação. Utilizaram-se dados de dois experimentos realizados em anos diferentes com capim-elefante cortado aos 60 e 45 dias, e suplementado, 3,3kg/vaca/dia, base matéria natural, ou não com concentrados. Foram utilizadas quatro e três vacas, respectivamente, no primeiro e no segundo ano de experimentação, havendo sempre duas fases de coleta de dados, necessárias para permitir que cada vaca pudesse ser avaliada em cada tratamento. As taxas de passagem ruminal estimadas variaram de 3,0 a 3,2%/h no modelo bicompartimental tempo-independente, e de 2,6 a 3,0%/h no modelo multicompartimental tempo-dependente, enquanto as respectivas taxas de passagem pós-ruminal variaram de 4,9 a 7,4%/h e de 7,4 a 10,9%/h. Os tempos médios de retenção do capim-elefante no trato gastrintestinal das vacas variaram de 66,0 a 76,2h no modelo bicompartimental tempo-independente, e de 48,1 a 57,8h no modelo multicompartimental tempo-dependente. O processo de dependência de tempo imposto pelo modelo multicompartimental permitiu melhor ajuste aos dados de excreção fecal do Cr, em relação ao modelo bicompartimental.Particulate kinetics estimates of chopped elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. mordanted with Chromium (Cr were obtained and compared by the adjustment of two nonlinear models - age-independent double-compartmental model and age-dependent multicompartmental model - to a Cr faecal excretion dates of lactating crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows. Results from two trials carried out in different years with elephantgrass cut at 60 and 45 days of growth and supplemented, 3,3 kg/cow/day, wet basis, or not with concentrates were

  12. Seleção de genótipos de capim-elefante quanto à resistência à cigarrinha-das-pastagens Selection of elephant grass genotypes for resistance to spittlebug

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    Alexander Machado Auad

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. quanto à resistência à cigarrinha-das-pastagens (Mahanarva spectabilis. Para avaliação da antibiose, aos trinta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi infestada com seis ovos próximos à eclosão, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 30 genótipos e dez repetições. Quarenta e cinco dias após a eclosão das ninfas, avaliou-se a porcentagem de sobrevivência do inseto-praga nos diferentes genótipos. Para avaliação da não-preferência, foram quantificados, quinzenalmente, o número e tamanho de ninfas por vaso, em plantas mantidas em casa de vegetação, onde adultos de M. spectabilis eram periodicamente liberados, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições por genótipo, em dois períodos de amostragem. Os genótipos Cameroon de Piracicaba, Pioneiro, Cuba 169, Santa Rita, Mineiro Ipeaco, Mercker Comum de Pinda e CNPGL 96-27-3 foram selecionados quanto à resistência, pelo mecanismo de antibiose. O número e o tamanho médio das ninfas variaram significativamente em razão do genótipo de capim-elefante, no estudo da não-preferência. Os genótipos Roxo de Botucatu e Pioneiro são candidatos à testemunha suscetível e resistente, respectivamente, pelo mecanismo de antibiose, e os genótipos Cameroon e Cameroon Piracicaba são promissores pelo mecanismo de não-preferência.The objective of this work was to evaluate genotypes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. regarding resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis. For antibiosis evaluation, each plant was infested with six eggs near hatching, thirty days after planting, in a completely randomized design with 30 genotypes and ten repetitions. Forty-five days after the nymphs hatched, the insect survival rate was evaluated on the different genotypes. For nonpreference mechanism evaluation, the size and number of the nymphs per pot were

  13. Elephant grass genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion Genótipos de capim-elefante para produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa

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    Rafael Fiusa de Morais

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. genotypes for bioenergy production by direct biomass combustion. Five elephant grass genotypes grown in two different soil types, both of low fertility, were evaluated. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Agrobiologia field station in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The design was in randomized complete blocks, with split plots and four replicates. The genotypes studied were Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo and CNPGL F06-3. Evaluations were made for biomass production, total biomass nitrogen, biomass nitrogen from biological fixation, carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios, and contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash. The dry matter yields ranged from 45 to 67 Mg ha-1. Genotype Roxo had the lowest yield and genotypes Bag 02 and Cameroon had the highest ones. The biomass nitrogen accumulation varied from 240 to 343 kg ha-1. The plant nitrogen from biological fixation was 51% in average. The carbon/nitrogen and stem/leaf ratios and the contents of fiber, lignin, cellulose and ash did not vary among the genotypes. The five genotypes are suitable for energy production through combustion.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. quanto ao potencial para a produção de bioenergia por combustão direta da biomassa. Avaliaram-se cinco genótipos de capim-elefante, em dois solos com baixa fertilidade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na estação experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, em Seropédica, RJ. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os genótipos estudados foram Cameroon, Bag 02, Gramafante, Roxo e CNPGL F06-3. Determinaram-se a produção de biomassa, o acúmulo de nitrogênio na biomassa, o nitrogênio da biomassa proveniente da fixação biológica, as relações carbono/nitrogênio e talo/folha, e os teores de fibra, lignina

  14. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DO SORO DE QUEIJO SOBRE A COMPOSIÇÃO BROMATOLÓGICA, FERMENTAÇÃO, PERDAS E RECUPERAÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA EM SILAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE

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    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um experimento para avaliar o efeito da adição de três níveis de soro de queijo (0%, 2,5% e5,0% na matéria natural sobre a composição bromatológica, pH, N-amoniacal, perdas de gás, efluente e recuperação da matéria seca de silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e quatro repetições por tratamento. Efetuou-se um corte de uniformização do capim, seguido de uma adubação com 60 kg de N/ha, na forma de uréia, sessenta dias após, efetuaram-se o corte e a ensilagem do capim, em baldes experimentais com capacidade de 6,5 litros. Avaliaram-se o teor de matéria seca, o pH, o N-amoniacal, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido das silagens. Os teores de FDN e FDA não sofreram influência da adição do soro. O soro foi eficiente em reduzir as perdas por gases e a produção de N-amoniacal, todavia aumentou as perdas por efluente. Não houve influência da adição do soro sobre o pH e recuperação da matéria seca. A silagem é uma alternativa para utilização de soro produzido pela indústria de laticínios. PALAVRAS–CHAVE: Conservação, N-amoniacal, pH.

  15. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

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    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrog

  16. Fracionamento de carboidratos de silagem de capim-elefante emurchecido ou com farelo de cacau Carbohydrate fractioning of elephantgrass silage wilted or enriched with cocoa meal

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Rasmo Garcia; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Francisco Éden Paiva Fernandes; José Antônio Obeid; Bruna Mara Aparecida de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido para determinar as frações que compõem os carboidratos da silagem de capim-elefante emurchecido ou acrescida de farelo de cacau. O capim-elefante utilizado foi colhido aos 50 dias de rebrota após o corte de uniformização e submetido aos seguintes tratamentos: capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por oito horas e capim-elefante não-emurchecido acrescido de 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28% de farelo de cacau (% da matéria natural). O material foi acondicionado em silos de PVC com cap...

  17. Assessing the Heavy Metal Transfer and Translocation by Sida Acuta and Pennisetum Purpureum for Phytoremediation Purposes

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    CLEMENT O. OGUNKUNLE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field sampling of two prevalent weeds (Sida acuta and Pennisetum purpureum growing on cement-polluted soil was carried out seasonally to assess the root and leaf contents of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn. Concentrations of heavy metal in corresponding soils (total and bioavailable were also determined and data generated were used to calculate the respective transfer factors (TFs and translocation indices (Tis of metals in the weed species. The results of the TFs and Tis were used to evaluate the potential ability of these weed species to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and suitability or phytoremediation. Findings indicated that S. acuta and P. purpureum are suitable for phytostabilization of Cr, Cd and Zn in cement-polluted soil while Cr and Cd can be phytoextracted by these two weed species from cement-polluted soil.

  18. DELIGNIFICACIÓN SELECTIVA DEL PASTO Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum typhoides USANDO BASIDIOMICETOS LIGNINOLÍTICOS SELECTIVE DELIGNIFICATION OF THE Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum typhoides GRASS USING LIGNINOLYTIC BASIDIOMYCETES

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    Freimar SEGURA S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Muestras de pasto Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum typhoides de 120 días de corte se someten durante siete semanas a fermentación selectiva en estado sólido (FES con cepas de Ganoderma ssp y Lentinus ssp. Se realiza la caracterización de la delignificación por Infrarrojo con Transformada de Fourier (IR-TF midiendo las áreas de las principales bandas características. Mediante esta técnica se establece que en las muestras tratadas con Ganoderma spp se obtiene una pérdida del 70% de los compuestos aromáticos con relación a los alifáticos. En las semanas cero y séptima se establecieron valores de lignina en detergente ácido (LDA de 55,9% y 10,7%, respectivamente. En este mismo período los contenidos de materia seca y celulosa variaron del 73,3% al 92,9% y del 3,1% al 51,7% respectivamente. Estos resultados confirman una degradación selectiva de la lignina en las muestras tratadas con Ganoderma spp y medios suplementados con manganeso. Las pruebas de degradabilidad in situ, utilizando la técnica de la bolsa de nailon y de digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca basada en técnicas enzimáticas y gravimétricas, no mostraron mejoramiento de la digestibilidad de la materia seca del pasto como consecuencia de la fermentación con las dos cepas de hongos basidiomicetos, corroborando lo indicado por otros autores que afirman que los hongos pueden ser tóxicos para la microflora del rumen y, por lo tanto, pueden afectar la digestibilidad de la materia seca.Samples of Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum typhoides grass of 120 days are put under selective fermentation in solid state with two strains of basidiomycetes fungi Ganoderma ssp and Lentinus ssp, during seven weeks. The delignification characterization is made by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR measuring the areas of the main characteristic bands. In the samples treated with the Ganoderma ssp strain, a loss of 70% of aromatic compounds in relation to the aliphatics is

  19. Evaluación del pretratamiento con ácido sulfúrico diluido del pasto maralfalfa (pennisetum glaucum x pennisetum purpureum) para la producción de etanol

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    Lady Mateus; Orlando Hernández; Mario Velásquez; José de Jesús Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Título en ingles: Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of goliath grass (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum) for ethanol cellulosic Resumen : Evaluar la producción de etanol a partir de cultivos lignocelulósicos, específicamente pastos de rápido crecimiento en la región, constituye una alternativa a la demanda de biocombustibles. En la presente investigación se seleccionó el pasto Maralfalfa (Pennisetum  glaucum x Pennisetum  purpureum) utilizando el pretratamiento con ácido sulfúrico di...

  20. Características produtivas e qualitativas do capim-elefante pastejado em intervalo fixo ou variável de acordo com a interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa Productive and qualitative characteristics of elephant grass pasture grazed in fixed and intermittent intervals according to interception of active photosynthetic radiation

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    Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dois intervalos de pastejo de pastos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.: um intervalo variável, quando o dossel atingisse 95% de interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa, e um intervalo de pastejo fixo, de 26 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com medidas repetidas no tempo. O intervalo de pastejo, a altura do dossel no pré e pós-pastejo, a interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e o índice de área foliar foram maiores quando aplicado o intervalo de pastejo fixo. Não houve efeito dos intervalos de pastejo sobre as massas de forragem, de folhas e de colmos no pré e pós-pastejo nem sobre a densidade volumétrica do dossel no pré-pastejo. A massa de material morto foi menor no intervalo de pastejo variável em comparação ao intervalo fixo, tanto no pré quanto no pós-pastejo. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido nos pastos manejados em intervalo variável foram menores que naquela com intervalo fixo. A aplicação de intervalo de pastejo variável, por permitir redução do tempo de descanso do pasto, tem efeitos positivos na qualidade da forragem.The objective of this trial was to evaluate two intervals of grazing on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pasture. It was tested a variable grazing interval when it was observed an interception of 95% of active photosynthetic radiation by sward, and a 26-day fixed grazing interval. The experimental design was a complete randomized design with time repeated measurements. The interval of grazing, pre and post grazing sward heights, sward interception of active photosynthetic radiation and leaf area index were greater when the fixed pasture interval was applied. There was no effect of intervals of grazing on forage mass, leaf mass and stem mass in pre- or post-grazing neither for sward volumetric density in pre grazing. Dead material mass was lower for variable

  1. Composição química do capim-elefante cv. Roxo cortado em diferentes alturas Chemical composition of elephant grass var. Roxo cut at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Alves dos Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos cortes efetuados a 0, 15, 30 e 45 cm sobre a composição química do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo, em épocas seca e chuvosa. As amostras foram obtidas de uma área útil de 8,4 m² de cada parcela. Após o corte de uniformização, efetuaram-se dois cortes no período seco, em intervalos de 90 dias, e três no período chuvoso, em intervalos de 60 dias. De cada parcela foi tomada uma amostra de 3 a 5 perfilhos, desidratada em estufa e triturada para analises laboratoriais. Foram avaliados os percentuais de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG e cinzas. As alturas de corte não influenciaram a composição química da forrageira, nem houve interação com as épocas. Com exceção de hemicelulose e cinzas, os cortes na época seca mostraram resultados superiores à chuvosa. As médias nas duas épocas foram 19,70 e 17,44% para MS; 7,74 e 7,25% para PB; 76,41 e 71,13% para FDN; 42,75 e 41,02% para FDA; 31,44 e 30,43% para CEL; 30,66 e 30,28% para HCEL; 9,25 e 7,83% para LIG; e 1,97 e 3,38% para cinzas, nos períodos seco e chuvoso, respectivamente.This work was carried out to evaluate the cutting effect at 0, 15, 30 and 45 cm height, on the chemical composition of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo in dry and rainy seasons. The samples were obtained from an useful area of 8,4 m² from each parcel. After the uniformity cut two cuts in dry season with 90 days interval, and three cuts in rainy seasons with 60 days interval. A sample of 3 or 5 tillers was taken from each parcel and they were dehydrated in air forced stove and ground for laboratorial analysis. The percentages of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HCEL, lignin (LIG, and ashes were

  2. Produção de biomassa de erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br.] sob adubação com composto de capim elefante inoculado e sem inoculação de actinomicetos Biomass production of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. under fertilization with compost inoculated elephant grass and without inoculation of actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.G. Gama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-cidreira [Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Br.] é uma espécie da família Verbenaceae amplamente utilizada pela população brasileira, devido às propriedades calmante, espasmolítica suave, analgésica, sedativa, ansiolítica e levemente expectorante. Para implantação do experimento foi produzido composto orgânico de capim elefante + esterco, na proporção de 70% de material vegetal e 30% de esterco, sem inoculação e inoculados com os isolados de actinomicetos do gênero Streptomyces: AC16; AC26; AC92 e AC103. Os compostos foram acondicionados em sacos de polietileno contendo 10,0 kg de solo adicionados na proporção equivalente a 20 t ha-1 e foram reaplicados logo após a primeira colheita. As colheitas da parte aérea foram realizadas aos 75 e 165 dias após o transplante. As raízes foram colhidas logo após a segunda colheita. Os tratatamentos com adubação orgânica promoveram aumento médio na produção de biomassa da erva-cidreira de 184, 83, 125, 115 e 122% para biomassa seca da parte aérea (MSPA na primeira colheita, de MSPA na segunda colheita, biomassa seca total da parte aérea (MSTPA, biomassa seca de raiz (MSR e biomassa seca total da cultura (MST, respectivamente, quando comparados com o tratamento controle, porém não houve efeito da inoculação de actinomicetos no composto orgânico. Nas condições em que este estudo foi realizado foi possível concluir que a adubação com composto orgânico de capim elefante influenciou positivamente a produção de biomassa seca da L. alba, mas a inoculação dos compostos com actinomicetos não exerceu influência.L. alba is a species of the family Verbenaceae widely used by the Brazilian population, because of the soothing, gentle antispasmodic, analgesic, expectorant, sedative, anxiolytic and smoothly. For the implementation of the experiment produced organic compound of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Shum. + manure at 70% plant material and 30% manure, uninoculated

  3. Ensaios preliminares sobre autofecundação e cruzamentos no melhoramento do capim-elefante Preliminary tests on self-pollination and crossbreed in elephantgrass breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Conceição Silva; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos Santos; Mário de Andrade Lira; Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello; Erinaldo Viana de Freitas; Ramilton Jader Menezes Santos; Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se nesta pesquisa verificar a possibilidade do uso da autofecundação no melhoramento do Pennisetum purpureum e comparar progênies de Pennisetum purpureum obtidas por três formas de fecundação (tratamentos): autofecundação, cruzamentos intraespecíficos e cruzamentos interespecíficos com Pennisetum glaucum. Foram avaliadas 10, 2 e 2 famílias com um total de, respectivamente, 160 progênies provenientes de cruzamento intraespecífico, 38 progênies de cruzamento interespecífico e 40 progê...

  4. Cloning and in silico analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Pennisetum purpureum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ran Tang; Xiang-Qian Zhang; You-Han Li; Xin-Ming Xie

    2014-04-01

    Lignin is a major constituent of plant cell walls and indispensable to the normal growth of a plant. However, the presence of lignin complicates the structure of the plant cell walls and negatively influences pulping industry, lignocellulose utilization as well as forage properties. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), a key enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis, catalyses the last step in monolignol synthesis and has a major role in genetic regulation of lignin production. In the present study, a 1 342-bp cDNA fragment of CAD gene, named PpCAD, was isolated from Pennisetum purpureum using strategies of homologous clone and rapid amplification of cDNA end. It was translated into an intact protein sequence including 366 amino acid residues by ORF Finder. The genomic full-length DNA of PpCAD was a 3 738-bp sequence containing four exons and three introns, among which the 114-bp exon was considered to be a conserved region compared with other CADs. Basic bioinformatic analysis presumed that the PpCAD was a nonsecretory and hydrophobic protein with five possible transmembrane helices. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the PpCAD belonged to the class of bona fide CADs involved in lignin synthesis and it showed a high similarity (nearly 90%) with CAD protein sequences of Sorghum bicolor, Panicum virgatum and Zea mays in Gramineae. Furthere, PpCAD amino acid sequence was demonstrated to have some conserved motifs such as Zn-binding site, Zn-catalytic centre and NADP(H) binding domain after aligning with other bona fide CADs. Three-dimensional homology modelling of PpCAD showed that the protein had some exclusive features of bona fide CADs.

  5. Composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de capim-elefante obtida em diferentes tipos de silos experimentais e no silo tipo trincheira Chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephantgrass silage obtained in different experimental and bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos experimentais, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira, amostrado a 30 e 60 cm da sua superfície, para a ensilagem do capim-elefante (cv. Napier. Utilizaram-se, ainda, dois diferentes graus de compactação, correspondentes a 400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m³. O capim (33,0% de MS e 4,2% de PB foi homogeneizado e utilizado para encher quatro silos por tratamento, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados, para análise da composição bromatológica e do perfil fermentativo. Silagens produzidas em manilhas de concreto não impermeabilizadas apresentaram altos valores de pH, NIDA e lignina, baixas concentrações de ácido lático e nitrogênio amoniacal, baixo poder tampão e baixa digestibilidade in vitro. Silagens produzidas em silos experimentais apresentaram qualidade superior, quanto aos parâmetros amido, carboidratos solúveis, concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal, poder tampão, ácidos acético, propiônico, butírico e lático, do que aquelas produzidas no silo comercial. Silagens obtidas dos diferentes extratos do silo comercial apresentaram maior variabilidade para os parâmetros de fermentação do que aquelas obtidas entre diferentes tipos de silos experimentais.One type of commercial silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum (33.0% DM and 4.2% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600 kg of silage/m³: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 30 (top and 60 (deep cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. A completely randomized design was used. The concrete pipe silo produced silage with higher pH, ADIN and lignin values, as well as lower in vitro

  6. Diferenças Varietais nas Características Fotossintéticas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum Varietal Differences in the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pennisetum purpureum, Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, a massa foliar específica (MFE e as curvas de eficiência fotossintética em resposta a luz solar em oito genótipos de capim-elefante (cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 e CNPGL 91-10-2 selecionados de acordo com o nível de produtividade estabelecido na época das águas. As concentrações de clorofila a (CHA, clorofila b (CHB e carotenóides (CRT mostraram relação altamente positiva, bem como as relações de clorofilas a/b (RAB e de clorofila total/carotenóides (RCC. Os teores de CHA e CHB foram mais altos no genótipo taiwan A-146. Os valores de MFE observados indicaram menor acúmulo de matéria seca por unidade de área foliar para os genótipos CNPGL 91-27-5 e CNPGL 91-27-1. O estudo das curvas de eficiência fotossintética dos genótipos possibilitou a determinação da taxa respiratória no escuro (Rd, da irradiância de compensação (Ic, do rendimento quântico (f e da assimilação fotossintética do carbono (Amax na saturação luminosa. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e mineiro apresentaram, respectivamente, cerca de 18 e 11% mais capacidade carboxilativa que os demais genótipos avaliados. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram valores de rendimento quântico (f próximos aos valores médios citados para plantas C4. A Rd oscilou entre 1,64 e 3,48 mmol m-2 s-1 e o Ic, entre 26,39 e 54,97 µmol m-2 s-1 nos oito genótipos. Constatou-se que, sob condições de irradiância e temperatura não-limitantes, o genótipo taiwan A-146 apresentou maior potencial fotossintético.Photosynthetic pigment content, specific leaf mass (SLM and carboxilative efficiency curves were obtained in response to sunlight in eight genotypes of elephantgrass selected according to productivities during the rainy season: cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91

  7. Physiological and Morphological Effects of High Water Tables on Early Growth of Giant Reed (Arundo donax), Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Energycane and Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demand for renewable energy sources has led to interest in high-biomass crops. Species that have been proposed as well-suited for biofuel production in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida include Giant Reed (Arundo donax), Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Energycane (S...

  8. Lâminas de irrigação e doses de nitrogênio em pastagem de capim-elefante no período seco do ano no norte de Minas Gerais Irrigation depth and nitrogen doses on elephant-grass pastures during the dry season in the north of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Jamir Gonçalves Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se durante o período seco do ano o efeito de quatro doses de nitrogênio (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1.ano e de seis lâminas d'água (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 e 120% da evapotranspiração de referência sobre o rendimento forrageiro, a densidade de perfilhos, a relação folha/colmo, a altura de plantas e os teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Como fonte de adubo nitrogenado utilizou-se ureia, aplicada a lanço. O controle do nível de água e a definição do momento de irrigar foram estabelecidos com base na curva de retenção de água no solo e no teor de água, pelo método gravimétrico de amostras de solo. As lâminas d'água e as doses de nitrogênio aumentaram linearmente a altura das plantas, a produção de matéria seca e a densidade de perfilhos, mas diminuíram os teores de PB. A irrigação teve efeito quadrático no teor FDN, cujo percentual máximo, 69,38%, foi observado quando foi aplicada lâmina d'água de 72,88% da evapotranspiração. A adubação nitrogenada reduziu linearmente o teor de FDN. A menor relação folha/colmo obtida foi de 1,98 quando aplicada lâmina d'água de 65,5% da evapotranspiração com a dose de 300 kg.ha-1.ano de nitrogênio. As lâminas d'água associadas às doses de nitrogênio elevam a produção de MS de 2.539,08 kg/corte para 6.445,72 kg/corte, diminuindo o efeito da estacionalidade de produção do capim-elefante "pioneiro" no norte de Minas Gerais.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four levels of nitrogen (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1.year and six water depth (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120% of the reference evapotranspiration on the forrage yield, tillers density, relationship leaf/stem, plants height and crude protein content and neutral detergent fiber of the elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum, during the dry

  9. Pengaruh Suplementasi Acacia mangium Willd pada Pennisetum purpureum terhadap Karakteristik Fermentasi dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of Acacia mangium Willd supplementation to Pennisetum purpureum on fermentation characteristics, protozoal numbers, nutrients degradability and in vitro methane production. Treatments consisted of four composite substrates with P. purpureum and A. mangium Willd ratios at 100:0 (0%, 85:15 (15%, 70:30 (30%, and 55:45 (45%. Crude saponin and total tannin contents of A. mangium were 1.67% and 4.51%, respectively. Methane and gas productions decreased linearly (P<0.01 in response to acacia levels. Addition of A. mangium at 15%, 30% and 45% decreased CH4 production by 16.2%, 26.8% and 61.1%, respectively as compared to the control. There were linear decreases in total VFA and acetate concentrations (P<0.01, and propionate production (P<0.05 in response to increase in acacia addition. Total protozoal populations increased linearly (P<0.05 with added acacia. In vitro dry matter and organic matter degradabilities of substrate decreased linearly (P<0.01 with acacia addition. It is concluded that methane production is not essentially associated with protozoal population. A. mangium has a potential use for mitigation of enteric methane production.

  10. Pengaruh pemberian feses dan urin kerbau lumpur terhadap produksi dan kualitas rumput gajah mini (pennisetum purpureum schamach) dengan interval Pemotongan yang berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    Banjarnahor, Evi Reka

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of feces and urine buffalo mud and cutting interval on production and nutrient content of Pennisetum purpureum schamach. The experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara started from July to October 2015. The design used in the study was Split Plot Design consist of cutting interval (4 week and 6 week) as main plot and type (of fertilizer, faecal sludge buffalo, buffalo faecal sludge + urine non fermented and faecal...

  11. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and water stress on stomatal aperture, chlorophyll content and proline accumulation of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum)

    OpenAIRE

    Budiman

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization and water stress on the stomatal aperture, chlorophyll and proline accumulation of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) The effect of water stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels were evaluated within an arrangement of Completely Randomized Design with factorial pattern (2x3). The variables observed were stomatal aperture, total chlorophyll and proline content. The results showed interaction between water s...

  12. Evaluación del pretratamiento con ácido sulfúrico diluido del pasto maralfalfa (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum para la producción de etanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Mateus

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of goliath grass (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum for ethanol cellulosic Resumen : Evaluar la producción de etanol a partir de cultivos lignocelulósicos, específicamente pastos de rápido crecimiento en la región, constituye una alternativa a la demanda de biocombustibles. En la presente investigación se seleccionó el pasto Maralfalfa (Pennisetum  glaucum x Pennisetum  purpureum utilizando el pretratamiento con ácido sulfúrico diluido a diferentes temperaturas (110, 130, 150, 170 y 190 °C y concentraciones de ácido (0.8, 1.2 y 2.0% (p/p, seguido de un proceso de hidrólisis enzimática utilizando celulasas y celobiosas comerciales y un proceso de hidrólisis y fermentación simultanea. La máxima producción de etanol obtenido fue 117 mg etanol/ g biomasa pretratada a 190 °C y 1,2 %(p/p de ácido sulfúrico. El líquido hidrolizado fue caracterizado calculando el porcentaje de glucosa, xilosa y lignina solubilizadas y degradadas durante el pretratamiento. Palabras clave: etanol lignocelulósico; celulosa; hemicelulosa. Abstract: The goliath grass (Pennisetum  glaucum x Pennisetum  purpureum was pretreated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.8, 1.2 y 2.0% (w/w from low to high temperatures (110, 130, 150, 170 y 190 °C followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF of remaining solids. The maximum yield was 117 mg of ethanol/g biomass to 190 °C and 1.2 % (w/w of sulfuric acid. Key words: lignocellulosic ethanol; hemicelluloses; cellulose.

  13. Mejoramiento de aceites maltoides extraídos de bio-crudo obtenido por conversión hidrotérmica de pasto Pennisetum (Glaucum x Purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Riaño, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    La presente tesis continua con la línea de investigación de producción de biocombustibles líquidos por conversión hidrotérmica de biomasa (pasto Pennisetum (Glaucum x Purpureum)) a condiciones supercríticas. Se establecen las condiciones experimentales óptimas en la producción de la fracción más promisoria denominada aceites maltoides (AM) y se aporta en la síntesis y caracterización de catalizadores de níquel y/o molibdeno sulfurados soportados sobre un material carbonoso de origen colombian...

  14. FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ELEPHANT GRASS SILAGES WITH OR WITHOUT Lactobacillusplantarum AND WHEAT MEAL ISOLATED OR IN ASSOCIATION CARACTERÍSTICAS FERMENTATIVAS E COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICO-BROMATOLÓGICA DE SILAGENS DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE COM OU SEM Lactobacillusplantarum E FARELO DE TRIGO ISOLADAMENTE OU EM COMBINAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Jesus Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    H, N-NH3, ácido láctico e composição químico-bromatológica de silagens de capim-elefante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos: silagem de capim-elefante; silagem de capim-elefante inoculado com Lactobacillus plantarum; silagem de capim-elefante + 10% de farelo de trigo na matéria natural; silagem de capim-elefante inoculado com Lactobacillus    plantarum + 10% de farelo de trigo na matéria natural, com quatro repetições por tratamento. O capim foi ensilado em baldes com volume de cinco litros, com válvula de bunsen para escape dos gases. Houve efeito (P<0,05 da adição de farelo de trigo e da inoculação sobre as perdas por gases, recuperação da matéria seca (MS, pH e ácido láctico de silagens, sendo que o tratamento combinando farelo de trigo e inoculante apresentou o menor valor de pH, maior valor de ácido láctico e menor perda por gás. Observaram-se o maior teor de MS e o menor teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN nas silagens com farelo de trigo, com ou sem inoculante. A inoculação reduziu o teor de hemicelulose, nas silagens com ou sem farelo de trigo, resultando em menor teor de FDN, quando comparadas às silagens não inoculadas. Notaram-se aumentos no teor protéico das silagens com os aditivos testados, sendo o mais alto valor observado para as silagens combinado os dois aditivos. Conclui-se que tanto a inoculação com Lactobacillus plantarum quanto a adição do farelo de trigo reduzem as perdas de matéria seca e melhoram a qualidade da silagem do capim-elefante, sendo os maiores efeitos observados quando estes aditivos são combinados.

    Palavras-chaves: Aditivo, conservação de forragens, inoculante, Penisetum purpureum

  15. Development of mechanical methods for cell-tray propagation and field transplanting of dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Fatmyah Utamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. must be propagated vegetatively due to lack of viable seeds, root splitting and stem cuttings are generally used to obtain true-to-type plant populations. These ordinary methods are laborious and costly, and are the greatest barriers for expanding the cultivation area of this crop. The objectives of this research were to develop nursery production of dwarf napiergrass in cell trays and to compare the efficiency of mechanical versus manual methods for cell-tray propagation and field transplanting. After defoliation of herbage either by a sickle (manually or hand-mowing machine, every potential aerial tiller bud was cut to a single one for transplanting into cell trays as stem cuttings and placed in a glasshouse over winter. The following June, nursery plants were trimmed to a 25–cm length and transplanted in an experimental field (sandy soil with 20,000 plants ha^(−1 either by shovel (manually or Welsh onion planter. Labour time was recorded for each process. The manual defoliation of plants required 44% more labour time for preparing the stem cuttings (0.73 person-min. stemcutting^(−1 compared to using hand-mowing machinery (0.51 person-min. stem-cutting^(−1. In contrast, labour time for transplanting required an extra 0.30 person-min. m^(−2 (14% using the machinery compared to manual transplanting, possibly due to the limited plot size for machinery operation. The transplanting method had no significant effect on plant establishment or plant growth, except for herbage yield 110 days after planting. Defoliation of herbage by machinery, production using a cell-tray nursery and mechanical transplanting reduced the labour intensity of dwarf napiergrass propagation.

  16. Redução da interferência de Brachiaria decumbens na formação de pastagem com Penisetum purpureum através de herbicidas Reduction of Brachiaria decumbens interference on Pennisetum purpureum pasture establishment through herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, W.; D. Vilela; A.V Pereira; F.A. Ferreira; R.P. Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    A tolerância da gramínea forrageira capim-elefante a herbicidas aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas entre si, aplicados em condições de pré e pós-emergência da forrageira, bem como a eficiência desses produtos no controle de B. decumbens e outras espécies de plantas daninhas, foram avaliadas em dois experimentos. Os herbicidas aplicados no experimento conduzido em condições de pré-emergência do capim-elefante, com as respectivas doses em kg ha-1, foram: metolachlor (1,152; 2,304; e 3,456), ...

  17. Fracionamento de proteína e carboidratos em silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos agrícolas Protein and carbohydrate fractioning in elephantgrass silage with agricultural by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Vieira Oliveira Andrade; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Cristina Mattos Veloso; Bonomo,, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Um experimento foi conduzido para determinar o fracionamento de carboidratos e proteína da silagem de capim-elefante contendo farelo de mandioca, casca de café farelo de cacau. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 × 4, composto de três subprodutos adicionados ao capim-elefante em quatro níveis (0, 10, 20 e 30% da matéria natural), cada um com cinco repetições. O material foi ensilado em silos de PVC, que permaneceram fechados por 60 dias. O f...

  18. Dinâmica populacional de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) em bovinos leiteiros mantidos em manejo de pastejo rotativo de capim-elefante

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai N.; Labruna M.B.; Pires A.V.; Louvandini H.; Abdalla A.L.; Gennari S.G.

    2000-01-01

    De maio de 1996 a abril de 1998, avaliou-se a dinâmica do parasitismo pelo Boophilus microplus em 20 novilhas mestiças, submetidas ao manejo de rotação em piquetes de capim-elefante. Os animais, pesados a cada seis meses, foram distribuídos em dois grupos de 10, sendo realizados tratamentos acaricidas em um deles (grupo tratado). As curvas de infestação nos grupos controle e tratado apresentaram padrões semelhantes, com picos de parasitismo ocorrendo na mesma época. A menor carga parasitária ...

  19. Copper tolerance of the biomass crops Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (Phragmites australis) in soil culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Shen, Yixing; Lou, Laiqing; Ding, Chenglong; Cai, Qingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Pot trials were conducted to study the influence of copper (Cu) on the growth and biomass of Elephant grass (EG, Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (VG, Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (UR, Phragmites australis). Cu toxicity in EG, VG and UR was positively correlated with the total and bioavailable Cu concentrations in the soil. Based on the EC50, dry weights, Cu contents, chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rates, the Cu tolerance of the three species followed the trend EGNVGNUR. There were no significant differences in the unit calorific values among the different plants, though the total calorific values of EG were higher than those of VG and UR due to its higher biomass. The addition of KH2PO4 to the soil decreased the bioavailability of Cu and the Cu uptake by plants. EG could therefore be a good candidate for growth on Cu-contaminated soils, especially those improved by phosphate. PMID:19393734

  20. Silagem de capim-elefante aditivada com produtos alternativos=Elephant grass silage with added alternative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India Joelma Gatass Monteiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o padrão de fermentação e a composição bromatológica da silagem de capim-elefante utilizando diferentes aditivos. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos (capim-elefante sem aditivo; com 100 kg de farelo de arroz t-1 de massa verde (MV; com 100 kg de casca de soja t-1 MV; com 100 kg de fubá de milho t-1 MV; com 200 kg de cana-de-açúcar picada t-1 MV; com inoculante bacteriano e quatro repetições. Utilizaram-se silos de PVC, adotando densidade de 600 kg de massa verde m-3. Com a exceção do inoculante bacteriano, todos os aditivos proporcionaram aumento nos teores de matéria seca (27,95 a 31,65% e carboidratos solúveis (15,20 a 17,14% na forragem a ser ensilada. Os aditivos promoveram adequado padrão de fermentação face aos valores de pH (3,70 a 3,96 e de nitrogênio amoniacal (3,67 a 4,44% do N-total verificados na silagem. O aditivo farelo de arroz proporcionou a obtenção de silagens com teores mais elevados de proteína bruta (6,41% e nutrientes digestíveis totais (61,91% em relação ao tratamento sem aditivo.The objective was to evaluate the fermentation pattern and chemical composition of elephant grass silage using different additives. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments (elephant grass no additive; with 100 kg of rice bran ton-1 of green mass (GM; with 100 kg of soybean hulls ton-1 GM; with 100 kg of corn meal ton-1 GM; with 200 kg of sugar cane ton-1 GM; with inoculants and four replications. PVC silos were used, adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. With the exception of inoculant, all additives used resulted in increased dry matter content (27.95 to 31.65% and soluble carbohydrate contents (15.20 to 17.14% in the forage being ensiled. The additives promoted an adequate fermentation pattern for pH values (3.70 to 3.96 and ammonia nitrogen (3.67 to 4.44% of total N observed in the silage. The rice bran additive yielded

  1. Teores de proteína para vacas lactantes em pastejo de capim-elefante Protein contents for lactating dairy cows grazing elephant grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da utilização de concentrados com diferentes teores de proteína bruta (PB para vacas em lactação sob pastejo rotacionado de capim-elefante, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos (3x3. Os tratamentos foram concentrados suplementares contendo 15,2; 18,2 ou 21,1% de PB. Foram oferecidos 3kg de concentrado por vaca, duas vezes ao dia. A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS/ha de capim-elefante foi de 1.873kg ou de 17,4kg de MS/vaca dia-1. A MS do capim-elefante foi de 19,6%, contendo 13,9% de PB e 66,1% de fibra detergente neutro (FDN e 67,4% de digestibilidade in vitro da MS (DIVMS. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos quanto ao consumo diário de MS da dieta total (21,5; 21,6 e 20,8kg/d, MS do capim-elefante (16,1; 16,3 e 15,5kg/d e FDN do capim-elefante (10,7; 10,7 e 10,3kg/d. As produções de leite (17,5; 17,2 e 17,6kg/d e os teores de gordura (3,4; 3,5 e 3,5%, proteína (2,9; 2,9 e 2,9%, lactose (4,4; 4,4 e 4,4% e N-ureia no leite (14,1; 14,6 e 15,8mg/dL não diferiram (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos (respectivamente, para 15,2; 18,2 ou 21,1% de PB. O teor de N-ureia no plasma foi maior (PTo evaluate the effect of feeding concentrate with different crude protein (CP contents, lactating dairy cows grazing elephant grass were distributed in a 3x3 latin square. Three kg/cow of concentrates (15.2, 18.2, or 21.1% CP were offered twice a day. Elephant grass dry matter (DM availability was 1,873kg/ha; with a daily offer of 17.4kg/cow. The elephant grass DM content was 19.6% with 13.9% CP, 66.1% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and 67.4% in vitro DM digestibility. There was no difference among treatments regarding total diet DM daily intake (21.5, 21.6, and 20.8kg/cow, elephant grass DM (16.1, 16.3, and 15.5kg/cow, and elephant grass NDF (10.7, 10.7, and 10.3kg/cow. Milk yield (17.5, 17.2, and 17.6kg/d fat (3.4, 3.5, and 3.5%, protein (2.9, 2.9, and 2.9%, lactose (4.4, 4.4, and 4.4%, and N-urea (14.1, 14.6, and 15

  2. Ensaios preliminares sobre autofecundação e cruzamentos no melhoramento do capim-elefante Preliminary tests on self-pollination and crossbreed in elephantgrass breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesta pesquisa verificar a possibilidade do uso da autofecundação no melhoramento do Pennisetum purpureum e comparar progênies de Pennisetum purpureum obtidas por três formas de fecundação (tratamentos: autofecundação, cruzamentos intraespecíficos e cruzamentos interespecíficos com Pennisetum glaucum. Foram avaliadas 10, 2 e 2 famílias com um total de, respectivamente, 160 progênies provenientes de cruzamento intraespecífico, 38 progênies de cruzamento interespecífico e 40 progênies de autofecundação. Foram realizadas duas avaliações para determinar a produção de matéria seca - MS (kg/touceira, o teor de MS (%, a altura de planta (m, o perfilhamento basilar (nº/touceira e índice de sobrevivência (%, em parcelas sem repetição. Os tratamentos cruzamento intraespecífico, cruzamento interespecífico e autofecundação apresentaram as respectivas médias de 0,47; 0,78 e 0,46 e de 0,14; 0,23 e 0,22 kg de MS/touceira, respectivamente, na primeira e segunda avaliações. Experimentos com parcelas repetidas devem ser conduzidos visando isolar os efeitos de meio dos efeitos genéticos. O cruzamento interespecífico mostrou-se promissor na geração de genótipos com porcentagem de MS adequada ao processo de ensilagem. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram potencial para liberar variabilidade nos caracteres avaliados, entretanto, o baixo índice de sobrevivência das progênies provenientes da autofecundação dificulta a obtenção de linhas puras.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the self-pollination as a tool in the elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum breeding and to compare progenies of Pennisetum purpureum origined from different breeding strategies: self-pollination, intraspecific crossbreeds, and interspecific crossbreeds with Pennisetum glaucum. The experimental treatments were represented by the three fecundation forms: intraspecific crossbreed, interspecific crossbreed and self-pollination. A total

  3. Desempenho de ovinos mantidos com dietas com capim-elefante ensilado com diferentes aditivos Performance of sheep fed diets with elephant grass ensiled with different addictives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nobre de Carvalho Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca, com base na matéria natural (peso/peso, à forragem verde de capim-elefante no momento da ensilagem sobre o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho de 20 ovinos Santa Inês em confinamento. Os animais tinham 5 meses de idade, peso inicial de 22,27 ± 3,24 kg e o peso final foi de 28,6 ± 3,78 kg. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram: capim-elefante ensilado sem aditivo ou ensilado com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A utilização da casca de café, do farelo de cacau e do farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante aumentou o consumo de matéria seca. Os maiores consumos de proteína bruta foram observados nas silagens contendo farelo de cacau e farelo de mandioca. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro foram semelhantes e o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais foi maior na silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. A conversão alimentar dos animais não foi afetada pela inclusão dos aditivos na ensilagem. A inclusão de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante aumenta o ganho de peso (140,5 g/dia em ovinos Santa Inês.The effects of the addition of 15% of different addictives (coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal to green elephant grass forage, in natural matter basis (weight/weight, at the ensilage moment on the consumption of nutrients and the performance of twenty Santa Inês sheep under feedlot system were evaluated. The animals had 5.0 months of age, initial weight of 22.27 ± 3.24 kg and final weight of 28.6 ± 3.78 kg. The treatments were: T1 = elephant grass ensiled without addictive; T2 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% coffee hulls; T3 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% cocoa meal; T4 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% cassava meal. The use of the addictives coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava

  4. Avaliação nutricional do capim-elefante (Cameroon em diferentes idades de rebrotação Nutritional evaluation of elephantgrass at different regrowth ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Albino Silva Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o consumo e as digestibilidades aparente total, ruminal e intestinal de matéria seca (MS e seus componentes: matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF do capim-elefante em diferentes idades de rebrotação e quantificar a produção de proteína microbiana. Utilizaram-se quatro novilhos mestiços, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, alimentados à vontade com capim-elefante e sal mineral. O experimento foi avaliado considerando-se o grupo de animais como uma amostra aleatória simples, sendo os períodos de avaliação correspondentes às idades crescentes de rebrotação (33, 48, 63, 78 e 93 dias e cada animal como medidas repetidas. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e as digestibilidades totais dos demais nutrientes diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da idade de rebrotação. Os teores de MO, CNF e FDN apresentaram máximos consumos aos 44,43; 51,05 e 60,50 dias de rebrotação, respectivamente. O mínimo consumo de PB ocorreu aos 94,27 dias de rebrotação do capim. As digestibilidades ruminais da MS e MO aumentaram linearmente com o avanço da idade. Os compostos nitrogenados microbianos sofreram redução linear com o aumento da idade do capim-elefante. Recomenda-se usar o capim-elefante com idade entre 30 e 35 dias de rebrotação, quando se observou maior valor nutritivo da planta.The objective of this trial was to determine the intake and the total, ruminal and intestinal apparent digestibilidade of dry matter (DM and its components: organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, in neutral detergent fiber (NDF and no-fiber carbohydrates (NFC of the elephantgrass in different regrowth ages and to quantify the microbial protein production. Four crossbred steers fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannula were fullfed with elephantgrass and mineral salt. The experiment was evaluated

  5. Pengaruh Penambahan Tepung Gaplek dan Isolat Bakteri Asam Laktat dari Cairan Rumen Sapi PO Terhadap Kualitas Silase Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum purpureum

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    Ismail Jasin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (The effect of cassava meal  and  Lactic Acid Bacteria isolated  from  rumen liquid of PO cattle on  napier grass silage quality  ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cassava meal as carbohydrate source and inoculums of lactic acid bacteria  incubated from PO cattle’s rumen liquid on the quality of Napier grass (pennisetum purpureum silages. The research was conducted at Ujung-ujung village Pabelan District Semarang Regency. Feed analysis was carried out in of Biochemical Nutrition, Animal Feed Science, Animal Science Faculty, Gadjah Mada University. This study was assigned into Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 3 replicated. The treatments were addition of cassava meal and inoculums of lactic acid bacteria level into the Napier grass; 0, 1, 3 and 5% (w/w and incubated for 30 days. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the significant effect was tested by Duncans  Multiple Range Test. The results showed that the addition of 1 – 5% cassava meal significantly affected (P<0,05 lactic acid content, pH, and NH3 concentration. Should be revised However, among the treatment groups of 1, 3 and 5 % of cassava meal was not significantly  (P<0,05 different on the lactic acid content, pH and NH3 concentration.

  6. Efecto de dos inhibidores de la nitrificación sobre la concentración de nitratos en pasto elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez G. Hugo

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon dos inhibidores de la nitrificación (Sulfatiazol, N- Serve y las tendencias de la conversión de amonio a nitrato en el suelo y la concentración de este ión en el pasto según la fuente (Urea, Nitrón 26 y las dosis de nitrógeno (100, 200 kg/ha. Las concentraciones de nitratos en los suelos y en el tejido vegetal tendieron a incrementarse a medida que aumentaban los niveles de fertilización. La efectividad de los inhibidores se encuentra determinada por los niveles de fertilización y, en algunos casos, por las condiciones medio ambientales presentes.It was compared the grade of inhibition of two inhibitors products of the nitrification (Sulfatiazol, N - Serve and the tendencies on the conversion of ammonium into nitrate in the ground and the concentration of this ion on Pennisetum purpureum Schum. Depending on the source (urea, Nitrón 26 and the quantity of nitrogen (100, 200 kq/ha. The concentrations of nitrates on the grounds and the vegetal tissue stretched to intensity at the same time as were increase the levels of nitrogenous. The effectiveness of the inhibitors is determined for the employed levels and in some cases for the present environment conditions.

  7. Fracionamento de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados de genótipos de capim-elefante aos 56 dias de rebrota Carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds fractions of elephant grass genotypes at 56 days of regrowth

    OpenAIRE

    Erico da Silva Lima; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Hernán Maldonado Vásquez; Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo; Tiago Cunha Rocha; Dorival Pereira Borges da Costa

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste estudo determinar as frações de carboidratos e de compostos nitrogenados de genótipos de capim-elefante, em um único corte aos 56 dias de idade, na primavera. Avaliaram-se 12 genótipos de capim-elefante em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, no qual a parcela experimental foi composta de quatro linhas com 3 m de comprimento, espaçadas 1 m e adubadas com 100 kg de P2O5, 100 kg de N, 60 kg de K2O e 25 kg de micronutrientes/ha. As frações de carboidratos A ...

  8. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  9. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of an energy crop, king grass (Pennisetum americanum × P. purpureum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of an energy crop, king grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schumach × P. thyphoideum Rich). Leaf shape was more sensitive to Cd than biomass and root length. Leaves had no visual toxic symptoms under 8–100 mg kg−1 Cd. High Cd pollution significantly increased the chlorophyll content of young leaves but showed no effect on mature leaves. Cd enhanced the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax), light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP). For roots, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Mg and Ca. For stems, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca, while had a negative relationship with Mn. For leaves, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Mg and K, while had a negative relationship with Mn and Ca. Plant tissues accumulated 98, 21 and 26 mg kg−1 Cd in roots, stems and leaves, respectively, and extracted 477 and 515 μg Cd in roots and shoots for a single plant at 30 mg kg−1 Cd, respectively. King grass would require 23–290 years to remediate contaminated soil with 8–100 mg kg−1 Cd. It could extract 0.94–1.31 kg ha−1 Cd and produce 216–375 t ha−1 of fresh biomass and 28–79 t ha−1 of dry biomass each year. In summary, king grass had high biomass production and phytoremediation potential. - Highlights: • The effect of Cd on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of energy crop, king grass was investigated. • Plant leaves had no visual toxic symptoms under 8–100 mg kg−1 soil Cd. • Plant could extract 0.94–1.31 kg ha−1 Cd and produce 28–79 t ha−1 of dry biomass each year under 8–100 mg kg−1 soil Cd

  10. Fontes de amido e proteína para vacas leiteiras em dietas à base de capim elefante Starch and protein sources in elephantgrass-based diets for lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laísse Garcia de Lima

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A correta associação de fontes concentradas de energia e/ou proteína ao volumoso da ração de bovinos, poderá maximizar o desempenho dos animais, como efeito da complementariedade das taxas de degradação de nutrientes. Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes formas de processamento de milho, níveis de inclusão na dieta e fontes de proteína sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes na dieta, parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, bem como o desempenho de vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, distribuídas ao acaso em um delineamento experimental do tipo quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: silagem de milho, farelo de soja e milho moído (quirera fino em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível baixo; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho floculado (360 g L-1 em nível alto; capim elefante, farinha de peixe, milho floculado em nível alto. A dieta contendo capim elefante, milho floculado e farelo de soja em alto nível foi a que mais se aproximou da dieta de silagem de milho nos diversos parâmetros avaliados. A fonte de proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR não apresentou vantagens em relação à fonte convencional de proteína. O fornecimento de baixo nível de concentrado não supriu as deficiências energéticas do capim elefante. A maior eficiência de produção de vacas leiteiras que receberam rações com base em capim elefante simulando pastejo foi observada quando a energia estava disponível no rúmen, seja através do processamento, ou seja da maior inclusão de concentrado na dieta.Ruminant performance may be improved due to association of specific energy and protein supplemental sources by matching nutrient degradation rates on diets. This work aimed to analyze the effects of corn grain processing, concentrate levels and protein sources on nutrient digestibilities, ruminal

  11. - Influencia del Banco de Proteínas y del Clon Ct-115 (Pennisetum Purpureum para el pastoreo, sobre algunos indicadores productivos de una vaquería destinada a la producción de leche (Influence of Proteins Bank and Clon Ct-115 (Pennisetum Purpureum for grazing, upon some productive indicators of a dairy unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Franco Franco

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante tres años se estudiaron los principales indicadores productivos de la vaquería “Modelo” perteneciente a la Estación Experimental de Zootecnia de la Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas. Inicialmente las vacas disponían de 48 cuartones de 0,31 Ha cada uno, con predominio de pastos naturales. La inclusión paulatina del clon CT-115 (Pennisetum purpureum primero y del banco de proteínas después, en la alimentación de las vacas permitió incrementar los rendimientos de 4,68 a 6,00 L/vaca/día; así mismo el rendimiento L/Ha/año se incrementó desde 1806 hasta 2405 litros en el año 2000. Aunque de forma más discreta también se observó cierta mejoría en los indicadores reproductivos. Se concluye que la inclusión del clon CT-115 para el pastoreo en la época de seca y la utilización de los bancos de proteínas, permite aumentar la cantidad y calidad de la biomasa ofertada a las vacas lecheras, lográndose indicadores productivos más favorables. During three years the main productive indicators of "Modelo" dairy belonging to the Animal Husbandry Experimental Station at Las Villas “Marta Abreu” Central University, were studied. Initially the cows had 48 paddocks of 0,31 Ha each one, with prevalence of native grasses. The gradual inclusion of the clon CT-115 (Pennisetum purpureum first and of the proteins bank later, in the feeding of the cows it allowed to increase the yields from 4,68 to 6,00 L/cow/day; likewise the yield L/Ha/year was increased from 1806 up to 2405 liters in the year 2000. Although in a more discreet way certain improvement was also observed in the reproductive indicators. We concluded that the inclusion of the clon CT-115 for grazing in dry period and the use of the proteins banks, allows to increase the quantity and quality of the biomass offered to dairy cows, achieving better productive indicators

  12. Disponibilidade de matéria seca em pastagens de capim-elefante irrigadas Availability dry matter in elephant-grass pastures irrigated

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    Rogério dos Santos Lopes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da irrigação na disponibilidade de matéria seca em pastagens de capim-elefante, cv. Napier, foi conduzido um experimento durante dois anos no Setor de Agrostologia da UFV. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema de aspersão convencional de média pressão, usando turno de rega variável. Observou-se que, nos dois períodos de seca abrangidos pelo experimento, a irrigação não conseguiu determinar diferenças significativas na disponibilidade de matéria seca do capim-elefante. Por outro lado, quando se avaliaram os resultados acumulados para os períodos de inverno e verão, a disponibilidade de forragem nos tratamentos sob irrigação foi sempre significativamente maior, em razão de a irrigação suprir e manter a umidade do solo em níveis suficientemente adequados para as forrageiras, quando as temperaturas mínimas não foram limitantes ao crescimento, eliminando os efeitos dos veranicos e permitindo manutenção da estabilidade da produção. Conclui-se que a irrigação realizada de forma eficiente e criteriosa pode ser mais uma alternativa, visando ao aumento da produção animal a pasto, pois permite significativos aumentos na produção forrageira, principalmente no verão, quando as temperaturas mínimas não foram limitantes ao desenvolvimento do capim-elefante.With the objective of evaluating the effects of the irrigation in the availability of dry matter in elephant-grass pastures, cv. Napier, an experiment was driven for two years in the Section of Agrostologia of UFV. The irrigation was accomplished by a system of conventional aspersion of medium pressure, using turn of watering variable. It was observed that, in the two drought periods embraced by the experiment, the irrigation didn't get to determine significant differences in the availability of dry matter of the elephant-grass. On the other hand, when the accumulated results were evaluated for the winter and summer periods, the

  13. Avaliação de métodos de amostragem qualitativa em pastagens tropicais manejadas em sistema rotacionado Evaluation of sampling methods for quality evaluation of tropical forages under rotational stocking

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Nunes Lista; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Hernán Maldonado Vásquez; Edenio Detmann; Felipe Nogueira Domingues; Fernando Silveira Ferolla

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar comparativamente a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro e a degradabilidade dos carboidratos de amostras de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum, cv. Napier) e capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum, Jacq. cv. Mombaça) obtidas por extrusa esofágica e por simulação manual de pastejo. O capim-elefante apresentou os maiores teores de MS, PB e nitrogênio não-protéico. A composição do capim-mombaça sofreu variações conforme aumentaram os dias de pastejo, principalmente...

  14. Mixed sugarcane and elephant grass silages with or without bacterial inoculant Silagens mistas de cana-de-açúcar e capim-elefante com ou sem inoculante bacteriano

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    Jucilene Cavali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different ratios of sugarcane and elephant grass (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0% of the natural basis were assessed on the chemical composition and losses in silages treated with a bacterial inoculant, using laboratory silos. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement (with and without inoculant and five elephant grass ratios in a randomized blocks design with three replications was used. Interaction was observed in the sugarcane and elephant grass ratio × bacterial inoculant for crude protein (CP and pH. The other variables were influenced only by the increasing proportions of elephant grass. The contents of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ashes and protein, acid detergent fiber, insoluble protein in acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and lignin in the silages increased linearly with the proportions of elephant grass. The water soluble carbohydrate contents and dry matter in vitro digestibility of the silages decreased linearly with the increase in the proportion of elephant grass. The mean value of ammonia nitrogen in relation to total N was 7.0% (% of DM. The CP values of the inoculated and non-inoculated silage fitted linear models. The highest CP content was observed in the silage treated with inoculant. The pH values of the silages, with and without inoculant, fitted quadratic and linear models, respectively. The lactic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid contents were not influenced by the elephant grass ratios, while the acetic acid content, for the non-inoculated silages, and ethanol decreased linearly with the increase in elephant grass. The ratio of 25% sugarcane and 75% elephant grass improves the nutritional value and increases the silage DM recovery, because of the lower effluent and gas productions. The homofermentative bacterial inoculant does not affect the sugarcane silage.Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes relações de cana-de-açúcar e capim-elefante (0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 e 100:0% na mat

  15. Qualitative aspects of elephantgrass silage with corn meal and soybean hulls
    Aspectos qualitativos da silagem de capim-elefante com fubá de milho e casca de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique Santos Silva; José Augusto Reis Almeida; André Ricardo Gomes Bezerra; Danilo Gusmão de Quadros; Alexandro Pereira Andrade; Jorge Aurélio Macedo Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn meal and soybean hulls in silage Pennisetum purpureum cv. Roxo Botucatu. The experiment has adopted a completely randomized design in a split-plot, with seven treatments (elephant grass pure soy cone (5 and 10%) and corn meal (5 and 10%) alone or in joint same proportions totaling 5 to 10%), three open times and three replications. We used a randomized design in a split-plot, with seven treatments (elephant grass pure, soybean hu...

