Sample records for capillary wedge pressure

  1. Detection of elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in elderly patients with various cardiac disorders by the Valsalva manoeuvre.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmen, J.J.; Aengevaeren, W.R.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.


    In the present study, we assessed whether elevated (> or =15 mmHg) PCWP (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) can be detected using the blood pressure response to the Valsalva manoeuvre in a group of elderly patients with various cardiac disorders, including atrial fibrillation and valvular heart dis

  2. Poor agreement between pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in a veteran population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bitar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate determination of left ventricular filling pressure is essential for differentiation of pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH from pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH. Previous data suggest only a poor correlation between left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP and its commonly used surrogate, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP. However, no data exist on the diagnostic accuracy of PCWP in veterans. Furthermore, the effects of age and comorbidities on the PCWP-LVEDP relationship remain unknown. METHODS: We investigated the PCWP-LVEDP relationship in 101 patients undergoing simultaneous right and left heart catherization at a large VA hospital. PCWP performance was evaluated using correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Area under Receiver Operating Characteristics curves (AUROC for PCWP were determined. RESULTS: PCWP-LVEDP correlation was moderate (r = 0.57. PCWP-LVEDP calibration was poor (Bland-Altman limits of agreement -17.2 to 11.4 mmHg; mean bias -2.87 mmHg. 59 patients (58.4% had pulmonary hypertension; 15 (25.4% of those met pre-capillary PH criteria based on PCWP. However, if LVEDP was used instead of PCWP, 7/15 patients (46.6% met criteria for PVH rather than pre-capillary PH. When restricting analysis to patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance of >3 Wood units (n = 22, 10 patients (45.4% were classified as pre-capillary PH based on PCWP ≤15 mmHg. However, if LVEDP was used, 4/10 patients (40% were reclassified as PVH. Among patients with any type of pulmonary hypertension, PCWP discriminated moderately between high and normal LVEDP (AUROC, 0.81; 95%CI 0.69-0.94. PCWP-LVEDP correlation was particularly poor in patients with COPD or obesity. CONCLUSION: Reliance on PCWP rather than LVEDP results in misclassification of veterans as having pre-capillary PH rather than PVH in almost 50% of cases. This is clinically relevant, as

  3. The Effect of Films on the Capillary Pressure - Saturation Hysteresis in a Smooth-walled Wedge Channel (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Nolte, D.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.


    Thin fluid films are central to many multiphase flow applications; however, experimental investigation of films requires direct detection and measurement of films. Water film thicknesses can range from a few nanometers to several micrometers and may vary depending on local pore structures and material properties. In this study, laser confocal microscopy was employed to image volumetric fluid distribution and 3D interfaces during drainage and imbibition processes in a smooth-walled channel. Confocal microscopy provides an effective method to image directly 3D thin films and to measure film thickness, volume, and other parameters. The detection resolution is 1.19 μm/pixel through a 10x objective lens and is 0.72 μm/pixel through a 20x lens. A smooth-walled wedge channel was fabricated to study the generation and relaxation of water films in the non-wetting phase of air. The effect of films on contact angle, interfacial area per volume (IAV), and capillary pressure - saturation (Pc - Sw) hysteresis were also investigated. Micromodels were fabricated using a negative photoresist (SU-8) sandwiched between two cover glasses. An all-SU-8 smooth-walled wedge channel was fabricated by laser direct-writing two-photon polymerization, 100 μm wide at the outlet and 20 μm at the inlet with a constant aperture of 40 μm. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to image the wetting (water) and non-wetting (air) phase distributions by labeling the wetting phase with a fluorophore, Alex Fluor-488, 1.0% by wieght. The 3D air-water interfaces were imaged and then reconstructed using a stack of confocal images. The samples were initially saturated with water, the wetting phase. A series of drainage and imbibition cycles were performed by incrementing or decrementing the air pressure. At each pressure, the system was allowed to equilibrate and then a stack of scans in depth was collected to acquire the 3D fluid distribution for the given pressure. The confocal images were

  4. A novel technique to predict pulmonary capillary wedge pressure utilizing central venous pressure and tissue Doppler tricuspid/mitral annular velocities. (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru


    Assessing left ventricular (LV) filling pressure (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PCWP) is an important aspect in the care of patients with heart failure (HF). Physicians rely on right ventricular (RV) filling pressures such as central venous pressure (CVP) to predict PCWP, assuming concordance between CVP and PCWP. However, the use of this method is limited because discordance between CVP and PCWP is observed. We hypothesized that PCWP can be reliably predicted by CVP corrected by the relationship between RV and LV function, provided by the ratio of tissue Doppler peak systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus (S(T)) to that of mitral annulus (S(M)) (corrected CVP:CVP·S(T)/S(M)). In 16 anesthetized closed-chest dogs, S T and S M were measured by transthoracic tissue Doppler echocardiography. PCWP was varied over a wide range (1.8-40.0 mmHg) under normal condition and various types of acute and chronic HF. A significantly stronger linear correlation was observed between CVP·S(T)/S(M) and PCWP (R2 = 0.78) than between CVP and PCWP (R2 = 0.22) (P 10.5 mmHg predicted PCWP >18 mmHg with 85% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Area under ROC curve for CVP·S T/S M to predict PCWP >18 mmHg was 0.93, which was significantly larger than that for CVP (0.66) (P < 0.01). Peripheral venous pressure (PVP) corrected by S T/S M (PVP·S(T)/S(M) also predicted PCWP reasonably well, suggesting that PVP·S(T)/S (M) may be a minimally invasive alternative to CVP·S(T)/S(M) In conclusion, our technique is potentially useful for the reliable prediction of PCWP in HF patients.

  5. Relation Between Capillary Wedge Pressure Measured by Echocardiography Through Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI Method and Catheterism in Patients with Mitral Valve Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Dehghani


    Full Text Available Background: Considering suggested formula in the references and PCWP measured by catheterism, in the present study the relation between pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP measured the flow velocity of mitral valve and mitral annulus motion through tissue doppler imaging is evaluated Methods: 52 cases of severe MS were admitted for Balloon Mitral Valvolotomy (BMV are included in this study. Mean age was 35±5 years consisting of 40 females and 12 males. Valve area, Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PAP, E (Maximum Velocity of mitral valve at the beginning of diastole & Em (Maximum rate of mitral annular motion at the beginning of diastole which is recorded through septal or lateral wall annulus site velocity and left atrial (LA size were also measured by echocardiography and PCWP & PAP through catheterism. All patients had normal ejection fraction (EF and coronary arteries; there was no other valvular diseases and shunts. Results: There was a significant correlation between PAP in echocardiography and catheterism. Mean PAP was 53±19 mmHg in echocardiography and 53.9±17.8mmHg in catheterism. There wasn't any correlation between PCWP in echocardiography and catheterism (P=0.33 and also no relation between PCWP and mitral valve area (MVA or LA size (P=0.2. E/Em ratio increased in severe MS cases.Conclusion: E/Em ratio and suggested formula would overestimate the wedge pressure so echocardiography is not a reliable method for measuring PCWP in severe MS. Em velocity and E/Em ratio may be used for estimating MS severity.

  6. Usefulness of the Sum of Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure and Right Atrial Pressure as a Congestion Index that Prognosticates Heart Failure Survival (from the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness Trial). (United States)

    Ma, Tony S; Paniagua, David; Denktas, Ali E; Jneid, Hani; Kar, Biswajit; Chan, Wenyaw; Bozkurt, Biykem


    In the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial, use of a pulmonary artery catheter did not significantly affect advanced heart failure outcomes. However, the success of achieving the targeted hemodynamic goals of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of 15 mm Hg and right atrial pressure (RAP) of 8 mm Hg and the association of these goals with clinical outcomes were not addressed. Furthermore, goals with 2 independent variables, PCWP and RAP, left room for uncertainties. We assessed the ability of a single hemodynamic target to achieve a threshold sum of PCWP and RAP as a predictor of all-cause mortality, death-or-transplantation (DT), or death-or-rehospitalization (DR) at 6 months in the pulmonary artery catheter-guided treatment arm of ESCAPE (n = 206). Patients with a posttreatment PCWP + RAP of <30 mm Hg had characteristics similar to those of the population who achieved the ESCAPE hemodynamic goals. This group had 8.7% mortality, 13.0% DT, and 58.7% DR at 6 months. The contrasting cohort with PCWP + RAP of ≥30 mm Hg had 45.3% mortality, 54.7% DT, and 84.9% DR at 6 months, with greater relative risk (RR) of death (RR 5.76), DT (RR 4.92), and DR (RR 1.80) and higher prevalence of jugular venous pulsation, edema, hepatomegaly, and ascites at admission and discharge. In conclusion, PCWP + RAP of 30 mm Hg posttreatment, obtained early in the index hospitalization, may represent as a simple congestion index that has prognostic value for heart failure survival and readmission rates at 6 months and as a warning signal for more aggressive intervention, thus warranting further validation.

  7. Numerical study on flow rate limitation of open capillary channel flow through a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang


    Full Text Available The flow characteristics of slender-column flow in wedge-shaped channel under microgravity condition are investigated in this work. The one-dimensional theoretical model is applied to predict the critical flow rate and surface contour of stable flow. However, the one-dimensional model overestimates the critical flow rate for not considering the extra pressure loss. Then, we develop a three-dimensional simulation method with OpenFOAM, a computational fluid dynamics tool, to simulate various phenomena in wedge channels with different lengths. The numerical results are verified with the capillary channel flow experimental data on the International Space Station. We find that the three-dimensional simulation perfectly predicts the critical flow rates and surface contours under various flow conditions. Meanwhile, the general behaviors in subcritical, critical, and supercritical flow are studied in three-dimensional simulation considering variations of flow rate and open channel length. The numerical techniques for three-dimensional simulation is validated for a wide range of configurations and is hopeful to provide valuable guidance for capillary channel flow experiment and efficient liquid management in space.

  8. Radiation pressure on a dielectric wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud; Moloney, Jerome V


    The force of electromagnetic radiation on a dielectric medium may be derived by a direct application of the Lorentz law of classical electrodynamics. While the light's electric field acts upon the (induced) bound charges in the medium, its magnetic field exerts a force on the bound currents. We use the example of a wedge-shaped solid dielectric, immersed in a transparent liquid and illuminated at Brewster's angle, to demonstrate that the linear momentum of the electromagnetic field within dielectrics has neither the Minkowski nor the Abraham form; rather, the correct expression for momentum density has equal contributions from both. The time rate of change of the incident momentum thus expressed is equal to the force exerted on the wedge plus that experienced by the surrounding liquid.

  9. Capillary migration of large confined super-hydrophobic drops in wedges (United States)

    Torres, Logan; Weislogel, Mark; Arnold, Sam


    When confined within an interior corner, drops and bubbles migrate to regions of minimum energy by the combined effects of surface tension, surface wetting, and corner geometry. Such capillary phenomena are exploited for passive phase separation operations in micro-fluidic devices on earth and macro-fluidic devices aboard spacecraft. Our study focuses on the migration of large inertial-capillary drops confined between two planar super-hydrophobic surfaces. In our experiments, the near weightless environment of a drop tower produces Bo law behavior as a function of drop volume, wedge angle, initial confinement, and fluid properties including contact angle. We then further demonstrate how the experiment method may be employed as a large horizontal quiescent droplet generator for studies ranging from inertial non-wetting moving contact line investigations to large geyser-free horizontal drop impacts. NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX12AO47A, URMP.

  10. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas


    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  11. Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis. (United States)

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry


    In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials.

  12. A Prediction Model of the Capillary Pressure J-Function (United States)

    Xu, W. S.; Luo, P. Y.; Sun, L.; Lin, N.


    The capillary pressure J-function is a dimensionless measure of the capillary pressure of a fluid in a porous medium. The function was derived based on a capillary bundle model. However, the dependence of the J-function on the saturation Sw is not well understood. A prediction model for it is presented based on capillary pressure model, and the J-function prediction model is a power function instead of an exponential or polynomial function. Relative permeability is calculated with the J-function prediction model, resulting in an easier calculation and results that are more representative. PMID:27603701

  13. Pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate bearing sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shicai; LIU Changling; YE Yuguang; LIU Yufeng


    To better understand the relationship between the pore capillary pressure and hydrate saturation in sedi-ments, a new method was proposed. First, the phase equilibria of methane hydrate in fine-grained silica sands were measured. As to the equilibrium data, the pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate were calculated. The results showed that the phase equilibria of methane hydrates in fine-grained silica sands changed due to the depressed activity of pore water caused by the surface group and negatively charged characteristic of silica particles as well as the capillary pressure in small pores together. The capil-lary pressure increased with the increase of methane hydrate saturation due to the decrease of the available pore space. However, the capillary-saturation relationship could not yet be described quantitatively because of the stochastic habit of hydrate growth.

  14. Capillary Pressure and Contact Line Force on a Soft Solid

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, Antonin; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Andreotti, Bruno


    The surface free energy, or surface tension, of a liquid interface gives rise to a pressure jump when the interface is curved. Here we show that a similar capillary pressure arises at the interface of soft solids. We present experimental evidence that immersion of a thin elastomeric wire into a liquid induces a substantial elastic compression due to the solid capillary pressure at the bottom. We quantitatively determine the effective surface tension from the elastic displacement field, and find a value comparable to the liquid-vapor surface tension. Most importantly, these results also reveal the way the liquid pulls on the solid close to the contact line: the capillary force is not oriented along the liquid-air interface, nor perpendicularly to the solid surface, as previously hypothesized, but towards the interior of the liquid.

  15. [Effect of artificial ventilation on pulmonary capillary pressure in acute respiratory insufficiency]. (United States)

    Labrousse, J; Tenaillon, A; Massabie, P; Simonneau, G; Lissac, J


    To determine the influence of intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB), the level of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was compared during IPPB and after a short period off the respirator in 68 occasions on 42 patients with an acute respiratory failure (ARF) of various etiologies. During IPPB, the average PCWP was in the normal range in patients with toxic or neurologic comas and in cases of increased pulmonary capillary permeability edema (IPCPE), PCWP slightly increased within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with ARF and in hemodynamic acute pulmonary edema (HAPE). During the weaning stage, PCWP decreased in the groups of coma, COPD, and IPCPE, but increased in HAPE. The weaning test demonstrates that IPPB influenced PCWP in all patients. Therefore, PCWP cannot be assumed to represent the left ventricle filling pressure. The weaning test allows differentiation of IPCPE from HAPE. In the event of over-infusion or hypovolemia, PCWP measured under IPPB can lead to misinterpretation if not followed up by a second measurement off the respirator.

  16. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure capillary DBD oxygen plasma jet

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, N C; Pramanik, B K


    Atmospheric pressure capillary dielectric barrier oxygen discharge plasma jet is developed to generate non-thermal plasma using unipolar positive pulse power supply. Both optical and electrical techniques are used to investigate the characteristics of the produced plasma as function of applied voltage and gas flow rate. Analytical results obtained from the optical emission spectroscopic data reveal the gas temperature, rotational temperature, excitation temperature and electron density. Gas temperature and rotational temperature are found to decrease with increasing oxygen flow rate but increase linearly with applied voltage. It is exposed that the electron density is boosting up with enhanced applied voltage and oxygen flow rate, while the electron excitation temperature is reducing with rising oxygen flow rate. Electrical characterization demonstrates that the discharge frequency is falling with flow rate but increasing with voltage. The produced plasma is applied preliminarily to study the inactivation yie...

  17. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)


    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  18. Low internal pressure in femtoliter water capillary bridges reduces evaporation rates. (United States)

    Cho, Kun; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Lim, Jun; Kim, Joon Heon; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook


    Capillary bridges are usually formed by a small liquid volume in a confined space between two solid surfaces. They can have a lower internal pressure than the surrounding pressure for volumes of the order of femtoliters. Femtoliter capillary bridges with relatively rapid evaporation rates are difficult to explore experimentally. To understand in detail the evaporation of femtoliter capillary bridges, we present a feasible experimental method to directly visualize how water bridges evaporate between a microsphere and a flat substrate in still air using transmission X-ray microscopy. Precise measurements of evaporation rates for water bridges show that lower water pressure than surrounding pressure can significantly decrease evaporation through the suppression of vapor diffusion. This finding provides insight into the evaporation of ultrasmall capillary bridges.

  19. Determining CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure simultaneously: an insight to capillary entrance and end effects (United States)

    Chen, X.; Kianinejad, A.; DiCarlo, D. A.


    CO2-brine relative permeability relations are important parameters in modeling scenarios such as CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and CO2 enhanced recovery in oil reservoir. Many steady-state experimental studies on CO2-brine relative permeability showed that the CO2-brine relative permeability differs greatly from typical oil-brine relative permeability. Particularly, they reported a very small endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.1~0.2 at a relative high residual water saturation of 0.4~0.6. In this study, we hypothesize the measured low endpoint CO2 relative permeability in previous studies was an experimental artifact that is primary due to low CO2 viscosity. We conducted steady-state CO2 drainage experiments by co-injecting equlibrated CO2 and brine into a long (60.8 cm) and low permeability (116-mD) Berea sandstone core at 20 °C and 1500 psi. During every experiment, both the overall pressure drop across the core and the pressure drops of the five independent and continuous sections of the core were monitored. The in-situ saturation was measured with a medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. In the center three sections where saturation was uniform, we determined the relative permeability to both brine and CO2 phases. In the entrance and exit sections, both measured pressure gradients and saturation were non-uniform. To cope with this, we make several self-consistent assumptions that reveal the nature of capillary entrance and effect in steady-state two-phase core flooding experiments. Based on these assumptions we determined the relative permeability to CO2 and CO2-brine capillary pressure simultaneously using measured pressure drops. We found: (1) a much higher endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.58 at a water saturation of 48%, (2) the entrance region with non-uniform saturation expanded CO2 relative permeability data to much lower water saturation, (3) the determined CO2-brine capillary pressure curve is self-consistent and matches

  20. The effect of capillary pressure for concave liquid-vapor interface on interfacial evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金涛; 王补宣; 彭晓峰


    The analysis in this paper demonstrates that the capillary pressure on the concave liquid-vapor interface will promote the interfacial evaporation, therefore clarifying the confusion over the great difference between the estimated and real rate of interfacial evaporation. This difference increases with decreasing capillary radius, and becomes more apparent for liquid with high latent heat. The present analysis also shows that the capillary pressure on the concave interface will result in a decrease in liquid phase equilibrium temperature, which can explain the possibility of vapor bubble formation on micro liquid layer interfacial evaporation under low superheat, or even below the nominal saturated temperature.

  1. Facilitating protein crystal cryoprotection in thick-walled plastic capillaries by high-pressure cryocooling. (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Tate, Mark W; Gruner, Sol M


    Many steps in the X-ray crystallographic solution of protein structures have been automated. However, the harvesting and cryocooling of crystals still rely primarily on manual handling, frequently with consequent mechanical damage. An attractive alternative is to grow crystals directly inside robust plastic capillaries that may be cryocooled and mounted on the beamline goniometer. In this case, it is still desirable to devise a way to cryoprotect the crystals, which is difficult owing to the poor thermal conductivity of thick plastic capillary walls and the large thermal mass of the capillary and internal mother liquor. A method is described to circumvent these difficulties. It is shown that high-pressure cryocooling substantially reduced the minimal concentrations of cryoprotectants required to cryocool water inside capillaries without formation of ice crystals. The minimal concentrations of PEG 200, PEG 400 and glycerol necessary for complete vitrification under pressure cryocooling were determined.

  2. The Phase Envelope of Multicomponent Mixtures in the Presence of a Capillary Pressure Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando; Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht;


    Confined fluids such as oil and gas mixtures inside tight reservoirs are systems that can experience high capillary pressure difference between the liquid and gas phases. This capillary pressure difference has an effect on the phase equilibrium and in some cases is considerably high. We presented...... the correct direction of the phase envelope shift. Combined with the multicomponent Clapeyron equation, the equations reveal why the shift changes direction for the saturation pressure at the cricondentherm and for the saturation temperature at the cricondenbar. The equations can be used to estimate...

  3. Prediction of Three-Phase Capillary Pressure using a Network Model Anchored to Two-Phase Data


    Dale, Elisabeth Iren; Dijke, Marinus I. J. van; Skauge, Arne


    Three-phase capillary pressure is difficult to measure experimentally and therefore has to be estimated by other methods. In this work a network model was applied to generate a consistent set of two-phase and three-phase capillary pressure curves. Experimental data for two-phase, gas-oil and oil-water, capillary pressure from a North Sea reservoir was used in this study. The network model was anchored to the measured two-phase data, and three-phase capillary pressure was constr...

  4. Shock detachment from curved wedges (United States)

    Mölder, S.


    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  5. Capillary pressure and liquid wicking in three-dimensional nonwoven materials (United States)

    Mao, N.; Russell, S. J.


    The capillary pressure and liquid wicking in fibrous nonwoven materials depend on the structural arrangement of fibers in three dimensions, which is influenced by the method and conditions used to manufacture the material. By adapting the hydraulic radius mechanism and drag force theory, a model is established for predicting the directional capillary pressure in three-dimensional nonwoven materials. As a case study, equations to predict the velocity of liquid wicking in a one-dimensional wicking strip test for nonwovens having a three-dimensional fiber orientation distribution are given based on the newly established capillary pressure model. These models and equations are based on measurable structural parameters including the fiber orientation distribution, fiber diameter, and fabric porosity.

  6. Three-Phase Capillary Pressure, Hysteresis and Trapping in a Porous Glass-Bead Column (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Schlüter, S.; Li, T.; Brown, K. I.; Helland, J. O.; Wildenschild, D.


    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) strategies employing water-alternate-gas (WAG) injections may improve oil mobility and production recovery. WAG injections for EOR create regions in the reservoir with simultaneous flow of oil, water and air dominated by capillary and gravity forces. As a result of the dynamics in the transition zones, the invading fluid may snap off compartments of the displaced fluid which could then be trapped in the pore space, contributing to the hysteresis of the three-phase capillary pressure curves. Three-phase capillary pressure curves are needed to model the three-phase transition zone movements in the reservoir. In reservoir simulation models, the common practice has been to implement three-phase capillary pressure curves based on two-phase gas-oil and oil-water capillary pressure data. However, experimental and modelling studies of three-phase fluid distributions at the pore scale have shown that this procedure is not always valid; three-phase capillary pressure curves exhibit hysteresis and depend on the saturation history of the three phases which cannot be derived from two-phase capillary pressure curves. We have developed three-phase experiments that provide capillary pressures and 3D-image data of fluid distributions in the entire saturation space of oil, water and air in water-wet porous glass-bead columns; a time-consuming and technically challenging exercise. The 3D data with a resolution of 6.38 μm were derived from high-resolution synchrotron x-ray computed micro-tomography (CMT), collected at the GSECARS beam line 13-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. In particular, we discuss how three-phase pore-scale mechanisms, such as oil layer existence and multiple displacement events, affect the mobility and trapping of oil in the porous medium. We also show that wettability-alterations of the porous medium in contact with the three-phase fluid system and exposure to x-rays can be avoided by using iodine

  7. [Pulmonary artery wedge pressure and heart rate measurement during pharmacological stress induction for left cardial function diagnosis in horses with and without heart disease]. (United States)

    Gehlen, H; Groner, U; Rohn, K; Stadler, P


    In 18 horses, the pulmonary artery wedge pressure and the heart rate were measured during pharmacological stress load. 12 horses were healthy (4 trained, 8 untrained) and 6 horses had a heart disease (3 trained, 3 untrained). Pharmacological stress induction was carried out with the sympathomimetic drug dobutamine at a dosage rate of 7.5 microg/kg/min over 10 minutes of infusion. At the fourth minute, the parasympatholytic drug atropine was administered (5 microg/kg bw), and the heart rate and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure were continuously measured over 26 minutes. During sole dobutamine infusion, a significant decrease in heart rate and a significant increase in pulmonary artery wedge pressure were observed. After the application of atropine in the fourth minute, a significant increase in heart rate (from 35.7 +/- 6 up to 106 +/- 38/ min) and in pulmonary artery wedge pressure (from 15.7 +/- 3 up to 24 +/- 8.6 mmHg) were visible in the group of healthy horses. The horses with heart diseases had a significantly higher increase in both parameters (heart rate and pulmonary artery wedge pressure) with a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.7). The heart rate increased in the horses with heart diseases from 35.2 +/- 2,8 beats/min up to 132 +/- 45.7 beats/min and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure increased from 17.3 +/- 3,2 mmHg up to 32.7 +/- 13 mmHg. The cardiac status (healthy or heart disease) as well as the training level of the horses (untrained or trained) had a significant influence on the heart rate and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure. The untrained horses (healthy and heart disease) showed significantly higher values over a longer period of time than did the trained horses with the same cardiac status. Additionally the influence of pharmacological stress induction on echocardiographic parameters was investigated. The left atrial size (p = 0.015) and left ventricular diameter were significanly different in the systole (p = 0.008) and in the

  8. Measurements of Rotational Temperatures in Atmospheric-Pressure Capillary Plasma Electrode (CPE) Discharge (United States)

    Figus, Margaret; Abramzon, Nina; Becker, Kurt


    We report the results of rotational temperature measurements in atmospheric-pressure capillary plasma electrode (CPE) discharges in ambient air using the unresolved N2 second positive band. Assuming that the emitting N2 molecules can be described by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution characterized by a single rotational temperature, this temperature is determined from a fit of the measured emission spectrum to a calculated spectrum. If the emitting species are in equilibrium with the bulk gas in the plasma, then this temperature can be interpreted as the gas kinetic temperature in the plasma. We determined rotational temperatures for three different plasma regions: inside the capillary by analyzing radiation emitted along the axis of the capillary, between the capillaries, and perpendicular to the axis of the capillary. Each region has a different plasma density and, therefore, a different gas temperature with the plasma inside the capillary being the hottest. We also measured the rotational temperatures in each region as a function of the plasma power. As expected, the rotational temperatures increase with increasing discharge power. Work supported by the NSF and by ARO through a DURIP award.

  9. Simultaneous measurement of hysteresis in capillary pressure and electric permittivity for multiphase flow through porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.C.; Bruining, J.; Moreno Tirado, L.M.


    We present a tool that simultaneously measures the complex permittivity and the capillary pressure characteristics for multiphase flow. The sample holder is a parallel plate capacitor. A precision component analyzer is used to measure the impedance amplitude and phase angle as a function of frequenc

  10. Direct measurement of the capillary pressure characteristics of water-air-gas diffusion layer systems for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostick, Jeff T.; Ioannidis, Marios A.; Fowler, Michael W.; Pritzker, Mark D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada)


    A method and apparatus for measuring the relationship between air-water capillary pressure and water saturation in PEMFC gas diffusion layers (GDL) is described. Capillary pressure data for water injection and withdrawal from typical GDL materials are obtained, which demonstrate permanent hysteresis between water intrusion and water withdrawal. Capillary pressure, defined as the difference between the water and gas pressures at equilibrium, is positive during water injection and negative during water withdrawal. The results contribute to the understanding of liquid water behavior in GDL materials which is necessary for the development of effective PEMFC water management strategies. (author)

  11. The Interface Conditions for Pressures at Oil-water Flood Front in the Porous Media Considering Capillary Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaolong; Du, Zhimin


    Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CPVCM). This paper has inspected it via the studying the water-oil displacement in one dimensional reservoir with considering capillary pressure but ignoring the compressibility and gravity. It is proved theoretically that the total Darcy velocity and total pressure (defined by Antoncev etc.), instead of the Darcy velocities and pressures of water and oil, are continuous at the flood front without considering the compressibility of fluid and porous media. After that, new interface conditions for the pressures and Darcy velocity of each fluid are established, which are collectively named as Jump Pressures and Velocities Conditions Model (JPVCM) because the model has shown the jump pressures and...

  12. The relationship of pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance to pulmonary artery wedge pressure during submaximal exercise in healthy older adults (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P.; Granton, John T.; Esfandiari, Sam; Goodman, Jack M.


    Key points A consistent inverse hyperbolic relationship has been observed between pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance, although changes in pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) may modify this relationship.This relationship predicts that pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic and mean pressure maintain a consistent relationship relative to the PAWP.We show that, in healthy exercising human adults, both pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance decrease in relation to exercise‐associated increases in PAWP.Pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic and mean pressures maintain a consistent relationship with one another, increasing linearly with increasing PAWP.Increases in PAWP in the setting of exercise are directly related to a decrease in pulmonary vascular compliance, despite small decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance, thereby increasing the pulsatile afterload to the right ventricle. Abstract The resistive and pulsatile components of right ventricular afterload (pulmonary vascular resistance, Rp; compliance, Cp) are related by an inverse hyperbolic function, expressed as their product known as RpCp‐time. The RpCp‐time exhibits a narrow range, although it may be altered by the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). Identifying the determinants of RpCp‐time should improve our understanding of the physiological behaviour of pulmonary arterial systolic (PASP), diastolic (PADP) and mean (mPAP) pressures in response to perturbations. We examined the effect of exercise in 28 healthy non‐athletic adults (55 ± 6 years) who underwent right heart catheterization to assess haemodynamics and calculate Rp and Cp. Measurements were made at rest and during two consecutive 8–10 min stages of cycle ergometry, at targeted heart‐rates of 100 beats min–1 (Light) and 120 beats min–1 (Moderate). Cardiac output increased progressively during exercise. PASP, PADP, mPAP and PAWP increased for Light exercise, without any further rise for Moderate

  13. Capillary viscometer with a pressure sensor: a subject for student projects (United States)

    Massalha, Taha; Digilov, Rafael M.


    We describe a vacuum-based pressure-detecting capillary viscometer for the viscosity determination of Newtonian fluids without known density. The viscometer operates on the principle that the variation in air pressure of the vacuum vessel p≤ft(t\\right) replaces the flow rate and pressure drop measurements which are usually required for the operation of a capillary tube viscometer. The mathematical expression for p≤ft(t\\right), found in the terms of the Lambert-W function, is used to fit the experimental data for viscosity determination. The results for viscosities of distilled water and 50 wt.% glycerol aqueous solution obtained under ambient temperature condition were compared to reference data and a good agreement was observed. The viscometer is suitable for undergraduate laboratories due to its low cost and simplicity in experimental setup. Moreover, the experimental with the vacuum vessel setup provides an in-depth understanding of fluid flow.

  14. Uniaxial creep as a control on mercury intrusion capillary pressure in consolidating rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The nature of geologic disposal of nuclear waste in salt formations requires validated and verified two - phase flow models of transport of brine and gas through intact, damaged, and consolidating crushed salt. Such models exist in oth er realms of subsurface engineering for other lithologic classes (oil and gas, carbon sequestration etc. for clastics and carbonates) but have never been experimentally validated and parameterized for salt repository scenarios or performance assessment. Mo dels for waste release scenarios in salt back - fill require phenomenological expressions for capillary pressure and relative permeability that are expected to change with degree of consolidation, and require experimental measurement to parameterize and vali date. This report describes a preliminary assessment of the influence of consolidation (i.e. volume strain or porosity) on capillary entry pressure in two phase systems using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). This is to both determine the potent ial usefulness of the mercury intrusion porosimetry method, but also to enable a better experimental design for these tests. Salt consolidation experiments are performed using novel titanium oedometers, or uniaxial compression cells often used in soil mech anics, using sieved run - of - mine salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as starting material. Twelve tests are performed with various starting amounts of brine pore saturation, with axial stresses up to 6.2 MPa (%7E900 psi) and temperatures to 90 o C. This corresponds to UFD Work Package 15SN08180211 milestone "FY:15 Transport Properties of Run - of - Mine Salt Backfill - Unconsolidated to Consolidated". Samples exposed to uniaxial compression undergo time - dependent consolidation, or creep, to various deg rees. Creep volume strain - time relations obey simple log - time behavior through the range of porosities (%7E50 to 2% as measured); creep strain rate increases with temperature and applied stress as

  15. A comparison of pulmonary arterial occlusion algorithms for estimation of pulmonary capillary pressure. (United States)

    Pellett, A A; Johnson, R W; Morrison, G G; Champagne, M S; deBoisblanc, B P; Levitzky, M G


    Using the arterial occlusion method, we compared five literature-based estimates of pulmonary capillary pressure (Ppc) with the corresponding double occlusion pressures (Pdo) in anesthetized dogs whose chests had been closed after sternotomy for instrumentation. Arterial occlusions were performed with a balloon-tipped pulmonary artery catheter that housed pressure transducers immediately proximal and distal to the balloon. Separation of the proximal and distal pressure waveforms during balloon inflation allowed us to precisely define the moment of occlusion. We fit a monoexponential curve to pressure data beginning 200 ms after the onset of occlusion and a biexponential curve to data beginning at the instant of occlusion, with data obtained over a range of vascular states (control, serotonin infusion, histamine infusion). In addition, we investigated the use of sampling of the raw data to estimate capillary pressure. Three of the five literature-based estimates of Ppc yielded values similar to Pdo. The optimal (least average difference from Pdo) interpolation/extrapolation time points of the curve fits varied, depending on the type of curve fitting and the state of the pulmonary vasculature. We also determined that a close approximation of Pdo may be derived from the raw data, as an alternative to exponential curve fitting.

  16. The influence of low-permeability cap on capillary pressure during pumping in unconfined aquifer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 钱家忠; 匡星星; 陈冰宇; 马雷; 吴亚楠


    The pumping test in an unconfined aquifer with and without a low-permeability soil was studied experimentally to reveal the influence of the negative air pressure (NP) caused by the upper layer on the water content(w), the water pressure(Pw), as well as on the capillary pressure(Pc). The study demonstrates that the NP generated in the vadose zone during pumping in the capper aquifer has a significant influence onw,wP andPc. ThecP obtained from the capped aquifer is smaller than that without the upper layer. After the NP reaches a peak, the influence of the NP onPc is gradually declined as the air inflows through the upper layer which makes the NP gradually return to zero. When the air pressure returns to the atmospheric pressure,Pc in the vadose zone is only correlated withPw, the same as the case with no upper layer.

  17. Gas-bubble snap-off under pressure driven flow in constricted noncircular capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.


    A model for snap-off of a gas thread in a constricted cornered pore is developed. The time for wetting liquid to accumulate at a pore throat into an unstable collar is examined, as for the resulting pore-spanning lens to be displaced from the pore so that snap-off is the time may repeat. A comer-flow hydrodynamic analysis for the accumulation rate of wetting liquid due to both gradients in interfacial curvature and in applied liquid-phase pressure reveals that wetting-phase pressure gradients significantly increase the frequency of liquid accumulation for snap-off as compared to liquid rearrangement driven only by differences in pore-wall curvature. For moderate and large pressure gradients, the frequency of accumulation increases linearly with pressure gradient because of the increased rate of wetting liquid flow along pore comers. Pore topology is important to the theory, for pores with relatively small throats connected to large bodies demonstrate excellent ability to snapoff gas threads even when the initial capillary pressure is high or equivalently when the liquid saturation is low. A macroscopic momentum balance across the lens resulting from snap-off reveals that lens displacement rates are not linear with the imposed pressure drop. Instead, the frequency of lens displacement scales with powers between 0.5 and 0.6 for pores with dimensionless constriction radii between 0.15 and 0.40. Statistical percolation arguments are employed to form a generation rate expression and connect pore-level foam generation events to macroscopic pressure gradients in porous media. The rate of foam generation by capillary snap-off increases linearly with the liquid-phase pressure gradient and according to a power-law relationship with respect to the imposed gas-phase pressure gradient.

  18. [Evaluation of the hypomagnetic environment effects on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure and heart rate]. (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Iu I; Vasin, A L; Matveeva, T A; Sasonko, M L


    Impact of attenuated magnetic field (MF) on human health is a hard-core issue of present-day cosmonautics. A series of experiments with animals exposed in attenuated MF revealed violent disorders in cardiovascular system development. Purpose of the work was to study effects of the hypomagnetic environment (HME) on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normal people. Participants (n = 34) were 24 men and 10 women free from cardiovascular symptoms. Mean age was 43.3 +/- 15.4 years. Thirteen participants, i.e. 8 men and 5 women, were randomly selected for a repeated investigation in the usual conditions (imaginary exposure); mean age in the group made up 47.9 +/- 18 years. Cardiac rhythm and heart rate were recorded using cardiac monitor Astrocard (Russia). BP was measured with the help of automatic blood pressure monitor Tonocard (Russia). Capillary circulation was determined using a digital capillaroscope (Russia) with high-speed CMOS-camera (100 frames/s). Time of HME exposure was 60 min. It was demonstrated that in healthy people free from cardiovascular symptoms HME increases capillary circulation rate by 22.4% as compared with records made under the usual conditions. There was a reliable HR reduction by the end of HME exposure with reference to the measurements taken at the onset. At the end of exposure, diastolic BP dropped considerably relative to mid-exposure values and systolic BP, on the contrary, made a significant rise.