  16. Capim-elefante ensilado com casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca Elephant grass ensiled with coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal

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    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A adição dos co-produtos no momento da ensilagem foi realizada na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com dez repetições por tipo de silagem. As silagens com casca de café e farelo de mandioca apresentaram maiores teores de matéria seca. A silagem com farelo de mandioca apresentou os menores teores de nitrogênio total, extrato etéreo e componentes fibrosos. O maior valor de DIVMS foi observado na silagem com farelo de mandioca (74,1% e o menor, na silagem com casca de café (54,3%. As silagens controle e com farelo de cacau apresentaram valores de digestibilidade semelhantes, 61,4 e 61,2%, respectivamente. Na avaliação das características fermentativas das silagens, não houve diferença entre os teores de ácidos orgânicos, porém o pH da silagem com casca de café (4,6 foi superior ao das demais silagens (4,1. A utilização de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante reduz os componentes da parede celular e aumenta a DIVMS das silagens. Tanto a casca de café como o farelo de cacau adicionados no momento da ensilagem reduzem o valor nutritivo da silagem.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition, the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and the fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silage with 15% of coffee hulls, cocoa meal or cassava meal. The addition of co-products at the ensilage moment was performed in the natural matter basis (weight/weight, with ten repetitions per treatment. Silages with coffee hulls and cassava meal showed higher dry matter levels. The silage with cassava meal presented smaller total nitrogen, ether extract and fibrous components levels. The highest IVDMD value was observed for silage with cassava meal (74

  17. Desempenho de novilhos mantidos em pastagens de capim-elefante e capim-mombaça Performance of steers raised on pastures of Elephant and Mombasa grasses

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    Carolina de Souza Garcia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho de novilhos mantidos em pastagens de capins elefante e mombaça no período de outubro a dezembro de 2006. Adotou-se o sistema de pastejo rotacionado, com oferta regulada de forragem. A área experimental consistia de duas repetições contendo 18 piquetes de 0,25 ha cada, divididos em nove piquetes formados de capim-elefante e nove com mombaça. Os efeitos de tratamentos foram as espécies forrageiras, a repetição de área, a interação entre estes, piquetes dentro da interação e o erro experimental. Este modelo foi usado para analisar os atributos do pasto. Para analisar o consumo, a digestibilidade e o ganho, foram aleatoriamente alocados 24 novilhos para as respectivas interações entre forragem vs. repetição vs. sistema de pastejo, o que totalizou três animais por interação tripla. Os sistemas de pastejo consistiram de pastejo ad libitum (AL e restrito (PR. O capim-elefante apresentou maior biomassa de matéria seca total (BT e biomassa de matéria seca verde foliar (BFV. Não houve diferença entre as forrageiras quanto à produção de biomassa de matéria seca verde foliar, no entanto a proporção de folhas foi maior no capim-mombaça. As extrusas apresentaram composição bromatológica semelhante. Apenas o consumo de proteína bruta diferiu entre as forrageiras, sendo este maior para o pasto de mombaça. A alimentação à vontade possibilitou maior consumo de todos os nutrientes em ambas as pastagens. A digestibilidade dos nutrientes foi maior para o capim-elefante, mas não diferiu entre os níveis de alimentação: apenas o teor em proteína bruta foi maior no pasto onde o pastejo foi restrito e o teor de energia bruta do pasto foi maior para o sistema de pastejo à vontade. Apesar das diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas entre as forrageiras, não foram encontradas diferenças quanto ao ganho em peso por animal e por área. Entre os animais com alimentação à vontade, o ganho médio em

  18. Capim-elefante amonizado e farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê em dietas para ovinos em crescimento Amnonizated elephant grass and cocoa meal or palm kernel cake in growing sheep diet

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    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da amonização do capim-elefante e da substituição parcial do concentrado padrão, à base de milho e farelo de soja, por concentrados contendo farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê sobre o desempenho de ovinos. Utilizaram-se 18 ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês, com peso corporal médio de 22,6 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 × 3 com três repetições. O período experimental teve duração de 77 dias: 14 dias de adaptação e três períodos de 21 dias para coleta dos dados. As dietas foram compostas de 60% de volumoso (silagem de capim-elefante não tratado ou tratado com uréia e 40% de concentrado. Utilizaram-se três concentrados, um à base de milho e farelo de soja, outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e farelo de cacau e outro contendo milho, farelo de soja e torta de dendê. Os consumos de matéria seca em %PC foram menores entre os animais alimentados com concentrado contendo torta de dendê, entretanto, não houve diferença entre o concentrado padrão e aquele com farelo de cacau nem entre os volumosos. Também não houve interação volumoso × concentrado. O ganho de peso foi maior nos animais alimentados com o capim-elefante amonizado. A lucratividade parcial por kg de ganho de peso elevou com a amonização do capim-elefante e reduziu com a inclusão dos subprodutos no concentrado.The effect of ammonization of elephant grass and the partial substitution of the standard concentrate based on corn and soybean meal by concentrates containing cocoa meal or palm cake on sheep performance was evaluated. A total of 18 Santa Inês male sheep, with average 22.6 kg BW, was allotted to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangment with three replications. The experimental period consisted of 77 days, with 14 days for adaptation and three periods of 21 days for data collection. The diets constituted of 60% forage (elephant grass no

  19. Redução da interferência de Brachiaria decumbens na formação de pastagem com Penisetum purpureum através de herbicidas Reduction of Brachiaria decumbens interference on Pennisetum purpureum pasture establishment through herbicides

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    W. Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A tolerância da gramínea forrageira capim-elefante a herbicidas aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas entre si, aplicados em condições de pré e pós-emergência da forrageira, bem como a eficiência desses produtos no controle de B. decumbens e outras espécies de plantas daninhas, foram avaliadas em dois experimentos. Os herbicidas aplicados no experimento conduzido em condições de pré-emergência do capim-elefante, com as respectivas doses em kg ha-1, foram: metolachlor (1,152; 2,304; e 3,456, oxyfluorfen (0,48; 0,96 e 1,44 e a formulação comercial de atrazine + metolachlor (1,25; 2,50; e 3,75, três repetições. Os herbicidas aplicados no experimento instalado em condições de pós-emergência da forrageira, com as respectivas doses em kg ha-1,foram: ametryne (1,25; 2,50; e 3,75 e oxyfluorfen (0,48; 0,96; e 1,44, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso; sendo que, em ambos os experimentos foram adicionadas as testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, e os cultivares de capim-elefante utilizados em ambos os experimentos foram Cameroon e Pioneiro. A aplicação dos herbicidas em pré-emergência da forrageira foi feita um dia após o plantio com solo úmido; no experimento em pós-emergência do capim-elefante os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre o topo das plantas da cultura forrageira, aos 20 dias após a emergência. Metolachlor e atrazine + metolachlor, em pré-emergência, foram seletivos para os dois cultivares testados. O oxyfluorfen, até 0,96 kg ha-1, foi seletivo para a cultura forrageira nas aplicações tanto em pré- como em pós-emergência. O ametryne, em pós-emergência, também foi seletivo aos cultivares na dose inferior a 2,50 kg ha-1. B. decumbens e B. brizantha foram eficientemente controladas (90,9% em pré-emergência, exceto na menor dose de metolachlor e atrazine + metolachlor. O controle das dicotiledôneas atingiu 85% com metolachlor, atrazine + metolachlor e oxyfluorfen

  20. Efeito do acipin sobre a degradabilidade e taxa de passagem de silagens de capim-elefante e de milho, em bovinos Holandês × Zebu Effect of acipin on the degradability and rate of passage of elephant-grass and corn silages in Holstein × Zebu cattle

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    L.T. Henriques

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de acipin nas silagens de capim-elefante e de milho sobre a taxa de passagem das fases sólida e líquida da digesta ruminal e sobre a degradabilidade da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, em quatro bovinos. Os animais, com média de peso de 550kg, foram confinados em baias individuais por 90 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro períodos experimentais, seguindo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um esquema fatorial 2×2 (duas silagens combinadas com ausência e presença de acipin e nas subparcelas o tempo de coleta de líquido ruminal, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. A degradabilidade efetiva da MS, da PB e da FDN da silagem de capim-elefante sem adição de acipin foi menor do que a das silagens de capim-elefante com acipin, de milho sem acipin e de milho com acipin; estas foram semelhantes entre si. A taxa de passagem de sólidos ruminais foi maior nos animais que consumiram silagem de milho. A taxa de passagem de líquidos foi maior nos animais que consumiram silagem de capim-elefante. A inclusão de acipin melhorou a degradabilidade da MS, da PB e da FDN da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of adding acipin to elephantgrass and corn silages on the passage rates of the solid and liquid phases of the ruminal digesta, and on degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF were evaluated. The animals with average live weight of 550kg, were kept in individual stalls for 90 days. The experiment was carried out in four experimental periods, according to a split plot arrangement, with 2×2 (two silages combined with absence or presence of acipin factorial treatment combination in the plot and the time of collection of ruminal liquid in the split plot, in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The degradabilities of DM, CP and NDF in the elephantgrass silage

  1. Palma forrageira em substituição ao feno de capim-elefante: efeito sobre consumo, digestibilidade e características de fermentação ruminal em ovinos Spineless cactus in replacement of elephantgrass hay: effect on intake, apparent digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep

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    Safira Valença Bispo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, como fonte de forragem, sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e das características ruminais de carneiros. Cinco dietas isoproteícas foram formuladas, em que a palma forrageira substituiu 0, 14, 28, 42 e 56% do feno de capim elefante na dieta. Cinco ovinos machos não-castrados foram distribuídos em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5 x 5 (cinco períodos, cinco níveis de palma e cinco repetiç��es. Cada período experimental teve duração de 13 dias - sete para adaptação e seis dias para coleta de dados e amostras. Os consumos de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT, CNF e NDT aumentaram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de água diminuiu linearmente e o de FDN apresentou efeito quadrático com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de EE, PB, CNF e FDN não foram influenciados, enquanto os de MS, MO e CT aumentaram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. O pH e a concentração de NH3 ruminal decresceram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. A substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta melhora a ingestão e o aproveitamento dos nutrientes.A study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant-grass by spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill as a forage source on intake, apparent digestibility of the nutrients and of ruminal fermentation characteristics of sheep. Five iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated where spineless cactus replaced 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56% of elephantgrass in the diet. Five non-castrated male sheep were allotted to a 5 x 5 Latin square design

  2. Efeitos da adição de batata na silagem de capim-elefante sobre o consumo e a produção em vacas leiteiras Effects of addition of potato in elephant-grass silage on intake and production of dairy cows

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    Valdir Botega Tavares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção e a composição do leite em vacas alimentadas com silagens contendo batata. Foram selecionadas 12 vacas: 9 delas com 50 a 70 meses de idade e 3 de 36 a 42 meses, lactantes, com peso aproximado de 550 kg. O delineamento experimental foi em três quadrados latinos 4 × 4, composto de quatro períodos experimentais e quatro tratamentos (silagens: silagens de milho (SM; capim-elefante (SC; capim-elefante com 7% de batata (SC 7%; e capim-elefante acrescido de 14% de batata (SC14%. Os animais que receberam as dietas com SM, SC 14% e SC 7% apresentaram ingestões mais altas de MS em comparação àqueles que ingeriram dietas à base de silagem de capim-elefante puro. O fornecimento de silagem de capim-elefante formulada com 14% de resíduo de batata proporcionou aos animais maior produção de leite e de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, kg de gordura, kg de proteína, kg de sólidos totais, kg de extrato seco desengordurado (ESD e kg de lactose em comparação à adição de 7% de batata. A silagem de milho foi superior às demais, pois promoveu maior produção de leite, em kg de proteína, kg de ESD e kg de lactose. A silagem de capim-elefante foi inferior às demais para as produções de ESD e de lactose. Não houve diferença entre as silagens para os teores de gordura, proteína, sólidos totais, ESD, lactose e N-ureico no leite - NUL (mg/dL. A adição de 14% de resíduo de batata em silagens de capim-elefante melhora a ingestão de MS e as produções de leite e leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura.The objective of this study was to evaluate production and composition of milk from cows fed silages containing potato. Twelve females were selected: nine between 50 and 70 months of age and three between 36 and 42 months of age, lactating, with approximate weight of 550 kg. The experimental design consisted of 12 cows in three 4 × 4 Latin Squares, with four experimental periods and four

  3. EFECTO DE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN DE ENSILADO DE PASTO TAIWÁN (Pennisetum purpureum) Y RAMÓN (Brosimum alicastrum) SOBRE EL CAMBIO DE PESO CORPORAL Y VARIABLES HEMÁTICAS DEL PECARÍ DE COLLAR (Pecarí tajacu) EN CAUTIVERIO

    OpenAIRE

    David Ignacio Borges-Ventura; Rubén Montes-Pérez; Luis Sarmiento-Franco; Francisco Solorio-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Para determinar el efecto sobre el peso y niveles de hematocrito y de proteínas sanguíneas al suplementar la dieta de pecaríes de collar (Pecari tajacu) con una mezcla ensilada de pasto Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum) y ramón (Brosimum alicastrum), se realizó una prueba de consumo voluntario durante cinco semanas. Utilizando once hembras adultas no gestantes, con 4.5 años de edad promedio y un peso de 19.15 kg (± 0.5 kg) se conformaron dos grupos: cinco animales bajo una dieta base de calabaza ...

  4. Consumo e digestibilidade de silagens de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de subproduto da agroindústria da acerola Intake and digestibilit of elefhant grass silages with the diferent levels of acerola industry by-product

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    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o consumo e digestibilidade da MS e nutrientes. de silagens de capim-elefante (CE contendo subproduto do processamento da acerola desidratada (SACD. Utilizaram-se 20 ovinos machos nãocastrados, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco níveis de SACD na silagem (0; 3,5; 7; 10,5 e 14% da matéria seca e quatro repetições. Estimaram-se os consumos de matéria seca (MS, celulose, hemicelulose, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, bem como os consumos de matéria seca (MSD, proteína bruta (PBD, fibra em detergente neutro (FDND e energia digestível (ED. Foram avaliados também as digestibilidades da MS, PB, FDN, FDA, celulose, hemicelulose e EB, e o balanço de nitrogênio (BN. A adição de SACD, não influenciou o consumo de MS, FDN e FDA em g animal-1 dia-1 e g UTM-1 (unidade de tamanho metabólico = PV0,75, MSD, FDND em g animal-1 dia-1 e ED (0,86 Mcal dia-1. Contudo, a adição de 1% do SACD na ensilagem do capim-elefante resultou em aumento de 1,91 e 0,04 g nos consumos diários de PB e PBD, respectivamente. Com a adição do SACD, não houve alterações na digestibilidade da MS (43%, PB (36,4%, FDN (44,8% e BN (0,22 g dia-1 das silagens. Entretanto, o BN atingiu valores positivos quando foram adicionados 10,5 e 14% do SACD à dieta. O subproduto da acerola desidratado pode ser adicionado em níveis de até 14% da matéria natural na ensilagem de capim-elefante, pois não compromete nem o consumo nem a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em ovinos.The present study aimed to determine de nutritional value of mixed elephant grass silages and increasing levels of dehydrated acerola industry by-product (PAC. Five PAC levels (0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14% were evaluated in a digestibility trial with 20 male non-castrated sheep in a randomized experimental design of five treatments (PAC levels and four replications per treatment (sheep. Intake

  5. Produção e valor nutritivo da forragem de capim-elefante em dois sistemas de produção Forage production and nutritive value of elephantgrass in two production systems

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    Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e o valor nutritivo da forragem de capim-elefante cultivado em sistemas convencional e agroecológico. No sistema convencional, o capim-elefante foi estabelecido em cultivo exclusivo, em linhas com espaçamento de 1,4 m e, no sistema agroecológico, em linhas afastadas 3 m. Nas entrelinhas, estabeleceu-se azevém no período hibernal para desenvolvimento de espécies de crescimento espontâneo no período estival. Avaliaram-se a massa, a produção e a composição botânica e estrutural da forragem e a carga animal. Amostras de simulação de pastejo foram coletadas para determinação dos teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro e da digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e matéria orgânica. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (sistemas convencional e agroecológico e duas repetições (piquetes. Valores mais elevados para massa de forragem, produção de forragem, taxa de acúmulo diário e carga animal foram observados no sistema convencional. A relação folha: colmo foi similar entre os sistemas. Valor mais elevado de proteína bruta foi observado no sistema agroecológico. O capim-elefante sob manejo convencional apresenta maior produção de forragem, com menores teores de proteína bruta. O sistema agroecológico apresenta melhor distribuição da produção de forragem no decorrer do ano.The objective of this research was to evaluate elephantgrass pasture on forage production and stocking rate, comparing conventional and agro-ecological production systems. In the conventional system, elephantgrass was established in a singular form, in rows spaced by 1.4 m. In the agro-ecological system, the elephantgrass was established spaced by 3 m and, in the space between lines, ryegrass in cool season was introduced, allowing the development of spontaneous growing species in the warm-season. Herbage mass, forage

  6. Valor nutritivo e características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com adição de casca de café Nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of elephantgrass silages with addition of coffee hulls

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da MS (DIVMS e as características fermentativas de silagens de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de casca de café. Utilizou-se o capim-elefante contendo 17,2% de MS, cortado aos 45 dias de crescimento. Os níveis de adição foram de 0, 6, 12, 18 e 24% de casca de café, na base da matéria natural (peso/peso, com quatro repetições por tratamento. O material foi acondicionado em silos de PVC, adotando-se compactação de 500 kg/m³. Observou-se aumento dos teores de MS, FDA, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido e lignina, em função dos níveis de casca de café. O teor de PB apresentou comportamento quadrático, estimando-se valor máximo de 9,9% de PB para o nível de 16,4% de adição de casca de café. Os valores de FDN reduziram linearmente e os teores de ácido lático das silagens comportaram-se de maneira quadrática em função dos níveis de casca de café, estimando-se valor máximo de 11,4% para o nível de 25,6% de casca. A casca de café foi eficiente em aumentar o teor de MS, mas diminuiu a DIVMS das silagens. A utilização de casca de café na ensilagem de capim-elefante melhorou as características fermentativas da silagem.The experiment evaluated the chemical composition, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD, and fermentative characteristics of elephant grass silages with different coffee hull levels. The elephant grass presented 17.2% of dry matter (DM, cut with 45 days of growing. The coffee hull addition levels were 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24%, in fresh matter basis (weight/weight with four replications per treatment. The material was ensiled in cylindrical plastic silos. In the ensiling process, the forage packing density was 500 kg/m³. It was observed increase of DM, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, and lignin concentration, as a function of coffee hull levels. Crude protein showed quadratic

  7. Degradabilidade ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína de capim-elefante com três idades de corte Rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein of elephant-grass at three cutting ages

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    J.P.G. Soares

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a degradabilidade potencial (DP e a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não degradada no rúmen (DIPNDR do capim-elefante em diferentes idades de rebrote (30, 45 e 60 dias e comparou-se a técnica do saco de náilon móvel (in situ com o método de três estádios (in vitro. Para tanto, utilizaram-se seis novilhos mestiços canulados no rúmen e duodeno alimentados exclusivamente com capim-elefante picado. O ensaio de degradabilidade foi realizado com amostras do capim incubadas no rúmen por 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120h. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada utilizando-se os resíduos de incubação por 24 horas. Na técnica in situ os resíduos em sacos de náilon foram colocados no duodeno e recuperados nas fezes. No método in vitro, os resíduos foram submetidos à digestão com HCl-pepsina-pancreatina. Em amostras de capim com idades de 30, 45 e 60 dias foram observados valores de DP da proteína de 87,5; 87,8 e 83,8%, respectivamente. A DIPNDR variou com a idade do capim e foi semelhante entre os métodos in situ e in vitro somente para o capim com 60 dias. O método in situ apresentou estimativa de digestibilidade intestinal mais coerente com as mudanças na composição química do capim-elefante decorrentes do envelhecimento.The potential degradability (PD and intestinal digestibility of ruminal escape protein (IDREP of elephant-grass at 30, 45, and 60 days of regrowth were determined and the mobile bag technique (in situ was compared to the three-stage method (in vitro. Thus, six cross-bred steers with rumen and duodenum canulas were used and fed exclusively with chopped elephant grass. The degradability trial was carried out with grass samples incubated in rumen by 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. The intestinal digestibility was determined using 24-h ruminal incubation residue. In the in situ technique, residues in nylon bags were placed in duodenum and recovered in feces. In the in vitro

  8. Desempenho produtivo e perfil de ácidos graxos do leite de vacas que receberam níveis crescentes de óleo de girassol em dietas à base de capim-elefante

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    C.G.S. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo principal avaliar as alterações no perfil de ácidos graxos do leite decorrentes do fornecimento de diferentes níveis de óleo de girassol (OG para vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas completas à base de capim-elefante. Doze vacas da raça Holandesa receberam quatro níveis de OG na dieta (0; 1,3; 2,5 e 3,7% da MS em delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos níveis de OG sobre o consumo de MS, a produção de leite ou os teores de sólidos do leite. Por outro lado, o perfil de ácidos graxos (AG do leite foi amplamante modificado com a inclusão de OG na dieta, e observou-se redução (P<0,0001 dos teores dos AG de cadeia curta e média, elevação dos teores de ácido oleico (P<0,0001, dos isômeros de ácido linoleico conjugado, em especial do ácido rumênico (P<0,0001 e da relação entre os ácidos graxos hipo e hipercolesterolêmicos (P<0,0001. Apesar da maior ingestão diária de ácido linoleico (P<0,01 com o aumento do nível de OG na dieta, sua concentração na gordura do leite não foi alterada. Isso indica extensiva bio-hidrogenação ruminal deste AG no rúmen, o que é compatível com o aumento (P<0,0001 da concentração de ácido esteárico e dos AG C18:1 trans, especialmente do vacênico, na gordura do leite. Em geral, os resultados observados no presente estudo indicam que a inclusão de até 3,7% de OG em dietas completas de vacas leiteiras à base de capim-elefante promove melhoria da qualidade nutricional da gordura do leite, sem comprometimento do desempenho produtivo dos animais.

  9. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas compostas de silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não e subprodutos agroindustriais Ingestive behaviour of sheep fed with ammoniated or non-ammoniated elephantgrass silage and agro industrial by-products

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Cristina Mattos Veloso; Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2006-01-01

    Foram estudados os efeitos do uso de silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não com uréia (5% na base da MS) e da substituição do concentrado (milho e farelo de soja) por farelo de cacau (FC) ou torta de dendê (TD) na dieta sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos Santa Inês. Dezoito ovinos machos não-castrados (peso médio inicial de 22,62 kg), alojados em baias individuais, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, dois volumosos (silage...

  10. Effect of Wilting and Adding PFJ on Fermentation Quality of Hybrid Pennisetum (Pennisetum americanum ×P. purpureum ) Silage%凋萎和添加绿汁发酵液对杂交狼尾草青贮发酵品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丹; 下条雅敬; 邵涛

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of wilted, pre-fermented juice (PFJ) of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria, and wilted+PFJ on the fermentation qualities and residual water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) of Hybrid Pennisetum (Pennisetumn americanum × P. purpureum ) silage. The treatments were as follows: control (C), wilted (W), PFJ addition, wilted+PFJ on fresh weight basis of Hybrid Pennisetum, respectively. Based on results, control had low pH (4.09) and high lactic acid content (79.80 g/kg DM), and fermentation was clearly dominated by lactic acid bacteria. W treatment showed significantly (P<0.05) higher pH and significantly (P<0.05) lower lactic acid than the control indicating that although lactic acid bacteria have a relatively high tolerance to low moisture conditions, and lactic acid fermentation was inhibited in W treatment silage. Ammonia-N/total nitrogen (AN/TN), butyric acid, propionic acid, total volatile fatty acid (VFAs) and pH decreased or decreased significantly, whereas lactic acid/acetic acid, lactic acid, WSC increased significantly in both PFJ and W+PFJ treatments compared with control (P<0.05). These indicated that PFJ and W+PFJ treatments not only inhibited the activity of clostridia and other undesired microorganisms, but decreased protein degradation. However, they also stimulated homofermentative lactic acid bacteria activity, which decreased the loss of WSC, greatly increased the efficiency of WSC utilization by lactic acid bacteria, and further improved the fermentation quality. Wilted+PFJ treatment is best for improving the fermentation quality of Hybrid Pennisetum silage in this experiment.%为探讨凋萎、添加绿汁发酵液、凋萎+绿汁发酵液处理对杂交狼尾草(Pennisetum americanum×P.purpureum)发酵品质与水溶性碳水化合物的影响.试验设对照组(Control)、凋萎组(W)、绿汁发酵液组(PFJ)及凋萎(W)+绿汁发酵液组(PFJ),青贮30天后开窖取样分析.结

  11. Silagem de capim-elefante aditivada com produtos alternativos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.12629 Elephant grass silage with added alternative products - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.12629

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    Marinaldo Divino Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o padrão de fermentação e a composição bromatológica da silagem de capim-elefante utilizando diferentes aditivos. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos (capim-elefante sem aditivo; com 100 kg de farelo de arroz t-1 de massa verde (MV; com 100 kg de casca de soja t-1 MV; com 100 kg de fubá de milho t-1 MV; com 200 kg de cana-de-açúcar picada t-1 MV; com inoculante bacteriano e quatro repetições. Utilizaram-se silos de PVC, adotando densidade de 600 kg de massa verde m-3. Com a exceção do inoculante bacteriano, todos os aditivos proporcionaram aumento nos teores de matéria seca (27,95 a 31,65% e carboidratos solúveis (15,20 a 17,14% na forragem a ser ensilada. Os aditivos promoveram adequado padrão de fermentação face aos valores de pH (3,70 a 3,96 e de nitrogênio amoniacal (3,67 a 4,44% do N-total verificados na silagem. O aditivo farelo de arroz proporcionou a obtenção de silagens com teores mais elevados de proteína bruta (6,41% e nutrientes digestíveis totais (61,91% em relação ao tratamento sem aditivo.The objective was to evaluate the fermentation pattern and chemical composition of elephant grass silage using different additives. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments (elephant grass no additive; with 100 kg of rice bran ton-1 of green mass (GM; with 100 kg of soybean hulls ton-1 GM; with 100 kg of corn meal ton-1 GM; with 200 kg of sugar cane ton-1 GM; with inoculants and four replications. PVC silos were used, adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. With the exception of inoculant, all additives used resulted in increased dry matter content (27.95 to 31.65% and soluble carbohydrate contents (15.20 to 17.14% in the forage being ensiled. The additives promoted an adequate fermentation pattern for pH values (3.70 to 3.96 and ammonia nitrogen (3.67 to 4.44% of total N observed in the silage. The rice bran additive yielded

  12. Influência de estratégias de manejo em pastagem de capim-elefante na produção de leite de vacas Holandês x Zebu

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    Deresz F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes estratégias de manejo em pastagem de capim-elefante sobre a produção de leite. Utilizaram-se 24 vacas Holandês x Zebu, distribuídas em quatro tratamentos, cada um com seis animais, como se segue: pastejo rotativo com descanso de 30 dias, adubação mensal e resíduo pós-pastejo de 90-100cm (30AM; pastejo rotativo com descanso de 30 dias, adubação bimensal e resíduo pós-pastejo de 90-100cm (30AB; pastejo rotativo com descanso de 45 dias e resíduo de 90-100cm (45MA e pastejo rotativo com descanso de 45 dias e resíduo de 40-50cm (45MB. O período de ocupação dos piquetes foi de três dias. A área foi dividida em 108 piquetes, sendo 64 de 417m² cada um para os tratamentos 45MA e 45MB (16 piquetes/repetição de área e 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um para os tratamentos 30AM e 30 AB (11 piquetes/repetição de área. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg de N e de K2O por ha/ano. Aplicaram-se também 40kg de P2O5 e 1.000kg de calcário dolomítico por ha/ano. A produção média de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foi de 10,3; 10,5; 9,3; e 9,2kg/vaca/dia para os tratamentos 30AM, 30AB, 45MA e 45MB, respectivamente. Houve diferença (P<0,05 na produção de leite entre os tratamentos com 30 e 45 dias de descanso.

  13. Protoplast production from napier grass and pearl millet triploid hybrids Obtenção de protoplastos de híbridos triplóides entre o capim-elefante e milheto

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    Ana Luiza de Oliveira Timbó

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain protoplasts from napier grass and pearl millet triploid hybrids as a basis for future studies on chromosomal duplication. Explants were taken from mesophyll of in vitro- and in vivo-cultured plants or from calli of two triploid hybrids (H1 and H2, which were treated with enzymatic solutions containing different concentrations of cellulase R-10 (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% with an additional 0.2% macerozyme and 0.1% driselase or 1.0% pectolyase Y-23 and 0.5% hemicellulase. Enzymatic digestion was monitored once every hour for five hours. Protoplasts were obtained from in vitro and in vivo leaflets of both triploid hybrids, and in vitro leaflets were the best explant sources. The quantity of produced protoplasts varied according to the hybrid, the enzymatic solution and the treatment time.Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a obtenção de protoplastos de híbridos triplóides entre o capim-elefante e o milheto como base para futuros trabalhos de duplicação cromossômica. Foram utilizados explantes de mesofilo de plantas cultivadas in vitro e in vivo, ou de calos de dois híbridos triplóides (H1 e H2, os quais foram tratados com soluções enzimáticas em diferentes concentrações da enzima celulase R-10 (0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, acrescidas de 0,2% macerozyme e 0,1% driselase ou 1,0% pectolyase Y-23 e 0,5% hemicelulase. A digestão enzimática foi monitorada a cada hora durante 5 horas. Obtiveram-se protoplastos a partir de folhas in vitro e in vivo dos dois híbridos triplóides, sendo as folhas in vitro as melhores fontes de explante. A quantidade de protoplastos variou em função do híbrido, da solução enzimática e do tempo de tratamento.

  14. Ruminal degradation kinetics of elephant grass silage with different levels of jack fruit and cassava scrapingCinética de degradação ruminal de silagem de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de jaca e raspa de mandioca

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    André Luiz Custódio Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate in situ ruminal degradation kinetics in two experiments, which different levels of dehydrated jackfruit (0, 5, 10 and 15% in natural matter and cassavas scraping (0, 7, 15 and 30 % in natural matter in the elephant grass silage, were used. The two experiments were carried out at the Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, in the same period and followed the same protocol. A mixed model was used, in which was considered random effect of experiment and fixed effects of experimental treatment and interaction among treatments with experiments. Samples of 3 g of each silage treatment were incubated in the rumen of three steers by periods of 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Then, the potentially degradable fraction(B, indigestible fraction (I, degradation rate of potentially degradable fraction (c, lag time, and effective degradability (ED at 2, 5 and 8% per hour, were evaluated. No effect of addition of additives in ensiling of Napier grass for the effective degradability (P> 0.05 was observed, presenting an intercept at 47.7, 40.7 and 34.9% for the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8 %/h respectively. There were significant interaction among experiments with treatments (P Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a cinética de degradação ruminal in situ em dois experimentos, os quais utilizaram níveis de jaca desidratada (0, 5, 10 e 15% na matéria natural e raspa de mandioca (0, 7, 15 e 30% na matéria natural na ensilagem do capim elefante. Os dois experimentos foram realizados no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no mesmo período e seguiram o mesmo protocolo. Foi utilizado um modelo misto no qual foi considerado o efeito aleatório de experimento e efeitos fixos de tratamento e interação tratamento com experimento. Amostras de 3 g de silagens de cada tratamento foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhas por períodos de 0, 3, 6, 12, 24

  15. Produção de forragem e carga animal em pastagens de capim-elefante consorciadas com azevém, espécies de crescimento espontâneo e trevo-branco ou amendoim forrageiro Forage production an stocking rate on elephantgrass pastures mixed with ryegrass, spontaneous growth species and white clover or forage peanut

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a dinâmica e o desempenho de uma pastagem em dois sistemas forrageiros: SF1 - capim-elefante (CE + azevém (AZ + trevo-branco (TB + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE; e SF2 - capim-elefante + azevém + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE. Utilizaram-se quatro piquetes de 0,25 ha com o capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com dois sistemas forrageiros e duas repetições (piquetes. As pastagens foram adubadas com N-P2O5-K2O (50-40-40 kg/ha/ano, respectivamente. Durante o período experimental, foram realizados nove pastejos (326 dias no SF1 e 336 dias no SF2. Foram usadas para avaliação vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa recebendo suplementação com concentrado (3,5 kg/dia. Foram colhidas no pré-pastejo amostras representativas da massa de forragem da pastagem nos piquetes. Os valores médios de matéria seca da massa de forragem da pastagem, de lâminas foliares do capim-elefante, do azevém e de leguminosas foram de 3,76; 0,85 e 0,26 t/ha no SF1 e 4,60; 0,99 e 0,19 t/ha no SF2, respectivamente. Considerando os períodos hibernal e estival, os valores médios da carga animal foram de 2,22 e 2,29 e de 3,14 e 3,01 UA/ha, respectivamente, para o SF1 e o SF2. Os resultados foram similares entre os sistemas forrageiros. Como o capim-elefante predomina nesses sistemas, a utilização do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo permitiu manter a massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos. Os resultados sugerem que o capim-elefante pode ser utilizado segundo as misturas forrageiras propostas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamic and animal performance in two pasture-based systems (PS, with elephantgrass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS for PS2. Four paddocks, each one with 0.25 ha, were used in the evaluation. EG was established in

  16. Avaliação produtiva e econômica de sistemas de produção bovina em pastagens de capim-elefante Productive and economic evaluation of cattle production systems on elephant-grass pastures

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    A.A.C. Peres

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo de novilhas manejadas em capim-elefante com suplementação alimentar e estudou-se a viabilidade econômica dos sistemas de produção. Utilizaram-se novilhas Holandês-Zebu com idade média de 17 meses e peso médio de 215±8kg, distribuídas nos seguintes sistemas de produção: SP1 - sem suplementação; SP2 - suplementadas com ração concentrada; e SP3 - suplementadas com leguminosa Stylosanthes guianensis, cv. Mineirão. Foram utilizadas 22 novilhas sendo 12 distribuídas nos três sistemas e as demais utilizadas como animais de equilíbrio em função da quantidade de forragem disponível. Os ganhos de peso médio diário foram 429±18g, 624±23g e 535±8g para SP1, SP2 e SP3, e os ganhos de peso diário por área de 2,38; 3,46 e 1,43kg/ha/dia, para SP1, SP2 e SP3, respectivamente. A taxa interna de retorno obtida foi 29,6%, 30,1% e 10,5% para SP1, SP2 e SP3, respectivamente. O preço de venda das novilhas foi o fator de maior impacto no desempenho econômico dos sistemas de produção.Productive and economic performance of heifers grazing elephant-grass pastures under different production systems were evaluated. Twenty-two Holstein-Zebu heifers, 17-month-old and averaging 215kg of live weight, were used. The animals were managed on elephant-grass pastures under three production systems: PS1 - without supplementation; PS2 - supplemented with concentrate feeds; and PS3 - supplemented with Stylosanthes guianensis, cv. Mineirão pasture. Twelve heifers were used as testers and 10 heifers were used as "put-and-take". The average daily gains were 429±18g, 624±23g and 535±8g for animals on PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The total daily gains per hectare were 2.38, 3.46 and 1.43kg, for animals on PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The calculated internal rates of return were 29.6%, 30.1% and 10.5% for PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The sale price of heifers had the largest impact on the economic performance of

  17. Yield and quality of elephant grass biomass produced in the cerrados region for bioenergy Produção e qualidade da biomassa de capim-elefante produzido em ambiente dos cerrados para fins energéticos

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    Rilner A. Flores

    2012-10-01

    comportamento da matéria seca, variando de 347 a 539 kg ha-1 de N. As relações C/N e colmo/folha da biomassa produzida não variaram com os tratamentos. Os teores de fibra foram maiores no genótipo Paraíso, e os teores de cinza, maiores no genótipo Roxo. O teor de K na biomassa de capim-elefante foi maior no genótipo Roxo, e o de P não variou entre os genótipos. O poder calorífico foi, em média, de 18 MJ kg-1 de matéria seca, e não variou em função dos teores de N nas folhas e nos colmos da planta. Ambos os genótipos, independentemente da fertilização com N, produzem acima de 30 Mg ha-1 de biomassa, em condições de Cerrado.

  18. Conservação in vitro do germoplasma de capim-elefante por meio da micropropagação de meristemas axilares In vitro conservation of elephantgrass germplasm of micropropagation of axillary meristems

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    Maria Coletta Vidigal

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Na conservação m vitro do capim-elefante foi observado que, ao longo dos subcultivos sucessivos de meristemas picais, ocorre gradual perda de vigor nas plântulas. Essa limitação torna necessária a reintrodução de acessos na coleção, comprometendo a eficiência do processo. Visando solucionar o problema, foi conduzido um estudo com 51 cultivares de capimelefante, onde, na repicagem efetuada a cada 4 a 6 meses, foram inoculados meristemas axilares da plântula, dispostos horizontalmente sobre meio MS, adicionado ou não de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA. Neste ciclo, que durou 45 dias, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número e comprimento dos explantes, gemas brotadas por explante, início e vigor da brotação, número de brotos desenvolvidos e percentagem de morte. Os resultados sugerem que esse método melhorou o vigor acentuadamente; embora as respostas, com e sem adição de ANA ao meio, tenham sido muito variadas entre cultivares. Apenas a cv. Mercker Comum Pinda não apresentou resposta satisfatória, devendo ser futuramente submetida a outras alternativas para propagação. Com base na produção de brotos, as cvs. Napier e Sem Pêlo apresentaram o melhor desempenho, na presença de ANA. O método mostrou-se promissor também pelo uso mínimo de reguladores do crescimento, reduzindo custos e a possibilidade de mutações.The continuous utiliwtion of explants obtainedfrom cultured apical meristems limits elephantgrass in vitro conservation because of gradual loss of vigor. Such a restriction makes it necessary to periodícally replace accessions in the coilection, reducing the efficiency of the technique. To overcome this problem, a study was carried out with 51 elephantgrass cultivars, where reculturing was conducted every 4 to 6 months using in vitro seediing axiliary meristems, with or without the addition of naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA to the MS culture médium. During this reculturing cycle, which lasted 45 days, the

  19. Variação anual da composição bromatológica de duas forrageiras cultivadas nas baixadas litorâneas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Lacerda Paulo Drude de; Malafaia Pedro; Vieira Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique Douglas Sampaio; Van Der Made Ivone Elizabeth; Faria Ana Raquel Gomes

    2004-01-01

    Análises de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), lignina (LIG), frações de carboidratos e de compostos nitrogenados foram realizadas em capins provenientes de três propriedades rurais da região das baixadas litorâneas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Amostras do capim hemártria (HEM) (Hemarthria altissima) e do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum), utilizado como capineira (CEC) e sob pastejo rotacionado (CEP) foram coletadas mensalmente, ao longo das estaçõe...

  20. Período de estacionalidade de produção de pastagens irrigadas Seasonality period of production in irrigated pastures

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    Joaquim Bartolomeu Rassini

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o período de estacionalidade de produção de matéria seca de espécies forrageiras irrigadas. As espécies utilizadas foram Pennisetum purpureum cv. Taiwan (capim-elefante), Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia (capim-tanzânia), Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk (capim-braquiária), Brachiaria bryzantha cv. Marandu (capim-marandu), Paspalum atratum cv. Pojuca (capim-pojuca) e Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross (capim-coastcross). Durante dois anos (1999/2000 e 2000...

  1. Produção de forragem de capim-elefante sob clima frio: 2. produção e seletividade animal Elephantgrass forage yield under cold climate conditions: 2. production and animal selectivity

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    Miguel Dall'Agnol

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas, neste estudo, a produção e a seletividade animal de cultivares de capim-elefante em condições de clima frio, em Lages, Santa Catarina. O ensaio constou de 12 cultivares (Mineiro X-23A, Mineiro, Taiwan A-144, CAC-262, Mole da Volta Grande, Teresópolis, Vrukwona, Merckeron Pinda, Turrialba, Porto Rico, Taiwan A-14 e Cameroon, estabelecidas em parcelas de 17,5 m², em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi formada por sete linhas espaçadas 0,50 m, considerando-se como área útil as três linhas centrais. Os cortes para avaliação da produção de forragem foram realizados em janeiro, março e maio de 1985 e 1986, sempre que as plantas atingiram cerca de 1,5 m de estatura. A avaliação da seletividade animal foi realizada em janeiro e março de 1987, após o pastoreio, mediante notas atribuídas ao resíduo de forragem na parcela (método Botanal. A análise da variância mostrou efeito significativo de anos e de cultivares para a produção total de forragem, não havendo efeito significativo para a interação desses fatores. Na média dos dois anos, o potencial de produção variou entre 11 t e 21 t MS/ha. Observou-se uma redução de 27% na produção de forragem no segundo ano, com média geral dos cultivares de 12.116 kg MS/ha, que foi significativamente inferior à do ano anterior (16.662 kg MS/ha. O cv. Mineiro X-23A foi o que apresentou a maior produção de forragem, superando 20 t MS/ha. O cv. Porto Rico destacou-se pela maior proporção de folhas e maior seletividade pelos animais e o cv. CAC-262, pela maior estabilidade, ou seja, menor variância nos dois anos de avaliação.This work was aimed to compare the production and animal selectivity of elephant grass cultivars in the cold conditions, of Southern Brasil (Lages, Santa Catarina. Twelve cultivars of elephantgrass were used (Mineiro X-23A, Mineiro, Taiwan A-144, CAC-262, Mole da Volta Grande, Teres

  2. Desempenho animal e viabilidade econômica do uso da silagem de capim-Elefante em substituição a silagem de milho para vacas em lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.849 Animal performance and economic return from replacing corn silage by elephant grass silage in Holstein cow diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.849

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    Antônio Ferriane Branco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa quanto à produção e composição do leite, assim como a eficiência econômica do uso de silagem de milho ou silagens de capim-elefante confeccionadas com inoculantes bacteriano e enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas multíparas no período intermediário de lactação, e o delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino (3 x 3; três silagens. Foram realizadas análises químico-bromatológicas, e a digestibilidade da MS e FDN das silagens. As análises químico-bromatológicas mostraram valores superiores para a silagem de milho. Entretanto, os resultados não mostraram diferenças (p>0,05 na ingestão de matéria seca, produção e composição do leite entre as silagens. O resultado da análise econômica mostrou-se superior para as silagens de capim-elefante, fato decorrente de seu menor custo de produção aliado ao bom resultado de desempenho. Tal fato pode ter sido favorecido pelo uso dos inoculantes e sua ação sobre a parede celular das silagens de capim-elefante, pois a digestibilidade das rações totais foram semelhantes para as três silagensThe objectives of this study were to evaluate Holstein cow performance, considering milk yield and composition, and economic efficiency from replacing corn silage by elephant-grass silages treated with bacterial and enzyme-bacterial inoculants. Nine multiparous cows, in the middle of lactation were used. The experimental design was a Latin square (3 x 3; three silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis and DM and NDF digestibility were conducted for all the silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis showed higher values for corn silage. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05 for dry matter intake, milk yield and composition among the silages. Economic analysis showed higher return using elephant-grass silages, fact resulting from lower production costs and milk yield. This could be the

  3. Desempenho animal e viabilidade econômica do uso da silagem de capim-Elefante em substituição a silagem de milho para vacas em lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.849 Animal performance and economic return from replacing corn silage by elephant grass silage in Holstein cow diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.849

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    Antônio Ferriane Branco; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Lindomar Luiz Sarti; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Ulysses Cecato

    2006-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa quanto à produção e composição do leite, assim como a eficiência econômica do uso de silagem de milho ou silagens de capim-elefante confeccionadas com inoculantes bacteriano e enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas multíparas no período intermediário de lactação, e o delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino (3 x 3; três silagens). Foram realizadas análises químico-bromatológicas, e a digesti...

  4. 蚯蚓粪肥不同施入量对桂牧1号象草产量与品质的影响%Effect of Different Fertilizer Rate of Earthworm Manure on the Yield and Quality of Pennisetum purpureum cv. Guimu No. 1

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    钟云平; 苏州; 李建军; 刘瑞平; 邱光忠; 杨先春

    2015-01-01

    试验研究了蚯蚓粪肥不同施入水平对牧草品质及其产量的影响,进行了5次刈割测产,测定了桂牧1号象草单株株高、单株鲜重、鲜草产量,分析了牧草中粗蛋白、粗纤维、粗灰分及重金属铜、锌、砷含量. 研究结果表明,利用蚯蚓粪肥栽培桂牧1号象草,并用猪场沼液灌溉,能明显促进其生长,提高牧草产量,改善牧草品质,增加适口性. 当蚯蚓粪肥单株施入量为2. 00 kg,即2. 55 kg/m2 时,试验效果最佳. 随着试验进行,蚯蚓粪作为有机肥到后期吸收更加充分,对牧草后期生长有明显的影响,牧草单株株高、单株鲜重、刈割产量均有明显增加,能有效增加牧草产量,提高经济效益.%Effect of different fertilizer rate of earthworm manure on the yield and quality of Pennise-tum purpureum cv. Guimu No. 1 were studied. The cutting produciton were determined 5 times,the plant height,fresh weight and fresh yield were determined,and the contents of crude protein,crude fiber,crude ash and heavy metal copper,zinc and arsenic in Guimu No. 1 were analyzed. The results show that,Using wormcast cultivated and pig farm biogas slurry irrigation can significantly promote the growth,increase forage yield,improve forage quality,increase palatability of Guimu No. 1. When the fertilizer rate of earthworm manure per plant was 2 kg,which is 2. 55 kg/m2 ,had the best test re-sults. With the test,earthworm manure as organic fertilizer to the late absorb more fully,in the late period of Guimu No. 1 growth had obvious influence, plant height, fresh weight per plant, cutting yield increased significantly,effectively increased the yield,improved economic efficiency.

  5. Produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante, com e sem suplementação de concentrado durante a época das chuvas Milk yield of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows supplemented or not with concentrate during the rainy season

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    F. Deresz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito da suplementação da pastagem de capim-elefante com concentrado na época das chuvas e início da seca, entre dezembro e junho, sobre a produção e composição do leite e ganho de peso de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu. Os tratamentos foram pastagem de capim-elefante sem concentrado (SC e com 2,0kg de concentrado/vaca/dia (CC. A área experimental de pastagem foi dividida em 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um, 22 por tratamento, com duas repetições de área. Foram usadas 12 vacas, sendo seis por tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso. A pastagem foi manejada em pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação por piquete e 30 dias de descanso. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg/ha/ano de N e de K2O. As produções médias de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foram de 11,6± 0,3 e 12,5± 0,3kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário por vaca de 211 e 244g, para os tratamentos SC e CC, respectivamente. Houve diferença (PThis work aimed to study the effect of concentrate supplementation of elephantgrass pasture during the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season, on milk yield, milk composition and weight gain of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows. The treatments were: elephantgrass pasture with no concentrate supplementation (NC and with 2kg concentrate supplementation cow/day (WC. The experimental area was divided in 44 paddocks with 606m² each, corresponding to 22 paddocks per replication and six cows per treatment. The cows were alloted to the treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The pasture was managed in a rotational system with 30 days resting period and three days grazing per paddock. The stocking rate was 4.5 cows/ha. The pasture was fertilized with 200kg/ha/yr of N and K2O. The average fat corrected (4% milk yield was 11.6± 0.3 and 12.5± 0.3kg/cow/day and the average daily weight gain during the

  6. Características fermentativas e nutricionais da silagem de capim elefante com a inclusão de casca de café - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2151 Fermentative and nutritional traits of elephantgrass silage added with increasing proportions of coffee hulls - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2151

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    José Valmir Feitosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de casca de café (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% na matéria natural nas características fermentativas e nutricionais da silagem de capim-elefante usando sacos plásticos como silos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A inclusão da casca de café aumentou os teores de matéria seca (MS das silagens linearmente e alterou os componentes da fibra. A inclusão de 10% de casca de café aumentou os teores de lactato e diminuiu os de acetato das silagens. A digestibilidade e a degradabilidade da MS das silagens diminuíram com a inclusão de casca de café acima de 10%. A inclusão de 5% a 10% de casca de café ao capim proporcionou silagens com melhor padrão fermentativo e qualidade nutricional.This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of coffee hulls inclusion (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%; natural basis on fermentation and nutritional traits of elephantgrass silage. A completely randomized design with four replications was used to compare treatments average, while plastic bags were used as experimental silos. Coffee hulls inclusion increased DM contents linearly and changed the fiber compounds profile. Including 10% of coffee hulls increased the contents of silage lactate and reduced acetate contents. DM digestibility and ruminal degradability of the silages decreased with the inclusion of more than 10% of coffee hulls. The amounts from 5% to 10% of coffee hulls were considered best levels to make elephantgrass silage with adequate fermentation pattern and nutritional quality.

  7. Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

  8. 添加绿汁发酵液、乳酸菌制剂和葡萄糖对象草青贮发酵品质的影响%Effects of FJLB, LAB and glucose addition on fermentation quality of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣辉; 余成群; 陈杰; 下条雅敬; 邵涛

    2013-01-01

    为评价添加绿汁发酵液、乳酸菌制剂和葡萄糖对象草青贮发酵品质的影响,试验设6个处理组:即对照组(无添加剂),绿汁发酵液组(FJLB),乳酸菌制剂组(LAB),葡萄糖组(G),绿汁发酵液+葡萄糖组(FJLB+G),乳酸菌制剂+葡萄糖组(LAB+G);在青贮第3,7,14,30天开窖,取样分析发酵品质.结果表明,与对照组相比,LAB处理对发酵品质影响不大,FJLB处理显著(P<0.05)降低了乳酸和水溶性碳水化合物含量,显著(P<0.05)提高了pH值、乙酸、丁酸和氨态氮含量,使发酵品质变差,而G、LAB+G和FJLB+G处理均显著(P<0.05)提高了青贮早期的乳酸含量,在整个青贮过程中保持较高的乳酸/乙酸值,并显著(P<0.05)降低了最终青贮饲料的pH和氨态氮含量,但与G处理相比,LAB+G和FJLB+G处理没有显示出更优的效果.综上所述,添加葡萄糖可促进同型乳酸发酵,对象草青贮发酵品质的改善效果优于接种乳酸菌.%The effects of adding pre-fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB),lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and glucose (G) on fermentation quality of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were evaluated.The treatments were control (without additives),FJLB,LAB,G,FJLB+G,and LAB+G.The silos were opened on 3,7,14,and 30 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analysed.Compared with the control,LAB addition had no significant effect on fermentation quality,while FJLB addition reduced fermentation quality In the FJLB addition treatment,lactic acid and water soluble carbohydrate decreased significantly (P<0.05)while pH,ammonia nitrogen,acetic acid and butyric acid increased significantly (P<0.05).In the G,LAB+G,and FJLB+G addition treatments,lactic acid content increased significantly (P<0.05) at an early stage of ensiling,maintaining a high lactic acid/acetic acid value throughout the fermentation process.pH and ammonia nitrogen content of the final silages decreased significantly (P<0

  9. Características morfológicas do capim-elefante e capim-braquiarão submetidos a diferentes taxas de lotação Morphologic characteristics of elephantgrass and braquiarãograss submitted to different stocking rates

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    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar algumas características das plantas forrageiras que podem ser utilizadas para determinar o fluxo de tecido vegetal que, associado ao conhecimento da dinâmica do perfilhamento, auxilia na determinação de práticas de manejo da pastagem, visando a maior rendimento forrageiro e produtividade animal. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Zootecnia do Extremo Sul da Bahia, da CEPLAC, localizada no município de Itabela-BA, com uma precipitação anual de 1311 mm e temperatura média de 250C, sem estação seca definida. O solo é um Ultisol com as seguintes características químicas médias: pH em H2O = 6,2; Al = 0,1 cmolc/dm3; Ca = 2,6 cmolc/dm3; Mg = 0,4 cmolc/dm3; K = 0,2 cmolc/dm3; P disponível = 2,9 mg/dm3. A área experimental foi constituída de 52 piquetes de Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon e 52 de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, com uma área de 720 m2 cada um, totalizando 74.880 m2. A calagem e fertilização de estabelecimento foram efetuadas na base de 1000 kg/ha de calcário dolomítico e 80 kg/ha de P2O5. A adubação de manutenção foi aplicada na base de 160 kg/ha de N, 60 kg/ha de P2O5 e 120 kg/ha de K2O, parcelada em quatro aplicações. Cada gramínea foi submetida a quatro taxas de lotação, em um sistema de pastejo rotacionado com 3 dias de ocupação e 36 dias de descanso, resultando em um ciclo de pastejo de 39 dias. As taxas de lotação foram 3, 4, 5 e 6 novilhos/ha, com peso médio de 280 kg. As taxas de lotação em P. purpureum cv. Cameroon afetaram significativamente a altura total de perfilhos, a altura do caule, a altura do meristema apical, os números de folhas completamente expandidas e emergentes e os comprimentos dessas duas categorias de folhas. Em B. brizantha cv. Marandu, as taxas de lotação afetaram as variáveis: altura total de perfilhos, altura de caule, comprimentos de folhas completamente expandidas e emergentes. Nas duas gram

  10. Consumo, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em borregos alimentados com torta de dendê em substituição à silagem de capim-elefante Voluntary intake, apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed with palm kernel cake replacing elephant grass silage

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    Lorena da Mota Lima Bringel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo voluntário, a digestibilidade aparente e o balanço de nitrogênio em ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo torta de dendê. A adição da torta de dendê foi avaliada nos níveis 0; 20; 40; 60 e 80% em substituição à silagem de capim-elefante utilizando-se 20 ovinos machos castrados em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Em todas as formas como foram expressos, o consumo e a digestibilidade de nutrientes apresentou em geral resposta quadrática aos níveis de torta de dendê utilizados na dieta. A inclusão de torta de dendê nas dietas teve efeito quadrático também sobre o balanço de nitrogênio, que aumentou até o nível de 45% de adição desse subproduto e decresceu, devido ao baixo consumo de proteína bruta nos maiores níveis. A torta de dendê possui características próprias de um alimento volumoso e tem como principal limitação o baixo consumo alimentar, por isso, seu uso na alimentação de ovinos deve ser restrito ao nível máximo de 37,34% da dieta total.This research was conducted to evaluate the voluntary intake, the apparent digestibility and the nitrogen balance in sheep fed with diets containing palm kernel cake. The addition of palm kernel cake was assessed at the 0; 20; 40; 60 and 80% levels replacing the elephant grass silages by utilizing 20 castrated male sheep in a completely randomized design. In all the forms they were expressed, intake and digestibility of nutrients showed quadract effect at the levels of palm kernel pie utilized in the diet. The inclusion of palm kernel pie in the diets had quadract effect also on the nitrogen balance, due to low consumption of crude protein at higher levels. Palm kernel pie presents the characteristics of bulky feed, and its biggest limitation is the low feeding intake, hence, its use at sheep's feeding must be restricted to up to 37.34% of the total diet.

  11. Produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante, manejada em sistema rotativo com e sem suplementação durante a época das chuvas

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    Deresz Fermino

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar os efeitos da suplementação da pastagem de capim-elefante com concentrado sobre a produção e composição do leite e variação de peso vivo de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Os tratamentos foram: sem concentrado (SC e com 2,0 kg de concentrado/vaca/dia (CC. O experimento foi realizado durante a época das chuvas. A área foi dividida em 44 piquetes de 606 m², 22 para cada tratamento, representando duas repetições de área, constituída cada uma de 11 piquetes. Foram usadas 12 vacas, seis por tratamento, tendo em média 30 dias de lactação e peso vivo médio de 488 kg. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso e os blocos foram formados com base na produção de leite e no peso vivo das vacas no início da lactação. A pastagem foi manejada em sistema de pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação/piquete e 30 dias de descanso. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada durante a estação chuvosa com 200 kg/ha/ano de N e de K2O, parceladas em três aplicações iguais. Foram aplicados também 40 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 e 1.000 kg/ha/ano de calcário dolomítico. As produções médias de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foram de 11,4 e 12,6 kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário de 114 e 180 g, para os tratamentos SC e CC, respectivamente. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos na produção de leite, mas não no ganho de peso.

  12. Efeito da irrigação e adubação na disponibilidade e composição bromatológica da massa seca de lâminas foliares de capim-elefante Effect of irrigation and fertilization in the availability and chemical composition of leaf lamina dry mass of elephantgrass

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    Rogério dos Santos Lopes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da irrigação, acompanhada de doses crescentes de nitrogênio e potássio (100-80; 200-160; 300-240; 400-320, respectivamente N e K2O, sobre a produção e composição bromatológica de lâminas foliares em pastagem de capim-elefante. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições para os tratamentos de sequeiro e irrigado. As baixas temperaturas e as menores horas de luz no período seco do ano determinaram o baixo crescimento da planta forrageira, mesmo com a irrigação. No entanto, no verão, constatou-se rápido crescimento da planta forrageira sob irrigação, privilegiando o desenvolvimento de colmos em relação às lâminas foliares, determinando as menores relações para as maiores doses dos fertilizantes. As lâminas foliares sob irrigação também apresentaram os menores valores de proteína bruta e os maiores de FDN e FDA. Assim, manejos mais freqüentes em pastagens sob irrigação poderiam controlar o desenvolvimento dos colmos e disponibilizar material de melhor composição bromatológica.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation, followed by increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium (100-80; 200-160; 300-240; 400-320, respectively N and K2O, on the production and chemical composition of the leaf lamina at the elephantgrass. The experimental delineation was of blocks randomized with three repetitions for treatments irrigated and dry land. The low temperatures and the smallest light hours in the dry season determined the low plant forage growth, even with the irrigation. However, in the summer, there was fast growth of plant forage under irrigation, emphasizing the culm growth in relation to leaf laminas, determining the lower relations to the higher fertilizer levels. The leaf laminas under irrigation also showed the lower crude protein contents and higher NDF and ADF contents. So, more frequent managing in

  13. Influencia da adubação nitrogenada e idade de corte sobre os teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro de três cultivares de capim-elefante (Influence of nitrogen fertilization and age of cutting on the crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents of three elephant-grass varieties

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    João Avelar Magalhães

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de três doses denitrogênio (150, 300 e 450 kg de N/ha e cinco idades de corte (28, 35, 42, 56 e 84 dias sobre os teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do capim-elefante cvs. Napier, Pioneiro e Roxo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subsubdivididas e quatro repetições. As gramíneas foram plantadas em covas, em área irrigada por aspersão fixa de baixa vazão. O corte de uniformização foi realizado 93 dias após o plantio, e em seguida foram aplicados os níveis de nitrogênio, usando-se uréia. Foi observado que a cv. Roxo apresentou o maior teor médio de PB, enquanto a Napier apresentou o menor teor. Os maiores teores de PB foram obtidos através da utilização de 450 e 300 kg de N/ha. A análise de regressão indicou linearidade negativa dos efeitos da idade sobre os teores de PB da planta. Os teores de FDN foram crescentes em função da idade de corte. A análise de variância nãodetectou diferenças significativas entre as cultivares testadas e nem nos níveis de nitrogênio aplicados sobre os teores de FDN.SummaryThis experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of three nitrogen levels (150; 300 and 450 kg of N/ha and five cutting ages (28, 35, 42, 56 and 84 days on the crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents of the elephant-grass vars. Napier, Pioneiro and Roxo. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with treatments arranged as a split-split-plot and four repetitions. The grassy varieties were established in hollows, in area irrigated for fixed aspersion of low outflow. The uniformization cut was carried through 93 days after the plantation, and after that the nitrogen levels had been applied, using themselves urea. TheCP content had been gotten from the nitrogen determination, for the method of Kjeldahl (N x 6.25. It was observed that the var. Roxo presented the highest CP

  14. Influência do período de descanso da pastagem de capim-elefante na produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu Effect of grazing interval for elephantgrass pastures on milk yield and live weight changes of crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows

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    Fermino Deresz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito de três períodos de descanso (T30 = 30 dias, T36 = 36 dias e T45 = 45 dias sobre a produção de leite e variação de peso vivo de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante manejada em sistema rotativo. O experimento foi realizado durante a estação chuvosa, usando-se 18 vacas, tendo em média 30 dias de lactação e peso vivo médio de 488 kg. As vacas foram distribuídas pelos tratamentos em seis blocos completos ao acaso, constituídos de duas séries de piquetes (repetição de área e três vacas/piquete, formados com base na produção de leite e no peso vivo no início da lactação. A lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha para todos os tratamentos e as vacas não receberam concentrado. O período de ocupação dos piquetes foi de três dias. A pastagem foi adubada com 200 kg/ha de N e K2O, divididos em três aplicações, durante a época das chuvas. Foram aplicados também 40 kg de P2O5 e 1 t de calcário dolomítico, no início da época das chuvas. A produção média de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura foi de 11,4; 10,6; e 10,3 kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário, de 114, 160 e 116 g para os tratamentos T30, T36 e T45, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para produção de leite, nem para ganho de peso.The objective of this trial was to study the effect of three grazing intervals (T30 = 30 days, T36 = 36 days and T45 = 45 days on milk yield and live weight changes of crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows grazing elephantgrass pasture rotationally managed. The experiment was conducted during the rainy season using 18 crossbred cows averaging 30 days of lactation and 488 kg of average live weight. The cows were allocated to experimental treatments according to a completely randomized block design, with six blocks, two series of paddocks and three cows/paddock, based on milk yield and body weight of cows at the beginning of lactation. The stocking rate

  15. Disponibilidade e qualidade do capim-elefante com e sem irrigação adubado com nitrogênio e potássio na estação seca Forage yield and quality of elephantgrass response to irrigation and nitrogen and potassium fertilization in the dry season

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    Claudio Mistura

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da irrigação e da adubação com N e K sobre a disponibilidade e a qualidade da matéria seca em pastagem de capim-elefante cv. Napier adubada com N e K nas dosagens de 100:80; 200:160; 300:240 e 400:320 kg.ha-1.ano-1 de N e K2O, respectivamente, no período seco do ano. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos (área irrigada - AI e não-irrigada - ANI, segundo delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições, em que a unidade experimental consistiu de parcelas (piquetes de 300 m², nas quais foram aplicados os tratamentos. No período de avaliação (maio a setembro/2001 - período seco, as disponibilidades de matéria seca total (DMST e lâmina foliar (DMSLF apresentaram valores proporcionais às doses de nitrogênio e potássio. A irrigação teve efeito significativo sobre a DMSLF. No entanto, os teores de FDN e FDA, ao longo do período seco, na área não-irrigada foram menores que na área irrigada. As concentrações de PB e dos macrominerais (P, K, Ca e Mg não foram influenciadas pelas doses de N e K e pela irrigação, tanto na área irrigada como na não-irrigada.An experiment was carried out in experimental plots of 300 m² in size to evaluate the effects of doses of NK fertilization and irrigation on forage mass yield and quality of elephantgras cv Napier during the dry season. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatment replications. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 4 x 2 factorial combination of four N-K2O doses with and without irrigation, in the dry season. N-K2O doses were: 100-80; 200-160; 300-240 and 400-320 kg.ha-1, respectively. Figures for total dry forage mass (TDFM, and dry green leaf mass (DGLM increased in proportion to N-K2O dose from May to September 2001, the dry season period. Irrigation had a marked significant effect on DGLM yield. Leaf samples from irrigated plots had higher contents of neutral and acid detergent

  16. Avaliação de métodos de amostragem qualitativa em pastagens tropicais manejadas em sistema rotacionado Evaluation of sampling methods for quality evaluation of tropical forages under rotational stocking

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    Fábio Nunes Lista

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar comparativamente a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro e a degradabilidade dos carboidratos de amostras de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum, cv. Napier e capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum, Jacq. cv. Mombaça obtidas por extrusa esofágica e por simulação manual de pastejo. O capim-elefante apresentou os maiores teores de MS, PB e nitrogênio não-protéico. A composição do capim-mombaça sofreu variações conforme aumentaram os dias de pastejo, principalmente quanto aos teores de MS e nitrogênio. A fração potencialmente degradável dos carboidratos diferiu entre as metodologias de avaliação. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as forrageiras quanto à cinética de degradação dos carboidratos.Chemical composition and IVDMD of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Napier and mombaçagrass (Panicum maximum, cv. Mombaça were evaluated using samples of esophageal extrusa and hand-plucked samples. Greater DM, CP, and non-protein N concentrations were observed in the elephantgrass. Chemical composition of mombaçagrass, mainly DM and N concentration, varied with grazing day. Potentially degradable carbohydrate fraction differed between sampling techniques. No differences were observed regarding the kinetics of carbohydrates degradation for both grasses.

  17. Comportamento de vacas em lactação em pastagem manejada sob princípios agroecológicos Behavior of grazing lactating cows in agro-ecological managed pastures

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de vacas holandesas em lactação durante o período hibernal em pastagem constituída de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. As avaliações foram feitas em três ciclos de pastejo, em 17/06, 04/08 e 16/09 de 2004. Em cada avaliação, utilizaram-se seis vacas entre o 2º e o 5º mês de lactação. O registro de dados foi realizado por dois observadores das 18 às 6h e das 8 às 16h, a cada 10 minutos. As características comportamentais observadas foram os tempos de pastejo em capim-elefante e em aveia + azevém, em pastejo total (pastejo de capim-elefante + aveia e azevém, em ruminação e ócio. Concomitantemente, avaliaram-se os dados da massa de forragem inicial, da qualidade da forragem ingerida e das condições ambientais. A maior intensidade de pastejo ocorreu após cada ordenha, verificando-se posteriormente um decréscimo, tanto durante o dia quanto à noite. Em média, o turno que os animais demandaram mais tempo de pastejo foi o diurno. O tempo destinado pelas vacas ao consumo de aveia e de azevém foi maior no período em que o capim-elefante apresentava menor porcentagem de lâminas foliares. O tempo de ócio diminuiu e o de ruminação aumentou no decorrer dos pastejos, como resultado do declínio na porcentagem de lâminas foliares e da elevação na porcentagem de colmos das espécies de ciclo hibernal. O capim-elefante foi pastejado em todas as avaliações. A presença de espécies de ciclos diferentes possibilitou aos animais equilibrarem a dieta volumosa.The objective of this trial was to study the behavior of lactating Holstein cows grazing pasture containing elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. plus ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Data from six early to mid lactating cows were collected every 10 minutes interval

  18. Avaliação das silagens de capim-elefante aditivadas com nabo forrageiro, pinhão manso e tremoço, pela técnica de produção de gases Evaluation of elephant grass silages with forage radish, jatropha and lupine cakes as additives by the gas production technique

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    Arnaldo Prata Neiva Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, na condução deste trabalho, a avaliação das silagens de capim-elefante aditivadas com tortas de nabo forrageiro, pinhão manso e tremoço pela técnica de produção de gás. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Nutrição Animal do Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura da Universidade de São Paulo (LANA/CENA/USP. Como doadores de líquido de rúmen, foram utilizados 2 ovinos da raça Santa Inês, machos, adultos, castrados e providos de cânula ruminal permanente. A alimentação dos animais doadores foi constituída de forragem de gramínea cultivada e uma suplementação, ao final do dia, com feno de Tifton, concentrado comercial e sal mineral à vontade. Os substratos foram secos a 60ºC, moídos em moinho do tipo Willey, provido de peneira com perfurações de 2 mm. Os gases produzidos durante os diferentes períodos de fermentação (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 e 96 h foram medidos com um transducer - medidor de pressão.O experimento foi instalado segundo um delineamento de blocos ao acaso em que os tratamentos foram arranjados em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os maiores valores de produção de gás observados para os tratamentos em que adicionou-se torta de tremoço quando comparados com as outras tortas, decorreu do fato da torta de tremoço apresentar menor teor de fibras, propiciando assim, uma maior fermentação ruminal e, consequentemente, maior produção de gás em relação a outros alimentos com maior proporção de carboidratos estruturais (parede celular.As taxas de degradação da fração solúvel da matéria seca foi menor para NF 8% e PM 11% em relação às outras silagens estudadas. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas para as TNF, TPM e TT, nos diferentes níveis, em relação ao volume de gases em 96 h de incubação (PThe objective of this work was to evaluate elephant grass silages with forage radish, Jatropha and lupine cakes as additives by the gas

  19. Association between the morphological and productive characteristics in the selection of elephant grass clones Associação entre características morfológicas e produtivas na seleção de clones de capim-elefante

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    Márcio Vieira da Cunha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives in this work were to study the association between the morphological and productive characteristics in Pennisetum sp. clones, and to identify the morphological characteristics responsible for the productivity in Pennisetum cp. clones. The canonical correlations were evaluated and the path analysis was made from the simple genotypic correlation matrix between the morphological and productive characteristics of eight Pennisetum sp. clones (Taiwan A-146 2.37, Taiwan A-146 2.27, Taiwan-146 2.114, Merker México MX 6.31, Mott, HV-241, Elefante B and IRI-381. The canonical correlations were significant at 1% probability by the Chi-square test. The first pair of canonic factors, with correlation of 0.9999, related the plants with the highest dry matter content to plants with lower leaf area indexes, light perception and leaf angle. The second pair of canonic factors, with correlation of 0.9999, related the plants with the highest dry matter production to the plants with higher basal tiller density, height, and low green leaf number per tiller. The results of the path analysis indicated that the light interception is determinant in dry matter content expression of Pennisetum sp. clones, while the basal tiller density and plant height are responsible for dry matter production in these clones.Os objetivos neste trabalho foram estudar a associação entre características morfológicas e produtivas em clones de Pennisetum sp. e identificar as características morfológicas responsáveis pela produtividade em clones de Pennisetum sp. Foram avaliadas as correlações canônicas e feita análise de trilha a partir da matriz de correlações genotípicas simples entre características morfológicas e produtivas de oito clones de Pennisetum sp. (Taiwan A-146 2.37, Taiwan A-146 2.27, Taiwan-146 2.114, Merker México MX 6.31, Mott, HV-241, Elefante B e IRI-381. As correlações canônicas foram significativas a 1% de probabilidade pelo teste do qui

  20. Características estruturais e morfológicas de genótipos de Pennisetum sp. sob pastejo no período de seca Structural and morphological characteristics of Pennisetum sp. genotypes under grazing during the dry period

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    Márcio Vieira da Cunha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar características estruturais e morfológicas de cinco genótipos de Pennisetum sp. (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elefante B e Hexaplóide sob pastejo no período de seca na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. Os genótipos foram manejados sob lotação rotacionada (44 dias de descanso e quatro dias de pastejo ao longo de dois ciclos de pastejo. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas (os genótipos representaram as parcelas e os ciclos de pastejo, as subparcelas e quatro repetições. Houve variação nas características estruturais e morfológicas de genótipos de Pennisetum sp. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B apresentaram maior densidade de lâmina foliar verde, menor porcentagem de material morto e maior densidade de perfilhos basais remanescentes e aéreos novos, com médias de 5,0±0,4 kg de MS/ha/cm, 33,0±0,2%, 22,0±0,2 e 146,0±0,4 perfilhos/m², respectivamente. O HV-241 apresentou alta participação de material morto em sua biomassa aérea (55,6±0,3%, o que pode ser atribuído à alta mortalidade de perfilhos (19,0±0,3 e 114,0±0,4 perfilhos basais e aéreos mortos/m², respectivamente. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B destacaram-se como promissores para utilização sob pastejo no período de seca. O genótipo HV-241, híbrido de capim-elefante com o milheto, foi mais afetado pelos efeitos do estresse hídrico no período seco do ano.The experiment was carried out to study structural and morphologic characteristics of five Pennisetum sp. genotypes (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elephant B and Hexaplóide under grazing during the dry period in Pernambuco Forest Zone. Genotypes were managed under rotational stocking (44 days of resting and four days of grazing period. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a split plot arrangement, and four replications. The genotypes represented the plots, and grazing

  1. Casca de algodão em substituição parcial à silagem de capim-elefante para novilhos. 2. Parâmetros ruminais e séricos, produção microbiana e excreção urinária de compostos nitrogenados Partial replacement of elephantgrass silage with cottonseed hulls. 2. Ruminal and serum metabolites, microbial protein synthesis, and urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds in steers

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    Mario Luiz Chizzotti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos holandeses fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 259 kg, foram distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 para se avaliar o efeito dos níveis de casca de algodão na dieta de novilhos sobre a concentração de nitrogênio uréico no soro (NUS e de amônia no rúmen, o pH ruminal, a excreção urinária de uréia e derivados de purinas e a produção de proteína microbiana estimada pelo método das bases purinas omasais e da excreção de derivados de purinas na urina. As dietas experimentais continham na base da matéria seca: 0, 10, 20 e 30% de casca de algodão peletizada, em substituição à silagem de capim-elefante, sendo a dieta total constituída de 60% de volumoso. Não houve efeito dos diferentes tratamentos sobre o pH e as concentrações de amônia no rúmen. A concentração de NUS e a excreção de uréia (em mg/kgPV diminuíram, enquanto a excreção de derivados de purinas na urina e a síntese de proteína microbiana no rúmen aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão da casca de algodão nas dietas. A estimativa da síntese de proteína microbiana não diferiu entre as metodologias das bases purínicas omasais e dos derivados de purina na urina. A casca de algodão mostrou-se um bom volumoso alternativo, podendo ser fornecida até o nível de 30% na MS total na dieta de novilhos de origem leiteira.Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers averaging 259 kg of body weight were assigned to a 4x4 Latin square to study the effects of replacing elephantgrass silage with cottonseed hulls on serum urea nitrogen (SUN, ruminal metabolism, urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds, and microbial protein synthesis measured by omasal purine bases or by urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Treatments (60% of forage contained on DM basis: 0, 10, 20 or 30% of cottonseed hulls that partially replaced elephantgrass silage in the diet. No significant differences in ruminal pH and concentration of ruminal ammonia were

  2. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  3. Genótipos de capim-elefante sob pastejo no período de seca na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: fatores relacionados à eficiência de pastejo Elephantgrass genotypes under grazing during the dry period in the Forest Zone of Pernambuco: factors related to grazing efficiency

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    Márcio Vieira da Cunha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar fatores relacionados à eficiência de pastejo de cinco genótipos de Pennisetum sp. (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elefante B e Hexaplóide no período seco do ano na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. Os genótipos foram manejados sob lotação rotacionada (44 dias de descanso e quatro dias de pastejo ao longo de dois ciclos de pastejo. Adotou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas (os genótipos representaram as parcelas e os ciclos de pastejo, as subparcelas e quatro repetições. As massas de lâmina foliar total, verde e senescente pré-pastejo foram analisadas em seis repetições. O acúmulo e a eficiência de pastejo de lâmina foliar verde foram avaliados em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B apresentaram maiores massas de lâmina foliar total (1.374 kg de MS/ha e verde pré-pastejo (737 kg de MS/ha e maior acúmulo (654 kg de MS/ha/44 dias e eficiência de pastejo de lâmina foliar verde (80%. No HV-241, a alta eficiência de pastejo (100% do acúmulo lâmina foliar verde esteve associada ao baixo acúmulo de lâmina foliar verde (155 kg de MS/ha/44 dias. A menor eficiência de pastejo foi observada no Hexaplóide (59% do acúmulo de lâmina foliar verde, possivelmente em virtude das altas perdas sob pastejo (30% da massa de lâmina foliar total pré-pastejo. A massa de lâmina foliar verde diminuiu mais acentuadamente até o segundo dia de pastejo, enquanto as perdas de lâmina foliar total foram maiores no 2º e 3º dias de pastejo. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B têm potencial para serem utilizados em sistemas de lotação rotacionada na Zona da Mata pernambucana.The experiment was carried out to evaluate factors related to the grazing efficiency of five Pennisetum sp. genotypes (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elephant B and Hexaplóide during the dry period in the Forest Zone

  4. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to good relation between morphology and crude protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Napier grass.

  5. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to g

  6. Degradabilidade ruminal do feno de alguns alimentos volumosos para ruminantes Ruminal degradability of some roughage hays for ruminants feeding

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    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e hemicelulose dos fenos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, palma (Opuntia ficus, guandu (Cajanus cajan e parte aérea da mandioca (Manihot esculenta utilizando três bovinos mestiços machos, castrados, canulados no rúmen e mantidos em regime de pasto. Amostras de 4g de cada alimento foram incubadas em duplicata no rúmen dos animais, nos períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. A degradabilidade potencial da PB dos fenos de capim-elefante e guandu foi semelhante, 83,9 e 81,2%, respectivamente. Os maiores valores foram observados para os fenos de palma (94,2% e parte aérea da mandioca (91,7%. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE foi obtida considerando as taxas de passagem de 2, 5 e 8%/hora. A maior DE observada para MS (60,5%, PB (81,1%, FDN (21,6%, FDA (27,9% e HEM (58,0%, na taxa de passagem de 5%/h, ocorreu com o feno de palma.The ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, forage cactus (Opuntia ficus, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta hays was evaluated using three cannulated crossbred steers, kept on pasture. Samples of four grams of each hay were incubated in the rumen for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours. The CP potential degradability (PD for elephantgrass and pigeon pea hays was similar, 83.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Higher values were observed either for forage cactus (94.2% or cassava foliage (91.7% hays. The effective degradability (ED was obtained considering the passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/hour. The forage cactus hay, at a passage rate of 5%/h, showed the highest ED for DM (60.5%, CP (81.1%, NDF (21.6%, ADF (27.9% and HEM (58.0%.

  7. Parâmetros da degradação protéica ruminal de diferentes alimentos e rações estimados por técnica in vitro Parameters of ruminal protein degradation of different feeds and diets estimated by an in vitro method

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    R.P. Lana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos para estudar os parâmetros de degradação protéica ruminal. No primeiro, foram incubadas, em líquido ruminal de bovinos, dietas isoprotéicas contendo capim-elefante, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, em cinco níveis de concentrado (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 e 100:0, adicionado ou não de monensina (5µM. Houve efeito linear decrescente do nível de concentrado sobre a concentração de amônia e degradabilidade da proteína bruta (DPB, e efeito cúbico sobre a concentração de proteína solúvel, com máximo valor em dieta com 25% de concentrado. A monensina diminuiu a DPB e a concentração de proteína solúvel, sem afetar a produção de amônia. No segundo experimento, foram incubados cinco diferentes volumosos (silagens de milho - Zea mays L. e de capim-elefante - Pennisetum purpureum, silagem pré-secada de braquiária -Brachiaria decumbens, feno de Tifton 85 -Cynodon sp. amonizado e feno de Tifton 85. A silagem pré-secada de capim-braquiária e o feno de Tifton 85 amonizado apresentaram as maiores concentrações de amônia (8,7 e 5,3mg/dl e proteína solúvel (5,4 e 7,0mg/dl, devido aos seus maiores teores de PB, seguidos da silagem de capim-elefante e feno de Tifton 85. A DPB variou de 29,6 a 80,6%, para a silagem pré-secada de braquiária e para o feno de Tifton 85, e a degradabilidade potencial da matéria seca de 40,1 a 64,3%, para a silagem de capim-elefante e silagem pré-secada de braquiária, respectivamente. A degradabilidade efetiva da proteína bruta apresentou baixos valores devido à baixa taxa de degradação da fração insolúvel. No terceiro experimento, foram incubados diferentes tipos de camas de frango (casca de café, capim-elefante seco picado, sabugo de milho ou cepilho, contendo ou não monensina (5µM. Não houve diferença nas concentrações de amônia entre as diferentes camas de frango, na ausência de monensina. Entretanto, com monensina, a cama de capim-elefante

  8. Changes in soil organic matter under different land management in misiones province (Argentina Mudanças na matéria orgânica edafica sob diferentes manejos de solo na província de misiones (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Agustín Piccolo

    2008-01-01

    altamente intemperizados dos trópicos perdem rapidamente matéria orgânica do solo (SOM e podem ser afetados pela erosão hídrica e compactação depois de seu deflorestamento e agricultura contínua. O objetivo foi determinar a dinâmica da matéria orgânica do solo com capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum L. em um Kandihumult da província de Misiones (Argentina após desmatamento e cultivo contínuo de erva-mate (Ilex paraguaiensis Saint Hil., utilizando a metodologia da abundância natural em carbono 13 (13C e um modelo descritivo. O estudo foi conduzido em três parcelas contíguas de 50 x 100 m. As situações comparadas foram: (a floresta nativa, e (b local com 50 anos de monocultivo intensivo de erva- mate, e (c erva-mate associada com capim-elefante como cultivo de cobertura sob plantio direto. Determinaram-se os conteúdos de carbono (C, de nitrogênio (N e de 13C e a densidade aparente do solo (camadas 0 - 0,05 e 0.05 - 0,15 m e a biomassa da gramínea. Depois de 50 anos de monocultivo de erva-mate, os conteúdos de C e N e a porosidade da camada 0 - 0,15 m da floresta nativa diminuíram em 42, 47 e 23%, respectivamente. Depois de 10 anos de associação erva-mate - capim-elefante, os conteúdos de C e N do solo e na mesma profundidade aumentaram em relação ao monocultivo de erva-mate em 19 e 12%, respectivamente, mas a porosidade não foi modificada. O aporte de C, o 13C e o C orgânico total do solo foram incorporados em um modelo de três compartimentos para avaliar a dinâmica do C proveniente do capim-elefante. A metodologia da abundância natural em 13C permitiu traçar a incorporação do C proveniente do capim-elefante e a perda do C "velho" no solo, e determinar sem ambigüidade os parâmetros do modelo: coeficiente de humificação (k1, coeficiente de mineralização da fração ativa de C (k e o C estável (Cs. Os altos valores de k1 e k preditos pelo modelo foram atribuídos à alta contribuição do sistema radicular do capim-elefante sob

  9. Cytotaxonomy of some species and of interspecific hybrids of Pennisetum (Poaceae, Poales

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    Vânia Helena Techio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotaxonomic studies were carried out on 26 accessions of Pennisetum spp. originating from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite-Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.This study presents cytogenetics and reproductive morphological data for each one of these accessions, which allowed groupings and suggest botanical identifications to be established. The metaphases of the accessions characterized as P. purpureum confirmed the presence of 2n = 28 chromosomes that have already been described for this species. For the hybrids between P. purpureum and P. glaucum and for the hexaploids, resulting from the chromosome duplication of these hybrids, 2n = 21 and 2n = 42 chromosomes were confirmed, respectively. The wild accession identified as P. setosum showed metaphases with 2n = 54 chromosomes, while those characterized as P. nervosum had cells with 2n = 36 chromosomes. The wild accession 15 was different from the others for the morphological characters, with 2n = 36 chromosomes, and was classified as P. orientale. Two statistical procedures were used (canonical variables and cluster analysis on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance, and the results confirmed the conclusions obtained from the cytogenetic and morphologic analysis.

  10. Número cromossômico em acessos de Pennisetum spp. (Poaceae, Poales) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5016 Chromosome number in Pennisetum spp. accessions (Poaceae, Poales) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5016

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Vander Pereira; Tatiana Matioli Souza; Lisete Chamma Davide; Vânia Helena Techio

    2008-01-01

    Avaliou-se o complemento cromossômico de 16 acessos de Pennisetum disponíveis na Coleção de Germoplasma da Embrapa Gado de Leite – Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerais. Para a avaliação citogenética, utilizou-se a técnica de esmagamento e coloração com Feulgen. Para quatro acessos foram obtidas metáfases com 2n = 28 cromossomos, confirmando sua classificação como P. purpureum. A origem híbrida P. purpureum x P. glaucum foi constatada em oito acessos, os quais apresentaram 2n = 21. Em um acess...

  11. Concentração de nitrogênio uréico plasmático (NUP e produção de leite de vacas mestiças mantidas em gramíneas tropicais sob pastejo rotacionado Plasma urea nitrogen (PUN level and milk production of crossbred cows kept in tropical pasture under rotational grazing

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    Maria Lúcia Pereira Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os níveis de nitrogênio uréico plasmático (NUP de vacas mestiças leiteiras mantidas em duas áreas de pastejo rotacionado, uma de capim-elefante cv. Guaçu (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Guaçu e outra de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. Foram avaliadas a produção de forragem e as frações colmo, folha e material morto, com base na matéria seca (MS, bem como os teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN nas amostras de forragem. O sangue foi coletado em quatro épocas, utilizando-se 16 vacas por espécie de capim. A média da massa de forragem pré-pastejo foi de 5.321 e 5.384 kg de MS/ha por ciclo de pastejo para o capim-elefante e capim-Tanzânia, respectivamente. A forragem desaparecida pós-pastejo, referente à folha, ao colmo e ao material morto foi de 1.400, 620 e 443 kg de MS/ha para o capim-elefante e de 1.586, 736 e 132 kg de MS/ha para o capim-Tanzânia, por ciclo de pastejo. As médias de quatro ciclos de pastejo de PB e FDN nas amostras da planta inteira, colmo, folha, material morto e resíduo foram de 8,4; 78,5; 6,9; 77,1; 12,5; 76,3; 5,3; 82,6; 6,5; 80,2, respectivamente, para o capim-elefante, e de 9,3; 81,6; 7,4; 82,4; 14,3; 80,4; 6,3; 82,9; 7,6; 81,6, respectivamente, para o capim-Tanzânia. Foi encontrada diferença significativa nos níveis de NUP das vacas alimentadas nas diferentes espécies de capim e por época de amostragem do sangue. As médias de NUP foram 9,8 mg/dL para as vacas mantidas no capim-elefante e 10,6 mg/dL para as vacas mantidas no capim-Tanzânia. Os baixos níveis de NUP encontrados refletem a baixa ingestão de proteína bruta por vacas manejadas em pastagens tropicais.The experiment was performed to evaluate plasma urea nitrogen (PUN level of crossbred cows under two rotational grazing areas, one of elephantgrass cv. Guaçu (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Guaçu and other one of Tanzaniagrass

  12. Optimization of delignification of two Pennisetum grass species by NaOH pretreatment using Taguchi and ANN statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaptra, Sonali; Dash, Preeti Krishna; Behera, Sudhanshu Shekar; Thatoi, Hrudayanath

    2016-01-01

    In the bioconversion of lignocelluloses for bioethanol, pretreatment seems to be the most important step which improves the elimination of the lignin and hemicelluloses content, exposing cellulose to further hydrolysis. The present study discusses the application of dynamic statistical techniques like the Taguchi method and artificial neural network (ANN) in the optimization of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses such as Hybrid Napier grass (HNG) (Pennisetum purpureum) and Denanath grass (DG) (Pennisetum pedicellatum), using alkali sodium hydroxide. This study analysed and determined a parameter combination with a low number of experiments by using the Taguchi method in which both the substrates can be efficiently pretreated. The optimized parameters obtained from the L16 orthogonal array are soaking time (18 and 26 h), temperature (60°C and 55°C), and alkali concentration (1%) for HNG and DG, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the optimized pretreated grass varieties confirmed the presence of glucan (47.94% and 46.50%), xylan (9.35% and 7.95%), arabinan (2.15% and 2.2%), and galactan/mannan (1.44% and 1.52%) for HNG and DG, respectively. Physicochemical characterization studies of native and alkali-pretreated grasses were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformation Infrared spectroscopy which revealed some morphological differences between the native and optimized pretreated samples. Model validation by ANN showed a good agreement between experimental results and the predicted responses. PMID:26584152

  13. Chemical Control of Pennesetum Purpureum Laboratory Trials

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    B.N Tripathi

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Dichloral urea, diethyl chloracetamide, nitrourea, chloralhydrate, sodium trichloroacetate, sodium borate, ammonium thiocynate, sodium arsenite, arsenic oxide-sulphuric acid mixture, sodium chlorate, maleic hydrazide and the salts containing inorganic ions Cu/sup 2+/, Co/sup 2+/, MoO/sub 4//sup 2-/ and Zn/sup 2+/ were tested in experimental plots for their phytotoxic activity on a hybrid variety of Pennesetum purpureum. Sodium borate (2500 Kg/hectare, Sodium arsenite (250 Kg/hectare and sodium chlorate (1000 Kg/hectare through soil and ammonium thiocyanate (100 Kg/hectare through direct spray function as growth retardants. Arsenic oxide-sulphuric acid (100 : 300 Kg/hectare spray kills the existing leaves. Sodium chlorate (250 Kg/hectare spray exerts phytocidal action on young plants (3 weeks. Maleic hydrazide (50 Kg/hectare exerts permanent growth suppressant action on older plants (height >=1 m and kills the existing leaves of younger plants (height=<0.5 m. Copper sulphate (100 Kg/hectare induces partial drying of existing leaves and cobalt sulphate in the same dose induces yellowing of leaves extending the period of growth beyond the season of maximum growth of the control. Ammonium molybdate and Zinc acetate in the same dose do not exert any perceptible effect.

  14. Natural activities of 40K, 238U and 232Th in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of elephant grass collected at some pasturing farmlands across different locations in Ibadan metropolis were analyzed for their natural radioactivity concentrations due to 40K, 238U and 232Th radionuclides. Radioactivity measurements were carried out using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average radioactivity concentration of 40K was found to be 64.5±8.1 Bq kg-1, 25.7±5.5 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 33.4±3.9 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these values is found to be very low and almost insignificant. No artificial radionuclide, however, was detected in any of the samples, hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the grass in the metropolis

  15. STUDI PRODUKSI DAN KUALITAS RUMPUT GAJAH (Pennisetum purpureum VARIETAS THAILAND YANG DIPUPUK DENGAN KOMBINASI ORGANIK-UREA

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    Nur Hidayat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thailand-variety elephant grass fertilized with organic and urea combination was conducted from August 1st up to Novembre 30th, 2009. The purpose of this study was to know the best interaction of organic-urea levels on the production and quality aspects of Thailand-variety elephant grass. The method used was experimental, 3x4 factorial pattern, using completely randomized design (CRD. There were 3 replicates in each treatment combination. The first factor was organic fertilizer (3 levels: k0= 0 ton/ha, k1= 20 tons/ha, and k2 = 40 tons/ ha, and the second factor was urea (4 levels: R0 = 0 kg/ha, R1 = 150 kg/ha, R2 = 300 kg/ha, and R3 = 450 kg/ ha. Variables measured were the number of tillers, plant height, the number of leaves/bunch, fresh weight, dry weight, agronomic efficiency, and crude protein and crude fiber concentrations. The result of analisys of variance showed that organic fertilizer had significant effect (P < 0.05 on the tiller/bunch, number of leaves/bunch, dry matter yield, and crude protein, but gave highly significant effect (P < 0.01 on fresh yield, and no significant effect (P > 0.05 on the height of plant and crude fiber concentration. Whereas urea gave a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the number tiller/bunch, and highly significant effect (P < 0.01 on fresh and dry matter yield and crude protein concentration, but no significant effect (P > 0.05 on height of plant, the number of leaves to stems ratio, and crude fiber concentration. The conclusions of this study for the management of Thailand-variety elephant grass, the best organic-urea fertilizer combination was at the level of 40 tons of organic fertilizer/ha/ defoliation and 300 kg of urea/ha/defoliation, showed from the agronomy aspects such as the number of tillers/ bunch, the height of plant, the number of leaves/bunch, fresh and dry matter yields, and quality aspect include crude protein and crude fiber concentration.

  16. STUDI PRODUKSI DAN KUALITAS RUMPUT GAJAH (Pennisetum purpureum) VARIETAS THAILAND YANG DIPUPUK DENGAN KOMBINASI ORGANIK-UREA

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hidayat; - Suwarno

    2014-01-01

    Thailand-variety elephant grass fertilized with organic and urea combination was conducted from August 1st up to Novembre 30th, 2009. The purpose of this study was to know the best interaction of organic-urea levels on the production and quality aspects of Thailand-variety elephant grass. The method used was experimental, 3x4 factorial pattern, using completely randomized design (CRD). There were 3 replicates in each treatment combination. The first factor was organic fertilizer (3 levels: k0...

  17. Feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae by broccoli leaves from natural, organic and conventional farming systems/ Preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae por folhas de brócolos cultivado em sistema natural, orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel O. J. Neves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice laboratory tests were achieved to compare feeding preference of Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. to leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica from natural, conventional and organic farming systems. Natural farming systems included incorporation of the elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1.5 ton/ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 1, or the incorporation of the Bokashi compost (1.5 ton /ha and spray of EM 4 (Natural 2, and in the conventional, NPK + borax were incorporated in the planting + dressing N and organic compost (1 kg/ plant was incorporated in the organic system. Organic compost was prepared using crop residues of corn (Zea mays L., soybean [Glycine max (L. Mer.], and cattle manure. Leaf discs were collected and placed in cages in multiple-choice tests. Beetles preferred mostly broccoli leaves from conventional farming system than leaves from Natural (1 and 2 and Organic farming systems. Feeding on leaves from Natural 1, Natural 2 and Organic farming system were 68, 67 and 57% of the feeding on leaves from Conventional farming system.Testes de múltipla escola foram realizados para comparar a preferência alimentar de Diabrotica speciosa (Ger. por folhas de brócolos (Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica cultivado em sistema natural, convencional e orgânico. No sistema natural de cultivo houve a incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. Napier (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização de EM 4 (Natural 1, ou a incorporação do composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ha e pulverização do EM 4 (Natural 2, no sistema convencional houve a incorporação do NPK + borax + N em cobertura, e no sistema orgânico incorporouse composto orgânico (1 kg/planta. O composto orgânico foi preparado utilizando-se resíduos de milho (Zea mays L. e soja [Glycine max (L. Mer.] e esterco de gado. Folhas foram retiradas das plantas das quais foram separados

  18. Bayesian analysis for comparison of nonlinear regression model parameters: an application to ruminal degradability data Metodologia Bayesiana para comparação de parâmetros de modelos de regressão não-linear: uma aplicação a dados de degradabilidade ruminal

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    Robson Marcelo Rossi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the Bayesian approach as an alternative to the classical analysis of nonlinear models for ruminal degradation data. The data set was obtained from a Latin square experimental design, established for testing the ruminal degradation of dry matter, crude protein and fiber in neutral detergent of three silages: elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum with bacterial inoculant or enzyme-bacterial inoculant and corn silage (Zea mays L.. The incubation times were 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The parameter estimates of the equations fitted by both methods showed small differences, but by the Bayesian approach it was possible to compare the estimates correctly, that does not happen with the frequentist methodology because it is much more restricted in the applications due to the demand for a larger number of presuppositions.Neste trabalho a abordagem Bayesiana é apresentada como alternativa à abordagem clássica na modelagem não-linear de dados de degradação ruminal. Foram utilizados dados provenientes de um experimento em delineamento quadrado latino para avaliar a degradabilidade da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da fibra em detergente neutro de três silagens: silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum com inoculante bacteriano, com inoculante enzimo-bacteriano e silagem de milho (Zea mays L., nos tempos de incubação: 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Obtidas as estimativas dos parâmetros do modelo ajustado, pelos dois métodos, observou-se que não há diferenças marcantes entre as mesmas para nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. No entanto, por meio da metodologia Bayesiana, foi possível comparar as estimativas dos parâmetros para cada tratamento, o que não ocorre com a metodologia frequentista, por ser muito mais restrita nas aplicações devido à exigência de maior número de pressuposições.

  19. Induced mutation in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glacum) ranks the sixth among cereals in the world following wheat, rice, maize, barely and sorghum. More than 95% of the crop is produced in Asia and Africa, where it is mainly grown for its grain. In America and Europe, it is mainly used as fodder for animals. In this study, 20 different pearl millet genotypes, collected from all over the Sudan, with concentration on the western parts of the country, were used. These genotypes were grown, evaluated and tested for different morphological and agronomical characters. The aim of this experiment was the estimation of variability among pearl millet genotypes. A Radiosensitivity test was carried out to define the suitable level of Gamma radiation for treating pearl millet seeds. Then field performance of the mutants obtained was studied for three successive generations. In the first experiment, the results showed that the 20 pearl millet genotypes exhibited significant difference in most of the parameters studied.Only four were selected to continue with. The radiosensitivity test results reflected that the effective dose ranged between 200-400Gy for the four genotypes. The three mutant generations showed high variations. These variations were reflected in the mean and the range regarding the parameters studied. The second mutant generation (M2) had the highest number and frequency of mutations, the famous being: chlorophyll deficiency and the male sterility. The third mutant generation also had high variations between the different treatments and within the treatment itself. However, many families showed a considerable degree of homogeneity. The four pearl millet genotypes reacted differently towards the different levels of Gamma radiation. Mutation induction means proved to be a successful tool for creating variations within a crop variety and inducing desired attributes that can help in far reaching impact on agriculture. (author)

  20. Análise de trilha em caracteres produtivos de Pennisetum sob corte em Itambé, Pernambuco Path analysis in productive characters of Pennisetum under cut in Itambé-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Alixandrina da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter estimativas de coeficientes de correlação genética e avaliar os desdobramentos das correlações em efeitos diretos e indiretos (análise de trilha das variáveis independentes explicativas sobre a produção de matéria seca (variável dependente principal em cinco clones de capim-elefante. Foram realizados cinco cortes a cada 60 dias nas condições edafoclimáticas da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. Cada parcela experimental apresentou 24 m², com 2 m² de área útil. Houve alta correlação entre quase todas as variáveis explicativas e a variável principal. Entretanto, a característica número de lâminas foliares por perfilho explicou melhor o potencial de produção de matéria seca e atuou de forma direta e indireta sobre as variáveis explicativas.This work aimed to estimate the correlation coefficients, determining the direct and indirect effects (path analysis of explanatory independent variables on total dry matter production (main dependent variables of five elephant grass clones in five cuts accomplished at the forest zone of Pernambuco. Each experimental plot measured 24 m² with 2 m² of utile area. There was high correlation between almost all the independent variables and the main variable. The characteristic leaf blade number per tiller, however, explained better the potential of dry matter production and leaf blade dry matter production, acting, respectively, in a direct and indirect way on the explanatory variables.

  1. Evolution of the apomixis transmitting chromosome in Pennisetum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Apomixis is an intriguing trait in plants that results in maternal clones through seed reproduction. Apomixis is an elusive, but potentially revolutionary, trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Recent studies arguing that apomicts are not evolutionary dead ends have generated further interest in the evolution of asexual flowering plants. Results In the present study, we investigate karyotypic variation in a single chromosome responsible for transmitting apomixis, the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region carrier chromosome, in relation to species phylogeny in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus. A 1 kb region from the 3' end of the ndhF gene and a 900 bp region from trnL-F were sequenced from 12 apomictic and eight sexual species in the genus Pennisetum and allied genus Cenchrus. An 800 bp region from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region also was sequenced from the 12 apomicts. Molecular cytological analysis was conducted in sixteen Pennisetum and two Cenchrus species. Our results indicate that the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region is shared by all apomictic species while it is absent from all sexual species or cytotypes. Contrary to our previous observations in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, retrotransposon sequences of the Opie-2-like family were not closely associated with the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in all apomictic species, suggesting that they may have been accumulated after the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region originated. Conclusions Given that phylogenetic analysis merged Cenchrus and newly investigated Pennisetum species into a single clade containing a terminal cluster of Cenchrus apomicts, the presumed monophyletic origin of Cenchrus is supported. The Apospory-Specific Genomic Region likely preceded speciation in Cenchrus and its lateral transfer through hybridization and subsequent chromosome repatterning may have contributed to further speciation in the two genera. PMID:21975191

  2. Evolution of the apomixis transmitting chromosome in Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada-Akiyama Hitomi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis is an intriguing trait in plants that results in maternal clones through seed reproduction. Apomixis is an elusive, but potentially revolutionary, trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Recent studies arguing that apomicts are not evolutionary dead ends have generated further interest in the evolution of asexual flowering plants. Results In the present study, we investigate karyotypic variation in a single chromosome responsible for transmitting apomixis, the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region carrier chromosome, in relation to species phylogeny in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus. A 1 kb region from the 3' end of the ndhF gene and a 900 bp region from trnL-F were sequenced from 12 apomictic and eight sexual species in the genus Pennisetum and allied genus Cenchrus. An 800 bp region from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region also was sequenced from the 12 apomicts. Molecular cytological analysis was conducted in sixteen Pennisetum and two Cenchrus species. Our results indicate that the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region is shared by all apomictic species while it is absent from all sexual species or cytotypes. Contrary to our previous observations in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, retrotransposon sequences of the Opie-2-like family were not closely associated with the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in all apomictic species, suggesting that they may have been accumulated after the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region originated. Conclusions Given that phylogenetic analysis merged Cenchrus and newly investigated Pennisetum species into a single clade containing a terminal cluster of Cenchrus apomicts, the presumed monophyletic origin of Cenchrus is supported. The Apospory-Specific Genomic Region likely preceded speciation in Cenchrus and its lateral transfer through hybridization and subsequent chromosome repatterning may have contributed to further speciation in the two genera.

  3. Light acclimation in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta): Growth, photosynthesis, and phycobilisomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. (Smithsonian Institution, WA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Acclimation to three photon flux densities 10, 35, 180 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} was determined in laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross. Cultures grown at low, medium, and high PPFDs had compensation points of <3, 6, and 20 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and saturating irradiances in the initial log phase of 90, 115, 175 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} and up to 240 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} in late log phase. High light cells had the smallest photosynthetic unit size (phycobiliproteins plus chlorophyll), the highest photosynthetic capacity, and the highest growth rates. Photosystem I reaction centers (P700) per cell remained proportional to chlorophyll at ca. 110 chl/P700. However, phycobiliprotein content decreased as did the phycobilisome number (ca. 50%) in high light cells, whereas the phycobilisome size remained the same as in medium and low light cells. We concluded that acclimation of this red alga to varied PPFDs was manifested by the plasticity of the photosystem II antennae with little, if any, affect noted on photosystem I.

  4. Nitrogen and age on the quality of elephant grass for agroenergy purpose grown in OxisolNitrogênio e idade de corte na qualidade da biomassa de capimelefante para fins agroenergéticos cultivado em Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilner Alves Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the major challenge for research is the production of alternative agrifuels energy material derived from plant biomass. Allied to this, the proper management of nitrogen, becomes fundamental for productivity gains and improvement in quality of elephant grass biomass. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization and plant age effect on the quality of elephant grass biomass for energy purposes. The experiment was performed with genotype Paraíso, grown in a dystrophic Oxisol in the southern state of Tocantins. The design was randomized blocks with subdivided plots, situating plots as nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and the subplots cutting age (120, 150 and 180 days after planting four replicates. We evaluated the relationship carbon/nitrogen (C:N and leaf/stem (L:S, levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and ash contents in dry biomass produced. The application of nitrogen increased by 12% to C:N ratio of the plant. The advanced age of cut forage was increased 9% in the C:N plant, however, decreased by 12 and 14% levels of ash produced in the stem and leaves, respectively. The production of elephant grass for agrifuels is feasible with management system proposed, quality characteristics desirable, such as high C:N ratio, above 40% and higt fiber content, above 50%. Atualmente um dos grandes desafios para a pesquisa de agroenergia é a produção de material energético alternativo derivado da biomassa vegetal. Aliado a isso, o manejo adequado do nitrogênio, torna-se fundamental para obter ganhos de produtividade e melhoria na qualidade da biomassa de capim-elefante. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada e da idade de corte do capimelefante (Pennisetum purpureum na qualidade da biomassa da forrageira para fins agroenergéticos. O experimento foi realizado com o genótipo Paraíso, cultivado em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico no sul do Estado de

  5. PRODUCCIÓN DE TRES VARIEDADES DE Pennisetum purpureum FERTILIZADAS CON DOS DIFERENTES FUENTES NITROGENADAS EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

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    Ramos Trejo O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el rendimiento (t MS ha-1 año-1 y porcentaje de proteína cruda (calidad nutritiva del pasto King grass (KNG y los clones Cubanos OM-22 y CT-115, fertilizadas con dos fuentes nitrogenadas. Las parcelas se establecieron con varetas de material vegetativo de 25 cm de largo con dos a tres yemas en surcos a 10 cm de profundidad. El marco de siembra fue de 0.5 m entre plantas y 1.0 m entre hileras con orientación de Este a Oeste. Se utilizó Urea y Agua Residual Porcina (ARP como fuentes de nitrógeno (N a dosis de 300 Kg de N ha-1 año-1. Se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 en producción de materia seca (MS entre las tres variedades de forraje, el mayor rendimiento fue para el OM-22 con 155 y 160 t MS ha-1 año -1 con el uso de Urea y ARP, respectivamente. Se observó la misma tendencia con KNG con rendimiento de 131 a 140 t de MS ha-1 año-1. Las variedades OM-22, CT-115 y KNG fueron diferentes estadísticamente (p<0.05 al tratamiento testigo. No se observó efecto en la composición química por la aplicación de N. Se obtuvieron valores entre 8 y 12 % de proteína cruda (PC en los tres ecotipos. Se concluye que la fertilización con las dos fuentes nitrogenadas (Urea y ARP mejora la producción de forraje en los tres ecotipos evaluados.

  6. Fabricación y propiedades físicas de aglomerados de Pennisetum purpureum schum, Philodendron longirrhizum y Musa acuminata

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    Alexander Gaitán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron aglomerados fabricados con partículas lignocelulósicas provenientes de plantas encontradas en la región del Quindío - Colombia como son la “guasca de plátano”, el “tripeperro” y el “pasto elefante” y se compararon con aglomerados comerciales de madera. Estas partículas fueron mezcladas con una resina termoestable, prensadas y sometidas a temperatura durante un tiempo determinado y posteriormente se dejaron curar a temperatura ambiente. Al concluir el proceso de fabricación y curado, el aglomerado fue sometido a pruebas y análisis mecánico de flexión, tracción, compresión, dureza y de absorción de agua teniendo en cuenta las normas ASTM para tableros de partículas de madera. El aglomerado también fue sometido a análisis termográfico con el fin de observar su capacidad de aislante térmico. Los resultados muestran que los aglomerados fabricados presentan mejores resultados que el comercial en cuanto a la absorción de agua, aislamiento térmico y dureza y resultados similares en los ensayos mecánicos de flexión, tracción y compresión excepto para el aglomerado de “tripeperro”.

  7. Efecto de dos inhibidores de la nitrificación sobre la concentración de nitratos en pasto elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez G. Hugo; Muñoz Q. César A.; Grajales L. Henry A.

    1986-01-01

    Se compararon dos inhibidores de la nitrificación (Sulfatiazol, N- Serve) y las tendencias de la conversión de amonio a nitrato en el suelo y la concentración de este ión en el pasto según la fuente (Urea, Nitrón 26) y las dosis de nitrógeno (100, 200 kg/ha). Las concentraciones de nitratos en los suelos y en el tejido vegetal tendieron a incrementarse a medida que aumentaban los niveles de fertilización. La efectividad de los inhibidores se encuentra determinada por los niveles de fertilizac...

  8. Utilisation of Gliricidia sepium and Maize Bran or Their Mixtures with Leucaena leucocephala as Supplements to Growing Indigenous Goats (Mubende Type Fed Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum

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    D.R. Mpairwe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available 0.05 total dry matter intake and digestibility but both tended to be higher for the maize bran supplemented treatment (EB than in the other supplemented diets. Total DM intake was lowest for the goats supplemented with diets containing leucaena especially where leucaena formed a high proportion in the mixture (EGL. Crude protein intake was significantly (p

  9. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and harvesting intervals on the yield and forage quality of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) under mesic climate of pothowar plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad during 2002-03 to asses the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and harvesting intervals on the forage yield and nutritional value of elephant grass. Four nitrogen levels i.e. 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ in the form of Urea were applied with three harvesting intervals i.e. 30, 45 and 60 days. The study revealed that the highest Dry Matter yield was obtained by harvesting elephant grass at 60 days interval with 80 or 120 Kg N ha/sup -1/ fertilizer level while the lowest Dry Matter was obtained at 30 days harvesting interval. The results showed that crude protein decreased with longer harvesting intervals in elephant grass. The higher crude fiber was noted in plants harvested after longer interval of cutting, 45 or 60 days interval contained CF as 30.0 and 32.7, respectively. The plants harvested at 45 days interval gave good total ash than other intervals while nitrogen fertilizer had slight effect. (author)

  10. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    in such systems. We studied the effects of inorganic nitrogen form (NH4 +, NH4NO3 or NO3 -) on growth, morphology, N uptake, water content and mineral allocation in this species under hydroponic conditions at equimolar concentrations (500μmolNL-1). Generally, the N-form significantly affected growth, biomass...

  11. Seletividade do atrazine à cultura do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum Atrazine selectivity in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum

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    H.A. Dan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O milheto é uma espécie de destaque entre aquelas cultivadas em sucessão na região dos cerrados brasileiros. Embora o herbicida atrazine apresente potencial para ser utilizado nessa cultura, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento no momento de aplicação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a seletividade do herbicida atrazine à cultura do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, determinando a dosagem máxima de aplicação e os estádios da cultura que apresentem menor sensibilidade. Foram realizados dois ensaios em casa de vegetação, onde se determinou primeiramente a seletividade do herbicida para os cultivares ADR-300, ADR-500 e ADR-7010. Posteriormente, o cultivar ADR-500 foi avaliado em condições de dose-resposta do atrazine, em função do estádio fenológico de desenvolvimento. Este experimento foi realizado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine: 0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5 e 4,0 kg de i.a. ha-1, aplicadas em três estádios de crescimento do milheto (duas, quatro e oito folhas expandidas. O cultivar ADR-500 apresentou a maior suscetibilidade entre os avaliados. Aplicações realizadas nos estádios mais precoces de crescimento do milheto promoveram os maiores níveis de intoxicação, redução do número de afílhos e do acúmulo de biomassa seca da parte aérea. Esses resultados intensificaram-se com o incremento da dose de atrazine. Com relação à massa da espiga, doses inferiores a 1,5 kg ha-1 não prejudicaram significativamente essa variável, independentemente do estádio de aplicação. É possível concluir que doses inferiores a 1,5 kg ha-1 de atrazine podem ser usadas de forma segura na cultura do milheto quando as plantas apresentarem quatro ou mais folhas no momento da aplicação.Pearl millet is an important species cultivated in succession in the Brazilian

  12. The efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum as a biological control agent : A comparative analysis of the decay fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum), a chemical herbicide and mechanical cutting to control sprouting of broad-leaved tree species.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemola, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In forestry, manual control of broad-leaved trees is tedious and costly. To reduce costs, chemicals have been applied to keep these species in control. However, some chemicals are not recommended to use because of possibly adverse effects on the environment. Instead of chemicals, biological alternatives, such as a fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum, might be used to prevent sprouting. C. purpureum is a common decay fungus in Finland; it has been investigated at Metla, to find out whether it cou...

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Daun Lamtoro (Leucaena leocephala) terhadap Kualitas Silase Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum purpereum) yang Diberi Molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gift lamtoro leaf (Leucaena leocephala) to quality of silage of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpereum) that adding molasses ABSTRACT. Research about the effect of gift of lamtoro leaf and molasses to quality of elephant grass silage (Pennisetum purpereum) have been executed at Lamsiot village Indrapuri sub district Aceh besar. Analysis content of nutrient in Food Livestock laboratory Agriculture Faculty of Syiah Kuala University. This research aim to see how influence of gift...

  14. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  15. Produtividade do Capim-Cameroon estabelecida em duas classes de solos e submetido a doses crescentes de nitrogênio no norte tocantinense - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.6209 Production of Cameroon grass in two soil classes with increasing nitrogen levels in the north of Tocantins State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.6209

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    Diego Camargo Caraça

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o capim-elefante cv. Cameroon em função de doses de N em diferentes solos. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 5 x 2, sendo cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 30, 60, 90, e 150 kg de N ha-1, testadas em duas classes de solo (Argissolo Vermelho eutroférrico típico e Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, com quatro repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: altura da planta, perfilhos, massa por perfilho, relação folha: colmo, matéria seca e pH do solo. Houve resposta positiva para ambos os solos, sendo a melhor resposta para o Argissolo. A massa dos perfilhos em gramas mostra efeito linear em função dos níveis de N e no Neossolo não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. O aumento da massa individual de perfilhos teve maior efeito na massa seca total. A adubação N promoveu acidificação linear decrescente maior no Argissolo. O desenvolvimento do capim, em função dos níveis crescentes de N apresentou resposta positiva para ambos os solos, sendo melhor para o Argissolo em comparação ao Neossolo.The development of elephant grass at increasing nitrogen rates in two soil classes was evaluated. A totally randomized 5 x 2 design, with five nitrogen levels (0, 30, 60, 90, and 150 kg N ha-1, in two classes of soil (Oxisol and Entisol, with four repetitions, was employed. Evaluated parameters consisted of plant height, tillers, mass per tiller, leaf:stem ratio, dry matter and pH of soil. Although the production of Pennisetum purpureum was positive for both types of soil, best response occurred in Oxisol. Whereas mass (in grams of the tillers had a linear effect according to nitrogen rates, there was no difference between treatments in Entisol. Increase of tillers’ mass had the highest effect on total dry mass. Nitrogen fertilization promoted highest decreasing acidification in Ultisol. Due to increasing levels of nitrogen the development

  16. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

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    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  17. Produtividade do Capim-Cameroon estabelecida em duas classes de solos e submetido a doses crescentes de nitrogênio no norte tocantinense = Production of Cameroon grass in two soil classes with increasing nitrogen levels in the north of Tocantins State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Sôffa da Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o capim-elefante cv. Cameroon em função de doses de N em diferentes solos. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 5 x 2, sendo cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 30, 60, 90, e 150 kg de N ha-1, testadas em duas classes de solo (Argissolo Vermelhoeutroférrico típico e Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico, com quatro repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: altura da planta, perfilhos, massa por perfilho, relação folha: colmo, matéria seca e pH do solo. Houve resposta positiva para ambos os solos, sendo amelhor resposta para o Argissolo. A massa dos perfilhos em gramas mostra efeito linear em função dos níveis de N e no Neossolo não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. O aumento da massa individual de perfilhos teve maior efeito na massa seca total. A adubaçãoN promoveu acidificação linear decrescente maior no Argissolo. O desenvolvimento do capim, em função dos níveis crescentes de N apresentou resposta positiva para ambos os solos, sendo melhor para o Argissolo em comparação ao Neossolo.The development of elephant grass at increasing nitrogen rates in two soil classes was evaluated. A totally randomized 5 x 2 design, with five nitrogen levels (0, 30, 60, 90, and 150 kg N ha-1, in two classes of soil (Oxisol and Entisol, with four repetitions, was employed. Evaluated parameters consisted of plant height, tillers, mass per tiller, leaf:stem ratio, dry matter and pH of soil. Althoughthe production of Pennisetum purpureum was positive for both types of soil, best response occurred in Oxisol. Whereas mass (in grams of the tillers had a linear effect according to nitrogen rates, there was no difference between treatments in Entisol. Increase of tillers’mass had the highest effect on total dry mass. Nitrogen fertilization promoted highest decreasing acidification in Ultisol. Due to increasing levels of nitrogen the development of

  18. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings. PMID:26899306

  19. Short communication. A review on the efficacy tests and risk analyses conducted on Chondrostereum purpureum, a potential biocontrol agent, in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantula, J.; Hamberg, L.; Vartiamaki, H.; Korhonen, K.; Uotila, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hardwood sprouting is a problem in forest regeneration areas, under electric lines, on roadsides and railways. In Finland, isolates of Chondrostereum purpureum were screened by field experiments for their efficiency to control sprouting. The proportion of dead stumps with the best isolates exceeded 80% on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), and C. purpureum was also found to affect the sprouting of aspen (Populus tremula) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The risks of C. purpureum based biocontrol were evaluated by population genetic analysis. It showed that C. purpureum is a geographically undifferentiated species that does not reproduce clonally. The risk of infection of non-target trees was found to be highest in early spring. These findings suggest that the risks of using C. purpureum in biocontrol are small. (Author) 36 refs.