  19. An air-pressure-free elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis (United States)

    Jung, Wooseok; Barrett, Matthew; Brooks, Carla; Rivera, Andrew; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Wagner, David M.; Zenhausern, Frederic


    We present a new elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The valve functions include metering to capture a designated volume of biological sample into a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber, sealing to preserve the sample during PCR cycling, and transfer of the PCR-products and on-chip formamide post-processing for the analysis of DNA fragments by capillary gel electrophoresis. This new valve differs from prior art polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves in that the valve is not actuated externally by air-pressure or vacuum so that it simplifies a DNA analysis system by eliminating the need for an air-pressure or vacuum source, and off-cartridge solenoid valves, control circuit boards and software. Instead, the new valve is actuated by a thermal cycling peltier assembly integrated within the hardware instrument that tightly comes in contact with a microfluidic cartridge for thermal activation during PCR, so that it spontaneously closes the valve without an additional actuator system. The valve has bumps in the designated locations so that it has a self-alignment that does not require precise alignment of a valve actuator. Moreover, the thickness of the new valve is around 600 μm with an additional bump height of 400 μm so that it is easy to handle and very feasible to fabricate by injection molding compared to other PDMS valves whose thicknesses are around 30-100 μm. The new valve provided over 95% of metering performance in filling the fixed volume of the PCR chamber, preserved over 97% of the sample volume during PCR, and showed very comparable capillary electrophoresis peak heights to the benchtop assay tube controls with very consistent transfer volume of the PCR-product and on-chip formamide. The new valve can perform a core function for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

  20. A mimetic finite difference method for two-phase flow models with dynamic capillary pressure and hysteresis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong


    Saturation overshoot and pressure overshoot are studied by incorporating dynamic capillary pressure, capillary pressure hysteresis and hysteretic dynamic coefficient with a traditional fractional flow equation. Using the method of lines, the discretizations are constructed by applying Castillo-Grone's mimetic operators in the space direction and explicit trapezoidal integrator in the time direction. Convergence tests and conservation property of the schemes are presented. Computed profiles capture both the saturation overshoot and pressure overshoot phenomena. Comparisons between numerical results and experiments illustrate the effectiveness and different features of the models.

  1. Rethinking wedges (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken; Hoffert, Martin I.


    Abstract Stabilizing CO2 emissions at current levels for fifty years is not consistent with either an atmospheric CO2 concentration below 500 ppm or global temperature increases below 2 °C. Accepting these targets, solving the climate problem requires that emissions peak and decline in the next few decades, and ultimately fall to near zero. Phasing out emissions over 50 years could be achieved by deploying on the order of 19 'wedges', each of which ramps up linearly over a period of 50 years to ultimately avoid 1 GtC y-1 of CO2 emissions. But this level of mitigation will require affordable carbon-free energy systems to be deployed at the scale of tens of terawatts. Any hope for such fundamental and disruptive transformation of the global energy system depends upon coordinated efforts to innovate, plan, and deploy new transportation and energy systems that can provide affordable energy at this scale without emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. 1. Introduction In 2004, Pacala and Socolow published a study in Science arguing that '[h]umanity can solve the carbon and climate problem in the first half of this century simply by scaling up what we already know how to do' [1]. Specifically, they presented 15 options for 'stabilization wedges' that would grow linearly from zero to 1 Gt of carbon emissions avoided per year (GtC y-1 1 Gt = 1012 kg) over 50 years. The solution to the carbon and climate problem, they asserted, was 'to deploy the technologies and/or lifestyle changes necessary to fill all seven wedges of the stabilization triangle'. They claimed this would offset the growth of emissions and put us on a trajectory to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at 500 ppm if emissions decreased sharply in the second half of the 21st century. The wedge concept has proven popular as an analytical tool for considering the potential of different technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. In the years since the paper was published, it has been cited more than 400 times, and

  2. 楔形离合器系统的正压力观测%Normal Pressure Observation of Wedge Clutch System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余孟珂; 姚健; 陈俐


    The wedge clutch system can reduce the current demand of motor and space demand of the installation because of the self-reinforcement feature of wedge mechanism. By applying Kalman Filter theory, the authors give a real-time estimate of the normal pressure of the wedge clutch system after eliminating the impact of measurement noise and system process noise. The results with multiple input current tests indicate that the estimated value and the measured value have good trackability.%楔形离合器具有自增力特性,可降低执行电机电流并节约安装空间。通过引入卡尔曼滤波器原理,在滤除测量噪声和系统过程噪声影响后给出了楔形离合器正压力值的实时估计。多种输入电流下的试验结果表明,观测值与实测值具有良好的跟踪性。

  3. Seaward- Versus Landward-Verging Thrusts in Accretionary Wedges: A Numerical Modeling Study of the Effects of Heterogeneity in Pore Fluid Pressure and Frictional Strength (United States)

    Ito, G.; Moore, G. F.; Olive, J. A. L.; Weiss, J. R.


    Whereas seaward-verging thrust faults are, by far, the most common large faults associated with accretionary wedges, the importance of the globally rare, landward verging thrusts has recently been highlighted given the prominence of landward vergence along the Cascadia margin as well as along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, especially in the rupture area of the great 2004 earthquake. The mechanical processes that lead to seaward- versus landward-verging thrusts in accretionary wedges has long been a topic of debate. A weak frictional décollement is one explanation that indeed promotes landward vergence, but not only so, because the typical pattern is of dual verging conjugate faults. A non-brittle, ductile décollement is a second explanation that has been shown in the laboratory to produce a wide sequence of only landward-verging thrusts, but the mechanical causes are not well understood and numerical modeling studies have yet to reproduce this behavior. A seaward-dipping backstop is a third explanation; it promotes landward vergence locally, but more distally the backstop effects diminish and the sense of vergence transitions back to seaward. Mohr-Coulomb and minimum work theory predict that landward vergence should predominate when the direction of maximum principal compression dips landward. We hypothesize that such a condition can arise due to the migration of pore fluids and the associated spatial heterogeneity in frictional strength within the wedge. We test this hypothesis using 2-D numerical models that use a finite-difference, particle-in-cell method for simulating the deformation of an accretionary wedge with a viscoelastic-plastic rheology. With a uniform internal frictional strength, the calculations reproduce many of the faulting behaviors seen in prior laboratory and numerical modeling studies. We are exploring the impacts of heterogeneity in pore fluid pressure and frictional strength on the pattern and vergence of thrust faults.

  4. Exact solution of unsteady flow generated by sinusoidal pressure gradient in a capillary tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulhameed


    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of unsteady second grade fluid in a capillary tube with sinusoidal pressure gradient is developed with non-homogenous boundary conditions. Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles have been obtained in explicit forms. These solutions are written as the sum of the steady and transient solutions for small and large times. For growing times, the starting solution reduces to the well-known periodic solution that coincides with the corresponding solution of a Newtonian fluid. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed.

  5. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)


    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  6. Comparison of CO2 trapping in highly heterogeneous reservoirs with Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten type capillary pressure curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Dominic, David F; Mehnert, Edward; Okwen, Roland T


    Geological heterogeneities essentially affect the dynamics of a CO2 plume in subsurface environments. Previously we showed how the dynamics of a CO2 plume is influenced by the multi-scale stratal architecture in deep saline reservoirs. The results strongly suggest that representing small-scale features is critical to understanding capillary trapping processes. Here we present the result of simulation of CO2 trapping using two different conventional approaches, i.e. Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten, for the capillary pressure curves. We showed that capillary trapping and dissolution rates are very different for the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten approaches when heterogeneity and hysteresis are both represented.

  7. Radial wedge flange clamp (United States)

    Smith, Karl H.


    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  8. The influence of temperature, pressure, salinity and capillary force on the formation of methane hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhao Duan


    Full Text Available We present here a thermodynamic model for predicting multi-phase equilibrium of methane hydrate liquid and vapor phases under conditions of different temperature, pressure, salinity and pore sizes. The model is based on the 1959 van der Waals–Platteeuw model, angle-dependent ab initio intermolecular potentials, the DMW-92 equation of state and Pitzer theory. Comparison with all available experimental data shows that this model can accurately predict the effects of temperature, pressure, salinity and capillary radius on the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate. Online calculations of the p–T conditions for the formation of methane hydrate at given salinities and pore sizes of sediments are available on:

  9. A FORTRAN program for interpretation of relative permeability from unsteady-state displacements with capillary pressure included (United States)

    Udegbunam, E.O.


    This paper presents a FORTRAN program for the determination of two-phase relative permeabilities from unsteady-state displacement data with capillary pressure terms included. The interpretative model employed in this program combines the simultaneous solution of a variant of the fractional flow equation which includes a capillary pressure term and an integro-differential equation derived from Darcy's law without assuming the simplified Buckley-Leverett flow. The incorporation of capillary pressure in the governing equations dispenses with the high flowrate experimental requirements normally employed to overcome capillarity effects. An illustrative example is presented herein which implements this program for the determination of oil/water relative permeabilities from a sandstone core sample. Results obtained compares favorably with results previously given in the literature. ?? 1991.

  10. A total pressure-saturation formulation of two-phase flow incorporating dynamic effects in the capillary-pressure-saturation relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, H.K.; Celia, M.A.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Karlsen, K.H.


    New theories suggest that the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation should be enhanced by a dynamic term that is proportional to the time rate of change of saturation. This so-called dynamic capillary pressure formulation is supported by laboratory experiments, and can be included in various forms of the governing equations for two-phase flow in porous media. An extended model of two-phase flow in porous media may be developed based on fractional flow curves and a total pressure - saturation description that includes the dynamic capillary pressure terms. A dimensionless form of the resulting equation set provides an ideal tool to study the relative importance of the dynamic capillary pressure effect. This equation provides a rich set of mathematical research questions, and numerical solutions to the equation provide insights into the behavior of two-phase immiscible flow. For typical two-phase flow systems, dynamic capillary pressure acts to retard infiltration fronts, with responses dependent on system parameters including boundary conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that the traditional algebraic relationship between capillary pressure and saturation may be inadequate. Instead, a so-called dynamic capillary pressure formulation is needed, where capillary pressure is defined as a thermodynamic variable, and the difference between phase pressures is only equal to the capillary pressure at equilibrium. Under dynamic conditions, the disequilibrium between phase-pressure differences and the capillary pressure is taken to be proportional to the time rate of change of saturation. A recent study by Hassanizadeh et al. presents experimental evidence, culled from the literature, to support this claim. Numerical simulations using dynamic pore-scale network models and upscaling also support the claim. Hassanizadeh et al. also presented numerical solutions for an enhanced version of Richards' equation that included the dynamic terms. A

  11. Pressure-accelerated azide-alkyne cycloaddition: micro capillary versus autoclave reactor performance. (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Seeger, Andreas D; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi; Busch, Markus; Hessel, Volker


    Pressure effects on regioselectivity and yield of cycloaddition reactions have been shown to exist. Nevertheless, high pressure synthetic applications with subsequent benefits in the production of natural products are limited by the general availability of the equipment. In addition, the virtues and limitations of microflow equipment under standard conditions are well established. Herein, we apply novel-process-window (NPWs) principles, such as intensification of intrinsic kinetics of a reaction using high temperature, pressure, and concentration, on azide-alkyne cycloaddition towards synthesis of Rufinamide precursor. We applied three main activation methods (i.e., uncatalyzed batch, uncatalyzed flow, and catalyzed flow) on uncatalyzed and catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. We compare the performance of two reactors, a specialized autoclave batch reactor for high-pressure operation up to 1800 bar and a capillary flow reactor (up to 400 bar). A differentiated and comprehensive picture is given for the two reactors and the three methods of activation. Reaction speedup and consequent increases in space-time yields is achieved, while the process window for favorable operation to selectively produce Rufinamide precursor in good yields is widened. The best conditions thus determined are applied to several azide-alkyne cycloadditions to widen the scope of the presented methodology.

  12. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)


    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H{sub 2} into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH, H{sub β}, and H{sub α} were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T{sub 2g} phonon at 1333 cm{sup −1} peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  13. Influence of clay and silica on permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Birte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    The permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs are controlled by their porosity and specific surface area. Measured permeabilities are in the range 0.025-5.3 mD and are successfully predicted by use of the Kozeny equation. In this paper we focus on the factors that control...

  14. Measurement of rock-core capillary pressure curves using a single-speed centrifuge and one-dimensional magnetic-resonance imaging. (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Balcom, Bruce J


    Capillary pressure curves are widely used in materials, soil, and environmental sciences, and especially in the petroleum industry. The traditional (Hassler-Brunner) interpretation of centrifugal capillary pressure data is based on several assumptions. These assumptions are known to lead to significant errors in the measurement of capillary pressure curves. In this work, we propose a new "single-shot" method to measure the capillary pressure curve of a long sedimentary rock core using a single-speed centrifuge experiment and magnetic-resonance imaging to directly determine the water saturation distribution along the length of the sample. Since only a single moderate centrifuge speed is employed, the effect of gravity can be ignored and the outlet boundary condition of the core plug was maintained. The capillary pressure curve obtained by the single-shot method is remarkably consistent with results determined with conventional mercury-intrusion methods. The proposed method is much faster and more precise than traditional centrifuge methods.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of β-Cyclodextrin Derivatized Ovalbumin Used as Chiral Selector in Pressure Capillary Electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yu-hong; TANG Li; DAI Rong-ji; DENG Yu-lin; FU Ruo-nong


    Synthesis and properties of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin used as chiral selector were investigated.β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was synthesized using β-cyclodextrin and ovalbumin in the presence of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether in boric acid buffer at pH value 8.7 at 37 ℃.Amino group was coated on the internal surface of the silica capillary by sol-gel technology with triethoxylmethylsiloxane and (3-arninopropyl)trimethoxysiloxane.Covalent binding of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was performed by glutaraldehyde.Enantiomers of chlorpheniramine,phenylalanine and atropine were separated by pressure capillary electrochromatography column coated with β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin.

  16. Signal-Pressure Curves of Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing in Gas-Filled Capillary by fs Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bao-Zhen; HUANG Zu-Qia


    The theoretical framework for the cascaded four waves mixing (CFWM) in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses is constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the signal-pressure curves (SPC) of the CFWM in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses are calculated. With a comparison between the theoretical and experimental SPC we have discussed the influence of the walk-off and Phase modulation on the SPC. At the same time, we have discussed the possible origin of the first three peaks of the SPC.

  17. Microwave air plasmas in capillaries at low pressure I. Self-consistent modeling (United States)

    Coche, P.; Guerra, V.; Alves, L. L.


    This work presents the self-consistent modeling of micro-plasmas generated in dry air using microwaves (2.45 GHz excitation frequency), within capillaries (model couples the system of rate balance equations for the most relevant neutral and charged species of the plasma to the homogeneous electron Boltzmann equation. The maintenance electric field is self-consistently calculated adopting a transport theory for low to intermediate pressures, taking into account the presence of O- ions in addition to several positive ions, the dominant species being O{}2+ , NO+ and O+ . The low-pressure small-radius conditions considered yield very-intense reduced electric fields (˜600-1500 Td), coherent with species losses controlled by transport and wall recombination, and kinetic mechanisms strongly dependent on electron-impact collisions. The charged-particle transport losses are strongly influenced by the presence of the negative ion, despite its low-density (˜10% of the electron density). For electron densities in the range (1-≤ft. 4\\right)× {{10}12} cm-3, the system exhibits high dissociation degrees for O2 (˜20-70%, depending on the working conditions, in contrast with the  ˜0.1% dissociation obtained for N2), a high concentration of O2(a) (˜1014 cm-3) and NO(X) (5× {{10}14} cm-3) and low ozone production (<{{10}-3}% ).

  18. High Q silica microbubble resonators fabricated by heating a pressurized glass capillary (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Xuezhi; Lin, Xujun; Liu, Wenhui


    Microbubble resonators combine the unique properties of whispering gallery mode resonators with the capability of integrated microfluidics. The microbubble resonator is fabricated by heating the tapered tip of a pressurized glass capillary with oxyhydrogen flame. Firstly, a microtube with a diameter of 250um is stretched under heating of oxyhydrogen flame, the heating zone length is set to be 20mm and the length of stretch is set to be 7000um.Then nitrogen will be pumped in to the tapered microtube with the pressure of 0.1Mpa, the tapered tip will be heated by the oxyhydrogen flame continuously until a microbubble forms. An optical fiber taper with a diameter of 2 um, fabricated by stretching a single-mode optical fiber under flame was brought in contact with the microbubble to couple the light from a 1550nm tunable diode laser into the whispering gallery mode. The microbubble resonator has a Q factors up to 1.5 × 107 around 1550nm. Different concentrations of ethanol solution (from 5% to 30%) are filled into it in order to test the refractive index sensing capabilities of such resonator, which shows a sensitivity of 82nm/RIU.

  19. Intrinsic advantages of packed capillaries over narrow-bore columns in very high-pressure gradient liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin


    250μm×100mm fused silica glass capillaries were packed with 1.8μm high-strength silica (HSS) fully porous particles. They were prepared without bulky stainless steel endfittings and metal frits, which both generate significant sample dispersion. The isocratic efficiencies and gradient peak capacities of these prototype capillary columns were measured for small molecules (n-alkanophenones) using a home-made ultra-low dispersive micro-HPLC instrument. Their resolution power was compared to that of standard 2.1mm×100mm very high-pressure liquid chromatography (vHPLC) narrow-bore columns packed with the same particles. The results show that, for the same column efficiency (25000 plates) and gradient steepness (0.04min(-1)), the peak capacity of the 250μm i.d. capillary columns is systematically 15-20% higher than that of the 2.1mm i.d. narrow-bore columns. A validated model of gradient chromatography enabled one to predict accurately the observed peak capacities of the capillary columns for non-linear solvation strength retention behavior and under isothermal conditions. Thermodynamics applied to the eluent quantified the temperature difference for the thermal gradients in both capillary and narrow-bore columns. Experimental data revealed that the gradient peak capacity is more affected by viscous heating than the column efficiency. Unlike across 2.1mm i.d. columns, the changes in eluent composition across the 250μm i.d. columns during the gradient is rapidly relaxed by transverse dispersion. The combination of (1) the absence of viscous heating and (2) the high uniformity of the eluent composition across the diameter of capillary columns explains the intrinsic advantage of capillary over narrow-bore columns in gradient vHPLC.

  20. Elastic response of mesoporous silicon to capillary pressures in the pores (United States)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Bertinetti, Luca; Bernstein, Noam; Hofmann, Tommy; Fratzl, Peter; Huber, Patrick


    We study water adsorption-induced deformation of a monolithic, mesoporous silicon membrane traversed by independent channels of ˜8 nm diameter. We focus on the elastic constant associated with the Laplace pressure-induced deformation of the membrane upon capillary condensation, i.e., the pore-load modulus. We perform finite-element method (FEM) simulations of the adsorption-induced deformation of hexagonal and square lattices of cylindrical pores representing the membrane. We find that the pore-load modulus weakly depends on the geometrical arrangement of pores, and can be expressed as a function of porosity. We propose an analytical model which relates the pore-load modulus to the porosity and to the elastic properties of bulk silicon (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio), and provides an excellent agreement with FEM results. We find good agreement between our experimental data and the predictions of the analytical model, with the Young's modulus of the pore walls slightly lower than the bulk value. This model is applicable to a large class of materials with morphologies similar to mesoporous silicon. Moreover, our findings suggest that liquid condensation experiments allow one to elegantly access the elastic constants of a mesoporous medium.

  1. Determination of the relationship among capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area: a pore unit assembly approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikooee E.


    Full Text Available Three state variables namely, degree of saturation (Sw, capillary pressure (Pc and specific air-water interfacial area (aaw are indispensable for modelling coupled processes relevant to unsaturated soils mechanics, agriculture, and contaminant hydrology. They play a key role in simulating various phenomena and the determination of various parameters and physical characteristics such as the unsaturated soil shear strength, field capacity, wilting point, air and water diffusivity and the rate of dissolution of contaminants. The determination of soil water retention curve (Sw-Pc as well as the specific interfacial area (aaw using available experimental techniques is a challenging and time consuming task. Therefore, a numerical technique that employs basic soil properties to obtain these variables is of much value and high practical and theoretical importance. In the current study, the porous network extracted from a discrete element model (the so-called pore unit-assembly has been used to directly model the drying and wetting processes inside a granular soil packing and to obtain the values of Pc, Sw and aaw. The results of the simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data, which points to the efficacy and adequacy of the introduced algorithms and involved assumptions for this purpose.

  2. Accurate relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation and the evaporation of nitrogen in cylindrical pores. (United States)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi


    To examine the theoretical and semiempirical relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation or evaporation proposed so far, we constructed an accurate relation between the pore radius and the capillary condensation and evaporation pressure of nitrogen at 77 K for the cylindrical pores of the ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. Here, the pore size was determined from a comparison between the experimental and calculated X-ray diffraction patterns due to X-ray structural modeling recently developed. Among the many theoretical relations that differ from each other in the degree of theoretical improvements, a macroscopic thermodynamic approach based on Broekhoff-de Boer equations was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental relation obtained in the present study.

  3. Compensation for the Effects of Ambient Conditions on the Calibration of Multi-Capillary Pressure Drop Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colard S


    Full Text Available Cigarette draw resistance and filter pressure drop (PD are both major physical parameters for the tobacco industry. Therefore these parameters must be measured reliably. For these measurements, specific equipment calibrated with PD transfer standards is used. Each transfer standard must have a known and stable PD value, such standards usually being composed of several capillary tubes associated in parallel. However, PD values are modified by ambient conditions during calibration of such standards, i.e. by temperature and relative humidity (RH of air, and atmospheric pressure. In order to reduce the influence of these ambient factors, a simplified model was developed for compensating the effects of ambient conditions on the calibration of multi-capillary PD standards.

  4. Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge (United States)

    Vargas, Mario; Struk, Peter M.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Palacios, Jose; Iyer, Kaushik A.; Gold, Robert E.


    This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a moving wedge. The experiment was conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility located at Penn State University. The wedge was placed at the tip of a rotating blade. Ice particles shot from a pressure gun intercepted the moving wedge and impacted it at a location along its circular path. The upward velocity of the ice particles varied from 7 to 12 meters per second. Wedge velocities were varied from 0 to 120 meters per second. Wedge angles tested were 0 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg. High speed imaging combined with backlighting captured the impact allowing observation of the effect of velocity and wedge angle on the impact and the post-impact fragment behavior. It was found that the pressure gun and the rotating wedge could be synchronized to consistently obtain ice particle impacts on the target wedge. It was observed that the number of fragments increase with the normal component of the impact velocity. Particle fragments ejected immediately after impact showed velocities higher than the impact velocity. The results followed the major qualitative features observed by other researchers for hailstone impacts, even though the reduced scale size of the particles used in the present experiment as compared to hailstones was 4:1.

  5. Capillary pressure overshoot for unstable wetting fronts is explained by Hoffman's velocity-dependent contact-angle relationship (United States)

    Baver, Christine E.; Parlange, J.-Yves; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; DiCarlo, David A.; Wallach, Rony; Durnford, Deanna S.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.


    Pore velocity-dependent dynamic contact angles provide a mechanism for explaining the formation of fingers/columns in porous media. To study those dynamic contact angles when gravity is present, rectangular capillary tubes were used to facilitate observation of the complete interface without geometric distortion. Results show that the Hoffman (1975) relationship between dynamic contact angle and water velocity applies to gravity-affected flow fields, and that it (when adjusted for nonzero static contact angles) can be used to model dynamic capillary pressures for unstable wettings fronts in porous media by assuming that (1) pressure at the wetting front is discontinuous, (2) the flow field behind the fingertip is highly heterogeneous, and (3) the front line advances one or a few pores at the time. We demonstrate the utility of the Hoffman relationship for porous media with a published infiltration experiment by calculating the capillary pressure successfully at the unstable wetting front as a function of the flux of water in the finger and the grain size diameter.

  6. Reducing Mechanical Formation Damage by Minimizing Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure in Tight Gas (United States)

    Ahmed, Arshad; Talib Shuker, Muhannad; Rehman, Khalil; Bahrami, Hassan; Memon, Muhammad Khan


    Tight gas reservoirs incur problems and significant damage caused by low permeability during drilling, completion, stimulation and production. They require advanced improvement techniques to achieve flow gas at optimum rates. Water blocking damage (phase Trapping/retention of fluids) is a form of mechanical formation damage mechanism, which is caused by filtrate invasion in drilling operations mostly in fracturing. Water blocking has a noticeable impact on formation damage in gas reservoirs which tends to decrease relative permeability near the wellbore. Proper evaluation of damage and the factors which influence its severity is essential to optimize well productivity. Reliable data regarding interfacial tension between gas and water is required in order to minimize mechanical formation damage potential and to optimize gas production. This study was based on the laboratory experiments of interfacial tension by rising drop method between gas-brine, gas-condensate and gas-brine. The results showed gas condensate has low interfacial tension value 6 - 11 dynes/cm when compared to gas-brine and gas- diesel which were 44 - 58 dynes/cm and 14 - 19 dynes/cm respectively. In this way, the capillary pressure of brine-gas system was estimated as 0.488 psi, therefore diesel-gas system was noticed about 0.164 psi and 0.098 psi for condensate-gas system. A forecast model was used by using IFT values to predict the phase trapping which shows less severe phase trapping damage in case of condensate than diesel and brine. A reservoir simulation study was also carried out in order to better understand the effect of hysteresis on well productivity and flow efficiency affected due to water blocking damage in tight gas reservoirs.

  7. Influence of charge accumulation on a dielectric capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet (United States)

    Sands, Brian; Huang, Shih; Speltz, Jared; Niekamp, Matthew; Ganguly, Biswa


    Using a single ring electrode configuration and a positive unipolar pulsed voltage source, we examine the influence of the dielectric barrier on the distribution of ionization in a streamer-like dielectric capillary plasma jet utilizing a rare gas flow as a function of anode placement and pulse repetition frequency. At low frequencies, when the anode is recessed at least 5 mm along the capillary, two regions of enhanced ionization can be resolved near the anode and near the capillary tip that are associated with two distinct peaks in the discharge current and locally increased emission intensity in the residual streamer channel. With the anode placed ~20 mm from the capillary tip, the two current peaks were ~13 mA. Increasing the frequency between 6 and 10 kHz, the capillary tip enhancement expanded towards the anode and concentrated there at higher frequencies. The discharge current over this frequency range rose to 18 mA and was increasingly dominated by the earlier peak associated with ionization near the anode. This increased charging of the dielectric surface and reduced the potential available to the ionization front outside the capillary as indicated by a 25% drop in velocity and reduced emission intensity. The surface charging effect is visualized at discharge inception using a Phantom high-frame-rate CCD camera.

  8. Microwave air plasmas in capillaries at low pressure II. Experimental investigation (United States)

    Stancu, G. D.; Leroy, O.; Coche, P.; Gadonna, K.; Guerra, V.; Minea, T.; Alves, L. L.


    This work presents an experimental study of microwave (2.45 GHz excitation frequency) micro-plasmas, generated in dry air (N2 80%: O2 20%) within a small radius silica capillary (345 µm inner radius) at low pressure (300 Pa) and low powers (80-130 W). Experimental diagnostics are performed using optical emission spectroscopy calibrated in absolute intensity. Axial-resolved measurements (50 µm spatial resolution) of atomic transitions N(3p4S)  →  N(3s4P) O(3p5P)  →  O(3s5S) and molecular transitions N2(C,v‧)  →  N2(B,v″) \\text{N}2+ (B,v‧)  →  \\text{N}2+ (X,v″) allow us to obtain, as a function of the coupled power, the absolute densities of N(3p4S), O(3p5P), N2(C), N2(B) and \\text{N}2+ (B), as well as the gas (rotational) temperature (700-1000 K), the vibrational temperature of N2(C,v) (7000-10 000 K) and the excitation temperatures of N2(C) and N2(B) (11 000 K). The analysis of the H β line-width gives an upper limiting value of 1013 cm-3 for the electron density; its axial variation (4  ×  1011-6  ×  1012 cm-3) being estimated by solving the wave electrodynamics equations for the present geometry, plasma length and electron-neutral collision frequency. The experimental results were compared with the results from a 0D model, presented in companion paper I [1], which couples the system of rate balance equations for the dominant neutral and charged plasma species to the homogeneous two-term electron Boltzmann equation, taking the measured gas temperature and the estimated electron density as input parameters. Good qualitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations of the local species densities for various powers and axial positions. The dissociation degree of oxygen is found above 10%. Moreover, both the measurements and calculations show evidence of the non-equilibrium behavior of low-temperature plasmas, with vibrational and excitation temperatures at least

  9. Major and trace-element composition and pressure-temperature evolution of rock-buffered fluids in low-grade accretionary-wedge metasediments, Central Alps (United States)

    Miron, George D.; Wagner, Thomas; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.


    The chemical composition of fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from Alpine fissure veins was determined by combination of microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and LA-ICPMS analysis. The veins are hosted in carbonate-bearing, organic-rich, low-grade metamorphic metapelites of the Bündnerschiefer of the eastern Central Alps (Switzerland). This strongly deformed tectonic unit is interpreted as a partly subducted accretionary wedge, on the basis of widespread carpholite assemblages that were later overprinted by lower greenschist facies metamorphism. Veins and their host rocks from two locations were studied to compare several indicators for the conditions during metamorphism, including illite crystallinity, graphite thermometry, stability of mineral assemblages, chlorite thermometry, fluid inclusion solute thermometry, and fluid inclusion isochores. Fluid inclusions are aqueous two-phase with 3.7-4.0 wt% equivalent NaCl at Thusis and 1.6-1.7 wt% at Schiers. Reproducible concentrations of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, Cl, Br, and S could be determined for 97 fluid inclusion assemblages. Fluid and mineral geothermometry consistently indicate temperatures of 320 ± 20 °C for the host rocks at Thusis and of 250 ± 30 °C at Schiers. Combining fluid inclusion isochores with independent geothermometers results in pressure estimates of 2.8-3.8 kbar for Thusis, and of 3.3-3.4 kbar for Schiers. Pressure-temperature estimates are confirmed by pseudosection modeling. Fluid compositions and petrological modeling consistently demonstrate that chemical fluid-rock equilibrium was attained during vein formation, indicating that the fluids originated locally by metamorphic dehydration during near-isothermal decompression in a rock-buffered system.

  10. An improved method for predicting permeability by combining electrical measurements and mercury injection capillary pressure data (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Chaomo


    The applicability of the representative elemental volume (REV) model is analyzed on the basis of the capillary pressure curves, resistivity, porosity and permeability, taken from the experimental measurement data of 83 sandstone core samples from three different blocks mined in China. The results show that the permeability error (the ratio of core permeability to the permeability calculated by the REV model) can be controlled from 0.5 to 2 when the core permeability is more than 3 mD. On the whole, the permeability error is more than 2, and the calculated permeability is lower than the core permeability when the core permeability is less than 3 mD. The reason for the poor calculation accuracy of the REV model in low permeability sandstone is analyzed, and the research suggests that the ∫dS v/(P c)2 in the REV model characterizes the pore-throat radius of the rock. In reality, the permeability is influenced by the throat radius rather than the pore radius. When the core permeability is large enough, there is no obvious difference between the pore radius and the throat radius. So, the error between the core permeability and the permeability calculated by the REV model is small. However, when the core permeability is small, the difference between the pore radius and the throat radius is apparent, and, in general, the pore radius is larger than the throat radius. In these conditions, the pore radius plays a leading role in ∫dS v/(P c)2, thus making the error between the core permeability and the permeability calculated by the REV model apparent. Based on the above, we have derived an improved REV model by introducing the pore-throat radius ratio on the basis of Poiseuille’s law and Darcy’s law. Using the same experimental data, we make a comparison analysis between the improved model, the REV model and the Swanson model. The results show that compared with the REV model and the Swanson model, the accuracy of the calculated permeability of the improved model is

  11. Pore-lining composition and capillary breakthrough pressure of mudstone caprocks : sealing efficiency at geologic CO2 storage sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E.; Nemer, Martin B.; McPherson, Brian J. O. L. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Dewers, Thomas A.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel


    Subsurface containment of CO2 is predicated on effective caprock sealing. Many previous studies have relied on macroscopic measurements of capillary breakthrough pressure and other petrophysical properties without direct examination of solid phases that line pore networks and directly contact fluids. However, pore-lining phases strongly contribute to sealing behavior through interfacial interactions among CO2, brine, and the mineral or non-mineral phases. Our high resolution (i.e., sub-micron) examination of the composition of pore-lining phases of several continental and marine mudstones indicates that sealing efficiency (i.e., breakthrough pressure) is governed by pore shapes and pore-lining phases that are not identifiable except through direct characterization of pores. Bulk X-ray diffraction data does not indicate which phases line the pores and may be especially lacking for mudstones with organic material. Organics can line pores and may represent once-mobile phases that modify the wettability of an originally clay-lined pore network. For shallow formations (i.e., < {approx}800 m depth), interfacial tension and contact angles result in breakthrough pressures that may be as high as those needed to fracture the rock - thus, in the absence of fractures, capillary sealing efficiency is indicated. Deeper seals have poorer capillary sealing if mica-like wetting dominates the wettability. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Southeast and Southwest Carbon Sequestration Partnerships for supporting this work.

  12. Quantification of Viscosity and Capillary Pressure Anomalies for Polar Liquids in 2D Hydrophilic Nano-Confinements (United States)

    Kelly, S. A.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Balhoff, M.


    Interest in liquid and interfacial behavior within nano-confinements spans many disciplines. Geophysical interest originates from a desire to understand flow mechanisms through hydrocarbon-rich nano-porous shale media, especially communication between fractures and the adjacent nano-porous matrix (imbibition). This work investigates the extent of boundary layer nucleation during polar liquid flows in hydrophilic nano-confinements via discrepancies seen in viscosity and capillary pressure from their bulk values. We perform our experiments in two-dimensional nanochannels of varying size and as small as 30 nm x 60 nm in cross section and still obtain visual data with reflected differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The simple geometry of the nanochannels enables the comparison against analytical transport solutions. By designing a nanochannel experiment that allows us to monitor the rate of fluid imbibition and volume loss of a trapped air pocket the liquid is imbibing into, we are able to decouple capillary pressure and viscosity from imbibition data, as well as gain information about gas partitioning at the meniscus interface. Our current experiments are performed with organic solvents within siliceous nanochannels and the results of the decoupling scheme indicate that for rectangular nanochannels with heights of 60 nm and varying widths, effective viscosity is consistently between 4-12 times higher than the bulk value and capillary pressure is around 50% less than the macroscopic Young-Laplace equation prediction. These results equate to the nucleation of wall boundary layers on the order of tens of molecular layers thick. Structured boundary layers have an inherently increased viscosity compared to the liquid bulk value, resulting in a significant reduction in imbibition efficacy. This presence of approximately 15 nm boundary layers in on the threshold of two different theories - thin bimolecular boundary layers and exclusion zones (thick boundary

  13. Thermodynamics of the multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium under capillary pressure difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    , not for the multicomponent mixtures. The importance is emphasized on the space of the intensive variables P, T and mu (i), where the laws of capillary equilibrium have a simple geometrical interpretation. We formulate thermodynamic problems specific to such an equilibrium, and outline changes to be introduced to common...

  14. The criterion of subscale sufficiency and its application to the relationship between static capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial areas (United States)

    Kurzeja, Patrick


    Modern imaging techniques, increased simulation capabilities and extended theoretical frameworks, naturally drive the development of multiscale modelling by the question: which new information should be considered? Given the need for concise constitutive relationships and efficient data evaluation; however, one important question is often neglected: which information is sufficient? For this reason, this work introduces the formalized criterion of subscale sufficiency. This criterion states whether a chosen constitutive relationship transfers all necessary information from micro to macroscale within a multiscale framework. It further provides a scheme to improve constitutive relationships. Direct application to static capillary pressure demonstrates usefulness and conditions for subscale sufficiency of saturation and interfacial areas.

  15. Study on the interrelated effects of capillary diameter, background electrolyte concentration, and flow rate in pressure assisted capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. (United States)

    Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C


    A detailed study on the effect of the buffer concentration and the magnitude of the superimposed hydrodynamic flow on separation performance in CZE with contactless conductivity detection was carried out with capillaries of 10, 25, and 50 μm internal diameter. It was confirmed that capillaries of narrow internal diameters require higher buffer concentrations for best sensitivities. For all diameters it was found that electrodispersion was the most pronounced band-broadening factor for relatively long residence times. For shorter times, Joule heating related band broadening appears to be the most significant factor, which means that best separation efficiencies are obtained with the narrowest capillaries. As detection limits are as good for capillaries of 10 μm internal diameters as for the other diameters when using contactless conductivity detection, these narrow capillaries are, therefore, generally of benefit when employing this detection technique. Hydrodyamic flow was found to have only a very limited effect on band broadening; an effect was only noticeable for the 50 μm capillary and relatively high flow rates.

  16. Mechanisms for Induction of Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage by Diagnostic Ultrasound: Review and Consideration of Acoustical Radiation Surface Pressure. (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L


    Diagnostic ultrasound can induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in rats and other mammals. This phenomenon represents the only clearly demonstrated biological effect of (non-contrast enhanced) diagnostic ultrasound and thus presents a uniquely important safety issue. However, the physical mechanism responsible for PCH remains uncertain more than 25 y after its discovery. Experimental research has indicated that neither heating nor acoustic cavitation, the predominant mechanisms for bioeffects of ultrasound, is responsible for PCH. Furthermore, proposed theoretical mechanisms based on gas-body activation, on alveolar resonance and on impulsive generation of liquid droplets all appear unlikely to be responsible for PCH, owing to unrealistic model assumptions. Here, a simple model based on the acoustical radiation surface pressure (ARSP) at a tissue-air interface is hypothesized as the mechanism for PCH. The ARSP model seems to explain some features of PCH, including the approximate frequency independence of PCH thresholds and the dependence of thresholds on biological factors. However, ARSP evaluated for experimental threshold conditions appear to be too weak to fully account for stress failure of pulmonary capillaries, gauging by known stresses for injurious physiologic conditions. Furthermore, consideration of bulk properties of lung tissue suggests substantial transmission of ultrasound through the pleura, with reduced ARSP and potential involvement of additional mechanisms within the pulmonary interior. Although these recent findings advance our knowledge, only a full understanding of PCH mechanisms will allow development of science-based safety assurance for pulmonary ultrasound.

  17. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.


    -trends from logs were compared with normalized water saturation depth-trends predicted from capillary pressure core data. The ten wells lie close to a SW–NE cross section of the field. For the gas–oil contact, a free contact measured in one well corresponds to a practically horizontal contact interpreted from......The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth...... logging data in the remaining wells. A westerly dipping oil–water contact was found from logging data. Comparison of the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation among the different wells indicates a regional pattern: in the western side of the field, the trends correspond to a situation...