  20. Resistance to Striga hermonthica in Wild Accessions of the Primary Gene Pool of Pennisetum glaucum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J P; Hess, D E; Hanna, W W

    2000-10-01

    ABSTRACT Resistance to Striga hermonthica in 274 wild Pennisetum glaucum subsp. monodii and stenostachyum accessions was evaluated at Samanko, Mali in 1997 and 1998, and at Cinzana, Mali and Sadoré, Niger in 1998. Data recorded included number of striga plants per plot at least three times during the season, date of striga emergence, number of Pennisetum plants, Pennisetum anthesis date, and downy mildew incidence (caused by Sclerospora graminicola). Across trials, the average maximum number of striga per host plant ranged from 0.9 to 8.3. Average days to striga emergence ranged from 54 to 68 days across trials, and was negatively correlated (P Downy mildew incidence ranged from 10 to 32% across trials, and was negatively correlated with maximum striga in three trials. Days to striga emergence and Pennisetum flowering were significant covariates affecting maximum striga values, but downy mildew incidence was not. Least squares means of maximum striga across trials averaged 5.7, and ranged from -0.2 to 19.1 striga per host plant. Broad-sense heritability of observed maximum striga was estimated to be 0.55. Agar-gel assays conducted in the laboratory were ineffective in identifying differences in stimulating striga seed germination among selected accessions. Variables not directly related to genetic resistance can affect maximum striga emergence in the field, and their identification may allow more effective resistance screening. PMID:18944482

  1. Consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas Holandesas sob pastejo em gramíneas tropicais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549 Forage intake and performance of Holstein lactating cows fed on tropical grassland pastures - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Portella Montardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a estrutura das pastagens de Capim Elefante Anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (CEA e Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 e sua relação com o consumo de forragem e desempenho de vacas em lactação. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2004/05, em área da Escola Estadual Técnica Celeste Gobbato, em Palmeira das Missões, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas-teste da raça Holandesa, alimentadas exclusivamente com as pastagens, em pastejo contínuo, distribuídas em dois piquetes por tratamento. As densidades de forragem foram mais altas no T85 que no CEA, em função da maior produção de forragem. Os estratos do dossel forrageiro mais acessíveis ao consumo pelos animais (acima de 20 e 10 cm de altura para CEA e T85, respectivamente apresentaram estruturas distintas, mas o consumo de forragem e a produção de leite foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. A composição química destas camadas foi similar à das respectivas simulações de pastejo em ambas forrageiras, indicando a determinação da composição química nos estratos mais acessíveis ao pastejo como ferramenta útil nas inferências sobre a qualidade da forragem potencialmente consumível. Pastagens tropicais podem proporcionar produções de leite acima de 17 kg vaca-1 dia-1, mesmo sem uso de suplementação.The structure of Dwarf Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott (DEG and Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon nlemfuensis (T85 pastures and its relation with forage intake and the performance of lactating cows were evaluated. The trial was conducted in the growth season of 2004/05, in an area belonging to the Celeste Gobbato State Technical School, in the city of Palmeira das Missões, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Twelve Holstein cows were used as testers, fed exclusively on pasture under continuous grazing, in two paddocks per treatment. Forage density was higher on T85 than in

  2. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com amendoim forrageiro ou trevo vermelho Productivity of pastures-based systems mixed to forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF com capim elefante (CE Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'MerckeronPinda' + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE + azevém anual (AZ Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', como SF1; CE + ECE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', como SF2; e CE + ECE + AZ + trevo vermelho (TV Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', como SF3. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. O azevém anual foi estabelecido entre as linhas do CE durante o período hibernal; o TV foi semeado e o AF foi preservado nos respectivos tratamentos. Para avaliação, foram usadas vacas da raça Holandesa que receberam 5,5kg dia-1 como complemento alimentar. Foram avaliadas a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TA, a massa de forragem desaparecida (MFD, a matéria seca desaparecida com base em 100kg de peso vivo (MSD e a produção de forragem (PF, as composições botânica e estrutural do CE. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (SF e duas repetições (piquetes em parcelas subdivididas no tempo (pastejo. Durante o período experimental (341 dias, foram efetuados nove ciclos de pastejo. Os valores médios de TA, MFD, MSD e PF foram de 53,16kg ha-1; 36,13%; 2,77kg de matéria seca por 100kg de peso vivo e 17,80t ha-1. Para a variável ECE, houve aumento significativo no SF1. Considerando a carga animal, o SF3 apresentou melhor desempenho.The objective of this research was to evaluate of tree pasture-based systems (PS with elephantgrass (EG Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'Merckeron Pinda' + spontaneous growing species (SGS, annual ryegrass (RG Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', for PS1; EG + SGS + forage peanut (FP Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', for PS2; and EG + SGS + RG + red clover (RC Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', for PS3. EG was planted in lines with a distance of 4m

  3. Dominant Occurrence of Cleistogamous Flowers of Lamium amplexicaule in relation to the Nearby Presence of an Alien Congener L. purpureum (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Yasuhiro; Takakura, Koh-Ichi; NISHIDA, SACHIKO; Nishida, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Here we document a novel phenomenon that, based on field observations in central Japan, cleistogamous flowers (or closed flowers) of an annual herb Lamium amplexicaule were dominantly expressed near an alien congener L. purpureum. The proportion of cleistogamous flowers in an individual L. amplexicaule increased with the frequency of L. purpureum occurring in the same patches but did not increase with the total density of Lamium plants and their own size. To confirm the consistency of the eff...

  4. Development of photosynthetic activity in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta) following nitrogen starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The effects of nitrogen limitation on laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross were studied under continuous white light illumination (35 {mu}E {times} m{sup {minus}2} {times} s{sup {minus}1}). Growth ceased, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, chlorophyll content was reduced by 80%, and phycoerythrin content was reduced by 99% over a period of 14 days under nitrogen limitation. Recovery upon addition of nitrogen resulted in increased phycobiliprotein content, appearance of phycobilisomes attached to the thylakoids, increased oxygen evolution, and increased fluorescence emission from photosystem 1 (720 nm) and photosystem 2 (685 nm) upon excitation by green light. Growth resumes after 72 h and was concomitant with an increase of chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and phycobilisomes per thylakoid area. The results suggest that photosystem 1 was less affected by nitrogen starvation than photosystem 2 and that the recovery was largely dependent on the restoration of phycobilisomes and other photosystem components.

  5. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT (LD50 DAN ANTIPIRETIK INFUS RIMPANG ZINGIBER purpureum ROXB (BENGLE PADA HEWAN PERCOBAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjiastuti Pudjiastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bengle (Zingiber purpureum ROXB teramasuk famili Zingiberaceae. Ini merupakan tanaman yang banyak dikenal oleh masyarakat dan biasa digunakan untuk menanggulangi penyakit, salah saru diantaranya adalah sebagai penurun panas. Untuk mengetahui keamanan khasiat penggunaannya, perlu didukung data ilmiah maka dilakukan uji toksisitas akut (LD50 dan antipiretik rimpang bengle pada hewan coba. Uji toksisitas akut menggunakan cara Weil C.S. dengan mencit sebagai hewan percobaannya. Dan, uji antipiretik menggunakan cara B.Wahjoedi yang dimodifikasi dengan tikus sebagai hewan percobaan. Hasil percobaan LD50 infus rimpang bengle adalah 31,56 (24,96 - 39,87mg/10g bb, menurut penggolongan Gleason termasuk dalam bahan Practically Non Toxic. Hasil uji antipiretik infus rimpang bengle dosis 220mg/100 g bb tidak berbeda dengan asetosal dosis 0,52mg/100g bb.

  6. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA. PMID:27004948

  7. Culture media optimization of Porphyridium purpureum: production potential of biomass, total lipids, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Mysore Doddaiah; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Bhattacharya, Sila; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Porphyridium purpureum a red marine microalga is known for phycobiliproteins (PB), polyunsaturated fatty acids and sulphated exopolysaccharides. In the present study, effects of media constituents for the production of different polyunsaturated fatty acids from P. purpureum were considered using a response surface methodology (RSM). A second order polynomial was used to predict the response functions in terms of the independent variables such as the concentrations of sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The response functions were production of biomass yield, total lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids like arachidonic acid (AA 20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5). Results corroborated that maximum Biomass (0.95 gL(-1)) yield was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (14.89 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (3.93 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (0.96 gL(-1)) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.09 gL(-1)). Optimum total lipid (17.9 % w/w) and EPA (34.6 % w/w) content was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (29.98 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (9.34 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (1.86 gL(-1)). Variation in concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate for both lipid (0.01gL(-1)) and EPA content (0.20 gL(-1)) was observed. The optimum conditions for biomass, total lipid, AA and EPA varied indicating their batch mode of growth and interaction effect of the salt. PMID:27407193

  8. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) based foods and their functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vanisha S Nambiar; Neha Sareen; Mammen Daniel; Erick B Gallego

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), considered a poor man’s cereal, may be a repository of dietary antioxidants, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids, which provide bioactive mechanisms to reduce free radical induced oxidative stress and probably play a role in the prevention of ageing and various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases.Objective: The present study focused on the identification of individual f...

  9. ネピアグラス (Pennisetum purpureum SCHUMACH) の生産構造におよぼす刈取間隔の影響(畜産学科)

    OpenAIRE

    宮城, 悦生; Miyagi, Etsuo

    1983-01-01

    ネピアグラスの刈取間隔を4週間隔, 5週間隔, 6週間隔および7週間隔の栽培試験を実施し, 刈取間隔がネピアグラスの生産構造および吸光係数におよぼす影響について検討した。1. 群落の生産構造は4,5,6週区はほぼピラミット型を示したが, 7週区は群落の中層部に最大葉面積層が分布した。相対照度は各区ほば同様な低下傾向を示した。また, 最下層の茎数は刈取間隔が長くなるにしたがって減少した。2. 吸光係数は4週区0.495,5週区0.419,6週区0.340,7週区0.308で刈取間隔が長くなるにしたがって小さくなり, 各試験区間に0.1%水準で有意差が認められた。また, 吸光係数と乾物収量およびLAIとの間には0.1%水準で有意な負の相関が認められ, LAIが増大し, 吸光係数が小さくなるにしたがって乾物収量は増加する傾向が認められた。...

  10. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.;

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg of...... body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...

  11. An investigation on the characteristics of cellulose nanocrystals from Pennisetum sinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to explore the utilization of Pennisetum sinese as cellulose source for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The cellulose was extracted from P. sinese by chemical treatment and bleaching, and obtained cellulose nanocrystals by acid hydrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that CNC were rod-like with the diameter of 20–30 nm and the length of 200–300 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) showed that chemical treatment removed most of the lignin and hemicellulose from P. sinese, and CNC had similar structure to that of native cellulose. The crystallinity indexes calculated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) for P. sinese and CNC were 40.6% and 77.3%, respectively. The zeta-potential analysis showed that CNC had higher stability than P. sinese had. The thermal stability was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the result showed that P. sinese had higher thermal stability than that of prepared CNC. - Highlights: • Pennisetum sinese Roxb is good raw material for preparing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). • Crystallinity of prepared CNC is higher than that of P. sinese Roxb. • Thermal stability of prepared CNC is lower than that of P. sinese Roxb

  12. Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Zingiber purpureum Rhizomes and Its Main Compounds against Two Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; You, C X; Yang, K; Wu, Y; Chen, R; Zhang, W J; Liu, Z L; Du, S S; Deng, Z W; Geng, Z F; Han, J

    2015-06-01

    The insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from Zingiber purpureum Roscoe rhizomes were evaluated against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (L.) adults. During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Z. purpureum rhizomes was found to possess strong contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne adults, with LD50 values of 39.0 and 16.3 µg per adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC50 values of 13.6 and 9.3 mg/liter of air, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be sabinene (48.1%), terpinen-4-ol (25.1%), and γ-terpinene (6.7%), followed by α-terpinene (4.3%), β-thujene (3.4%), and α-phellandrene (2.7%). Sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin-layer chromatography. Terpinen-4-ol showed the strongest contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne (LD50=19.7 and 5.4 µg per adult, respectively) and also the strongest fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne (LC50=3.7 and 1.3 mg/liter of air, respectively). Otherwise, sabinene and terpinen-4-ol were strongly repellent against T. castaneum as well as the essential oil, while γ-terpinene exhibited weaker repellency against T. castaneum compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). Moreover, only the essential oil exhibited strong repellency against L. serricorne, the three compounds exhibited weaker repellency against L. serricorne relative to DEET. PMID:26470212

  13. Implications of biomass pretreatment to cost and carbon emissions: case study of rice straw and Pennisetum in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Lee, Kun-Chou; Syu, Fu-Sians; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of feedstock collection and torrefaction pretreatment on the efficiency of a biomass co-firing system. Considering the transformation of existing municipal solid waste incinerators, several scenarios in which biomass supply chains depend on centralised pretreatment and transportation alternatives are presented. The cost, net energy output, and greenhouse gas effects of these scenarios were analysed using a spreadsheet model. Based on the Taoyuan County case in Taiwan, the mitigation costs of carbon emissions for rice straw and Pennisetum are 77.0 $/Mg CO(2) and 63.8 $/Mg CO(2), respectively. Results indicate that transporting feedstock from its source to the pretreatment and co-firing stations contributes the most to logistical costs for both straw and Pennisetum, regardless of whether torrefaction was adopted. Nonetheless, torrefaction requires more demonstrated cases at various scales to obtain the technical and economic data required for further analysis. PMID:22281146

  14. Classification of Green Bristle Grass, Yellow Foxtail and Chinese Pennisetum Seeds via HATR-FT-IR Combined with Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR technique are used to obtain the FT-IR spectra of the seed of green bristle grass (the seed from Setaria viridis (L. Beauv, yellow foxtail seed (the seed from Setaria glauca (L. Beauv, and the Chinese pennisetum seed (the seed from Setaria faberii Herrum. In order to extrude the difference among them, cluster analysis is considered to identify the three kinds of plant seeds. Because they belong to the sibling plant seeds, and have similar chemical components and close FT-IR spectra. The result of Cluster analysis is not satisfactory. The discrete wavelet transformation (DWT and a support vector machine (SVM were used for further study. The compression detail 3 and 4 in DWT are used to extract the feature vectors, which are used to train SVM. The trained SVM is used to classify seed of green bristle grass, yellow foxtail seed and Chinese pennisetum seed. The seed samples are collected from different places around the country. With 40 testing samples we could effectively identify the sibling plants, seed of green bristle grass, yellow foxtail seed and Chinese pennisetum seed by FT-IR with discrete wavelet feature extraction and SVM classification.

  15. Exigências nutricionais de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com concentrado e feno de capim-elefante Nutritional requirements of Holstein calves fed concentrate and elephant grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Valter Nunes Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 13 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa, com idade média de 14 dias. Três animais foram abatidos no início do experimento (referência e os outros dez foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos (ração farelada ou peletizada e abatidos aos 112 dias de idade para determinação das exigências nutricionais. Foram ajustadas equações de regressão do logaritmo da quantidade corporal de proteína, gordura e energia em função do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. As exigências líquidas de proteína e energia para ganho de 1 kg de PCVZ foram obtidas por derivação das equações de predição da composição corporal. Os conteúdos de proteína, gordura e energia aumentaram de acordo com o peso corporal. Os requerimentos líquidos de proteína e energia para ganho de peso de corpo vazio (GPCVZ elevaram quando o PCVZ variou de 25,74 até 85,81 kg. Foi obtida a equação para estimar a proteína retida em função do ganho médio diário (GMD e da energia retida (ER: PR = - 0,297083 + 4,19797 ganho de peso corporal em jejum (GPCJ + 0,0926327 ER (R² = 0,92. A equação obtida para descrever a relação entre a energia retida (ER, em Mcal, e o ganho diário de PCVZ (GPCVZ, em kg, para determinado PCVZ a partir dos dados deste trabalho, foi a seguinte: ER = 0,1004 × PCVZ0,75 × GDPCVZ0,5552. Os valores de energia líquida de mantença (ELm variaram de 1,10 para 2,72 Mcal/dia e energia líquida para ganho (ELg de 1,42 para 2,46 Mcal/dia quando o peso corporal aumentou de 30 para 100 kg. Dos 28 aos 112 dias de idade, aumenta a composição de proteína, gordura e energia no corpo vazio de bezerros machos da raça Holandesa.Thirteen male Holstein calves with average age of 14 days were used. Three animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (reference and ten others were randomly distributed in two treatments (ground or pelleted feed, and slaughtered at 112 days of age to determine the nutritional requirements. Regression equations of the logarithm of the amount of protein, fat and energy in the body were fitted as a function of the empty of body weight (EBW. The net protein and energy requirements for 1 kg gain of EBW were obtained by deriving the prediction equations of body composition. There were increases in protein, fat and energy contents with increase in body weight. The net protein and energy requirements for empty body weight gain (GEBW increased when EBW varied from 25.74 to 85.81 kg. The equation was obtained to estimate the retained protein as a function of the mean daily gain (DMG and retained energy (RE: RP = - 0.297083 + 4.19797 gain of fasting body weight (FGBW + 0.0926327 RE. The equation obtained to describe the relationship between retained energy (RE, in Mcal, and EBW daily gain (DGEBW, in kg, for a determined EBW starting from the data of the present study was the following: RE = 0.1004 × EBW0.75 × EBWG0.5552. The NEm varied from 1.10 to 2.72 Mcal/day and NEg from 1.42 to 2.46 Mcal/day when the body weight increased from 30 to 100 kg. From 28 to 112 days of age there were protein, fat and energy increases in the empty body composition of the Holstein male calves.

  16. Non-native ligands define the active site of Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br dehydroascorbate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Das, Bhaba; Kumar, Amit; Maindola, Priyank; Mahanty, Srikrishna; Jain, S K; Reddy, Mallireddy K; Arockiasamy, Arulandu

    2016-05-13

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), a member of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) family, reduces dehydroascorbate (DHA) to ascorbate (AsA; Vitamin-C) in a glutathione (GSH)-dependent manner and in doing so, replenishes the critical AsA pool of the cell. To understand the enzyme mechanism in detail, we determined the crystal structure of a plant DHAR from Pennisetum glaucum (PgDHAR) using Iodide-Single Anomalous Dispersion (SAD) and Molecular replacement methods, in two different space groups. Here, we show PgDHAR in complex with two non-native ligands, viz. an acetate bound at the G-site, which resembles the γ-carboxyl moiety of GSH, and a glycerol at the H-site, which shares the backbone of AsA. We also show that, in the absence of bound native substrates, these non-native ligands help define the critical 'hook points' in the DHAR enzyme active site. Further, our data suggest that these non-native ligands can act as the logical bootstrapping points for iterative design of inhibitors/analogs for DHARs. PMID:27067046

  17. Isolation, purification and characterization of antioxidative peptide of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Himani; Joshi, Robin; Gupta, Mahesh

    2016-08-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a rich source of protein, used for present study to hydrolyze protein, peptide separation and its functional activity. Antioxidative bioactive peptide was successfully identified from pearl millet using trypsin enzyme. Different antioxidative potential of isolated peptide were assessed based on activity of DPPH radical, ABTS radical, hydroxyl radical, Fe(2+) chelating ability and reducing power. Bioactive peptide separated by gel-filtration chromatography, showed the higher antioxidant activity as tested by different free radicals. The activity of pearl millet protein hydrolysate fraction was found for DPPH assay (67.66%), ABTS assay (78.81%), Fe(2+) chelating ability (51.20%), hydroxyl assay (60.95%) and reducing power (0.375nm) was further purified using reversed-phase UFLC and subjected to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) for sequential identification of the peptide. The sequence SDRDLLGPNNQYLPK was identified as antioxidant peptide. PMID:26988514

  18. Intercorrelation of amino acid quality between raw, steeped and germinated pearl millet (pennisetum typhoides) grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of amino acids in the pearl millet grains, Pennisetum typhoides, steeped sample was best in Arg, Glu, Ser and protein contents, germinated sample was best in His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys (shared with raw sample), Pro and Tyr whereas raw sample was best in Ile, Leu and Gly. Total amino acid contents in steeped grains were 432 mg/g crude protein (c.p.), in germinated grain 464 mg/g c.p. and in raw grain 439 mg/g c.p. with respective essential amino acids of 210 mg/g c.p., 233 mg/g c.p. and 224 mg/g c.p. Percentage Cys/TSAA trend was 53.1 (raw) > 52.1 (germinated) > 51.2 (steeped). Predicted protein efficiency ratio (P-PER) levels were 1.32 (steeped), 1.66 (raw) and 1.57 (germinated). The Leu/Ile ratio levels were 2.22 (raw) and 2.46 (both steeped and germinated). Amino acid scores based on whole hen's egg had Met as the limiting amino acid for the three samples. The two treatments enhanced the quality of the pearl millet amino acid levels thereby providing high potentials for use in weaning foods and formulations. However, no significant difference was seen between raw/steeped, raw/germinated and steeped/germinated samples at p < 0.05. (author)

  19. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  20. Changes in soil bacterial communities induced by the invasive plant Pennisetum setaceum in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Gema; Caravaca, Fuensanta; del Mar Alguacil, María; Fernández-López, Manuel; José Fernández-González, Antonio; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Invasive alien species are considered as a global threat being among the main causes of biodiversity loss. Plant invasions have been extensively studied from different disciplines with the purpose of identifying predictor traits of invasiveness and finding solutions. However, less is known about the implication of the rhizosphere microbiota in these processes, even when it is well known the importance of the interaction between plant rhizosphere and microbial communities. The objective of this study was to determine whether native and invasive plants support different bacterial communities in their rhizospheres and whether there are bacterial indicator species that might be contributing to the invasion process of these ecosystems. We carried out a study in five independent locations under Mediterranean semiarid conditions, where the native Hyparrhenia hirta is being displaced by Pennisetum setaceum, an aggressive invasive Poaceae and soil bacterial communities were amplified and 454-pyrosequenced. Changes in the composition and structure of the bacterial communities, owing to the invasive status of the plant, were detected when the richness and alpha-diversity estimators were calculated as well as when we analyzed the PCoA axes scores. The Indicator Species Analysis results showed a higher number of indicators for invaded communities at all studied taxonomic levels. In conclusion, the effect of the invasiveness and its interaction with the soil location has promoted shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial communities which might be facilitating the invader success in these ecosystems.

  1. Using a high biomass plant Pennisetum hydridum to phyto-treat fresh municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Liang; Lee, Charles C C; Wang, Hui; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2016-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the use of a high biomass plant, Pennisetum hydridum, to treat municipal sewage sludge (MSS). An experiment composed of plots with four treatments, soil, fresh sludge, soil-sludge mixture and phyto-treated sludge, was conducted. It showed that the plant could not survive directly in fresh MSS when cultivated from stem cuttings. The experiment transplanting the incubated cutting with nurse medium of P. hydridum in soil and fresh MSS, showed that the plants grew normally in fresh MSS. The pilot experiment of P. hydridum and Alocasia macrorrhiza showed that the total yield and nutrient amount of P. hydridum were 9.2 times and 3.6 times more than that of A. macrorrhiza. After plant treatment, MSS was dried, stabilized and suitable to be landfilled or incinerated, with a calorific value of about 5.6MJ/kg (compared to the initial value of 1.9MJ/kg fresh sludge). PMID:26897473

  2. The Study of Soil-Roots Strength Performance by Using Pennisetum Setaceum Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusoff Nor Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is regarded as a new engineering material contributes to slope stability and reduces superficial soil erosion, both by soil shear reinforcement and influencing soil water content. Yet, it is aware that roots growth occurred below the soil surface and it is considered as dynamic organs that respond to physical, chemical and hydrological induced by surrounding substrate. This study was carried out to investigate the soil shear strength performance by using Pennisetum Setaceum grass at the different planting period up to three months. The grass was planted in a 150 mm × 200 mm × 700 mm test plot with a suitable soil medium. Pull-out strength test was conducted for each plot to determine the soil pull-out strength according to different planting period. The results show that there is an increment in the pullout strength of rooted-soil sample over different planting period with average results of 6.7 kPa, 11.4 kPa and 25.8 kPa for month 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Based on this study, the soil pull-out strength developments for vegetated soil were observed. The higher pull-out strength was recorded for different growth period. Moreover, root weight was increased for different growth period. Based on the tensile test, the diameter of the root affects the rate of resistance against the tensile forces. This indicated that the roots structure growth affects the soil shear strength.

  3. Seed treatment with beta-aminobutyric acid protects Pennisetum glaucum systemically from Sclerospora graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailasree, S; Sarosh, B R; Vasanthi, N S; Shetty, H S

    2001-08-01

    beta-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R Br] seeds influenced seedling vigour and protected the seedlings from downy mildew disease caused by the oomycetous biotropic fungus Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc) Schroet. Of the different concentrations of BABA tested, viz 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM, seeds treated with 50 mM for 6 h resulted in the maximum of 1428 seedling vigour and showed 23% disease incidence in comparison with the control which recorded a seedling vigour of 1260 and 98% disease incidence i.e. 75% protection from disease. Seeds treated with BABA when challenged for downy mildew disease using zoospores of S graminicola required 48 h after inducer treatment to develop maximum resistance. Durability of induced resistance was also tested in plants raised from seeds treated with the inducer and identified as resistant, by second challenge inoculation with the downy mildew pathogen at tillers and inflorescence axes. Reduced disease incidence of only 10 and 12% in these plants, compared with 71 and 76% disease in control plants inoculated at the tillers and inflorescence axes, respectively, suggested that resistance induced in seeds with BABA remained operative through vegetative and reproductive growth of pearl millet plants. Induction of resistance by seed treatment with BABA enhanced vegetative growth, viz height, fresh weight, leaf area and tillering, and reproductive growth, viz early flowering, number of productive ear heads and 1000 seed weight. Studies on induction of resistance in different cultivars of pearl millet with varying resistance reaction to downy mildew indicated that the protection offered by BABA is independent of the nature of cultivars used and not dependent on their constitutive resistance. PMID:11517726

  4. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum based foods and their functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, considered a poor man’s cereal, may be a repository of dietary antioxidants, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids, which provide bioactive mechanisms to reduce free radical induced oxidative stress and probably play a role in the prevention of ageing and various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases.Objective: The present study focused on the identification of individual flavonoids and phenolic acids from seven commercial varieties of pearl millet and five samples of pearl millet-based traditional recipes of Banaskantha, Gujarat, India.Methods: Total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and individual polyphenol separation included the isolation and identification of (a flavonoids, (b phenolic acids, and (c glycoflavones involving interaction with diagnostic reagents and paper chromatographic separation of compounds and their UV-visible spectroscopic studies including hypsochromic and bathchromic shifts with reagents such as AlCl3, AlCl3/HCl, NaOMe, NaOAc,and NaOAc/H3PO3. Five traditional recipes consumed in the pearl millet producing belt of Banaskantha, Gujarat, India, were standardized in the laboratory and analyzed for phenol and individual flavonoids. Results: Total phenols in raw samples ranged from 268.5 - 420mg/100g of DW and 247.5 -Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7:251-264335mg/100g of DW in cooked recipes. The commonly identified flavonoids were tricin, acacetin, 3, 4 Di-OMe luteolin, and 4-OMe tricin. Five phenolic acids were identified: namely vanilic acid, syringic acid, melilotic acid, para-hydroxyl benzoic acid, and salicylic acid.Conclusion: The presence of flavonoids, such as tricin, acacetin, 3, 4 Di-OMe luteolin, and 4-OMe tricin, indicate the chemopreventive efficacy of pearl millet. They may be inversely related to mortality from coronary heart disease and to the incidence

  5. Avaliação de fontes de urease na amonização de fenos de Brachiaria brizantha com dois teores de umidade Evaluation of urease sources in the ammoniation of Brachiaria brizantha hays with two moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liandra Maria Abaker Bertipaglia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da amonização com uréia (5,0% matéria seca do feno de Brachiaria brizantha, com dois teores de umidade (15 ou 30% de umidade, associado a três fontes de urease (feno de capim Brachiaria decumbens, capim-elefante [Pennisetum purpureum] e leucena [Leucaena leucocephala], foi avaliado. Foram determinados os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fração solúvel (A, frações de proteína verdadeira solúvel e insolúvel em borato fosfato (B1 e B2, fração de proteína potencialmente degradável (B3 e fração da proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido (C. Avaliaram-se os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HEM e lignina (LIG e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com 10 tratamentos (dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, sem uréia e sem urease; dois controles, 15 e 30% umidade, com uréia e sem urease; seis combinações de fontes de urease e conteúdo de umidade e três repetições. A amonização dos fenos com diferentes conteúdos de umidade, associados a fontes de urease, aumentou os teores de PB e da fração A, mas não afetou B1 e B2. Contudo, as frações B3 e C diminuíram em reposta à amonização. A aplicação de uréia nos fenos de 30% de umidade, associados ou não a fontes de urease, diminuiu os teores de FDN. A adição de fontes de urease não alterou os teores dos constituintes da parede celular, quando comparada aos tratamentos amonizados com uréia. Os tratamentos aplicados não proporcionaram efeitos consistentes sobre os teores de FDA e de CEL dos fenos e não afetaram os teores de LIG. A aplicação de uréia associada a 15 ou 30% de umidade foi favorável para aumentar o nitrogênio solúvel do feno de Brachiaria brizantha e diminuir o nitrogênio indisponível para o ruminante.The urea ammoniation (5.0% dry matter effects in Brachiaria brizanta hay baled with two

  6. 紫景天中熊果苷的含量测定%Determination of Arbutin in Sedum Purpureum by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海丰; 孙健; 滕坤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a HPLC method for the determination of arbutin in Sedum Purpureum. Methods Agilent XDB C18(4.6mm×150mm, 5μm) column was applied, using methanol-water(20: 80) as mobile phase with the rate of 0.8mL ·min-1. The column temperature was room temperature and the detective wavelength was 282 nm. Results A good linearity was obtained over the range of 5~160μg for arbutin(r=0.9998). The average recovery (n=6) was 101.67% (RSD =3.06%). Conclusion The method is practical, convenient, accurate, and can be used as the determination of arbutin in Sedum Purpureum.%目的 建立HPLC测定紫景天中熊果昔含量的方法.方法 采用Agilent XDB-C18色谱柱(4.6mm x 150mm,5pm),以甲醇-水(20:80)为流动相,流速:0.8mL·min-1,柱温为室温,检测波长为282nm.结果 熊果苷进样量在5~160μg范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9998,平均加样回收率为101.67%,RSD为3.06%(n=6).结论 该方法结果准确、灵敏快速、重现性好,可用于紫景天中熊果苷含量的测定.

  7. Comparative Effects of Drought and Salt Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth of Pennisetum divisum (Gmel. Henr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa A. Al-Taisan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water stress due to drought and salinity is probably the most significant abiotic factor limiting plant and also crop growth and development. Salinity and drought stresses are physiologically related, because both induce osmotic stress and most of the metabolic responses of the affected plants are similar to some extent. Water deficit affects the germination of seed and the growth of seedlings negatively. Temperature is an exceedingly important factor in seed germination. It directly affects whether a plant can sprout and, if so, how long it will take to emerge from the ground. Approach: The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of four alternating temperature regime, drought and salt stress on germination characteristics of Pennisetum divisum. Seeds were germinated at four alternating temperatures (10/20, 15/25, 20/35 and 25/40°C at 12 h light. Seeds were also germinated with the iso-osmotic concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl or in polyethylene glycol PEG8000 (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa for 14 days. Concentrations were applied to determine their effects on seed germination and seedling growth under laboratory conditions. The effects of different osmotic concentrations of NaCl and PEG were compared to distilled water (control. Results: Optimum germination was attained at 15/25°C which corresponds to temperatures prevailing during spring time. The highest values of germination parameters were obtained with no osmotic potential (0 MPa under 15/25°C. The final germination percentage and rate of germination in the Pennisetum divisum treated seeds were decreased with the increase of the osmotic potential. At treatment by PEG, the germination was severely decreased at -0.6 MPa. While, no germination occurred at- 0.8 MPa by NaCl. The results of the effects of the different osmotic potential of NaCl and PEG on the Radicle Length (RL and the Hypocotyl Length (HL mm of the tested P. divisum

  8. Predição da degradação da matéria seca pelo volume de gases utilizando a técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases Prediction of dry matter degradation from volume of gas production using the in vitro semi-automatic gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ú.T. Nogueira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a degradação da matéria seca (DMS via produção de gases (PG por meio de equações. Foram agrupados dados de volume de gases e DMS de oito forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, feno de Cynodon spp, silagem de milho, silagem de milheto, sorgo de corte, capim-elefante e cana-de-açúcar e de milho em grão. Os dados de DMS obtidos em laboratório foram comparados à DMS obtida pelas equações de regressão. Apesar dos altos coeficientes de determinação, os resultados demonstraram a impossibilidade de estimar a DMS via PG pelas equações geral, de dois e de três pontos.The dry matter degration (DMD was estimated through volume of gas produced (GP during the in vitro fermentation. The DMD from eight forages (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, cynodon hay, maize silage, Pennisetum glaucon, sorghum, elephant grass and sugarcane and corn grain were obtained and were compared with the DMD estimated using regression equations. The results showed the GP can not predict the DMD due to inocula effects, chemical composition of substrate or losses of particles of soluble material during filtration process.

  9. Effect of humic acid on growth, protein and mineral composition of pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum (l.) fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on shortage of organic fertilizers in arid regions, the present study aimed to evaluate alternative sources of organic fertilizers that required in small quantity and that to be easy in shipment, and universally available. After an extensive literature search, we were prompted to evaluate the effect of humic acid (HA) on millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br) by using 7 different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 kg ha/sup -1/) because HA, which is recognized as an exogenous growth regulator/soil activator, and its effects have been evaluated in its limited quantities only on fruits and vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of soil application of high levels of HA on the field crop. The experiment was conducted following a randomized complete block design. The results of the study indicated that the increasing level of HA to certain level (20-25 kg ha/sup -1/) constantly and significantly (p<0.05) increased plant growth (i.e., plant height, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area index (LAI), green and dry matter yield). The increase in growth was further confirmed by the chemical analysis of crude protein and mineral content. Based on the results, this study recommends application of 20 to 25 kg ha/sup -1/ of HA to soil for improving millet crop yield and quality in arid and saline conditions. (author)

  10. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  11. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa

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    Christo J. Botha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3, Fusarium redolens (n = 4 and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15. Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  12. Efecto de las PGPB sobre el crecimiento Pennisetum clandestinum bajo condiciones de estrés salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sánchez López

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims the isolation and characterization of bacteria with potential to promote the growth of grass Pennisetum clandestinum in simulated saline soils. 92 Gram positive bacterias were isolated from Rhizosphere soil samples of P. clandestinum. Ten isolated bacteria grew on nutrient agar supplemented with NaCl (2.578 M. Isolates were evaluated under greenhouse conditions; the strains identified as KISA 34 and KISA 71 were selected as the best based on the statistical test of Dunnet (p ≤ 0.05 and were identified Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KISA 34 and Bacillus subtilis KISA 71. These strains have the ability to produce ammonium, exopolysaccharides and cellulose, both in absence and presence of NaCl. The strains produced indoles and phosphorus solubilization. The evaluation of strains in greenhouse showed that the T6 - KISA 34 + KISA 71+ 25 % (phosphate rock RF significantly increased biomass and plant development (p≤ 0.05 compared with T2 - full fertilization . The results of this research showed that isolates have the ability to grow in saline soils retaining its characteristics as promoting plant growth with positive effects on P. clandestinum.

  13. Functional validation of a novel isoform of Na+/H+ antiporter from Pennisetum glaucum for enhancing salinity tolerance in rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dheeraj Verma; Sneh L Singla-Pareek; Divya Rajagopal; M K Reddy; S K Sopory

    2007-04-01

    Salt stress is an environmental factor that severely impairs plant growth and productivity. We have cloned a novel isoform of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter from Pennisetum glaucum (PgNHX1) that contains 5 transmembrane domains in contrast to AtNHX1 and OsNHX1 which have 9 transmembrane domains. Recently we have shown that PgNHX1 could confer high level of salinity tolerance when overexpressed in Brassica juncea. Here, we report the functional validation of this antiporter in crop plant rice. Overexpression of PgNHX1 conferred high level of salinity tolerance in rice. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing PgNHX1 developed more extensive root system and completed their life cycle by setting flowers and seeds in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. Our data demonstrate the potential of PgNHX1 for imparting enhanced salt tolerance capabilities to salt-sensitive crop plants for growing in high saline areas.

  14. Bangle (Zingiber purpureum) Improves Spatial Learning, Reduces Deficits in Memory, and Promotes Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of Senescence-Accelerated Mouse P8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Matsui, Nobuaki; Hosogi, Kazuko; Imai, Akiko; Abe, Noriaki; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Hirata, Ayumu; Yagi, Yusuke; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Kato, Eishin; Hosoda, Shinya; Yoshioka, Saburo; Harada, Kenichi; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Bangle (Zingiber purpureum) is a tropical ginger that is used as a spice in Southeast Asia. Phenylbutenoid dimers isolated from Bangle have exhibited neurotrophic effects in primary cultured rat cortical neurons and PC12 cells. Furthermore, chronic treatment with phenylbutenoid dimers enhances hippocampal neurogenesis in olfactory bulbectomized mice. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bangle extract on behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. SAMP8 mice, which are an established model for accelerated aging, with age-related learning and memory impairments, were given a Bangle-containing diet for 1 month, and subsequent behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry for Ki67, a proliferating cell marker, were performed. We found that the Bangle-containing diet improved spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze and significantly increased the numbers of Ki67-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the SAMP8 mice. In addition, the Bangle extract exhibited a neurotrophin-like activity as indicated by the induction of neurite sprouting in PC12 cells. Our results suggest that Bangle is beneficial for the prevention of age-related progression of cognitive impairment. PMID:26829513

  15. Structure, agency, and the transformation of the Sonoran Desert by buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare): An application of land change science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Jacob C.

    A regional land transformation is underway in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern North America as a result of the conversion of native rangeland to exotic pasture. In northwestern Sonora, Mexico the process involves clearing native vegetation for cultivation of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare). Southern African buffelgrass was introduced to Sonora through the United States in the 1950s with generous support from the Mexican federal and Sonoran state governments. The ascendance of buffelgrass as a range management tool in Sonora has been conditioned by an international political economy of beef production. However, land use decisions regarding buffelgrass are also conditioned by factors internal to the ranch household. This research examines the expansion of buffelgrass in the Sonoran Desert, addressing its extent and drivers. Through the use of systematic interviews with ranchers, key informant interviews with government officials, and an examination of northern Mexico's cattle ranching history and policy, the dissertation documents why buffelgrass has spread as a policy program and management choice. This part of the work addresses a "structure-agency debate" in human-environment geography. Next the research turns to landscape impacts of buffelgrass cultivation, through vegetation plot and transect sampling. The extent, cover, and density of buffelgrass inside and outside fenced pastures are examined, confirming the hypothesis that disturbance facilitates invasion from pastures onto surrounding lands. Finally, the research employs novel methods of remote sensing and geographic information science using a 1973-2006 time series of Landsat imagery to characterize the patterns and temporal trajectories of land change by buffelgrass across the site. Object-based image processing techniques are combined with traditional maximum likelihood techniques and classification tree analysis to address the difficult task of distinguishing buffelgrass from other prevalent land

  16. Genetic Component Analysis for Yield and Morphological Traits in Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of present investigation were to find out the extent of genetic variability, heritability (bs), component of variance and genetic advance for yield and yield related traits of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. For this purpose twenty five (25) pearl millet (local and exotic) germplasm accessions were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design having three replications at Arid Zone Research Institute, PARC, D.I. Khan, Pakistan during 2013. Highly significant (P<0.01) differences were observed for all the traits except days to maturity which was mere significant (P<0.05). A substantial amount of genetic variability among the genotypes revealed that accessions under studies belonged to diversified sources indicating the expediency of genotypes for future breeding of millet varieties. The line MS-3 proved its superiority through producing the highest grain yield of 132.70 g/plant. High genotypic (68.06) as well as phenotypic co-efficient of variation (71.50) were recorded for grain yield. Moderate to high heritability was recorded for number of leaves per plant (47.11), leaf area index (46.75), days to heading (69.34) and days to maturity (68.58). Avery high heritability (89.54 percentage) was recorded for 1000- grain weight and grain yield. The high heritability amalgamated with high genetic advance (171.04) as percent of mean was recorded for grain yield indicating the least environmental effect and presence of more additive gene effect leading to crop improvement through simple selection. (author)

  17. Exogenous calcium induces tolerance to atrazine stress in Pennisetum seedlings and promotes photosynthetic activity, antioxidant enzymes and psbA gene transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinle, Kehinde Olajide; Jiang, Zhao; Ma, Bingbing; Li, Jinmei; Chen, Yukun; Ur-Rehman, Khalil; Shahla, Andleeb; Zhang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) has been reported to lessen oxidative damages in plants by upregulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, atrazine mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction by Ca is limited. This study therefore investigated the effect of exogenously applied Ca on ROS, antioxidants activity and gene transcripts, the D1 protein (psbA gene), and chlorophyll contents in Pennisetum seedlings pre-treated with atrazine. Atrazine toxicity increased ROS production and enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase APX, peroxidase POD, Superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione-S-transferase GST); but decreased antioxidants (APX, POD, and Cu/Zn SOD) and psbA gene transcripts. Atrazine also decreased the chlorophyll contents, but increased chlorophyll (a/b) ratio. Contrarily, Ca application to atrazine pre-treated seedlings lowered the harmful effects of atrazine by reducing ROS levels, but enhancing the accumulation of total chlorophyll contents. Ca-protected seedlings in the presence of atrazine manifested reduced APX and POD activity, whereas SOD and GST activity was further increased with Ca application. Antioxidant gene transcripts that were down-regulated by atrazine toxicity were up-regulated with the application of Ca. Calcium application also resulted in up-regulation of the D1 protein. In conclusion, ability of calcium to reverse atrazine-induced oxidative damage and calcium regulatory role on GST in Pennisetum was presented. PMID:27391035

  18. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog;

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside the...

  19. N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

    2009-04-01

    In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These

  20. Evaluation of batch and semi-continuous culture of Porphyridium purpureum in a photobioreactor in high latitudes using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy for monitoring biomass composition and metabolites production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Bayliss, C; Zanain, M; Pooley, C; Scolamacchia, M; Silkina, A

    2015-01-01

    The culture strategy (batch or semi-continuous) was evaluated for biomass and metabolite formation in Porphyridium purpureum cultures in higher latitudes (>50° N). FTIR was used technology to characterise macromolecule biomass composition and the quality of the metabolites produced. Semi-continuous culture was found to be the most feasible strategy to develop microalgal biomass production facilities in higher latitudes, due to their average results in terms of growth rate (0.27 day(-1)), duplication time (2.5-4 days), maximum cell density achieved (1.43*10(7) cells m L(-1)), biomass productivity of 47.04 mg L(-1) day(-1) and an exopolysaccharides production of 2.1 g L(-1). FTIR technology applied to microalgal production is a valuable and reliable tool to determine on a daily basis not just the evolution of macromolecules composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins) but also for the characterisation of the metabolites produced such as phycoerythrin or exopolysaccharides in P. purpureum cultures. PMID:25913882

  1. Release of phytotoxins by decomposing roots of Pennisetum typhoides (Borm. f. Staff et Hubb., their effect on soil fungi and succeeding crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Kanaujia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Pennisetum typhoides decomposing in normal field conditions, in sterilized soil inoculated with 15 rhizosphere fungi and in field soil maintained at various moisture levels produced vanillic acid. 3-4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and hydroxy cinnamic acid. These acids proved toxic to the rhizosphere fungi and seeds and seedlings of certain crop plants. Out of 15 rhizosphere fungal species inoculated to the soil only 6 could induce the release of toxins, moreover, the phytotoxic substances were detected from the washing of the roots collected only on the 30th day. The moisture range which showed liberation of toxins was 20-70 per cent. The time of liberation of acids in different set s varied. These were, however, frequently liberated from washings collected from roots decomposed for 15. 30 and 45 days.

  2. Meiotic and reproductive behavior of facultative apomictic BC/sub 1/ offspring derived from Pennisetum americanum-P. orientale interspecific hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujardin, M.; Hanna, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This study reports on the chromosome numbers, meiotic behavior, method of reproduction and fertility of BC/sub 1/ progenies from Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke, pearl millet X P. orientale L.C. Rich. interspecific hybrids backcrossed to P. americanum. This information would be useful for future studies on transfer of genes controlling apomixis from the tertiary gene pool to P. americanum. Two facultatively apomictic interspecific hybrids between Pennisetum americanum, (A. chromosomes) and P. orientale (O chromosomes), 2n=25, were pollinated with P. americanum. Sixteen backcross progenies were obtained which were of three cytotypes: 32-(14 A + 18 O), 23-(14 A + 9 O), and 27-(7 A + 20 O) chromosomes. They resulted from fertilization of unreduced gametes or partially reduced gametes by a 7 A chromosome gamete, or by development or unreduced aposporic embryo sacs, respectively. In 23 chromosome plants, the 14 A chromosomes paired mainly as bivalents or remained as univalents while the 9 O chromosomes appeared as univalents. Intergenomal pairing between P. americanum and P. orientale also were observed and could make segmental exchange possible. In the 27 chromosome progeny, the 20 O chromosomes paired, while the 7 A chromosomes remained as univalents. Meiotic behavior in 32-chromosome plants was regular with 7 A bivalents plus 9 O bivalents. The backcross progenies were male sterile but partially female fertile and produced a few seeds when pollinated with P. americanum pollen. The 23-chromosome, BC/sub 1/ progeny were reconstituted in BC/sub 2/ progenies of 32-chromosomes plants X pearl millet. All BC/sub 1/ had some degree of apomicitic embryo sac development and the 23-chromosome plants showed apomictic development even though the O chromosomes were in the simplex condition.

  3. Effect of malt pretreatment and fermentation on anti-nutritional factors and mineral bioavailability of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum L.) is a source of carbohydrate, protein and minerals that is comparable to other common cereal grains. However, anti nutrient factors like phytate and polyphenols reduce nutrient bioavailability which can be improved by suitable processing methods such as germination and fermentation with and without malt pretreatment. In this study of 8 pearl millet cultivars Ashana, Dahabaya, Dembi, GB-87-35, Kordofani, Madelkawaya, population 1Shambat and Ugandi were investigated. Results showed that pearl millet contained 7.7-8.9% moisture, 1.6-23% ash, 11.4-13.0% protein, 4.0-7.7% oil and 2.1-3.2% crude fiber. Mineral contents were 13.0-19.4, 370.0-547.5, 70.3-93.3, 49.1-61.9 and 551.0-1290.4 mg/100 g for Na,K,Mg, Ca and P respectively and 1.3-1.8, 7.5-11.7, 0.8-1.7, 0.5-1.5 and 0.062-0.103 mg/100 g for Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Co respectively. HCI-extractability of these minerals (an index of their bioavailability to humans) were 63.1-73.3% Na, 64.9-73.3% K, 55.7-61.4% mg, 27.7-88.3% Ca, 31.0-38.5% P, 41.2-45.9% Zn, 22.5-27.7% Fe, 44.3-48.8% Mn, 21.3-28.6% Cu and 85.3-88.6% CO. Phytic acid content ranged from 422.3-1101.0 mg/100 g and polyphenol ranged from 306.7-669.4 mg/100 g. Cooking caused slight increase in mineral content and significantly (p<0.01) improved the bioavailability of all the minerals investigated; phytic acid reduced by 6-10% and polyphenols by 6-8%. Germination for 2,4 and 6- days showed significant (P<0.01) differences in the concentration of minerals during the course of germination.Total content of Fe, Zn and Mn were increased significantly (P<0.01) for all cultivars. The bioavailability of all the minerals was significantly (P<0.01) improved throughout all the time intervals of germination. Phytic acid was reduced by 66.3-81.0% after 6- days of germination while polyphenol content was reduced by 34.3-44.0%. Fermentation of cultivars of : Ashana and Dembi affected the minerals content and significantly (P<0.01) improved the

  4. Évaluation participative de nouvelles lignées de mil (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) sélectionnées pour les régions arides tunisiennes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Loumerem; P. V. Damme; M. Sgair; Reheul, D; Behaeghe, T.

    2009-01-01

    Participatory varietal selection (PVS) method was used to involve peasants from the beginning of the breeding programme in order to create new varieties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) higher that would be yielding than the traditional cultivars in the arid regions of Tunisia. Methods of participatory research aim at fostering collaboration between farmers and plant breeders. The farmer is no longer considered as a dumb recipient of technology but as full active partner in re...

  5. Fotossensibilização em ovinos associada à ingestão de Brachiaria brizantha no estado do Pará Photosensitization of sheep kept on Brachiaria brizantha pasture in the state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Teles Albernaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dois surtos e realizado um experimento de fotossensibilização associada à ingestão por Brachiaria brizantha em ovinos mestiços de Santa Inês e Dorper, com idade variando de dois a três meses, em uma fazenda no município de Santa Luzia do Pará. Esses animais foram mantidos desde o nascimento até aproximadamente dois meses de idade, em apriscos suspensos do chão, recebendo capim-elefante roxo (Pennisetum purpureum cv. roxo, concentrado, sal mineral e água ad libitum. Após esse período foram introduzidos em um piquete de B. brizantha. Na ocasião dos surtos e do experimento a fazenda foi visitada para observação dos dados epidemiológicos, avaliação clínica dos animais, colheita de amostras de sangue para dosagem de GGT, AST, BD, BI, BT, ureia e creatinina e colheita de pastagem para pesquisa de Pithomyces chartarum e saponinas. Também foi realizada necropsia com colheita de material para estudo histológico. O surto 01 ocorreu na época de escassez de chuva, com taxa de morbidade e letalidade de 43,4% e 81,6%, respectivamente. O surto 02 aconteceu no início da época chuvosa, com taxas de morbidade e letalidade de 16,3% e 76,9%, respectivamente. Em ambos os surtos o capim encontrava-se com massa residual reduzida e senescente. Dos 50 animais do experimento, 10 receberam 200ml de fluido ruminal retirado de ovelhas mães do mesmo lote, a primeira administração foi feita um dia antes da introdução desses animais na pastagem, e mais duas subsequentes com intervalo de uma semana. Após 15 dias de pastejo, os animais começaram a apresentar inquietação, procura por sombra, edema nas orelhas, mucosas amareladas, apatia, anorexia e desprendimento da pele seguido por formação de crostas em algumas áreas do corpo. Tanto os animais dos surtos quanto do experimento apresentaram aumento nos níveis de GGT, AST, BD, BI, BT, ureia e creatinina. Os valores de ureia e GGT dos animais que receberam fluido ruminal e dos

  6. Characteristics of charcoal fines obtained by rapid pyrolysis process of elephant grass in fluidized bed in different operation conditions; Caracteristicas dos finos de carvao vegetal obtido pelo processo de pirolise rapida de capim elefante em leito fluidizado em diferentes condicoes de operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a study about the effect of excess air and the inert fixed bed height upon the characteristics of fine charcoal particles and the main reactor parameters. The pyrolysis process is considered as a method to concentrate carbon in fine charcoal particles and a method to reduce oxygen content in the biomass.The study concludes that the operation point which gives the highest percentage if carbon fine charcoal particles and reduces the most the oxygen in biomass corresponds to a fixed bed height of 207 mm and excess air of 8%. (author)

  7. Ruminal degradation kinetics of elephant grass silage with different levels of jack fruit and cassava scraping
    Cinética de degradação ruminal de silagem de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de jaca e raspa de mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Custódio Franco; Marina de Arruda Camargo Danés; Thiago Carvalho da Silva; Anderson de Moura Zanine; Edson Mauro Santos; Juliana Silva de Oliveira; João Ricardo Rebouças Dórea; Vinícius Nunes de Gouvêa; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in situ ruminal degradation kinetics in two experiments, which different levels of dehydrated jackfruit (0, 5, 10 and 15% in natural matter) and cassavas scraping (0, 7, 15 and 30 % in natural matter) in the elephant grass silage, were used. The two experiments were carried out at the Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, in the same period and followed the same protocol. A mixed model was used, in which was considered ...

  8. Casca de algodão em substituição parcial à silagem de capim-elefante para novilhos. 1. Consumo, degradabilidade e digestibilidade total e parcial Partial replacement of elephantgrass silage with cottonseed hulls. 1. Intake, degradability, and apparent ruminal, intestinal, and total tract digestibilities in steers

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Luiz Chizzotti; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Maria Ignês Leão; Rilene Ferreira Diniz Valadares; Fernanda Helena Martins Chizzotti; Karla Alves Magalhães; Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2005-01-01

    Quatro novilhos holandeses fistulados no rúmen, com peso médio de 259 kg, foram distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 para se avaliar o efeito dos níveis de casca de algodão na dieta de novilhos sobre o consumo e as digestibilidades totais, ruminais e intestinais de matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO), extrato etéreo (EE), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro corrigida para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp) e carboidratos não-fibrosos corrigidos (CNFcp) e o consumo de nutrientes di...

  9. Performance, intake and digestibility of feedlot lambs receiving elephant grass silage with different proportions of dried peel of passion fruit
    Desempenho, consumo e digestibilidade de cordeiros em confinamento recebendo silagens de capim elefante com diferentes proporções de casca desidratada de maracujá

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Bomfim Rocha; Milena Patricia Viana Bastos; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Cristiane Leal dos Santos-Cruz; Braulio Crisanto Carvalho da Cruz; Suely Santos

    2011-01-01

    The consumption, digestibility, and performance was evaluated of lambs fed silage elephant grass containing different inclusion levels of passion fruit peel dried (0, 10, 20 and 30%) in natural matter of elephant grass, in a randomized completely randomized design with four replications. The elephant grass was cut at 60 days of age, chopped and ensiled in barrels along with the proportions of dried passion fruit peel, according to each treatment. After 30 days, the silos were opened for evalu...

  10. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity. PMID:26134441

  11. Genetic changes after androgenesis in the millet Pennisetum americanum: Study of descendants from cultures of pollen of an F1 hybrid (Massue X Ligui)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-fertilizing generations of double haploid plants obtained by androgenesis from an F1 hybrid (Massue X Ligui) of the millet Pennisetum americanum were investigated. Four enzyme systems were studied by electrophoresis (for four loci in particular: Adh1, esterase 1, peroxidase P5, catalase, which are heterozygous in F1), as well as 20 morphological and phenological characteristics (analysed by principal component analysis and by hierarchical variance analysis). The biochemical and biometric studies combined to show considerable distortions in segregation (generally in favour of characteristics of the Massue line) and great variability of genetic origin revealed during successive self-fertilizations of the double haploids. Part of this variability could be explained by partial non-reduction phenomena (never total non-reduction, since no plant produced by androgenesis has all the characteristics of the F1 generation). However, recourse must also be had to other phenomena analogous to genetic instabilities in order to account for the appearance of new functional states (detected by electrophoresis) in the S1 and S2 generations and the fact that some of the intra-family variations do not become weaker as the genealogy progresses. (author)

  12. Alternativa de Convivencia con el Problema de la Salinidad del Agua de Irrigación causada por Presas Subterráneas Alternative of Coexistence with the Salinity Probiem of Irrigation Water caused by Underground Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilmar  da S Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una alternativa de convivencia con el problema de salinidad del agua de irrigación causado por presas subterráneas. Se analiza la calidad del agua de irrigación comparando el crecimiento vegetativo de las gramíneas Capim Vetiver, Sempre Verde; Cana-de-agúcar, Capim Elefante cv. Napier y Capim Elefante cv. Mercker, aguas arriba y abajo de la presa subterránea localizada en el municipio de Ibicuitinga, estado de Ceará en Brasil. El análisis de muestras de aguas subterráneas aguas arriba y abajo de la presa han mostrado que ambas poseen un grado de salinidad elevado para fines de irrigación, recomendándose el uso de cultivos halófitos. Se ha realizado el análisis de varianza para variable crecimiento en altura y se ha aplicado la prueba de Tukey. A partir de esta prueba se ha verificado que, de entre las gramíneas probadas, tan sólo la Capim Elefante cv. Mercker ha diferido estadísticamente.The objective of this paper is to show an alternative for the coexistence with the salinity probiem of irrigation water caused by underground dams. The quality of irrigation water is analyzed by comparing the vegetative growth of Capim Vetiver, Sempre Verde, Cana-de-Acucar, Capim Elefante cv. Napier and Capim Elefante cv. Mercker, upstream and downstream of the underground dam located in Ibicuitinga, Ceará state in Brazil. The analysis of groundwater samples upstream and downstream of the dam have shown that both have high salinity for irrigation, recommending the use of halophytes crops. The study includes an analysis of variance for height growth variable and the Tukey test was applied. From this test it was verified that among the gramineous plants tested, only the Capim Elefante cv. Mercker was found statistically different.

  13. Contrasting genetic structure between Magnaporthe grisea populations associated with the golf course turfgrasses Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyugrass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhan, Greg W; de la Cerda, Karla A; Huryn, Karyn L; Greer, Christopher A; Wong, Francis P

    2011-01-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS) disease of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and kikuyugrass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in golf courses in California was first noted in 2001 and 2003, respectively, and within 5 years had become well established. The causal agent of the disease is the fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is known to consist primarily of clonal lineages that are highly host specific. Therefore, our objective was to investigate host specificity and population dynamics among isolates associated primarily from perennial ryegrass and kikuyugrass since the disease emerged at similar times in California. We also obtained isolates from additional hosts (tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, weeping lovegrass, and rice) and from the eastern United States for comparative purposes. A total of 38 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphism makers were scored from 450 isolates which clustered by host with high bootstrap support (71 to 100%). Genetic structure between kikuyugrass and perennial ryegrass isolates differed significantly. Isolates from kikuyugrass were genotypically diverse (n = 34), possessed both mating types, and some tests for random mating could not be rejected, whereas isolates from perennial ryegrass were less genotypically diverse (n = 10) and only consisted of a single mating type. Low genotypic diversity was also found among the other host specific isolates which also only consisted of a single mating type. This is the first study to document evidence for the potential of sexual reproduction to occur in M. grisea isolates not associated with rice (Oryza sativa). Moreover, given the significant host specificity and contrasting genetic structures between turfgrass-associated isolates, the recent emergence of GLS on various grass hosts in California suggests that potential cultural practices or environmental changes have become conducive for the disease and that the primary inoculum may have already been present in the state, despite the fact that two

  14. Cereal domestication and evolution of branching: evidence for soft selection in the Tb1 orthologue of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stanislas Remigereau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these target traits composing the domestication syndrome. We focused on the reduction of branching which occurred in several cereals, an adaptation known to rely on the major gene Teosinte-branched1 (Tb1 in maize. We investigate the role of the Tb1 orthologue (Pgtb1 in the domestication of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, an African outcrossing cereal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene cloning, expression profiling, QTL mapping and molecular evolution analysis were combined in a comparative approach between pearl millet and maize. Our results in pearl millet support a role for PgTb1 in domestication despite important differences in the genetic basis of branching adaptation in that species compared to maize (e.g. weaker effects of PgTb1. Genetic maps suggest this pattern to be consistent in other cereals with reduced branching (e.g. sorghum, foxtail millet. Moreover, although the adaptive sites underlying domestication were not formerly identified, signatures of selection pointed to putative regulatory regions upstream of both Tb1 orthologues in maize and pearl millet. However, the signature of human selection in the pearl millet Tb1 is much weaker in pearl millet than in maize. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that some level of parallel evolution involved at least regions directly upstream of Tb1 for the domestication of pearl millet and maize. This was unanticipated given the multigenic basis of domestication traits and the divergence of wild progenitor species for over 30 million years prior to human selection. We also hypothesized that regular introgression of domestic pearl millet phenotypes by genes from the wild gene pool could explain

  15. Chemical composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of benniseed (Sesamum radiatum), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshodi, A A; Ogungbenle, H N; Oladimeji, M O

    1999-09-01

    The chemical composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of benniseed (Sesamum radiatum), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were studied. The results showed that the samples contained crude protein in the range of 11.4 to 22.5% with benniseed having the highest value of 2.5%, and pearl millet with the lowest value 11.4%. Ether extracts fall within the range of 6.3-44.3%. The moisture contents ranged from 5.2 to 11.2% while the ash contents were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 4.1% and the crude fibre ranged between 3.1 and 9.6%. The flours were relatively higher in maltose and D-ribose which were found to be in the range of 1.28-5.08 mg sugar in 5 ml sample. They also have low contents of glucose and fructose which ranged between 0.70 and 1.46 mg sugar in 5 ml sample. The predominant mineral was potassium which varied between 5150 and 7140 mg per kg sample while the samples were significantly low in manganese and copper. The protein solubility of the flours were found to have minimum solubility at pH 5 for benniseed, about pH 6 for pearl millet and quinoa. The seed flours also have good gelation property, water absorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability. The oil absorption capacity and foaming capacity were low but the foams were relatively stable. PMID:10719563

  16. Effect of leucaena row spacing and cutting height on yield and chemical compositions of three associated grasses intercropped with leucaena

    OpenAIRE

    Tudsri, S.; Kaewkunya, C.