  18. Determination of N-Methylcarbamate Pesticides in Vegetables by Solid-phase Extraction and Pressurized Capillary Electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Introduction Capillary electrochromatography(CEC) is a hybrid technique that couples the good selectivity of high-performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) and the high separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  19. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker


    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text

  20. Hydrodynamics of slip wedge and optimization of surface slip property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The hydrodynamic load support generated by a slip wedge of a slider bearing was studied. The surface slip property was optimized so that a maximum hydrodynamic load support could be obtained. A multi-linearity method was given for the slip control equation of two-dimensional (2-D) wall slip. We investigated 2-D wall slip and the hydrodynamics of a finite length bearing with any values of the surface limiting shear stress. It was found that the hydrodynamic effect of the slip wedge is greater than the traditional geometrical convergent-wedge. Even though the geo- metrical gap is a parallel or divergent sliding gap, the slip wedge still gives rise to a very big hydrodynamic pressure. The optimized slip wedge can give rise to a hy- drodynamic load support as high as 2.5 times of what the geometrical conver- gent-wedge can produce. Wall slip usually gives a small surface friction.

  1. Hydrodynamics of slip wedge and optimization of surface slip property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA GuoJun; WU ChengWei; ZHOU Ping


    The hydrodynamic load support generated by a slip wedge of a slider bearing was studied. The surface slip property was optimized so that a maximum hydrodynamic load support could be obtained. A multi-linearity method was given for the slip control equation of two-dimensional (2-D) wall slip. We investigated 2-D wall slip and the hydrodynamics of a finite length bearing with any values of the surface limiting shear stress. It was found that the hydrodynamic effect of the slip wedge is greater than the traditional geometrical convergent-wedge. Even though the geometrical gap is a parallel or divergent sliding gap, the slip wedge still gives rise to a very big hydrodynamic pressure. The optimized slip wedge can give rise to a hydrodynamic load support as high as 2.5 times of what the geometrical convergent-wedge can produce. Wall slip usually gives a small surface friction.

  2. A Comprehensive Review on Measurement and Correlation Development of Capillary Pressure for Two-Phase Modeling of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Si


    Full Text Available Water transport and the corresponding water management strategy in proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells are quite critical for the improvement of the cell performance. Accuracy modeling of water transport in porous electrodes strongly depends on the appropriate constitutive relationship for capillary pressure which is referred to as pc-s correlation, where pc is the capillary pressure and s is the fraction of saturation in the pores. In the present PEM fuel cell two-phase models, the Leverett-Udell pc-s correlation is widely utilized which is proposed based on fitting the experimental data for packed sands. However, the size and structure of pores for the commercial porous electrodes used in PEM fuel cells differ from those for the packed sands significantly. As a result, the Leverett-Udell correlation should be improper to characterize the two-phase transport in the porous electrodes. In the recent decade, many efforts were devoted to measuring the capillary pressure data and developing new pc-s correlations. The objective of this review is to review the most significant developments in recent years concerning the capillary pressure measurements and the developed pc-s correlations. It is expected that this review will be beneficial to develop the improved PEM fuel cell two-phase model.

  3. The generation of gravity-capillary solitary waves by a pressure source moving at a trans-critical speed (United States)

    Masnadi, Naeem; Duncan, James H.


    The unsteady response of a water free surface to a localized pressure source moving at constant speed $U$ in the range $0.95c_\\mathrm{min} \\lesssim U \\leq 1.02 c_\\mathrm{min}$, where $c_\\mathrm{min}$ is the minimum phase speed of linear gravity-capillary waves in deep water, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. This unsteady response state, which consists of a V-shaped pattern behind the source and features periodic shedding of pairs of depressions from the tips of the V, was first observed qualitatively by Diorio et al. (Phys. Rev. Let., 103, 214502, 2009) and called state III. In the present investigation, cinematic shadowgraph and refraction-based techniques are utilized to measure the temporal evolution of the free surface deformation pattern downstream of the source as it moves along a towing tank, while numerical simulations of the model equation described by Cho et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 672, 288-306, 2011) are used to extend the experimental results over longer times than are possible in the experiments. From the experiments, it is found that the speed-amplitude characteristics and the shape of the depressions are nearly the same as those of the freely propagating gravity-capillary lumps of inviscid potential theory. The decay rate of the depressions is measured from their height-time characteristics, which are well fitted by an exponential decay law with an order 1 decay constant. It is found that the shedding period of the depression pairs decreases with increasing source strength and speed. As the source speed approaches $c_\\mathrm{min}$, this period tends to about 1~s for all source magnitudes. At the low-speed boundary of state III, a new response with unsteady asymmetric shedding of depressions is found. This response is also predicted by the model equation.

  4. Effects of Capillary Pressure on Multiphase Flow during CO2 Injection in Saline Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau J.S.


    Full Text Available This paper focused on supercritical CO2 injection into saline aquifer, in particular its capillarity’s effects on the plume migration, reservoir pressure alteration and CO2 flux density. The numerical method used to solve the incompressible two-phase flow equations is based on the mimetic method, which conserves the mass and fluxes simultaneously. The investigation showed that exclusion of capillarity can greatly underestimate the CO2 plume migration and resulted in distinctive reservoir pressure distribution. It is found that capillarity showed no significant effect on the flux intensity of CO2.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry using an orthogonal interface: set-up and system parameters. (United States)

    Hommerson, Paul; Khan, Amjad M; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W


    The feasibility of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as an alternative ionization technique for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) was investigated using a grounded sheath-flow CE-MS sprayer and an orthogonal APCI source. Infusion experiments indicated that highest analyte signals were achieved when the sprayer tip was in close vicinity of the vaporizer entrance. The APCI-MS set-up enabled detection of basic, neutral, and acidic compounds, whereas apolar and ionic compounds could not be detected. In the positive ion mode, analytes could be detected in the entire transfer voltage range (0-5 kV), whereas highest signal intensities were observed when the corona discharge current was between 1000 and 2000 nA. In the negative ion mode, the transfer voltage typically was 500 V and the optimum corona discharge current was 6000 nA. Analyte signals were raised with increasing nebulizing gas pressure, but the pressure was limited to 25 psi to avoid siphoning and current drops. Signal intensities appeared to be optimal and constant over a wide range of sheath liquid flow rate (5-25 microL/min) and vaporizer temperature (200-350 degrees C). APCI-MS signals were unaffected by the composition of the background electrolyte (BGE), even when it contained sodium phosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Consequently, BGE composition, sheath-liquid flow rate, and vaporizer temperature can be optimized with respect to the CE separation without affecting the APCI-MS response. The analysis of a mixture of basic compounds and a steroid using volatile and nonvolatile BGEs further demonstrates the feasibility of CE-APCI-MS. Detection limits (S/N = 3) were 1.6-10 microM injected concentrations.

  6. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim


    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  7. Wedges of Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva


    The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...

  8. Theoretical Analysis of the Pressure Oscillation Phenomena in Capillary Pumped Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJiaxun; HouZengqi; 等


    Based on the physical model of caplillary pumped loop(CPL)system,the phenomena of pressure oscillation are simplified and analyzed.From a set of non-linear differential equations,the influence of ststem parameters on the performance of the CPL is discussed,including the working temperature (the set point),loop resistance,vapor volume etc.From the analysis,some measures were taken to improve the performance of the loop,Meanwhile ,the reason why the deprive of the CPL occurs during the operation is given by analyzing the theoretical calculation results.

  9. The Generation of Gravity-Capillary Solitary Waves by a Pressure Source Moving at a Trans-critical Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Masnadi, Naeem


    The unsteady response of a water free surface to a localized pressure source moving at constant speed $U$ in the range $0.95c_\\mathrm{min} \\lesssim U \\leq 1.02 c_\\mathrm{min}$, where $c_\\mathrm{min}$ is the minimum phase speed of linear gravity-capillary waves in deep water, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. This unsteady response state, which consists of a V-shaped pattern behind the source and features periodic shedding of pairs of depressions from the tips of the V, was first observed qualitatively by Diorio et al. (Phys. Rev. Let., 103, 214502, 2009) and called state III. In the present investigation, cinematic shadowgraph and refraction-based techniques are utilized to measure the temporal evolution of the free surface deformation pattern downstream of the source as it moves along a towing tank, while numerical simulations using the model equation proposed by Cho et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 672, 288-306, 2011) are used to extend the experimental results over longer times than are...

  10. Correlation of retention times on liquid crystal capillary column with reported vapor pressures and half-lives of compounds used in pheromone formulations. (United States)

    Heath, R R; Tumlinson, J H


    A method has been developed to determine by capillary gas chromatography on liquid crystal stationary phases the relative vapor pressures and half-lives of many compounds used as insect pheromones. This study demonstrated that the retention time of seven acetates on a liquid crystal column (cholesteryl-p-chlorocinnamate) could be correlated closely to the reported vapor pressures of the compounds. For 13 additional pheromonal acetates and alcohols, reported half-lives showed a high degree of correlation with their retention times on the liquid crystal column. Thus chromatography on capillary liquid crystal gas Chromatographie columns appears to be a useful method for determining the relative volatilities of many pheromones to facilitate the development of more precise formulations.

  11. Impaired training-induced adaptation of blood pressure in COPD patients: implication of the muscle capillary bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouzi F


    Full Text Available Fares Gouzi,1,2 Jonathan Maury,1,3 François Bughin,1,2 Marine Blaquière,1,2 Bronia Ayoub,1,2 Jacques Mercier,1,2 Antonia Perez-Martin,4,5 Pascal Pomiès,1 Maurice Hayot1,2 1PhyMedExp, INSERM U1046, CNRS UMR 9214, University of Montpellier, 2Department of Clinical Physiology, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, 3Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center “La Solane”, 5 Santé Group, Osséja, 4Dysfunction of Vascular Interfaces Laboratory, EA 2992, University of Montpellier, 5Department of Vascular Medicine and Investigations, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes, France Background and aims: Targeting the early mechanisms in exercise-induced arterial hypertension (which precedes resting arterial hypertension in its natural history may improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. Capillary rarefaction, an early event in COPD before vascular remodeling, is a potential mechanism of exercise-induced and resting arterial hypertension. Impaired training-induced capillarization was observed earlier in COPD patients; thus, this study compares the changes in blood pressure (BP during exercise in COPD patients and matches control subjects (CSs after a similar exercise training program, in relationship with muscle capillarization. Methods: Resting and maximal exercise diastolic pressure (DP and systolic pressure (SP were recorded during a standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test, and a quadriceps muscle biopsy was performed before and after training.Results: A total of 35 CSs and 49 COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second=54%±22% predicted completed a 6-week rehabilitation program and improved their symptom-limited maximal oxygen uptake (VO2SL: 25.8±6.1 mL/kg per minute vs 27.9 mL/kg per minute and 17.0±4.7 mL/kg per minute vs 18.3 mL/kg per minute; both P<0.001. The improvement in muscle capillary-to-fiber (C/F ratio was significantly greater in CSs vs COPD patients (+11%±9% vs +23%±21%; P<0.05. Although maximal

  12. Influence of phase connectivity on the relationship among capillary pressure, fluid saturation, and interfacial area in two-fluid-phase porous medium systems (United States)

    McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.


    Multiphase flows in porous medium systems are typically modeled at the macroscale by applying the principles of continuum mechanics to develop models that describe the behavior of averaged quantities, such as fluid pressure and saturation. These models require closure relations to produce solvable forms. One of these required closure relations is an expression relating the capillary pressure to fluid saturation and, in some cases, other topological invariants such as interfacial area and the Euler characteristic (or average Gaussian curvature). The forms that are used in traditional models, which typically consider only the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation, are hysteretic. An unresolved question is whether the inclusion of additional morphological and topological measures can lead to a nonhysteretic closure relation. Relying on the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, we develop an approach to investigate equilibrium states for a two-fluid-phase porous medium system, which includes disconnected nonwetting phase features. A set of simulations are performed within a random close pack of 1964 spheres to produce a total of 42 908 distinct equilibrium configurations. This information is evaluated using generalized additive models to quantitatively assess the degree to which functional relationships can explain the behavior of the equilibrium data. The variance of various model estimates is computed, and we conclude that, except for the limiting behavior close to a single fluid regime, capillary pressure can be expressed as a deterministic and nonhysteretic function of fluid saturation, interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. To our knowledge, this work is unique in the methods employed, the size of the data set, the resolution in space and time, the true equilibrium nature of the data, the parametrizations investigated, and the broad set of functions examined. The conclusion of essentially nonhysteretic behavior provides

  13. Numerical study of two-phase flows in porous media : extraction of a capillary pressure saturation curve free from boundary effects (United States)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Moura, Marcel; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Toussaint, Renaud; Schäfer, Gerhard


    The capillary pressure saturation relationship is a key element in the resolution of hydrological problems that involve the closure partial-flow Darcy relations. This relationship is derived empirically, and the two typical curve fitting equations that are used to describe it are the Brooks-Corey and Van Genüchten models. The question we tackle is the influence of the boundary conditions of the experimental set-up on the measurement of this retention curve, resulting in a non physical pressure-saturation curve in porous media, due the "end effects" phenomenon. In this study we analyze the drainage of a two-phase flow from a quasi 2D random porous medium, and compare it to simulations arising from an invasion percolation algorithm. The medium is initially saturated with a viscous fluid, and as the pressure difference is gradually increased, air penetrates from an open inlet, thus displacing the fluid which leaves the system from the outlet in the opposing side. In the initial stage, the liquid-air interface evolves from a planar front to the fractal structure characteristic of slow drainage processes, giving the initial downward curvature. In the final stage, air spreads all along the filter, and must reach narrower pores, calling for an increase of the pressure difference, reflected by the final upward curvature. Measuring the pressure-saturation (P-S) law in subwindows located at the inlet, outlet and middle of the network, we emphasize that these boundary effects are the fact of a fraction of pores that is likely to be negligible for high scale systems. We analyze the value of the air saturation at the end of the experiment for a series of simulations with different sample geometries : we observe that this saturation converges to a plateau when the distance between the inlet ant outlet increases, and that the value of this plateau is determined by the distance between the lateral walls. We finally show that the pressure difference between the two phases

  14. Capillary sample (United States)

    ... several times a day using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited ... do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication ...

  15. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water. (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai


    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected.

  16. On the response of a water surface to a surface pressure source moving at trans-critical gravity-capillary wave speeds (United States)

    Masnadi, Naeem; Cho, Yeunwoo; Duncan, James H.; Akylas, Triantaphyllos


    The non-linear response of a water free surface to a pressure source moving at speeds near the minimum speed of linear gravity-capillary waves (Cmin ~ 23 cm/s) is investigated with experiments and theory. In the experiments, waves are generated by a vertically oriented air-jet that moves at a constant speed over the water surface in a long tank. The 3-D surface shape behind the air-jet is measured using a cinematic refraction-based technique combined with an LIF technique. At towing speeds just below Cmin, an unsteady pattern is formed where localized depressions periodically appear in pairs and move away from the source along the arms of a downstream V-shaped pattern. This behavior is analogous to the periodic shedding of solitary waves upstream of a source moving at the maximum wave speed in shallow water. The gravity-capillary depressions are rapidly damped by viscosity and their speed-amplitude characteristics closely match those from inviscid calculations of gravity-capillary lumps. The shedding frequency of the lumps in the present experiments increases with both increasing towing speed and air-flow rate. Predictions of this behavior using a model equation that incorporates damping and a quadratic nonlinearity are in good agreement with the experiments. The partial support of the National Science Foundation under grant OCE0751853 is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Modeling Relations Among Relative Permeabilities, Fluid Saturations, and Capillary Pressures in Mixed-Wet Porous Media: Model Testing and Application to Oil-Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Mart (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Lenhard, Robert J.(INEEL); Delshad, M; Robertson, S D.(Spirit 76, Midland, TX); M.Th. van Genuchten, F.J. Leij and L. Wu


    A critical component of all multiphase flow codes is how relationships among relative permeabilities, fluid saturations, and capillary pressures (i.e., k-S-P relations) are described. Models that are able to mimic fundamental fluid-flow processes to predict k S-P relations are preferable than extrapolating measured data points to estimate k-S-P relations because they may have greater utility and may be more consistent. Furthermore, different saturation-path histories may be simulated with a computer code than those measured in the k-S-P experiments. Because the geometry of the pore spaces in natural porous media is very complex and will likely never be precisely known to predict k-S-P behavior from fundamental relationships, k-S-P models are largely empirical. In this paper, an empirical model based on theoretical considerations is developed to predict hysteretic k-S-P relations in porous media in which the smaller pores are water-wet and the larger pores are oil-wet, i.e., mixed-w et. At high oil-water capillary pressures, the water saturation is modeled to approach the residual water saturation. At low oil-water capillary pressures (i.e., negative), the oil saturation is modeled to approach the residual oil saturation. Relative permeabilities are predicted using parameters that describe main-drainage S-P relations and accounting for the distribution of water and oil in the pore spaces of mixed-wet porous media. The proposed algebraic expressions are easy to implement in multiphase flow codes and can be used to predict k-S-P relations for any saturation-path history. In addition, the model is relatively easy to calibrate to porous media.

  18. Pressurized nano-liquid-junction interface for coupling capillary electrochromatography and nano-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. (United States)

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore


    A new nano-liquid-junction interface for coupling both capillary electrochromatography (CEC) or nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) with mass spectrometry (MS) was studied. The interface was a small T piece of polymeric material where capillary column and tip capillary were positioned at 180° while the third exit (at 90°) was occupied by a capillary delivering a liquid-assisting spray ionization for CEC experiments or by the electrode for the high voltage spray for nano-LC. Experiments were carried out analyzing mixtures of some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) or anti-inflammatory and related acidic drugs with MS detection in positive or negative ion mode, respectively. Analyzed OPPs compounds were baseline resolved utilizing the novel interface in both nano-LC and CEC obtaining good sensitivity and repeatability. For CEC-MS, the limits of detection ranged between 0.03 and 6.80 μg/mL and the intra-day repeatability was RSD interface was easy to handle and good reproducibility, between 2.5 and 3.5% for the retention time and interface was installed by two different analysts. Furthermore, it could be used for both CEC and nano-LC.

  19. Capillary pressure-saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in limestone/dolomite sands: implications for geologic carbon sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. (United States)

    Wang, Shibo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K


    In geologic carbon sequestration, capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw) relations are needed to predict reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been extensively studied in oil-water and gas-water systems, but few measurements have been reported for supercritical (sc) CO2-water. Here, Pc-Sw relations of scCO2 displacing brine (drainage), and brine rewetting (imbibition) were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior under reservoir conditions. Hysteretic drainage and imbibition Pc-Sw curves were measured in limestone sands at 45 °C under elevated pressures (8.5 and 12.0 MPa) for scCO2-brine, and in limestone and dolomite sands at 23 °C (0.1 MPa) for air-brine using a new computer programmed porous plate apparatus. scCO2-brine drainage and imbibition curves shifted to lower Pc relative to predictions based on interfacial tension, and therefore deviated from capillary scaling predictions for hydrophilic interactions. Fitting universal scaled drainage and imbibition curves show that wettability alteration resulted from scCO2 exposure over the course of months-long experiments. Residual trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined at Pc = 0 during imbibition. Amounts of trapped scCO2 were significantly larger than for those for air, and increased with pressure (depth), initial scCO2 saturation, and time. These results have important implications for scCO2 distribution, trapping, and leakage potential.

  20. Performance and characteristics of a high pressure, high temperature capillary cell with facile construction for operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansode, Atul; Urakawa, Atsushi, E-mail: [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), Av. Països Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Guilera, Gemma; Simonelli, Laura; Avila, Marta [ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Crta. BP 1413, Km. 3.3, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Cuartero, Vera [ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Crta. BP 1413, Km. 3.3, 08290 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)


    We demonstrate the use of commercially available fused silica capillary and fittings to construct a cell for operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for the study of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions under high pressure (up to 200 bars) and high temperature (up to 280 °C) conditions. As the first demonstration, the cell was used for CO{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction to examine the state of copper in a conventional Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. The active copper component of the catalyst was shown to remain in the metallic state under supercritical reaction conditions, at 200 bars and up to 260 °C. With the coiled heating system around the capillary, one can easily change the length of the capillary and control the amount of catalyst under investigation. With precise control of reactant(s) flow, the cell can mimic and serve as a conventional fixed-bed micro-reactor system to obtain reliable catalytic data. This high comparability of the reaction performance of the cell and laboratory reactors is crucial to gain insights into the nature of actual active sites under technologically relevant reaction conditions. The large length of the capillary can cause its bending upon heating when it is only fixed at both ends because of the thermal expansion. The degree of the bending can vary depending on the heating mode, and solutions to this problem are also presented. Furthermore, the cell is suitable for Raman studies, nowadays available at several beamlines for combined measurements. A concise study of CO{sub 2} phase behavior by Raman spectroscopy is presented to demonstrate a potential of the cell for combined XAS-Raman studies.

  1. Stable and Critical Noncohesive Coulomb Wedges: Exact Elastic Solutions (United States)

    Wang, K.; Hu, Y.


    The theory of critically tapered Coulomb wedge has been successfully applied to model active fold-and-thrust belts or submarine accretionary prisms. Brittle mountain building is episodic in nature, controlled by changes in basal friction, erosion and sedimentation, and hydrogeology. Sediment accretion may be modulated by great subduction earthquakes. Between deformation episodes and/or during transition between compressional and extensional tectonics, the Coulomb wedges are stable (i.e., supercritical), to which the critical taper theory does not apply. In this work, we provide an exact elastic solution for stable wedges based on Airy stress functions. The stress equilibrium equation and definition of basal friction and basal and internal pore fluid pressure ratios are exactly the same as those used for Dahlen's [1984] exact solution for critical noncohesive Coulomb wedges, but internal friction μ becomes irrelevant. Given elastic - perfectly Coulomb-plastic rheology, for stresses in a wedge on the verge of Coulomb failure there must co-exist a critical taper solution involving μ and a unique equivalent elastic solution not involving μ . Our elastic solution precisely reduces to Dahlen's critical taper solution for critical conditions. For stable conditions, normal stress perpendicular to the surface slope σ z and shear stress τ xz are identical with those in a critical taper, but the slope-parallel normal stress is different. The elastic solution is also generally applicable to purely elastic wedges and useful for modeling geodetic observations. A stable noncohesive Coulomb wedge differs from a general elastic wedge in that its upper and lower surfaces stay at zero curvature during loading. Dahlen, F.A. (1984), Noncohesive critical Coulomb wedges: An exact solution, JGR, 89, 10,125-10,133.

  2. A Capillary-Based Static Phase Separator for Highly Variable Wetting Conditions (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Graf, John C.; Weislogel, Mark M.


    The invention, a static phase separator (SPS), uses airflow and capillary wetting characteristics to passively separate a two-phase (liquid and air) flow. The device accommodates highly variable liquid wetting characteristics. The resultant design allows for a range of wetting properties from about 0 to over 90 advancing contact angle, with frequent complete separation of liquid from gas observed when using appropriately scaled test conditions. Additionally, the design accommodates a range of air-to-liquid flow-rate ratios from only liquid flow to over 200:1 air-to-liquid flow rate. The SPS uses a helix input section with an ice-cream-cone-shaped constant area cross section (see figure). The wedge portion of the cross section is on the outer edge of the helix, and collects the liquid via centripetal acceleration. The helix then passes into an increasing cross-sectional area vane region. The liquid in the helix wedge is directed into the top of capillary wedges in the liquid containment section. The transition from diffuser to containment section includes a 90 change in capillary pumping direction, while maintaining inertial direction. This serves to impinge the liquid into the two off-center symmetrical vanes by the airflow. Rather than the airflow serving to shear liquid away from the capillary vanes, the design allows for further penetration of the liquid into the vanes by the air shear. This is also assisted by locating the air exit ports downstream of the liquid drain port. Additionally, any droplets not contained in the capillary vanes are re-entrained downstream by a third opposing capillary vane, which directs liquid back toward the liquid drain port. Finally, the dual air exit ports serve to slow the airflow down, and to reduce the likelihood of shear. The ports are stove-piped into the cavity to form an unfriendly capillary surface for a wetting fluid to carryover. The liquid drain port is located at the start of the containment region, allowing for

  3. Impingement of water droplets on wedges and double-wedge airfoils at supersonic speeds (United States)

    Serafini, John S


    An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves. The results presented include the following conditions: droplet diameters from 2 to 100 microns, pressure altitudes from sea level to 30,000 feet, free-stream static temperatures from 420 degrees r, free stream Mach numbers from 1.1 to 2.0, semiapex angles for the wedge from 1.14 degrees to 7.97 degrees, thickness-to-chord ratios for the diamond airfoil from 0.02 to 0.14, chord lengths from 1 to 20 feet, and angles of attack from zero to the inverse tangent of the airfoil thickness-to-chord ratio.

  4. A Multi-capillary Inlet Jet Disruption Electrodynamic Ion Funnel Interface for Improved Sensitivity Using Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A new multicapillary inlet and ion funnel interface for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrated to achieve higher ion transmission efficiency compared to a single capillary inlet and ion funnel interface. Even though the distance between the end of the ESI inlet capillary and the exit of the ion funnel (10 cm) is significantly longer than that of the conventional interface (typically a few mm), a significant part of the directed gas flow persists into the first stage of pumping and results in an increased gas load to the second chamber. A jet disrupter made of a circular metal disk placed on axis in the ion funnel enhanced the dispersion of the directed gas flow from a multi-capillary inlet and was found to improve the ion transmission. The ion funnel with the jet disrupter demonstrated a 15% improvement in ion transmission compared to that without the jet disrupter, and simultaneously reduced the pumping speed required for the first or second stage by a factor of 2 to 3. Compared to the sensitivity with the standard mass spectrometer interface (an API 3000, SCIEX, Concord, ON, Canada) in MS/MS operation using an interface equipped with the jet disrupter and ion funnel, a factor of 5.3 to 10.7 enhancement in signal was observed for samples with concentrations of 100 to 500 pg/ul and 10.2 to 14.1 for concentrations of 10 to 50 pg/ul. The decreased enhancement at higher concentrations is attributed to space change effects.

  5. Temporal redistribution of plantar pressure points in diabetic and control subjects: A time-series analysis of neuro-capillary chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh V Oberoi


    Full Text Available BackgroundIn diabetic individuals (DI, neuropathy hinders theredistribution of plantar pressure points thus leading tosusceptible areas where there is constant capillaryblanching which may develop into trophic ulcers. Theredistribution of pressure points may precede evidenceof clinical neuropathy. In this study we comparetemporal redistribution of plantar pressure points (areasof capillary blanching between normal subjects taken ascontrols and DI with no clinical signs of neuropathy.MethodFour adults (45±4.55 years diagnosed to have Type-2Diabetes, without signs of clinical neuropathy andage -matched controls (43±3.74 years were studied.The subjects were asked to stand on a glass slab and a10 minute video recording of 10 selected plantarpressure points was made. Changes in the distance ofthese points with reference to a defined point onMayer’s line were measured at every 10 seconds.Standard deviation of difference of redistributedconsecutive pressure point (SDPP in cms., andfractal dimension (FD was used to compare the twogroups.ResultsCombined mean SDPP (DI =0.013 ± 0.008 cms,controls= 0.196±0.233 cms, P <0.001 and FD (DI=1.000 ± 0.000, controls= 1.010±0.017, P <0.001 ofdiabetic patients were significantly lower thancontrols. Pressure point at base of the 4th toe andthe lower limit of blanching to the left Mayers line atthe heel did not differ significantly between DI andcontrols.ConclusionThere is impaired redistribution of plantar pressurepoints in individuals with diabetes without signs ofclinical neuropathy. This can be attributed to loss ofchaos generating mechanisms in DI. Redistributionof pressure points may be essential in theprevention of trophic ulcers in susceptibleindividuals.

  6. A semi-analytical model for computation of capillary entry pressures and fluid configurations in uniformly-wet pore spaces from 2D rock images (United States)

    Frette, O. I.; Helland, J. O.


    A novel semi-analytical model for computation of capillary entry pressures and associated fluid configurations in arbitrary, potentially non-convex, 2D pore space geometries at uniform wettability is developed. The model computes all possible centre positions of circular arcs, and physically sound criteria are implemented to determine the set of these arcs that correspond to geometrically allowed interfaces. Interfaces and pore boundary segments are connected to form closed boundaries of identified geometrical regions. These regions are classified as either oil regions, located in the wider parts of the pore space, or as water regions located in pore space constrictions. All possible region combinations are identified and evaluated for each radius value in an iterative procedure to determine the favourable entry radius and corresponding configuration based on minimisation of free energy. The model has been validated by comparison with known analytical solutions in idealised pore geometries. In cases where different analytical solutions are geometrically possible, the model generates several oil and water regions, and the valid solution is determined by the region combination that corresponds to the most favourable entry pressure, consistent with the analytical solution. Entry pressure radii and configurations are computed in strongly non-convex pore spaces extracted from an image of Bentheimer sandstone, which demonstrates that the model captures successfully well-known characteristics of capillary behaviour at different wetting conditions. The computations also demonstrate the importance of selecting the fluid configuration of minimum change in free energy. In some cases, a merged region formed by a combination of oil and water regions corresponds to the favourable entry configuration of oil, whereas in other cases, an individual oil region may correspond to the favourable oil entry configuration. It is also demonstrated that oil entry configurations may

  7. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, H.; Rozendaal, R.; Camargo, P.; Mans, A.; Wendling, M.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Sonke, J.J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.


    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the s

  8. A novel capillary electrophoresis method with pressure assisted field amplified sample injection in determination of thiol collectors in flotation process waters. (United States)

    Sihvonen, T; Aaltonen, A; Leppinen, J; Hiltunen, S; Sirén, H


    A new capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the quantification of diisobutyldithiophosphate (DTP), diisobutyldithiophosphinate (DTPI) and ethyl and isobutyl xanthates (EX, IBX) all of which are used as thiol collectors in froth flotation. This method uses pressure assisted field amplified sample injection (PA-FASI) to concentrate the analytes at the capillary inlet. The background electrolyte in electrophoretic separation was 60millimolar (mM) from 3-(cyclohexylamino)propane-1-sulfonic acid (CAPS) in 40mM NaOH solution. The similar CAPS electrolyte solution has earlier been used for screening for diuretics that contained sulphonamide and/or carboxylic groups. In this study, the functional groups are xanthate, phosphate and phosphinate. The method was developed using actual flotation process waters. The results showed that the water delivered from the plant did not contain significant amount of collectors; therefore, method development was accomplished by spiking analytes in these waters. Separation of analytes was achieved in 15min. The range of quantification was 0.27-66.6mg/L (R(2) 0.9991-0.9999) for all analytes other than ethyl xanthate, for which the range was 0.09-66.6mg/L (R(2) 0.9999). LOD (S/N=3) and LOQ (S/N=10) values for DTP, DTPI, IBX and EX were 0.05, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.01mg/L and 0.16, 0.25, 0.21 and 0.04mg/L, respectively. No interference from the matrices was observed, when the method was tested at a gold concentrator plant.

  9. Critical Capillary Number of Interfacial Film Displacement in a Capillary Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Changfei


    The role of surface tension and wettability in the dynamics of air-liquid interfaces during immiscible fluid displacement flows in capillary tube driven by pressure has been investigated. The contact angle and capillary number drive the force wetting processes which is controlled by the balance between the capillary and the viscous lubrication forces. The dynamic wetting condition with the critical capillary number is studied analytically and validated experimentally, which demonstrates that the critical capillary number is associated with the contact angle, slip length and capillary radius.

  10. Directional transport of impinging capillary jet on wettability engineered surfaces (United States)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Chatterjee, Souvick; Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine


    Impingement of capillary jet on a surface is important for applications like heat transfer, or for liquid manipulation in bio-microfluidic devices. Using wettability engineered surfaces, we demonstrate pump-less and directional transport of capillary jet on a flat surface. Spatial contrast of surface energy and a wedge-shape geometry of the wettability confined track on the substrate facilitate formation of instantaneous spherical bulges upon jet impingement; these bulges are further transported along the superhydrophilic tracks due to Laplace pressure gradient. Critical condition warranted for formation of liquid bulge along the varying width of the superhydrophilic track is calculated analytically and verified experimentally. The work throws light on novel fluid phenomena of unidirectional jet impingement on wettability confined surfaces and provides a platform for innovative liquid manipulation technique for further application. By varying the geometry and wettability contrast on the surface, one can achieve volume flow rates of ~ O(100 μL/sec) and directionally guided transport of the jet liquid, pumplessly at speeds of ~ O(10cm/sec).

  11. Measurement and evaluation of the relationships between capillary pressure, relative permeability, and saturation for surrogate fluids for laboratory study of geological carbon sequestration (United States)

    Mori, H.; Trevisan, L.; Sakaki, T.; Cihan, A.; Smits, K. M.; Illangasekare, T. H.


    Multiphase flow models can be used to improve our understanding of the complex behavior of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline aquifers to make predictions for the stable storage strategies. These models rely on constitutive relationships such as capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) and relative permeability (kr) - saturation (Sw) as input parameters. However, for practical application of these models, such relationships for scCO2 and brine system are not readily available for geological formations. This is due to the complicated and expensive traditional methods often used to obtain these relationships in the laboratory through high pressure and/or high-temperature controls. A method that has the potential to overcome the difficulty in conducting such experiments is to replicate scCO2 and brine with surrogate fluids that capture the density and viscosity effects to obtain the constitutive relationships under ambient conditions. This study presents an investigation conducted to evaluate this method. An assessment of the method allows us to evaluate the prediction accuracy of multiphase models using the constitutive relationships developed from this approach. With this as a goal, the study reports multiple laboratory column experiments conducted to measure these relationships. The obtained relationships were then used in the multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2 T2VOC to explore capillary trapping mechanisms of scCO2. A comparison of the model simulation to experimental observation was used to assess the accuracy of the measured constitutive relationships. Experimental data confirmed, as expected, that the scaling method cannot be used to obtain the residual and irreducible saturations. The results also showed that the van Genuchten - Mualem model was not able to match the independently measured kr data obtained from column experiments. Simulated results of fluid saturations were compared with saturation measurements obtained using x-ray attenuations. This

  12. Contact process in a wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, J Theodore; Schinazi, Rinaldo B


    We prove that the supercritical one-dimensional contact process survives in certain wedge-like space-time regions, and that when it survives it couples with the unrestricted contact process started from its upper invariant measure. As an application we show that a type of weak coexistence is possible in the nearest-neighbor ``grass-bushes-trees'' successional model introduced in Durrett and Swindle (1991).

  13. Raman spectroscopic measurements of CO2 density: Experimental calibration with high-pressure optical cell (HPOC) and fused silica capillary capsule (FSCC) with application to fluid inclusion observations (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chou, I.-Ming; Hu, W.; Burruss, R.C.; Sun, Q.; Song, Y.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method for the determination of CO2 densities in fluid inclusions, especially for those with small size and/or low fluid density. The relationship between CO2 Fermi diad split (??, cm-1) and CO2 density (??, g/cm3) has been documented by several previous studies. However, significant discrepancies exist among these studies mainly because of inconsistent calibration procedures and lack of measurements for CO2 fluids having densities between 0.21 and 0.75g/cm3, where liquid and vapor phases coexist near room temperature.In this study, a high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsules were used to prepare pure CO2 samples with densities between 0.0472 and 1.0060g/cm3. The measured CO2 Fermi diad splits were calibrated with two well established Raman bands of benzonitrile at 1192.6 and 1598.9cm-1. The relationship between the CO2 Fermi diad split and density can be represented by: ??=47513.64243-1374.824414????+13.25586152????2-0.04258891551????3 (r2=0.99835, ??=0.0253g/cm3), and this relationship was tested by synthetic fluid inclusions and natural CO2-rich fluid inclusions. The effects of temperature and the presence of H2O and CH4 on this relationship were also examined. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Linear stability of a surfactant-laden annular film in a time-periodic pressure-driven flow through a capillary. (United States)

    Wei, Hsien-Hung; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B


    This paper analyzes the effect of surfactant on the linear stability of an annular film in a capillary undergoing a time-periodic pressure gradient force. The annular film is thin compared to the radius of the tube. An asymptotic analysis yields a coupled set of equations with time-periodic coefficients for the perturbed fluid-fluid interface and the interfacial surfactant concentration. Wei and Rumschitzki (submitted for publication) previously showed that the interaction between a surfactant and a steady base flow could induce a more severe instability than a stationary base state. The present work demonstrates that time-periodic base flows can modify the features of the steady-flow-based instability, depending on surface tension, surfactant activity, and oscillatory frequency. For an oscillatory base flow (with zero mean), the growth rate decreases monotonically as the frequency increases. In the low-frequency limit, the growth rate approaches a maximum corresponding to the growth rate of a steady base flow having the same amplitude. In the high-frequency limit, the growth rate reaches a minimum corresponding to the growth rate in the limit of a stationary base state. The underlying mechanisms are explained in detail, and extension to other time-periodic forms is further exploited.

  15. Effect of varying alveolar oxygen partial pressure on diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, membrane diffusing capacity and lung capillary blood volume. (United States)

    Borland, C D; Cox, Y


    1. To examine the effect of varying oxygen partial pressure (PAO2) on nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) diffusing capacity (transfer factor), 10 subjects performed combined DLCO/DLNO measurements with the inspired mixture made up with three different oxygen concentrations (25%, 18% and 15%) to give PAO2 values of 12-20 kPa. 2. A novel method is described for calculating membrane diffusing capacity (DM) and pulmonary capillary volume (Qc) from DLNO and DLCO. 3. The mean DMCO was 52.89 mmol min-1 kPa-1 and Qc was 0.056 litre. Reducing PAO2 from 20 to 12 kPa resulted in an increase in DLCO = -0.124 (O2%) + 11.67 (P less than 0.001) and a fall in DLNO = 0.538 (O2%) + 32.01 (P less than 0.001) and a fall in DLNO/DLCO = 0.107 (O2%) + 2.52 (P less than 0.001). DM (P = 0.59) and Qc (P = 0.64) also tended to fall with falling PAO2. 4. It appears more likely that the minor reduction in DLNO that we have observed with falling PAO2 is due to diffusion rather than reaction limitation.