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at Suwanvajokkasikit Research Station, Pakchong, to determine the yield and chemical compositions of ruzi (Brachiaria ruziziens), dwarf napier (Pennisetum purpureum), and Taiwan A25 (P. purpureum) intercropped with leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Ivory Coast) under irrigation. The design of the experiment was a randomized split-split plot with pasture species as the main plots, leucaena row spacings (1, 2, 4 m) as sub - plots and leucaena cutting height (10 an...

  17. 添加丙酸和乳酸菌对杂交狼尾草青贮发酵品质的影响%Effect of adding propionic acid and lactic acid bacteria on fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 张新全; 杨富裕

    2012-01-01

    研究丙酸、乳酸茵和两者组合不同添加水平对杂交狼尾草(Pennisetum americanum×P.purpereurn)青贮发酵品质的影响。试验设对照(无添加)、乳酸菌(LAB)、0.2%丙酸、0.3%丙酸、0.4%丙酸、0.5%丙酸、0.2%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.3%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.4%丙酸+乳酸菌、0.5%丙酸+乳酸菌(占鲜质量比例)处理,青贮45d后开袋分析。结果表明,添加丙酸可以有效改善杂交狼尾草的青贮品质,最佳添加量为0.3%;添加乳酸茵有助于提高杂交狼尾草的有氧稳定性。%The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding propionic acid, lactic acid bacteria and mixture of the two additions on the fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum silage. There were treatments as following, the control (no addition), Lactic acid bacteria addition (LAB), Propionic acid addition at 0. 2% (PA0.2), Propionic acid addition at 0. 3% (PA0.3), Propionic acid addition at 0. 4% (PR0. 4), Propionic acid addition at 0.5% (PA0.5), PA0.2 +LAB, PA0.3 +LAB, PA0.4 +LAB and PA0.5 +LAB (FM,%). After 45 days of ensiling, the ensiled forages were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that addition propionic acid could improve the fermentation quality of hybird P. silages, and adding Propionic acid at a rate of 0. 3% is the optimum for fermentation quality of hybrid Pennisetum.

  18. Utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15-30kg de peso vivo Utilization of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain on feeding of starting pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, (L. R. Brown na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15 aos 30kg de peso vivo. Foi conduzido um experimento de desempenho, utilizando-se 48 leitões híbridos comerciais, sendo metade machos e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 14,9 ± 2,01kg. Utilizou-se a variedade IAPAR-IA98301 de milheto (MS: 90,61%; PB: 11,64%; Ca: 0,05%, P: 0,29% e 3.181kcal ED kg-1. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos (0, 20, 40 e 60% de inclusão de milheto, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão do milheto em rações para suínos na fase inicial não influenciou o consumo diário de ração, o ganho diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e o custo em ração por quilograma de suíno produzido. Em uma relação onde o preço do milheto corresponde a 70% do preço do milho, o custo em ração do quilograma de suíno produzido também não foi alterado. Os resultados sugerem que o milheto IAPAR-IA98301 pode ser incluído em rações de suínos na fase inicial até o nível de 60%.The objective of this study was to evaluate the pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown utilization on feeding of initial pigs (15-30kg of body weight. A performance trial was conducted by using 48 crossbred pigs (a half barrows and a half females with initial weight of 14.93 + 2.01kg with the use of IAPAR-IA98301 species of pearl millet (DM 90.61%; CP 11.64%; Ca 0.05%; P 0.29% and 3,182 kcal DE kg-1. A randomized blocks designwas used, with four treatments (0; 20; 40 and 60% of pearl millet inclusion, with six repetitions and two animals per experimental unit. The pearl millet inclusion on starting pigs diets did not influence on daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio and cost in diet per kilogram of pig produced during the initial phase. The results, suggest that the pearl millet IAPAR-IA98301 can be included in

  19. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total of...

  20. Notas sobre fanerógamas de la flora argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Se informa la existencia en Argentina de ocho especies de pastos marinos no catalogados. Ellos son Bromus inermis, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, Melia azedarach, Anethum graueolens, Costus pilgeri, Desmodium arechaualetae  e Ipomoea morongii. Se menciona también el cultivo de Gymnopogon biflorus y Heteropterys angustifolia.

  1. Notas sobre fanerógamas de la flora argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se informa la existencia en Argentina de ocho especies de pastos marinos no catalogados. Ellos son Bromus inermis, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, Melia azedarach, Anethum graueolens, Costus pilgeri, Desmodium arechaualetae  e Ipomoea morongii. Se menciona también el cultivo de Gymnopogon biflorus y Heteropterys angustifolia.

  2. The potential of improving napier grass under smallholder farmers' conditions in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, J.

    1998-01-01

    Dairy farming is the main livestock enterprise in the mixed crop/livestock farming system in the high rainfall areas of Kenya. These areas are characterised by a high human population density and very small farms. As a consequence, napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum ) has been widely adopted becaus

  3. Conteúdo de energia líquida para mantença e ganho do capim-elefante e mudanças na composição corporal de novilhos em pastejo, durante a estação chuvosa Net energy content for maintenance and weight gain of elephantgrass and changes on body composition of grazing steers during the rainy season

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    Carlos Augusto de Alencar Fontes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os conteúdos de energia líquida para mantença (ELm e ganho (ELg do capim-napier, submetido a pastejo rotacionado, e as mudanças nas concentrações corporais e do ganho de proteína, gordura e energia, de 36 novilhos ¾Gir-Holandês pastejando a forrageira, durante o período chuvoso. Metade dos animais teve o tempo de pastejo restrito a quatro horas diárias, para se limitar o consumo de energia a nível próximo ao de mantença e metade teve acesso irrestrito à pastagem. Seis novilhos foram abatidos no início do experimento, para se determinar a composição corporal inicial, e seis (três de cada tratamento, a cada 35 dias. Foram ajustadas equações de predição das mudanças na composição corporal, com o aumento do peso vivo, por regressão dos logaritmos dos conteúdos corporais de proteína e gordura, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio. Derivando-se essas equações, foram obtidas equações de predição da composição do ganho de peso. As concentrações de energia foram estimadas a partir dos teores de proteína e gordura e dos respectivos equivalentes calóricos. Por regressão da energia retida (ER, em função da energia metabolizável (EM consumida, estimou-se a eficiência de utilização da EM para ganho (Kg, correspondente ao coeficiente de regressão, e a exigência de EM para mantença (nível de ingestão de EM, para ER = 0. A eficiência de utilização de EM para mantença (Km foi obtida pela relação: Km = ELm/EMm. Os conteúdos de ELm e ELg do capim-napier foram determinados, respectivamente, pelos produtos de Km e Kg pelo conteúdo de EM do pasto, obtendo-se, respectivamente, os valores 1,02 e 0,59 Mcal/kg de MS. As concentrações de proteína corporais e do ganho mantiveram-se em níveis mais elevados e as concentrações de gordura e energia em níveis mais baixos que os valores relatados, no Brasil, para animais zebuínos e mestiços Europeu-Zebu, apresentando ganhos mais elevados.The net energy content for maintenance (NEm and gain (NEg of the napiergrass, under rotational grazing, as well as the changes on protein and fat concentrations in body and in weight gain of 36 ¾ Gyr-Holstein steers, grazing the forage, during the rainy season were determined. Half of steers had grazing time restricted to four hours daily, to limit energy intake to a level close to the maintenance level, and half had free access to the pasture. Six steers were slaughtered at begining of the trial, to determine initial body composition, and six (three from each treatment, at each subsequent 35 day. Prediction equations of the changes of body composition, with increase of body weight, were fitted by regression of log10 body content of protein and fat on log10 empty body weight. By differentiation of those equations, the prediction equations of composition of weight gain were obtained. The energy concentrations were estimated from protein and fat content and respective calorie equivalents. By regression of retained energy (RE on metabolizable energy (ME intake, the efficiency of ME utilization for gain, as the regression coeficient, and the ME requirement for maintenance (level of ME intake for RE = 0 were estimated. The efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance (Km was obtained by the ratio: Km = NEm/MEm. The NEm and NEg of napiergrass were determined, respectively, as the products of Km and Kg to ME content of the forage, and the values 1.02 and 0.59 Mcal/kg dry matter, respectively, were obtained. The protein concentrations in the body and in body weight gain remained in higher levels and the fat energy concentrations remained in lower levels than those reported, in Brazil, for zebu and crossbred steers showing higher weight gains.

  4. 杂交狼尾草发泡缓冲材料的制备及性能研究%Preparation of Hybridized Pennisetum Foam Cushioning Material and Study of Its Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母军; 张德荣; 范希峰; 朱丹; 王洪宾

    2011-01-01

    Hybridized pennisetum foam cushioning material was prepared by using cornstarch as adhesive and isocyanate as foaming agent to develop the market of plant based foam cushioning material and to reduced the environmental pollution of foamed polystyrene.Orthogonal tests were carried out.The results showed that the optimal foaming conditions were as follow: the proportion of Chinese pennisetum: cornstarch: polyvinyl alcohol is 1∶0.3∶0.15;30 mL isocyanate in per 100 g pennisetum powder;and the microwave foaming time are 7 minutes.The density of foaming cushion material is 0.3 g/cm3 at 14.4% of moisture content and cell number is 19.7/cm2.The stress of the material is 76.3 MPa when the strain is 15% of the whole and the resilience is 80.99%.It was concluded that this material is good for packaging the products with heavy weight or large volume.%为了拓展杂交狼尾草作为植物基发泡缓冲材料在包装领域的市场,减少发泡聚苯乙烯材料对环境的污染,以杂交狼尾草为主要材料,玉米淀粉为胶粘剂,异氰酸酯为发泡剂制备缓冲材料。正交试验结果表明,发泡成型的优化条件为:主料狼尾草与胶粘剂玉米淀粉、聚乙烯醇的质量比为1∶0.3∶0.15;每100 g狼尾草内添加30 mL发泡剂异氰酸酯;微波发泡时间为7 min。狼尾草发泡成型材料在含水率为14.4%时,其密度为0.30g/cm3,每平方厘米的泡孔数为19.7;狼尾草发泡成型材料在应变为15%时,其应力值为76.3 MPa,回弹率为80.99%。研究表明,狼尾草发泡成型材料为偏硬性缓冲材料,适合包装质量大、体积大的产品。

  5. 皇竹草与玉米秸秆青贮料饲喂肉牛的对比试验%Contrast Test of Pennisetum Hydridum and Corn Straw Mixed Silage Feeding Beef Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹宽文; 唐书辉; 汪庆松; 王海凤; 王兴磊; 贺起凯

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the feeding effect of Pennisetum hydridum and corn straw mixed silage to breeding cattle, fattening cattle, the team con-ducted a comparative feeding experiment, a total of 120 days. The results showed that, two groups of experimental cattle conception rate were:72. 22%, 76. 92% (P>0. 05), that mixed silage can not affect conception rate of breeding cattle; two groups of fattening cattle daily gain are respectively:1 294 g/d, 1 320 g/d (P>0. 05), that mixed silage can not affect the growth of fattening cattle. Conclusion, Pennisetum hydridum long growth period, high yield, easy processing and silage, it is an important source of beef cattle feed low elevation mountains green and coarse fodder, suitable for large area popularization.%利用皇竹草和抽穗期玉米秸秆青贮料作为能繁母牛、育肥牛的主要青粗饲料开展对比试验。通过120 d饲喂对比试验,饲喂2种不同饲料的能繁母牛受胎率分别为70.37%和76.92%,说明皇竹草和抽穗期玉米秸秆青贮料饲养能繁母牛对其受胎率无明显影响(P>0.05);育肥牛的日增重分别为1294 g/d和1320 g/d,表明利用皇竹草和抽穗期玉米秸秆青贮料育肥肉牛,其生长速度无明显差异(P>0.05)。由于皇竹草在低海拔喀斯特山区易于种植,生长期长,产量高,易于加工和青贮,是低海拔喀斯特山区解决肉牛产业发展中青粗饲料来源的有效途径,适宜大面积推广应用。

  6. Efeito da cobertura morta de milheto (Pennisetum americanum sobre a eficácia do herbicida metribuzin no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia e Sida rhombifolia Effect of Pennisetum americanum mulch in the metribuzin efficacy on the control of Ipomoea grandifolia and Sida rhombifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Godoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do metribuzin (480 g i.a. ha-1 associado à palha de milheto no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia e Sida rhombifolia, foram realizados dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro, os tratamentos constituíram-se de diferentes posicionamentos do herbicida, aplicado sobre e sob a palha em diferentes condições de umidade. No segundo, foram estudados diferentes períodos de permanência (0, 7, 14 e 21 dias do herbicida sobre a palha de milheto antes da ocorrência da primeira chuva. Após o preenchimento dos vasos com solo, as plantas daninhas (I. grandifolia e S. rhombifolia foram semeadas superficialmente e, em seguida, cobertas com palha de milheto (8 t ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado em ambos os experimentos foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle (0 a 100%, contagem das plantas daninhas aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias após a aplicação (DAA e biomassa seca ao final. Verificou-se controle excelente das duas espécies nos diferentes posicionamentos do herbicida, exceto para I. grandifolia na condição de aplicação em palha úmida, seguido de período seco. Observou-se, ainda, que o herbicida promoveu controle eficaz em pós-emergência e em pré-emergência, mesmo sem ocorrência de chuva após a aplicação. No segundo experimento, constatou-se controle excelente (>96% de I. grandifolia nos os períodos sem chuva de até 7 DAA; nos demais períodos, tal controle foi insatisfatório. Para S. rhombifolia, observou-se controle excelente para os períodos até 14 dias sem ocorrência de chuvas. Para o período de 28 dias, não se obteve controle satisfatório.Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of the metribuzin herbicide associated to Pennisetum americanum mulch in the control of the weeds Ipomoea grandifolia and Sida rhombifolia. The treatments in the first experiment were

  7. Évaluation participative de nouvelles lignées de mil (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. sélectionnées pour les régions arides tunisiennes

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    M. Loumerem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory varietal selection (PVS method was used to involve peasants from the beginning of the breeding programme in order to create new varieties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. higher that would be yielding than the traditional cultivars in the arid regions of Tunisia. Methods of participatory research aim at fostering collaboration between farmers and plant breeders. The farmer is no longer considered as a dumb recipient of technology but as full active partner in research. From 2001 to 2003, nine field tests were undertaken in the arid southeastern zone of the country where pearl millet is the dominant cereal during the summer. Lines tested were obtained from the breeding programme of the local populations of pearl millet conducted in the experimental station of IRA Medenine. These lines were the ones best adapted to local conditions and yielding well in the local environments. Our participatory plant breeding programme involved peasants in order to help identify best lines and create varieties that suit local needs and conditions. In the majority of tests, we identified materials which, mainly, meet the peasants needs who used multiple-selection criteria such as early maturity, desease/pest resistance, drought and salt tolerance, more straw, high yield and superior grain quality. However, none of the tested lines showed earlier maturity better the local cultivars over the two evaluation years. Nevertheless, this participatory evaluation exercise allowed us to acquire new knowledge on selection criteria, and encouraged the working team to further develop and expand this programme.

  8. Effects of Feeding Treatments with Hybrid Pennisetum Silage on the Hog Production and Meat Quality Parameters%饲喂杂交狼尾草青贮料对猪生产性能和肉质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄水珍

    2015-01-01

    为了研究饲喂酶制剂青贮的杂交狼尾草对公猪和母猪生长性能及肉品质的影响,笔者开展了4种杂交狼尾草青贮处理,组Ⅰ为杂交狼尾草添加麦麸,组Ⅱ为杂交狼尾草添加麦麸和纤维素酶,组Ⅲ为杂交狼尾草添加麦麸和纤维素菌液,组Ⅳ为杂交狼尾草添加麦麸和乳酸菌.将4种方式处理的杂交狼尾草添加至基础日粮中,对照组只饲喂基础日粮,75天后称重计算猪的日增重,将猪屠宰后分别测定宰后1h和宰后24h的pH和肉色,以及宰后24h的肌肉大理石纹和系水力.结果表明:Ⅰ-Ⅳ处理组和CK组的公猪日增重分别比母猪高出7.8%、6.7%、12.2%、1.1%和10.7%;Ⅰ-Ⅳ处理组公猪和母猪平均日增重分别比CK组提高3.31%和5.58%;处理组公猪和母猪的pH1、pH24和肌肉干物质含量与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05),但饲喂杂交狼尾草后公猪的肌肉于物质含量会适当降低,母猪的肌肉干物质含量、肉色1、肉色24和大理石纹值均略有提高.同时肉猪特别是公猪的系水力也会提高,猪肉品质得到改善.这说明饲喂酶制剂青贮的杂交狼尾草既能提高公猪和母猪的日增重,还能改善猪肉品质,这为开发酶制剂青贮的杂交狼尾草猪饲料奠定基础.%In order to study the effect of forages silaged by enzymes preparation on hog growth performance and pork quality,four silage forage feeding treatment groups were used.Hogs in group Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ were fed by basal diet with hybrid Pennisetum adding wheat bran,hybrid Pennisetum adding wheat bran and cellulase,hybrid Pennisetum adding wheat bran and cellulose microorganisms broth and hybrid Pennisetum adding wheat bran and lactobacillus,respectively.Hogs in the control-group (CK) were only fed by the basal diet.The average daily gain (ADG) was calculated after 75 days.Pork pH and color were determined respectively one hour and 24 hours after slaughtered.Muscle marble and water holding

  9. 饲粮中添加禾王草对泌乳奶牛瘤胃发酵和生产性能的影响%Effects of Pennisetum sp. Supplied in Diet on Ruminal Fermentation and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健; 刘艳芳; 王雅晶; 曹志军; 李胜利; 余雄; 杨基; 雷小英; 马亚宾

    2015-01-01

    为提高牧场养殖经济效益,本文研究了饲粮中添加禾王草青贮或干草对泌乳奶牛瘤胃发酵、营养物质消化率和生产性能的影响. 选取45头健康荷斯坦奶牛,按产奶量、胎次和泌乳天数等相近原则随机分成3组. 对照组饲粮粗饲料由全株玉米青贮、羊草和苜蓿干草构成,试验Ⅰ组粗饲料由禾王草青贮、全株玉米青贮、羊草和苜蓿干草构成,试验Ⅱ组粗饲料由禾王草干草、全株玉米青贮和苜蓿干草构成,3组饲粮营养水平相近. 预试期10 d,正试期60 d. 结果表明:1)与对照组相比,试验Ⅰ组能显著提高瘤胃液氨态氮含量和乙酸含量、乳蛋白率( P0.05),每头牛每天多盈利1.19元. 2)与对照组相比,试验Ⅱ组能显著降低瘤胃液氨态氮含量( P0.05) ,能提高奶牛的DMI和产奶量,差异不显著( P>0.05) ,每头牛每天多盈利2.07元. 由此可知,用禾王草青贮代替适量全株玉米青贮或用禾王草干草代替部分苜蓿干草不会影响奶牛的生产性能,同时会提高牧场奶牛养殖经济效益.%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Pennisetum sp. silage and Pennisetum sp. hay on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and performance of dairy cows. Forty-five healthy Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 15 cows in each group by milk yield, parity and days in milk. Roughages in control group ( CG) were whole corn silage, Chinese wildrye and alfalfa hay, those in trial groupⅠwere Pennisetum sp. silage, whole corn silage, Chinese wildrye and alfalfa hay, and those in trial group Ⅱ were Pennisetum sp. hay, whole corn silage and alfalfa hay. Nutrient levels of the three diets were close. The pre-trial lasted for 10 days, and the trial lasted for 60 d. The results showed as follows:1) compared with CG, the content of ammonia nitrogen of acetate in ru-men fluid, and milk protein percentage

  10. Digestibilidade in vitro/gás de volumosos exclusivos ou combinados avaliados pelo resíduo remanescente da digestão da matéria seca e produção de gás Evaluation of the in vitro/gas digestibility of several mixtures of roughages by digestion residue of dry matter and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Prudêncio de Campos

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a digestibilidade in vitro/gás da matéria seca (MS de quatro volumosos, exclusivos e suas combinações, na proporção de 50% na MS. Foram incubados 100 mg de amostra por tratamento, em triplicatas, em 48 h de digestão. As digestibilidades da MS e a produção de gás foram: cana-de-açúcar = 60,6%, 17,3 mL; cana-de-açúcar + silagem de milho = 63,9%, 19,6 mL; cana-de-açúcar + capim-elefante com 60 dias = 60,5%, 16,9 mL; cana-de-açúcar + capim-elefante com 180 dias = 48,6%, 14,1 mL; silagem de milho = 66,3%; silagem de milho + capim-elefante com 60 dias = 62,1%, 16,7 mL; silagem de milho + capim-elefante com 180 dias = 52,7%, 15,8 mL; capim-elefante com 60 dias = 61,5%, 16,9 mL; capim-elefante com 180 dias = 34,6%, 11,7 mL. Constatou-se que a combinação de volumosos, em alguns casos, pode diminuir a digestibilidade da MS dos volumosos de melhor qualidade.The in vitro/gas dry matter (DM digestibility of four roughages, mixed or not, in proportion of 50% in the DM were evaluated. Samples of 100 mg by treatment, in triplicate, in 48 h of digestion were incubated. The DM digestibilities and gas production were: sugar cane = 60.6%, 17.3 mL; sugar cane + corn silage = 63.9%, 19.6 mL; sugar cane + elephantgrass of 60 days = 60.5%, 16.9 mL; sugar cane + elephantgrass of 180 days = 48.6%, 14.1 mL; corn silage = 66.3%, 19.4 mL; corn silage + elephantgrass of 60 days = 62.1%, 16.7 mL; corn silage + elephantgrass of 180 days = 52.7%, 15.8 mL; elephantgrass of 60 days = 61.5%, 16.9 mL; elephantgrass of 180 days = 34.6%, 11.7 mL. It was verified that the association of these roughages can, in some cases, reduce the DM digestibility of those roughages of better quality.

  11. Renovación de pasturas degradadas de kikuyo Pennisetum clandestinum, Hoechst, con labranza mínima en una región alto andina de Colombia I. Productividad forrajera.

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    García Indira Isis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron tres métodos de renovación de pasturas degradadas: (Kikuyo sin labranza mínima, KSLM; Kikuyo con labranza mínima, KLM, y kikuyo con labranza mínima más la aplicación de fertilización química y siembra de tréboles, KLMFS en período lluvioso y seco; se incluyó como testigo (T el manejo tradicional de la pastura en la finca. La disponibilidad de forraje verde seco fue mayor en KLM y KLMFS en el período lluvioso (962 y 735 kg/ha que en el seco (505 y 378 kg/ha, respectivamente. La capacidad de carga en los métodos con labranza mínima se estimó en 2.5 UA/ha (5 vacas en el período de lluvias y de 1.2 y 1.4 U.A/ha (4 vacas en el período seco. En los métodos sin labranza mínima fue de 0.1 y 2 U.A/ha (1 y 4 vacas en el período de lluvias y de 0.1 y 0.4 U.A/ha (1 vaca en el período seco. ABSTRACT Renovation of pastures degraded the kikuyo pennisetum clandestinum, Hoechst, with minimum tillage in an andean high region de Colombia I. Productivity forrajera. Three methods of renewal of degraded pastures were used (Kikuyo without minimum tillage of pasture, KSLM; Kikuyo with minimum tillage, KLM and Kikuyo with minimum tillage more the application of chemical fertilization and clovers seeds, KLMFS, in rainy period and dry off; as a control it was included the traditional method of forage management in the farm (T. The availability of the green forage, was bigger in KLM and KLMFS in the rainy period (962 and 735 kg/ha that in the dry period (505 and 378 kg/ha. The load capacity in the methods with minimum farm you estimates in 2.5 UA/ha (5 cows in the period of rains and of 1.2 and 1.4 U.A/ha (4 cows in the dry period. In the methods without minimum farm was of 0.1 and 2 U.A/ha (1 and 4 cows in the period of rains and of 0.1 and 0.4 U.A/ha (1 cow in the dry period. Key words: Kikuyo grass, Pennisetum clandestinum Hoechst, pasture renewal, minimum tillage, Hills, Forage productivity, Cattle Use, High Andean Región.

  12. 皇竹草对酸与Cd污染农田土壤的治理效果及安全应用分析%Phytoremediation efficiency of Pennisetum hydridum for acid- and cadmium- polluted soil and its safe utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华; 赵雪梅; 谢洲; 吴开庆; 李相林; 杨瑞刚; 彭波; 余孟好; 何金华

    2016-01-01

    在大田条件下,研究了在酸与Cd污染农田土壤中种植皇竹草对污染农田的治理效果和应用安全性。结果表明,在各土壤处理中,对照处理(不施用土壤添加剂)的皇竹草中Cd含量最高,为1.69 mg·kg-1(干重),富集系数大于1,表现出一定的Cd富集特性。对照处理的皇竹草对Cd的提取量、提取效率分别为119.91 g·hm-2、6.98%,修复效果优于在同等条件下种植的Cd超富集植物龙葵,若将试验区的土壤Cd修复到《土壤环境质量标准》(GB 15618—1995)的二级标准限值以内,经计算约需9年。皇竹草既可以提取土壤中的Cd,同时还可作为饲用牧草、还田肥料、造纸原料、能源植物等进行安全利用。因此,皇竹草是治理修复及综合利用酸与Cd污染农田的可行性植物材料。%Under field conditions, phytoremediation of acid- and cadmium- polluted soil by and its application safety were studied. Pen-nisetum hydridum exhibited Cd-enrichment capacity, as indicated by its enrichment coefficient of greater than 1. Under different soil treat-ments, Cd content, extraction quantity and efficiency of P.hydridum were the highest in the control, which was up to 1.69 mg·kg-1(dry weigh), 119.91 g·hm-2 and 6.98%, respectively. This indicated that phytoremediation efficiency of P. hydridum was better than that of Solanumnigrum, a known Cd hyperaccumulator. Calculation showed that it would take only 9 years for P. hydridum to remedy Cd polluted soil in the experimental area by reducing soil Cd below the limit of the grade II of "Environmental Quality Standards for Soils"(GB 15618—1995). In addition to soil remediation, P. hydridum also has wide scope of applications, such as forage grass, organic fertilizer, paper-making material, energy plant, etc. Pennisetum hydridum would therefore be a feasible plant for phytoremediation of acid- and Cd-polluted farmland and safe utilization.

  13. Renovación de pasturas degradadas de kikuyo, Pennisetum clandestinum Hoechst, con labranza mínima en una región alto andina de Colombia II. Productividad animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Indira Isis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron vacas lactantes de doble propósito, en pasturas de kikuyo sometidas a tres métodos de renovación (kikuyo sin labranza mínima, KSLM; kikuyo con labranza mínima, KLM; y kikuyo con labranza mínima más la aplicación de fertilización química y siembra de tréboles, KLMFS en período lluvioso o seco; se incluyó como testigo (T el manejo en la finca. La producción de leche no presentó diferencias entre métodos con labranza mínima y sin ella, mientras que la producción en kg/ha-día fue mayor en KLMFS y KLM, en el período lluvioso (43 y 40 kg y con KSLM y T (31.2 y 8 kg. En el período seco la producción continuó siendo mayor con KLMFS y KLM (28 y 25.2 kg y KSLM y T (6.6 y 6.4 kg respectivamente. La calidad de la leche (porcentaje de grasa en el período de lluvias fue baja para todos los métodos. La condición corporal de las vacas en el período lluvioso se mantuvo estable (3.0; en el período seco fue mayor en pasturas con labranza mínima (2.8. La eficiencia reproductiva fue mejor en pasturas con labranza mínima (IEP de 12.2 meses. ABSTRACT Renovation of pastures degrades de kikuyo Pennisetum Clandestinum, Hoechst, with minimum farm in areas of hillsides in an andean high región de Colombia. II. Animal productivity. Cows lactantings of double purpose were used in kikuyo pastures, subjected to three methods of renovation (Kikuyo Without Minimum Farm, KSLM; Kikuyo with Minimum Farm, KLM and kikuyo with Minimum Farm more the application of chemical fertilization and siembra of clovers, KLMFS. in dry and rainy periods; it was included as control (C, the traditional handling pasture in the property. The production of milk in kg/vaca-day, it don’t present differences among methods with and without minimum farm. While the production in kg/ha-day was bigger in KLMFS and KLM, in the rainy period (43 and 40 kg and with KSLM and C (31.2 and 8 kg. In the dry period, the production continued being bigger with

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10) from Pennisetum glaucum (L.), a C4 cereal plant from the semi-arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitnavare, Rahul B; Yeshvekar, Richa K; Sharma, Kiran K; Vadez, Vincent; Reddy, Malireddy K; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp10) belong to the ubiquitous family of heat-shock molecular chaperones found in the organelles of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Chaperonins assist the folding of nascent and stress-destabilized proteins. A cDNA clone encoding a 10 kDa Hsp was isolated from pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) by screening a heat stress cDNA library. The fulllength PgHsp10 cDNA consisted of 297 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 98 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 10.61 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point (pI) of 7.95. PgHsp10 shares 70-98 % sequence identity with other plant homologs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PgHsp10 is evolutionarily close to the maize Hsp10 homolog. The predicted 3D model confirmed a conserved eight-stranded ß-barrel with active site between the ß-barrel comprising of eight-strands, with conserved domain VLLPEYGG sandwiched between two ß-sheets. The gene consisted of 3 exons and 2 introns, while the position and phasing of these introns were conserved similar to other plant Hsp10 family genes. In silico analysis of the promoter region of PgHsp10 presented several distinct set of cis-elements and transcription factor binding sites. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that PgHsp10 gene was differentially expressed in response to abiotic stresses with the highest level of expression under heat stress conditions. Results of this study provide useful information regarding the role of chaperonins in stress regulation and generated leads for further elucidation of their function in plant stress tolerance. PMID:27206926

  15. Produtividade e composição química de gramíneas tropicais na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos; Dubeux Júnior José Carlos Batista; Silva Maria da Conceição; Santos Stuart Francisco dos; Ferreira Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo; Mello Alexandre Carneiro Leão de; Farias Iderval; Freitas Erinaldo Viana de

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial produtivo e a composição química de cinco gramíneas tropicais (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Pioneiro, P. purpureum Schum cv. Mott; Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, P. maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia e Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst) Stapf. cv. Marandu). Os cortes foram realizados em intervalos de 35 dias e a 40 cm do solo. O cultivar Pioneiro apresentou maior produção de MS (7,35 t/ha/35 dias), quando comparado aos cultivares Mott (5...

  16. Produtividade e composição química de gramíneas tropicais na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco Productivity and chemical composition of tropical grasses in the Forest Zone of Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos Santos; José Carlos Batista Dubeux Júnior; Maria da Conceição Silva; Stuart Francisco dos Santos; Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo Ferreira; Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello; Iderval Farias; Erinaldo Viana de Freitas

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial produtivo e a composição química de cinco gramíneas tropicais (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Pioneiro, P. purpureum Schum cv. Mott; Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, P. maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia e Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst) Stapf. cv. Marandu). Os cortes foram realizados em intervalos de 35 dias e a 40 cm do solo. O cultivar Pioneiro apresentou maior produção de MS (7,35 t/ha/35 dias), quando comparado aos cultivares Mott (5...

  17. Cadmium Phytoremediation Potential of Napiergrass Cultivated in Kyushu, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuyuki Ishii; Kotomi Hamano; Dong-Jin Kang; Sachiko Idota; Aya Nishiwaki

    2015-01-01

    Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), a C4 tropical species, has been used for forage since it has high dry matter productivity, sustainability over several years in low-altitudinal sites of Kyushu, and little damage from serious pests. Recently, this grass has gained attention due to its potential as a bioethanol feedstock and for phytoremediation. Napiergrass cultivar Wruk Wona was grown as an annual crop in cadmium- (Cd-) contaminated soils under two cutting frequencies. Annual dry ...

  18. Evaluation of Fermentation Dynamics and Structural Carbohydrate Degradation of Napiergrass Ensiled with Additives of Urea and Molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Rong, Cheng-qun Yu 1, Zhi-hua Li, Masataka Shimojo2 and Tao Shao*

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of urea and molasses on fermentation dynamics and structural carbohydrate degradation of Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), which was ensiled in laboratory silos for 3, 7, 14, and 30 days at the ambient temperature. The treatments were additions (fresh weight basis) of: no molasses or urea (control), no molasses and 0.4% urea (U), 4% molasses and 0% urea (M), 4% molasses and 0.4% urea (MU). The results showed that the control group produced an unstabl...

  19. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome wat...

  20. Substituição do milho Zea mays por milheto Pennisetum americanum em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365 Replacement of corn Zea mays by millet Pennisetum americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento com duração de 45 dias foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho Zea mays (0,00%; 33,00%; 66,67% e 100,00% pelo milheto Pennisetum americanum, em rações sobre o desempenho de alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 112 alevinos de carpa-capim (0,75 g, distribuídos em 16 tanques-rede (160 L, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Cada bloco correspondeu a uma caixa de fibrocimento (1.000 L com 4 tanques-rede, onde cada um deles contendo 7 alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. As variáveis avaliadas foram peso final médio, ganho de peso, comprimento final médio, conversão alimentar aparente, fator de condição e taxa de sobrevivência. Não foram observados efeitos da utilização do milheto sobre os parâmetros de desempenho produtivo analisados (p > 0,01. Os valores médios de temperatura, pH, condutividade elétrica e oxigênio dissolvido durante o período experimental foram de 24,5 ± 1,39ºC; 7,51 ± 0,32; 0,16 ± 0,01 µS/cm e 6,04 ± 1,28 mg/L, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o milheto pode ser incluído na ração para alevinos de C. idella em até 33,7%, substituindo totalmente o milho sem afetar o desempenho dos animaisThe present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the replacement of corn Zea. Mays (0.00%; 33.00%; 66.67% e 100.00% by millet P. americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets, during a 45 days period. One hundred and twelve carp grass fingerlings (0.75 g were used, distributed in 16 net ponds (160 L, in randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. Each block corresponded to one fiber cement tank (1000 L with four net ponds. Each net pond containing seven grass carp fingerlings was considered one experimental unit. The variables evaluated were: mean weight, mean weight gain, mean length, outward feed conversion, condition

  1. Consumo, digestibilidade e estimativa do valor energético de alguns volumosos por meio da composição química

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Regina de Souza Siqueira Campos; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Edenio Detmann; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Maria Ignez Leão; Bruno Barcelos Lucchi; Shirley Motta de Souza; Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT) da cana-de­açúcar e das silagens de capim-elefante, de milho e de sorgo em ovinos. Além disso, estimou-se o teor de NDT de acordo com o sistema de equações proposto pelo NRC (2001). Foram utilizados 20 ovinos, sem raça definida, machos, castrados, alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo quatro tratamentos (volumosos) e cinco repetiç...

  2. EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN (Zea mays BY PEARL MILLETS (Pennisetun americanun IN RATIONS FOR FINISHING SWINE AVALIAÇÃO DA SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE MILHO (Zea mays PELO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM RAÇÕES PARA SUÍNOS NA FASE DE TERMINAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Nunes Bandeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A trial was carried out in order to evaluate the inclusion of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum in swine finisher ration. Twenty cross-bred swine (Landrace x Large White weighing 53.00kg had in their rations different levels of millet (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in substitution to the digestible energy furnished by corn. The experimental design used was the completely randomized in a factorial scheme (5 replacement levels x 2 sexes. With the results obtained in this experiment, one may infer that the substitution of corn by millet is possible to finisher swine rations.

    KEY-WORDS: Millets; pig; finishing.

    Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a substituição de diferentes níveis de milho pelo milheto na formulação de ração para suínos na fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 20 suínos mestiços (Landrace x Large White com peso médio inicial de 53,00kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 X 2 ( 5 níveis de substituição x 2 sexos. Com os resultados obtidos neste experimento, concluiu-se que é viável a substituição do milho pelo milheto em rações para suínos na fase de terminação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; suínos; terminação.

  3. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    OpenAIRE

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães; Lopes Fernando César Ferraz; Soares João Paulo Guimarães; Deresz Fermino; Verneque Rui da Silva; Arcuri Pedro Braga; Matos Leovegildo Lopes de

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI) and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI) by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 d...

  4. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively. PMID:27394311

  5. Centesimal composition and physicochemical parameters of meat from santa inês lambs fed with passion fruit peelComposição centesimal e parâmetros físico-químicos da carne de cordeiros santa inês alimentados com casca de maracúja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Leal dos Santos-Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the centesimal composition and some physicochemical parameters in the longissimus lumborum muscle from non castrated Santa Ines lambs, fed diets containing different proportions of passion fruit peel, in the following treatments: T1: 100% elephant grass, T2: 90% elephant grass + 10% dried passion fruit peel, T3: 80% elephant grass + 20% dried passion fruit peel, T4: 70% elephant grass + 30% dried passion fruit peel based on the elephant grass natural matter. The inclusion of 30% passion fruit peel in the diet of Santa Inez lambs turned the meat less intensely red (a = 7.40 but with a stronger hue (h = 59.75 than that resulting from the 10% addition. The water retention capacity was higher in the meat of lambs fed 30% passion fruit peel, as well as, shear force (0.50 and pH (6.40, but these values are adequate to assure quality. Protein content, minerals and energy did not change, but neither did their values fall below the level desired by industry. Lipid content was higher in the meat of lambs fed 20% of passion fruit peel. Therefore, the inclusion of 30% of passion fruit peel in the silage of growing Santa Inês lambs is recommended, because it improves the quality and nutritional parameters of the meat. Objetivou-se determinar a composição centesimal e alguns parâmetros físico químicos no músculo Longissimus lumborum de 16 cordeiros Santa Inês, não castrados, alimentados com diferentes dietas contendo casca desidratada de maracujá, sendo os tratamentos T1: 100% capim elefante; T2: 90% capim elefante + 10% casca desidratada de maracujá; T3: 80% capim elefante + 20% casca desidratada de maracujá; T4: 70% capim elefante + 30% casca desidratada de maracujá com base na matéria natural do capim elefante. A inclusão de 30% de casca desidratada de maracujá na dieta de cordeiros Santa Inês tornou a carne com um vermelho menos intenso (a=7,40, mas com grau de tonalidade maior (h=59,75 em relação

  6. EDADES DE COSECHA EN CAPRINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andr\\u00E9s Chac\\u00F3n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la edad del pasto Pennisetum purpureum cv. king grass, a la cual los caprinos presentan un mayor consumo y aprovechamiento de nutrientes. El experimento se llevó a cabo durante el segundo semestre del 2007 en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicada a 1542 msnm. Se obtuvo la cantidad de pasto Pennisetum purpureum cv. king grass producida a los 60, 75 y 90 días de rebrote, consumida por caprinos (peso promedio 45 kg de las razas Saanen Lamancha y Toggenburg, distribuidas en un cuadrado latino con tres repeticiones. El mayor consumo de materia verde se obtuvo cuando el forraje fue cosechado a 60 días (p0,05. Se observó una disminución gradual en el consumo de materia seca y proteína cruda conforme aumentó la edad de cosecha y la proporción de tallos en el forraje; mientras que la fibra neutro detergente y la fibra ácido detergente se comportaron de manera contraria. A menor edad del material y mayor relación hoja:tallo, las cabras aumentaron el consumo de forraje y el aprovechamiento de los nutrientes del mismo.

  7. Forage yield and grazing efficiency on rotationally stocked pastures of 'Tanzania-1' guineagrass and 'Guaçu' elephantgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedreira Carlos Guilherme Silveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential carrying capacity of tropical pastures depends not only on the productivity of the forage species and the amount of forage on offer, but also on the efficiency with which the produced herbage is harvested by the grazing animal. This study was conducted to assess the yield and grazing efficiency on 'Guaçu' elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and 'Tanzania-1' guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures under rotational stocking. Forage accumulation, daily accumulation rates, grazing losses, bulk density, and utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments (forages were replicated four times in a completely randomized design. Total forage dry matter (DM yield over 214 days of grazing were 23850 and 15000 kg ha-1, for the elephantgrass and the guineagrass, respectively, using 250 kg N ha-1 in split applications after each grazing. Mean forage accumulation per grazing cycle was 7950 and 5010 kg ha-1 and mean daily accumulation rates were 137 and 86 kg-1 ha-1 d-1 for P. purpureum and P. maximum, respectively. Grazing losses per cycle averaged 1040 and 880 kg ha-1, for grazing efficiencies of 52 and 37% for the Pennisetum and the Panicum, respectively. Mean seasonal stocking rate was 5.1 AU (animal unit = 500 kg LW per ha on P. purpureum and 3 AU ha-1 on P. maximum pastures. For both species, productivity potential resides on the high pasture carrying capacity, particularly when there are no soil fertility limitations during the warm/rainy season. Based on growth potential and stem elongation characteristics, 'Guaçu' requires better management skills and 'Tanzania-1' has a more pronounced seasonal growth, as expressed by seasonal yields, apparently due to their contrasting responses to temperature and daylength.

  8. Parâmetros da degradação protéica ruminal de diferentes alimentos e rações estimados por técnica in vitro Parameters of ruminal protein degradation of different feeds and diets estimated by an in vitro method

    OpenAIRE

    R.P. Lana; W.M. Leopoldino; Oliveira, J S; R.G. Veloso; P.M.M. Nunes; A. C. Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Foram realizados três experimentos para estudar os parâmetros de degradação protéica ruminal. No primeiro, foram incubadas, em líquido ruminal de bovinos, dietas isoprotéicas contendo capim-elefante, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, em cinco níveis de concentrado (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 e 100:0), adicionado ou não de monensina (5µM). Houve efeito linear decrescente do nível de concentrado sobre a concentração de amônia e degradabilidade da proteína bruta (DPB), e efeito cúbico sobre a conc...

  9. Efeito da Monensina e Lasalocida sobre a Atividade de Fermentação de Aminoácidos in Vitro pelos Microrganismos Ruminais Effects of Monensin and Lasalocid on Fermentation of Amino Acids in Vitro by Mixed Ruminal Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério de Paula Lana; Juliana Silva de Oliveira; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Rafael Gonçalves Veloso; Poliana Mary Magalhães Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Este experimento visou estudar os efeitos in vitro dos ionóforos sobre a fermentação ruminal de aminoácidos. Utilizou-se líquido de rúmen de um novilho alimentado com dieta à base de capim-elefante, acrescentando solução de tripticase, em três tratamentos (controle-C, monensina-M e lasalocida-L). Foram feitas transferências diárias de inóculos para novos tubos e, no 11º dia, cada tratamento deu origem a três novos (C, M, L), totalizando nove combinações (2ª fase). Do 1º ao 10º dia de incubaçã...

  10. Aplicações da curva de resistência no controle da qualidade física de um solo sob pastagem Applications of the resistance curve in the control of the physical quality of soils under grass

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA IMHOFF; ALVARO PIRES DA SILVA; CÁSSIO ANTONIO TORMENA

    2000-01-01

    A degradação da qualidade física do solo pode estar associada com a compactação causada pelo pisoteio dos animais. A resistência do solo à penetração (RP) é um parâmetro físico utilizado para estabelecer o grau de compactação do solo. Contudo, esta varia com a umidade (teta) e densidade do solo (Ds). O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a curva de resistência do solo e utilizá-la na avaliação da qualidade física do solo num sistema de pastejo intensivo rotacionado de capim-elefante. A curva de...

  11. Análise econômica de confinamento de ovinos: o uso da uréia em substituição à cama de frango e a dietas a base de milho e soja Economic analysis of feed for sheep: urea utilization to substitute broiler litter and diets based on corn and soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fatima Vidal; Luiz Artur Clemente da Silva; José de Sousa Neto; José Neuman Miranda Neiva

    2004-01-01

    Com esta pesquisa, objetivou-se estudar a viabilidade técnico-econômica da utilização da uréia comparando-se a ração-padrão e aquela contendo cama de frango, como suplemento ao feno de capim-elefante, para alimentação de ovinos da raça Santa Inês em confinamento. Para isso, ajustou-se uma função de produção a dados experimentais e determinou-se a máxima receita líquida (RL), o tempo ótimo de abate e o máximo período em que os animais podem ser confinados quando a RL será zero. Foram utilizado...

  12. Determinação do valor energético de alimentos para ruminantes pelo sistema de equações Determination of energy value of feed for ruminants by equations system

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Ribeiro Rocha Júnior; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Álan Maia Borges; Karla Alves Magalhães; Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Rilene Ferreira Diniz Valadares; Mário Fonseca Paulino

    2003-01-01

    Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o sistema de equações na determinação dos valores de NDT de seis alimentos volumosos (silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar com 1% de uréia, feno de capim-coastcross 1, feno de capim-coastcross 2, silagem pré-secada de capim-tifton e capim-elefante) e de 12 alimentos concentrados (fubá de milho, grão de sorgo moído, gérmen de milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, farelo de babaçu, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão, caroço de algodão, glúten de milho,...

  13. Desempenho de cordeiros Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês e Santa Inês puros, terminados em confinamento, alimentados com casca de café como parte da dieta

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Iraides Ferreira Furusho; Olalquiaga Perez Juan Ramón; Teixeira Júlio César; Barbosa Cristina Maria Pacheco

    2000-01-01

    RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros e cordeiras cruzas Texel x Bergamácia (T x B), Texel x Santa Inês (T x S) e Santa Inês (SI) puros. Trinta e seis animais foram confinados individualmente, durante um período de 50 dias, recebendo, além de silagem de capim elefante, três dietas: A = sem casca de café (controle), B = com casca de café in natura e C = com casca de café tratada com uréia e grão de soja moído. Os animais foram abatidos com idade média de 180 ...

  14. Determinação do valor energético de alimentos para ruminantes pelo sistema de equações

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Júnior Vicente Ribeiro; Valadares Filho Sebastião de Campos; Borges Álan Maia; Magalhães Karla Alves; Ferreira Camila Celeste Brandão; Valadares Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Paulino Mário Fonseca

    2003-01-01

    Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o sistema de equações na determinação dos valores de NDT de seis alimentos volumosos (silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar com 1% de uréia, feno de capim-coastcross 1, feno de capim-coastcross 2, silagem pré-secada de capim-tifton e capim-elefante) e de 12 alimentos concentrados (fubá de milho, grão de sorgo moído, gérmen de milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, farelo de babaçu, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão, caroço de algodão, glúten de milho,...

  15. Valores de digestibilidade de alimentos volumosos para eqüinos Values of digestibility of forage feeds for equines

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Mariano Figueiredo; Kleber Villela Araújo; José Augusto de Freitas Lima; Elias Tadeu Fialho; Eliane Sayuri Miyagi

    1999-01-01

    Quatro ensaios de metabolismo foram realizados para obter informações sobre os valores de digestibilidade dos nutrientes na alimentação de eqüinos. Cavalos castrados, sem raça definida, com idade média de seis anos de idade foram usados. Nos experimentos foram testados: (1) cana-de-açúcar, (2) combinação de 59,0% de cana-de-açúcar e 41,0% de milho grão inteiro, (3) capim-elefante e (4) cana-de-açúcar com 1,5 % de uréia. O consumo médio de MS foi de 0,89; 1,11; 2,02; e 1,03% PV para cana-de-aç...

  16. Qualidade das águas cinza tratada com fitorremediação em unidades de produção agrícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena S. Baracuhy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A irrigação é uma atividade que necessita de grande quantidade de água, o tratamento de águas cinzas provenientes de uma lavanderia pública em regiões semiáridas para reuso passa a ser uma alternativa de sobrevivência neste ambiente e favorável no desenvolvimento econômico sustentável. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa foi realizada no distrito de Ribeira no município de Cabaceiras - PB objetivando-se avaliar a qualidade da água cinza tratada com fitorremediação nas unidades de produção agrícola. Foram realizados dois tratamentos com(Tanque 2 e sem fitorremediação(Tanque 1, a cultura utilizada foi o capim elefante roxo. Foram coletadas amostras mensais e analisadas os seguintes parâmetros fisicoquimicos: Turbidez, pH, Condutividade elétrica (Ce, Demanda Quimica de Oxigenio(DQO e Fostoro Total. Para a turbidez os valores dos tratamentos foram acima de 1.000 UNT. Na demanda química de oxigênio, o valor mínimo foi de 311mg/L (setembro e máximo de 438mg/L (outubro no tanque 2 em contrapartida no tanque 1 o valor mínimo foi de 354mg/L (setembro e máximo de 618mg/L (outubro. O tratamento com fitorremediação teve uma maior eficiência na redução de DQO.Palavras – chave: capim elefante roxo, reuso, irrigação

  17. FED INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN-ZEBU CROSSBREED COWS HOLD IN DIFFERENT TROPICAL PASTURES CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS MESTIÇAS MANTIDAS EM DIFERENTES PASTAGENS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fed intake and milk production of Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows, grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum (COL and supplemented with four kg of concentrate, were evaluated in a double Latin square (3x3. Fecal production and feed intake were calculated using Cr2O3 and in vitro digestibility. Dry mater intake (DMI was similar among forages (18kg/cow which represented 2.72%; 2.84% and 2.96% of the live weight for NAP, BRACH and COL respectively. The intake per unit of metabolic size (g DM/kg0.75 was 130 for NAP, 135 for BRACH and 145 for COL. The intake of BRACH resulted in lower milk production (14,4kg than NAP (15,5kg and COL (16,1Kg. Grasses did not affected the milk composition which showed 4,03% of fat, 2,46% of protein and 12,42% of total solids. It was concluded that NAP, BRACH and COL are good alternatives for milk production in grazing systems.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria decumbens, Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, Napier, Pennisetum purpureum.

    Realizou-se a avaliação do consumo de alimentos e da produção de leite de vacas mestiças pastejando piquetes de capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA e Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL e suplementadas com quatro kg de concentrado em um esquema de quadrado latino (3x3 duplo. Calcularam-se a produção fecal e o consumo de alimentos com o auxílio do Cr2O3 e da digestibilidade in vitro. O consumo diário de MS foi semelhante entre as forragens (18kg/vaca, as quais representaram 2,72%; 2,84% e 2,96% do p.v. para o NAP, BRACH e COL, respectivamente. O consumo por unidade de tamanho metabólico (g MS/kg0,75 foi de 130 para o NAP, 135 para a BRACH e 145 para

  18. Pattern of water profiles obtained by the neutron method on certain forage plants during the dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron moisture gauge has been used at Adiopodoumé (in the southern part of the Ivory Coast) to ascertain the behaviour of the following forage plants during the dry season: Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Tripsacum laxum, Cynodon plectostachyon (grasses); Stylosanthes gracilis, Centrosema pubescens (leguminous plants). Since the experimental field (tertiary sand) was homogeneous, a single calibration curve could be used for the moisture gauge. Regular recording of the neutron profiles provided a means of comparing the water consumption of the different plants. For the purpose of correcting water deficiencies recorded, a determination was also made (in situ and with the neutron moisture gauge) of the profile of the field at capacity, corresponding to the optimum profile for the water supply of the crops. (author)

  19. Contaminant Removal of Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Zhang-He Chen; Jian-Gang Zhao; Bin-He Gu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between five emergent plant species and between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands was conducted in small-scale (2.0 m×1.0 m×0.7 m, length×width×depth) constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in order to evaluate the decontaminated effects of different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of organic matter between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands.Wetlands planted with Canna indica Linn., Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and Phragmites communls Trin. had generally higher removal rates for TN and TP than wetlands planted with other species. Plant growth and fine root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass were related to removal efficiency. Fine root biomass rather than the mass of the entire root system played an important role in wastewater treatment. Removal efficiency varied with season and plant growth. Wetlands vegetated by P. purpureum significantly outperformed wetlands with other plants in May and June, whereas wetlands vegetated by P. communis and C. indica demonstrated higher removal efficiency from August to December. These findings suggest that abundance of fine roots is an important factor to consider in selecting for highly effective wetland plants. It also suggested that a plant community consisting of multiple plant species with different seasonal growth patterns and root characteristics may be able to enhance wetland performance.

  20. Potential of tropical plants to exert defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the principal results obtained in Cuba concerning the potential of different tropical plants to exert defaunating effects in the rumen and to reduce methane (CH4) production. The plants studied were Sapindus saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala, Stizolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain grass:foliage mixtures were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The experiments were conducted using an in vitro system. Gases produced in the fermentation process were collected at intervals of 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and CH4 production was determined by gas chromatography. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds. Enterolobium and Leucaena had a high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus contained moderate amounts of saponins. The inclusion of 15% Leucaena and Gliricidia, 20% Sapindus and Arachis as well as 40% S. aterrimum, negatively affected protozoal populations. The inclusion of 25% Sapindus, Morus and Trichantera foliages using P. purpureum as the pasture base reduced CH4 production significantly. The results suggest that the use of trees and shrubs to supplement low quality forages seems appropriate for reducing CH4 production and improving animal nutrition in tropical areas. (author)

  1. The nitrogen biological fixing as support for renewable energy production; A fixacao biologica de nitrogenio como suporte para a producao de energia renovavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Diego Mureb; Frade, Catia; Resende, Alexander; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Reis, Veronica Massena; Boddey, Robert; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo [EMBRAPA, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Agrobiologia; Xavier, Deise [EMBRAPA, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Gado de Leite

    2000-07-01

    Recently, rapid-growing grasses which possess the C4 photosynthetic pathway such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum spp. have been considered as prime candidates for the production of bio-fuels. In the case of Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and related hybrids, the genotypes studied until now have generally been selected for high production of forage for cattle under high N fertiliser additions. For forage production it is desirable that the tissues have high protein content. However, for biomass production the priority should be for carbon accumulation and the highest possible biomass production per unit of applied fertiliser. The manufacture of N fertiliser involves a very high cost in terms of fossil energy, and if large additions are made the grass biomass produced may have only a little more (or even less) calorific value than that utilised in the manufacture of the fertiliser. This completely negates the prime objective of bio fuel production which the replacement of energy derived from non-renewable fossil sources with that derived from solar radiation. Recently the team headed by Dr Johanna Doebereiner at EMBRAPA Agrobiologia have shown that several tropical grasses (including sugar cane and elephant grass) are able to obtain significant quantities of N through the action of associated endo phytic N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria. Derived from this line of reasoning a study is being conducted in the field to select appropriate genotypes of Pennisetum purpureum which are efficient is biomass production in soil of very low N fertility. In the first stage four genotypes have been selected : Gramafante, Cameroon, BAG 02 and Roxo, which have been the most productive over a 5 year period without N fertiliser addition.A complementary study is underway to evaluate biomass production and quantify the N{sub 2} fixation input. Preliminary results are promising and show that these materials produce well without N fertiliser application a with a contribution of approximately

  2. AGROMORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. CULTIVARS GROWN IN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollande Aladé Dagba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The agromorphological variability between various pearl millet cultivars was evaluated to examine the structure of millet in Benin Republic. Therefore, Forty-two (42 cultivars of pearl millet were collected from four agro-ecological areas viz North Extreme Zone (AEZ1, cotton Zone of northern (AEZ2, Food Zone of South-Borgou (AEZ3 and West-Atacora Zone (AEZ4 of Benin Republic. The experimentation was conducted on Ahossougbéta farm in the town Abomey-Calaviby using alpha lattice design in order to access thirty-three (33 agromorphological characters (seventeen (17 quantitative and sixteen (16 qualitative characters. The canonical discriminant analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification has identified three morphological classes based on 16 quantitative traits and 8 qualitative discriminating Wilks'Lambda (P<0.0001. According to vegetative cycle, agroecological zones and botanical race, the distribution of cultivars has regrouped the three classes in two great groups of importance for the improvement of the millet resources.The first one group established withthe early cultivars (58.33% to yellow grain (83.33%, long candle (58.23 cm Valeur test +5.23 with low seed production characteristics (P1000 = 8.68 g Vt – 4.64. Itresults from ZAE1 ( 83 % and ZAE2 ( 17% and belong to globosum, typhoides and leonis races.

  3. Identification of genes differentially expressed during apomictic and sexual development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction through seeds with the absence of meiosis and fertilization holds great potential for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Buffelgrass, an apomictic forage grass, has well characterized apomictic, facultative and sexual accessions to study apomictic...