  16. Reflection of a converging cylindrical shock wave segment by a straight wedge (United States)

    Gray, B.; Skews, B.


    As a converging cylindrical shock wave propagates over a wedge, the shock wave accelerates and the angle between the shock wave and the wedge decreases. This causes the conditions at the reflection point to move from what would be the irregular reflection domain for a straight shock wave into the regular reflection domain. This paper covers a largely qualitative study of the reflection of converging shock wave segments with Mach numbers between 1.2 and 2.1 by wedges inclined at angles between 15° and 60° from experimental and numerical results. The sonic condition conventionally used for predicting the type of reflection of straight shock waves was found to also be suitable for predicting the initial reflection of a curved shock wave. Initially regular reflections persisted until the shock was completely reflected by the wedge, whereas the triple point of initially irregular reflections was observed to return to the wedge surface, forming transitioned regular reflection. After the incident shock wave was completely reflected by the wedge, a shock wave focusing mechanism was observed to amplify the pressure on the surface of the wedge by a factor of up to 100 for low wedge angles.

  17. Capillary origami


    Py, Charlotte; Reverdy, Paul; Doppler, L.; J. Bico; Roman, B.; Baroud, Charles,


    International audience; The hairs of a wet dog rushing out from a pond assemble into bundles; this is a common example of the effect of capillary forces on flexible structures. From a practical point of the deformation and adhesion of compliant structures induced by interfacial forces may lead to disastrous effects in mechanical microsystems.

  18. Time-resolved characterization of a filamentary argon discharge at atmospheric pressure in a capillary using emission and absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Schröter, Sandra; Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Awakowicz, Peter; Bibinov, Nikita; Böke, Marc; Niermann, Benedikt; Winter, Jörg


    An argon/nitrogen (0.999/0.001) filamentary pulsed discharge operated at atmospheric pressure in a quartz tube is characterized using voltage-current measurements, microphotography, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and absorption spectroscopy. Nitrogen is applied as a sensor gas for the purpose of OES diagnostic. The density of argon metastable atoms Ar(3P2) is determined using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Using a plasma chemical model the measured OES data are applied for the characterization of the plasma conditions. Between intense positive pulses the discharge current oscillates with a damped amplitude. It is established that an electric current flows in this discharge not only through a thin plasma filament that is observed in the discharge image but also through the whole cross section of the quartz tube. A diffuse plasma fills the quartz tube during a time between intense current pulses. Ionization waves are propagating in this plasma between the spike and the grounded area of the tube producing thin plasma channels. The diameter of these channels increases during the pause between the propagation of ionization waves probably because of thermal expansion and diffusion. Inside the channels electron densities of ˜2 × 1013 cm-3, argon metastable densities ˜1014 cm-3 and a reduced electric field about 10 Td are determined.

  19. Flow braking and the substorm current wedge (United States)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Haerendel, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Shiokawa, K.


    Recent models of magnetotail activity have associated the braking of earthward flow with dipolarization and the reduction and diversion of cross-tail current, that is, the signatures of the substorm current wedge. Estimates of the magnitude of the diverted current by Haerendel [1992] and Shiokawa et al. [1997, 1998] tend to be lower than results from computer simulations of magnetotail reconnection and tail collapse [Birn and Hesse, 1996], despite similar underlying models. An analysis of the differences between these estimates on the basis of the simulations gives a more refined picture of the diversion of perpendicular into parallel currents. The inertial currents considered by Haerendel [1992] and Shiokawa et al. [1997] contribute to the initial current reduction and diversion, but the dominant and more permanent contribution stems from the pressure gradient terms, which change in connection with the field collapse and distortion. The major effect results from pressure gradients in the z direction, rather than from the azimuthal gradients [Shiokawa et al., 1998], combined with changes in By and Bx. The reduction of the current density near the equatorial plane is associated with a reduction of the curvature drift which overcompensates changes of the magnetization current and of the gradient B drift current. In contrast to the inertial current effects, the pressure gradient effects persist even after the burst of earthward flow ends.

  20. DNS of compressible turbulent boundary layer over a blunt wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinliang; FU Dexun; MA Yanwan


    Direct numerical simulation of spatially evolving compressible boundary layer over a blunt wedge is performed in this paper. The free-stream Mach number is 6 and the disturbance source produced by wall blowing and suction is located downstream of the sound-speed point. Statistics are studied and compared with the results in incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The mean pressure gradient effects on the vortex structure are studied.

  1. Left ventricular filling pressure estimation at rest and during exercise in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis: comparison of echocardiographic and invasive measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pecini, Redi;


    BACKGROUND: The Doppler index of left ventricular (LV) filling (E/e') is recognized as a noninvasive measure for LV filling pressure at rest but has also been suggested as a reliable measure of exercise-induced changes. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in LV filling pressure......, measured invasively as pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), at rest and during exercise to describe the relation with E/e' in patients with severe aortic stenosis. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with an aortic valve areas

  2. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise;


    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  3. Geometry and kinematics of extensional structural wedges (United States)

    Gui, Baoling; He, Dengfa; Zhang, Yongsheng; Sun, Yanpeng; Huang, Jingyi; Zhang, Wenjun


    Structural wedges in the compressive environment have been recognized and studied in different locations. However, extension structural wedges are less well-understood. Based on the normal fault-bend folding theory and inclined shear model, this paper quantitatively analyses deformations related to extensional structural wedges and builds a series of geometric models for them. An extensional structural wedge is a fault-block held by two or more normal faults, the action of which would fold its overlying strata. Extensional structural wedges of different shapes will lead to different deformation results for the overlying strata, and this paper illustrates both the triangular and quadrangular wedges and their related deformations. This paper also discusses differences between the extensional structural wedges and the normal fault-bend-folding. By analysing two seismic sections from Langfang-Gu'an Sag, East China, this paper provides two natural examples of the triangular and quadrangular extensional structural wedges, where the models can reasonably explain the overlying distinct highs and lows without obvious faults. The establishment of a geometric model of extensional structural wedges can provide reference and theoretical bases for future quantitative analysis of deformations in the extensional environment.

  4. Differential wedging of vertebral body and intervertebral disc in thoracic and lumbar spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis – A cross sectional study in 150 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hak-Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hueter-Volkmann's law regarding growth modulation suggests that increased pressure on the end plate of bone retards the growth (Hueter and conversely, reduced pressure accelerates the growth (Volkmann. Literature described the same principle in Rat-tail model. Human spine and its deformity i.e. scoliosis has also same kind of pattern during the growth period which causes wedging in disc or vertebral body. Methods This cross sectional study in 150 patients of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was done to evaluate vertebral body and disc wedging in scoliosis and to compare the extent of differential wedging of body and disc, in thoracic and lumbar area. We measured wedging of vertebral bodies and discs, along with two adjacent vertebrae and disc, above and below the apex and evaluated them according to severity of curve (curve 30° to find the relationship of vertebral body or disc wedging with scoliosis in thoracic and lumbar spine. We also compared the wedging and rotations of vertebrae. Results In both thoracic and lumbar curves, we found that greater the degree of scoliosis, greater the wedging in both disc and body and the degree of wedging was more at apex supporting the theory of growth retardation in stress concentration area. However, the degree of wedging in vertebral body is more than the disc in thoracic spine while the wedging was more in disc than body in lumbar spine. On comparing the wedging with the rotation, we did not find any significant relationship suggesting that it has no relation with rotation. Conclusion From our study, we can conclude that wedging in disc and body are increasing with progression on scoliosis and maximum at apex; however there is differential wedging of body and disc, in thoracic and lumbar area, that is vertebral body wedging is more profound in thoracic area while disc wedging is more profound in lumbar area which possibly form 'vicious cycle' by asymmetric loading to spine for the

  5. Water-saturated physical modeling of accretionary wedges (United States)

    Yamada, Y.; Zhang, M.; Nakajima, H.; Driss, E.


    Accretionary wedges have been an important research target from view points of earthquake mechanism at the subduction zone, sediment deformation that is closely coupled with hydrology, and resource exploration such as methane hydrates. The knowledge obtained from the study may also be useful for site selection of geological disposal of hazardous materials including radioactive nuclear wastes, in coastal areas of tectonically unstable island arc systems like Japan. The wedges have been well-investigated with analogue models in particular sandbox experiments that typically use dry granular materials, thus the inter-granular pore space of the sandbox experiments is filled with air. In natural sediments, however, the pore space is filled with formation water and its pressure has special effects on structural development. In order to accurately simulate the in-situ conditions and to examine the effects of water on the deformation process of accretionary wedge, a new apparatus was recently constructed in AIST, Japan, to perform physical analog experiments of accretionary wedges under water-saturated condition. For comparisons, equivalent experiments with dry materials were also conducted. The physical properties of the materials were also measured with tri-axial compression tests to interpret the experimental observations. Preliminary results obtained from this study showed that the fundamental parameters on structural geometry, such as taper angle and fault spacing, can be correlated well in wet and dry experiments. These are also in good agreement with physical properties obtained by the tri-axial compression tests, suggesting that the internal friction coefficient decreases as the overburden pressure increases. In the under water models, buoyancy decreases apparent grain density and overburden pressure thus the internal friction coefficient also decreases. This also agrees with the structural geometry of the experimental results. These results suggest that under

  6. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Sediment and Soil by Pressurized Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction, and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.


    A method for the determination of 61 compounds in environmental sediment and soil samples is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater and wastewater-impacted sediment on aquatic organisms. This method also may be used to evaluate the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water and sediment quality of urban streams. Method development focused on the determination of compounds that were chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from interfering matrix components by high-pressure water/isopropyl alcohol extraction. The compounds were isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing chemically modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. The cartridges were dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds were eluted with methylene chloride (80 percent)-diethyl ether (20 percent) through Florisil/sodium sulfate SPE cartridge, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-sand samples fortified at 4 to 72 micrograms averaged 76 percent ?13 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method reporting levels for single-component compounds ranged from 50 to 500 micrograms per kilogram. The concentrations of 20 out of 61 compounds initially will be reported as estimated with the 'E' remark code for one of three reasons: (1) unacceptably low-biased recovery (less than 60 percent) or highly variable method performance

  7. The Capillary Pressure Curve Reconstruction Based on Conventional Log Physical Properties%利用常规测井物性曲线重构毛细管压力曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培春; 李兴丽; 张琳琳; 邢仁东


    为更好地研究盖层封闭能力和储层的岩石孔隙结构,提出一种利用常规测井曲线获得毛细管压力曲线的方法.介绍了压汞毛细管压力曲线的双曲线特征,指出毛细管压力曲线的形态由完全连通的孔隙体积、门槛压力和孔喉几何因子确定.分析了现有计算方法的不足,结合现有常规测井物性资料,对重构毛细管压力曲线的关键参数进行了大量统计分析.门槛压力与孔渗比值存在很好的拟合关系,通过建立二者之间的回归关系式可直接求取门槛压力.利用渤海地区压汞资料和常规测井曲线拟合出了压汞毛细管压力曲线.实际资料验证表明该方法能够满足油田勘探开发以及科研需要.%In order to study the seal ability of cap rock and the rock pore structure of reservoir in depth, a new method is provided to get capillary pressure curve with conventional well logging data. Introduced is hyperbolic curve feature of the capillary pressure curve, and it is indicated that the curve shape is determined by completely interconnected pore bulk, threshold pressure and pore throat geometrical factor. Analyzed are the disadvantages of existing computing methods. Combining with conventional logging data, a large number of statistic analyses are used for key parameters of restructuring capillary pressure curves. It is believed that the threshold pressure has good fitting relationship with porosity-permeability ratio, and it is possible to get the threshold pressure directly by structuring regression equation between them. Mercury injection capillary pressure curve of Bohai area is fitted with mercury-injection and conventional well logging data in this area. Practical application indicates that this method can meet oilfield exploration and research demand.

  8. Capillary imbibition in parallel tubes (United States)

    McRae, Oliver; Ramakrishnan, T. S.; Bird, James


    In modeling porous media two distinct approaches can be employed; the sample can be examined holistically, using global variables such as porosity, or it can be treated as a network of capillaries connected in series to various intermediate reservoirs. In forced imbibition this series-based description is sufficient to characterize the flow, due to the presence of an externally maintained pressure difference. However, in spontaneous imbibition, flow is driven by an internal capillary pressure, making it unclear whether a series-based model is appropriate. In this talk, we show using numerical simulations the dynamics of spontaneous imbibition in concentrically arranged capillary tubes. This geometry allows both tubes access to a semi-infinite reservoir but with inlets in close enough proximity to allow for interference. We compare and contrast the results of our simulations with theory and previous experiments. Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  9. Study on Mach stems induced by interaction of planar shock waves on two intersecting wedges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxiang Xiang; Chun Wang; Honghui Teng; Yang Yang; Zonglin Jiang


    The properties of Mach stems in hypersonic corner flow induced by Mach interaction over 3D inter-secting wedges were studied theoretically and numerically. A new method called “spatial dimension reduction” was used to analyze theoretically the location and Mach num-ber behind Mach stems. By using this approach, the problem of 3D steady shock/shock interaction over 3D intersecting wedges was transformed into a 2D moving one on cross sec-tions, which can be solved by shock-polar theory and shock dynamics theory. The properties of Mach interaction over 3D intersecting wedges can be analyzed with the new method, including pressure, temperature, density in the vicinity of triple points, location, and Mach number behind Mach stems. Theoretical results were compared with numerical results, and good agreement was obtained. Also, the influence of Mach number and wedge angle on the properties of a 3D Mach stem was studied.

  10. Modeling the Capillary Pressure for the Migration of the Liquid Phase in Granular Solid-Liquid-Vapor Systems: Application to the Control of the Composition Profile in W-Cu FGM Materials (United States)

    Missiaen, Jean-Michel; Raharijaona, Jean-Joël; Delannay, Francis


    A model is developed to compute the capillary pressure for the migration of the liquid phase out or into a uniform solid-liquid-vapor system. The capillary pressure is defined as the reduction of the overall interface energy per volume increment of the transferred fluid phase. The model takes into account the particle size of the solid particle aggregate, the packing configuration (coordination number, porosity), the volume fractions of the different phases, and the values of the interface energies in the system. The model is used for analyzing the stability of the composition profile during processing of W-Cu functionally graded materials combining a composition gradient with a particle size gradient. The migration pressure is computed with the model in two stages: (1) just after the melting of copper, i.e., when sintering and shape accommodation of the W particle aggregate can still be neglected and (2) at high temperature, when the system is close to full density with equilibrium particle shape. The model predicts well the different stages of liquid-phase migration observed experimentally.

  11. The Electronic Wedge Brake - EWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, L.M.; Roberts, R.P.; Hartmann, H.; Gombert, B. [Siemens VDO Automotive (Germany)


    Future driver assistance systems will not only monitor the current traffic situation, but actively assist the driver in the day to day driving routines and as well in emergency situations. Autonomous intervention in the vehicle behavior will help to keep the vehicle under control, even in hazardous situations. A fast and smart braking system is one of the basics for the next generation of driver assistance systems. Siemens VDO sees its electronic wedge brake (EWB) brake-by-wire technology as the answer to future vehicle chassis safety, weight, reliability and space requirements. Particularly in the automobile sector, there is an increasing trend towards replacing existing hydraulic or pneumatic brake systems with drive 'by-wire' solutions. While mechatronics, i.e. intelligent, controllable electromechanical actuators, are already in use in many automotive and non automotive areas, there are particularly strict requirements for purely electromechanical braking systems which require complex development processes. These are highly safety critical systems, which must provide both excellent control quality and sophisticated fail-safe behavior. The challenge is to achieve a high power density in the wheel brake actuators. (orig.)

  12. Optical dating of relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs in Flanders, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Ghysels, Günther; Murray, Andrew S.;


    We report on quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of the infill of 14 relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs at 5 different sites in Flanders, Belgium. A laboratory dose recovery test indicates that the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure is suitable...... appear to have been commonplace in Flanders during the Late Pleniglacial (Oxygen Isotope Stage 2; OIS2); more specifically, around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, similar to 21 kyr ago) and the transition period between the LGM and the start of the Lateglacial (similar to 15 kyr ago). Optical dating...... at one site has revealed two significantly older wedge levels, the younger inset into the older; the younger wedge has an age of 36 +/- 4 kyr (Middle Pleniglacial; OIS3), the older wedge 129 +/- 11 kyr, which points to formation during the Late Saalian (OIS6). Our OSL ages of the wedges and host...

  13. Mantle wedge dynamics from seismic anisotropy (Invited) (United States)

    Long, M. D.; Wirth, E. A.


    The mantle wedge above subducting slabs plays a critical role in many of the physical processes associated with subduction, including water transport into the upper mantle and the generation and transport of melts. Our understanding of mantle wedge dynamics is incomplete; in particular, the mantle flow field above subducting slabs remains poorly understood. Because seismic anisotropy is a consequence of deformation, observations of anisotropy (such as shear wave splitting and P-to-SH converted waves) can constrain the geometry of the wedge flow field. Additionally, because the presence of water (either in nominally anhydrous minerals or as hydrous phases) can have a large effect on anisotropic structure, a detailed understanding of mantle wedge anisotropy can help to constrain processes related to water cycling in subduction systems. We present a global, synoptic view of anisotropy observations in subduction zone mantle wedges, compiled from a large number of individual studies, with the goal of understanding the first-order controls on wedge anisotropy and flow patterns. This compilation allows us to explicitly test the predictions made by many different conceptual models for wedge anisotropy, as well as to explore the relationships between observed anisotropy parameters and other parameters that describe subduction. We find that no simple model can explain all of the trends observed in the global data set. Mantle wedge flow is likely controlled by a combination of downdip motion of the slab, trench migration, ambient mantle flow, small-scale convection, proximity to slab edges, and slab morphology, with the relative contributions of these in any given subduction system controlled by the subduction kinematics and mantle rheology. There is also a likely contribution from B-type olivine and/or serpentinite fabric in many subduction zones, governed by the local thermal structure and volatile distribution.

  14. Leukocytes in capillary flow. (United States)

    Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Lee, J


    During disease, the flow of blood cells through the capillary network is one of the most perilous events in the microcirculation. Capillary distensibility, cytoplasmic activity of endothelial cells, red cells and leukocytes play an important role in capillary perfusion. Occlusion of capillaries is one of the early signs of vascular failure and is encountered in many different conditions and organs. Adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium via expression of membrane adhesion molecules leads to microvascular entrapment with capillary occlusion.

  15. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian


    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius.

  16. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media. (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed


    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  17. Capillary Micro-Flow Through a Fiber Bundle(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-dan; WANG Ji-hui; TAN Hua; GAO Guo-qiang


    The present work considered the capillary micro-flow through a fiber bundle. The resin heights in the fiber bundle as a function of time were used to determine the experimental values of capillary pressure and the permeability by the nonlinear regression fitting method. The fitting curves showed a good agreement with experiments. However, these values of capillary pressure from short- time experiments were much lower than the theoretical results from the Yang-Laplace Equation. More accurate capillary pressure was predicted from the presented long-run experiment.

  18. Studying wedge factors and beam profiles for physical and enhanced dynamic wedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Misbah


    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate variation in Varian′s Physical and Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Factors (WF as a function of depth and field size. The profiles for physical wedges (PWs and enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs were also measured using LDA-99 array and compared for confirmation of EDW angles at different depths and field sizes. WF measurements were performed in water phantom using cylindrical 0.66 cc ionization chamber. WF was measured by taking the ratio of wedge and open field ionization data. A normalized wedge factor (NWF was introduced to circumvent large differences between wedge factors for different wedge angles. A strong linear dependence of PW Factor (PWF with depth was observed. Maximum variation of 8.9% and 4.1% was observed for 60° PW with depth at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively. The variation in EDW Factor (EDWF with depth was almost negligible and less than two per cent. The highest variation in PWF as a function of field size was 4.1% and 3.4% for thicker wedge (60° at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively and decreases with decreasing wedge angle. EDWF shows strong field size dependence and significant variation was observed for all wedges at both photon energies. Differences in profiles between PW and EDW were observed on toe and heel sides. These differences were dominant for larger fields, shallow depths, thicker wedges and low energy beam. The study indicated that ignoring depth and field size dependence of WF may result in under/over dose to the patient especially doing manual point dose calculation.

  19. Wedge Shock and Nozzle Exhaust Plume Interaction in a Supersonic Jet Flow (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Heath, Christopher


    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the nozzle exhaust plume. Aft body shock waves that interact with the exhaust plume contribute to the near-field pressure signature of a vehicle. The plume and shock interaction was studied using computational fluid dynamics and compared with experimental data from a coaxial convergent-divergent nozzle flow in an open jet facility. A simple diamond-shaped wedge was used to generate the shock in the outer flow to study its impact on the inner jet flow. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the opposite plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the nozzle exhaust plume was modified by the presence of the wedge. Both the experimental results and computational predictions show changes in plume deflection.

  20. Long polymers near wedges and cones (United States)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov


    We perform a Monte Carlo study of N -step self-avoiding walks, attached to the corner of an impenetrable wedge in two dimensions (d =2 ), or the tip of an impenetrable cone in d =3 , of sizes ranging up to N =106 steps. We find that the critical exponent γα, which determines the dependence of the number of available conformations on N for a cone or wedge with opening angle α , is in good agreement with the theory for d =2 . We study the end-point distribution of the walks in the allowed space and find similarities to the known behavior of random walks (ideal polymers) in the same geometry. For example, the ratio between the mean square end-to-end distances of a polymer near the cone or wedge and a polymer in free space depends linearly on γα, as is known for ideal polymers. We show that the end-point distribution of polymers attached to a wedge does not separate into a product of angular and radial functions, as it does for ideal polymers in the same geometry. The angular dependence of the end position of polymers near the wedge differs from theoretical predictions.

  1. Wedged tibial components for total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Jeffery, R S; Orton, M A; Denham, R A


    Severe coronal deformity of the knee is frequently associated with erosion of one tibial condyle. This can cause problems with fixation and alignment during total knee arthroplasty. If the tibia is cut to the level of the more worn side, valuable bone is sacrificed; if the less worn side is chosen, the deficiency must be filled with bone--graft, cement, or a prosthesis. Tibial components with an integral polyethylene wedge on the undersurface were introduced in 1980 for use in patients with a bony deficit on one tibial condyle. The authors believe that the Denham prosthesis (Biomet, Wales, U.K.) was the first knee arthroplasty to offer such spacers. Twenty-six patients with preoperative varus deformity in whom a wedged component was used were compared with 29 historic control subjects. None of the wedged components loosened after a median follow-up period of 8 years compared with loosening in five of the control subjects (P = .01). In three of the control subjects a fractured triangle of cement was present on the radiographs. Use of the wedges was not accompanied by an improvement in postoperative alignment. The authors conclude that the wedges resulted in improved fixation that was independent of postoperative alignment.

  2. Structure of turbulent wedges created by isolated surface roughness (United States)

    Kuester, Matthew S.; White, Edward B.


    Isolated surface roughness in a laminar boundary layer can create a wedge of turbulence that spreads laterally into the surrounding laminar flow. Some recent studies have identified high- and low-speed streaks along the exterior of turbulent wedges. In this experiment, developing turbulent wedges are measured to observe the creation of these streaks. Naphthalene shear stress surface visualization and hotwire measurements are utilized to investigate the details of turbulent wedges created by cylinders in a laminar flat-plate boundary layer. Both the surface visualization and the hotwire measurements show high- and low-speed streaks in the wake of the cylinder that devolve into a turbulent wedge. The turbulent wedge spreading is associated with the emergence of these high- and low-speed streaks along the outside of the wedge. As the wedge evolves in the streamwise direction, these streaks persist inside of the core of the wedge, while new, lower amplitude streaks form along the outside of the wedge. Adding asymmetry to the cylinder moved the virtual origin closer to the roughness and increased the vortex shedding frequency, while adding small-scale roughness features did not strongly affect turbulent wedge development. Intermittency calculations additionally show the origin of the turbulent core inside of the wedge. The structure and spacing of the high-speed streaks along the extremities of the turbulent wedge give insight into the spreading angle of the turbulent wedge.

  3. Explicit reconstruction of the entanglement wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jung-Wook


    The problem of bulk locality, or how the boundary encodes the bulk in AdS/CFT, is still a subject of study today. One of the major issues that needs more elucidation is the problem of subregion duality; what information of the bulk a given boundary subregion encodes. Although proofs given by two teams of researchers, Dong, Harlow, and Wall and Bao, and Kim, state that the entanglement wedge of the bulk should be reconstructible from boudnary subregions, no explicit procedure for reconstructing the entanglement wedge was as of yet given. In this paper, mode sum approach to obtaining smearing functions is generalised to include bulk reconstruction in the entanglement wedge of boundary subregions. It is generally expectated that solutions to the wave equation on a complicated coordinate patch are needed, but this hard problem has been transferred to a less hard but tractable problem of matrix inversion.

  4. Chromatographic selectivity of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic columns for polar aromatic compounds by pressure-driven capillary liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Fuh, Ming-Ren


    In this study, divinylbenzene (DVB) was used as the cross-linker to prepare alkyl methacrylate (AlMA) monoliths for incorporating π-π interactions between the aromatic analytes and AlMA-DVB monolithic stationary phases in capillary LC analysis. Various AlMA/DVB ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% AlMA-DVB monolithic stationary phases in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The physical properties (such as porosity, permeability, and column efficiency) of the synthesized AlMA-DVB monolithic columns were investigated for characterization. Isocratic elution of phenol derivatives was first employed to evaluate the suitability of the prepared AlMA-DVB columns for small molecule separation. The run-to-run (0.16-1.20%, RSD; n = 3) and column-to-column (0.26-2.95%, RSD; n = 3) repeatabilities on retention times were also examined using the selected AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. The π-π interactions between the aromatic ring and the DVB-based stationary phase offered better recognition on polar analytes with aromatic moieties, which resulted in better separation resolution of aromatic analytes on the AlMA-DVB monolithic columns. In order to demonstrate the capability of potential environmental and/or food safety applications, eight phenylurea herbicides with single benzene ring and seven sulfonamide antibiotics with polyaromatic moieties were analyzed using the selected AlMA-DVB monolithic columns.

  5. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan


    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  6. Non-Newtonian viscosity wedge in film formation of EHL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper aims to evaluate the action of viscosity wedge in the oil film formation ofEHL at opposite sliding and zero entrainment. Using solvers developed for Newtonian and Eyringfluids, the film formation behavior originating from viscosity wedge is investigated. The numericalsimulation displays that lubricant film formation induced by viscosity wedge is different from that bythe well-known geometrical wedge with entrainment in classic EHL. The numerical analyses showthat at high opposite sliding speed the viscosity wedge acts as a leading role in film formation, thenon-Newtonian effects can have a pronounced influence on action of the viscosity wedge.

  7. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Dias, E. J. C.; Xiao, Sanshui


    and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential...... and electric-field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmon counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system’s geometry is contained. We...

  8. Orthotic Heel Wedges Do Not Alter Hindfoot Kinematics and Achilles Tendon Force During Level and Inclined Walking in Healthy Individuals. (United States)

    Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H


    Conservative treatments such as in-shoe orthotic heel wedges to treat musculoskeletal injuries are not new. However, weak evidence supporting their use in the management of Achilles tendonitis suggests the mechanism by which these heel wedges works remains poorly understood. It was the aim of this study to test the underlying hypothesis that heel wedges can reduce Achilles tendon load. A musculoskeletal modeling approach was used to quantify changes in lower limb mechanics when walking due to the introduction of 12-mm orthotic heel wedges. Nineteen healthy volunteers walked on an inclinable walkway while optical motion, force plate, and plantar pressure data were recorded. Walking with heel wedges increased ankle dorsiflexion moments and reduced plantar flexion moments; this resulted in increased peak ankle dorsiflexor muscle forces during early stance and reduced tibialis posterior and toe flexor muscle forces during late stance. Heel wedges did not reduce overall Achilles tendon force during any walking condition, but did redistribute load from the medial to lateral triceps surae during inclined walking. These results add to the body of clinical evidence confirming that heel wedges do not reduce Achilles tendon load and our findings provide an explanation as to why this may be the case.

  9. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge (United States)

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo


    We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  10. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  11. Simulation of water entry of an elastic wedge using the FDS scheme and HCIB method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Sangmook; BAE Sung Yong


    The hydroelasticity of water entry of an elastic wedge is simulated using a code developed using the flux-difference splitting scheme for immiscible and incompressible fluids and the hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary method.The free surface is regarded as a moving contact discontinuity and is captured without any additional treatment along the interface.Immersed boundary nodes are distributed inside a fluid domain based on the edges that cross an instantaneous body boundary.Dependent variables are reconstructed at each immersed boundary node with the help of an interpolation along a local normal line for providing a boundary condition for a discretized flow problem.A dynamic beam equation is used for modeling the elastic deformation of a wedge.The developed code is validated through comparisons with other experimental and computational results for a free-falling wedge.The effects of the elastic deformation of the wedge on the pressure fields and time histories of the impact force are investigated in relation to the stiffness and density of the structure.Grid independence test is carried out for the computed time history of the force acting on an elastic wedge.

  12. Capillary Interactions between a Probe Tip and a Nanoparticle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Ning; WANG Le-Feng; RONG Wei-Bin


    To understand capillary interactions between probe tips and nanoparticles under ambient conditions,a theoretical model of capillary forces between them is developed based on the geometric relations. It is found that the contribution of surface tension force to the total capillary force attains to similar order of magnitude as the capillary pressure force in many cases.It is also shown that the tip shape and the radial distance of the meniscus have great influence on the capillary force.The capillary force decreases with the increasing separation distances,and the variance of the contact angles may change the magnitudes of capillary forces several times at large radial distances.The applicability of the symmetric meniscus approximation is discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟岸; 张兵茹


    According to the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle and introducing proper transformation of variables, the problem on elastic wedge dissimilar materials can be led to Hamiltonian system, so the solution of the problem can be got by employing the separation of variables method and symplectic eigenfunction expansion under symplectic space, which consists of original variables and their dual variables. The eigenvalue - 1 is a special one of all symplectic eigenvalue for Hamiltonian system in polar coordinate. In general, the eigenvalue - is a single eigenvalue, and the classical solution of an elastic wedge dissimilar materials subjected to a unit concentrated couple at the vertex is got directly by solving the eigenfunction vector for eigenvalue - 1 . But the eigenvalue - 1 becomes a double eigenvalue when the vertex angles and modulus of the materials satisfy certain definite relationships and the classical solution for the stress distribution becomes infinite at this moment, that is, the paradox should occur. Here the Jordan form eigenfunction vector for eigenvalue - 1 exists, and solution of the paradox on elastic wedge dissimilar materials subjected to a unit concentrated couple at the vertex is obtained directly by solving this special Jordan form eigenfunction. The result shows again that the solutions of the special paradox on elastic wedge in the classical theory of elasticity are just Jordan form solutions in symplectic space under Hamiltonian system.

  14. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiter, Susanne J H; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher


    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the s

  15. A comparison of exact TM plane wave diffraction by coated wedges and impedance wedges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Moore, John T.


    without interference from direct fields or reflected fields. Results have been obtained in the case of illumination by a transverse magnetic (TM) uniform plane wave. The analysis of the coated wedge is based on an integral equation formulation combined with a hybrid technique, while the analysis......The purpose of this work is to numerically investigate the accuracy of the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) approximation for edge diffraction. To this end, we compare the scattering by coated wedges and SIBC wedges for which the diffracted field from a single edge can be observed...... of the SIBC wedge is based on Maliuzhinets' solution. Comparisons have been carried out for a series of configurations including lossy coatings as well as lossless coatings permitting unattenuated propagation of surface waves. The results show that the presence of an edge in a coated structure does...

  16. Sinking, wedging, spreading - viscous spreading on a layer of fluid (United States)

    Bergemann, Nico; Juel, Anne; Heil, Matthias


    We study the axisymmetric spreading of a sessile drop on a pre-existing layer of the same fluid in a regime where the drop is sufficiently large so that the spreading is driven by gravity while capillary and inertial effects are negligible. Experiments performed with 5 ml drops and layer thicknesses in the range 0.1 mm drop evolves as R tn , where the spreading exponent n increases with the layer thickness h. Numerical simulations, based on the axisymmetric free-surface Navier-Stokes equations, reveal three distinct spreading regimes depending on the layer thickness. For thick layers the drop sinks into the layer, accompanied by significant flow in the layer. By contrast, for thin layers the layer ahead of the propagating front is at rest and the spreading behaviour resembles that of a gravity-driven drop spreading on a dry substrate. In the intermediate regime the spreading is characterised by an advancing wedge, which is sustained by fluid flow from the drop into the layer.

  17. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges (United States)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher


    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the stable wedge test, showing negligible internal deformation and maintaining the initial surface slope upon horizontal translation over a frictional interface. Eight codes participated in the unstable wedge test that examines the evolution of a wedge by thrust formation from a subcritical state to the critical taper geometry. The critical taper is recovered, but the models show two deformation modes characterised by either mainly forward dipping thrusts or a series of thrust pop-ups. We speculate that the two modes are caused by differences in effective basal boundary friction related to different algorithms for modelling boundary friction. The third experiment examines stacking of forward thrusts that are translated upward along a backward thrust. The results of the seven codes that run this experiment show variability in deformation style, number of thrusts, thrust dip angles and surface slope. Overall, our experiments show that numerical models run with different numerical techniques can successfully simulate laboratory brittle thrust wedge models at the cm-scale. In more detail, however, we find that it is challenging to reproduce sandbox-type setups numerically, because of frictional boundary conditions and velocity discontinuities. We recommend that future numerical-analogue comparisons use simple boundary conditions and that the numerical Earth Science community defines a plasticity test to resolve the variability in model shear zones.

  18. Relation of the auroral substorm to the substorm current wedge (United States)

    McPherron, Robert L.; Chu, Xiangning


    The auroral substorm is an organized sequence of events seen in the aurora near midnight. It is a manifestation of the magnetospheric substorm which is a disturbance of the magnetosphere brought about by the solar wind transfer of magnetic flux from the dayside to the tail lobes and its return through the plasma sheet to the dayside. The most dramatic feature of the auroral substorm is the sudden brightening and poleward expansion of the aurora. Intimately associated with this expansion is a westward electrical current flowing across the bulge of expanding aurora. This current is fed by a downward field-aligned current (FAC) at its eastern edge and an upward current at its western edge. This current system is called the substorm current wedge (SCW). The SCW forms within a minute of auroral expansion. FAC are created by pressure gradients and field line bending from shears in plasma flow. Both of these are the result of pileup and diversion of plasma flows in the near-earth plasma sheet. The origins of these flows are reconnection sites further back in the tail. The auroral expansion can be explained by a combination of a change in field line mapping caused by the substorm current wedge and a tailward growth of the outer edge of the pileup region. We illustrate this scenario with a complex substorm and discuss some of the problems associated with this interpretation.

  19. Rationale and Design of the Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure (Reduce LAP-HF) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasenfuss, Gerd; Gustafsson, Finn; Kaye, David


    OBJECTIVE: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by elevated left atrial pressure during rest and/or exercise. The Reduce LAP-HF (Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure) trial will evaluate the safety and performance of the Interatrial...... include exercise tolerance, quality of life, and the incidence of heart failure hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Reduce LAP-HF is the first trial intended to lower left atrial pressure in HFpEF by means of creating a permanent shunt through the atrial septum with the use of a device. Although the trial...... patients with ejection fraction ≥40% and New York Heart Association functional class III or IV heart failure with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥15 mm Hg at rest or ≥25 mm Hg during supine bike exercise will be implanted with an IASD System II, and followed for 6 months to assess the primary...

  20. Advances in Capillary Chromatography%毛细管色谱的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Capillary columns are used in both capillary liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography. The design for capillary liquid chromatography is discussed in comparison with capillary gas chromatography. The difference of diffusion coefficient in gas and liquid phase is a key role. The study for obtaining a high performance capillary liquid chromatography is discussed. Capillary electrochromatography is recently interesting for its instinct ability to realize a high performance chromatography. Capillary electrochromatography with and without pressurized flow is reviewed briefly. Instrumentation for capillary electrochromatography with pressurized flow is discussed. The port of splitting, and gradient elution of both solution and potential are described. The new findings of both the variation of column resistance and capacity factor according to the value of applied electric voltage are also discussed.

  1. Uptake of water droplets by nonwetting capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Geoff R; Hendy, Shaun C


    We present direct experimental evidence that water droplets can spontaneously penetrate non-wetting capillaries, driven by the action of Laplace pressure due to high droplet curvature. Using high-speed optical imaging, microcapillaries of radius 50 to 150 micron, and water microdroplets of average radius between 100 and 1900 micron, we demonstrate that there is a critical droplet radius below which water droplets can be taken up by hydrophobised glass and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillaries. The rate of capillary uptake is shown to depend strongly on droplet size, with smaller droplets being absorbed more quickly. Droplet size is also shown to influence meniscus motion in a pre-filled non-wetting capillary, and quantitative measurements of this effect result in a derived water-PTFE static contact angle between 96 degrees and 114 degrees. Our measurements confirm recent theoretical predictions and simulations for metal nanodroplets penetrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The results are relevant to a wide ...