  4. Response surface optimization for ethanol production from Pennisetum Alopecoider by Klebsiella oxytoca THLC0409

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Wen; I, Yet-Pole [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 64002 (China); Tran, Dang-Thuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan City 701 (China); Lai, Chi-Yung [Department of Biology, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua (China); Wu, Chih-Hung [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 64002 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The strain Klebsiella oxytoca THLC0409 was isolated from a lignocellulose-degrading microflora and used in the direct conversion of Napiergrass powder to ethanol. Central Composite Design (CCD), part of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was adopted to study the effects of the fermentation time, the initial pH of the liquid medium, the cultivation temperature, and the yeast extract (YE) concentration on ethanol production. A second-order model that relates the ethanol concentration to four basic factors was developed. Regression analysis revealed that the maximum ethanol concentration of 472 ppm could be reached at a fermentation time of about 11 days, an initial pH of 7.04, a cultivating temperature of 31 C, and a YE concentration of 7.0 g l{sup -1}. The adjusted R-square of the regression model was 0.996, indicating a good fit at 99.6% confidence level. The highest ethanol yield and productivity were estimated to be 82 g kg{sup -1} and 360 mg kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  5. Mutation breeding for resistance to downy mildew and ergot in Pennisetum and to Ascochyta in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutational rectification of the susceptible male steriles of otherwise food yield, and the pollen parents in pearl millet of the released hybrids has been completed successfully. The reconstituted hybrids were tested in National Coordination trials and one of them (NHB5) has been released for All-India cultivation during 1975. They were also tested in more than 2000 trials all over India in farmers' fields. The yield level of the released hybrid (NHB5) based on trials during the past four seasons is 19.2 Q/ha in 232 trials as compared to 14.5 Q/ha of HB-3 (old) based on 221 trials. Biochemical analysis of seedlings of the mutant male steriles resistant to downy mildew and their normal counterparts indicated larger peroxidase activity of high electrophoretic mobility in the resistant ones. In the trials of the reconstituted hybrids along with their normal counterparts the new hybrids proved at least as good in yield even in the absence of the disease in virulent form. Mutational rectification of the male sterile lines and pollen parents could be shown to provide resistance with wide adaptation. Nearly 400 tons of hybrid seed from mutational rectified parents has replaced the earlier hybrids and will cover an area of 80,000 ha in 1976 alone. The low incidence of downy mildew in the male sterile developed from the mutation breeding is likely to be horizontal resistance of greater stability. The M2 generation of chickpea showed appropriate skewed distribution of means for several of the 17 characters studied, including flowering time and yield

  6. The utilization of Vallisneria aethiopica, Brassica oleracea and Pennisetum clandestinum by Tilapia rendalli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    A common lawn grass; kikuyu grass, an abundant vegetable; cabbage and vallisneria a common macrophyte were tested for utilisation by two size classes of a herbivorous fish, Tilapia rendalli held in glass aquarium tanks. The test feeds were given to sub-adult T. rendalli for 133 days at 8% body weight and juvenile fish for 84 days at 15% body weight. Sub-adult and juvenile fish fed kikuyu grass attained a higher specific growth rate, higher protein efficiency ratio and better food conversion ratio than those fed cabbage and vallisneria. This is explained by the differences in the protein content, higher levels of lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acid, methionine in kikuyu grass. Palatability studies of the juveniles also showed that kikuyu was most preferred. However, sub-adults preferred vallisneria, kikuyu and cabbage respectively. The possible reasons for the selection are discussed.

  7. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB. The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components.

  8. Phylogenetic position of Geitleribactron purpureum (Synechococcales, Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyceae) and its implications for the taxonomy of Chamaesiphonaceae and Leptolyngbyaceae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan; Cantonati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 104-111. ISSN 1802-5439 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alps * carbonate lakes * Geitleribactron * heteropolar cyanobacteria * single-colony sequencing * unicellular cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.930, year: 2014

  9. Produção de forragem em pastagens consorciadas com diferentes leguminosas sob pastejo rotacionado = Forage production in pasture-based systems mixed with different legumes under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Steinwandter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar dois sistemas forrageiros, constituídos por capim-elefante, azevém, trevo branco ou amendoim forrageiro e espécies de crescimento espontâneo, quanto às taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS. Para avaliação utilizaram-se quatro piquetes, com 0,25 ha cada um, com capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m. No período hibernal, entre as linhas do capim-elefante, fez-se o estabelecimento do azevém; em dois piquetes foi semeado o trevo branco e nos demais se preservou o amendoim forrageiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. Para a determinação das taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS, avaliaram-se as massas de forragem de pré e pós-pastejo. Foram avaliadas a composição botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a lotação. Na média, as taxas de acúmulo e dedesaparecimento da MS e a lotação foram de 47,29 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,24% e 3,01 UA ha-1 e de 53,16 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,45% e 3,48 UA ha-1 para os sistemas constituídos por trevo branco e por amendoim forrageiro, respectivamente. Considerando-se a taxa de acúmulo deMS, a MS desaparecida e a lotação, os resultados demonstram melhores resultados para o sistema forrageiro constituído pelo amendoim forrageiro.The objective of this research was to evaluate two pasture-based systems, with elephantgrass, ryegrass, white clover or forage peanut and spontaneous growth species about the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass. The elephantgrass was established in rows with a distance of 4 m between rows. In the cool season, ryegrass was planted between rows of elephantgrass; white clover wassowed,in two paddocks, and in the other two the forage peanut was preserved. The experimental design was completely randomized. In order to stipulate the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass, the pre- and post-graze forage mass were evaluated.The botanical and

  10. Método para a Determinação de Ácidos Fenólicos na Parede Celular de Forragens Method for Phenolic Acid Determination in Forage Cell Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Deschamps

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Há fatores que limitam a digestão das forragens tropicais e estão associados à dinâmica dos ácidos fenólicos da parede celular. Os estudos destes compostos em forragens podem ser facilitados pela disponibilidade de métodos sensíveis que permitam o processamento de grande número de amostras. No presente trabalho, descreve-se um método para a determinação de ácidos fenólicos na parede celular de forragens, utilizando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Bagaço de cana, capim-elefante e folhas de mandioca foram utilizados como amostras experimentais. Para remover substâncias solúveis de baixa massa molecular, foram testados etanol 80% e o detergente neutro, determinando seus efeitos sobre a recuperação das moléculas e benefícios no perfil cromatográfico. Para a obtenção dos ácidos fenólicos livres, as amostras foram solubilizadas em NaOH 1 mol/L, 20ºC por 24 horas. O método proposto foi adequado para a determinação de ácidos fenólicos, apresentando grande sensibilidade e produtividade no laboratório. Para minimizar os efeitos negativos da formação de sal resultante da neutralização ácida do extrato alcalino, sugere-se a diluição da amostra ou a injeção de pequeno volume (5 uL no aparelho. O efeito da utilização de solventes como etanol 80% ou detergente neutro é distinto sobre as amostras das gramíneas e leguminosas. A quantidade de extrativos nas folhas de mandioca foi superior a do bagaço de cana e capim-elefante. A concentração de ácidos fenólicos foi pouco alterada pela ação dos solventes, sendo maior nas amostras de bagaço de cana e capim-elefante, em relação às folhas de mandioca. O método apresentado constitui-se em uma importante ferramenta para o estudo dos ácidos fenólicos na parede celular de forragens tropicais.Factors that limit the digestion of tropical forages are associated to the dynamic of cell wall phenolic acids. The study of these compounds in forages may

  11. Validação das equações do NRC (2001 para predição do valor energético de alimentos nas condições brasileiras Validation of NRC (2001 equations for estimation of energy value of feeds in Brazilian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Lana Costa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido para estimar os valores energéticos (NDT de vários alimentos, concentrados e volumosos e validar as equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 por meio da comparação dos valores estimados por estas equações, com os observados, obtidos a partir da coleta total de fezes. Foram avaliados cinco alimentos concentrados (farelo de trigo, farelo de soja, fubá de milho, grão de soja e caroço de algodão e cinco volumosos (feno de capim-braquiária, silagem de milho, silagem pré-seca de capim-tifton, silagem de capim-elefante e capim-elefante utilizando-se 20 novilhos mestiços HolandêsxZebu. O procedimento de validação das variáveis avaliadas foi realizado por intermédio do ajuste do modelo de regressão linear simples dos valores preditos e observados. Os valores de NDT dos alimentos concentrados e volumosos observados e preditos pelas equações do NRC (2001 foram similares (P>0,05. Conclui-se que as equações do NRC (2001 foram adequadas para estimar o valor energético dos alimentos nas condições brasileiras.This research was developed to estimate the energy values (TDN of feeds, concentrate and roughage, through equations proposed by NRC (2001 and validate from the comparison among TDN values estimated by these equations and those observed in the total collection feces. Five concentrate feeds (wheat bran, soybean meal, corn ground, whole soybean and whole cotton seed an five roughage feeds (brachiaria hay, corn silage, tifton haylage, elephant grass silage and elephantgrass were evaluated by using 20 crossbred Holstein x Zebu steers. The procedure to validate the variables evaluated was done by adjusting models of simple linear regression using predicted and observed values. The observed and predicted value of TDN values for roughage and concentrate feeds were similar (P>0,05. It was concluded that the equations proposed by NRC (2001 were efficient to estimate the TDN values of feeds under brazilian conditions.

  12. THE EVALUATION OF DRY SEASON NUTRITIVE VALUE OF DOMINANT AND IMPROVED GRASSES IN FALLOWS IN CHIVI DISTRICT, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. TAVIRIMIRWA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Five dominant (Cynodon dactylon, Perotis patens, Digitaria eriantha, Brachiaria brizantha, Hypethelia dissoluta and two improved grasses (Pennisetum purpureum and Cynodon nlemfluensis were compared for their nutritive value in Chivi district in terms of crude protein(CP, ash, dry matter(DM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF. The proximate analysis procedure was used to assess CP, ash and DM while NDF and ADF were estimated using the Van Soest et al. procedure. Significant differences were observed in the nutritive value of improved and dominant grasses. Cynodon nlemfluensis (5.54% CP, 39.04% ADF and 59.11% NDF and P. Purpureum (5.35% CP, 39.17% ADF and 56.80% NDF had significantly higher CP values and lower ADF values in comparison with dominant grasses, C. dactylon (3.75% CP, 44.13%ADF and 66.00% NDF, D. eriantha (2.21% CP, 48.78% ADF and 69.04 % NDF, P patens (3.51% CP, 47.51% ADF and 70.31% NDF, B. brizantha (2.37% CP, 50.95% ADF and 67.00% NDF and H. dissoluta (2.10% CP, 44.49% ADF and 67.24% NDF. In terms of CP content comparisons, improved grasses have the potential to increase the carrying capacity of the fallows. It was concluded that the improved species have high nutritive value compared to the dominant grasses therefore have the potential to improve forage quality in terms nutritive value in fallow fields in Chivi.

  13. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  14. Effect of leucaena row spacing and cutting height on yield and chemical compositions of three associated grasses intercropped with leucaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudsri, S.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at Suwanvajokkasikit Research Station, Pakchong, to determine the yield and chemical compositions of ruzi (Brachiaria ruziziens, dwarf napier (Pennisetum purpureum, and Taiwan A25 (P. purpureum intercropped with leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Ivory Coast under irrigation. The design of the experiment was a randomized split-split plot with pasture species as the main plots, leucaena row spacings (1, 2, 4 m as sub - plots and leucaena cutting height (10 and 25 cm above ground levels as sub-sub-plots with three replications of 5 × 4 m sub-sub-plots. Dwarf napier produced the highest total dry matter yield, followed by Taiwan A25 and ruzi. Leucaena yield was highest in the ruzi plots and lowest in the dwarf napier plots. However, the total dry matter yield (grass + leucaena was highest in the dwarf napier plot and lowest in the ruzi plots. Increasing the row spacing between rows of leucaena resulted in a poorer leucaena yield but the reverse was true for the grasses. The recommendation for row spacing of leucaena was 1 m under irrigation conditions. Cutting of leucaena at 10 cm above ground levels depressed yield of leucaena but did not affect the associated grasses. In terms of chemical compositions it was found that the crude protein of the dwarf napier and Taiwan A25 were higher than that of the ruzi grass. Leucaena gave higher levels of crude protein than the grasses. The phosphorus and potassium levels of the grasses were higher than leucaena. ADF levels were higher in the grasses than in the legumes. Nutrient contents of grasses and leucaena were not affected by leucaena row spacing and cutting height.

  15. Nutritional value of some feedstuffs used in the diet of captive capybaras

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    Djalma Nóbrega Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Five pen-raised adult female capybaras were used in five digestibility trials in a Latin square design, to determine, for capybaras, the nutritional values of Cameroon grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon; Napier grass (P. purpureum cv. Napier; corn grain; cassava hay, comprising leaves and stems; and palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis cake. These feedstuffs were provided separately or mixed, in a completely randomized manner, in different experimental periods. The digestibility of each feedstuff not supplied alone was estimated by difference. The animals were individually introduced in metabolism pens. Following a 10-day period of adaptation to each diet, feed intake was recorded and total fecal output was collected over five consecutive days. Energy, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities of Cameroon grass were, respectively, 0.88 (±0.07, standard deviation, 0.63 (±0.39 and 0.82 (±0.15. For Napier grass they were 0.84 (±0.05, 0.63 (±0.12 and 0.72 (±0.10; for corn grain, 0.92 (±0.05, 0.97 (±0.20 and 0.83 (±0.14; for cassava hay, 0.86 (±0.12, 0.84 (±0.14 and 0.43 (±0.16; and for palm kernel cake 0.94 (±0.05, 0.85 (±0.14, and 0.97 (±0.05. These digestibilities in capybaras were higher than the digestibilities of the same feedstuffs in other livestock. These results can be explained by the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the capybara, which lead to a high rate of nutrient digestion and absorption.

  16. Utilização de compostos orgânicos como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças Utilization of organic compost as substrate for vegetable seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de A Leal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando determinar a viabilidade da utilização de compostos orgânicos obtidos com palhada de Crotalaria juncea L. e capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças, realizaram-se experimentos com alface (folhosa, beterraba (raiz e tomate (hortaliça de fruto. Estudou-se a eficiência de compostos produzidos a partir dos materiais: 100% de Crotalária Júncea; 66% de Crotalária Júncea + 33% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier; 100% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 5% da massa com esterco bovino; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 100 L de Agrobio diluído a 5%; 100% de Napier, inoculado com 100 litros de Agrobio diluído a 5%. Como controle utilizou-se o substrato comercial Plantmax HT®. Avaliou-se altura da parte aérea, número de folhas, produção de massa fresca na parte aérea e produção de massa seca na parte aérea. O composto produzido com a mistura de 66% de Crotalária Júncea e 33% de Napier mostrou-se superior aos demais tratamentos para produção de mudas de alface, beterraba e tomate.The viability of the organic compost utilization as a substrate for vegetable seedlings production, obtained from Crotalaria juncea L. and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., was determined. The research was developed with lettuce (leaf vegetable, beetroot (root vegetable and tomato (fruit vegetable. The organic composts were produced from: 100% Crotalaria Juncea; 66% Crotalaria Juncea + 33% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier; 100% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 5% of the mass with cattle manure; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio; 100% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio. We evaluated the height, leaf number, aerial green weight and aerial dry weight. A commercial substrate Plantmax HT® was used as control. The

  17. Diversidade de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolada de plantas de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas no Brasil Diversity of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolated from sugarcane plants cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liamara Perin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade da população de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus oriunda de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. de diferentes regiões e bancos de germoplasma. O estudo foi realizado com 123 isolados, obtidos de folhas, colmos e raízes de 80 espécies e híbridos de cana-de-açúcar, procedentes de diferentes países e mantidos em coleções de germoplasma nos Estados da Bahia e Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados cinco isolados obtidos de plantas de café (Coffea arabica, dois de abacaxi (Ananas comosus e um de Pennisetum purpureum e mais 10 estirpes com padrões eletroforéticos distintos, após o uso de enzimas comuns do metabolismo microbiano (MLEE. O agrupamento obtido por meio da técnica de imunoadsorção com enzima acoplada (ELISA sugere que as variações expressas pelos isolados não estão relacionadas com a espécie de planta, a variedade de cana-de-açúcar, a origem geográfica, a parte da planta de onde os isolados foram obtidos e o tempo de amostragem. Altas doses de nitrogênio levaram à diminuição da diversidade de G. diazotrophicus.The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates from different sugarcane (Saccharum spp. varieties. This study was developed using 123 strains from the internal tissues of stems and roots, isolated from 80 species and hybrids of sugarcane, originated from different countries and maintained in two germoplasm collections localized in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro States. Five isolates obtained from coffee plants (Coffea arabica, two from pineapple (Ananas comosus, one from Pennisetum purpureum and 10 strains, which present different electrophoretic patterns, were used in the comparison. Cluster analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA results suggested that variations were not correlated with the plant species, sugarcane variety, geographic origin, parts of plants nor with sampling time

  18. Influência do método e tempo de armazenamento de colmos de capim-cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca Influence of method and storage time of stem fractions of cameroongrass on tillering and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Marques da Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer as influências dos métodos e tempos de armazenamentos de frações de colmos do capim-Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca, aos 70 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas divididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos foram: 1 amarradas em feixes; 2 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno com pequenos furos; 3 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno sem furos. Os tempos de armazenamento foram: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 dias. Verificou-se uma diferença entre os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos para número de perfilhos e para produção de matéria seca. O teor de umidade das frações de colmos foi afetado pelo método e pelo tempo de armazenamento. As frações de colmos de capim-cameroon podem ser armazenadas dentro de sacos de polietileno, perfurados ou não, durante 20 a 30 dias antes do plantio.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods and storage times of stem fractions upon tillering and dry matter production of Cameroongrass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon at 70 days after planting. Its propagation was carried out by planting culm fractions, each one containing four nodes. A split plot experiment design by time with 3 replications was used. Sorage methods of the stem fractions were: 1 tied bundles; 2 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags with small holes; 3 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags without holes. The storage times were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. A difference among storage methods of stem fractions for number of tillers and for dry matter production was observed. The water contents of stem fractions were affected by the storage methods as well as the storage times. The stem fractions of Cameroongrass could be stored in plastic

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16473-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yostelium purpureum strain QSpu31 17S ribosom... 54 0.022 1 ( FJ424860 ) Dict...yostelium purpureum strain QSpu35 17S ribosom... 54 0.022 1 ( FJ424859 ) Dictyostelium purpureum strain Q...Spu25 17S ribosom... 54 0.022 1 ( FJ424858 ) Dictyostelium purpureum strain QSpu34 17S ribosom... 54 0.022 1 ( FJ424857 ) Dict...yostelium purpureum strain QSpu32 17S ribosom... 54 0.022 1 ( FJ424856 ) Dict...yostelium purpureum strain QSpu24 17S ribosom... 54 0.022 1 ( FJ424855 ) Dictyostelium purpureum stra

  20. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

  1. COMPARISON OF NOZZLES IN PULVERIZATION TO DISSECATION OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum americanum COMPARAÇÃO DE BICOS DE PULVERIZAÇÃO NA DESSECAÇÃO DO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Auxiliadora Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was carried out in 1998, at experimental field of Federal University of Goiás – Brazil with the purpose of studying the drop penetration of glyphosate in the millet crop to weed control, using the nozzles XR 1102, XR 11003 and X-3. The effect of drops density was evaluated at three heigths in the row and between row. The results obtained in this experiment showed that X-3 nozzle as the best applicated at apical level of millet plants in the two position evaluated.

    KEY-WORDS: Nozzles; glyphosate; density drops.

    O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 1998, na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia (GO. Objetivou-se estudar a penetração de glyphosate aplicado com os bicos tipo XR 11002, XR 11003 e X-3 na cultura do milheto, para controle de plantas daninhas e para análise dos efeitos da densidade de gotas dessas aplicações, avaliadas em três alturas nas linhas e entre linhas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o bico X-3, utilizado na altura apical do milheto nas duas posições avaliadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bicos de pulverização; densidade de gotas.

  2. Losses of nutrients and anti-nutritional factors during abrasive decortication of two pearl millet cultivars (Pennisetum glaucum)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestienne, Isabelle; Buisson, Marie; Lullien Pellerin, V.; Picq, Christian; Trèche, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Losses of nutrients such as starch, lipids, proteins, iron and zinc as well as phytase activity and of recognised anti-nutritional compounds (some insoluble fibres, iron-binding phenolic compounds and phytates) were determined following abrasive decortication of grains from two pearl millet cultivars (Gampela and IKMP-5) with different composition cultivated in Burkina Faso. In both cultivars, abrasion of the starchy endosperm started when about 12% of the dry matter had been removed from gra...

  3. An Investigation on Some Guality Characteristics of Ensilaged Giant Kinggrass (Pennisetum hybridum) with Different Levels of Leguminous Forages

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    he experiment was carried out to evaluate on the effects of different levels (25 and 50%, based on dry matter) of various leguminous (Lathyrus sativus, Pisum arvense, Vicia sativa, V.villosa, V.faba var. minor and Trifolium resupinatum) hays

  4. Evaluation of desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) hay as a basal diet for growing local sheep in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Demeke, Solomon; Tolemariam, Taye; Tegegne, Firew; Wamatu, Jane; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change of Washera sheep fed on desho grass and natural pasture hay as a basal diet and supplemented with concentrate mixtures. Twenty-five intact male sheeps with body weight of 19.4 ± 1.89 kg (mean ± SD) were used in randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were 100 % natural pasture hay (NPH) (T1), 75 % NPH + 25 % desho grass hay (DGH) (T2), 50 % NPH + 50 % DGH (T3), 25 % NPH + 75 % DGH (T4), and 100 % DGH (T5). Equal amount of concentrate mixture (CM) (300 g DM/day/h) was supplemented in all of the five treatments. The result of laboratory chemical analysis revealed that the CP content of the basal diets increased with increased proportion of desho grass hay inclusion in the treatments at the expense of natural pasture hay. Total DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF intake and digestibility was significant (P sheep was significantly (P diet. The result indicated that desho grass can be used as a basal diet for local sheep with better performance than natural pasture hay-based diets. PMID:26970971

  5. Evaluation of eleven macro and micro elements present in various hybrids of millet (pennisetum glucum, or P. americanum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI) situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-45 I and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e. zinc (50 mg/kg), manganese (8 mg/kg), and copper (8mg/kg) was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83120 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-1104, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83120 in the edible part of millet plants (grains) cultivars respectively. (author)

  6. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free kibbeh formulated with millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherena Amorim Brasil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet flour was utilized in kibbeh formulations instead of whole-wheat flour. Physicochemical properties, oxidation stability and sensorial characteristics of control kibbeh made with whole-wheat flour (CT were compared with kibbehs prepared with millet flour (roasted or wet and stored for 90 days (–18 °C. Kibbeh prepared with millet flour presented good oxidation stability (TBARS concentration. Baked kibbehs (with roasted millet flour presented good acceptability and kibbeh samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from the whole-wheat flour sample, when global appearance, texture and flavor were evaluated. Millet flour could be a suitable ingredient for kibbeh formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.

  7. Population genomics of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.): Comparative analysis of global accessions and Senegalese landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhenbin; Mbacké, Bassirou; Perumal, Ramasamy; Guèye, Mame Codou; Sy, Ousmane; Bouchet, Sophie; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Morris, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pearl millet is a staple food for people in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa and South Asia due to its high drought tolerance and nutritional qualities. A better understanding of the genomic diversity and population structure of pearl millet germplasm is needed to support germplasm conservation and genetic improvement of this crop. Here we characterized two pearl millet diversity panels, (i) a set of global accessions from Africa, Asia, and the America, and (ii) a collection of...

  8. Uptake, translocation, distribution and persistence of 14C-metalaxyl in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum [L.] Leeke)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time course absorption and desorption of metalaxyl by seeds of pearl millet was analysed by following chemical kinetics equations. Uptake of metalaxyl through roots, leaves and seed, its translocation and distribution in different plant parts and persistence following seed application were studied in pearl millet using 14C-metalaxyl. Both uptake and efflux of metalaxyl by pearl millet seeds were complex and compartmentalized. Distribution inside the seed was not uniform. A major part of applied fungicide remained within the treated plant part, particularly after seed and foliar applications. Metalaxyl was ambimobile inside the plant and was found to get accumulated at apex and margins of leaf blade. No metalaxyl could be detected in grains harvested from plants grown from metalaxyl treated seeds. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative trait loci associated with constitutive traits control water use in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, K; Nepolean, T; Srivastsava, R K; Kholová, J; Rajaram, V; Kumar, S; Rekha, B; Senthilvel, S; Hash, C T; Vadez, V

    2015-09-01

    There is substantial genetic variation for drought adaption in pearl millet in terms of traits controlling plant water use. It is important to understand genomic regions responsible for these traits. Here, F7 recombinant inbred lines were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and allelic interactions for traits affecting plant water use, and their relevance is discussed for crop productivity in water-limited environments. Four QTL contributed to increased transpiration rate under high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) conditions, all with alleles from drought-sensitive parent ICMB 841. Of these four QTL, a major QTL (35.7%) was mapped on linkage group (LG) 6. The alleles for 863B at this QTL decreased transpiration rate and this QTL co-mapped to a previously detected LG 6 QTL, with alleles from 863B for grain weight and panicle harvest index across severe terminal drought stress environments. This provided additional support for a link between water saving from a lower transpiration rate under high VPD and drought tolerance. 863B alleles in this same genomic region also increased shoot weight, leaf area and total transpiration under well-watered conditions. One unexpected outcome was reduced transpiration under high VPD (15%) from the interaction of two alleles for high VPD transpiration (LG 6 (B), 40.7) and specific leaf mass and biomass (LG 7 (A), 35.3), (A, allele from ICMB 841, B, allele from 863B, marker position). The LG 6 QTL appears to combine alleles for growth potential, beneficial for non-stress conditions, and for saving water under high evaporative demand, beneficial under stressful conditions. Mapping QTL for water-use traits, and assessing their interactions offers considerable potential for improving pearl millet adaptation to specific stress conditions through physiology-informed marker-assisted selection. PMID:25946470

  10. The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha-1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day-1) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day-1) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day-1). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

  11. Evaluation of Eleven Macro and Micro Elements Present in Various Hybrids of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum, or P. Americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Qadir Shar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-451 and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e.zinc (50mg/kg, manganese (8mg/kg, and copper (8mg/kg was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83720 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-7704, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83720 in the edible part of millet plants (grains cultivars respectively.

  12. Respuesta fotosintética del pasto kikuyo (pennisetum clandestinum) en pisos térmicos contrastantes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Erika A; Mejía de Tafur, Maria Sara; Durán C., Carlos Vicente

    2014-01-01

    El cambio climático es un proceso de alteración a largo plazo de las condiciones promedio asociadas con las variables que determinan el clima de la tierra, incluidas las variaciones en la composición química de la atmósfera terrestre y todas las características del ambiente que constituyen el clima (temperatura, humedad, nubosidad, precipitación) (Martínez et al., 2009). La adaptación de las plantas forrajeras a este cambio es un tema importante y complejo que presenta desafíos, principalment...

  13. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on invitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e.Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis,Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimentaltreatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plantextracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stagetechnique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract rangedfrom 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane productionwas significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensisand C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability(r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensisand C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production inruminants.

  14. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  15. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

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    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  16. Microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cows bred on tropical pasture and fed on cassava root and corn

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    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the effect of replacement of full corn meal by dehydrated ground cassava roots at levels 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in experimental supplements for lactating cows grazing on irrigated and fertilized tropical pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5 x 5 Latin squares, with average initial 150 days of lactation, milk production 22±3.30 kg day-1 at the beginning of experiment and initial body weight of 603±65 kg. Cows were maintained on pasture consisting of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum cultivar Pioneiro, intercropped with Tifton 85 (Cynodon nlemfuensis, fertilized with 600 kg nitrogen per hectare year-1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the substitution levels of corn meal by ground and dehydrated cassava root in the concentrate on the synthesis of microbial protein with an estimated average of 1,288.49 g day-1 and efficiency in the synthesis of microbial protein per kilogram of TDN with estimated average of 91.30 g kg-1 TDN. Nitrogen equilibrium showed an estimated average of 218.79 g day-1 of retained nitrogen. The microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance were not affected by treatments.

  17. Leather Industry Solid Waste as Nitrogen Source for Growth of Common Bean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leather industry generates large amounts of a Cr-containing solid waste (wet blue leather). This material is classified by the Brazilian Environmental Council as a category-one waste, requiring a special disposal. The patented process Br n. PI 001538 is a technique to remove chromium from wet blue leather, with the recovery of a solid collagenic material (collagen), containing high nitrogen levels. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of soil application of collagen on the production of dry matter, content and accumulation of N in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), after the previous growth of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cv. Napier, as well as to quantify the mineralization rate of N in the soil. The application of collagen, at rates equivalent to 16 and 32 tha-1, provided greater N contents in the common bean plants, indicating residual effect of these rates of application; the same was observed for the rates of 4 and 8tha-1, though in smaller proportions. Higher mineralization rates of N collagen occurred next to 16 days after soil incubation. During the 216 days of incubation, the treatments with collagen showed higher amounts of mineralized nitrogen.

  18. Costs of elephant grass gasification for rural electric power generation; Custos da gaseificacao de graminea para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos

    2000-07-01

    Biomass gasification is an sustainable option for energy supply, which presents low pollutants emission rate and allows - through the global cycle of growing and consumption of feedstock (vegetables), a balance between consumption and production of carbonic gas, preventing an increase of the carbonic gas levels in the atmosphere. Fluidized bed gasification is a means to increase the energetic use of biomass. A gasifier was built with internal diameter of 400 mm and total height of 4600 mm . The equipment was tested for gasification of elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at a 100 kg/h rate. It was evaluated an adequate diesel-electric-generator to work at hybrid regime, using 70% biomass gas and 30% diesel. With the equipment's construction costs, could be made a first economic feasibility assessment on the pilot-plant to produce electricity by grass gasification (elephant-grass) at rural communities. The annual cost of the investment was estimated. The cost of electricity was calculated as a function of the capital cost and the diesel price. The methods and equations for economic assessment are presented. This study found values between 0,16 and 0,23 R$/kWh for the produced electricity, what points towards the feasibility of this project. (author)

  19. Forage production of elephant grass under intermittent stocking

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    Carla Silva Chaves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter production of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum genotypes, managed under intermittent stocking. A completely randomized design was used, with two genotypes and three replicates. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations (2x2x2 of genotypes ('BRS Kurumi' and the clone CNPGL 00‑1‑3, two light interception levels (LI at the onset of grazing (90 and 95%, and two post‑grazing canopy heights (30 and 50 cm. A total of 24 Holstein x Zebu crossbred heifers were used. The stocking density varied in order to finish the grazing periods in two days. The interval between the defoliation, based on 95% LI, resulted in a higher leaf mass per grazing cycle. The post‑grazing height of 30 cm did not affect the number of grazing cycles but provided a greater herbage accumulation rate. The cultivar BRS Kurumi has higher pasture growth, lower rest period, and greater number of grazing cycles, which results in increased forage production in the growing season.

  20. Second-generation ethanol production from elephant grass at high total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegol, Daiane; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro; Camassola, Marli

    2016-07-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass) was evaluated at high total solid levels (from 4% to 20% (w/v)) in a concomitant ball milling treatment in a rotating hydrolysis reactor (RHR). The greatest glucose yield was 20.17% when 4% (w/v) untreated biomass was employed. When sugars obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis were submitted to fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the greatest ethanol yield was 22.61% when 4% (w/v) untreated biomass was employed; however, the highest glucose concentration (12.47g/L) was obtaining using 20% (w/v) solids and highest ethanol concentration (6.1g/L) was obtained using 16% (w/v) solids. When elephant grass was hydrolyzed in the rotating hydrolysis reactor, ethanol production was about double that was produced when the biomass was hydrolyzed in a static reactor (SR). These data indicate that it is possible to produce ethanol from elephant grass when milling treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are performed at the same time. PMID:27023383

  1. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

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    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  2. Evaluation of Fermentation Dynamics and Structural Carbohydrate Degradation of Napiergrass Ensiled with Additives of Urea and Molasses

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    Hui Rong, Cheng-qun Yu 1, Zhi-hua Li, Masataka Shimojo2 and Tao Shao*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of urea and molasses on fermentation dynamics and structural carbohydrate degradation of Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, which was ensiled in laboratory silos for 3, 7, 14, and 30 days at the ambient temperature. The treatments were additions (fresh weight basis of: no molasses or urea (control, no molasses and 0.4% urea (U, 4% molasses and 0% urea (M, 4% molasses and 0.4% urea (MU. The results showed that the control group produced an unstable fermentation. U silage always had smallest amount of lactic acid and highest levels of pH, acetic acid, butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen. Compared with control, both M and MU increased water soluble carbohydrate contents which promoted lactic acid fermentation domination, but MU did not restrain clostridial fermentation. After 30 days of ensiling, compared with the control, both M and MU lowered structural carbohydrate contents, and U lowered crude protein content but MU increased this parameter. It was concluded that the combination of 4% molasses with 0.4% urea could improve the fermentation and nutritive qualities of Napiergrass but was not sufficient to inhibit clostridial fermentation.

  3. Ability of fiber bacteria isolated from buffalo rumen in digesting various sources of forage

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    Iwan Prihantoro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Local buffalo rumen fluid is a source of fiber digesting bacteria. Such bacteria presumably are well adapted to feed stuffs derived from agricultural byproducts with low quality. The purposes of this study were: (1 to isolate the fiber-digesting bacteria from buffalo rumen fluid, (2 to determine the fiber digesting characteristics and adaptability of such bacteria, and (3 to characterize the bacterial diversity. Rumen fluids for the experiment were collected from buffaloes slaughtered at the Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University abattoir. Fiber-digesting bacteria were isolated using McDougall buffer supplemented with fibrous feed. A factorial experiment was conducted to study characteristics and adaptability of the bacteria using two factors: the type of bacteria and type of feed source of the fiber. Diversity among the bacteria was analyzed using the NTSys2.10 program.Results showed that nine bacterial isolates had a high adaptability to fiber feed based on CMCase. The highest CMCase activity bacteria for Pennisetum purpureum were A9 (11.36±1.70 unit/ml/h, A3 (11.22±0.60 unit/ml/h and A42 (10.62±1.96 unit/ml/h. CMCase activity of fiber digesting bacteria from buffalo rumen fluid was not correlated with the number of bacteria in the culture. Based on genetic similarity, nine isolates were grouped into five types having similarity≥46%.

  4. Use of dried cassava root to replace corn in supplementation of Holstein cows grazing and consuming spontaneously, apparent digestibility and energy metabolism

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    Ádler Carvalho da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of this experiment intended to evaluate the effect of replacing ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots with the levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in the experimental supplements for lactating cows kept on tropical irrigated and fertilized pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5x5 Latin squares, with an initial lactation average of 150 days, 22 kg/day of average milk production of lactation and approximate initial average body eight of 603 kg. The animals were kept in pasture constituted by elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM cv Pioneer, associated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis, irrigated and fertilized with 600 kg of nitrogen per hectare/year. No significant effects on the substitution of ground corn for dried and ground cassava roots in the concentrate (P>0.05 over the spontaneous consumption of the total diet, with estimated average of 20.61 kg/DM/animal/day, apparent digestibility of DM with estimated average of 59.60% and energy balance with estimated average of +6.36 Mcal day-1. The results of this study demonstrate that the cassava root can be used as an energy source of high nutritional value for supplementation of lactating cows grazing on tropical pastures, similar to corn results.

  5. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a 'water-spending' behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a 'water-saving' nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  6. Change in growth performance of crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) dairy heifers fed on forage grass diets supplemented with commercial concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2016-04-01

    Rearing heifers for dairy cow replacement is a challenge in smallholder dairy farms in the tropics due to feed shortage. The objective of this study was to evaluate Brachiaria hybrid cultivar Mulato II as a forage resource for improving growth performance of dairy heifers under cut-and-carry feeding system in Rwanda. Sixteen crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) heifers (mean weight 203 ± 35 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments viz: Mulato II with 2 kg/day of commercial concentrates (MCC) and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with the same supplement (NCC), for a period of 12 weeks. Mineral lick and water were provided ad libitum. Daily feed intake and fortnightly live weight were measured. Average daily gains and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Results showed that absolute daily dry matter intake (g DMI/day) and relative intake (g/kg of metabolic body weight--BW(0.75)) were higher in heifers fed on MCC than in heifers fed on NCC (P 0.05). Average daily weight gain (ADWG) also not differed significantly (P > 0.05). Based on numerical body weight changes and nutritive values, Mulato II showed potential to be integrated into local cut-and-carry feeding systems for better heifer rearing to facilitate dairy cow replacement. PMID:26888207

  7. Performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage

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    Delfran Batista dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.

  8. Approximated empirical correlations to the characterization of physical and geometrical properties of solid particulate biomass: case studies of the elephant grass and sugar cane trash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares Gomez, Edgardo; Cortez, Luis A. Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Lab. de Termodinamica e Energia; Alarcon, Guillermo A. Rocca; Perez, Luis E. Brossard [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Two types of biomass solid particles, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. variety) and sugar cane trash, were studied in laboratory in order to obtain information about several physical and geometrical properties. In the both case, the length, breadth, and thickness of fifty particles selected randomly from each fraction of the size class, obtained by mechanical fractionation through sieves, were measured manually given their size. A geometric model of type rectangular base prism was adopted because based on observations it was demonstrated that the most of particles that were measured exhibited length which was significantly greater that width ( l >> a ). From these measurements average values for other properties were estimated, for example, characteristic dimension of particle, projected area of the rectangular prism, area of the prism rectangular section, volume of the rectangular prism, shape factors, sphericity, particles specific superficial area and equivalent diameter. A statistical analysis was done and proposed empirical and semi-empirical mathematical correlation models obtained by lineal regression, which show a goodness of fit of these equations to the reported experimental data. (author)

  9. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  10. PROTEINOGRAMA SÉRICO DE OVINOS INTOXICADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE POR SALSA

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    DANIEL PRASERES CHAVES

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the serum protein concentration of sheep experimentally poisoned by Ipomoea asarifolia, four groups of five animals received diet with inclusion of 25% (G1, 50% (G2, 75% (G3 and 100% (G4 of the plant replacing to Pennisetum purpureum. Blood samples for serum protein concentration evaluation were collectedat seven moments (M: before of the I. asarifolia supply (M1, and five (M2, ten (M3, 15 (M4, 20 (M5, 25 (M6 and 30 (M7 days after I. asarifolia supply. The serum concentration of total protein (TP was measured through spectrophotometry and the protein fractions bymeans of eletrophoresis in poliacrylamide (SDS-PAGE. Twenty-nine to 31 proteins were detected by densitometric tracing, with molecular weights varying from 19,160 to 250,000 Dáltons (Da. Reduction of thetransferrin concentration and increase of acid α1-glycoprotein level were verified in sheep that ingested 75% and 100% of the plant, immediately before dying. Also, reduction of concentration of IgG heavy chain was evident in M3 and M4, in G3 animals, as well as the level IgG light chain in M2, M3 and M4 of this group, suggesting interference in the immune function in poisoned sheep, especially in those with higher level of the plant on the diet. It is inferred that these proteins can be utilized as auxiliary indicators to diagnose intoxication by I. asarifolia.

  11. Preferencias de consumo de cuatro forrajes por venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus mantenidos en cautiverio en Yucatan

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    Israel Fernando Castillo-López

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El  venado cola blanca  (Odocoileus  virginianus.Zimmermann es uno de los recursos silvestres y cinegéticos más  importantes  en México.  Sin embargo,  los estudios que existen sobre  su crianza en cautiverio son insuficientes para optimizar su producción. El objetivo planteado en este trabajo fue  evaluar  la  preferencia  relativa  de  cuatro forrajes,  comparar  el  consumo  ad  libitum  del forraje nativo preferido contra un pasto de corte, en venados cola blanca mantenidos en cautiverio, y medir  la relación entre el contenido de sustancias antinutricionales de  los alimentos con el consumo.Se utilizaron cuatro venados cola blanca machos adultos  con  peso  promedio  de  45  Kg,  y  tres especies de árboles  forrajeros nativos: Leucaena leucocephala, Guazuma ulmifolia,  Brosimum alicastrum  y  el  pasto  de  corte  Pennisetum purpureum.  Para  medir  la  preferencia  se realizaron dos experimentos, mediante el diseño

  12. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

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    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  13. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance. PMID:23413007

  14. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

  15. The effect of secondary compounds on the rumen microbial population structure measured by 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plant secondary compounds in the forages have an important role in determining forage quality. A method for evaluating their effects on microbial population structure was carried out using the in vitro gas syringe system followed by extraction of RNA and gel separation of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA. Quantification of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA bands indicated the prokaryote and eukaryote populations, respectively. Five types of plant materials, i.e. Nothopanax scutellarium (Mangkokan) leaves, Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu) fruit, Sapindus rarak (lerak) fruit and two types of Sesbania sesban leaves (hgh saponin and low saponin) were tested and Pennisetum purpureum (rumput gajah, Indonesian name) was used as a control roughage. Presence of saponin in these plant materials was determined qualitatively by thin layer chromatography. Eukaryote population was found to be significantly affected by the above plant materials. Both types of S. sesban leaves caused total elimination of eukaryotes. S. rarak reduced both eukaryote and prokaryote populations. The observed inhibition of eukaryote population might be due to the presence of saponin in these plant materials. In another experiment, a methanol extract of S. rarak which contained saponin was included and its effect on in vitro fermentation of P. purpureum was evaluated. The results showed that at higher levels of inclusion of S. rarak methanol extract, eukaroytes were totally eliminated. Comparison was made between microbial mass calculated based on difference between apparent undigested residue and true undigested residue and microbial mass calculations based on 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA. Microbial mass calculated by difference method was much higher than the microbial mass calculated on the basis of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA. The quantification of RNA can be a useful and rapid technique for an accurate assessment of the effect of new forage materials on the microbial population structure. Other parameters from in vitro

  16. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

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    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  17. Quality of poultry litter submitted to different treatments in five consecutive flocks Qualidade da cama de frango submetida a diferentes tratamentos em cinco lotes consecutivos

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    Fernando Carlos Loch

    2011-05-01

    cama tratada com zeolita; e 8 cama tratada com carvão vegetal. O feno de capim-elefante picado foi utilizado como cama de frango em todos os lotes. A fermentação no galpão aumentou o teor de umidade das camas no segundo e primeiro lotes aos 21 e 42 dias de criação, respectivamente. Não houve diferença na densidade entre os tratamentos. O sulfato de alumínio reduziu o pH das camas em todos os lotes aos 21 dias de criação. Aos 42 dias, o pH das camas foi reduzido nas camas contendo sulfato de alumínio e gesso agrícola no primeiro, segundo e quarto lotes. Aos 21 dias, o sulfato de alumínio reduziu a amônia volatilizada no primeiro, terceiro e quarto lotes e, aos 42 dias, houve redução da amônia volatilizada das camas contendo sulfato de alumínio no quarto lote. O sulfato de alumínio pode melhorar a qualidade da cama de frango de feno de capim-elefante picado, por reduzir o pH e a volatilização de amônia.

  18. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com leguminosas

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    M.S. Diehl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF com capim elefante (CE + azevém (AZ + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE; CE + AZ + ECE + amendoim forrageiro (AM; e CE + AZ + ECE + trevo vermelho (TV, usando-se a mesma área, sob pastejo rotacionado, no decorrer do ano agrícola. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. No período hibernal, fez-se o estabelecimento do AZ entre as linhas do CE; o TV foi semeado e o AM foi preservado, considerando-se os respectivos SF. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos (SF, duas repetições (piquetes e avaliações independentes (ciclos de pastejos. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, que receberam suplementação alimentar com concentrado à razão de 1% do peso corporal/dia. Foram avaliados a massa de forragem, os componentes botânicos do pasto e estruturais do CE e a taxa de lotação. Durante o período experimental, foram efetuados oito ciclos de pastejo. Sistemas forrageiros que envolvem gramíneas e leguminosas de diferentes ciclos proporcionam a utilização da área durante todo o ano agrícola em pastejo rotativo com bovinos leiteiros. Considerando-se a predominância das avaliações em cada pastejo, os sistemas forrageiros consorciados apresentam melhor resultado tanto paras as variáveis de massa de forragem quanto para a taxa de lotação.

  19. SEED GERMINATION AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN Escobedia grandiflora (OROBANCHACEAE: EVIDENCE OF OBLIGATE HEMIPARASITISM?

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    Edison CARDONA-MEDINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Root parasitic plants can be facultative or obligate. Facultative parasites are able to complete their life cycle and their seeds can germinate without a host. Escobedia grandiflora is a poorly studied species in spite of its ancestral importance as dye of foods and medicinal use. The present study evaluates the states of seed, seedlings and mature plants, under presence and absence of possible hosts, for inferring the type of parasitism exhibited by E. grandiflora. Seeds were evaluated using two conditions each of light (12 and 0 hours and temperature (20 ºC and 25 ºC; percentage germination, and germination speed were determined. The seeds did not require a host to germinate, as is typical of facultative parasitic plants.  Percentage of germination varied between 66 % and 85.3 % and was not affected by light or temperature although germination speed was greater at 25 ºC. Larger seeds had a higher percentage of germination and produced larger seedlings. The seedlings planted without a host did not survive, while those planted with Paspalum notatum had a 45 % survival rate, demonstrating that this is a critical stage of development, even with a host. Escobedia grandiflora plants sowed with grasses began the reproductive stage at the 28th week, and those planted with Pennisetum purpureum showed better performance, expressed in more haustoria, higher dry matter of total plant, rhizome and aerial stems. Plants sowed alone lived for more than six months, but they did not produce flowers or fruits. According to the behavior of seedlings and plants, E. grandiflora is an obligate parasite. Germinación de semillas y desarrollo de plantas en Escobedia grandiflora (Orobanchaceae: ¿Evidencia de hemiparasitismo obligado? Las plantas parásitas de raíces pueden ser facultativas u obligadas, las primeras pueden completar su ciclo de vida y sus semillas pueden germinar sin un hospedero. Escobedia grandiflora es una especie poco estudiada, a pesar de

  20. Efeito de coberturas mortas vegetais sobre o desempenho da cenoura em cultivo orgânico Effect of mulch of different plant species on the performance of organically grown carrot

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    CAB Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de coberturas mortas com resíduos de diferentes espécies de plantas no rendimento da cenoura em cultivo orgânico e nos níveis de reinfestação pela vegetação espontânea. O experimento foi conduzido no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica ("Fazendinha Agroecológica Km 47", em Seropédica-RJ, empregando delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de coberturas dos canteiros com a biomassa aérea, seca e triturada, de capim Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e guandu (Cajanus cajan, além da testemunha (sem qualquer cobertura. Por ocasião da colheita da cenoura, determinou-se a produtividade e as médias em peso, comprimento e diâmetro máximo das raízes tuberosas. A reinfestação de ervas espontâneas foi estimada pelo número total de indivíduos por m², sendo as coletas realizadas aos 20, 50 e 80 dias após a semeadura. A cenoura cultivada nas parcelas tratadas com resíduos de leguminosas apresentou aumentos significativos de todas as variáveis fitotécnicas, com exceção para o comprimento médio da raiz. Nas parcelas cobertas com resíduos da gramínea, os resultados foram estatisticamente iguais aos da testemunha. A reinfestação por plantas espontâneas por unidade de área cultivada alcançou níveis da ordem de 300% superiores em parcelas sem cobertura do solo, na comparação com aquelas que receberam as palhadas.The effect of soil mulch with different plant species was evaluated in relation to the performance of organically grown carrots and to weed population levels. The experiment was carried out at the Integrated Agroecological Production System located in Seropédica, Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Baixada Fluminense, Brazil, using a randomized blocks design comprising four treatments replicated six times. These treatments consisted of soil mulch with chopped and dried above

  1. Potential of tropical plants to exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to present a summary of the principal results obtained in Cuba in relation with the potential of different tropical plants used as animal feed, with possibilities of exerting defaunating effects on the rumen and to reduce the methane production. The assays were carried out in areas of the Institute of Animal Science located in 22 deg 53' of north latitude and 82 deg 02' western, 92 m over level sea. The plants studied were Sapindo saponaria, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium,Leucaena leucocephala, Stysolobium aterrimun and Arachis pintoi. The leaves with petioles and young stems were collected simulating animal selection. Grasses used as forage in the assays to obtain mixes of grass: foliages were Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115 or Star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis). Phytochemistry screening was carried out. The experiments were conducted in vitro system. Rumen fluid was strained as inoculum from two rumen-fistulated crossbreed Zebu steer fed low quality forage. To determine methane production, the mixture of gases in the fermentative process was collected in each time at interval of 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours and the methane production were determined by flame ionization in gas chromatograph. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and others secondary compounds with antiprotozoal and antimethanogenic properties. It is believed that saponins, tannins and other secondary compounds present in many plants have effects of suppressing the methane production, reducing rumen protozoa counts, and changing rumen fermentation patterns (1). Enterolobium and Leucaena show high content of tannins and moderate levels of saponins. Morus alba presented moderate presence of saponins and triterpenes, while the content of secondary metabolites in Tithonia and Gliricidia were not very high. Studies in relation with the effect of inclusion of the foliages in the diet of grass forage on

  2. Peso de la canal en corderos parasitados y desparasitados por estrongilidos digestivos suplementados con follaje de Leucaena - Carcass weight of lambs with and without digestive strongilides parasites supplemented with Leucaena foliage

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    Sánchez Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEs bien conocida la contribución de la leucaena leucocephala para laproducción con rumiantes, constituyendo una fuente directa de proteína, energía y minerales, en la producción de carne y/o leche. En Venezuela, han sido muy pocas las investigaciones realizadas en ovinos usando Leucaena como suplemento, mas cuando se trata del rendimiento de la canal. Con la finalidad de evaluar el peso de la canal de corderos parasitados y desparasitados por estrongilidos digestivos estabulados, suplementados y no suplementados con follaje de Leucaena leucocephala, se seleccionaron 24 corderos de 2,5 meses, con peso promedio de 11.94 kg, mestizos de razas tropicales y divididos al azar por sexo en cuatro tratamientos con seis animales cada uno. El diseño experimental utilizado fue totalmente al azar con seis repeticiones. La investigación tuvo una duración de 135 días. Los corderos recibieron una dieta basal de pasto de Pennisetum purpureum y los suplementados recibieron follaje de Leucaena.El pesaje de los corderos y la determinación de cargas parasitarias, se realizó semanalmente. Se realizó la matanza luego de un ayuno de 24horas. Las variables de estudio fueron: peso vivo a los 120 días, peso de la canal (caliente y fría y cargas parasitarias. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizó la Prueba de Duncan. Los resultados obtenidos favorecen a los tratamientos suplementados, demostrando la factibilidad del uso de la Leucaena. En relación a los pesos promedios de la canal en los distintos tratamientos, parasitados y suplementados (PCL con Leucaena obtuvo el mayor promedio con 8.09 kg, seguido de los tratamientos desparasitados y suplementados con Leucaena (DPCL, desparasitados sin suplementación con Leucaena (DPSL y parasitados sin suplementación con Leucaena (PSL con 7.93; 6.41 y 6.05 kg respectivamente.SummaryIt is well known the contribution of Leucaena leucocephala for ruminant production, constituting a direct source of

  3. Digestibilidade in vitro e in situ de três forrageiras tropicais colhidas manualmente e por vacas fistuladas no esôfago - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4701 In vitro and in situ digestibility of three tropical forages collected manually and by esophageal fistulated cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4701

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    Warley Efrem Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade in vitro (DIV e in situ“in situ” da proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose e hemicelulose das gramíneas Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL, Brachiaria decumbens (BRACH e Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP de amostras colhidas manualmente e por vacas portadoras de cânula no esôfago. A DIV-MS das gramíneas colhidas, manualmente, foi de 64% para NAP, 63% para BRACH e 55% para COL. A fração insolúvel potencialmente degradável (% e a taxa de degradação (% h-1 das gramíneas NAP, BRACH e COL foram, respectivamente, de 62,8 e 6,4; 64,7 e 5,0 e 65,7 e 4,0 para a MS; 62,0 e 4,2; 62,6 e 3,0 e 70,8 e 2,6 para a PB; 77,2 e 6,3; 75,5 e 4,9 e 70,1 e 3,7 para a FDN. Concluiu-se que a oferta de forragem estudada permitiu aos bovinos seleção dos alimentos de forma a se obter dietas com valores nutritivos superiores aos disponíveis nas pastagens e que para o sistema de pastejo contínuo com carga animal variável, a gramínea Napier mostrou-se mais digestível, seguida pela Braquiária e pelo Colonião que apresentou os menores parâmetros de degradação ruminal.This study evaluated in vitro (IV and in situ dry mater (DM digestibility, as well as in situ crude protein (CP, neutral (NDF and acid (ADF detergent fiber, cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL, Brachiaria decumbens (BRACH, and Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP grasses. The grasses were collected manually and from esophageal fistulated cows. The IV-DM digestibility of the manually collected samples were 64% for NAP, 63% for BRACH and 55% for COL. The insoluble potentially degradable fraction (% and the degradation rate (% h-1 of NAP, BRACH and COL grasses were 62.8 and 6.4, 64.7 and 5.0, and 65.7 and 4.0 for DM; 62.0 and 4.2, 62.6 and 3.0, and 70.8 and 2.6 for CP; 77.2 and 6.3, 75.5 and 4.9, and 70.1 and 3.7 for NDF, respectively. It was concluded that forage

  4. Digestibilidade in vitro e in situ de três forrageiras tropicais colhidas manualmente e por vacas fistuladas no esôfago = In vitro and in situ digestibility of three tropical forages collected manually and by esophageal fistulated cows

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    Edmundo Benedetii

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade in vitro (DIV e in situ da matéria seca (MS e “in situ” da proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose e hemicelulose das gramíneas Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL, Brachiaria decumbens (BRACH e Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP de amostras colhidasmanualmente e por vacas portadoras de cânula no esôfago. A DIV-MS das gramíneas colhidas, manualmente, foi de 64% para NAP, 63% para BRACH e 55% para COL. A fração insolúvel potencialmente degradável (% e a taxa de degradação (% h-1 das gramíneas NAP, BRACH e COL foram, respectivamente, de 62,8 e 6,4; 64,7 e 5,0 e 65,7 e 4,0 para a MS;62,0 e 4,2; 62,6 e 3,0 e 70,8 e 2,6 para a PB; 77,2 e 6,3; 75,5 e 4,9 e 70,1 e 3,7 para a FDN. Concluiu-se que a oferta de forragem estudada permitiu aos bovinos seleção dos alimentos de forma a se obter dietas com valores nutritivos superiores aos disponíveis nas pastagens e que para o sistema de pastejo contínuo com carga animal variável, a gramínea Napier mostrou-se mais digestível, seguida pela Braquiária e pelo Colonião que apresentou os menores parâmetros de degradação ruminal.This study evaluated in vitro (IV and in situ dry mater (DM digestibility, as well as in situ crude protein (CP, neutral (NDF and acid (ADF detergent fiber, cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL, Brachiaria decumbens (BRACH, and Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP grasses. The grasses were collected manually and from esophagealfistulated cows. The IV-DM digestibility of the manually collected samples were 64% for NAP, 63% for BRACH and 55% for COL. The insoluble potentially degradable fraction (% and the degradation rate (% h-1 of NAP, BRACH and COL grasses were 62.8 and 6.4,64.7 and 5.0, and 65.7 and 4.0 for DM; 62.0 and 4.2, 62.6 and 3.0, and 70.8 and 2.6 for CP; 77.2 and 6.3, 75.5 and 4.9, and 70.1 and 3.7 for NDF, respectively. It was

  5. CARCASS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG STEERS AND HEIFERS, FINISHED WITH SUPPLEMENTATION ON CULTIVATED PASTURE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS E NOVILHAS SUPERJOVENS, TERMINADOS COM SUPLEMENTAÇÃO EM PASTAGEM CULTIVADA

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    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of young castrated steers and heifers. Twelve animals of each sex were used, fed during growth with energetic supplementation on Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa cultivated pasture, and finished on Pennisetum purpureum, and slaughtered at fourteen months of age. Farm live weight hot carcass and weight were higher for steers, being of 365.8 and 203.4 kg, respectively, than for heifers being 310.3 and 168.6 kg, in the same order.  Males were superior in carcass length (118.1 vs. 111.3 cm, leg length (69.2 vs. 64.1 cm and in the longissimus dorsi area (58.0 vs. 52.4 cm2. No difference was observed for subcutaneous fat thickness, but heifers showed meat with better marbling (5.58 points than the males (3.67 points. No differences for sensorial and organoleptical characteristics were observed between the two sexes. In conclusion,   excepting relation to weight, young heifers have carcass and meat characteristics similar to males.