  2. A Review of Methods to Calculate Relative Permeability Curve by Using Capillary Pressure Curve%用毛细管压力曲线计算相对渗透率曲线的方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永强; 吕成远; 侯吉瑞


    相对渗透率曲线对研究地下流体的渗流规律及驱替特征具有重要的意义。利用毛细管压力与饱和度的关系来计算相渗曲线的方法进行了综述。叙述了相渗曲线的计算原理,及引入分形理论的原理。按照公式相似性及继承关系,分组介绍了毛细管压力法的研究历程,及主要研究成果。认为提出Kr-S关系来简化算法和分形理论的引入,推动毛细管压力法的发展;认为各方法没有优劣之分,只是适应性不同;利用特定的实验数据,对各方法的优劣进行评价,本身有一定的局限性。据此将毛细管压力法分为三个时期。通过对比评价各方法的特点及相互关系,阐释算法发展规律。最后提出毛细管压力将有三个主要发展方向:①测定非常规储层的相对渗透率曲线;②测定特殊流体的相对渗透率曲线;③与其他岩心检测手段相结合来检测岩心。希望对今后的研究起到参考的作用。%The relative permeability is important for researching seepage fluid mechanics and driving character-istics. The emphasis of this review is methods to calculate relative permeability curves by using the relationship be-tween capillary pressure and saturation. The pressure-saturation relationship and fractal theory are considered as a key technology to push the development of the methods. According to the introduction of the fractal theory, the methods were divided into two categories. The principle to calculate relative permeability curve and the principle of fractal theory were described. The research history and current situation of methods to calculate relative permeabili-ty by using capillary pressure were introduced, which includes the main outcomes of the researchers. Finally, three main directions of the capillary pressure had been pointed out:①determination of the relative permeability curves to unconventional reservoirs;② the determination of

  3. Development of a numerical workflow based on μ-CT imaging for the determination of capillary pressure-saturation-specific interfacial area relationship in 2-phase flow pore-scale porous-media systems: a case study on Heletz sandstone (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Halisch, Matthias; Bogdan Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin


    In this case study, we present the implementation of a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical pore-scale model that is able to track and quantify the propagating fluid-fluid interfacial area on highly complex micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)-obtained geometries. Special focus is drawn to the relationship between reservoir-specific capillary pressure (pc), wetting phase saturation (Sw) and interfacial area (awn). The basis of this approach is high-resolution μ-CT images representing the geometrical characteristics of a georeservoir sample. The successfully validated 2-phase flow model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, including the surface tension force, in order to consider capillary effects for the computation of flow and the phase-field method for the emulation of a sharp fluid-fluid interface. In combination with specialized software packages, a complex high-resolution modelling domain can be obtained. A numerical workflow based on representative elementary volume (REV)-scale pore-size distributions is introduced. This workflow aims at the successive modification of model and model set-up for simulating, such as a type of 2-phase problem on asymmetric μ-CT-based model domains. The geometrical complexity is gradually increased, starting from idealized pore geometries until complex μ-CT-based pore network domains, whereas all domains represent geostatistics of the REV-scale core sample pore-size distribution. Finally, the model can be applied to a complex μ-CT-based model domain and the pc-Sw-awn relationship can be computed.

  4. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Barry Karger


    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  5. Life at the wedge: the activity and diversity of arctic ice wedge microbial communities. (United States)

    Wilhelm, Roland C; Radtke, Kristin J; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G


    The discovery of polygonal terrain on Mars underlain by ice heightens interest in the possibility that this water-bearing habitat may be, or may have been, a suitable habitat for extant life. The possibility is supported by the recurring detection of terrestrial microorganisms in subsurface ice environments, such as ice wedges found beneath tundra polygon features. A characterization of the microbial community of ice wedges from the high Arctic was performed to determine whether this ice environment can sustain actively respiring microorganisms and to assess the ecology of this extreme niche. We found that ice wedge samples contained a relatively abundant number of culturable cells compared to other ice habitats (∼10(5) CFU·mL(-1)). Respiration assays in which radio-labeled acetate and in situ measurement of CO(2) flux were used suggested low levels of microbial activity, though more sensitive techniques are required to confirm these findings. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, bacterial and archaeal ice wedge communities appeared to reflect surrounding soil communities. Two Pseudomonas sp. were the most abundant taxa in the ice wedge bacterial library (∼50%), while taxa related to ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota occupied 90% of the archaeal library. The tolerance of a variety of isolates to salinity and temperature revealed characteristics of a psychrotolerant, halotolerant community. Our findings support the hypothesis that ice wedges are capable of sustaining a diverse, plausibly active microbial community. As such, ice wedges, compared to other forms of less habitable ground ice, could serve as a reservoir for life on permanently cold, water-scarce, ice-rich extraterrestrial bodies and are therefore of interest to astrobiologists and ecologists alike. .

  6. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T


    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  7. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, P A D; Xiao, Sanshui; Vasilevskiy, M I; Mortensen, N Asger; Peres, N M R


    The ability to effectively guide electromagnetic radiation below the diffraction limit is of the utmost importance in the prospect of all-optical plasmonic circuitry. Here, we propose an alternative solution to conventional metal-based plasmonics by exploiting the deep subwavelength confinement and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmons counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system's geometry is contained. We believe our results pave the way for the development of novel custom-tailored photonic devices for subwavelength waveg...

  8. Tectonic and gravity extensional collapses in overpressured cohesive and frictional wedges (United States)

    Yuan, X. P.; Leroy, Y. M.; Maillot, B.


    Two modes of extensional collapse in a cohesive and frictional wedge of arbitrary topography, finite extent, and resting on an inclined weak décollement are examined by analytical means. The first mode consists of the gravitational collapse by the action of a half-graben, rooting on the décollement and pushing seaward the frontal part of the wedge. The second mode results from the tectonics extension at the back wall with a similar half-graben kinematics and the landward sliding of the rear part of the wedge. The predictions of the maximum strength theorem, equivalent to the kinematic approach of limit analysis and based on these two collapse mechanisms, not only match exactly the solutions of the critical Coulomb wedge theory, once properly amended, but generalizes them in several aspects: wedge of finite size, composed of cohesive material and of arbitrary topography. This generalization is advantageous to progress in our understanding of many laboratory experiments and field cases. For example, it is claimed from analytical results validated by experiments that the stability transition for a cohesive, triangular wedge occurs with the activation of the maximum length of the décollement. It is shown that the details of the topography, for the particular example of the Mejillones peninsula (North Chile) is, however, responsible for the selection of a short length-scale, dynamic instability corresponding to a frontal gravitational instability. A reasonable amount of cohesion is sufficient for the pressures proposed in the literature to correspond to a stability transition and not with a dynamically unstable state.

  9. Checking the virtual treatment modality Wedge from Siemens; Verificacion de la modalidad de tratamiento virtual WEDGE de SIEMENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.


    The treatment modality Virtual Wedge (VW) or implemented by Siemens virtual wedge in electron linear accelerators achieved dose distributions are similar but not identical, to those obtained with physical wedges. Among the advantages against the latter is the greater ease of use, wedge factor close to one, and lower peripheral dose. However, these benefits are to be effective requires a through quality control dependence because a larger number of parameters that control the generation of the beam, the dose monitor system and the movement of the jaws of the collimator. We performed a study of the wedge taking into account different configurations that can affect their behavior from the dosimetric point of view.

  10. Study on effect of segments erection tolerance and wedge-shaped segment on segment ring in shield tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-sheng; MO Hai-hong


    Deformation and dislocations of segments of shield tunnel in construction stage have apparent effect on tunnel structure stress and even cause local cracks and breakage in tunnel. 3D finite element method was used to analyze two segment ring models under uniform injected pressure: (1) segment ring without wedge-shaped segment, which has 16 types of preinstall erection tolerance; (2) segment ring with wedge-shaped segment, which has no preinstall erection tolerance. The analysis results indicate that different erection tolerances can cause irregular deformation in segment ring under uniform injected pressure, and that the tolerance values are enlarged further. Wedge-shaped segment apparently affects the overall deformation of segment ring without erection tolerances. The uniform injected pressure can cause deformation of ring with wedge-shaped segment irregular,and dislocations also appear in this situation. The stress of segment with erection tolerances is much larger than that of segment without erection tolerances. Enlarging the central angle of wedge-shaped segment can make the irregular deformation and dislocations of segments smaller. The analysis results also provide basis for erection tolerance control and improvement of segment constitution.

  11. An axial approach to detection in capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.A.


    Our approach involves on-axis illumination of the compounds inside the capillary detection region and is applied to absorbance and fluorescence detection. Absorbance measurements were made by focussing an incident laser beam into one capillary end; by using signals collected over the entire length of analyte band, this enhances the analytical path length of conventional absorbance detection 60x. This instrument offers a 15x improvement in detection limits. Three fluorescence detection experiments are discussed, all of which involve insertion of an optical fiber into capillary. The first uses a high refractive index liquid phase to obtain total internal reflectance along capillary axis, this reducing light scatter. The second uses a charge-coupled device camera for simultaneous imaging of a capillary array (this may be useful in genome sequencing, etc.). The third is a study of fluid motion inside the capillary under pressure-driven and electroosmotic flow. The thesis is divided into four parts. Figs, tabs.

  12. Capillary Bridges between Soft Substrates (United States)

    Wexler, Jason S.; Heard, Tiara M.; Stone, Howard A.


    A wetting droplet trapped in the thin gap between two elastic bodies will deflect the bodies towards one another. The deformation increases the total capillary adhesion force by increasing the contact radius and narrowing the gap height. For flat droplets, with a large ratio of radius to gap height, the Laplace pressure causes surface deformations that are orders of magnitude larger than those induced by a sessile droplet of the same radius. We present experiments, scalings, and closed-form solutions that describe the deformation. Using variational techniques, we also show that the problem exhibits a bifurcation, where the gap spontaneously closes due to an incremental increase in drop volume.

  13. Mantle flow in subduction systems: The mantle wedge flow field and implications for wedge processes (United States)

    Long, Maureen D.; Wirth, Erin A.


    The mantle wedge above subducting slabs is associated with many important processes, including the transport of melt and volatiles. Our understanding of mantle wedge dynamics is incomplete, as the mantle flow field above subducting slabs remains poorly understood. Because seismic anisotropy is a consequence of deformation, measurements of shear wave splitting can constrain the geometry of mantle flow. In order to identify processes that make first-order contributions to the pattern of wedge flow, we have compiled a data set of local S splitting measurements from mantle wedges worldwide. There is a large amount of variability in splitting parameters, with average delay times ranging from ~0.1 to 0.3 s up to ~1.0-1.5 s and large variations in fast directions. We tested for relationships between splitting parameters and a variety of parameters related to subduction processes. We also explicitly tested the predictions made by 10 different models that have been proposed to explain splitting patterns in the mantle wedge. We find that no simple model can explain all of the trends observed in the global data set. Mantle wedge flow is likely controlled by a combination of downdip motion of the slab, trench migration, ambient mantle flow, small-scale convection, proximity to slab edges, and slab morphology, with the relative contributions of these in any given subduction system controlled by the subduction kinematics and mantle rheology. There is also a likely contribution from B-type olivine and/or serpentinite fabric in many subduction zones, governed by the local thermal structure and volatile distribution.

  14. Pressure Effect on Entrance Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Couch, Mark


    The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts.......The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts....

  15. Impingement of water droplets on wedges and diamond airfoils at supersonic speeds (United States)

    Serafini, John S


    An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves. The results presented include the following conditions: droplet diameters from 2 to 100 microns, pressure altitudes from sea level to 30,000 feet, free-stream static temperatures from 420 degrees to 460 degrees R. Also, free-stream Mach numbers from 1.1 to 2.0, semi-apex angles for the wedge from 1.14 degrees to 7.97 degrees, thickness-to-chord ratios for the diamond airfoil from 0.02 to 0.14, chord lengths from 1 to 20 feet, and angles of attack from zero to the inverse tangent of the airfoil thickness-to-chord ratio.

  16. A comparative study on analytical method of total alkaloids from cortex Phellodendri amurens by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang


    Full Text Available A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC method with post-column detection cell has been developed for the analysis of total alkaloids of cortex Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Rutaceae. The separation of total alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, oatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, phellodendrine, candicine, menisperine was optimized by compositions of the mobile phase, ionic strength of buffers, pH value, and applied voltage. Separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 11 min by using a mobile phase of Na2HPO4-citric acid solution-acetonitrile (pH 4.00; 3 mM (60:40, v/v and applying a voltage of -10 kV. This method showed satisfactory retention times and peak shapes. Meanwhile, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC has also been established for the separation of total alkaloids extracted from cortex Phellodendri amurens. Baseline separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 25 min by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid with 0.1 g sodium dodecanesulphonate per 100 mL (35:65, v/v. Compared to conventional RP-HPLC, pCEC led to higher column efficiency, less consumption of reagent, and shorter analysis time.

  17. Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles. (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J


    Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.

  18. Optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge. (United States)

    Walker, C P; Richmond, N D; Lambert, G D


    Installation of a modern high-energy Siemens Primus linear accelerator at the Northern Centre for Cancer Treatment (NCCT) provided the opportunity to investigate the optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge filter. Previously published work has concentrated on the production of virtual wedge angles at 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees as replacements for the Siemens hard wedges of the same nominal angles. However, treatment plan optimization of the dose distribution can be achieved with the Primus, as its control software permits the selection of any virtual wedge angle from 15 degrees to 60 degrees in increments of 1 degrees. The same result can also be produced from a combination of open and 60 degrees wedged fields. Helax-TMS models both of these modes of virtual wedge delivery by the wedge angle and the wedge fraction methods respectively. This paper describes results of timing studies in the planning of optimized patient dose distributions by both methods and in the subsequent treatment delivery procedures. Employment of the wedge fraction method results in the delivery of small numbers of monitor units to the beam's central axis; therefore, wedge profile stability and delivered dose with low numbers of monitor units were also investigated. The wedge fraction was proven to be the most efficient method when the time taken for both planning and treatment delivery were taken into consideration, and is now used exclusively for virtual wedge treatment delivery in Newcastle. It has also been shown that there are no unfavorable dosimetric consequences from its practical implementation.

  19. Plastic deformation of a wedge by a sliding punch (United States)

    Nepershin, R. I.


    We present a self-similar solution of the problem of deformation of an ideally plastic wedge by a sliding punch with regard to contact friction; such a solution generalizes the well-known solutions of the problem of wedge penetration into a plastic half-space and of compression of an ideally plastic wedge by a plane punch. The problem is of interest for modeling the processes of plastic deformation of rough surfaces of metal pieces by a rigid tool.

  20. Ice-Creams and Wedge Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Eyal; Pinchasi, Rom


    We show that for every compact convex set $S$ in the plane and every $0 < \\alpha < \\pi$, there exist a point $O$ and two supporting lines to $S$ passing through $O$ and touching $S$ at two \\emph{single points} $X$ and $Y$, respectively, such that $|OX|=|OY|$ and the angle between the two lines has measure $\\alpha$. As a consequence, we provide a simplified proof to the following result by Carmi, Katz, Lotker, and Ros\\'en \\cite{CKLR10}. Given a set of $\\frac{\\pi}{3}$-directional antennas (that is, antennas each of which can communicate along a wedge of angle $\\frac{\\pi}{3}$), one can always assign a direction to each antenna such that the resulting communication graph is connected, where two antennas can communicate if and only if each lies in the wedge assigned to the other. In fact we obtain a much stronger and optimal result (see Theorem \\ref{theorem:main}) saying in particular that one can chose the directions of the antennas so that the communication graph has diameter $\\le 4$.

  1. Global Existence of a Shock for the Supersonic Flow Past a Curved Wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Cheng YIN


    This note is devoted to the study of the global existence of a shock wave for the supersonic flow past a curved wedge. When the curved wedge is a small perturbation of a straight wedge and the angle of the wedge is less than some critical value, we show that a shock attached at the wedge will exist globally.

  2. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C


    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core.

  3. Trapped liquid drop at the end of capillary. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjia; Yen, Hung-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong


    The liquid drop captured at the capillary end, which is observed in capillary valve and pendant drop technique, is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Because of contact line pinning of the lower meniscus, the lower contact angle is able to rise from the intrinsic contact angle (θ*) so that the external force acting on the drop can be balanced by the capillary force. In the absence of contact angle hysteresis (CAH), the upper contact angle remains at θ*. However, in the presence of CAH, the upper contact angle can descend to provide more capillary force. The coupling between the lower and upper contact angles determines the equilibrium shape of the captured drop. In a capillary valve, the pinned contact line can move across the edge as the pressure difference exceeds the valving pressure, which depends on the geometrical characteristic and wetting property of the valve opening. When CAH is considered, the valving pressure is elevated because the capillary force is enhanced by the receding contact angle. For a pendant drop under gravity, the maximal capillary force is achieved as the lower contact angle reaches 180° in the absence of CAH. However, in the presence of CAH, four regimes can be identified by three critical drop volumes. The lower contact angle can exceed 180°, and therefore the drop takes on the shape of a light bulb, which does not exist in the absence of CAH. The comparisons between Surface Evolver simulations and experiments are quite well.

  4. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge. (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  5. Comparison of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion in the treatment of ingrown toenails. (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Zhang; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Ma, Xin; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Li


    The present retrospective study compared the efficacy of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion for the treatment of ingrown toenails (onychocryptosis). Two surgical methods were performed in 95 patients with a stage 2 or 3 ingrown toenail. Each patient was examined weekly until healing and then at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. The outcomes measured were surgical duration, healing time, recurrence rate, the incidence of postoperative infection, and cosmetic appearance after surgery. Of the 95 patients (115 ingrown toenails) included in the present study, 39 (41.1%) underwent wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 56 (59%), wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. The mean surgical duration for wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion was 14.9 ± 2.4 minutes and 15.1 ± 3.2 minutes, respectively (p = .73). The corresponding healing times were 2.8 ± 1.2 weeks and 2.7 ± 1.3 weeks (p = .70). Recurrence developed in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and in 4 (4.2%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. In addition, postoperative infection occurred in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 2 (2.1%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. Both of the surgical procedures were practical and appropriate for the treatment of ingrown toenails, being simple and associated with low morbidity and a high success rate. However, cosmetically, wedge resection (Winograd procedure) would be the better choice because the nail plate remains intact.

  6. Computational analysis of asymmetric water entry of wedge and ship section at constant velocity (United States)

    Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Ullah, Al Habib; Afroz, Laboni; Shabnam, Sharmin; Sarkar, M. A. Rashid


    Water impact problems receive much attention due to their short duration and large unsteady component of hydrodynamic loads. The effect of water entry has several important applications in various aspects of the naval field. Significant attention has been given to various water entry phenomena such as ship slamming, planning hulls, high-speed hydrodynamics of seaplanes, surface-piercing propellers and the interaction of high-speed liquid drops with structural elements. Asymmetric water entry may be caused by various natural phenomena such as weather conditions or strong winds. Since the determination of hydrodynamic impact load plays a vital role in designing safe and effcient vessels, an accurate and reliable prediction method is necessary to investigate asymmetric water entry problems. In this paper, water entry of a two-dimensional wedge and ship section at constant velocity in asymmetric condition will be analysed numerically and the effects of asymmetric impact on the velocity and pressure distribution will be discussed. The finite volume method is employed to solve the dynamic motion of the wedge in two-phase flow. During the water entry, the air and water interface is described implicitly by the volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. The numerical code and method was first validated for symmetric condition by one of the present author is applied for asymmetric wedge and ship section. The free surface, velocity and pressure distribution for asymmetric water entry are investigated and visualized with contour plots at different time steps.

  7. Characterization of CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner (United States)

    A fringe detection and measurement system was constructed for use with the CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner, consisting of three circuit boards. The first board is a standard Reticon RC-100 B motherboard which is used to provide the timing, video processing, and housekeeping functions required by the Reticon RL-512 G photodiode array used in the system. The sampled and held video signal from the motherboard is processed by a second, custom fabricated circuit board which contains a high speed fringe detection and locating circuit. This board includes a dc level discriminator type fringe detector, a counter circuit to determine fringe center, a pulsed laser triggering circuit, and a control circuit to operate the shutter for the He-Ne reference laser beam. The fringe center information is supplied to the third board, a commercial single board computer, which governs the data collection process and interprets the results.

  8. A Numerical Study on the Asymmetric Water Entry of A Wedge Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. S. Seif; S. M. Mousaviraad; S. H. Saddathosseini


    The effect of the asymmetric water entry over a submerged part of a ship on the hydrodynamic impact is investigated numerically. A wedge body is considered and the problem is assumed to be two-dimensional. The results of symmetric and asymmetric impacts are compared. The effect is found significant in the numerical simulation. The maximum hydrodynamic pressure at a heel angle of 10 degrees becomes about 95% more than that of the symmetric entry. The result of the present work proves the importance of asymmetrical hydrodynamic impact loading for structural design of a ship. Besides, the numerical procedure is not limited to a wedge type cross section and it is possible to apply it for any real geometry of ships and high-speed craft.

  9. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.


    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  10. Analytic Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Flow and Boundary Layer Control Over a Wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Chandrasekar; S. Baskaran


    A genuine variational principle developed by Gyarmati, in the field of thermodynamics of irreversible processes unifying the theoretical requirements of technical, environmental and biological sciences is employed to study the effects of uniform suction and injection on MHD flow adjacent to an isothermal wedge with pressure gradient in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The velocity distribution inside the boundary layer has been considered as a simple polynomial function and the variational principle is formulated. The Euler-Lagrange equation is reduced to a simple polynomial equation in terms of momentum boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles, displacement thickness and the coefficient of skin friction are calculated for various values of wedge angle parameter m, magnetic parameter ε and suction/injection parameter H. The present results are compared with known available results and the comparison is found to be satisfactory. The present study establishes high accuracy of results obtained by this variational technique.

  11. Gas-Filled Capillary Model (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.


    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  12. Calculation Metho d of Power Law Fluid Equivalent Permeability Considering Capillary Shap e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Er-long; LI Huan; GAO Hui-juan; GU Ting-ting


    While studying the flow of oil and gas in the reservoir, it is not realistic that capillary with circular section is only used to express the pores. It is more representative to simulate porous media pore with kinds of capillary with triangle or rectangle section etc. In the condition of the same diameter, when polymer for oil displacement flows in the porous medium, there only exists shear flow which can be expressed with power law model. Based on fluid flow-pressure drop equation in single capillary, this paper gives a calculation method of equivalent permeability of power law fluid of single capillary and capillary bundles with different sections.

  13. Derivatization in Capillary Electrophoresis. (United States)

    Marina, M Luisa; Castro-Puyana, María


    Capillary electrophoresis is a well-established separation technique in analytical research laboratories worldwide. Its interesting advantages make CE an efficient and potent alternative to other chromatographic techniques. However, it is also recognized that its main drawback is the relatively poor sensitivity when using optical detection. One way to overcome this limitation is to perform a derivatization reaction which is intended to provide the analyte more suitable analytical characteristics enabling a high sensitive detection. Based on the analytical step where the CE derivatization takes place, it can be classified as precapillary (before separation), in-capillary (during separation), or postcapillary (after separation). This chapter describes the application of four different derivatization protocols (in-capillary and precapillary modes) to carry out the achiral and chiral analysis of different compounds in food and biological samples with three different detection modes (UV, LIF, and MS).

  14. How Capillary Rafts Sink

    CERN Document Server

    Protiere, S; Aristoff, J; Stone, H


    We present a fluid dynamics video showing how capillary rafts sink. Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. Thanks to Archimedes principle we can easily predict whether an object sinks or floats. But what happens when several small particles are placed at an interface between two fluids. In this case surface tension also plays an important role. These particles self-assemble by capillarity and thus form what we call a "capillary raft". We show how such capillary rafts sink for varying sizes of particles and define how this parameter affects the sinking process.

  15. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Barry Karger


    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  16. Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes. (United States)

    Moisy, Frédéric; Rabaud, Marc


    We determine experimentally the angle α of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers Bo(D)=D/λ(c) ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and λ(c) the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, α∼U(-1), but with different prefactors depending on the value of Bo(D). For small Bo(D) (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law α≃c(g,min)/U, where c(g,min) is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger Bo(D) (weak capillary effects), we recover a law α∼√[gD]/U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013)]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law α≃c(g,min)/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  17. Capillary flow through heat-pipe wicks (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.


    Theoretical expressions are obtained for the capillary-pressure limit and permeability of a fibrous wick in terms of the porosity and fiber diameter. Hysteresis in capillary pressure is included through the introduction of an empirical hysteresis constant. A partial-saturation model based on the statistical distribution of local porosity requires an additional empirical constant, the standard deviation. The theory is compared to results of a beta-ray absorption experiment that measured the liquid content of a partially saturated wick and to results of permeability measurements on partially and fully saturated wicks. A simple wick-weighing experiment is described that yields values for the empirical hysteresis constant and the standard deviation. Theoretical results are used to design an optimum wick.

  18. 颈神经在颈椎间孔及脊神经沟处受嵌压的解剖学因素%Anatomical factors of wedge pressure on cervical nerves in cervical intervertebral foramen of cervical nerve and sulcus of spinal nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英平; 郭瑞芳


    nerve root.OBJECTIVE: To probe into the anatomical factors of cervical spondylosis of nerve root type with occurrence rate of involved cervical nerve in cervical intervertebral foramen and sulcus of spinal nerve.DESIGN: Single sample observation was designed.SETTING: Department of Anatomy of Chengde Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 120 sides of 60 adult corpses were employed with formaldehyde fixation (28 cases of male and 32 cases of female).METHODS: Sixty adult corpses were measured with the vernier of 0.02 mm spinal nerve and the transverse diameter of anterior branch (A-diameter) of superoinferior diameter (S - I diameter) of cervical intervertebral foramen and its spinal nerve root. The ratios were calculated between A-diameter cervical nerve and E-diameter of the corresponding sulcus of spinal nerve and between A - P diameter and S - I diameter of spinal nerve root and those of corresponding intervertebral foramen respectively. The rates of occurrence were concluded for those cervical nerves whose A-diameter larger than or equal to E-diameter of sulcus of spinal nerves and for those spinal nerve roots whose rations larger than or equal to those of corresponding intervertebral foramens.cervical nerve in C3-6 larger than or equal to E-diameter of sulcus of spinal nerve roots in C3-6 larger than or equal to those of corresponding intervertebral foramens.RESULTS: Totally 120 sides of 60 corpses were measured (56 cases of male wedge pressure in intervertebral foramen of cervical nerve root for both male and female, of which, that of female was remarkably superior to the male was 6. 3% for wedge pressure of anterior branch of cervical spinal nerve in sulcus in spinal nerve for both male and female, of which, that of male was remarkably superior to the female(8.9%, 3.9%, χ2 = 6.65, P < 0. 01 ).CONCLUSION: The involvement of cervical nerve is related not only to the stenosis of bone canal but also to the injury of peripheral soft tissues. By the ratios between E

  19. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L


    of about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  20. CFD Simulations of the IHF Arc-Jet Flow: Compression-Pad/Separation Bolt Wedge Tests (United States)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Skokova, Kristina A.


    This paper reports computational analyses in support of two wedge tests in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests were conducted using two different wedge models, each placed in a free jet downstream of a corresponding different conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. Panel test articles included a metallic separation bolt imbedded in the compression-pad and heat shield materials, resulting in a circular protuberance over a flat plate. As part of the test calibration runs, surface pressure and heat flux measurements on water-cooled calibration plates integrated with the wedge models were also obtained. Surface heating distributions on the test articles as well as arc-jet test environment parameters for each test configuration are obtained through computational fluid dynamics simulations, consistent with the facility and calibration measurements. The present analysis comprises simulations of the non-equilibrium flow field in the facility nozzle, test box, and flow field over test articles, and comparisons with the measured calibration data.

  1. Analysis of Mechanical Energy Transport on Free-Falling Wedge during Water-Entry Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Wang


    Full Text Available For better discussing and understanding the physical phenomena and body-fluid interaction of water-entry problem, here mechanical-energy transport (wedge, fluid, and each other of water-entry model for free falling wedge is studied by numerical method based on free surface capturing method and Cartesian cut cell mesh. In this method, incompressible Euler equations for a variable density fluid are numerically calculated by the finite volume method. Then artificial compressibility method, dual-time stepping technique, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are applied in the numerical scheme. Furthermore, the projection method of momentum equations and exact Riemann solution are used to calculate the fluid pressure on solid boundary. On this basis, during water-entry phase of the free-falling wedge, macroscopic energy conversion of overall body-fluid system and microscopic energy transformation in fluid field are analyzed and discussed. Finally, based on test cases, many useful conclusions about mechanical energy transport for water entry problem are made and presented.

  2. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis (United States)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet


    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  3. The dynamic spreading of nanofluids on solid surfaces - Role of the nanofilm structural disjoining pressure. (United States)

    Lim, Sangwook; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh


    Nanofluids comprising nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have significant industrial applications. Prior work performed in our laboratory on the spreading of an aqueous film containing nanoparticles displacing an oil droplet has clearly revealed that the structural disjoining pressure arises due to the layering of the nanoparticles normal to the confining plane of the film with the wedge profile. The pressure drives the nanofluid in the wedge film and the nanofluid spreads. We observed two distinct contact lines: the inner contact line, where the structural disjoining pressure dominates the Laplace capillary pressure, and the outer contact line, given by the Laplace equation prediction extrapolated to the solid substrate where the structural disjoining pressure contribution is negligible. We report here our results of the effects of several parameters, such as the nanoparticle concentration, liquid salinity, temperature, and the substrate contact angle, on the motion of the two contact lines and their effects on the detachment of the oil droplet. We also studied the equilibrated and non-equilibrated oil/nanofluid phases, the time of adhesion of the oil droplet on the solid substrate and the drying time of the substrate. We employed the frictional model to predict the outer contact line velocity and our previous theoretical model (based on the structural disjoining pressure) to predict the inner contact line velocity. The theoretical predictions agreed quite well with the experimentally measured values of the velocities. Our experimental results showed that the motion of the inner contact line was accelerated by the increase in the nanoparticle concentration, temperature, and hydrophilicity of the substrate for the pre-equilibrated oil/nanofluid phases, which resulted in the faster detachment of the oil droplet. The speed of the two contact lines decreased upon the increase in the drying time of the substrate and the oil adhesion time on the substrate. The present

  4. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges. (United States)

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis


    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front.

  5. Reactive Atom Plasma Processing of Slumped Glass Wedges Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Reactive Atom Plasma (RAPTM) process will be evaluated as a rapid and practical method for fabricating precision wedges in glass sheets. The glass sheets are to...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qi-hong; LIU You-wen


    The system of a wedge disclination dipole interacting with an internal crack was investigated. By using the complex variable method, the closed form solutions of complex potentials to this problem were presented. The analytic formulae of the physics variables, such as stress intensity factors at the tips of the crack produced by the wedge disclination dipole and the image force acting on disclination dipole center were obtained.The influence of the orientation, the dipole arm and the location of the disclination dipole on the stress intensity factors was discussed in detail. Furthermore, the equilibrium position of the wedge disclination dipole was also examined. It is shown that the shielding or antishielding effect of the wedge disclination to the stress intensity factors is significant when the disclination dipole moves to the crack tips.

  7. Structure and Kinematics of the Indo-Burmese Wedge (United States)

    Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.


    The Burma subduction trench and the associated Indo Burmese wedge mark the present eastern boundary of the Indian plate in the northern Bengal area. The initiation, duration and history of the Bengal crust subduction beneath Burma is still debated. The aim of this paper is to provide a structural and kinematic analysis of the Indo- Burmese wedge in order to better constraints the Bengal crust subduction history beneath Burma. On the basis of field observations, seismic reflection data interpretation and well logs data we present a structural analysis of the Outer Indo-Burmese Wedge. We also constrain the onset of this Outer Wedge to be younger than 2Ma, implying a recent and fast westward growth (~10cm/yr) since Late Pliocene in close relationship with the onset of the Shillong plateau. Restoration process of a synthetic cross section through the Outer Wedge allowed us to estimate the amount of EW shortening accommodated in the Outer Wedge to be 5.1mm/yr since 2Ma. These results combined with previous available GPS data from central Myanmar suggest strain partitioning at wedge scale. The core of the wedge is affected by shear deformation and acts as a buttress for a frontal wedge that accommodates a more compressive strain component. Finally we propose that the main characteristic of the Indo-Burmese wedge growth mechanism is the progressive incorporation of the most internal part of the wedge, formerly affected by transpressive thin-skinned tectonics, to the buttress where they are subsequently affected by shear deformation. The crustal structure boarding the newly formed buttress seems to be guided by the subducting crust fabrics. We are in favour of a very recent (Late Miocene) onset of the present Indian crust subduction beneath Burma coeval with the global plate kinematics reorganisation related to the Indian/Australian plate spliting. This subduction postdates the Indo Burmese range onset that must have started in early Miocene. This range first began to

  8. Scattering of wedges and cones with impedance boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Lyalinov, Mikhail


    This book is a systematic and detailed exposition of different analytical techniques used in studying two of the canonical problems, the wave scattering by wedges or cones with impedance boundary conditions. It is the first reference on novel, highly efficient analytical-numerical approaches for wave diffraction by impedance wedges or cones. The applicability of the reported solution procedures and formulae to existing software packages designed for real-world high-frequency problems encountered in antenna, wave propagation, and radar cross section.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menderes LEVENT


    Full Text Available In this study, design and calibration of a capillary flowmeter set was represented. The capillary flowmeters will be used for measurements of small gas flows having laminar flow regime. The gases (such as, nitrogen, argon, methane, hydrogen and carbon-dioxide supplied from high pressure gas bottles and passed through capillary flowmeters (1 to 3 at various times. Each capillary flowmeter was made of glass and calibrated with one or two gases. Outlet of the capillary flowmeters were connected to the needle valves which have been used for regulating gas flowrates of the capillary flowmeters. Gases individually passed to a bubble flowmeter, and residence time of gases are recorded by using a stop watch. Then, from collected experimental results actual gas flowrates through the capillary flowmeters are calculated by using Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

  10. Optical refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase wedge. (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Saber, Ahad


    A method that utilizes the Fresnel diffraction of light from the phase step formed by a transparent wedge is introduced for measuring the refractive indices of transparent solids, liquids, and solutions. It is shown that, as a transparent wedge of small apex angle is illuminated perpendicular to its surface by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, the Fresnel fringes, caused by abrupt change in refractive index at the wedge lateral boundary, are formed on a screen held perpendicular to the beam propagation direction. The visibility of the fringes varies periodically between zero and 1 in the direction normal to the wedge apex. For a known or measured apex angle, the wedge refractive index is obtained by measuring the period length by a CCD. To measure the refractive index of a transparent liquid or solution, the wedge is installed in a transparent rectangle cell containing the sample. Then, the cell is illuminated perpendicularly and the visibility period is measured. By using modest optics, one can measure the refractive index at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-5). There is no limitation on the refractive index range. The method can be applied easily with no mechanical manipulation. The measuring apparatus can be very compact with low mechanical and optical noises.

  11. Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro


    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing

  12. Recent movements along the Main Boundary Thrust of the Himalayas: Normal faulting in an over-critical thrust wedge? (United States)

    Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Huyghe, Pascale; Chalaron, Edouard; Mascle, Georges


    The Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) is one of the major Himalayan thrusts occurring during the Cainozoic, and it is presently incorporated within the Himalayan thrust wedge (Lesser and Outer Himalayas) displaced above the Indian lithosphere. Nonetheless the MBT shows recent normal displacement along most of its length. We suggest that the orientation of the major principal stress within the Himalayan thrust wedge deviates significantly from the horizontal and when this deviation exceeds the dip of the vectors normal to back-tilted thrusts, the normal component of displacement may act along these faults. Steep north-dipping segments of the MBT therefore show a normal component of displacement if a geometrical definition is used, but they are faults in a compressional regime where the major principal stress axis has deviated from the horizontal. Micro-structural data recorded along the Surkhet-Ghorahi segment of the MBT are consistent with a strong deviation of the state of stress. The presence of such peculiar normal faulting along the MBT is used to calibrate the mechanical characteristics of the belt considered as a Coulomb wedge. The following characteristics are suggested: (a) very poor strength contrast between basal decollement and rocks in the wedge body, (b) a high pore fluid pressure ratio (probably close to 0.8-0.9) and a higher fluid pressure ratio (close to 1.0) along the active normal faults if a high internal friction angle (close to the Byerlee value) is considered. The strong deviation in principal stress direction may have recently increased, due to a taper of the Himalayan wedge exceeding the stability boundary and may be controlled by erosion and isostatic uplift rebound of the Himalayan range.

  13. Microchip and wedge ion funnels and planar ion beam analyzers using same (United States)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D


    Electrodynamic ion funnels confine, guide, or focus ions in gases using the Dehmelt potential of oscillatory electric field. New funnel designs operating at or close to atmospheric gas pressure are described. Effective ion focusing at such pressures is enabled by fields of extreme amplitude and frequency, allowed in microscopic gaps that have much higher electrical breakdown thresholds in any gas than the macroscopic gaps of present funnels. The new microscopic-gap funnels are useful for interfacing atmospheric-pressure ionization sources to mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility separation (IMS) stages including differential IMS or FAIMS, as well as IMS and MS stages in various configurations. In particular, "wedge" funnels comprising two planar surfaces positioned at an angle and wedge funnel traps derived therefrom can compress ion beams in one dimension, producing narrow belt-shaped beams and laterally elongated cuboid packets. This beam profile reduces the ion density and thus space-charge effects, mitigating the adverse impact thereof on the resolving power, measurement accuracy, and dynamic range of MS and IMS analyzers, while a greater overlap with coplanar light or particle beams can benefit spectroscopic methods.