    KEY WORDS: Beef cattle, Hereford x Nellore, meat tenderness, cultivated pasture, sex.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as características de carcaça e da carne de novilhos castrados e novilhas superjovens. Foram usados doze animais de cada sexo, recriados com suplementação energética sobre pastagem cultivada de Lolium multiflorum + Avena strigosa e terminados em pastagem cultivada de Pennisetum purpureum, onde permaneceram até o abate aos quatorze meses de idade. Os pesos de fazenda e de carcaça quente foram superiores nos machos, sendo de 365,8 e 203,4 kg, respectivamente, enquanto as fêmeas apresentaram 310,3 e 168,6 kg, citados na mesma ordem. Os machos foram superiores nos comprimentos de carcaça (118,1 vs. 111,3 cm e de perna (69,2 vs. 64,1 cm e na área de Longissimus dorsi (58,0 vs. 52,4 cm². Não houve diferença na espessura de gordura subcutânea da carcaça, mas as fêmeas apresentaram carne mais

  6. Bloat and colic in horses experimentally induced by the ingestion of Panicum maximum cv. ‘Mombaça’ Timpanismo e cólica em equinos induzidos experimentalmente pela ingestão de Panicum maximum cv. ‘Mombaça’

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    Valíria Duarte Cerqueira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon region, sprouting pastures of Panicum maximum cause colic and death in horses and mules. To produce the disease two experiments were performed with growing P. maximum cv. 'Mombaça' in penned horses. In Experiment 1, at the beginning of the raining season, 10 horses were fed with recently harvested sprouting P. maximum. Two horses showed colic on the 5th and 11th day after start of the ingestion. In Experiment 2, also during the raining season, the same 10 horses used in Experiment 2 were divided into two groups of 5 horses each. Group 1 received sprouting P. maximum immediately after harvested and Group 2 received the grass 24 hours after harvested. The control group consisted of four animals which were placed in individual pens and fed with Pennisetum purpureum and commercial ration twice a day. One horse from Group 2 showed colic on day 13th after the start of feeding. The other horses of both groups showed intestinal bloat. In both experiments affected horses recovered after the end of the administration. The control group did not showed clinical signs. These results demonstrated that the disease is caused by the ingestion of sprouting P. maximum during the rainy season. The results in experiment 2 showed that P. maximum do not loss toxicity 24 hours after harvesting. Clinical signs suggest that primary alteration caused by P. maximum is intestinal fermentation followed by bloat.Na região Amazônica, Panicum maximum em brotação causa cólica em equinos durante o período chuvoso. Com o objetivo de reproduzir experimentalmente a doença, foram realizados dois experimentos com P. maximum cv. 'Mombaça' em brotação. No Experimento 1, 10 equinos receberam o capim em brotação, ofertado no coxo. Dois animais apresentaram cólica, um no 5° dia e outro no 11° dia de experimento. No Experimento 2, também durante a época de chuvas, os mesmos 10 animais foram separados em dois grupos de 5, um grupo recebia P. maximum rec

  7. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  8. Effect of type of food supplement on the reproductive and growth performances of cane rats (Tryonomys swinderianus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cane rat (Tryonomys swinderianus) is a wild rodent hunted in West Africa for its meat and its estimated that 80 million are killed each year. This species will soon be extinguished if nothing is done to ensure its survival. Domestication attempts have not been as successful as desired due to paucity of information on its nutritional and reproduction requirements. An experiment was carried out in the teaching and experimental farm of the University of Dschang between July 2007 and April 2008, to evaluate the effect of food supplement type on the reproductive and growth performances of cane rats. Twenty-six female cane rats: 11 primiparous and 15 multiparous (1.5 to 3.0 kg Body weight) were used for this study. The 26 female cane rats were randomly distributed to four treatment diets i.e. T0 (permanently fed a mixture of maize and wheat bran), T1 (permanently fed a complete diet), T2 (fed maize and wheat bran until detection of gestation and a complete diet onwards) or T3 (fed maize and wheat bran for 50 d after detection of gestation and a complete diet onwards). These animals received in addition to the basal diet (Pennisetum purpureum), water and a piece of bone. Fifty-nine young cane rats from primiparous and 31 from multiparous were used to evaluate growth performances. The results are as follows: As concerns growth performances, average feed consumption (25,641 ± 854 g) of treatment T3 was significantly (P 2 ≥ 0.95). It was concluded that supplementing the diets of cane rat breeders improves fertility rate and litter size in primiparous. (author)

  9. Productivity of clay tailings from phosphate mining: I. Biomass crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate mining in Florida has waste products of phosphatic clay and quartz sand tailings, each making up about one-third of the original matrix (PO4 ore, sand, and clay). Phosphatic clay ponds typically occupy about 50% of the mined sites and normally require 10 to 15 yr before 40 to 50% solids are obtained. These clays contain no phytotoxic materials and are high in most plant nutrients. When surface water has disappeared, these clays are classified as clayey Haplaquents. A split-plot field experiment was conducted to study biomass yield, quality, plant nutrient concentrations, changes in soil nutrients, and 226Ra. Seven biomass crops -(i) elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L. PI 300086), (ii) leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wet], (iii) alemangrass [Echinochloa polystachya (H.B.K) Hitch], (iv) erianthus [Erianthus arundinaceum (Retz) Jews IK 76-63'], (v) desmodium (Desmodium cinerascens A. Gray), (vi) sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench USDA M 81E], and (vii) forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Pioneer 931] - were grown on the phosphatic clay with and without a 5-cm surface layer of quartz sand tailings. Nitrogen was the only fertilizer element applied for grass species and no fertilizer was applied for legumes during the 4-yr period. Dry biomass yield averaged over 4 yr for erianthus, leucaena, and elephantgrass averaged 139.6, 58.5, and 56.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Crude protein and digestibility were low in mature, whole-plant samples except for leucaena (122.0 g kg-1). Generally, all whole plants contained adequate concentrations of nutrients. Mehlich-I-extractable soil nutrient concentrations changed little over the 4-yr period. Radium-226 concentration in plant tissue (0.23 pCi g-1) was nearly six times higher than the concentration measured in plants from an unmined surface Spodosol (0.04 pCi g-1)

  10. Changes in quality of goat meat after alterations in animal Handling - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p33

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    Frederico José Beserra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of animal handling, consisting in castration and cashew nut diet supplementation, on the cholesterol content and percentage composition of the muscles that constitute the leg meat cut from crossbred goats, grown in Ceará State. A case experimental design was applied with twenty male-animals with 5-6 months age and mean weight of 12 Kg, randomly divided in two groups of castrated (10 and intact (10 animals. In individual bays, they received during 5 months, two food regimen based on dried elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and a standard isoproteic ration (corn and soy oil, one of them with the addition of 13% cashew nut bran (CNB, forming four sub-groups: A1 (intact with no CNB supplemented diet; A2 (intact with CNB supplemented diet; B1 (castrated with no CNB supplemented diet and B2 (castrated with CNB supplemented diet. The castration associated with the CNB supplementation increased the meat’s fat yield from 1.16% to 3.57% and the cholesterol content from 36.47 mg/100g to 62.30 mg/100g. The ash yield decreased from 1.14% to 1.04%. The castration isolated only reduced moisture yield from 75.98% on sub-group A2 to 74.19% on sub-group B2. In intact animals that fed diet supplemented with CNB the protein decreased from 20.58% to 18.85% (P < 0.05 (sub-groups A1 and A2. The increased cholesterol content was highly correlated with the increase of the fat (93% In conclusion, these results showed that the combined use of castration and cashew nut bran (13% diet negatively influenced the dietetic and nutritional quality of goat leg meat.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with different levels of by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility (AD, and degradability in situ of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silages containing 0, 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 by-product from dried cashew apple (DCBP (as fed basis. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. For the study of degradability in situ, one adult male cattle was used in a completely randomized design with split plots. Intake and AD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose were evaluated, and the digestible energy (DE and nitrogen balance (NB of the silages were determined. The degradability in situ of DM, CP, and NDF was also determined. Addition of DCBP provided an increase in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. No effects of the levels of addition of DCBP were observed on the coefficients of AD of the silages. Regarding NB, positive values were only detected in the treatment with 105.0 g kg-1 DCBP. In the analysis of the degradability in situ, the incubation periods increased the rates of disappearance of DM, CP, and NDF. However, no effect of the levels of DCBP were observed on the effective degradability of DM. The by-product from dried cashew apple can be included at up to 140.0 g kg-1 in silages of elephant grass, but the high contents of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen may compromise the use and availability of nitrogen to the animals.

  12. Assessment of indicators and collection methodology to estimate nutrient digestibility in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Felizardo Pereira Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry fecal matter production was estimated from neutral detergent indicators on indigestible fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber, indigestible dry matter, incubated for 144 hours and 288 hours, as well as chromium oxide (Cr2O3 and enriched and purified isolated lignin (LIPE® in two sampling schemes (3 and 5 days on buffaloes. Sample consisted of five castrated animals with average weight of 300 ± 0.6 kg fed on elephant grass cv Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum. Experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in subdivided plots. Production of dry fecal matter was overestimated when using Cr2O3, indigestible acid detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 288 hours and indigestible dry matter 144 hours, while indigestible acid detergent fiber 288 hours, indigestible dry matter 288 hours and LIPE® did not differ from total collection. The same result was observed for apparent digestibility of nutrients. There was no difference in dry fecal matter production and digestibility between both collection periods of 3 and 5 days, demonstrating that a collection period of three days can be used to estimate dry fecal matter production in buffaloes. A three-day period of sample collection, in order to estimate dry fecal matter production and apparent digestibility coefficients, is therefore recommended. The use of LIPE®, fibers in indigestible acid detergent and indigestible dry matter as indicators, both latter incubated for 288 hours, result in accurate estimates of dry fecal matter production in confined buffaloes, fed on a forage based diet.

  13. Phosphorus transformation in poultry litter and litter-treated Oxisol of Brazil assessed by 31P-NMR and wet chemical fractionation

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    César Roriz de Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of poultry litter are being produced in Brazil, which contain appreciable amounts of phosphorus (P that could be of environmental concern. To assess the immediate environmental threat, five poultry litters composed of diverse bedding material were incubated for 43 days under greenhouse conditions. The litters consisted of: coffee bean husk (CH; wood chips (WC; rice husk (RH; ground corn cobs (CC and ground napier grass (NG (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., in which the change in forms of soluble P was evaluated using 31P NMR spectroscopy. On average, 80.2 and 19.8 % of the total P in the extract, respectively, accounted for the inorganic and organic forms before incubation and 48 % of the organic P was mineralized to inorganic P in 43 days of incubation. Wide variation in the organic P mineralization rate (from 82 % -WC to 4 % - NG was observed among litters. Inorganic orthophosphate (99.9 % and pyrophosphate (0.1 % were the only inorganic P forms, whereas the organic P forms orthophosphate monoesters (76.3 % and diester (23.7 % were detected. Diester P compounds were mineralized almost completely in all litters, except in the CH litter, within the incubation period. Pyrophosphates contributed with less than 0.5% and remained unaltered during the incubation period. Wood-chip litter had a higher organic P (40 % content and a higher diester: monoester ratio; it was therefore mineralized rapidly, within the first 15 days, achieving steady state by the 29th day. Distinct mineralization patterns were observed in the litter when incubated with a clayey Oxisol. The substantial decrease observed in the organic P fraction (Po of the litter types followed the order: CH (45 % > CC (25 % > RH (13 % ≈ NG (12 % > WC (5 %, whereas the Pi fraction increased. Incubation of RH litter in soil slowed down the mineralization of organic P.

  14. Global climate niche estimates for bioenergy crops and invasive species of agronomic origin: potential problems and opportunities.

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    Jacob N Barney

    Full Text Available The global push towards a more biomass-based energy sector is ramping up efforts to adopt regionally appropriate high-yielding crops. As potential bioenergy crops are being moved around the world an assessment of the climatic suitability would be a prudent first step in identifying suitable areas of productivity and risk. Additionally, this assessment also provides a necessary step in evaluating the invasive potential of bioenergy crops, which present a possible negative externality to the bioeconomy. Therefore, we provide the first global climate niche assessment for the major graminaceous (9, herbaceous (3, and woody (4 bioenergy crops. Additionally, we contrast these with climate niche assessments for North American invasive species that were originally introduced for agronomic purposes as examples of well-intentioned introductions gone awry. With few exceptions (e.g., Saccharum officinarum, Pennisetum purpureum, the bioenergy crops exhibit broad climatic tolerance, which allows tremendous flexibility in choosing crops, especially in areas with high summer rainfall and long growing seasons (e.g., southeastern US, Amazon Basin, eastern Australia. Unsurprisingly, the invasive species of agronomic origin have very similar global climate niche profiles as the proposed bioenergy crops, also demonstrating broad climatic tolerance. The ecoregional evaluation of bioenergy crops and known invasive species demonstrates tremendous overlap at both high (EI≥30 and moderate (EI≥20 climate suitability. The southern and western US ecoregions support the greatest number of invasive species of agronomic origin, especially the Southeastern USA Plains, Mixed Woods Plains, and Mediterranean California. Many regions of the world have a suitable climate for several bioenergy crops allowing selection of agro-ecoregionally appropriate crops. This model knowingly ignores the complex biotic interactions and edaphic conditions, but provides a robust assessment of

  15. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

  16. Treatment of petroleum drill cuttings using bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Ogar, Innocent; Okparanma, Reuben N; Ayotamuno, Josiah M

    2016-07-28

    This study sought to compare the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation, as well as the combination of both techniques, supplemented with phytoremediation, in the decontamination of petroleum drill cuttings. Drill cuttings with relatively low concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals were mixed with soil in the ratio 5:1 and treated with three different combinations of the bioremediation options. Option A entailed bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. Option B had the combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. While biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation was deployed in option C. Option O containing the drill cuttings-soil mixture without treatment served as untreated control. Fertilizer application, tillage and watering were used for biostimulation treatment, while spent mushroom substrate (Pleurotus ostreatus) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were employed for bioaugmentation and phytoremediation treatment, respectively. The drill cuttings-soil mixtures were monitored for TPH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, metal concentrations, and fungal counts, over time. After 56 days of treatment, there was a decline in the initial TPH concentration of 4,114 mg kg(-1) by 5.5%, 68.3%, 75.6% and 48% in options O, A, B and C, respectively. Generally, higher TPH loss resulted from the phytoremediation treatment stage. The treated options also showed slight reductions in metal concentrations ranging from 0% to 16% of the initial low concentrations. The results highlight the effectiveness of bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediation. The combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation, however, may prove better in decontaminating petroleum drill cuttings to environmentally benign levels. PMID:27128694

  17. Exploiting phytochemicals for developing a 'push-pull' crop protection strategy for cereal farmers in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Bruce, Toby J A; Hooper, Antony M; Pickett, John A

    2010-10-01

    Lepidopteran stemborers and parasitic weeds in the genus Striga are major constraints to efficient production of cereals, the most important staple food crops in Africa. Smallholder farmers are resource constrained and unable to afford expensive chemicals for crop protection. Development of a push-pull approach for integrated pest and weed management is reviewed here. Appropriate plants were discovered that naturally emit signalling chemicals (semiochemicals). Plants highly attractive for egg laying by stemborer pests were selected and employed as trap crops (pull), to draw pests away from the main crop. Of these, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach), despite its attractiveness, supported minimal survival of the pests' immature stages. Plants that repelled stemborer pests, notably molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv., and forage legumes in the genus Desmodium, were selected as intercrops (push). Desmodium intercrops suppress Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. through an allelopathic mechanism. Their root exudates contain novel flavonoid compounds, which stimulate suicidal germination of S. hermonthica seeds and dramatically inhibit its attachment to host roots. The companion crops provide valuable forage for farm animals while the leguminous intercrops also improve soil fertility and moisture retention. The system is appropriate as it is based on locally available plants, not expensive external inputs, and fits well with traditional mixed cropping systems in Africa. To date it has been adopted by more than 30,000 smallholder farmers in East Africa where maize yields have increased from ∼1 t ha(-1) to 3.5 t ha(-1). Future directions for semiochemical delivery by plants including biotechnological opportunities are discussed. PMID:20670998

  18. LICURY CAKE IN LAMB FEED: CHARACTERISTICS OF CARCASS AND NON-CARCASS COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods, such as agroindustrial residues, for animal feeding aims to reduce production costs and increase animal productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of licury cake added to the diet of non-standardbred lambs (NSB. The study involved 20 male castrated NSB lambs, with an average age of 120±5 days and initial and final average weights of 25±2 kg and 34±2 kg, respectively; the lambs were kept in a feedlot and distributed in a completely random block design for 75 days. Three isonitrogenic diets (17% protein with three levels of licury cake supplementation (8, 16 and 24% and a control diet (0% licury cake were used. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum concentrate in a 50:50 ratio and the different levels of licuri cake were provided twice a day. The residue normality and variances compared by orthogonal and polynomial regression contrasts were verified for data analysis at 5% significance. The licury cake levels did not influence (P>0.05 the dry matter intake, minimum and maximum fat thickness, empty gastrointestinal tract, spleen, heart, kidneys, anterior and posterior quarters, muscle yield, marbling, other tissues or ash. There was a quadratic effect (P<0.05 for the average daily weight, skin yield and crude protein. Increasing the levels of licury cake reduced (P<0.05 real yield, loin eye area, and increased (P<0.05 leg yield, bone and moisture. A diet including up to 13% licury cake can be indicated as an alternative feeding source for feedlot NSB sheep.

  19. Analysis of Rumen Microbial Population of Cattle Given Silage and Probiotics Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONI RIDWAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rumen ecology is an important observation in evaluating the effectivity of silage and probiotic additives relating to their roles in cattle productivity. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of silage and probiotics on ruminal ecosystems in vivo using a molecular approach. Terminal-restriction fragment-length-polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis was used to detect changes of ecological communities based on 16S-ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S-rDNA. Two rumen canulated PO cattle were fed several diets i.e.; (R0 basal diet dry matter basis (Pennisetum purpureum 70% and commercial concentrate 30%, (R1 silage (basal diet fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum BTCC570, (R2 silage + probiotics (L. plantarium Str BTCC531, (R3 Basal diet + probiotics (L. plantarium Str BTCC531. Digesta samples were collected 3 h after feeding for pH and T-RFLP analysis. T-RFLP analysis was performed using the 16S-rDNA amplified from each sample. The lengths of the terminal restriction fragments were analysed after digestion with HhaI, HaeIII and MspI. Results showed the effectivenes of silage and probiotics, given together, on the index of Smith and Wilson evenness applied to T-RFLP ecology data (Evar with 0.89±0.04 being the highest. The diversity of rumen microorganisms is influenced by individual differences of each animal. T-RFLP analysis has a potency to be used for comparisons of complex bacterial communities, especially to detect changes in community structure in response to different variables and to show rumen bacteria diversity in the rumen.

  20. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480

  1. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake. PMID:24788311

  2. Herbage intake and animal performance of cattle grazing dwarf elaphant grass with two access times to a forage peanut area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Melo de Liz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively short grazing periods in a pure legume pasture can be an alternative for increasing animal performance in medium-quality tropical pastures. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the herbage intake and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. BRS Kurumi with two access times [2 h (07:00 - 9:00 and 6 h (07:00 - 13:00] to an area of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo. Twelve steers (219 ± 28.8 kg LW were divided into four groups and assessed during three consecutive grazing cycles, from January to March 2013. The crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents were 158 and 577 g/kg dry matter (DM for dwarf elephant grass and 209 and 435 g/kg DM for forage peanut, respectively. The pre-grazing height and leaf mass of dwarf elephant grass and forage peanut were 94 cm and 2782 kg DM/ha and 15 cm and 1751 kg DM/ha, respectively. The herbage intake (mean = 2.7 ± 0.06% LW and average daily weight gain (mean = 1.16 ± 0.31 kg/day were similar for both treatments. However, animals with 2-h access to the legume paddock grazed for 71% of the time, whereas those with 6-h access grazed for 48% of the time. The performance of the steers that were allowed to graze forage peanut pasture for 2 h is similar to that of those that were allowed to graze the legume pasture for 6 h.

  3. La photosynthèse du mil (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br. en présence de contrainte hydrique et saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Radhouane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La surexploitation et le gaspillage de nos ressources en eau, en particulier dans le domaine agricole, privent d’eau d’autres zones entraînant ainsi la baisse de la production agricole. L’amélioration de l’efficience de l’irrigation – soit l’augmentation de la production pour chaque mètre cube d’eau investi – est un objectif crucial pour l’avenir et doit donc devenir l’une des premières priorités. Que ce soit l’irrigation déficitaire ou l’usage d’eaux saumâtres, l’utilisation de ces eaux peut s’accompagner de transformations morphologiques, physiologiques et biochimiques dont l’intensité dépend de la plante. L’influence de contraintes hydriques et salines a été étudiée sur la photosynthèse de 3 écotypes locaux de mil soumis à 3 doses de sel et à 3 niveaux d’irrigation. Les résultats ont montré que l’efficience photosynthétique du mil est meilleure en présence d’un léger manque d’eau ou en présence d’une salinité modérée et que seule une sécheresse sévère ou un excès d’eau sont contraignants pour la photosynthèse de cette plante. Egalement, la photosynthèse a présenté une variabilité selon les écotypes utilisés.

  4. Effectivity of probiotic, micromineral enriched yeast and their combination with Azadirachta indica leaves containing tannin on fermentability and digestibility of Pennisetum hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sofyan; A. A. Sakti; M. F. Karimy; H. Julendra; L. Istiqomah; H. Herdian; E. Damayanti Mail; A. E. Suryani Mail

    2015-01-01

    Organic additive for animal had been explored to replace antibiotic growth promoter. Probiotic from lactic acid bacteria was widely used to support the microbial balances in digestive tract, while organic mineral was added into diets to improve bioavailability for preventing mineral deficiency disorders. This experiment was aimed to assess probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici RS2) and micromineral enriched yeast (MEY) combined with tannin from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves containing tannin...

  5. Cereal Domestication and Evolution of Branching: Evidence for Soft Selection in the Tb1 Orthologue of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.)

    OpenAIRE

    Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Lakis, Ghayas; Rekima, Samah; Leveugle, Magalie; Fontaine, Michaël C; Langin, Thierry; Sarr, Aboubakry; Robert, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these target traits composing the domestication syndrome. We focused on the reduction of branching which occurred in several cereals, an adaptation known to rely on the major gene Teosinte-branched1 (Tb1) in...

  6. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection.

  7. Weed Species in Pennisetum alopecuroides Meadow in Huaxi District,Guiyang%贵阳市花溪地区狼尾草地的杂草种类调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 张菊; 王威力; 王平; 袁莉; 徐刚; 黄剑

    2015-01-01

    Weed species in P .alopecuroides meadow were investigated by using the inverted W-pattern with 9 sampling method to understand weed occurrence status in P .alopecuroides meadow in Huaxi District,Guiyang.The results showed that there are 33 species of weeds belonged to 13 families,and 14 Asteraceae weeds, 5 Gramineae weeds, 3 Amaranthaceae weeds and 2 Labiatae weeds account for 42.42%,15.15%、9.09% and 6.06% respectively.Dominant weeds with relative abundance > 5% are Sonchus brachyotus ,Galinsoga parviflora , Digitaria sanguinalis , Siegesbeckia orientalis , Bidens pilosa ,Artemisia argyi ,Lamium amplexicaule ,Cyperus rotundus ,Setaira viridis ,Ixeris debilis , Chenopodium album ,Pinellia ternate ,Ixeris chinensis ,Capsicum frutescens ,Reigeron annuus ,Oxalis corniculata ,Capsella bursa-pastoris ,Cirsium segetum ,Var .indica,Amaranthus viridis and Fallopia multiflora .S.brachyotus,G.parviflora,D.sanguinalis and S.orientalis,are dominant populations in local P .alopecuroides meadow.%为了解贵阳市花溪地区狼尾草地的杂草发生情况,为其杂草防除提供依据,采用倒“W”9点取样法对其进行调查。结果表明:狼尾草地的杂草共有13科33种。其中,菊科最多,有14种,占42.42%;禾本科、苋科、唇形花科分别有5种、3种 和 2 种,各占15.15%、9.09%和6.06%;其余科各1种,各占3.03%。相对多度>5%的优势杂草有苣荬菜、辣子草、马唐、豨莶、鬼针草、艾草、宝盖草、莎草、狗尾巴草、剪刀股、藜、半夏、山苦荬、辣椒、一年蓬、酢浆草、荠菜、小蓟、马兰、野苋和何首乌。其中,苣荬菜、辣子草、马唐和豨莶为当地狼尾草地的优势种群。

  8. The mineral nutrition of millet (Pennisetum-typhoides): Migration of 32P and 35S - Similarities with the migration of photosynthetic assimilates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a study of the transport of 32P and 35S injected into leaves or of 14CO2 absorbed thereby. It is shown that the radioisotopes mostly travel towards the upper parts of the plant and towards the seeds when they originate from upper leaves after male flowering. The later fillers, however, do not play any role as a reserve in the mineral or carbon nutrition of adult fillers. No appreciable absorption of 35S or 32P by the roots is observed after male flowering. (author)

  9. Determination of in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides on cultured A549 human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa Elizabeth Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the 1 st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines.

  10. 添加糖蜜和尿素对象草青贮发酵品质的影响%Effects of Adding Molasses and Urea on Fermentation Quality of Napier Grass Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣辉; 余成群; 李志华; 下条雅敬; 邵涛

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate effects of adding molasses and urea on the fermentation quality of napier grass(Pen-nisetum purpureum Schumach. ) silage, napier grass harvested at 65 days (elongation stage) was ensiled in laboratory silos for 3, 7, 14, and 30 days at the ambient temperature. Four treatments included: no addi-tives (control) , 4% molasses (M) , 0. 4% urea (U) , and 4% molasses + 0. 4% urea (MU). Samples were taken for analyzing fermentation quality after the silos were opened. Results showed that the control de-creased fermentation quality during the later stage (14 ~30 d) of ensiling. The treatment U mainly pro-duced acetic acid and butyric acid, and significantly increased pH and NH3-N/total nitrogen values com-pared with control(P<0. 05). Both treatment M and MU significantly increased water soluble carbohy-drate and lactic acid contents (P<0. 05) , maintained a low level of butyric acid (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.)青贮发酵品质的影响,试验设4个处理:即无添加(对照)、4%糖蜜组(M)、0.4%尿素组(U)、4%糖蜜+0.4%尿素组(MU),添加比例以鲜重为基础.在青贮后第3,7,14,30 d开窖,取样分析其发酵品质.结果表明:对照发酵品质在青贮后期(14~30 d)下降;U组主要发酵产物是乙酸和丁酸,且pH和氨态氮/总氮值显著高于对照(P<0.05),发酵品

  11. Influência da taxa de carga orgânica no desempenho de sistemas alagados construídos cultivados com forrageiras Influence of organic loading rate on the performance of constructed wetlands cultivated with grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da taxa de carga orgânica (TCO no desempenho de sistemas alagados construídos (SACs de escoamento subsuperficial. Cada SAC foi constituído por um tanque de 0,40 x 0,73 x 3,00 m. A água residuária de laticínios (ARL foi aplicada com vazão de 60 L.d-1. O tratamento testemunha foi constituído por um SAC sem vegetação, ao qual foi aplicada uma TCO de 130 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO. Nos SACs cultivados com capim-elefante e com capim-tifton 85, foram aplicadas TCOs de 66, 130, 190, 320 e 570 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO. Os SACs se mostraram eficientes na remoção de DBO, DQO, SST, ST e nitrogênio. TCOs entre 250 e 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO proporcionaram maiores eficiências na remoção da carga orgânica e acima de 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 na de sólidos da água residuária. A presença de plantas nos SACs mostrou-se importante na remoção de N, K e Na da ARL.The present paper was carried out to study the influence of organic loading rate (OLR on the performance of subsurface flow constructed wetlands systems (CWs. Each CW was composed of a sealed tank of 0.40 x 0.73 x 3.00 m. The dairy industry wastewater was applied with flow rate of 60 L.d-1. In the control system, consisting of CW without vegetation, 130 kg.ha-1 d-1 of BOD was applied. In vegetated CWs (cultivated with elephant grass and tifton 85 bermudagrass, OLRs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1 d-1 of BOD were applied . The CW systems were efficient in the removal of BOD, COD, TSS, TS and nitrogen. OLRs between 250 and 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 BOD provide greater efficiencies in organic loading removal and above 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 in the solids removal from wastewater. The presence of the plants in the CWs showed to be important in the removal of N, K and Na of wastewater.

  12. Glyphosate e nitrgênio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas Glyphosate and nitrogen in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in established elephant grass stocking piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência de utilização do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubação nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dezessete tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, sendo quatro doses de glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/aplicação, quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano e um tratamento adicional (testemunha com capina. As aplicações do nitrogênio e glyphosate, nas respectivas doses, foram realizadas imediatamente após o corte do capim-elefante. A associação entre o herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação e nitrogênio (225 kg/ha/ano foi eficiente no controle de capim-braquiária em capineiras estabelecidas. A aplicação do herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação reduziu o tamanho do banco de sementes de capim-braquiária no solo em 64%.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks with 17 treatments and three replications. The treatments were arranged in 4x4+1 factorial scheme, namely four doses of glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/application, four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano and one additional treatment (control with a hoeing. The application of the nitrogen and glyphosate, in the respective doses were performed immediately after the cutting of elephant grass. The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. The application of the glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application reduced the size of the bank of brachiaria grass seeds in the soil in 64%.

  13. Utilização de diferentes materiais como cobertura morta do solo no cultivo de pimentão Utilization of different materials for mulching in bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cleiton F. Queiroga

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta sobre características de frutos do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Yolo Wonder em um experimento instalado em campo na ESAM, de junho a novembro de 1994 . O clima local é semi-árido, seco e muito quente, com as estações seca (de junho a janeiro e chuvosa (fevereiro a maio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos completos casualizados com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizadas as coberturas mortas de palha de vagens de caupi, palha de carnaúba, raspa de madeira, palha de milho, palha de sorgo e palha de capim elefante e a testemunha sem cobertura. O diâmetro de frutos, número de frutos por planta, peso de frutos e a produção foram afetados pela cobertura morta, tendo a palha de carnaúba se mostrado superior às demais coberturas mortas. O comprimento do fruto não foi afetado pelas coberturas mortas avaliadas. A maior incidência de plantas invasoras ocorreu no tratamento com palha de vagem de caupi.The effect of different mulching materials on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Yolo Wonder fruit characteristics was evaluated in an experiment carried out in Mossoró (Brasil, from June to November of 1994. The local climate is semi-arid, dry and very hot, with a dry season (June to January followed by a rainy one (February to May. The experimental design was of randomized complete block with seven treatments and four replications. Cowpea pod straw, sliced carnauba dried leaves, wood chips, corn straw, sorghum straw and elephant-grass straw were used as mulching. The treatment using carnauba dried leaves as mulching was superior when compared to the other mulchings with regard to the diameter, fruit number and weight, and yield of fruits. The length of the fruits was not affected by treatments. Weed population was greater when cowpea pod straw was used as mulching.

  14. Avaliação da produção de bezerros em confinamento ou em suplementação exclusiva Evaluation of production of calves in feed lot or in creep feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.V. Ítavo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de vacas e bezerros desmamados aos 90 (D90 e aos 210 (D210 dias, utilizando-se 36 vacas Beefalo-Nelore, multíparas e seus bezerros, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 18 repetições, sendo nove machos e nove fêmeas. Aos 90 dias pós-parto os bezerros foram pesados e distribuídos em dois tratamentos, adotando-se para a formação do bloco o peso e o sexo do bezerro. Os dois tratamentos foram creep-feeding (D210 e confinamento (D90. Os bezerros (D210 foram criados em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e B. humidicula com 48 hectares Os bezerros (D90 foram confinados em 7,95m²/animal e receberam capim elefante picado e concentrado. As médias de consumo de matéria seca do concentrado, do peso ao desmame e do ganho de peso foram 0,56 e 1,69kg/dia; 208,68 e 185,67kg; 0,75 e 0,52kg/dia, respectivamente, para bezerros D210 e D90. Matrizes D90 apresentaram maior peso (448,86kg aos 210 dias pós-parto. Sugere-se a suplementação excluviva, ou creep-feeding, para desmame de bezerros mais pesados.Performances of cows and calves weaned at 90 (D90 and 210 days of age (D210 were evaluated, using 36 Beefalo-Nelore multiparus cows and their calves, in a randomized block experimental design, with 18 replicates of nine animals of each sex. Calves were allotted to treatments using as criteria to form blocks, the weight and sex of the animal. Calves (D210 were raised in 48ha pasture of Brachiaria decumbens e B. humidicula. Calves (D90 were raised in feedlot condition, in an area of 7.95m² /animal, and were fed chopped elephant grass and concentrate. The average concentrate dry matter intake, weaned body weight and weight gain were, respectively, 0.56 and 1.69kg/day; 208.68 and 185.67kg; 0.75 and 0.52kg/day respectively for D210 e D90 calves. Cows from D90 treatment showed higher body weight (448.86kg at 210 days post partum. Creep-feeding is suggested for weaning heavier calves.

  15. Growth curve of lambs from three systems of production in Northeastern BrazilCurva de crescimento de cordeiros oriundos de três sistemas de produção na Região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Costa Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze nonlinear models to describe growth of lambs in three production systems. The models used were: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Richards. In a 1 production system was used lambs in “creep feeding”, weaned at 60 days old and kept on pasture until they reach average 20 kg, when they were confined, slaughtered between 28 and 30 kg. In the 2 production system, lambs weaned at 90 days and kept on cultivated pasture and slaughtered between 28 and 30 kg, were used. In 3 Production System, lambs weaned at 90 days old and kept in an area of native pasture supplemented with elephant grass and leucena, in the critical period of the year and slaughtered at 28 to 30 kg were used. 17 weights of 30 animals, 10 animals for each system, from birth to 450 days, were used. Based on the study of the growth curves that are best adapted to predict the results of growth were those of Richards and Brody models, however none of the models simulated curve showed satisfactory results for the three production systems.O objetivo foi analisar modelos não lineares para descrever o crescimento de cordeiros criados em três Sistemas de produção. Os modelos utilizados forram: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Richards e Gompertz. No Sistema de produção 1 utilizaram-se cordeiros alimentados em “creep-feeding”, desmamados aos 60 dias de idade e mantidos em pastagem cultivada até atingirem media de 20 kg, quando foram confinados, e abatidos entre 28 e 30 kg. No Sistema de produção 2 utilizaram-se cordeiros desmamados aos 90 dias e mantidos em pastagem cultivada, sendo abatidos entre 28 e 30 kg. No Sistema de produção 3 utilizaram-se cordeiros desmamados com 90 dias de idade e mantidos em área de pastagem nativa suplementados com feno de capim elefante e de leucena no período crítico do ano e abatidos aos 28 e 30 kg. Foram utilizadas 17 pesagens de 30 animais, sendo 10 animais para cada Sistema, do nascimento aos 450 dias. Com base no

  16. A PRODUÇÃO DE BRIQUETES PARA AMENIZAR A PRESSÃO ANTRÓPICA SOBRE O BIOMA CAATINGA NA REGIÃO DO BAIXO-AÇU POTIGUAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Roberto de Lucena Tavares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 98% do território do Rio Grande do Norte estão incluídos nas chamadas Áreas Susceptíveis à Desertificação do Brasil. Na região do Baixo-Açu, o desmatamento sistemático da mata nativa para atender às necessidades do polo ceramista e de outras pequenas indústrias locais tem intensificado o grave quadro de devastação ambiental da região. Este estudo examinou a viabilidade econômico-financeira da produção comercial de briquetes como forma de suprir parte da demanda por lenha e carvão vegetal, mitigando assim os efeitos antrópicos sobre o bioma caatinga. Os briquetes seriam compostos  de resíduos da produção de cera de carnaúba e  de capim-elefante plantado exclusivamente para fins energéticos nas áreas irrigáveis da região. As estimativas de custos de instalação e manutenção da fábrica foram feitas tendo como parâmetros os custos de instalação de uma fábrica-escola em construção no Campus Ipanguaçu do IFRN e os custos de produção de uma fábrica idêntica a esta, em operação há cinco anos, no Estado do Paraná. Os dados foram sistematizados em planilhas do software Make Money, usado na avaliação da viabilidade econômica a partir de aferidores como Valor Presente Líquido, Payback e Taxa Interna de Retorno. Os resultados comprovaram que a produção de biocombustíveis sólidos adensados é viável no Baixo-Açu e pode contribuir de maneira efetiva para a recomposição da mata nativa, além de gerar ocupação e renda para os moradores da região.

  17. Desempenho de cordeiros Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês e Santa Inês puros, terminados em confinamento, alimentados com casca de café como parte da dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Iraides Ferreira Furusho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros e cordeiras cruzas Texel x Bergamácia (T x B, Texel x Santa Inês (T x S e Santa Inês (SI puros. Trinta e seis animais foram confinados individualmente, durante um período de 50 dias, recebendo, além de silagem de capim elefante, três dietas: A = sem casca de café (controle, B = com casca de café in natura e C = com casca de café tratada com uréia e grão de soja moído. Os animais foram abatidos com idade média de 180 dias. Consumos de matéria seca (CMS, proteína bruta (CPB e fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, conversão alimentar (CA, peso final (PF, ganho de peso diário (GPD, peso de abate (PA, diferença de peso devido ao jejum (DPJ, conteúdo do aparelho digestório (CAD e peso do corpo vazio (PCV foram avaliados. A utilização de casca de café na dieta, tratada ou não, não influenciou os consumos de MS, PB, PF, GPD, CA, PF, GPD, PA, DPJ, CAD e PCV. O consumo de FDN aumentou com a utilização da casca de café, sendo menor para os animais que consumiram a dieta contendo casca de café tratada com uréia. Os animais cruzas T x B e T x S apresentaram menores consumos MS, PB e FDN e maiores PF, PA, CAD e PCV, comparados aos cordeiros SI. Não foi observada diferença entre os grupos genéticos para CA, GPD e DPJ, apesar dos valores ligeiramente maiores, mas não-significativos, para CA e GPD dos cordeiros T x B e T x S. Os machos apresentaram valores inferiores de consumos de MS, PB, FDN e CA e superiores para PF, GPD, PA e PCV que femeas. Machos e fêmeas mostraram-se semelhantes para DPJ e CAD.

  18. Produção de forragem verde hidropônica de milho, utilizando substratos orgânicos e água residuária de bovinos

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    Marco Antonio Píccolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade da forragem verde hidropônica de milho em diferentes substratos orgânicos e em água residuária de bovinos com diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 5 + 4, com três repetições. As soluções nutritivas utilizadas foram: testemunha (solução nutritiva padrão para hidroponia de milho e água residuária de bovinos, com 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de nitrogênio, com volume de aplicação de 4 L m-2. Os substratos utilizados foram bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, casca de café, capim elefante cv napier e sem substrato. A densidade de semeio foi de 2,5 kg m-2 de sementes de milho pré-germinadas. A colheita foi realizada 15 dias após a instalação do experimento. Avaliou-se a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca da base (composta por raízes + sementes não germinadas + substrato orgânico e matéria seca da planta toda. A água residuária de bovinos pode ser utilizada em substituição à solução nutritiva padrão, não havendo necessidade de seu enriquecimento com nitrogênio. Houve efeito significativo dos substratos utilizados na produção de matéria seca da forragem, com destaque para os substratos capim napier e bagaço de cana, que promoveram incrementos na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea.

  19. Consumo de forrajes tropicales por vacas lecheras, mestizas Siboney, manejadas en condiciones de estabulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J. Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el comportamiento de tres forrajes tropicales y su consumo por animales lecheros, durante tres años, se utilizó un área total de cultivos de 4.25 hectáreas, distribuidas en 1.50 hectáreas para caña de azúcar (Sacharum officinarun, 2 hectáreas del king grass clon CT-169 (Pennisetum purpureum vc Cuba CT-169 y 0.75 hectáreas de leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala; para estimar el consumo, se utilizaron 20 vacas lecheras mestizas de Siboney, mantenidas en régimen de estabulación, con dieta semi-integral. Se realizó un análisis de varianza, según diseño completamente aleatorizado, en arreglo factorial. Los resultados arrojan que las disponibilidades promedio del forraje caña de azúcar fueron mayores (P<0.05 en la época poco lluviosa: 1,916.64 vs. 1,474.73 kg MS ha-1 mes-1; mientras que los forrajes de CT-169 y leucaena fueron superiores sus disponibilidades (P<0.01 en la época lluviosa: 924.76 y 519.01 vs. 649.10 y 314.20 kg MS ha-1 mes-1, respectivamente. La calidad de los forrajes fue menor (P<0.001 en la época poco lluviosa. Los consumos totales de materia seca que realizaron los animales, fue superior (P<0.001 en la época lluviosa (10.56 vs. 9.33 kg MS animal-1 día-1; mientras que los animales de ordeño realizaron un mayor (P<0.001 consumo que los secos (10.82 vs. 9.06 kg MS animal-1 día-1. Los resultados expresan la posibilidad del sistema en estabulación de mantener una carga promedio de 4.70 a 4.9 UGM ha-1, con vacas lecheras de mediano potencial y obtener un consumo adecuado de estos forrajes.

  20. Formation and combustion characteristics of elephantgrass and energycane wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofleh, Mohamad I.

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and energycane (Saccharum Spp.) are two cane type grasses. These are tall-growing perennial bunchgrasses that produce long hardened stems and grow in the tropics and subtropics. Traditionally, they have been used for forage and, in some regions, have been randomly burned on fields or disposed of uselessly. However, these plants have high dry matter yield and, thus, are excellent candidates as energy crops. Elephantgrass and energycane have been used for direct combustion in their loose form in large-scale applications. Several problems, many of which were attributed to their low bulk density, were encountered with using the materials. Consequently, this project was initiated to investigate the formation and combustion characteristics of the two materials in the form of small compact units called wafers. A hydraulic press that applied axial stresses on the material in four different dies was used. A load cell and a displacement transducer were utilized to measure the stresses and material detection. Wafer quality was evaluated using a tumbler built according to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers standards. In addition, a small stove was built to test wafer combustion. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures during combustion. All the data gathered was transferred to a computer using a data acquisition system. It was found that the stress-deformation and stress-density relationships of elephantgrass and energycane were of exponential nature. Compaction energy required, which was calculated from the area under the force-deformation curves, ranged from 0.1 to 0.3% of their energy content. It was also found that wafer quality (durability) was mainly a function of wafer size and its final (relaxed) density in addition to material stem-to-leaf ratio and its crude protein content. Wafers possessed poor ignition quality but once ignited, they burned satisfactorily. The results indicated that sufficient and

  1. Effect of secondary compounds in forages on rumen micro-organisms quantified by 16S and 18S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas syringe method was used to evaluate the effect of secondary compounds from plant materials on in vitro fermentation products and microbial biomass. The experiment used Pennisetum purpureum, Morinda citrifolia fruit, Nothopanax scutellarium leaves, Sesbania sesban LS (low saponins type), Sesbania sesban HS (high saponins type) and Sapindus rarak fruit as substrates. The incubation was conducted with and without polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) addition for 24 hours. Gas production and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were analysed. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic concentrations were measured by quantifying 16S and 18S rRNA. The percentage increase in gas production due to PEG was very small (<5%) for all plant materials, which indicated that the biological effect of tannin in these plant materials is limited. TLC analysis revealed that all materials contained saponin, but only S. rarak, followed by S. sesban, contained a high diversity of saponins. S. sesban gave the highest (234 ml/g) while S. rarak gave the lowest gas production (115 ml/g). S. rarak gave the lowest SCFA production (3.57 mmole/g) and also the lowest ratio of acetate to propionate (1.76), indicating a change in pattern of SCFA production. Total elimination of eukaryotic concentration was evident from the absence of the 18S rRNA band when S. rarak and S. sesban were used as sole substrates. S. rarak also reduced the prokaryotic concentration. To use S. rarak as a defaunating agent without affecting prokaryotes, a crude saponin extract was prepared from S. rarak for further experiment. Different concentrations of crude saponins in a methanol extract of S. rarak fruit dissolved in rumen buffer were added to a substrate consisting of elephant grass and wheat bran (7:3 w/w). Microbial biomass yield was quantified by gravimetry and using rRNA as a marker. Addition of crude saponin extract from S. rarak to a high-roughage diet increased microbial biomass (MB) yield to 1.07 and 1.14 times MB yield of the

  2. Study of biomass applied to a cogeneration system: A steelmaking industry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a theoretical technical study was carried out using Brazilian available biomass materials (rice husk, coffee husk and elephant grass) compared to natural gas applied to an electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking process. Rice and coffee husk are biomass residues from the agriculture while elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum Schum) is an abundant, fast growing plant, which is used for cattle breeding. The ultimate analysis of the biomass materials was carried out in the research department of a Brazilian Steelmaking Industry. The results of the ultimate analysis were used to determine the lower calorific value and the mass flow rate of the biomass materials used in the cogeneration system. The actual steelmaking process uses natural gas to both improve the “cold spots” inside the furnace and contribute to minimize the use of electrical energy in the heating process. The feasibility study considers a combined heat and power plant (CHP) to generate electricity and heat to the electric arc furnace (EAF) process. This study used the First Law of Thermodynamics to determine the operational parameters of the cogeneration plant considering three cases of different operational parameters in the Rankine cycle. The technical results show that the natural gas consumption and exhaust gas generation were the lowest among the fuels in the three cases analyzed. Regarding the exhaust gases generation, some aspects should be highlighted: the combustion of biomass is considered carbon neutral; the exhaust gases generated may be used to scrap preheat; also, biomass is a renewable fuel in contrast with natural gas, which is a fossil fuel. Thus, an economic analysis, considering only the operational cost of the plant, was conducted exhibiting that elephant grass had the lowest operational cost, accounting for a reduction of about 9% in the second case and 15% in the third case compared to natural gas. Although the biomasses have lower LCV than natural gas, they

  3. Influence of Host-Plant Surface Chemicals on the Oviposition of the Cereal Stemborer Busseola Fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Gerald; Clément, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Hassanali, Ahmed; Derridj, Sylvie; Gaertner, Cyrile; Linard, Romain; Le Ru, Bruno; Frérot, Brigitte; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2016-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant surfaces plays a role in selection of host plants by herbivorous insects. Once the insect reaches the plant, these cues determine host acceptance. Laboratory studies have shown that the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of sorghum and maize in sub-Saharan Africa, is able to differentiate between host and non-host plant species. However, no information is available on the cues used by this insect to seek and accept the host plant. Thus, the role of surface phytochemical stimuli on host selection and oviposition by B. fusca was studied in the laboratory using two host plants, sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, and maize, Zea mays, and one non-host plant, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum. The numbers of eggs and egg masses deposited on the three plant species were compared first under no-choice and choice conditions. In both cases, more eggs and egg masses were laid on maize and sorghum than on the non-host. Artificial surrogate stems treated with a water or chloroform surface extract of each plant were then compared with surrogate stems treated with, respectively, water or chloroform as controls, under similar conditions. Surrogate stems treated with plant water extracts did not show an increase in oviposition when compared to controls, indicating that the major compounds in these extracts, i.e., simple sugars and free amino acids, are not significantly responsible for the oviposition preference. By contrast, a chloroform extract of sorghum enhanced oviposition on the surrogate stems compared to the control, while those of maize and Napier grass showed no significant effects. Analysis of the chloroform extract of sorghum showed higher amounts of α-amyrin, ß-amyrin, and n-nonacosane compared to those of maize and Napier grass. A blend of the three chemicals significantly increased oviposition compared to the chloroform-treated control, indicating that these compounds are part of the surface chemical

  4. Comparisons of Shade Tolerance Parameters of 8 Tropical Grasses%8种热带牧草的耐荫生理参数比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安锋; 王真辉; 陈志权; 虞道耿; 白昌军

    2007-01-01

    为寻找合适于热带橡胶树等人工林下种植的耐荫牧草,于2005年选取热研11号黑籽雀稗(Paspalum atratum Swallen cv.Reyan No.11)、热研2号柱花草[Stylosanthes guianensis(Aublet)Swartz cv.Reyan No.2]、热研8号坚尼草(Panicum maximum Jacquin cv.Reyan No.8)、热研4号王草[Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher×P.glaucum(Linnaeus)R.Brown cv.Reyan No.4]、热研14号网脉臂形草[Brachiaria dictyoneura(Figari et de Notaris)Stapf cv.Reyan No.14]、热研15号刚果臂形草(Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain et Evrard cv.Reyan No.15)、热研12号平托落花生(Arachis pintoi Krapovickas et Gregory cv.Reyan No.12)和太空辐射育种柱花草[Stylosanthes guianensis(Aublet)Swartz cv.Amarillo]等8种热带牧草为研究对象,测定、分析了它们的叶片光合-光响应特性、叶色素含量及其与耐荫性关系.结果表明,8种牧草品种的光补偿点、表观量子效率、光饱和点、最大光合速率、暗呼吸速率、叶绿素a、叶绿素b及叶绿素总量含量均存在显著差异.综合各生理参数比较结果和生产实践经验,认为8种牧草中,热研14号网脉臂形草、热研8号坚尼草、热研12号平托落花生和热研2号柱花草较适合在具有一定荫蔽的橡胶树等热带林下种植.热研4号王草则兼有耐荫植物和喜光植物的光能利用特点,值得进一步研究、利用.

  5. Milheto-grão (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br. como substituto do milho em rações para poedeiras comerciais Pearl millet grain as corn substitute in laying hen rations

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    M.B. Café

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com milheto como substituto do milho em rações de postura. Duzentas poedeiras comerciais, da linhagem LSL Lohmann branca, com 30 semanas de idade, receberam rações com níveis crescentes de substituição da energia metabolizável fornecida pelo milho por milheto. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos, cinco repetições e 10 aves por repetição. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de postura, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar em termos de dúzias e de massa de ovos, o peso médio de ovos, a porcentagem de casca e de gema, e a porcentagem de clara. Não se observou diferença estatística significativa em todas as características. O índice de coloração de gema, pelo leque colorimétrico Roche, apresentou pior coloração à medida que os níveis de milheto foram crescentes nas rações. Os resultados indicam que o milheto não afetou o desempenho produtivo das aves, devendo-se recomendar o seu uso com pigmentantes sintéticos ou naturais.The production performance and egg quality of laying hens receiving increasing levels of pearl millet grain in rations were studied. Two hundred 30-week-old LSL Lohmann white hens, allotted in a completely randomized design with five treatments, five replicates with 10 hens, were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of pearl millet grain in rations as corn substitute. The performance was evaluated by egg production, feed intake, feed conversion in terms of dozen eggs and egg mass, and egg quality measured as egg weight, shell, albumen and yolk porcentages. No differences among treatments were observed for all characteristics, but the yolk color index measured by the Roche fan indicated decreasing in yolk colour as the level of pearl millet increased. Pearl millet did not affect the production performance, and a synthetic or natural pigment should be included in rations.

  6. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

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    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  7. Dinâmica do peso e da condição corporal e eficiência reprodutiva de ovelhas da raça Santa Inês e mestiças Santa Inês-Suffolk submetidas a dois sistemas de alimentação em intervalos entre partos de 8 meses

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    Boucinhas Claudia da Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a eficiência produtiva e reprodutiva de ovelhas em dois sistemas de alimentação. Noventa e oito matrizes da raça Santa Inês e trinta e nove mestiças Suffolk (3/4 Suffolk + 1/4 Santa Inês foram divididas em dois tratamentos: tratamento 1 (T1 - mantidas em pastagem, com suplementação de silagem de capim elefante na seca invernal, e tratamento 2 (T2 -mantidas em pastagem, com suplementação de silagem de capim elefante na seca invernal e de concentrado três semanas antes e durante a estação de monta, três semanas antes do parto e durante a lactação. Verificou-se diferença (P<0,05 entre peso inicial (PI (52,5kg e 54,33kg, e peso final (PF (53,38kg e 55,76kg para T1 e T2, respectivamente. Houve efeito de genótipo (P<0,05, sendo PI 51,46 kg para a raça Santa Inês (SI e 55,38kg para as mestiças Santa Inês-Suffolk (SF. Para PF, observou-se 52,36kg para a Santa Inês e 56,78kg na mestiça Santa Inês-Suffolk. O peso pré-parto (PPP diferiu (P<0,05 apenas entre as estações, tendo sido de 65,23kg na estação reprodutiva I (2 a 4/2002, 58,15kg na estação reprodutiva II (10 a 12/2002 e 59,73kg na estação reprodutiva III (6 a 8/2003. No peso pós-parto (PPART, também ocorreram diferenças (P<0,05 entre a raça Santa Inês (53,59kg e a mestiça Santa Inês-Suffolk (57,05kg; no peso aos 30 dias de lactação (P30d a Santa Inês registrou 52,94kg e a mestiça Santa Inês-Suffolk 55,45kg. O peso aos 70 dias (P70d de lactação foi para a Santa Inês de 50,83kg e de 53,22 kg para a mestiça Santa Inês-Suffolk; e o peso aos 100dias (P100d de lactação foi de 51,55kg e de 53,61kg para a Santa Inês e para a mestiça Santa Inês-Suffolk, respectivamente. A condição corporal inicial (CCI foi maior (P<0,05 para o T2 2,47 do que para o T1 2,16. Na condição corporal final (CCF, 2,19 e 2,6, respectivamente para T1 e T2, mas os tratamentos não diferiram na condição corporal pré-parto (CCPP. A

  8. Increasing the overwintering survival of container-grown perennials

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Container grown perennials are a popular product offered by nurseries and greenhouses and included in their production but little research has been reported on proper overwintering techniques for herbaceous perennials and ornamental grasses. In the first experiment rooted liners of Pennisetum alopecuroides, Pennisetum â Hamelnâ and Pennisetum â Little Bunny,â were potted. Treatments included, utilizing two overwintering covers, two fertilizer rates (low or high) and two substrate...

  9. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

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    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  10. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e eqüídeos no Seridó Ocidental e Oriental do Rio Grande do Norte Toxic plants for livestock in the western and eastern Seridó, state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the Brazilian semiarid

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    Durval M. da Silva

    2006-12-01

    acesso à planta após esta ter sido cortada e misturada ou não com outras plantas. Os produtores mencionaram, também, as intoxicações por diversas plantas cuja toxicidade em forma espontânea não está comprovada, incluindo Paullinia sp, Passiflora sp, Dalechampia sp, Portulaca oleracea, Luffa acutangula, Cereus sp, Leersia hexandra e Stemodia maritima. Echinochloa polystachya e Pennisetum purpureum, que podem causar intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos, foram mencionadas por alguns produtores com causa de morte em bovinos. Um produtor descreveu um surto de intoxicação em bovinos e caprinos por Dieffenbachia picta que tinha sido cortada e colocada ao alcance dos animais.To determine the occurrence of plant poisoning in the Western and Eastern Seridó regions of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, 82 persons including farmers, agronomists and veterinarians were interviewed. The two more important toxic plants are Ipomoea asarifolia, which causes nervous signs in sheep, goats and cattle, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium, leading to abortion in goats, sheep and cattle. The abortive properties of this plant had been demonstrated experimentally in goats, but not in sheep and cattle. Some farmers mentioned the poisoning by A. pyrifolium as a cause of nervous signs in equidae and cattle. Poisoning by cyanogenic plants including Manihot spp, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (=Piptadenia macrocarpa, Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum halepense are important in the region. Important is also poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in cattle and with less frequency in goats, poisoning by Crotalaria retusa in horses, sheep and cattle, and by Mascagnia rigida in cattle. Poisoning by Brachiaria decumbens and Enterolobium contortisiliquum is sporadic. Other less important toxic plants in the region are Indigofera suffruticosa, Ipomoea carnea, and Ricinus communis. Some farmers reported poisoning by Marsdenia sp affecting sheep and cattle, and also a group of swine fed with the roots of the plant

  11. Studies of removal of chromium by model constructed wetland

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    C. Mant

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is a pollutant present in tannery wastewater, its removal is necessary for protection of the environment. Penisetum purpureum, Brancharia decumbens and Phragmites australis were grown hydroponically in experimental gravel beds to determine their potential for the phytoremediation of solutions containing 10 and 20 mg Cr dm-3. These concentrations, similar to tannery wastewater after initial physico-chemical treatment were used with the aim of developing an economic secondary treatment to protect the environment. All the systems achieved removal efficiencies of 97 - 99.6% within 24 hours. P. purpureum and B. decumbens removed 78.1% and 68.5% respectively within the first hour. Both P. purpureum and B. decumbens were tolerant of the concentrations of chromium applied, but P. purpureum showed the greatest potential because its faster growth and larger biomass achieved a much greater chromium removal over the whole length of time of the experiment.

  12. Segregate or cooperate- a study of the interaction between two species of Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Emily I; Mehdiabadi Natasha J; Ridgeway Julia G; Jack Chandra N; Edwards Tracy A; Queller David C; Strassmann Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A major challenge for evolutionary biology is explaining altruism, particularly when it involves death of one party and occurs across species. Chimeric fruiting bodies of Dictyostelium discoideum and Dictyostelium purpureum develop from formerly independent amoebae, and some die to help others. Here we examine co-aggregation between D. discoideum and D. purpureum, determine its frequency and which party benefits, and the extent of fair play in contribution to the altruisti...