  14. Ice wedges as climate archives - opportunities and limitations (United States)

    Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Dereviagin, Alexander; Wetterich, Sebastian; Schirrmeister, Lutz


    Permafrost regions are assumed to play a major role for Global Climate Change as they are susceptible to recent warming in particular with regard to the potential release of stored fossil carbon. Permafrost serves as archive of past environmental and climate conditions (such as sedimentation processes, temperature and precipitation regimes as well as landscape and ecosystem development) over tens of thousands of years that can be traced by the study of the frozen deposits, paleontological content and ground ice. Ground ice comprises all types of ice contained in frozen ground, including pore ice, segregation ice and ice wedges. Here, we focus on ice wedges as the most promising climate archive that can be studied by stable water isotope methods analogously to glacier ice. They may be identified by their vertically oriented foliations. Ice wedges form by the repeated filling of wintertime thermal contraction cracks by snow melt water in spring. As the melt water quickly refreezes at negative ground temperature no isotopic fractionation takes place. Hence, the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD, d excess) of wedge ice is assumed to be representative of annual cold period climate conditions, i.e. winter and spring. Ice wedges are widely distributed in non-glaciated high northern latitudes, are diagnostic of permafrost and, in general, indicative of cold and stable climate conditions. They are found in continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones and may also have formed during and survived interglacials. They may provide unique paleo information that is not captured by other climate archives. Usually, ice wedges are dated by radiocarbon dating of organic material incorporated in the ice, but also 36Cl/Cl ratios have been successfully used to date ice wedges. Nevertheless reliable age determination is challenging when studying ice wedges. Here we tackle the potential of ice wedges from the Siberian and American Arctic to trace past climate changes from stable isotope

  15. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad


    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  16. Aligning Optical Fibers by Means of Actuated MEMS Wedges (United States)

    Morgan, Brian; Ghodssi, Reza


    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) of a proposed type would be designed and fabricated to effect lateral and vertical alignment of optical fibers with respect to optical, electro-optical, optoelectronic, and/or photonic devices on integrated circuit chips and similar monolithic device structures. A MEMS device of this type would consist of a pair of oppositely sloped alignment wedges attached to linear actuators that would translate the wedges in the plane of a substrate, causing an optical fiber in contact with the sloping wedge surfaces to undergo various displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane. In making it possible to accurately align optical fibers individually during the packaging stages of fabrication of the affected devices, this MEMS device would also make it possible to relax tolerances in other stages of fabrication, thereby potentially reducing costs and increasing yields. In a typical system according to the proposal (see Figure 1), one or more pair(s) of alignment wedges would be positioned to create a V groove in which an optical fiber would rest. The fiber would be clamped at a suitable distance from the wedges to create a cantilever with a slight bend to push the free end of the fiber gently to the bottom of the V groove. The wedges would be translated in the substrate plane by amounts Dx1 and Dx2, respectively, which would be chosen to move the fiber parallel to the plane by a desired amount Dx and perpendicular to the plane by a desired amount Dy. The actuators used to translate the wedges could be variants of electrostatic or thermal actuators that are common in MEMS.

  17. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure. (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio


    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  18. The capillary hysteresis model HYSTR: User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, A.; Bodvarsson, G.S.


    The potential disposal of nuclear waste in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has generated increased interest in the study of fluid flow through unsaturated media. In the near future, large-scale field tests will be conducted at the Yucca Mountain site, and work is now being done to design and analyze these tests. As part of these efforts a capillary hysteresis model has been developed. A computer program to calculate the hysteretic relationship between capillary pressure {phi} and liquid saturation (S{sub 1}) has been written that is designed to be easily incorporated into any numerical unsaturated flow simulator that computes capillary pressure as a function of liquid saturation. This report gives a detailed description of the model along with information on how it can be interfaced with a transport code. Although the model was developed specifically for calculations related to nuclear waste disposal, it should be applicable to any capillary hysteresis problem for which the secondary and higher order scanning curves can be approximated from the first order scanning curves. HYSTR is a set of subroutines to calculate capillary pressure for a given liquid saturation under hysteretic conditions.

  19. Rapid, Simple and Ultrasensitive Analysis of Paraquat in Drinking Water by Field-Amplified Sample Injection Combined with Pressure-Assisted Capillary Zone Electrophoresis%场放大样品进样-压力辅助毛细管区带电泳测定饮用水中的百草枯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明明; 沈菁; 宋婷; 李胜清; 陈浩


    Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) combined with pressure-assisted capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was developed for the determination of paraquat in drinking water. High reproducibility in FASI-CZE process could be attained with constant pressure applied at both ends of capillary. Compared with conventional hydrodynamic injection, the enrichment factor of 1174 was achieved for paraquat by FASI. Several parameters including length of water plug, injection time and composition of sample solution were systematically optimized. Linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy were investigated to validate the proposed method. The result showed that the calibration curve was linear at the concentration of 1.0 100 (ig/L with a correlation coefficient of 0. 9975. The limit of detection was 0. 039 ng/L (S/N=3). Mean recovery of paraquat was ranged from 78. 4% to 94. 5% with relative standard deviation ranging from 3. 0% to 10. 4%. Finally, the method proposed was applied for the determination of paraquat in real drinking water.

  20. Gas Flow Dynamics in Inlet Capillaries: Evidence for non Laminar Conditions (United States)

    Wißdorf, Walter; Müller, David; Brachthäuser, Yessica; Langner, Markus; Derpmann, Valerie; Klopotowski, Sebastian; Polaczek, Christine; Kersten, Hendrik; Brockmann, Klaus; Benter, Thorsten


    In this work, the characteristics of gas flow in inlet capillaries are examined. Such inlet capillaries are widely used as a first flow restriction stage in commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers. Contrary to the common assumption, we consider the gas flow in typical glass inlet capillaries with 0.5 to 0.6 mm inner diameters and lengths about 20 cm as transitional or turbulent. The measured volume flow of the choked turbulent gas stream in such capillaries is 0.8 L·min-1 to 1.6 L·min-1 under typical operation conditions, which is in good agreement to theoretically calculated values. Likewise, the change of the volume flow in dependence of the pressure difference along the capillary agrees well with a theoretical model for turbulent conditions as well as with exemplary measurements of the static pressure inside the capillary channel. However, the results for the volume flow of heated glass and metal inlet capillaries are neither in agreement with turbulent nor with laminar models. The velocity profile of the neutral gas in a quartz capillary with an inner diameter similar to commercial inlet capillaries was experimentally determined with spatially resolved ion transfer time measurements. The determined gas velocity profiles do not contradict the turbulent character of the flow. Finally, inducing disturbances of the gas flow by placing obstacles in the capillary channel is found to not change the flow characteristics significantly. In combination the findings suggest that laminar conditions inside inlet capillaries are not a valid primary explanation for the observed high ion transparency of inlet capillaries under common operation conditions.

  1. Capillary Micro-flow Through a Fiber Bundle(Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yingdan; WANG Jihui; TAN Hua; GAO Guoqiang


    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the capillary micro-flow through a fiber bundle.The capillary pressure was predicted by the Young-Laplace equation and the corresponding optimal values of permeability were found by a trial-and-error method. The empirical Kozeny constants which are dependent on fiber volume fraction were recommended for the prediction of permeability.

  2. Analysis of electrokinetic pumping efficiency in capillary tubes. (United States)

    Chein, Reiyu; Liao, Jenchen


    A mathematical model for predicting the maximum pumping efficiency and pressure difference generation by an electrokinetic-driven fluid pumping system through a capillary tube is presented in this study. Both the maximum pumping efficiency and optimum pressure difference generation are found to depend on a single variable. This single variable is termed as the figure of merit since it determines the performance of electrokinetic pumping. The figure of merit is found to depend on three dimensionless parameters, the normalized Debye length, zeta potential, and Levine number indicating the nominal ratio of convective current to conductive current. All three parameters can be related to the pH value and concentration of aqueous salt solution by the introduction of concentration-dependent electrical conductivity and pH-dependent zeta potential. By presenting the maximum pumping efficiency and optimum pressure difference generation as functions of pH value, salt concentration, and capillary tube radius, it is found that both maximum pumping efficiency and optimum pressure difference generation increase with the decrease in capillary radius and salt concentration. The optimum pH values at which the maximum pumping efficiency and optimum pressure difference generation occur are found to be in the range between 6 and 9. For the salt concentration of 10(-6) M, pH 6.9, and a capillary tube radius value of 0.5 micro m, the predicted maximum pumping efficiency is 5.4% which is close to the experimental measurement reported in the literature.

  3. Enhanced performance of fast-response 3-hole wedge probes for transonic flows in axial turbomachinery (United States)

    Delhaye, D.; Paniagua, G.; Fernández Oro, J. M.; Dénos, R.


    The paper presents the development and application of a three-sensor wedge probe to measure unsteady aerodynamics in a transonic turbine. CFD has been used to perform a detailed uncertainty analysis related to probe-induced perturbations, in particular the separation zones appearing on the wedge apex. The effects of the Reynolds and Mach numbers are studied using both experimental data together with CFD simulations. The angular range of the probe and linearity of the calibration maps are enhanced with a novel zonal calibration technique, used for the first time in compressible flows. The data reduction methodology is explained and demonstrated with measurements performed in a single-stage high-pressure turbine mounted in the compression tube facility of the von Karman Institute. The turbine was operated at subsonic and transonic pressure ratios (2.4 and 5.1) for a Reynolds number of 106, representative of modern engine conditions. Complete maps of the unsteady flow angle and rotor outlet Mach number are documented. These data allow the study of secondary flows and rotor trailing edge shocks.

  4. Enhanced performance of fast-response 3-hole wedge probes for transonic flows in axial turbomachinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, D.; Paniagua, G. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium); Fernandez Oro, J.M. [Universidad de Oviedo, Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Gijon (Spain); Denos, R. [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)


    The paper presents the development and application of a three-sensor wedge probe to measure unsteady aerodynamics in a transonic turbine. CFD has been used to perform a detailed uncertainty analysis related to probe-induced perturbations, in particular the separation zones appearing on the wedge apex. The effects of the Reynolds and Mach numbers are studied using both experimental data together with CFD simulations. The angular range of the probe and linearity of the calibration maps are enhanced with a novel zonal calibration technique, used for the first time in compressible flows. The data reduction methodology is explained and demonstrated with measurements performed in a single-stage high-pressure turbine mounted in the compression tube facility of the von Karman Institute. The turbine was operated at subsonic and transonic pressure ratios (2.4 and 5.1) for a Reynolds number of 10{sup 6}, representative of modern engine conditions. Complete maps of the unsteady flow angle and rotor outlet Mach number are documented. These data allow the study of secondary flows and rotor trailing edge shocks. (orig.)

  5. Variables predicting elevated portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease. Results of a multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Christensen, E; Gluud, C;


    In 46 alcoholic patients the association of wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure with other variables (clinical, histologic, hemodynamic, and liver function data) was studied by means of multiple regression analysis, taking the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure as the dependent variable. Four...... variables showed significant independent association with the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure: indocyanine green clearance (p = 0.031), degree of necrosis (p = 0.023), degree of hepatic architectural destruction (graded as: preserved architecture, nodules alternating with preserved architecture......, totally destroyed architecture) (p = 2.3 X 10(-6) and sex (p = 0.0024), male sex being associated with higher wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure. The multiple coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.63; thus, 63% of the variation in the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure was 'explained' by variation...

  6. Indentation tectonics in the accretionary wedge of middle Manila Trench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiabiao; JIN Xianglong; RUAN Aiguo; WU Shimin; WU Ziyin; LIU Jianhua


    Based on the multibeam morpho-tectonic analysis of the Manila Trench accretionary wedge and its indentation tectonics and the contrasting researches with other geological and geophysical data, three tectonic zones of the wedge are established, faulting features, tectonic distribution and stress mechanism for the indentation tectonicsareanalyzed,oblique subduction along Manila Trench with convergent stress of NW55. Is presented, and the relationship of the ceasing of Eastern Subbasin spreading of South China Sea Basin to the formation of subduction zone of Manila Trench is discussed. By the model analysis and regional research, it is found that the seamount subduction along Manila Trenchoes not lead to the erosion of the accretionary wedge and the oblique subduction actually is a NWWtrending obducfion of Luzon micro-plate that results from the NWW-trending displacement of the Philippine Sea plate.

  7. Dislocation Nucleation and Pileup under a Wedge Contact at Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Gao


    Full Text Available Indentation responses of crystalline materials have been found to be radically different at micrometer and nanometer scales. The latter is usually thought to be controlled by the nucleation of dislocations. To explore this physical process, a dislocation mechanics study is performed to determine the conditions for the nucleation of a finite number of dislocations under a two-dimensional wedge indenter, using the Rice-Thomson nucleation criterion. The configurational force on the dislocation consists of the applied force, the image force, and the interaction force between dislocations. Dislocations reach equilibrium positions when the total driving force equals the effective Peierls stress, giving a set of nonlinear equations that can be solved using the Newton-Raphson method. When the apex angle of the wedge indenter increases, the critical contact size for dislocation nucleation increases rapidly, indicating that dislocation multiplication near a blunt wedge tip is extremely difficult. This geometric dependence agrees well with experimental findings.

  8. Tricritical wedge filling transitions with short-ranged forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Enrique, J M [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Area de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado de Correos 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Parry, A O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)


    We show that the 3D wedge filling transition in the presence of short-ranged interactions can be first order or second order depending on the strength of the line tension associated with the wedge bottom. This fact implies the existence of a tricritical point characterized by a short-distance expansion which differs from the usual continuous filling transition. Our analysis is based on an effective one-dimensional model for the 3D wedge filling, which arises from the identification of the breather modes as the only relevant interfacial fluctuations. From such analysis we find a correspondence between continuous 3D filling at bulk coexistence and 2D wetting transitions with random-bond disorder.

  9. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Wedge Clutch System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao


    Full Text Available A wedge clutch with unique features of self-reinforcement and small actuation force was designed. Its self-reinforcement feature, associated with different factors such as the wedge angle and friction coefficient, brings different dynamics and unstable problem with improper parameters. To analyze this system, a complete mathematical model of the actuation system is built, which includes the DC motor, the wedge mechanism, and the actuated clutch pack. By considering several nonlinear factors, such as the slip-stick friction and the contact or not of the clutch plates, the system is piecewise linear. Through the stability analysis of the linearized system in clutch slipping phase, the stable condition of the designed parameters is obtained as α>arctan⁡(μc. The mathematical model of the actuation system is validated by prototype testing. And with the validated model, the system dynamics in both stable and unstable conditions is investigated and discussed in engineering side.

  10. LASER PLASMA AND LASER APPLICATIONS: Plasma transparency in laser absorption waves in metal capillaries (United States)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu


    An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.

  11. Surgical treatment of idiopathic syringomyelia: Silastic wedge syringosubarachnoid shunting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck M Soo


    Conclusions: Shunting procedures for the syringomyelia disease spectrum have been criticized due to the inconsistent long-term outcomes. This surgical technique used to treat symptomatic idiopathic syringomyelia has been devised based on our intraoperative experience, surgical outcomes, and evaluation of the literature. The purpose of the wedges is to preserve patency of the communication between the syrinx cavity and the expanded subarachnoid space by preventing healing of the myelotomy edges and by maintaining an artificial conduit between the syrinx cavity and the subarachnoid space. Although short-term results are promising, continued long-term follow up is needed to determine the ultimate success of the silastic wedge shunting procedure.

  12. Three-dimensional wedge filling in ordered and disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenall, M J [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Parry, A O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Romero-Enrique, J M [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)


    We investigate interfacial structural and fluctuation effects occurring at continuous filling transitions in 3D wedge geometries. We show that fluctuation-induced wedge covariance relations that have been reported recently for 2D filling and wetting have mean-field or classical analogues that apply to higher-dimensional systems. Classical wedge covariance emerges from analysis of filling in shallow wedges based on a simple interfacial Hamiltonian model and is supported by detailed numerical investigations of filling within a more microscopic Landau-like density functional theory. Evidence is presented that classical wedge covariance is also obeyed for filling in more acute wedges in the asymptotic critical regime. For sufficiently short-ranged forces mean-field predictions for the filling critical exponents and covariance are destroyed by pseudo-one-dimensional interfacial fluctuations. We argue that in this filling fluctuation regime the critical exponents describing the divergence of length scales are related to values of the interfacial wandering exponent {zeta}(d) defined for planar interfaces in (bulk) two-dimensional (d = 2) and three-dimensional (d = 3) systems. For the interfacial height l{sub w} {approx} {theta}-{alpha}){sup -{beta}}{sub w}, with {theta} the contact angle and {alpha} the wedge tilt angle, we find {beta}{sub w} = {zeta}(2)/2(1-{zeta}(3)). For pure systems (thermal disorder) we recover the known result {beta}{sub w} = 1/4 predicted by interfacial Hamiltonian studies whilst for random-bond disorder we predict the universal critical exponent {beta} {approx} even in the presence of dispersion forces. We revisit the transfer matrix theory of three-dimensional filling based on an effective interfacial Hamiltonian model and discuss the interplay between breather, tilt and torsional interfacial fluctuations. We show that the coupling of the modes allows the problem to be mapped onto a quantum mechanical problem as conjectured by previous authors

  13. Fluid Micro-Reservoirs Array Design with Auto-Pressure Regulation for High-Speed 3D Printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Einat


    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D printing technology is rapidly evolving such that printing speed is now a crucial factor in technological developments and future applications. For printing heads based on the inkjet concept, the number of nozzles on the print head is a limiting factor of printing speed. This paper offers a method to practically increase the number of nozzles unlimitedly, and thus to dramatically ramp up printing speed. Fluid reservoirs are used in inkjet print heads to supply fluid through a manifold to the jetting chambers. The pressure in the reservoir’s outlet is important and influences device performance. Many efforts have been made to regulate pressure inside the fluid reservoirs so as to obtain a constant pressure in the chambers. When the number of nozzles is increased too much, the regulation of uniform pressure among all the nozzles becomes too complicated. In this paper, a different approach is taken. The reservoir is divided into an array of many micro-reservoirs. Each micro-reservoir supports one or a few chambers, and has a unique structure with auto-pressure regulation, where the outlet pressure is independent of the fluid level. The regulation is based on auto-compensation of the gravity force and a capillary force having the same dependence on the fluid level; this feature is obtained by adding a wedge in the reservoir with a unique shape. When the fluid level drops, the gravitational force and the capillary force decrease with it, but at similar rates. Terms for the force balance are derived and, consequently, a constant pressure in the fluid micro-reservoir segment is obtained automatically, with each segment being autonomous. This micro reservoir array is suggested for the enlargement of an inkjet print head and the achievement of high-speed 3D printing.

  14. Tapered capillary optics (United States)

    Hirsch, Gregory


    A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

  15. Capillary condensation as a morphological transition. (United States)

    Kornev, Konstantin G; Shingareva, Inna K; Neimark, Alexander V


    The process of capillary condensation/evaporation in cylindrical pores is considered within the idea of symmetry breaking. Capillary condensation/evaporation is treated as a morphological transition between the wetting film configurations of different symmetry. We considered two models: (i) the classical Laplace theory of capillarity and (ii) the Derjaguin model which takes into account the surface forces expressed in terms of the disjoining pressure. Following the idea of Everett and Haynes, the problem of condensation/evaporation is considered as a transition from bumps/undulations to lenses. Using the method of phase portraits, we discuss the mathematical mechanisms of this transition hidden in the Laplace and Derjaguin equations. Analyzing the energetic barriers of the bump and lens formation, it is shown that the bump formation is a prerogative of capillary condensation: for the vapor-liquid transition in a pore, the bump plays the same role as the spherical nucleus in a bulk fluid. We show also that the Derjaguin model admits a variety of interfacial configurations responsible for film patterning at specific conditions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茂林; 吴清松; 梅海燕; 郭平; 孙良田; 李士伦


    在油气藏中,油气流体和储层多孔介质是一个相互作用的系统,油气体系相平衡计算应考虑多孔介质中的界面现象的影响。文章从热力学基本理论出发,建立了考虑毛细管压力的相平衡计算模型。为了论证毛细管压力对油气体系相平衡的影响程度,针对我国两个凝析气藏,分别对油气体系的毛细管压力、露点压力、反凝析液量和p-T相图形态进行了相态模拟计算。并利用热力学亚稳态和新相生成理论中的开尔文(Kelvin)方程对其相态模拟计算结果作出了满意的解释。%There exists an interactional system between oil and gas fluids and porous media in oil and gas reservoirs. The effect of interface phenomena in porous media should be taken into consideration if phase equilibrium is to be calculated in oil and gas system. Based on the basic thermodynamics, phase equilibrium calculation model is set up concerning the effect of capillary pressure. In order to prove in what degree the capillary pressure has an effect on the oil and gas phase equilibrium, two condensate reservoirs in China were taken as examples to carry on phase behavoir simulation calculation of capillary pressure, dew points pressure, retrograde condensate liquid contents and P-T plase diagram of oil and gas system. The phase simulation results are well explained by using the Kelvin equation of the thermodynamic metastable state and new phase formation theory.

  17. Characterization of the Basic Operational Properties of the Capillary Plasma Electrode (CPE) Discharge (United States)

    Lopez, Jose; Zhu, Weidong; Figus, Margaret; Becker, Kurt


    Various approaches have been pursued to create stable atmospheric pressure discharges by extending the lifetime of the diffuse phase of the discharge to hundreds of microseconds. Previous research showed that the stability of the diffuse mode is dependent on the frequency (in the kHz range), gas type, power, mode of the excitation, and geometrical confinement. The Capillary Plasma Electrode (CPE) discharge is able to produce stable atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas. The CPE is similar in design to a barrier-electrode discharge, but has perforated dielectrics. This configuration, aside from exhibiting a diffuse mode of operation, also exhibits the so-called ``capillary jet'' mode, in which the capillaries ``turn on'' and a bright plasma jet emerges from the capillaries. The capillary jets from adjacent capillaries overlap so that the discharge appears uniform when the electrode contains an array of holes. There appears to be a threshold frequency for the capillary jet formation, which is strongly dependent on the L/D ratio of the capillaries, where D is the diameter of a capillary and L its length. This current work explores these modes of operation of the CPE by characterizing the electrical and optical emission properties of this discharge.

  18. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente


    A simple coating procedure for generation of a high and pH-independent electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. The bilayer coating was formed by noncovalent adsorption of the ionic polymers Polybrene...

  19. Non-linear critical taper model and determination of accretionary wedge strength (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Hsieh, Yuan-Lung; Liu, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Cheng-Lung


    The critical taper model has been widely used to evaluate the strength contrast between the wedge and the basal detachment of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges. However, determination of the strength parameters using the traditional critical taper model, which adopts the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, is difficult, if not impossible. In this study, we propose a modified critical taper model that incorporates the non-linear Hoek-Brown failure criterion. The parameters in the proposed critical Hoek-Brown wedge CHBW model can be directly evaluated via field investigations and laboratory tests. Meanwhile, the wedge strength is a function of the wedge thickness, which is oriented from stress non-linearity. The fold-and-thrust belt in western central Taiwan was used as an example to validate the proposed model. The determined wedge strength was 0.86 using a representative wedge thickness of 5.3 km; this was close to the inferred value of 0.6 from the critical taper. Interestingly, a concave topographic relief is predicted as a result of the wedge thickness dependency of the wedge strength, even if the wedge is composed of homogeneous materials and if the strength of the detachment is uniform. This study demonstrates that the influence of wedge strength on the critical taper angle can be quantified by the spatial distribution of strength variables and by the consideration of the wedge thickness dependency of wedge strength.

  20. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing


    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  1. Ion guiding in alumina capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhász, Z.; Sulik, B.; Biri, S.;


    Transmission of a few keV impact energy Ne ions through capillaries in anodic alumina membranes has been studied with different ion counting methods using an energy dispersive electrostatic spectrometer, a multichannel plate (MCP) array and sensitive current-measurement. In the present work, we...... focus our attention to the measurements with the MCP array. The alumina capillaries were prepared by electro-chemical oxidation of aluminium foils. For the present experiments guiding of 3-6 keV Ne ions has been studied in two samples with capillary diameter of about 140 nm and 260 nm and with capillary...... length of about 15 μm. At these energies, the ions have been efficiently guided by the capillaries up to few degrees tilt angle. In this work, we compare the results obtained by the energy dispersive spectrometer to those studied by the MCP array. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis (United States)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.


    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  3. Micro-magnetic particles frit for capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Oguri, Shigeyuki; Oga, Chiari; Takeda, Haruna


    This paper presents a new method for making frit using soft-ferrite-based micro-magnetic particles (MMPs) in a micro-space, such as in a capillary tube. The MMPs-frit was made by injecting an aliquot of 10 microm (outer diameter; o.d.)-MMPs-suspension in methanol (ca. 1mg/ml) into a capillary tube (75 microm inner diameter (i.d.) x 375 microm o.d. x ca. 35 cm length) that was already sandwiched between a pair of cylindrical Neodium (Nd-Fe-B) magnets (1.5 mm o.d. x 1.5 mm height, 280 mT) at a position where the frit was made. The MMPs were trapped in the capillary tube as a frit due to the attraction of the magnets placed at surface on the capillary tube. With regard to durability, the frit was stable for methanol flow with a flow rate of 400 microl/min at room temperature. Using such a frit, a capillary column (20 cm long) was prepared by injecting a 5 microm (o.d.)-ODS-particle suspension in methanol (ca. 0.4 mg/microl) into the capillary tube. The MMPs-frits-ODS-packed column was stable for methanol for a flow pressure less than 20MPa. When comparing the present column with a conventional sintered-frits-ODS-packed column for the purposes of separating five kinds of biogenic amines by means of an on-column derivatization capillary electrochromatography (CEC), the performance of the MMPs-frits capillary column was almost equivalent to that of the sintered-frits-ODS-packed column.

  4. Stark effect in a wedge-shaped quantum box

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo del; Vazquez, Gerardo J.


    The effect of an external applied electric field on the electronic ground state energy of a quantum box with a geometry defined by a wedge is studied by carrying out a variational calculation. This geometry could be used as an approximation for a tip of a cantilever of an atomic force microscope. We study theoretically the Stark effect as function of the parameters of the wedge: its diameter, angular aperture and thickness; as well as function of the intensity of the external electric field applied along the axis of the wedge in both directions; pushing the carrier towards the wider or the narrower parts. A confining electronic effect, which is sharper as the wedge dimensions are smaller, is clearly observed for the first case. Besides, the sign of the Stark shift changes when the angular aperture is changed from small angles to angles theta>pi. For the opposite field, the electronic confinement for large diameters is very small and it is also observed that the Stark shift is almost independent with respect t...

  5. Fixed Points of Maps of a Nonaspherical Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Keith


    Full Text Available Abstract Let be a finite polyhedron that has the homotopy type of the wedge of the projective plane and the circle. With the aid of techniques from combinatorial group theory, we obtain formulas for the Nielsen numbers of the selfmaps of .

  6. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.


    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  7. Multidimensional capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Grochocki, Wojciech; Markuszewski, Michał J; Quirino, Joselito P


    Multidimensional separation where two or more orthogonal displacement mechanisms are combined is a promising approach to increase peak capacity in CE. The combinations allow dramatic improvement of analytical performance since the total peak capacity is given by a product of the peak capacities of all methods. The initial reports were concentrated on the construction of effective connections between capillaries for 2D analysis. Today, 2D and 3D CE systems are now able to separate real complex biological or environmental mixtures with good repeatability, improved resolution with minimal loss of sample. This review will present the developments in the field of multidimensional CE during the last 15 years. The endeavors in this specific field were on the development of interfaces, interface-free techniques including integrated separations, microdevices, and on-line sample concentration techniques to improve detection sensitivity.

  8. Cardiovascular Automatic Feedback Control Instrument for Rescuing Critical Patients With Abnormal Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yuzhi; Wu Zhiting; Sheng Guotai; Li Gang


    Objectives Most medical instruments are designed for diagnosis purpose but very few for clinical treatment. Our research aim is to design and develop a cardiovascular automatic feedback control instrument (CAFCI) for rescuing the critical patients with abnormal blood pressure.Methods The CAFCI was designed on the basis of abundant clinical experiences and on successful mathematic modeling of our experimental data. The blood pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure,and rates of heart beat were measured and inputted into a computer and drugs were chosen by a doctor through a user-friendly interface with the computer.The responses to medication were rapidly acquired and feed back to the computer by automatic detection system in a close-loop system. The data were refreshed every 7.5 sec in order to regulate the speed and dosage of the medications that were given. Results The experimental results with ten dogs showed that the CAFCI system took samples promptly and accurately so that the targeted blood pressure could be reached reliably based on our input parameters and our designing requirements. Conclusions Since the dependability and accuracy of the CAFCI system are much superior to that of the traditional method, its clinical application to rescue the critical patient warrants evaluation in the future.

  9. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment (United States)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.


    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  10. Study of the operational properties of the Capillary Plasma Electrode (CPE) discharges (United States)

    Lopez, Jose; Jacome, David; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Figus, Margaret; Becker, Kurt H.


    Various approaches have been pursued to create stable atmospheric pressure discharges by extending the lifetime of the diffuse phase of the discharge to hundreds of microseconds. Previous research showed that the stability of the diffuse mode is dependent on the frequency (in the kHz range), gas type power, mode of the excitation, and geometrical confinement. Some of the most promising approaches are based on the recognition of the arc formation in high-pressure plasmas can be avoided and stable high-pressure plasma can be generated and maintained when the plasma are spatially constricted to the dimensions of tens to hundreds of microns. The Capillary Plasma Electrode (CPE) discharge is stable to produce stable atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma. The CPE is similar in design to the Barrier Electrode Discharge, but has perforated dielectrics. The configuration, aside from exhibiting a diffuse mode of operation, also exhibits the so-called ``capillary jet'' mode, in which the capillaries “turn on” and a bright plasma jet emerges from the capillaries. The capillary jets from adjacent capillaries overlap so that the discharge appears uniform when the electrode contains an array of holes. There appears to be a threshold frequency for the capillary jet formation, which is strongly dependent on the L/D ratio of the capillaries, where D is diameter of the capillary and L its length. However, the operating principles and basic properties of this behavior are not well understood. The current work explores these modes of operations of the CPE by characterizing the electrical and optical emission properties of this discharge by examining a multi-hole discharge as well as a single capillary discharge reactor.

  11. Computational Analysis of Arc-Jet Wedge Tests Including Ablation and Shape Change (United States)

    Goekcen, Tahir; Chen, Yih-Kanq; Skokova, Kristina A.; Milos, Frank S.


    Coupled fluid-material response analyses of arc-jet wedge ablation tests conducted in a NASA Ames arc-jet facility are considered. These tests were conducted using blunt wedge models placed in a free jet downstream of the 6-inch diameter conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. The fluid analysis includes computational Navier-Stokes simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle and test box as well as the flowfield over the models. The material response analysis includes simulation of two-dimensional surface ablation and internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow. For ablating test articles undergoing shape change, the material response and fluid analyses are coupled in order to calculate the time dependent surface heating and pressure distributions that result from shape change. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests was Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Effects of the test article shape change on fluid and material response simulations are demonstrated, and computational predictions of surface recession, shape change, and in-depth temperatures are compared with the experimental measurements.

  12. Capillary flow solder wettability test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.


    A test procedure was developed to assess the capillary flow wettability of solders inside of a confined geometry. The test geometry was comprised of two parallel plates with a controlled gap of constant thickness (0.008 cm, 0.018 cm, 0.025 cm, and 0.038 cm). Capillary flow was assessed by: (1) the meniscus or capillary rise of the solder within the gap, (2) the extent of void formation in the gap, and (3) the time-dependence of the risen solder film. Tests were performed with the lead-free solders.

  13. Laser-driven plasma waves in capillary tubes. (United States)

    Wojda, F; Cassou, K; Genoud, G; Burza, M; Glinec, Y; Lundh, O; Persson, A; Vieux, G; Brunetti, E; Shanks, R P; Jaroszynski, D; Andreev, N E; Wahlström, C-G; Cros, B


    The excitation of plasma waves over a length of up to 8 cm is demonstrated using laser guiding of intense laser pulses through hydrogen-filled glass capillary tubes. The plasma waves are diagnosed by spectral analysis of the transmitted laser radiation. The dependence of the spectral redshift-measured as a function of filling pressure, capillary tube length, and incident laser energy-is in excellent agreement with simulation results. The longitudinal accelerating field inferred from the simulations is in the range of 1-10 GV/m.

  14. Vertebral Osteotomies in Ankylosing Spondylitis-Comparison of Outcomes Following Closing Wedge Osteotomy versus Opening Wedge Osteotomy: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Ravinsky, Robert A; Ouellet, Jean-Albert; Brodt, Erika D; Dettori, Joseph R


    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale To seek out and assess the best quality evidence available comparing opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) and closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis to determine whether their results differ with regard to several different subjective and objective outcome measures. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in subjective and objective outcomes when comparing CWO and OWO in patients with ankylosing spondylitis suffering from clinically significant thoracolumbar kyphosis with respect to quality-of-life assessments, complication risks, and the amount of correction of the spine achieved at follow-up. Methods A systematic review was undertaken of articles published up to July 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies comparing effectiveness and safety outcomes between adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis who received closing wedge versus opening wedge osteotomies. Studies that included pediatric patients, polysegmental osteotomies, or revision procedures were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the GRADE criteria and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results From a total of 67 possible citations, 4 retrospective cohorts (class of evidence III) met our inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. No differences in Oswestry Disability Index, visual analog scale for pain, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-24 score, SRS-22 score, and patient satisfaction were reported between the closing and opening wedge groups across two studies. Regarding radiological outcomes following closing versus opening osteotomies, mean change in sagittal vertical axis ranged from 8.9 to 10.8 cm and 8.0 to 10.9 cm, respectively, across three studies; mean change in lumbar lordosis ranged from 36 to 47 degrees and 19 to 41 degrees across four studies; and mean change

  15. Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael


    The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves...

  16. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.


    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  17. Analysis of Capillary Rise in Asymmetric Branch-Like Capillary (United States)

    Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Yang, Zhihui; Su, Shuai; Ren, Kai; Huang, Heyu


    Transport in porous media is common in nature, attracting many attentions for a long time. Tree-like network model is often used as a simplification for porous space, expressing the complexity of pore spaces instead of capillary bundle. To investigate spontaneous imbibition characteristics in this network, a dynamic asymmetric branch-like capillary model is used to represent basic network structure, using fractal method to represent tortuosity. This work investigates the influence of parameters on imbibition process in the branch-like capillary model. An analytical equation for the imbibition mass versus time is derived. Parameters from capillary structures to liquid properties are taken into account and analyzed based on the numerical solution of the equation. It is found that the imbibition process in asymmetric branch-like capillary model can be recognized by four sections and brunching tubes are positive for imbibition process. Concomitantly, meniscus arrest event is simulated and discussed. Moreover, the influence of parameters on imbibition process is discussed. These parameters can be classified as static and dynamic. Static parameters mainly change the capillary force, which are related to the ultimate imbibition mass or imbibition ability, while dynamic parameters mainly have influence on resistance of flowing fluid, which are related to the imbibition speed in the imbibition process.

  18. Comparison of clinical and radiological outcomes between opening-wedge and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy: A comprehensive meta-analysis (United States)

    Wu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Jin, Zhicheng; Cai, Xiaobin; Gao, Weiyang


    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been widely used for clinical treatment of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee, and both opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO are the most commonly used methods. However, it remains unclear which technique has better clinical and radiological outcomes in practice. To systematically evaluate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis by pooling all available data for the opening-wedge HTO and closing-wedge HTO techniques from the electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Wed of Science and Cochrane Library. A total of 22 studies encompassing 2582 cases were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference regarding surgery time, duration of hospitalization, knee pain VAS, Lysholm score and HSS knee score (clinical outcomes) between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05). However, the opening-wedge HTO group showed wider range of motion than the closing-wedge HTO group (P = 0.003). Moreover, as for Hip-Knee-Ankle angle and mean angle of correction, no significant difference was observed between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05), while the opening-wedge HTO group showed greater posterior tibial slope angle (P < 0.001) and lesser patellar height than the closing-wedge HTO group (P < 0.001). On light of the above analysis, we believe that individualized surgical approach should be introduced based on the clinical characteristics of each patient. PMID:28182736

  19. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.


    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  20. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K


    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology, parti

  1. Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries: role in lung and heart disease (United States)

    West, J. B.; Mathieu-Costello, O.


    Pulmonary capillaries have extremely thin walls to allow rapid exchange of respiratory gases across them. Recently it has been shown that the wall stresses become very large when the capillary pressure is raised, and in anaesthetised rabbits, ultrastructural damage to the walls is seen at pressures of 40 mm Hg and above. The changes include breaks in the capillary endothelial layer, alveolar epithelial layer, and sometimes all layers of the wall. The strength of the thin part of the capillary wall can be attributed to the type IV collagen in the extracellular matrix. Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries results in a high-permeability form of oedema, or even frank haemorrhage, and is apparently the mechanism of neurogenic pulmonary oedema and high-altitude pulmonary oedema. It also explains the exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage that occurs in all racehorses. Several features of mitral stenosis are consistent with stress failure. Overinflation of the lung also leads to stress failure, a common cause of increased capillary permeability in the intensive care environment. Stress failure also occurs if the type IV collagen of the capillary wall is weakened by autoantibodies as in Goodpasture's syndrome. Neutrophil elastase degrades type IV collagen and this may be the starting point of the breakdown of alveolar walls that is characteristic of emphysema. Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries is a hitherto overlooked and potentially important factor in lung and heart disease.