  13. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação e de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo palma forrageira Ingestive behavior of lactating cows and sheep fed diets with spineless cactus

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    Safira Valença Bispo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, o primeiro com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira e o segundo para avaliar o efeito da substituição total do milho, e parcial da soja, por palma e ureia sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos e de vacas em lactação, respectivamente. No experimento 1, foram utilizados cinco ovinos machos, não-castrados, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 25,8 kg, distribuídos em quadrado latino 5 x 5. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas 8 vacas em lactação, com produção média inicial de 14 kg leite/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latino 4 x 4. A observação dos dados comportamentais foi realizada visualmente, durante 24 horas, em ambos os experimentos. No experimento 1, com a inclusão da palma forrageira, os consumos de matéria seca, o tempo de alimentação e as eficiências de ruminação aumentaram linearmente, ao passo que o tempo de ruminação reduziu, linearmente também; o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e as eficiências de alimentação apresentaram comportamento quadrático. No experimento 2, a inclusão de palma e ureia não influenciou os consumos de matéria seca e FDN nem os tempos de alimentação e ruminação e as eficiências de alimentação e de ruminação (kgMS/hora, no entanto, a eficiência de ruminação (kg FDN/hora apresentou comportamento quadrático. O tempo de mastigação total e o tempo de ócio não foram influenciados pela inclusão de palma na dieta nos dois experimentos. Recomenda-se para ração de ruminantes com alta proporção de palma forrageira a inclusão de uma fonte de fibra fisicamente efetiva.It was carried out two experiments, the first aiming to assess the effect of substituting elephant grass hay by spineless cactus and the second to evaluate the total replacement of corn and partial replacement of soybean by cactus and urea regarding to the ingestion behavior of sheep and lactating

  14. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill associada a diferentes volumosos em dietas para vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.569 Addition of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill to different types of roughage in the diet of lactating Holstein cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.569

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    Airon Aparecida Silva de Melo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da associação da palma forrageira com diferentes volumosos sobre o consumo, produção de leite e digestibilidade aparente de vacas em lactação com peso médio de 560 ± 50 kg e produção de 20 kg dia-1. Os tratamentos foram os diferentes volumosos: bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BC, feno de capim-tifton, feno de capim elefante, silagem de sorgo e mistura de bagaço de cana + silagem de sorgo. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, carboidratos totais (CHT, matéria orgânica (MO e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EE, FDN, CNF, CHT, MO e a produção e teor de gordura do leite. Os volumoso associados à palma forrageira não influenciaram o consumo e digestibilidade da maioria dos nutrientes, não influenciando também a produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura e o teor de gordura do leite, com médias de 16,92 kg dia-1, 17,57 kg dia-1 e 3,76%, respectivamente. A palma forrageira pode ser associada a diferentes volumosos em dietas para vacas em lactação, sem alterar o consumo, o desempenho e a digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the association of spineless cactus with different roughage sources on the apparent digestibility, intake and milk yield of lactating cows (average 560 ± 50 kg LW and 20 kg of daily milk yield. The treatments contained different roughage sources with spineless cactus: sugar cane bagasse, tifton hay, elephant grass hay, sorghum silage and a mixture of sugar cane bagasse + sorghum silage. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total carbohydrates (TCH, organic matter (OM and total digestible nutrients (TDN was evaluated. In

  15. Efeito da Monensina e Lasalocida sobre a Atividade de Fermentação de Aminoácidos in Vitro pelos Microrganismos Ruminais Effects of Monensin and Lasalocid on Fermentation of Amino Acids in Vitro by Mixed Ruminal Bacteria

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    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento visou estudar os efeitos in vitro dos ionóforos sobre a fermentação ruminal de aminoácidos. Utilizou-se líquido de rúmen de um novilho alimentado com dieta à base de capim-elefante, acrescentando solução de tripticase, em três tratamentos (controle-C, monensina-M e lasalocida-L. Foram feitas transferências diárias de inóculos para novos tubos e, no 11º dia, cada tratamento deu origem a três novos (C, M, L, totalizando nove combinações (2ª fase. Do 1º ao 10º dia de incubação, os ionóforos evitaram o aumento expressivo na produção de amônia comparado ao controle. Do 11º ao 12º dia, os ionóforos foram mais eficientes em decrescer a produção de amônia quando os mesmos estavam ausentes na 1ª fase; e a lasalocida foi ainda capaz de diminuir a produção de amônia e a concentração de proteína microbiana quando a monensina estava presente na 1ª fase. Do 16º ao 20º, dia verificou-se, independentemente dos tratamentos da 1ª fase, que os ionóforos diminuíram a produção de amônia. Entretanto, os ionóforos reduziram a concentração de proteína microbiana do tratamento controle da 1ª fase e aumentaram dos tratamentos contendo ionóforos. Por outro lado, verificou-se que, ao remover os ionóforos na 2ª fase, houve aumento significativo na produção de amônia, sendo que este efeito não foi detectado no 11º e 12º dias, provavelmente pelo efeito residual dos ionóforos.The objective of this experiment was to study the in vitro effects of the ionophores on ruminal fermentation of amino acids. Rumen fluid of a steer fed an elephant-grass based diet was used in the incubations, with addition of casein hydrolysate, in three treatments (control-C; monensin-M; and lasalocid-L. Inocula were transferred into new tubes, daily and on the 11th day of incubation, tubes from each of the treatments were used to inoculate three new tubes (C, M, L, totalizing nine combinations (second phase. From the 1st to

  16. Bagaço de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na dieta de vacas leiteiras: consumo de nutrientes Cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the diet of lactating cows: intake of nutrients

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    L.P. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis (0, 5, 10 e 15% de bagaço de mandioca à dieta de 12 vacas mestiças leiteiras Holandês x Zebu (composição racial com variação de ¼ a ¾ de sangue H x Z com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Foi avaliado o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, carboidratos totais (CHT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Forneceu-se silagem de capim-elefante como fonte de volumoso. As relações volumoso:concentrado utilizadas foram de 65,19:34,81; 61,59:38,41; 59,08:40,92 e 54,76:45,24. Formularam-se as dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas. Houve aumento linear do consumo de MS, MO, PB, CHT, CNF e NDT, efeito quadrático do consumo de EE e redução do consumo de FDA com o aumento do BM, enquanto o consumo de FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos.O bagaço de mandioca pode ser utilizado até o nível de 15% de inclusão na dieta total de vacas mestiças leiteiras sem trazer transtornos fisiológicos ou nutricionais aos animais.The effect of different inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, and 15% of cassava bagasse to the diet of 12 Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (breed composition varying from ¼ to ¾ H x Z blood, averaging 478.5kg body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk was evaluated. Cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, total carbohydrates (TC, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. Elephant grass silage was provided as roughage source. The roughage:concentrate ratios were 65.19:34.81; 61.59:38.41; 59.08:40.92; and 54.76:45.24. Isonitogen and isoenergetic diets

  17. Aplicações da curva de resistência no controle da qualidade física de um solo sob pastagem Applications of the resistance curve in the control of the physical quality of soils under grass

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    SILVIA IMHOFF

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A degradação da qualidade física do solo pode estar associada com a compactação causada pelo pisoteio dos animais. A resistência do solo à penetração (RP é um parâmetro físico utilizado para estabelecer o grau de compactação do solo. Contudo, esta varia com a umidade (teta e densidade do solo (Ds. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a curva de resistência do solo e utilizá-la na avaliação da qualidade física do solo num sistema de pastejo intensivo rotacionado de capim-elefante. A curva de resistência do solo foi determinada por meio de 48 amostras indeformadas, obtidas na profundidade de 0-10 cm numa Terra Roxa Estruturada utilizada com pastagem em sistema intensivo de exploração. Os resultados demonstraram correlação negativa entre a RP e teta, e correlação positiva entre RP e Ds. Estimativas indicaram que no potencial de -0,01 MPa a RP não atinge valores considerados restritivos ao crescimento radicular. Entretanto, no potencial de -0,3 MPa, a RP atinge níveis limitantes em toda a área. Quanto ao sistema de manejo e a espécie estudada, os resultados sugerem que a curva de resistência do solo pode ser utilizada para orientar as práticas de manejo visando à manutenção de uma qualidade física do solo adequada para o crescimento das plantas.The degradation of the physical quality of soils has been associated with the soil compaction caused by animal trampling. The soil resistance to penetration (SRP is a soil physical parameter used to assess the soil compaction degree. However, SRP varies with soil moisture (theta and bulk density (Db. The objective of this research was to quantify the soil resistance curve and use it to evaluate the physical quality of a soil under short duration grazing system of elephant grass. The soil resistance curve was measured using forty-eight undisturbed cores taken at the 0-10 cm depth of a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox used with elephant grass in intensive system of exploration. The

  18. Associação da palma forrageira com diferentes tipos de volumosos em dietas para vacas em lactação: comportamento ingestivo e parâmetros fisiológicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.239 Association of the forage cactus with different types of forage in diets for lactating cows: ingestive behaviour and physiologic parameters - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.239

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    Marcilio de Azevedo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de janeiro a abril de 2005, objetivando avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e os parâmetros fisiológicos de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com concentrado e palma forrageira associada a diferentes volumosos (bagaço de cana-de-açúcar em in natura, feno de capim-tifton, feno de capim-elefante, silagem de sorgo e bagaço de cana mais silagem de sorgo. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 x 5, após período pré-experimental de quatorze dias. Cada período experimental teve duração de 14 dias. O registro das variáveis comportamentais foi de forma visual, em intervalos de cinco minutos, em 24 horas. O ambiente foi monitorado de hora em hora, das 6h às 18h, por meio dos termômetros de bulbo seco e úmido. A temperatura retal e freqüência respiratória foram registradas às 9h e 18h. O consumo de água foi mensurado às 5h30min e 17h30min. Não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre os volumosos, quanto às variáveis fisiológicas e comportamentais, ao número de defecação e micção e a procura por água. Houve diferença (p The experiment was carried out from January to April 2005, evaluating the ingestive behaviour and physiologic parameters of lactating Holstein cows fed with cactus forage associated with different forage (sugarcane bagasse in natura, tifton grass hay, elephant grass hay, sorghum silage and sorghum silage plus sugarcane bagasse. Five cows were assigned to a 5 x 5 latin square design, after pre-experimental period of 14 days. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. The registration of the behavior variables was in a visual way, at five-minute intervals, in 24 hours. The ambient temperature was monitored every hour, from 6 am to 6 pm, through bulb dry and humid thermometer. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency were registered at 9 am and at 6 pm. The water intake was measured at 5.30 am and at 5.30 pm. There was no difference (p > 0.05 among

  19. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e fungos micorrízicos em solo de "landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos Biomass, microbial activity and mycorrhizal fungi in landfarming soil of petrochemical wastes

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    Alessandra M. de Paula

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, no presente trabalho, a biomassa microbiana, atividade heterotrófica e a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs de um solo de área de "landfarming" de resíduo petroquímico durante 15 anos. Realizaram-se análises laboratoriais e ensaios em casa de vegetação para avaliar as condições biológicas do solo e o efeito da inoculação com FMAs (Glomus clarum e Paraglomus occultum no crescimento de seis espécies vegetais com potencial para estabelecimento nesses solos. A biomassa microbiana e os indicadores de atividade bioquímica (respiração basal, respiração induzida por substrato e qCO2 apresentaram-se em valores típicos de solos não contaminados, exceto para o qCO2, que foram bem elevados. Esses resultados indicam a presença de comunidades microbianas ativas mas se verificou baixa atividade das enzimas b-glicosidase, fosfatase ácida e urease, indicando interferências nos processos bioquímicos do solo o que poderá comprometer sua capacidade de transformar os resíduos. Verificou-se também a ocorrência abundante de FMAs em plantas espontâneas ou introduzidas. Foi notória a resposta positiva da inoculação com FMAs sobre o crescimento da alfafa, braquiária e sorgo, porém sem influência no crescimento do capim-elefante. Esses resultados apontam a existência de populações microbianas tolerantes aos componentes tóxicos dos resíduos petroquímicos aplicados continuamente ao solo estudado.In the present study the microbial biomass, heterotrophic activity and the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated in soil samples from a landfarming area that has been used for petrochemical waste treatment for the last fifteen years. Laboratory analysis and greenhouse assays were conducted in order to evaluate soil biological conditions and the effects of inoculation with AMF (Glomus clarum and Paraglomus occultum on growth of six plant species with potential to establish in soil

  20. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS EVALUATED BY SEMIAUTOMATIC TECHNIQUE IN VITRO IN THE RUMINANT FEEDS WITH DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATE SOURCES IN THE ROUGHAGES RATE Producción de Ácidos Grasos Volátiles Evaluados por la Técnica Semiautomática in vitro en Los Alimentos para Rumiantes en Adicción de Fuentes de Carboidratos em la porcion volumosa PRODUÇÃO DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS VOLÁTEIS, AVALIADA PELA TÉCNICA SEMIAUTOMÁTICA IN VITRO, NA DIETA DE RUMINANTES COM DIFERENTES FONTES DE CARBOIDRATOS NA FRAÇÃO VOLUMOSA

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    Roberto de Camargo Wascheck

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carbohydrates sources (dent corn or flint corn or citrus pulp addition to forages (corn silage, sorghum silage + silage of corn residue, elephant grass, sugarcane, silage of corn residue was measured, through volatile fatty acids (VFA’s production at the time of incubation of 2, 6, 12 e 24 hours. A completely randomized design in split plot with the time factor in the subplots Was used. The averages gas productions were treated by the France parameters. The acetate was VFA of larger production. It observed high and positive correlation between all of VFA’s of the present study.

    KEY WORDS: Acetate, by-product, citrus pulp.
    A efectúan de fuentes del carbohidratos (maíz de la mella o maíz del pedernal o pulpa del cítrico la suma a los forrajes (el forraje conservado en silo de maíz, forraje conservado en silo del sorgo + el forraje conservado en silo de residuo de maíz, césped del elefante, el cana-de-azúcar, el forraje conservado en silo de residuo de maíz era moderado, a través de los ácidos grasos volátiles la producción. Los promedios gasean que las producciones fueron tratadas por los parámetros de Francia. El acetato era VFA de producción más grande. Observó la correlación alta y positiva entre todos de VFA del estudio presente. Avaliou-se o efeito da adição ou não de fontes de carboidratos (milho dentado ou milho duro ou polpa de citros a forragens (silagem de milho, silagem de sorgo + silagem de resíduo de milho, capim-elefante, cana-de-açúcar, silagem de resíduo de milho sem adição das fontes de carboidratos, pela técnica in vitro semiautomática de produção de gases em função da produção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGVs nos tempos de incubação de 2, 6, 12 e 24 horas. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas com o fator tempo nas subparcelas. As médias da produção de gases foram tratadas pelos parâmetros de France. O acetato foi

  1. Objetivos de seleção e valores econômicos de características de importância econômica para um sistema de produção de leite a pasto na Região Sudeste Breeding goals and economic values for pasture based milk production systems in the Southeast region of Brazil

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    Vera Lúcia Cardoso

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de um estudo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de seleção envolvendo animais da raça Holandesa e mestiços (Holandês x Zebu na região sudeste do Brasil, foram derivados valores econômicos para volume de leite (V, produção de gordura (G e de proteína (P, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, peso adulto (PA e vida útil no rebanho (VU, para um sistema de produção de leite a pasto com vacas mestiças (Holandês x Zebu. O manejo alimentar foi baseado no pastejo rotacionado de capim-elefante durante a estação chuvosa e suplementação volumosa de silagem de milho na época da seca. O fornecimento de concentrados foi na base de 1 kg de concentrado para 2,5 kg de leite, quando as produções individuais excediam 6 kg de leite/dia. Foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade para avaliar o impacto das mudanças no sistema de pagamento e variações no preço do leite sobre os valores econômicos das características estudadas. Foram também derivados valores econômicos considerando-se como fonte alternativa de suplementação volumosa na seca a mistura cana-de-açúcar + uréia. Os valores econômicos (US$, de acordo com o sistema de pagamento corrente para V, G, P, IPP, PA e VU, foram, respectivamente, 0,15; -0,48; -0,31; -0,11; 0,08 e 0,04. Os resultados das análises de sensibilidade são apresentados e discutidos.As part of a preliminary study on the design of a breeding program involving Holstein Friesian and crossbred cattle (Holstein x Zebu in the Southeast region of Brazil, economic values for milk volume (V, fat (F and protein (P production, age at first calving (AFC, mature body weight (MBW and herd life (HL were derived for a pasture based milk production system of crossbred cattle (Holstein x Zebu. The feeding regime was based on rotational grazing of elephantgrass during the rainy season and grazing plus maize silage during the dry season. Concentrates were fed when daily individual productions exceed 6-kg milk (1 kg

  2. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill associada a diferentes volumosos em dietas para vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação = Addition of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill to different types of roughage in the diet of lactating Holstein cows

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    Renata Rodrigues da Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da associação da palma forrageira com diferentes volumosos sobre o consumo, produção de leite e digestibilidade aparente de vacas em lactação com peso médio de 560 ± 50 kg e produção de 20 kg dia-1. Os tratamentos foram os diferentesvolumosos: bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BC, feno de capim-tifton, feno de capim elefante, silagem de sorgo e mistura de bagaço de cana + silagem de sorgo. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro(FDN, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, carboidratos totais (CHT, matéria orgânica (MO e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EE, FDN, CNF, CHT, MO e a produção e teor de gordura do leite. Os volumoso associados à palma forrageira não influenciaram o consumo e digestibilidade da maioria dos nutrientes, não influenciando também a produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura e o teor de gordura do leite, com médias de 16,92 kg dia-1, 17,57 kg dia-1 e 3,76%, respectivamente. A palma forrageira pode ser associada a diferentes volumosos em dietas para vacas em lactação, sem alterar o consumo, o desempenho e a digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the association of spineless cactus with different roughage sources on the apparentdigestibility, intake and milk yield of lactating cows (average 560 ± 50 kg LW and 20 kg of daily milk yield. The treatments contained different roughage sources with spineless cactus: sugar cane bagasse, tifton hay, elephant grass hay, sorghum silage and a mixture of sugar cane bagasse + sorghum silage. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total carbohydrates (TCH, organic matter (OM and total digestible nutrients (TDN was evaluated. In

  3. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos e ovinos em reator contínuo de PVC flexível Anaerobic digestion of goat and sheep wastes in a continuous reactor of flexible PVC

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    Danilo G. de Quadros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de fontes energéticas e as altas taxas de mortalidade do rebanho são dois grandes problemas para os agricultores familiares no semiárido brasileiro. De setembro de 2006 a abril de 2007 um reator contínuo com gasômetro em PVC flexível, com 33 m³ de volume, instalado na Estação Experimental da EBDA, Jaguarari, Estado da Bahia, foi monitorado quanto aos parâmetros bioquímicos, microbiológicos e parasitários do afluente e efluente, sendo avaliadas a produção e a composição do biogás, além da utilização do biofertilizante em capim-elefante. Com o manejo adequado, o poder poluente dos dejetos foi reduzido significativamente. Microbiologicamente, a eficiência de remoção de coliformes totais e fecais se manteve acima de 98% enquanto os ovos dos principais endoparasitos foram eliminados com o tratamento. A produção de biogás foi de 0,061 m³ kg-1 de esterco. Basicamente, o biogás apresentou, em sua composição, 58 e 34% de metano e gás carbônico, respectivamente. O biofertilizante (pH 7,5 foi uma boa fonte de nutrientes, sobretudo de nitrogênio (64 g 100L-1, 80% na forma amoniacal e potássio (214 g 100L-1, aumentando a produção de forragem sem alterações significativas na composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca e teor de minerais.The scarcity of energy resources and the high livestock mortality rates are perpetual problems for small farmers of the Brazilian semi-arid region. From September 2006 to April 2007 a continuous reactor, of 33 m³ with gasometer in PVC flexible film, was installed at the EBDA Experimental Station, Jaguarari, Bahia State and the affluent and effluent biochemical, microbiological, and parasitological characteristics were monitored, the biogas production and composition being evaluated, as well as the use of the biofertilizer in elephant grass. With adequate management, the pollution power of residues reduced significantly. Microbiologically, the

  4. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  5. Alimentación de bovinos con ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo y ráquis en diferentes proporciones

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    J. C. De la Cruz-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de bovinos consumiendo ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo como fruta y ráquis en diferentes proporciones, se realizó una prueba de alimentación con 12 bovinos cebú comercial, machos, enteros, con un peso promedio de 168±17 kg, a los que se les asignó, de manera aleatoria, cada uno de los siguientes tratamientos: I ensilado con 50% banano y 50% ráquis; II ensilado con 75% banano y 25% ráquis; y III un grupo testigo con zacate Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum. Los animales recibieron, además, 1.1 kg de pasta de soya como fuente proteica y 50 g de una premezcla comercial de minerales y sal común. La prueba tuvo una duración de 120 días, más un tiempo de adaptación de 15, periodo en el que las dietas se ofrecieron a libertad. Los animales fueron pesados cada 30 días y se les llevó diariamente el control de consumo de alimento. Las mejores (P0.05 entre ellos. El consumo de alimento base húmeda (CABH no presentó diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre tratamientos; sin embargo, el consumo de alimento base seca (CABS fue mayor (P<0.05 en el tratamiento ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 comparado con el de 50:50 (6.433 vs. 4.308 kg. El consumo de materia seca/100 kg de peso vivo fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 (2.334 y 1.990, comparados con los del ensilado 50:50 (1.413. El consumo de proteína cruda en kg fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales alimentados con zacate Taiwán. Porcentualmente, el consumo de proteína cruda fue mayor (P<0.05 en los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50 (16.99 y 17.36 %. La mayor eficiencia alimenticia (P<0.05 la obtuvieron los animales que consumieron el ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50. El análisis económico de este sistema de alimentación nos indica que se obtuvieron las mayores ganancias con el uso de los ensilados, siendo el mejor

  6. Soil fertility and 137 Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km2), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using 137 Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density, whereas soil chemical analyses

  7. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  8. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  9. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

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    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  10. “中苎1号”和“中苎2号”苎麻营养价值的初步评价%Preliminary Evaluation on Nutritional Value for Ramie [ Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.] Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛涛; 喻春明; 王延周; 陈继康; 熊和平; 陈平; 谭龙涛; 卢凌霄; 郑建树

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the nutritional value of two ramie varieties Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2 and provide a reference for ramie as a forage crop.The results showed that the nutritional quality of ramie [ Boehmeria nivea ( L.) Gaud.] was better than that of pe-rennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Pennisetum purpureum Schum.Besides, the nutritional quality of ramie was comparable to that found in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) .The crude protein content and leaf-stem ratio of ramie at 80 cm reaping height were significantly higher ( P<0.05 ) than 100 cm and 120 cm.The crude fiber content at 80 cm reaping height was significantly lower ( P<0.05 ) than 100 cm and 120 cm.DM yield and gross protein yield at 80 cm were obviously higher than 60 cm ( P<0.05 ) .The growth period at 80 cm height was 8 and 13 days less than 100 cm and 120 cm respectively , In addi-tion, the daily growth rate of crude protein of Zhongzhu No.1 at 80cm reaping height was significantly higher ( P<0.05 ) than other reaping heights.Based on the results , Zhongzhu No.1 and Zhongzhu No.2 could be used as forage crop , and in their second growth season , ramie should be reaped at about 80 cm height as ruminant feed.%本研究的目的是对“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”苎麻的营养价值进行初步评价,为苎麻作牧草利用提供参考。试验结果表明,苎麻的营养品质优于黑麦草和象草,和苜蓿相近;80 cm收割高度下苎麻的叶、茎粗蛋白含量和叶茎比均显著高于100 cm和120 cm ( P<0.05)的收割高度,叶、茎粗纤维含量则显著低于100 cm和120 cm ( P<0.05),同时干物质产量和粗蛋白产量均显著高于60 cm ( P<0.05),生长时间相对100 cm和120 cm分别缩短了8 d和13 d。此外,“中苎1号”在80 cm收割高度下的粗蛋白日增产速率显著高于其他收割高度( P<0.05)。综上可知,“中苎1号”和“中苎2号”可以做牧草开发利

  11. Badania właściwości fungistatycznych gleby

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Kanaujia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study the effect of rhizosphere of Pennisetum typhoides on the soil fungistasis. The fungistasis of three different regions of the root has been investigated in relation to rhizosphere effect.

  12. Dielectric Properties of Paper Made from Pulps Loaded with Ferroelectric Particles

    OpenAIRE

    El Omari, Hind; Zyane, Adel; Belfkira, Ahmed; Taourirte, Moha; Brouillette, François

    2016-01-01

    Due to its physical properties and its ease of manufacture, paper is widely used in various engineering applications such as electrical insulation materials for components in high voltage technology. In this study, paper loaded with ferroelectric nanoparticles (BaTiO3 and SrTiO3) was made with fibers obtained from plants growing on the Moroccan soil [Halfa (Stipa tenacissima), Agave (Agave americana), Pennisetum (Pennisetum alopecuroides), Typha (Typha latifolia), and Junc (Juncus effusus)] a...

  13. Uptake and Retention of Cs137 by a Blue-Green Alga in Continuous Flow and Batch Culture Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since routine monitoring data show that blue-green algae concentrate radioactivity from water by factors as great as 10,000, this study was initiated to investigate the uptake and retention patterns of specific radionuclides by the dominant genera of blue-green algae in the reactor effluents. Plectonema purpureum was selected for this study

  14. Evaluation of neutral detergent fiber contents in forages, concentrates and cattle feces ground at different particle sizes and using bags made from different textiles Avaliação dos teores de fibra em detergente neutro em forragens, concentrados e fezes bovinas moídas em diferentes tamanhos e em sacos de diferentes tecidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Neves Pereira Valente

    2011-05-01

    foi processado em 1 e 2 mm e acondicionado nos sacos seguindo-se a relação de 20 mg de matéria seca/cm² de superfície. Utilizou-se aparelho analisador de fibras (Ankom220, empregando-se a-amilase termoestável. Não foram verificados efeitos do tamanho de partículas. Contudo, perdas de partículas significativas foram verificadas com o uso do náilon. No segundo experimento foram utilizadas amostras de forragem (feno de capim-braquiária, cana-de-açúcar, feno de coastcross, palha de milho, silagem de milho e capim-elefante cortado aos 50 dias e 250 dias de rebrotação, alimentos concentrados (sorgo grão, glúten de milho, polpa cítrica, farelo de algodão, farelo de soja, farelo de trigo, milho grão, soja grão e casca de soja e fezes bovinas oriundas de animais alimentados com dietas contendo 15 e 50% de concentrado. As amostras foram preparadas, acondicionadas e analisadas como descrito no experimento anterior. Os menores teores de FDN foram encontrados com o uso de sacos de náilon, o que indica perda de partículas pela porosidade do saco. Recomenda-se a moagem de amostras em peneiras de porosidade 1 mm, o que propicia a extração eficiente do conteúdo celular pela ação do detergente neutro e maior superfície específica para ação da a-amilase termoestável. O uso de partículas processadas a 2 mm conduz à superestimação dos teores de FDN.

  15. LEAD AND ZINC LEACHING IN SOIL TREATED WITH IRON SMELTING RESIDUES LIXIVIAÇÃO DE CHUMBO E ZINCO EM SOLO TRATADO COM RESÍDUOS DE SIDERURGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas Paixão Passos

    2010-10-01

    ="font-family: Times New Roman,serif;">Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a mobilidade de Pb e Zn no solo. Instalou-se um experimento, em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos preenchidos com amostras de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, submetidas a doses de resíduos siderúrgicos, sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3×5, com três repetições, combinando-se três resíduos siderúrgicos (carepa de aciaria, lama de filtro-prensa e lama de fosfato, com cinco doses de cada resíduo (0 t ha-1, 1 t ha-1, 2 t ha-1, 4 t ha-1 e 8 t ha-1. Cultivou-se capim-elefante, por 120 dias, e, posteriormente, realizou-se o cultivo de feijão, durante 75 dias. Neste período, avaliaram-se as concentrações de Pb e Zn no lixiviado. Não houve lixiviação de Pb, porém, o Zn apresentou bastante mobilidade na coluna de solo. Em solo adubado com carepa de aciaria e lama de filtro-prensa, não foram observados riscos de contaminação do lençol freático por Zn e Pb, entretanto, a dose de 8 t ha-1 de lama de fosfato elevou os teores de Zn no lixiviado acima do máximo permitido pela legislação. Tal fato limita o uso deste último resíduo em doses altas. Os demais resíduos (carepa de aciaria e lama de filtro-prensa devem ser testados em experimentos de campo, visando à sua possível utilização agrícola.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resíduo industrial; metal pesado; carepa de aciaria; lama de filtro-prensa; lama de fosfato.

  1. Influência do tempo de incubação e do tamanho de partículas sobre os teores de compostos indigestíveis em alimentos e fezes bovinas obtidos por procedimentos in situ Influence of incubation time and particles size on indigestible compounds contents in cattle feeds and feces obtained by in situ procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Oliveira Casali

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do tempo de incubação in situ e do tamanho de partículas sobre as estimativas das frações indigestíveis da matéria seca (MSi, da fibra em detergente neutro (FDNi e da fibra em detergente ácido (FDAi em alimentos e fezes bovinas. Avaliaram-se amostras de fubá de milho, casca de soja, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão, silagem de milho, capim-elefante, cana-de-açúcar, feno de capim-braquiária, palha de milho e fezes de bovinos alimentados com dietas com alto ou baixo nível de concentrado. As amostras foram processadas em moinho com peneiras de porosidade 1, 2 ou 3 mm e acondicionadas (20 mg MS/cm² de superfície em sacos de tecido não-tecido (100 g/m² de dimensão 4 × 5 cm. Os materiais foram divididos em três grupos, de modo que as amostras de cada grupo foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhas mestiças (Holandês × Zebu. O procedimento de incubação foi repetido três vezes e, a cada período, procedeu-se à incubação dos grupos em animais distintos. Foram utilizados os tempos: 0, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240 e 312 horas. Os teores de MSi, FDNi e FDAi foram avaliados seqüencialmente para interpretação dos perfis de degradação por modelo logístico não-linear. Não houve efeito do tamanho de partículas sobre as estimativas de FDNi e FDAi. Verificaram-se efeitos dos tamanhos de partículas sobre a velocidade de degradação da MS da silagem de milho e do fubá de milho, da FDN da cana-de-açúcar, da silagem de milho e da palha de milho e sobre a velocidade de degradação da FDA da cana-de-açúcar. Para esses alimentos, o tamanho de partícula associou-se positivamente ao tempo necessário para estimar a fração indigestível. Tempos de incubação de 240 horas para MS e FDN e de 264 horas para FDA são recomendados para obtenção de estimativas exatas das frações indigestíveis. O uso de partículas de 2 mm é recomendado por

  2. Produção de proteína microbiana, concentração plasmática de uréia e excreções de uréia em novilhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de uréia ou casca de algodão Effects of feeding different levels of urea or cottonseed hulls on microbial protein synthesis, plasma urea concentration and urea excretion in steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Alves Magalhães

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos níveis de uréia ou casca de algodão sobre a produção de proteína microbiana, estimada por meio dos derivados de purinas na urina, a concentração de uréia plasmática (NUP e as excreções de uréia em novilhos, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, 24 novilhos mestiços castrados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 300 kg, foram alocados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos quatro tratamentos: 0; 0,65; 1,30 e 1,95% de uréia na base da MS total, em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja. No segundo, 16 novilhos mestiços, com peso vivo médio inicial de 230 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos quatro tratamentos: 0, 10, 20 e 30% de casca de algodão na base da MS total, em substituição à silagem de capim-elefante. As amostras de urina foram obtidas por meio da coleta de urina spot, na qual foram determinados os derivados de purinas (alantoína e ácido úrico. No soro sanguíneo e na urina, foram analisadas as concentrações de uréia e creatinina. Não houve efeito dos níveis de uréia, tampouco dos de casca de algodão, sobre os derivados de purinas e sobre a eficiência de síntese microbiana. A concentração de NUP e a excreção de uréia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de uréia das rações. A concentração de NUP decresceu linearmente com a inclusão da casca de algodão na dieta. Tanto a uréia quanto a casca de algodão podem ser utilizadas, até os níveis de 1,95% e 30%, respectivamente, na MS total da dieta de novilhos de origem leiteira, sem afetar a eficiência de síntese microbiana.Two trials were conducted to study the effects of different levels of urea or cottonseed hulls on yield of microbial protein, estimated by the urinary excretion of purine derivatives, concentration of plasma urea, and excretion of urea in steers. In the first trial, 24 crossbred castrated steers averaging 300 kg of initial live

  3. Variações diárias nas excreções de creatinina e derivados de purinas em novilhos Daily variation in the excretion of creatinine and purine derivatives in steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Lázaro Leal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar as variações nas excreções diárias de creatinina, uréia e derivados de purinas (DP na urina utilizando coletas durante seis dias consecutivos e avaliar as concentrações de nitrogênio uréico no plasma (NUP em novilhos. Utilizaram-se quatro animais, machos castrados, de grau de sangue predominantemente Holandês, peso médio de 445 kg, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 x 4, com os tratamentos definidos em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois níveis de uréia em substituição ao farelo de soja: 0 e 100%; e dois níveis de oferta de concentrado: 0,75 e 1,25% do PV e a comparação entre dias de avaliação, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. O volumoso, constituído de silagem de capim-elefante (80% e silagem de sorgo (20%, foi fornecido à vontade. A síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos, estimada a partir da excreção de DP, foi maior quando houve maior oferta de concentrado e menor quando a proteína do farelo de soja foi substituída pela uréia. Não houve efeito da interação níveis de concentrado ´ níveis de uréia nem efeito de níveis de uréia sobre a concentração de NUP e a excreção de N-uréico na urina. As excreções urinárias de uréia, alantoína, ácido úrico e a quantidade estimada de proteína microbiana não foram afetadas pelos dias de coleta de urina. Não houve diferença na excreção de creatinina entre os dias de coleta, sendo obtido valor médio de 25,47 mg/kgPV, 117,92 mg/kg0,75 ou 1,04 mmol/kg0,75. A ausência de efeito de número de dias sobre a excreção de creatinina tem grande aplicação prática. Na estimativa da excreção de creatinina e de derivados de purinas, recomendam-se coletas de urina com duração de 24 horas.The objective of this trial was to investigate the daily variation in the urinary excretions of creatinine, urea and purine derivatives (PD as well as the plasma concentration of urea-N (PUN in steers. Four castrated Holstein steers averaging 445 kg

  4. Desempenho e características de carcaça de novilhos de origem leiteira, alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado e de cama de frango Productive performance and carcass characteristics of dairy crossbred bulls fed different concentrate and broiler litter levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Rodrigues Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram confinados 24 bezerros mestiços holandeses machos não-castrados com peso médio inicial de 75 kg e final de 215 kg, com o objetivo de avaliar consumo, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça e dos cortes básicos e composição física da carcaça. Os animais foram alimentados com capim-elefante de 30 a 45 dias de idade, concentrado à base de farelo de soja, fubá de milho, farinha de carne e mistura mineral e cama de frango, constituindo-se os tratamentos: 1 = 50% volumoso e 50% concentrado, 2 = 50% volumoso, 35% de concentrado e 15% de cama de frango, 3 = 25% de volumoso e 75% concentrado e 4 = 25% de volumoso, 52,5% de concentrado e 22,5% de cama de frango, na base da matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualisados, com seis blocos e quatro tratamentos. Não houve efeito de tratamento para consumo de matéria seca (CMS, em kg/dia. O consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN foi menor para o tratamento 3 e o consumo de proteína bruta (CPB maior para o tratamento 4. As conversões alimentares de MS, PB e FDN foram melhores, o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD e o peso de carcaça quente e fria dos animais do tratamento 3 (75% de concentrado foram superiores aos dos demais tratamentos. A proporção de cama de frango de 22,5% na matéria seca da ração total diminuiu o GMD em ração contendo 75% de concentrado, mas não foi observado o mesmo comportamento para a proporção de 15%. Os rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria, os rendimentos de acém, ponta de agulha, alcatra, coxão, dianteiro, traseiro especial e traseiro total, o comprimento de carcaça, a área de olho de lombo, a composição física de carcaça e a relação músculo/osso não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Os animais do tratamento 3 apresentaram maior espessura de gordura e, conseqüentemente, o menor valor absoluto de quebra no rendimento de carcaça pelo resfriamento.Twenty-four Holstein crossbred young bulls

  5. Degrabilidade Ruminal da Matéria Seca e da Fibra em Detergente Neutro de Alguns Volumosos Utilizados na Alimentação de Cabras Leiteiras, Submetidas a Dietas com Diferentes Relações Volumoso: Concentrado Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Neutral Detergent Fiber of Some Forages Used in Dairy Goat Diets Presenting Different Forage to Concentrate Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luigi Gonçalves

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram a caracterização e a determinação das estimativas dos parâmetros relativos à cinética de degradação ruminal dos carboidratos contidos nas amostras dos volumosos feno de alfafa, capim-elefante, feno de Tifton 85 e silagem de milho em cabras submetidas a diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado, por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Para a determinação da digestibilidade in situ, foram utilizadas cinco cabras Alpinas, não-gestantes, não-lactantes, com peso médio de 58 kg, fistuladas no rúmen. Para o ensaio de digestibilidade in vitro, utilizou-se tampão de McDougall, adaptado por Gonzáles, ajustados para os pHs observados nos animais, conforme a relação volumoso:concentrado (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80, com solução de ácido cítrico 1 M. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico em quadrado latino 5´5. A partir dos resultados observados, pode-se sugerir que houve influência significativa da relação volumoso:concentrado sobre a digestibilidade ruminal dos volumosos avaliados, para todas as frações analisadas, uma vez que o efeito associativo desta relação possibilitou aumento da degradação, em certa faixa de pH (6,8 a 6,2, em detrimento de sua redução em pH inferior a 6,0. O período de latência sofreu decréscimo, quando o pH passou de 7,05 para 6,8, mantendo-se estável até 6,5, a partir do qual ocorreu incremento significativo para todos os volumosos, principalmente quando atingiu pH inferior a 6,0. As incubações in situ e in vitro resultaram em curvas de degradação da matéria seca semelhantes em seus formatos para todos os alimentos avaliados, que apresentaram também valores bem próximos para as taxas de degradação. Porém, vale ressaltar que a comparação entre os parâmetros cinéticos observados nos métodos in situ e in vitro é desnecessária, uma vez que os objetivos de cada técnica são diferentes. Dessa forma, ambos os métodos podem ser

  6. Degradação ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína bruta de alimentos para bovinos Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in feeds for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de determinar as frações A e B e a taxa de degradação ruminal (Kd da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB de 27 alimentos e avaliar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína nãodegradada no rúmen pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os alimentos avaliados foram farelos de arroz, babaçu, gérmen de milho e trigo; milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, milho desintegrado com sabugo, milho, polpa cítrica, sorgo, amireia, farelos de algodão com 28, 38 e 46% de PB, farelos de amendoim, girassol e soja; feijão-bandinha, glúten de milho, grão de soja, levedura, promil, refinazil, cascas de cacau, café e soja e silagens de capim-elefante e milho. Para obtenção da degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB dos alimentos, utilizaram-se sacos de náilon de 10 × 20 cm e os tempos de incubação de 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 e 72 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os dados de degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína bruta, em sua maioria, estão de acordo com a literatura. A técnica dos três estágios não estimou de forma satisfatória a digestibilidade interstinal de todos os alimentos estudados em conjunto, mas foi adequada para os alimentos proteicos. A maioria dos alimentos possui aproximadamente 90% de digestibilidade da PB, com exceção das cascas de soja, café e cacau e das silagens de milho e capimelefante. A técnica de três estágios estimou corretamente a digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos proteicos, mas recomenda-se a utilização da equação DIPB (% = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X para corrigir a digestibilidade obtida pela técnica dos três estágios para alimentos não-proteicos.The objective of the present study was to determine the A and B fractions and the rumen degradation rate (Kd of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP in 27 feeds and determine the

  7. Bioenergy Crop Breeding and Production Research in the Southeast, Final Report for 1996 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.H.

    2003-05-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass species to much of the US. It has shown great potential for use in production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass (Lynd et al., 1991). Work in Alabama demonstrated very high dry matter yields can be achieved with switchgrass (Maposse et al. 1995) in the southeastern US. Therefore, this region is thought to be an excellent choice for development of a switchgrass cropping system where farmers can produce the grass for either biomass or forage. Another report has shown success with selection and breeding to develop high yielding germplasm from adapted cultivars and ecotypes of switchgrass (Moser and Vogel 1995). In the mid 1990s, however, there was little plant breeding effort for switchgrass with a potential for developing a cultivar for the southeast region. The main goal of the project was to develop adaptive, high-yielding switchgrass cultivars for use in cropping systems for bioenergy production in the southeastern US. A secondary objective was to assess the potential of alternate herbaceous species such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.), and napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) that may compete with switchgrass for herbaceous bioenergy production in the southeast. During the conduct of the project, another goal of developing molecular markers useful for genetic mapping was added. The ''lowland'' cultivars, Alamo and Kanlow, were found to be the highest yielding switchgrass cultivars. Although most summers during the project period were hot and dry, their annual dry matter yield continue to outperform the best ''upland'' cultivars such as Cave-in-Rock, Shawnee, NE Late, and Trailblazer. The use of a breeding procedure based on the ''honeycomb design'' and multi-location progeny testing, coupled with the solid heritability and genetic gain estimates for dry matter yield in lowland type switchgrass

  8. Calidad seminal en ovinos pelibuey con inclusión de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maza Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La alimentación de los ovinos en el trópico representa del 48 a 90 % de los costos de producción, además, el uso de granos hace dependientes a los ovinocultores del mercado internacional. Ganancias de peso moderadas se han obtenido con follaje de plantas arbustivas, sin embargo, algunas plantas como el Tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis presentan compuestos que pueden actuar como fito-estrógenos, lo que puede comprometer el uso potencial en la alimentación de sementales ovinos pelibuey. Método: doce sementales ovinos Pelibuey, de 24±3 meses de edad, con un peso de 44±5 kg y una condición corporal de 2.3 +0.3 en una escala de 1 a 5 fueron asignados a 2 tratamientos (n=6 durante 45 días. En dietas con base en pasto de corte (Pennisetum purpureum x P. Typhoides var. CT-115, para el tratamiento 1 (T1, se utilizó alimento comercial (500 g d-1 por ovino con 16% de PC; y para el tratamiento 2 (T2, 20% de Tulipán (451 g MS/ kg MV, ~1.6 kg d-1 por ovino. Al finalizar la prueba se evaluó la calidad seminal, las variables de respuesta fueron: volumen del eyaculado (Vol, ml y a través del Análisis de Semen Asistido por Computadora (CASA la concentración espermática (CE, Millones por ml y ocho parámetros de motilidad individual: velocidad curvilínea (VCL, μ/s, velocidad rectilínea (VSL, μ/s, velocidad promedio (VAP, μ/s, índice de linealidad (LIN, %, índice de rectitud (STR, %, índice de oscilación (WOB, %, amplitud media del desplazamiento lateral de la cabeza (ALH, μ y frecuencia de batido de cola (BCF, Hz. Para determinar las diferencias entre las medias para tratamientos para Vol y CE, VCL, VSL y VAP se utilizó una t de Student; para los parámetros de motilidad individual se realizó una reducción de factores y una clasificación en dos fases de los índices obtenidos para caracterizar las subpoblaciones espermáticas por motilidad. Los análisis fueron realizados con el software SPSS 15.0 para Windows Resultados: no se

  9. Soil fertility and {sup 137} Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State; Fertilidade do solo e redistribuicao de {sup 137} Cs em funcao da cobertura vegetal, relevo, e classes texturais, em uma microbacia hidrografica do Estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-15

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km{sup 2}), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density

  10. INDUCTION OF TRISOMICS BY PLATINUM DIAMINODINITRODICHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisomics were produced in the pollen mother cells of Pennisetum americanum (L) K. Schum plants resulting from seeds treated with M to the minus 6th power platinum diaminodinitrodichloride. On the basis of the preliminary study the relative potency of cis-Platinum diaminodinitrod...

  11. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  12. Exotic plants along roads near La Paz, Bolivia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Murillo, M. P.; Rico, Adriana; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2015), s. 565-573. ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : exotic species * roads * altitude * distribution * Pennisetum clandestinum Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2014

  13. Searching for microbial biological control candidates for invasive grasses: coupling expanded field research with strides in biotechnology and grassland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly invasive grasses (e.g. Bromus spp., Pennisetum ciliare, Taeniatherum caput-medusae) are largely unabated in much of the arid Western U.S., despite more than 70 years of control attempts with a wide array of tools and management practices. The development and sustained integration of new appro...

  14. Plant Cell Wall Carbohydrates as Substrates for Azospirillum brasiliense†

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Mary L.; Hubbell, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Carbohydrate components (simple sugars and polysaccharides) of cell walls of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L., cv. Gahi) were studied as potential substrates for the root-associated diazotroph Azospirillum brasiliense Sp. 7. Simple sugars were utilized, but no evidence was obtained to support the suggestion that the polysaccharide components tested might serve as substrates for growth following hydrolysis by the associated azospirilla.

  15. Prirodni antioksidativni sastojci odabranog aromatičnog bilja i njihovo djelovanje protiv pojedinih patogenih mikroorganizama

    OpenAIRE

    Proestos, Charalampos; Boziaris, Ioannis Spyridon; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Komaitis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Aromatično bilje sadrži prirodne antioksidanse poput fenolnih spojeva koji su zbog pozitivnog utjecaja na zdravlje privukli pozornost javnosti i znanstvenika. Istražen je fenolni sastav pet vrsta biljaka: končare (Filipendula ulmaria), bijeloga gloga (Crataegus monogyna), troskota (Polygonum aviculare), petoprsta (Potentilla anserina) i purpurne iglice (Pelargonium purpureum). Za određivanje koncentracije i sastava fenolnih spojeva upotrijebljena je visokodjelotvorna tekućinska kromatografija...

  16. Bioremediation of Lindane by Wood-Decaying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Ulčnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to study the ability of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Chondrostereum purpureum, and Pleurotus ostreatus and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum to degrade the organochlorine insecticide lindane in liquid cultures. The evaluation of lindane biodegradation was performed using two analytical procedures. In order to extract and properly quantify the remaining lindane from fungal liquid cultures, two different extraction procedures were used: extraction from filtrates and extraction from homogenized fungal cultures. White-rot fungi were able to degrade lindane. The amount of degraded lindane increased with its exposure period in the liquid cultures of all white-rot fungi used, except C. purpureum. After 21 days of exposure, over 90 % of lindane was degraded by T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus. Degradation of lindane by the brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. The extraction procedures, when liquid cultures of T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus were used, had no noticeable effect on the determined degradation after 21 days of exposure. On the other hand, the amount of remaining lindane in liquid cultures of C. purpureum and G. trabeum depended strongly on the extraction procedure. Our study indicates that mycoremediation studies of lindane should also consider adsorption onto mycelial biomass as a possible reason for the removal of the insecticide from the liquid medium, especially where shorter exposure periods are studied or fungi with poorer degradation potentials are used.

  17. Recent mobility of plastid encoded group II introns and twintrons in five strains of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Mathilde Perrineau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Group II introns are closely linked to eukaryote evolution because nuclear spliceosomal introns and the small RNAs associated with the spliceosome are thought to trace their ancient origins to these mobile elements. Therefore, elucidating how group II introns move, and how they lose mobility can potentially shed light on fundamental aspects of eukaryote biology. To this end, we studied five strains of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum that surprisingly contain 42 group II introns in their plastid genomes. We focused on a subset of these introns that encode mobility-conferring intron-encoded proteins (IEPs and found them to be distributed among the strains in a lineage-specific manner. The reverse transcriptase and maturase domains were present in all lineages but the DNA endonuclease domain was deleted in vertically inherited introns, demonstrating a key step in the loss of mobility. P. purpureum plastid intron RNAs had a classic group IIB secondary structure despite variability in the DIII and DVI domains. We report for the first time the presence of twintrons (introns-within-introns, derived from the same mobile element in Rhodophyta. The P. purpureum IEPs and their mobile introns provide a valuable model for the study of mobile retroelements in eukaryotes and offer promise for biotechnological applications.

  18. Mineral and phytate contents of some prepared popular Ghanaian foods

    OpenAIRE

    Annor, George Amponsah; Tano Debrah, Kwaku; Essen, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Prepared Ghanaian traditional foods, mostly consist of starchy staples such as yams (Dioscorea spp.), cassava (Manihot esculenta), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) etc. These traditional foods are a main source of energy and macronutrients. Little or no information however exist on the mineral and phytate contents of prepared traditional Ghanaian foods. The mineral and phytate contents of twenty commonly eaten Ghanaian foods, prepared using popular recipes...

  19. Herbicide impacts on exotic grasses and a population of the critically endangered herb "Calystegia affinis" (Convolvulaceae) on Lord Howe Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Ian; Coenraads, Robert; Auld, Tony D.; Denham, Andrew J.; M. K. J. Ooi; Brown, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Introduced perennial grasses are capable of altering the habitat of native species, causing reductions in population size and vigour, and potentially affecting life-history processes such as survival, pollination and seedling recruitment. We examined the utility of herbicide treatment on two exotic grasses, Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) and Stenotaphrum secundatum (Buffalo grass) to restore the habitat of Calystegia affinis, a critically endangered species endemic to Lord Howe and Norfolk ...

  20. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fernanda Barros; Souza Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita Makoto; Prado Ivanor Nunes do; Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour) and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol) of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger) pasture systems, with mineral or mineral prot...

  1. Germination responses of endemic land-races of Saudi-Arabian cereal species

    OpenAIRE

    Albarih, Sami

    2014-01-01

    This investigation of endemic land-races of Saudi-Arabian cereals, Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum and Pennisetum glaucum was aimed at identifying and characterizing stress-tolerant populations appropriate for germplasm-banking. Native soils were saline, nutrient-poor, sandy and subject to seasonal drought and hot summers. Consequently, the work focused on responses of germination and early growth to salinity (0-1000 mM NaCl) and high temperatures, ...

  2. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. PMID:21429127

  3. Atividade alelopática da leucena sobre espécies de plantas daninhas Allelopathic activity of leucaena on weed species

    OpenAIRE

    Nádja de Moura Pires; Hélio Teixeira Prates; Israel Alexandre Pereira Filho; Rubem Silvério de Oliveira Jr.; Trícia Cristina Lessa de Faria

    2001-01-01

    Alelopatia é o efeito direto ou indireto de uma planta sobre outra, por meio da produção de compostos químicos liberados no ambiente. Os metabólitos secundários ou produtos naturais envolvidos em alelopatia são denominados aleloquímicos e estão presentes nos tecidos de diferentes partes das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o potencial alelopático da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.) sobre as plantas daninhas Desmodium purpureum (desmódio), Bidens pilosa (picão-pr...

  4. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolem C. A.; Calonego J. C.; Foloni J. S. S.

    2003-01-01

    Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2), sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare), avei...

  5. Lixiviação de potássio da palha de espécies de cobertura de solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva aplicada Potassium leaching from green cover crop residues as affected by rainfall amount

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. Rosolem; J.C. Calonego; J. S. S. Foloni

    2003-01-01

    Os restos vegetais deixados na superfície do solo em sistemas de semeadura direta, além de proteger o solo da erosão, constituem considerável reserva de nutrientes que podem ser disponibilizados para a cultura principal, subseqüente. Avaliou-se a lixiviação de K da palha de seis espécies vegetais com potencial de uso como plantas para cobertura do solo de acordo com a quantidade de chuva recebida após o manejo. Milheto (Pennisetum americanum, var. BN-2), sorgo de guiné (Sorghum vulgare), avei...

  6. Efecto de la incorporación de leguminosas en pasturas de trópico alto sobre el contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado ALC en la leche

    OpenAIRE

    León Caviedes, Javier Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la incorporación de leguminosas en pasturas de trópico alto se ejecutaron dos experimentos: en el primero se utilizaron 12 vacas Holstein en lactancia media bajo un diseño de sobrecambio 4x4x4. Se incorporo la leguminosa Lotus uiliginosus en pasturas de gramíneas Festuca arundinacea y Pennisetum clandestinum. Se logro buen establecimiento de la asociación P.clandestinum + L. uliginosus lo cual resulto en mayor consumo de materia sec...

  7. Forage Crops to Support Rehabilitation of Animal Husbandry in Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Risdiono Prawirodiputra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Merapi eruption in October 2010 caused livestock losses. To rehabilitate it, the forages demand should be fulfilled. The constraints faced in Merapi after eruption is low organic content of the soil, therefore the forages to be planted should be adapted to such condition. There are some forages recommended to be planted. For short term rehabilitation, the species recommended are those from the genus of Brachiaria, Cynodon and Pennisetum. Flemingia is also good for short term rehabilitation. For long term rehabilitation, Sesbania, Calliandra, Gliricidia and Leucaena are recommended.

  8. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14CO2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14CO2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)

  9. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM PASTAGEM DE MILHETO SOB DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE NITROGÊNIO ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN PEARL MILLET PASTURE UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO LONDERO MOOJEN; JOÃO RESTLE; GELCI CARLOS LUPATINI; ADAUTO GOMES DE MORAES

    1999-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido em área da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos de três níveis de adubação nitrogenada (0, 150 e 300 kg/ha de N) em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) cv. Comum, sobre a produção animal. Foram utilizados novilhos de corte e avaliados o desempenho por animal, o número de animais.dia/ha e o ganho de peso vivo por área. O sistema de pastejo adotado foi o contínuo, com ajustes de carga para manter uma press...

  10. Efecto de varios aditivos y suplementos nutricionales en las emisiones de metano y los parámetros de la fermentación ruminal in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Parra, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de cinco aditivos y suplementos nutricionales, en tres forrajes tropicales de calidad nutricional contrastante, sobre las emisiones de metano y los parámetros de la fermentación ruminal, por medio de la técnica de gases. Se utilizaron tres niveles de inclusión para cada aditivo y/o suplemento, en los forrajes; Pennisetum clandestinum como forraje de calidad nutricional alta, Megathyrsus maximus como forraje de calidad nutricional...

  11. Buffelgrass-Integrated modeling of an invasive plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Tracy R.

    2011-01-01

    Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) poses a problem in the deserts of the United States, growing in dense stands and introducing a wildfire risk in an ecosystem not adapted to fire. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center has worked with many partners to develop a decision support model and a data management system to address the problem. The decision support model evaluates potential strategies for resource use and allocation. The data management system is a portal where users can submit, view, and download buffelgrass data. These tools provide a case study showcasing how the FORT is working to address the urgent issue of invasive species in the United States.

  12. Potencial del banco de semillas en la regeneración de la vegetación del humedal jaboque, bogotá, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    MONTENEGRO-S., ALBA L.; ÁVILA PARRA, YUDY A.; MENDIVELSO-CH., HOOZ A.; Vargas, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió el banco de semillas germinable (BS) en seis parches de vegetación en lazona conservada del humedal Jaboque: 1) Rumex conglomeratus - Polygonum sp. 2)Juncus effusus - Polygonum sp. 3) Typha latifolia 4) Juncus effusus 5) Pennisetumclandestinum - Polygonum sp. 6) Pennisetum clandestinum – Holcus lanatus. En cadaparche se evaluó la composición, la densidad de las especies presentes en el BS) el tipode BS que poseen algunas de las especies nativas del humedal) la similitud entre lacom...

  13. Sistemas de cultivo, sucessões de culturas, densidade do solo e sobrevivência de patógenos de solo Cropping systems and previous crops on soil density and survival of soil-borne pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Divina de Toledo-Souza; Pedro Marques da Silveira; Murillo Lobo Junior; Adalberto Corrêa Café Filho

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo do solo e de cultivos prévios ao plantio do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre a densidade do solo e as populações de Rhizoctonia spp. e de Fusarium spp. Os cultivos prévios incluíram as leguminosas: guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan), estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão) e crotalária (Crotalaria spectabilis); e as gramíneas: milheto (Pennisetum glaucum cv. BN-2), sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor cv. BR 304), ca...

  14. Dinâmica do potássio nos resíduos vegetais de plantas de cobertura no Cerrado Potassium dynamics in crop residues of cover plants in Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Rodrigues Torres; Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2008-01-01

    A produção de biomassa, a manutenção dos resíduos vegetais sobre o solo e sua posterior decomposição são fatores de grande importância no estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na área experimental do CEFET-Uberaba-MG, onde foram avaliados oito tipos de coberturas vegetais: milheto (Pennisetum americanum sin. tiphoydes), braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha), sorgo-forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), guandu (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.), crotalária (Crotalarea juncea),...

  15. Dynamics of earthworms in some Colombian Andean hillsides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples were taken from 40 year old forest and from Pennisetum clandestinum pastures in hillside soil, with the aim of determining the temporal dynamics of earthworm diversity, abundance and biomass. The methodology consisted in manually taking two soil samples per week of a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 m each. The parameters vary depending on land use and time of sampling. In total 17 earthworm species were found in the soil. Earthworm diversity and biomass were higher in S+40 years than in P. clandestinum (11 vs 9), while earthworm density was higher in P. clandestinum

  16. Effect of domestic processing treatments on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid and polyphenols of pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Manvesh Kumar Sihag; Vivek Sharma; Ankit Goyal; Sumit Arora; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various processing treatments (individual and combination) on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid, polyphenols and ash content of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanam). Grains were subjected to soaking, pressure cooking, steaming, malting, pearling and extrusion cooking for different time intervals such as soaking for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h; steaming for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min; pressure cooking for 2, 5, 7 and 10 min; controlled germination (m...

  17. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  18. Weed suppression by green manure in an agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Garicoix Recalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manure promotes efficient suppression of weeds, but green manure species can exhibit distinct behaviors, depending on the environmental conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of soil mulching and weed suppression by spring/summer green manure species grown in the spring/summer season, at different growth stages and after management (cut, for 90 days during the cassava crop cycle. The study was carried out in the 2010/2011 season, in a system managed under agroecological principles. The treatments consisted of different green manure species and arrangements: Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia brasiliensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum intercropped; Mucuna aterrima, Sorghum bicolor, a mixture of all the green manures in study and a control plot under fallow. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The evaluations of the soil cover either by the green manures or weeds were performed at 45, 90 and 105 days after the emergence of the green manures. The cassava crop was planted under reduced tillage system at 11 days after the cut of the green manures. The percentage of soil covered by weeds and the dry matter produced were evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that the green manures had a suppressive effect on weeds during their life cycle, as well as during the first months after its management (cut, composing the mulch.

  19. Doses and application seasons of potassium on soybean crop in succession the cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K is the second nutrient that is required in larger amounts by soybean crop. With the use of high doses of that nutrient and increase of no-tillage areas in last years, some changes occurred in ways of this nutrient application, as well as the introduction of cover crops in the system for straw formation. Due those facts, the aim with this work was to study doses and times of potassium application for soybean sowed as succession for cover crops in no-tillage system, in a clayey Distrofic Red Latosol, in cerrado region. The experimental design was a randomized block with treatments arranged in 3x3x5 factorial scheme, with the following factors, cover crops: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum and Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum and a control (fallow area, rates of K2O (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1 and K2O application forms (100% in the cover crops; 100% at sowing of soybean; 100% in topdressing in soybean; 50% at sowing cover crops + 50% at soybean sowing; 50% at soybean sowing + 50% in topdressing in the soybean with four replicates. The Pennisetum glaucum as soybean predecessor crop yields higher dry matter content than the Panicum miliaceum in a short period of time. In clay soil with high content of potassium there was no response to the applied potassium levels. Full doses of potassium maintenance fertilization can be applied in the predecessor cover crop, at sowing or topdressing in soybean crop.