  2. New type of capillary for use as ion beam collimator and air-vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoytschew, V., E-mail: [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Schulte-Borchers, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Božičević Mihalića, Iva [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Perez, R.D. [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (5000) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina)


    Glass capillaries offer a unique way to combine small diameter ion beam collimation with an air-vacuum interface for ambient pressure ion beam applications. Usually they have an opening diameter of a few microns, limiting the air inflow sufficiently to maintain stable conditions on the vacuum side. As the glass capillaries generally are quite thin and fragile, handling of the capillary in the experiment becomes difficult. They also introduce an X-ray background produced by the capillary wall material, which has to be shielded or subtracted from the data for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) applications. To overcome both drawbacks, a new type of conical glass capillary has been developed. It has a higher wall thickness eliminating the low energy X-ray background produced by common capillaries and leading to a more robust lens. The results obtained in first tests show, that this new capillary is suitable for ion beam collimation and encourage further work on the capillary production process to provide thick wall capillaries with an outlet diameter in the single digit micro- or even nanometre range.

  3. Capillary Rise of Magnetohydrodynamics Liquid into Deformable Porous Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed I Siddique


    Full Text Available We have developed a mathematical model for capillary rise of magnetohydrodynamic fluids. The liquid starts to imbibe because of capillary suction in an undeformed and initially dry sponge-like porous material. The driving force in our model is a pressure gradient across the evolving porous material that induces a stress gradient which in turn causes deformation that is characterized by a variable solid fraction. The problem is formulated as a non–linear moving boundary problem which we solve using the method of lines approach after transforming to a fixed computational domain. The summary of our finding includes a notable reduction in capillary rise and a decrease in solid deformation due to magnetic effects.

  4. On the capillary self-focusing in a microfluidic system

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, M; Afkhami, S


    A computational framework is developed to address capillary self-focusing in Step Emulsification. The microfluidic system consists of a single shallow and wide microchannel that merges into a deep reservoir. A continuum approach coupled with a volume of fluid method is used to model the capillary self-focusing effect. The original governing equations are reduced using the Hele-Shaw approximation. We show that the interface between the two fluids takes the shape of a neck narrowing in the flow direction just before entering the reservoir, in agreement with our experimental observations. Our computational model relies on the assumption that the pressure at the boundary, where the fluid exits into the reservoir, is the uniform pressure in the reservoir. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. We conjecture that the pressure boundary condition becomes important when the width of the neck is comparable to the depth of the microchannel. A correction to the exit pres...

  5. New machining and testing method of large angle infrared wedge mirror parts (United States)

    Su, Ying; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Fumei; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Xuanmin; Zengqi, Xu; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng


    Large angle wedge parts were widely used in the optical system that was used for achieving a wide range of scanning. Due to the parts having the characteristic of large difference in the thickness of both ends and high density, the accuracy of the wedge angle was hard to ensure to reach second level in optical processing. Generally, wedge mirror angle was measured by contact comparison method which was easy to damage the surface. In view of the existence of two practical problems, in this paper, based on theoretical analysis, by taking three key measures that were the accurate positioning for the central position of the large angle wedge part, the accuracy control of angle precision machined of wedge mirror and fast and non destructive laser assisted absolute measurement of large angle wedge, the qualified rate of parts were increased to 100%, a feasible, controllable and efficient process route for large angle infrared wedge parts was found out.

  6. Wedge Splitting Test and Fracture Energy on Particulate Reinforced Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Hoon Seok [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Shin Hoe; Jung, Gyoo Dong [Agency for Defense Developmen, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The effect of temperature on the fracture energy, crack propagation, and crack tip opening displacement(CTOD) was determined for particulate reinforced composites using the wedge splitting test. The materials that were used consisted of a polymer binder, an oxidizing agent, and aluminum particles. The test rate of the wedge splitting specimen was 50 mm/min, the temperature conditions were 50℃, room temperature, -40℃, and -60℃. The fracture energy, calculated from splitting load-crack mouth opening displacement(CMOD) curves, increased with decreasing temperature from 50℃ to -40℃. In addition, the strength of the particulate reinforced composites increased sharply at -60℃, and the composites evidenced brittle fracture due to the glass transition temperature. The strain fields near the crack tip were analyzed using digital image correlation.

  7. Direct FVM Simulation for Sound Propagation in an Ideal Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ji


    Full Text Available The sound propagation in a wedge-shaped waveguide with perfectly reflecting boundaries is one of the few range-dependent problems with an analytical solution. This provides a benchmark for the theoretical and computational studies on the simulation of ocean acoustic applications. We present a direct finite volume method (FVM simulation for the ideal wedge problem, and both time and frequency domain results are analyzed. We also study the broadband problem with large-scale parallel simulations. The results presented in this paper validate the accuracy of the numerical techniques and show that the direct FVM simulation could be applied to large-scale complex acoustic applications with a high performance computing platform.

  8. Thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection without post-operative chest drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Bo Laksáfoss; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Kehlet, Henrik;


    effusion and coagulopathy. Chest X-rays were done twice on the day of surgery. 30-day complications were compiled from patient records. RESULTS: 49 patients underwent 51 unilateral VATS wedge resections without using a post-operative chest drain. No patient required reinsertion of a chest drain. 30 (59...... %) patients had a pneumothorax of mean size 12 ± 12 mm on supine 8-h post-operative X-ray for which the majority resolved spontaneously within 2-week control. There were no complications on 30-day follow-up. Median length of stay was 1 day. CONCLUSIONS: The results support that VATS wedge resection...... for pulmonary nodules without a post-operative chest drain may be safe in a selected group of patients....

  9. Wedge Diffraction as an Instance of Radiative Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Grzesik, J A


    The celebrated Sommerfeld wedge diffraction solution is reexamined from a null interior field perspective. Exact surface currents provided by that solution, when considered as disembodied half-plane laminae radiating into an ambient, uniform space both inside and outside the wedge proper, do succeed in reconstituting both a specular, mirror field above the exposed face, and a shielding plane-wave field of a sign opposite to that of the incoming excitation which, under superposition, creates both the classical, geometric-optics shadow, and a strictly null interior field at the dominant, plane-wave level. Both mirror and shadow radiated fields are controlled by the residue at just one simple pole encountered during a spectral radiative field assembly, fixed in place by incidence direction $\\phi_{0}$ as measured from the exposed face. The radiated fields further provide diffractive contributions drawn from two saddle points that track observation angle $\\phi.$ Even these, more or less asymptotic contributions, a...

  10. MHD Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge with Newtonian heating (United States)

    Ahmad, Kartini; Hanouf, Zahir; Ishak, Anuar


    The problem of steady Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge is studied in this paper. The presence of magnetic field along with Newtonian heating at the surface is considered. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations, before being solved numerically using the Keller-box method. The effects of the wedge angle Ω from 0° (horizontal plate) to 180° (vertical plate) as well as of as the magnetic parameter M on the non-Newtonian fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is found that the surface temperature is slightly higher for the flow over a horizontal plate compared to that over a vertical plate. It is also found that the magnetic field decreases the surface temperature but increases the skin friction. The flow of a Newtonian fluid is found to give higher skin friction as compared to that of Casson fluid.

  11. Image-Based Modeling of Blood Flow and Oxygen Transfer in Feto-Placental Capillaries (United States)

    Brownbill, Paul; Janáček, Jiří; Jirkovská, Marie; Kubínová, Lucie; Chernyavsky, Igor L.; Jensen, Oliver E.


    During pregnancy, oxygen diffuses from maternal to fetal blood through villous trees in the placenta. In this paper, we simulate blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries by converting three-dimensional representations of villous and capillary surfaces, reconstructed from confocal laser scanning microscopy, to finite-element meshes, and calculating values of vascular flow resistance and total oxygen transfer. The relationship between the total oxygen transfer rate and the pressure drop through the capillary is shown to be captured across a wide range of pressure drops by physical scaling laws and an upper bound on the oxygen transfer rate. A regression equation is introduced that can be used to estimate the oxygen transfer in a capillary using the vascular resistance. Two techniques for quantifying the effects of statistical variability, experimental uncertainty and pathological placental structure on the calculated properties are then introduced. First, scaling arguments are used to quantify the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the geometry and the parameters. Second, the effects of localized dilations in fetal capillaries are investigated using an idealized axisymmetric model, to quantify the possible effect of pathological placental structure on oxygen transfer. The model predicts how, for a fixed pressure drop through a capillary, oxygen transfer is maximized by an optimal width of the dilation. The results could explain the prevalence of fetal hypoxia in cases of delayed villous maturation, a pathology characterized by a lack of the vasculo-syncytial membranes often seen in conjunction with localized capillary dilations. PMID:27788214

  12. Wedge-local quantum fields on a nonconstant noncommutative spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Much, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig (Germany) and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)


    Within the framework of warped convolutions we deform the massless free scalar field. The deformation is performed by using the generators of the special conformal transformations. The investigation shows that the deformed field turns out to be wedge-local. Furthermore, it is shown that the spacetime induced by the deformation with the special conformal operators is nonconstant noncommutative. The noncommutativity is obtained by calculating the deformed commutator of the coordinates.

  13. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beissel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J.M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; Troy, J. de; Drouhin, F.; Eberle, H.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J.M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M.R.; Kaercher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kraeber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Mueller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schunk, J.P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M.H.; Simonis, H.J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Velde, C. Vander. E-mail:; Doninck, W. van; Dyck, Ch. van; Vanlaer, P.; Lancker, L. van; Verdini, P.G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V


    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.

  14. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Aulchenko, V M; Bachmann, S; Baibusinov, B O; Barthe, S; Beaumont, W; Beckers, T; Beissel, F; Benhammou, Ya; Bergdolt, A M; Bernier, K; Blüm, H P; Bondar, A E; Bouhali, O; Boulogne, I; Bozzo, M; Brom, J M; Camps, C; Chorowicz, V; Coffin, J P; Commichau, V; Contardo, D; Croix, J; De Troy, J G; Drouhin, F; Eberle, H; Flügge, G; Fontaine, J C; Geist, Walter M; Goerlach, U; Gundlfinger, K; Hangarter, K; Haroutunian, R; Helleboid, J M; Henkes, T; Hoffer, M; Hoffmann, C; Huss, D; Ischebeck, R; Jeanneau, F; Juillot, P; Junghans, S; Kapp, M R; Kärcher, K; Knoblauch, D; Kräber, M H; Krauth, M; Kremp, J; Lounis, A; Lübelsmeyer, K; Maazouzi, C; Macke, D; Metri, R; Mirabito, L; Müller, T; Nagaslaev, V; Neuberger, D; Nowak, A; Pallarès, A; Pandoulas, D; Petertill, M; Pooth, O; Racca, C; Ripp, I; Ruoff, E; Sauer, A; Schmitz, P; Schulte, R; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schunk, J P; Schuster, G; Schwaller, B; Shekhtman, L I; Siedling, R; Sigward, M H; Simonis, H J; Smadja, G; Stefanescu, J; Szczesny, H; Tatarinov, A A; Thümmel, W H; Tissot, S; Titov, V; Todorov, T; Tonutti, M; Udo, Fred; Van der Velde, C; Van Doninck, W K; Van Dyck, C; Vanlaer, P; Van Lancker, L; Verdini, P G; Weseler, S; Wittmer, B; Wortmann, R; Zghiche, A; Zhukov, V


    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution. (8 refs).

  15. Modal Analysis in Lined Wedge-Shaped Ducts (United States)

    Mechel, F. P.


    It has been suggested to describe the sound field in a wedge-shaped duct in a cylindrical co-ordinate system in which the boundaries of the wedge lie in a co-ordinate surface. This suggestion was developed in a companion paper [1]. The wave equation can be separated only if the boundaries are ideally reflecting (rigid or soft). Two solutions were proposed in reference [1] for absorbing boundaries. In the first solution the sound field is composed of “ideal modes” (modes in a wedge with ideally reflecting boundaries); the boundary condition at the absorbing boundary then leads to a system of equations for the mode amplitudes. The problem with this method lies in the fact that there is no radial orthogonality of the ideal modes so that the precision of the field synthesis by ideal modes is doubtful. In the second method in reference [1] one defines “fictitious modes” which satisfy the boundary conditions at the flanks exactly and which are based on hypergeometric functions as radial functions, but which produce a “rest” in the wave equation. It was described how this rest can be minimized; this procedure leads to slow numerical integrations. In the present paper, the wedge is subdivided into duct sections with parallel walls (the boundary is stepped); the fields in the sections are composed of duct modes (modes in a straight lined duct); the mode amplitudes are determined from the boundary conditions at the section limits. The advantages of the present method are (analytically) the duct modes are orthogonal across the sections, so the mode amplitudes can be determined with the usual precision of a modal analysis, and (numerically) no numerical integrations are needed.

  16. On the acoustic wedge design and simulation of anechoic chamber (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Zhang, Shangyu; Huang, Lixi


    This study proposes an alternative to the classic wedge design for anechoic chambers, which is the uniform-then-gradient, flat-wall (UGFW) structure. The working mechanisms of the proposed structure and the traditional wedge are analyzed. It is found that their absorption patterns are different. The parameters of both structures are optimized for achieving minimum absorber depth, under the condition of absorbing 99% of normal incident sound energy. It is found that, the UGFW structure achieves a smaller total depth for the cut-off frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 250 Hz. This paper also proposes a modification for the complex source image (CSI) model for the empirical simulation of anechoic chambers, originally proposed by Bonfiglio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (1), 285-291 (2013)]. The modified CSI model considers the non-locally reactive effect of absorbers at oblique incidence, and the improvement is verified by a full, finite-element simulation of a small chamber. With the modified CSI model, the performance of both decorations with the optimized parameters in a large chamber is simulated. The simulation results are analyzed and checked against the tolerance of 1.5 dB deviation from the inverse square law, stipulated in the ISO standard 3745(2003). In terms of the total decoration depth and anechoic chamber performance, the UGFW structure is better than the classic wedge design.

  17. Wave dynamic processes in cellular detonation reflection from wedges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongmin Hu; Zonglin Jiang


    When the cell width of the incident deto-nation wave (IDW) is comparable to or larger than theMach stem height,self-similarity will fail during IDWreflection from a wedge surface.In this paper,the det-onation reflection from wedges is investigated for thewave dynamic processes occurring in the wave front,including transverse shock motion and detonation cellvariations behind the Mach stem.A detailed reactionmodel is implemented to simulate two-dimensional cel-lular detonations in stoichiometric mixtures of H2/O2diluted by Argon.The numerical results show that thetransverse waves,which cross the triple point trajec-tory of Mach reflection,travel along the Mach stem andreflect back from the wedge surface,control the size ofthe cells in the region swept by the Mach stem.It is theenergy carried by these transverse waves that sustainsthe triple-wave-collision with a higher frequency withinthe over-driven Mach stem.In some cases,local wavedynamic processes and wave structures play a dominantrole in determining the pattern of cellular record,lead-ing to the fact that the cellular patterns after the Machstem exhibit some peculiar modes.

  18. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis using tangentially connected capillaries. (United States)

    Sahlin, Eskil


    A novel type of fused silica capillary system is described where channels with circular cross-sections are tangentially in contact with each other and connected through a small opening at the contact area. Since the channels are not crossing each other in the same plane, the capillaries can easily be filled with different solutions, i.e. different solutions will be in contact with each other at the contact point. The system has been used to perform different types of two-dimensional separations and the complete system is fully automated where a high voltage switch is used to control the location of the high voltage in the system. Using two model compounds it is demonstrated that a type of two-dimensional separation can be performed using capillary zone electrophoresis at two different pH values. It is also shown that a compound with acid/base properties can be concentrated using a dynamic pH junction mechanism when transferred from the first separation to the second separation. In addition, the system has been used to perform a comprehensive two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis separation of tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin using capillary zone electrophoresis followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

  19. Development of a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry method using polymer capillaries for metabolomic analysis of yeast. (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihide; Higashi, Tetsuji; Rakwal, Randeep; Wakida, Shin-ichi; Iwahashi, Hitoshi


    Metabolomics is an emerging field in analytical biochemistry, and the development of such a method for comprehensive and quantitative analysis of organic acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides is a necessity in the era of functional genomics. When a concentrated yeast extract was analyzed by CE-MS using a successive multiple ionic-polymer layer (SMIL)-coated capillary, the adsorption of the contaminants on the capillary wall caused severe problems such as no elution, band-broadening, and asymmetric peaks. Therefore, an analytical method for the analysis of anionic metabolites in yeast was developed by pressure-assisted CE using an inert polymer capillary made from poly(ether etherketone) (PEEK) and PTFE. We preferred to use the PEEK over the PTFE capillary in CE-MS due to the easy-to-use PEEK capillary and its high durability. The separation of anionic metabolites was successfully achieved with ammonium hydrogencarbonate/formate buffer (pH 6.0) as the electrolyte solution. The use of 2-propanol washing after every electrophoresis run not only eliminated wall-adsorption phenomena, but allowed for good repeatability to be obtained for migration times in the metabolomic analysis.

  20. LBP and lower limb discrepancy: 3D evaluation of postural rebalancing via underfoot wedge correction. (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul


    Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) is very often associated to Low Back Pain (LBP), but still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge correction (heel rise) to re-balance pelvis and trunk posture. In a review of our last 5 years clinical activity we observed that more than 70% out of 300 LBP patients presented a LLD. In more than 80 % we ascertained, via Baropodography, the presence of underfoot asymmetric load, during standing. More durable therapy recovery effect has been observed when LLD correction had been adopted. These reasons led us to start a study to assess if a Full 3D multifactorial Posture evaluation approach, by means of Opto-electronic device associated to foot pressure maps recording, was able to quantitatively discriminate the clinically observed phenomena. On a 94 LBP (av. age 46.3±16 Y range 15-82 Y) patients sample, 83 (88%) have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 94 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=8±3.2mm associated to a mean scoliotic lumbar curve μ=10.5°±5.1° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=6.6±4.9mm and mean Global offset 10.7±8.8mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered parameters, both in rebalancing and in spine deformities reduction after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The joint 3D opto-electronic and foot pressure map approach proved to be effective to control several clinical parameters with statistical significance.

  1. Robustness of oscillatory α2 dynamos in spherical wedges (United States)

    Cole, E.; Brandenburg, A.; Käpylä, P. J.; Käpylä, M. J.


    Context. Large-scale dynamo simulations are sometimes confined to spherical wedge geometries by imposing artificial boundary conditions at high latitudes. This may lead to spatio-temporal behaviours that are not representative of those in full spherical shells. Aims: We study the connection between spherical wedge and full spherical shell geometries using simple mean-field dynamos. Methods: We solve the equations for one-dimensional time-dependent α2 and α2Ω mean-field dynamos with only latitudinal extent to examine the effects of varying the polar angle θ0 between the latitudinal boundaries and the poles in spherical coordinates. Results: In the case of constant α and ηt profiles, we find oscillatory solutions only with the commonly used perfect conductor boundary condition in a wedge geometry, while for full spheres all boundary conditions produce stationary solutions, indicating that perfect conductor conditions lead to unphysical solutions in such a wedge setup. To search for configurations in which this problem can be alleviated we choose a profile of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity that decreases toward the poles, corresponding to high conductivity there. Oscillatory solutions are now achieved with models extending to the poles, but the magnetic field is strongly concentrated near the poles and the oscillation period is very long. By changing both the turbulent magnetic diffusivity and α profiles so that both effects are more concentrated toward the equator, we see oscillatory dynamos with equatorward drift, shorter cycles, and magnetic fields distributed over a wider range of latitudes. Those profiles thus remove the sensitive and unphysical dependence on θ0. When introducing radial shear, we again see oscillatory dynamos, and the direction of drift follows the Parker-Yoshimura rule. Conclusions: A reduced α effect near the poles with a turbulent diffusivity concentrated toward the equator yields oscillatory dynamos with equatorward migration and

  2. Chronology and palaeoenvironmental implications of the ice-wedge pseudomorphs and composite-wedge casts on the Magdalen Islands (eastern Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remillard, A.M.; Hetu, B.; Bernatchez, P.


    The Magdalen Islands are a valuable terrestrial record, evidencing the complex glacial and periglacial history of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Thirteen structures interpreted as ice-wedge pseudomorphs or composite-wedge casts were observed at four sites on the southern Magdalen Islands and testify t...

  3. Variables predicting elevated portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease. Results of a multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Christensen, E; Gluud, C


    In 46 alcoholic patients the association of wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure with other variables (clinical, histologic, hemodynamic, and liver function data) was studied by means of multiple regression analysis, taking the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure as the dependent variable. Four...... variables showed significant independent association with the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure: indocyanine green clearance (p = 0.031), degree of necrosis (p = 0.023), degree of hepatic architectural destruction (graded as: preserved architecture, nodules alternating with preserved architecture...... in these four variables....

  4. Assessment of computerized treatment planning system accuracy in calculating wedge factors of physical wedged fields for 6 MV photon beams. (United States)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Maqbool, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Hussain, Amjad; Tahir, Sajjad; Matiullah; Rooh, Gul; Ahmad, Tanveer; Lee, Sang Hoon


    Wedge filters are commonly used in external beam radiotherapy to achieve a uniform dose distribution within the target volume. The main objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the beam modifier algorithm of Theraplan plus (TPP version 3.8) treatment planning system and to confirm that either the beam hardening, beam softening and attenuation coefficients along with wedge geometry and measured wedge factor at single depth and multiple fields sizes can be the replacement of wedged profile and wedged cross-sectional data or not. In this regard the effect of beam hardening and beam softening was studied with physical wedges for 6 MV photons. The Normalized Wedge Factors (NWFs) were measured experimentally as well as calculated with the Theraplan plus, as a function of depth and field size in a water phantom for 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° wedge filters. The beam hardening and softening was determined experimentally by deriving the required coefficients for all wedge angles. The TPP version 3.8 requires wedge transmission factor at single depth and multiple field sizes. Without incorporating the hardening and softening coefficients the percent difference between measured and calculated NFWs was as high as 7%. After the introduction of these parameters into the algorithm, the agreement between measured and TPP (V 3.8) calculated NWFs were improved to within 2 percent for various depths. Similar improvement was observed in TPP version 3.8 while calculating NWFs for various field sizes when the required coefficients were adjusted. In conclusion, the dose calculation algorithm of TPP version 3.8 showed good accuracy for a 6 MV photon beam provided beam hardening and softening parameters are taken into account. From the results, it is also concluded that, the beam hardening, beam softening and attenuation coefficients along with wedge geometry and measured wedge factor at single depth and multiple fields sizes can be the replacement of wedged profile and

  5. Formation of ophiolite-bearing tectono-sedimentary mélanges in accretionary wedges by gravity driven submarine erosion: Insights from analogue models and case studies (United States)

    Malavieille, Jacques; Molli, Giancarlo; Genti, Manon; Dominguez, Stephane; Beyssac, Olivier; Taboada, Alfredo; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Lu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Tung


    Orogenic wedges locally present chaotic tectonostratigraphic units that contain exotic blocks of various size, origin, age and lithology, embedded in a sedimentary matrix. The occurrence of ophiolitic blocks, sometimes huge, in such "mélanges" raises questions on (i) the mechanisms responsible for the incorporation of oceanic basement rocks into an accretionary wedge and (ii) the mechanisms allowing exhumation and redeposition of these exotic elements in "mélanges" during wedge growth. To address these questions, we present the results of a series of analogue experiments performed to characterize the processes and parameters responsible for accretion, exhumation and tectonosedimentary reworking of oceanic basement lithospheric fragments in an accretionary wedge. The experimental setup is designed to simulate the interaction between tectonics, erosion and sedimentation. Different configurations are applied to study the impact of various parameters, such as irregular oceanic floor due to structural inheritance, or the presence of layers with contrasted rheology that can affect deformation partitioning in the wedge (frontal accretion vs basal accretion) influencing its growth. Image correlation technique allows extracting instantaneous velocity field, and tracking of passive particles. By retrieving the particle paths determined from models, the pressure-temperature path of mélange units or elementary blocks can be discussed. The experimental results are then compared with observations from ophiolite-bearing mélanges in Taiwan (Lichi and Kenting mélanges) and Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) Thermometry data on rocks from the northern Apennines (Casanova mélange). A geological scenario is proposed following basic observations. The tectonic evolution of the retroside of doubly vergent accretionary wedges is mainly controlled by backthrusting and backfolding. The retro wedge is characterized by steep slopes that are prone to gravitational

  6. Observation of wedge waves and their mode transformation by laser ultrasonic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jia; Zhonghua Shen; Lijuan Wang; Ling Yuan


    Wedge waves (WWs) in wedges, including their dispersion characteristics and mode transformation, are investigated using the laser ultrasound technique. Pulsed laser excitation and optical deflection beam method for detection are used to record WWs. Numerous WWs are detected by scanning the excitation laser along the wedge tip. Dispersions of WWs are obtained by using the two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transformation method, and different WW orders are revealed on the wedges. Mode transformation is determined by fixing the distance between the excitation and detection position, as well as by scanning the samples along the normal direction of the wedge tip.%@@ Wedge waves (WWs) in wedges, including their dispersion characteristics and mode transformation, are investigated using the laser ultrasound technique. Pulsed laser excitation and optical deflection beam method for detection are used to record WWs. Numerous WWs are detected by scanning the excitation laser along the wedge tip. Dispersions of WWs are obtained by using the two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transformation method, and different WW orders are revealed on the wedges. Mode transformation is determined by fixing the distance between the excitation and detection position, as well as by scanning the samples along the normal direction of the wedge tip.

  7. Observations of gravity-capillary lump interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Masnadi, Naeem


    In this experimental study, we investigate the interaction of gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by two surface pressure sources moving side by side at constant speed. The nonlinear response of a water surface to a single source moving at a speed just below the minimum phase speed of linear gravity-capillary waves in deep water ($c_{min}\\approx23$ cm s$^{-1}$) consists of periodic generation of pairs of three-dimensional solitary waves (or lumps) in a V-shaped pattern downstream of the source. In the reference frame of the laboratory, these unsteady lumps propagate in a direction oblique to the motion of the source. In the present experiments, the strength of the two sources is adjusted to produce nearly identical responses and the free surface deformations are visualized using photography-based techniques. The first lumps generated by the two sources move in intersecting directions that make a half angle of approximately 15 degrees and collide in the center-plane between the sources. A steep depressi...

  8. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  9. Optical Pressure-Temperature Sensor for a Combustion Chamber (United States)

    Wiley, John; Korman, Valentin; Gregory, Don


    A compact sensor for measuring temperature and pressure in a combusti on chamber has been proposed. The proposed sensor would include two optically birefringent, transmissive crystalline wedges: one of sapph ire (Al2O3) and one of magnesium oxide (MgO), the optical properties of both of which vary with temperature and pressure. The wedges wou ld be separated by a vapor-deposited thin-film transducer, which wou ld be primarily temperaturesensitive (in contradistinction to pressur e- sensitive) when attached to a crystalline substrate. The sensor w ould be housed in a rugged probe to survive the extreme temperatures and pressures in a combustion chamber.

  10. Capillary Action in a Crack on the Surface of Asteroids with an Application to 433 Eros

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu


    Some asteroids contain water ice, and a space mission landing on an asteroid may take liquid to the surface of the asteroid. Gas pressure is very weak on the surface of asteroids. Here we consider the capillary action in a crack on the surface of irregular asteroids. The crack is modelled as a capillary which has a fixed radius. An asteroid s irregular gravitational potential influences the height of the liquid in the capillary. The height of the liquid in the capillary on the surface of such asteroids is derived from the asteroid s irregular gravitational potential. Capillary mechanisms are expected to produce an inhomogeneaous distribution of emergent liquid on the surface. This result is applied to asteroid 433 Eros, which has an irregular, elongated, and concave shape. Two cases are considered 1) we calculate the height of the liquid in the capillary when the direction of the capillary is perpendicular to the local surface of the asteroid; 2) we calculate the height of the liquid in the capillary when the...

  11. Shear distortion and failure of capillary bridges. Wetting information beyond contact angle analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Liming; McCarthy, Thomas J


    Water capillary bridges are prepared that span hydrophilic pinning features on parallel opposing smooth, flat, and hydrophobic surfaces. These bridges are distorted by shearing the parallel plates at a low rate. The capillary bridges lengthen and distort to balance Laplace pressure (equilibrate mean curvature) as the features are separated and eventually rupture at a distance that is a function of the liquid volume, the advancing and receding contact angles of the surfaces, the separation between the parallel surfaces, and in particular, the shape and orientation of the hydrophilic pinning features. Two modes of capillary bridge failure are observed: (1) tensile, in which the capillary bridge breaks to form sessile drops on both the upper and lower surfaces, and (2) sessile, in which sessile capillary bridge rupture occurs on one surface to form a puddle (contact-line-distorted sessile drop) on the feature and a retained capillary bridge spanning the hydrophobic surface and the hydrophilic feature on the opposing surface. The shape and orientation of the features control the mode of capillary bridge failure as well as the distribution of water between the two separate sessile drops or the retained capillary bridge and the puddle.

  12. Capillary interactions in Pickering emulsions (United States)

    Guzowski, J.; Tasinkevych, M.; Dietrich, S.


    The effective capillary interaction potentials for small colloidal particles trapped at the surface of liquid droplets are calculated analytically. Pair potentials between capillary monopoles and dipoles, corresponding to particles floating on a droplet with a fixed center of mass and subjected to external forces and torques, respectively, exhibit a repulsion at large angular separations and an attraction at smaller separations, with the latter resembling the typical behavior for flat interfaces. This change of character is not observed for quadrupoles, corresponding to free particles on a mechanically isolated droplet. The analytical results are compared with the numerical minimization of the surface free energy of the droplet in the presence of spherical or ellipsoidal particles.

  13. Molecular transport through capillaries made with atomic-scale precision (United States)

    Radha, B.; Esfandiar, A.; Wang, F. C.; Rooney, A. P.; Gopinadhan, K.; Keerthi, A.; Mishchenko, A.; Janardanan, A.; Blake, P.; Fumagalli, L.; Lozada-Hidalgo, M.; Garaj, S.; Haigh, S. J.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Wu, H. A.; Geim, A. K.


    Nanometre-scale pores and capillaries have long been studied because of their importance in many natural phenomena and their use in numerous applications. A more recent development is the ability to fabricate artificial capillaries with nanometre dimensions, which has enabled new research on molecular transport and led to the emergence of nanofluidics. But surface roughness in particular makes it challenging to produce capillaries with precisely controlled dimensions at this spatial scale. Here we report the fabrication of narrow and smooth capillaries through van der Waals assembly, with atomically flat sheets at the top and bottom separated by spacers made of two-dimensional crystals with a precisely controlled number of layers. We use graphene and its multilayers as archetypal two-dimensional materials to demonstrate this technology, which produces structures that can be viewed as if individual atomic planes had been removed from a bulk crystal to leave behind flat voids of a height chosen with atomic-scale precision. Water transport through the channels, ranging in height from one to several dozen atomic planes, is characterized by unexpectedly fast flow (up to 1 metre per second) that we attribute to high capillary pressures (about 1,000 bar) and large slip lengths. For channels that accommodate only a few layers of water, the flow exhibits a marked enhancement that we associate with an increased structural order in nanoconfined water. Our work opens up an avenue to making capillaries and cavities with sizes tunable to ångström precision, and with permeation properties further controlled through a wide choice of atomically flat materials available for channel walls.

  14. Characterization of pulsed capillary channel gas puff target using EUV shadowgraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachulak, P.W., E-mail:; Bartnik, A.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fok, T.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Jarocki, R.; Fiedorowicz, H.


    Characterization measurements of a pulsed capillary channel gas puff target, developed for applications in laser-matter interaction experiments, are presented. The target is produced by pulsed injection of gas through a slit-shaped nozzle into a capillary channel and has been characterized by EUV radiography at 13.5 nm wavelength. Time dependent gas flow effects and flow shaping by capillary walls were visualized. Density measurements for argon were performed on axis for variable timing conditions and variable backing pressures. This target, due to its advantages, might be an interesting alternative for lower repetition rate and higher energy laser-matter interaction experiments.

  15. Fabrication and modeling of narrow capillaries for vacuum system gas inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren; Hansen, Ole


    Micrometer-sized cylindrical capillaries with well-controlled dimensions are fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. The flow through the capillaries is experimentally characterized for varying pressures, temperatures, and diameters. For the parameters used, it is shown that the Knudsen numbe...... is in the intermediate flow regime, and Knudsen's expression for the flow fit the data well. The flow properties of the capillaries make them ideal for introducing gas into vacuum systems and in particular mass spectrometers. ©2005 American Institute of Physics...

  16. Thrust fault growth within accretionary wedges: New Insights from 3D seismic reflection data (United States)

    Orme, H.; Bell, R. E.; Jackson, C. A. L.


    The shallow parts of subduction megathrust faults are typically thought to be aseismic and incapable of propagating seismic rupture. The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, however, ruptured all the way to the trench, proving that in some locations rupture can propagate through the accretionary wedge. An improved understanding of the structural character and physical properties of accretionary wedges is therefore crucial to begin to assess why such anomalously shallow seismic rupture occurs. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust network development in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images of entire networks. Thus our current understanding is largely underpinned by observations from analogue and numerical modelling, with limited observational data from natural examples. In this contribution we use PSDM, 3D seismic reflection data from the Nankai margin (3D Muroto dataset, available from the UTIG Academic Seismic Portal, Marine Geoscience Data System) to examine how imbricate thrust fault networks evolve during accretionary wedge growth. Previous studies have reported en-echelon thrust fault geometries from the NW part of the dataset, and have related this complex structure to seamount subduction. We unravel the evolution of faults within the protothrust and imbricate thrust zones by interpreting multiple horizons across faults and measuring fault displacement and fold amplitude along-strike; by doing this, we are able to investigate the three dimensional accrual of strain. We document a number of local displacement minima along-strike of faults, suggesting that, the protothrust and imbricate thrusts developed from the linkage of smaller, previously isolated fault segments. We also demonstrate that the majority of faults grew upward from the décollement, although there is some evidence for downward fault propagation. Our observations

  17. Experimental Comparison of Capillary Pinching Discharge in Argon and Nitrogen (United States)

    Jancarek, A.; Pina, L.; Vrbova, M.; Tamas, M.; Havlikova, R.; Palinek, S.; Vrba, P.; Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Strauss, J.

    Experiments with CAPEX-U apparatus were done to more understand the differences between Ar and N active media created during the pinch compression, respectively. Capillary discharge current, X-ray narrow band radiation and EUV spectrum temporal behavior were measured. Results of laboratory experiments for both gas fillings under various currents and initial pressures are shown. Computer simulations show that current quasi-period shortening and higher amplitude is needed.

  18. Possibility of titanium transportation within a mantle wedge: formation process of titanoclinohumite in Fujiwara dunite in Sanbagawa belt, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ishimaru


    Full Text Available Titinoclinohumite-bearing dunites from Fujiwara, the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt of high-pressure type, Japan, were described to examine the possibility of Ti mobility during metasomatism within the mantle wedge. The Fujiwara dunite body and surrounding high-pressure Sanbagawa schists possibly form a subduction complex, and the dunites are a good analogue to the mantle wedge overlying the slab. The Fujiwara dunites are of deserpentinization origin; the deserpentinized olivine is high in Fo (up to 96 and low in NiO (0.2 to 0.3 wt %, and contains magnetite inclusions. Titanoclinohumites are associated with the deserpentinized olivine, as lamellar intergrowth or veinlets, up to 1 cm in width. Other metamorphic minerals include antigorite, brucite, chlorite, ilmenite, perovskite, Ti-rich ludwigite, and carbonates. The protolith of the Fujiwara dunite was partially serpentinized cumulative dunites from intra-plate magma, containing relatively low-Fo (85 to 86 olivines and TiO2-rich (up to 3 wt % chromian spinels. The metamorphic olivines and titanoclinohumites contain micro-inclusions of methane (CH4 with or without serpentine and brucite. The source of Ti for titanoclinohumite was possibly the Ti-rich chromian spinel, but Ti was mobile through hydrocarbon-rich fluids, which were activated during the metamorphism. The hydrocarbons, of which remnants are carbonates and methane micro-inclusions, were derived from carbonaceous materials or bitumen, possibly incorporated in the precursory serpentinized and brecciated peridotite (= the protolith for the Fujiwara dunites before subduction. Ti can be mobile in the mantle wedge if hydrocarbons are available from the subducted slab.

  19. Inverse analysis of the wedge-splitting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik


    The amount of information which it is possible to retrieve from the wedge-splitting test is investigated. Inverse analysis is undertaken based on the analytical hinge model for various multi-linear softening curves. This showed that the commonly used bi-linear softening curve can be replaced...... by an tip to quad-linear curve, which is reflected by increased accuracy of the test simulation. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the next refinement of the softening curve leads to convergence problems due to problems with local minima. Finally, the semi-analytically obtained results are verified using...

  20. Electric monopoles in generalised B\\wedge F theories

    CERN Document Server

    Temple-Raston, M


    A tensor product generalisation of B\\wedge F theories is proposed to give a Bogomol'nyi structure. Non-singular, stable, finite-energy particle-like solutions to the Bogomol'nyi equations are studied. Unlike Yang-Mills(-Higgs) theory, the Bogomol'nyi structure does not appear as a perfect square in the Lagrangian. Consequently, the Bogomol'nyi energy can be obtained in more than one way. The added flexibility permits electric monopole solutions to the field equations.

  1. Heat conduction problem of an evaporating liquid wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Barta


    Full Text Available We consider the stationary heat transfer near the contact line of an evaporating liquid wedge surrounded by the atmosphere of its pure vapor. In a simplified setting, the problem reduces to the Laplace equation in a half circle, subject to a non-homogeneous and singular boundary condition. By classical tools (conformal mapping, Green's function, we reformulate the problem as an integral equation for the unknown Neumann boundary condition in the setting of appropriate fractional Sobolev and weighted space. The unique solvability is then obtained by means of the Fredholm theorem.

  2. Fast capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using capillaries with inner diameters ranging from 75 to 5 μm. (United States)

    Grundmann, Marco; Matysik, Frank-Michael


    Fast electrophoretic separations in fused silica capillaries (CE) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) are presented. CE separations of the model analytes (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, histidine, and isoproterenol) under conditions of high electric field strengths of up to 1.25 kV cm(-1) are completed in 20 s. Coupling of CE with TOF-MS is accomplished using a coaxial sheath liquid electrospray ionization interface. The influence of parameters inherent to the interface and their effects, including suction pressure and dilution, are discussed. In addition to standard capillaries of 75 and 50 μm inner diameter (ID), separations in capillaries with IDs of 25, 15, and 5 μm have been successfully applied to this setup. The analytical performance is compared over this range of capillary dimensions, and both advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  3. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar


    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethys-mography of supine health male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n equals 6) and during placebo infusion (n equals 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 plus or minus 4 to 2,568 plus or minus 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion; mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3 percent respectively, relative to pre-infusion baseline values (p is less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20 percent with ANP infusion, wheras blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, phamacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  4. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedging on knee loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    -dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analyzed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full length laterally wedged insole. Results: Similar, significant reductions in the peak knee adduction moment with lateral...... wedges were observed in all three types of shoes. However, differences between shoe design were of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for lateral hamstrings during barefoot toe-out walking and gastrocnemius when using the Oxford wedged...

  5. Modified retro-tubercle opening-wedge versus conventional high tibial osteotomy. (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Kazemi, Seyed Morteza; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Seyed Hosseinzadeh, Hamid Reza; Shahi, Alisina; Shahi, Ali Sina; Firouzi, Farzad


    Despite the fact that common surgical techniques for the treatment of genu varum usually correct the malalignment in the affected knee, these methods have significant complications and cause problems in the long term. Retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy is among the newer techniques for the treatment of genu varum. The goal of this study was to compare the results of retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy with those of medial opening-wedge osteotomy. In a randomized, controlled trial, 72 patients with varus knees who were scheduled for surgery were assigned into either the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (n=34) or medial opening-wedge osteotomy groups (n=38). Groups were matched for age and sex. The position of the patella was compared with respect to the tuberosity and the upper tibial slope pre- and postoperatively. Patients were followed for an average of 13 months (range, 10-21 months). In the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy group, the length of the patellar tendon did not significantly differ pre- and postoperatively (P≥.5); however, in the medial opening-wedge osteotomy group, a statistically significant shortening was noted in patellar tendon postoperatively (P≤.05). Similarly, the tibial plateau inclination showed a statistically significant difference postoperatively in the medial opening-wedge osteotomy group, while the difference in the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy group did not reach statistical significance.

  6. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.


    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  7. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter


    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...... and quantified. (C) 1999 The Society of Rheology. [S0148-6055(99)00103-0]....

  8. Hysteresis of the Contact Angle of a Meniscus Inside a Capillary with Smooth, Homogeneous Solid Walls. (United States)

    Kuchin, Igor V; Starov, Victor M


    A theory of contact angle hysteresis of a meniscus inside thin capillaries with smooth, homogeneous solid walls is developed in terms of surface forces (disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm) using a quasi-equilibrium approach. The disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm includes electrostatic, intermolecular, and structural components. The values of the static receding θr, advancing θa, and equilibrium θe contact angles in thin capillaries were calculated on the basis of the shape of the disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm. It was shown that both advancing and receding contact angles depend on the capillary radius. The suggested mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis has a direct experimental confirmation: the process of receding is accompanied by the formation of thick β-films on the capillary walls. The effect of the transition from partial to complete wetting in thin capillaries is predicted and analyzed. This effect takes place in very thin capillaries, when the receding contact angle decreases to zero.

  9. Interstitial capillary changes in lithium nephropathy: effects of antihypertensive treatment. (United States)

    Skyum, Helle; Marcussen, Niels; Nielsen, Steen Horne; Christensen, Sten


    Histopathological changes were investigated in the tubulointerstitium and in the capillaries of male Wistar rats with lithium-induced nephropathy using stereological methods. Two antihypertensive drugs with opposite effects on the renin-angiotensin system, an ACE inhibitor (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and a thiazide diuretic, modified the nephropathy. Generally, there was a significant positive correlation between the reduction in GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and the reduction in the volume of intact tubular structures and interstitial capillaries. A significant negative correlation was seen between the reduction in GFR and the increase in tubulocapillary distance and the absolute volume of interstitial connective tissue, respectively. Treatment with perindopril, and to some extent hydrochlorothiazide, reversed the rise in systolic blood pressure associated with lithium-induced nephropathy but did not affect the progression to terminal uraemia, the structural renal changes or the mortality. In conclusion, severe tubular and capillary changes are seen in this model of chronic renal failure. Tubular atrophy is associated with a decrease in interstitial capillaries and with an increase in the tubulocapillary distance. Systemic hypertension or activation of the renin-angiotensin system may not be important factors for the progression to terminal renal failure.

  10. Computer modeling of capillary flow with superimposed pulsations (United States)

    Yaganova, A. E.; Marfin, E. A.


    Increasing efficiency of methods of oil production can be achieved by the influence of elastic vibrations. It is a well-known fact that shift viscosity of oil changes under the effect of elastic vibrations. This change depends on properties of the oil and exposure mode. Existing approaches to the research of the way wave exposure impacts on viscosity are based on measuring it after the processing. This article concerns development of methods to measure viscosity of liquid right during its exposure to elastic vibrations. The suggested approach is based on combining numerical and natural experiments. We investigated the pulsating flow of viscid liquid in a capillary numerically in this article. We received allocations of fields of average velocity and pressure in a capillary. It is demonstrated that imposed pulsations in a capillary do not impact on hydrodynamics of the flow. We offered the scheme of an experimental installation for a research of the impact that wave exposure has on the viscosity of liquids. The installation is based on a capillary viscometer.

  11. Growth and mixing dynamics of mantle wedge plumes (United States)

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Gerya, Taras V.; Connolly, James A. D.; Yuen, David A.


    Recent work suggests that hydrated partially molten thermal-chemical plumes that originate from subducted slab as a consequence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability are responsible for the heterogeneous composition of the mantle wedge. We use a two-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution numerical simulation involving 10 × 109 active markers to anticipate the detailed evolution of the internal structure of natural plumes beneath volcanic arcs in intraoceanic subduction settings. The plumes consist of partially molten hydrated peridotite, dry solid mantle, and subducted oceanic crust, which may compose as much as 12% of the plume. As plumes grow and mature these materials mix chaotically, resulting in attenuation and duplication of the original layering on scales of 1-1000 m. Comparison of numerical results with geological observations from the Horoman ultramafic complex in Japan suggests that mixing and differentiation processes related to development of partially molten plumes above slabs may be responsible for the strongly layered lithologically mixed (marble cake) structure of asthenospheric mantle wedges.

  12. Dying Flow Bursts as Generators of the Substorm Current Wedge (United States)

    Haerendel, Gerhard


    Many theories or conjectures exist on the driver of the substorm current wedge, e.g. rerouting of the tail current, current disruption, flow braking, vortex formation, and current sheet collapse. Magnitude, spatial scale, and temporal development of the related magnetic perturbations suggest that the generator is related to the interaction of the flow bursts with the dipolar magnetosphere after onset of reconnection in the near-Earth tail. The question remains whether it is the flow energy that feeds the wedge current or the internal energy of the arriving plasma. In this presentation I argue for the latter. The current generation is attributed to the force exerted by the dipolarized magnetic field of the flow bursts on the preceding layer of high-beta plasma after flow braking. The generator current is the grad-B current at the outer boundary of the compressed high-beta plasma layers. It needs the sequential arrival of several flow bursts to account for duration and magnitude of the ionospheric closure current.

  13. An automated optical wedge calibrator for Dobson ozone spectrophotometers (United States)

    Evans, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.


    The Dobson ozone spectrophotometer measures the difference of intensity between selected wavelengths in the ultraviolet. The method uses an optical attenuator (the 'Wedge') in this measurement. The knowledge of the relationship of the wedge position to the attenuation is critical to the correct calculation of ozone from the measurement. The procedure to determine this relationship is time-consuming, and requires a highly skilled person to perform it correctly. The relationship has been found to change with time. For reliable ozone values, the procedure should be done on a Dobson instrument at regular intervals. Due to the skill and time necessary to perform this procedure, many instruments have gone as long as 15 years between procedures. This article describes an apparatus that performs the procedure under computer control, and is adaptable to the majority of existing Dobson instruments. Part of the apparatus is usable for normal operation of the Dobson instrument, and would allow computer collection of the data and real-time ozone measurements.

  14. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic wedge hepatic resection with a water-jet hybrid knife in a non-survival porcine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Shi; Sheng-Jun Jiang; Bin Li; Deng-Ke Fu; Pei Xin; Yong-Guang Wang


    AIM:To explore the feasibility of a water-jet hybrid knife to facilitate wedge hepatic resection using a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach in a non-survival porcine model.METHODS:The Erbe Jet2 water-jet system allows a needleless,tissue-selective hydro-dissection with a preselected pressure.Using this system,wedge hepatic resection was performed through three natural routes (trans-anal,trans-vaginal and trans-umbilical) in three female pigs weighing 35 kg under general anesthesia.Entry into the peritoneal cavity was via a 15-mm incision using a hook knife.The targeted liver segment was marked by an APC probe,followed by wedge hepatic resection performed using a water-jet hybrid knife with the aid of a 4-mm transparent distance soft cap mounted onto the tip of the endoscope for holding up the desired plane.The exposed vascular and ductal structures were clipped with Endoclips.Hemostasis was applied to the bleeding cut edges of the liver parenchyma by electrocautery.After the procedure,the incision site was left open,and the animal was euthanized followed by necropsy.RESULTS:Using the Erbe Jet2 water-jet system,transanal and trans-vaginal wedge hepatic resection was successfully performed in two pigs without laparoscopic assistance.Trans-umbilical attempt failed due to an unstable operating platform.The incision for peritoneal entry took 1 min,and about 2 h was spent on excision of the liver tissue.The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 100 to 250 mL.Microscopically,the hydro-dissections were relatively precise and gentle,preserving most vessels.CONCLUSION:The Erbe Jet2 water-jet system can safely accomplish non-anatomic wedge hepatic resection in NOTES,which deserves further studies to shorten the dissection time.

  15. Evidence of Arc Magma Genesis in a Paleo-Mantle Wedge, the Higashi-Akaishi Peridotite, Japan (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Guild, M. R.; Grove, T. L.; Carlson, R. W.


    Located in the Sanbagawa subduction-related high-pressure metamorphic belt in SW Japan on the island of Shikoku, the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body is composed of dunite, lherzolite and garnet clinopyroxenite, interfingered in one locality with quartz-rich eclogite. Previous work indicates the P-T history of the peridotite includes rapid prograde metamorphism with peak temperatures of 700-810°C and pressures of 2.9-3.8 GPa [1] at ~88-89 Ma followed by rapid exhumation at >2.5 cm/yr [2,3]. Major and trace element and isotopic data from samples within the Higashi-akaishi peridotite presented here and in another recent study [4] provide a record of subduction zone melting processes in a paleo-mantle wedge. Ultramafic samples range from 40-52 wt.% SiO2, 1-11 wt.% Al2O3 and 21-45 wt.% MgO with olivine and clinopyroxene Mg#'s as high as 0.93. The quartz-rich eclogite contains 62 wt.% SiO2, 6 wt.% MgO and 13 wt.% Al2O3 with trace element concentrations that are enriched relative to the ultramafic samples. 87Sr/86Sr (.703237-.704288), 143Nd/144Nd (ɛNd=+2 to +6) and Pb isotopic compositions are within the range of previously studied Japanese arc rocks. We interpret the pyroxenites as shallowly crystallized cumulates with varying amounts of trapped hydrous melt and the harzburgites as residues of melting. The peak P-T conditions of these rocks are similar to the solidus conditions of H2O-saturated fertile mantle near the base of the mantle wedge [5,6]. The presence of garnet porphyroblasts that enclose primary euhedral chlorite together with the chemical evidence, suggest these samples are associated with mantle melting in the presence of H2O. Major element modeling suggests the quartz-rich eclogite composition can be reproduced through mixing melts of subducted sediment with wet peridotite melts in the mantle wedge. Thus the Higashi-aikashi rock suite provides an in-situ record of the beginnings of hydrous melting and the mechanisms of metasomatism in the mantle wedge

  16. Duality in nonlinear B$\\wedge$F models equivalence between self-dual and topologically massive Born-Infeld B$\\wedge$F models

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C


    We study the dual equivalence between the nonlinear generalization of the self-dual ($NSD_{B\\wedge F}$) and the topologically massive $B\\wedge F$ models with particular emphasis on the nonlinear electrodynamics proposed by Born and Infeld. This is done through a dynamical gauge embedding of the nonlinear self-dual model yielding to a gauge invariant and dynamically equivalent theory. We clearly show that nonpolinomial $NSD_{B\\wedge F}$ models can be mapped, through a properly defined duality transformation, into $TM_{B\\wedge F}$ actions. The general result obtained is then particularized for a number of examples, including the Born-Infeld-BF (BIBF) model that has experienced a revival in the recent literature.

  17. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven [University Of Texas At Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering


    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of deformation at the front of the Andean orogenic wedge in Bolivia and implications for incremental wedge evolution (United States)

    Weiss, J. R.; Brooks, B. A.; Vergani, G.; Arrowsmith, R.


    There is no consensus regarding how orogenic wedges accommodate deformation over seismo-tectonic timescales. Results from the Himalaya and Taiwan suggest differing mechanisms including localized deformation along a single wedge-front structure and distributed shortening across multiple structures respectively. Here we provide the first detailed constraints on the distribution and timing of deformation at the front of the Andean orogenic wedge using industry acquired seismic reflection data from the ~500-km-long thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt of the Bolivian Subandes (BSA). Almost no information exists on the recent history of BSA wedge-front deformation despite the presence of multiple ~10-m-high topographic scarps on Holocene surfaces and a recent analysis of the GPS-derived velocity field, which suggests the frontal Mandeyapecua thrust fault system (MTFS) is capable of >Mw 8 earthquakes. We use stratigraphic relationships across fault-related folds to depict the onset of deformation for the complete suite of structures comprising the MTFS. For each structure we determine the uncertainty in timing using an envelope of seismic velocity models from ~70 well-logs and published Quaternary sedimentation rates for the region. We further explore fault geometry and fault slip parameters associated with the displacement field of seismic reflection horizons using elastic dislocation theory. Our analyses reveal the presence of at least eight distinct fault segments comprising the MTFS, including previously unrecognized subsurface thrust faults that have been active since ~1 Ma. Shortening rates are generally higher across the younger, northern portion of the fault system but across-strike, in a ~50-km-wide zone from west to east, no distinct pattern of deformation migration exists. We estimate the percentage of whole-wedge deformation accommodated by wedge-front structures using our new fault slip rates combined with the wedge-loading rate of ~10 mm/yr and place our

  19. Effects of hydrocarbon physical properties on caprock’s capillary sealing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new mechanics formula of caprock’s capillary sealing ability has been established in this paper, in which the boundary layer resistance was considered and characterized by starting pressure gradient. The formula shows that capillary sealing ability of caprock is determined not only by the capillary force of rock and the buoyancy of hydrocarbon column, but also by the starting pressure gradient of hydrocarbons and the thickness of caprock. The buoyancy of hydrocarbon column, the starting pressure gradient of hydrocarbon, and the capillary force of caprock are affected by hydrocarbon density, hydrocarbon viscosity, and hydrocarbon-water interface tension respectively. Based on hydrocarbon property data of reservoirs of Jiyang Depression and equations from literature, the effects of hydrocarbon density, hydrocarbon viscosity, and hydrocarbon-water interface tension on the sealing ability of caprock are analyzed. Under formational conditions, the sealing ability of oil caprock can vary up to dozens times because of the variations of the oil density, oil viscosity, and oil-water interface tension. Thus, the physical characters of hydrocarbon should be considered when evaluating the capillary sealing ability of caprocks. Study of the effects of physical characters on sealing ability of caprock can provide guidance to exploring special physical property hydrocarbon resources, such as viscous oils, and hydrocarbon resources in special pressure-temperature environments.

  20. Investigation of a Wedge Adhesion Test for Edge Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Miller, David; Postak, Lori; Booth, Dennis; Phillips, Nancy


    Many photovoltaic (PV) technologies have been found to be sensitive to moisture that diffuses into a PV package. Even with the use of impermeable frontsheets and backsheets, moisture can penetrate from the edges of a module. To limit this moisture ingress pathway from occurring, manufacturers often use a low permeability polyisobutylene (PIB) based edge seal filled with desiccant to further restrict moisture ingress. Moisture ingress studies have shown that these materials are capable of blocking moisture for the 25-year life of a module; but to do so, they must remain well-adhered and free of cracks. This work focuses on adapting the Boeing Wedge test for use with edge seals laminated using glass substrates as part of a strategy to assess the long-term durability of edge seals. The advantage of this method is that it duplicates the residual stresses and strains that a glass/glass module may have when the lamination process results in some residual glass bending that puts the perimeter in tension. Additionally, this method allows one to simultaneously expose the material to thermal stress, humidity, mechanical stress, and ultraviolet radiation. The disadvantage of this method generally is that we are limited by the fracture toughness of the glass substrates that the edge seal is adhered to. However, the low toughness of typical uncrosslinked or sparsely crosslinked PIB makes them suitable for this technique. We present data obtained during the development of the wedge test for use with PV edge seal materials. This includes development of the measuring techniques and evaluation of the test method with relevant materials. We find consistent data within a given experiment, along with the theoretical independence of fracture toughness measurements with wedge thickness. This indicates that the test methodology is reproducible. However, even though individual experimental sets are consistent, the reproducibility between experimental sets is poor. We believe this may be

  1. Investigation of a wedge adhesion test for edge seals (United States)

    Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Miller, David; Postak, Lori; Booth, Dennis; Phillips, Nancy


    Many photovoltaic (PV) technologies have been found to be sensitive to moisture that diffuses into a PV package. Even with the use of impermeable frontsheets and backsheets, moisture can penetrate from the edges of a module. To limit this moisture ingress pathway from occurring, manufacturers often use a low permeability polyisobutylene (PIB) based edge seal filled with desiccant to further restrict moisture ingress. Moisture ingress studies have shown that these materials are capable of blocking moisture for the 25-year life of a module; but to do so, they must remain well-adhered and free of cracks. This work focuses on adapting the Boeing Wedge test for use with edge seals laminated using glass substrates as part of a strategy to assess the long-term durability of edge seals. The advantage of this method is that it duplicates the residual stresses and strains that a glass/glass module may have when the lamination process results in some residual glass bending that puts the perimeter in tension. Additionally, this method allows one to simultaneously expose the material to thermal stress, humidity, mechanical stress, and ultraviolet radiation. The disadvantage of this method generally is that we are limited by the fracture toughness of the glass substrates that the edge seal is adhered to. However, the low toughness of typical uncrosslinked or sparsely crosslinked PIB makes them suitable for this technique. We present data obtained during the development of the wedge test for use with PV edge seal materials. This includes development of the measuring techniques and evaluation of the test method with relevant materials. We find consistent data within a given experiment, along with the theoretical independence of fracture toughness measurements with wedge thickness. This indicates that the test methodology is reproducible. However, even though individual experimental sets are consistent, the reproducibility between experimental sets is poor. We believe this may be

  2. Passing on the legacy: teaching capillary filtration and developing presentation skills using classic papers. (United States)

    McGeown, J Graham


    Capillary filtration is a key area in the understanding of cardiovascular function and has both physiological and pathophysiological relevance in nearly every organ system. This article describes how classic papers in the Legacy collection of American Physiological Society publications can be used in a teaching symposium exploring the evidence supporting current concepts of capillary fluid exchange. Individual students are given papers to read, edit, and present to the class. The appropriate selection and sequencing of these papers allows the development of important physiological concepts to be tracked. A series of papers concerned with capillary filtration is suggested, and the contribution of each to the developing story is outlined. This approach allows students to develop critical and presentation skills and provides them with a case study of the scientific method as it is applied to physiology as well as establishing an appropriate knowledge base concerning the role of hydrostatic and oncotic forces in capillary fluid exchange. Relevant teaching points are explored further using questions based on a figure from one of the three classic papers used: "Microinjection studies of capillary permeability: II. The relationship between capillary pressure and the rate at which fluid passes through the walls of single capillaries," by E. M. Landis (Am J Physiol 82: 217-238, 1927).

  3. Properties of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Engebrecht, Cheryn; Metzger, Ian; Porterfield, Colin


    Properties of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia are investigated using microscope observations, empirical modeling, and numerical simulations. Capillary bundles consist of a network of feeding arterioles, draining venules, and capillary vessels. A dozen samples of muscle fascia tissue were prepared for microscope observation. The chosen method of preparation allows for the long-term preservation of the tissue samples for future studies. Capillary bundles are photographed under a microscope with 40x magnification. From the images, the microvasculature of the tissue samples is reconstructed. It was found, for example, that the distribution of vessel length in a capillary bundle follows a log-normal law. In addition to a statistical analysis of the vessel data, the network topology is used for numerical simulations of the flow in the capillary bundles. The numerical approach uses a sparse-matrix solver and it considers vessel elasticity and blood rheology. The numerical simulations show, for example, a strong pressure drop across the capillary vessels of the bundle.

  4. NRL capillary Z-pinch experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethian, J.D.; Gerber, K.A.; Robson, A.E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); DeSilva, A.W. [Sachs/Freeman Associates, Inc., Landover, MD (United States)]|[Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)


    The current renewed interest in the dense linear z-pinch is due in large part to a recent Los Alamos Study which concluded that a z- pinch based reactor could produce 4.4 KJ of fusion energy per pulse for the modest input of 140 kJ per pulse, if a straight pinch could be maintained for 2 {mu}sec. Early attempts to achieve suitable high density z-pinches were of the implosion type which produced hollow pressure profiles that quickly resulted in disruptive m = 0 instabilities. These instabilities are not found in the gas embedded pinch in which an initially small diameter plasma is kept in radial equilibrium by following a prescribed current waveform. Unfortunately, these pinches are prone to a rapid accretion of the surrounding gas during the early stages of formation. Our approach is to form the pinch inside small diameter quartz capillaries filled with neutral hydrogen. This fixes the line density. By driving currents through the pinch at a rate that exceeds that necessary for radial equilibrium, we expect the pinch to contract away from the walls and be subject to compressional, as well as ohmic heating. This contraction will, of course, produce a plasma between the pinch and the capillary wall, but we anticipate this ``corona`` will be kept at a low temperature (i.e., high resistance) by radiation and hence shunt only a small fraction of the pinch current. We also expect negligible impurities in the pinch as the classical mixing time will be much longer than the pinch duration at the densities (10{sup 21}- 10{sup 22} ions/cm{sup 3}) and magnetic fields (1 - 10 MG) involved. However, we do expect the presence of the dense corona to reduce the growth rate of the m = 1 instability. Our results demonstrate that a z-pinch can be formed inside a capillary, but our limited current rise rates and peak current have limited our test abilities. Planned improvements in electrical equipment should yield successful testing results.

  5. Revisit the classical Newmark displacement method for earthquake-induced wedge slide (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Cheng, Hui-Yun; Wu, Wen-Jie; Hsu, Chang-Hsuan; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Lee, Chyi-Tyi


    Newmark displacement method has been widely used to study the earthquake-induced landslides and adopted to explore the initiation and kinematics of catastrophic planar failure in recent years. However, surprisingly few researchers utilize the Newmark displacement method to study the earthquake-induced wedge slide. The classical Newmark displacement method for earthquake-induced wedge sliding assumed the wedge is rigid and the vertical acceleration, as well as the horizontal acceleration perpendicular to the sliding direction, is neglected. Moreover, the friction coefficients on the weak planes are assumed as unchanged during sliding. The purpose of this study is to test the reasonableness of the aforementioned assumptions. This study uses Newmark displacement method incorporating the rigid wedge method (RWM) and maximum shear stress method (MSSM) to evaluate the influence of wedge deformation. We design the geometry of the wedge and input the synthetic seismicity to trigger the wedge slide. The influence for neglecting the vertical and horizontal (perpendicular to the sliding direction) accelerations is also assessed. Besides, this research incorporates the velocity-displacement dependent friction law in the analysis to evaluate the influence of constant friction coefficient assumption. Result of this study illustrated that the aforementioned assumptions have significant effects on the calculated permeant displacement, moving speed, and failure initiation. To conclude, this study provides new insights on the initiation and kinematics of an earthquake induced wedge slide.

  6. First direct dating of Late Pleistocene ice-wedges by AMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasil'chuk, YK; van der Plicht, J; Jungner, H; Sonninen, E; Vasil'chuk, AC; Vasil'chuk, Yurij K.; Vasil'chuk, Alla C.


    We present the first direct dating by C-14-accelerator mass spectrometry of three Late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-wedges from the Seyaha cross-section. They are representative of permafrost with multistage ice-wedges from the North of Western Siberia. The most important result is the clear vertical

  7. Immediate and 1 week effects of laterally wedge insoles on gait biomechanics in healthy females. (United States)

    Weinhandl, Joshua T; Sudheimer, Sarah E; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Stewart, Kimberly; Hoch, Matthew C


    It is estimated that approximately 45% of the U.S. population will develop knee osteoarthritis, a disease that creates significant economic burdens in both direct and indirect costs. Laterally wedged insoles have been frequently recommended to reduce knee abduction moments and to manage knee osteoarthritis. However, it remains unknown whether the lateral wedge will reduce knee abduction moments over a prolonged period of time. Thus, the purposes of this study were to (1) examine the immediate effects of a laterally wedged insole in individuals normally aligned knees and (2) determine prolonged effects after the insole was worn for 1 week. Gait analysis was performed on ten women with and without a laterally wedged insole. After participants wore the wedges for a week, a second gait analysis was performed with and without the insole. The wedged insole did not affect peak knee abduction moment, although there was a significant increase in knee abduction angular impulse after wearing the insoles for 1 week. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in vertical ground reaction force at the instance of peak knee abduction moment with the wedges. While the laterally wedged insole used in the current study did not alter knee abduction moments as expected, other studies have shown alterations. Future studies should also examine a longer acclimation period, the influence of gait speed, and the effect of different shoe types with the insole.

  8. Pan-Arctic ice-wedge degradation in warming permafrost and its influence on tundra hydrology (United States)

    Liljedahl, Anna K.; Boike, Julia; Daanen, Ronald P.; Fedorov, Alexander N.; Frost, Gerald V.; Grosse, Guido; Hinzman, Larry D.; Iijma, Yoshihiro; Jorgenson, Janet C.; Matveyeva, Nadya; Necsoiu, Marius; Raynolds, Martha K.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schulla, Jörg; Tape, Ken D.; Walker, Donald A.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Yabuki, Hironori; Zona, Donatella


    Ice wedges are common features of the subsurface in permafrost regions. They develop by repeated frost cracking and ice vein growth over hundreds to thousands of years. Ice-wedge formation causes the archetypal polygonal patterns seen in tundra across the Arctic landscape. Here we use field and remote sensing observations to document polygon succession due to ice-wedge degradation and trough development in ten Arctic localities over sub-decadal timescales. Initial thaw drains polygon centres and forms disconnected troughs that hold isolated ponds. Continued ice-wedge melting leads to increased trough connectivity and an overall draining of the landscape. We find that melting at the tops of ice wedges over recent decades and subsequent decimetre-scale ground subsidence is a widespread Arctic phenomenon. Although permafrost temperatures have been increasing gradually, we find that ice-wedge degradation is occurring on sub-decadal timescales. Our hydrological model simulations show that advanced ice-wedge degradation can significantly alter the water balance of lowland tundra by reducing inundation and increasing runoff, in particular due to changes in snow distribution as troughs form. We predict that ice-wedge degradation and the hydrological changes associated with the resulting differential ground subsidence will expand and amplify in rapidly warming permafrost regions.

  9. Comparison of dosimetric characteristics of Siemens virtual and physical wedges for ONCOR linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attalla Ehab


    Full Text Available Dosimetric properties of virtual wedge (VW and physical wedge (PW in 6- and 10-MV photon beams from a Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator, including wedge factors, depth doses, dose profiles, peripheral doses, are compared. While there is a great difference in absolute values of wedge factors, VW factors (VWFs and PW factors (PWFs have a similar trend as a function of field size. PWFs have stronger depth dependence than VWF due to beam hardening in PW fields. VW dose profiles in the wedge direction, in general, match very well with those of PW, except in the toe area of large wedge angles with large field sizes. Dose profiles in the nonwedge direction show a significant reduction in PW fields due to off-axis beam softening and oblique filtration. PW fields have significantly higher peripheral doses than open and VW fields. VW fields have similar surface doses as the open fields, while PW fields have lower surface doses. Surface doses for both VW and PW increase with field size and slightly with wedge angle. For VW fields with wedge angles 45° and less, the initial gap up to 3 cm is dosimetrically acceptable when compared to dose profiles of PW. VW fields in general use less monitor units than PW fields.

  10. Duwamish Waterways Navigation Improvement Study: Analysis of Impacts on Water Quality and Salt Wedge Characteristics. (United States)


    dissolved oxygen consumption in the saltwater wedge is emphasized. A section has also been prepared discussing sediment transport in the estuary...biomass produced and sedimented 23 1,000 800 00 0 400 Xi. . *-*’* 200 ox- :~. ---0 - .....’ ~ ’J FIGURE 6 Annual Dissolved Oxygen Consumption in the wedge

  11. A quantum hybrid with a thin antenna at the vertex of a wedge (United States)

    Carlone, Raffaele; Posilicano, Andrea


    We study the spectrum, resonances and scattering matrix of a quantum Hamiltonian on a "hybrid surface" consisting of a half-line attached by its endpoint to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. At the boundary of the wedge, outside the vertex, homogeneous Dirichlet conditions are imposed. The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex.

  12. Enhancement of linear and second-order hyperpolarizabilities in wedge-shaped nanostructures (United States)

    Jayabalan, J.; Singh, Manoranjan P.; Rustagi, K. C.


    Analytical solutions for the wave functions for free electrons inside a wedge-shaped quantum dot are reported. For silver wedge-shaped quantum dots, linear and second-order hyperpolarizabilities are calculated for various apex angles. It is found that linear and nonlinear hyperpolarizabilities both increase with decreasing apex angle.

  13. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar


    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  14. Modelling the effect of pore structure and wetting angles on capillary rise in soils having different wettabilities (United States)

    Czachor, Henryk


    SummaryCapillary rise in axis symmetrical sinusoidal capillary (SC) has been modelled. Analytical formula for meniscus radius, capillary pressure and meniscus rate in SC have been found. Capillary shape described by wall waviness highly influences all of them. The limit between wettability and repellency in such capillary is described by critical value of contact angle θc which is related to the pore geometry by the equation ctg( θc) = πd2, where d2 - pore wall waviness. Kinetics of capillary rise in sinusoidal capillary has been determined by numerical integration of meniscus rate equation for a wide range of pore wall waviness and several values of contact angles. Application of Washburn theory to the data obtained from simulation gives the contact angle value much higher than the true one. In contrast, the obtained pore radius value is usually well correlated with capillary neck. However, in some cases a calculated radius can be even smaller. Above conclusions have been qualitatively confirmed by experiments performed on glass beads and soils. Contact angle measured on flat glass was 27.4°. The calculations concerning the data from capillary rise experiments on 90-1000 μm fraction of glass powder and Washburn theory gave values ca. 80°. The contact angle values for peat soils and loamy sand have close values, which supports the opinion that non-cylindrical shape of soil pores highly influences both the wettability/repellency and the water flux in soils.

  15. Thrust fault segmentation and downward fault propagation in accretionary wedges: New Insights from 3D seismic reflection data (United States)

    Orme, Haydn; Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher


    The shallow parts of subduction megathrust faults are typically thought to be aseismic and incapable of propagating seismic rupture. The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, however, ruptured all the way to the trench, proving that in some locations rupture can propagate through the accretionary wedge. An improved understanding of the structural character and physical properties of accretionary wedges is therefore crucial to begin to assess why such anomalously shallow seismic rupture occurs. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust network development in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images of entire networks. Thus our current understanding is largely underpinned by observations from analogue and numerical modelling, with limited observational data from natural examples. In this contribution we use PSDM, 3D seismic reflection data from the Nankai margin (3D Muroto dataset, available from the UTIG Academic Seismic Portal, Marine Geoscience Data System) to examine how imbricate thrust fault networks evolve during accretionary wedge growth. We unravel the evolution of faults within the protothrust and imbricate thrust zones by interpreting multiple horizons across faults and measuring fault displacement and fold amplitude along-strike; by doing this, we are able to investigate the three dimensional accrual of strain. We document a number of local displacement minima along-strike of faults, suggesting that, the protothrust and imbricate thrusts developed from the linkage of smaller, previously isolated fault segments. Although we often assume imbricate faults are likely to have propagated upwards from the décollement we show strong evidence for fault nucleation at shallow depths and downward propagation to intersect the décollement. The complex fault interactions documented here have implications for hydraulic compartmentalisation and pore

  16. Unexplained exertional dyspnea caused by low ventricular filling pressures: results from clinical invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (United States)

    Lewis, Gregory D.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Systrom, David M.


    Abstract To determine whether low ventricular filling pressures are a clinically relevant etiology of unexplained dyspnea on exertion, a database of 619 consecutive, clinically indicated invasive cardiopulmonary exercise tests (iCPETs) was reviewed to identify patients with low maximum aerobic capacity (V̇o2max) due to inadequate peak cardiac output (Qtmax) with normal biventricular ejection fractions and without pulmonary hypertension (impaired: n = 49, V̇o2max = 53% predicted [interquartile range (IQR): 47%–64%], Qtmax = 72% predicted [62%–76%]). These were compared to patients with a normal exercise response (normal: n = 28, V̇o2max = 86% predicted [84%–97%], Qtmax = 108% predicted [97%–115%]). Before exercise, all patients received up to 2 L of intravenous normal saline to target an upright pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≥5 mmHg. Despite this treatment, biventricular filling pressures at peak exercise were lower in the impaired group than in the normal group (right atrial pressure [RAP]: 6 [IQR: 5–8] vs. 9 [7–10] mmHg, P = 0.004; PCWP: 12 [10–16] vs. 17 [14–19] mmHg, P < 0.001), associated with decreased stroke volume (SV) augmentation with exercise (+13 ± 10 [standard deviation (SD)] vs. +18 ± 10 mL/m2, P = 0.014). A review of hemodynamic data from 23 patients with low RAP on an initial iCPET who underwent a second iCPET after saline infusion (2.0 ± 0.5 L) demonstrated that 16 of 23 patients responded with increases in Qtmax ([+24% predicted [IQR: 14%–34%]), V̇o2max (+10% predicted [7%–12%]), and maximum SV (+26% ± 17% [SD]). These data suggest that inadequate ventricular filling related to low venous pressure is a clinically relevant cause of exercise intolerance. PMID:27162614

  17. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods (United States)

    Dorairaj, Rathissh; Keynton, Robert S.; Roussel, Thomas J.; Crain, Mark M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Walsh, Kevin M.; Naber, John F.; Baldwin, Richard P.; Franco, Danielle B.


    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis in food authenticity. (United States)

    Kvasnicka, Frantisek


    Food authenticity is a term which simply refers to whether the food purchased by the consumer matches its description. False description can occur in many forms, from the undeclared addition of water or other cheaper materials, or the wrong declaration of the amount of a particular ingredient in the product, to making false statements about the source of ingredients i.e., their geographic, plant, or animal origin. The aim of this review is to summarize applications of capillary electrophoresis in food authentication.

  19. Liquid morphologies and capillary forces between three spherical beads (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; Scheel, Mario; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin


    Equilibrium shapes of coalesced pendular bridges in a static assembly of spherical beads are computed by numerical minimization of the interfacial energy. Our present study focuses on generic bead configurations involving three beads, one of which is in contact to the two others while there is a gap of variable size between the latter. In agreement with previous experimental studies, we find interfacial "trimer" morphologies consisting of three coalesced pendular bridges, and "dimers" of two coalesced bridges. In a certain range of the gap opening we observe a bistability between the dimer and trimer morphology during changes of the liquid volume. The magnitude of the corresponding capillary forces in presence of a trimer or dimer depends, besides the gap opening, only on the volume or Laplace pressure of the liquid. For a given Laplace pressure, and for the same gap opening, the capillary forces induced by a trimer are only slightly larger than the corresponding forces in the presence of three pendular bridges. This observation is consistent with a plateau of capillary cohesion in terms of the saturation of a wetting liquid in the funicular regime, as reported in the experimental work [Scheel et al., Nat. Mater. 7, 189 (2008), 10.1038/nmat2117].

  20. Physics of Fluid Transport in Hybrid Biporous Capillary Wicking Microstructures. (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed


    The mass transport capacity (i.e., the capillary limit,) of homogeneous wicks is limited by the inverse relation between the capillary pressure and permeability. Hybrid wicks with two or more distinct pore sizes have been proposed as alternative geometries to enhance the capillary limit. In this study, the impact of the two hybridization schemes-in-plane and out-of-plane-on the capillary transport of hybrid wicks is studied. Experimental data from in-plane hybrid wicks in conjunction with a theoretical model show that local changes in the curvature of the liquid-vapor meniscus (i.e., pore size) do not result in a higher mass flow rate than that of a comparable homogeneous wick. Instead, a global change in the curvature of the liquid-vapor meniscus (as occurring in out-of-plane hybrid wicks) is necessary for obtaining mass flow rates greater than that of a homogeneous wick. Therefore, the physics of capillary limit and dryout in out-of-plane hybrid wicks is investigated using a hybrid wick consisting of a 1-μm-thick highly porous mesh suspended over a homogeneous array of micropillars. A study of the dryout process within the structure revealed that the presence of the mesh strongly alters the dryout mechanism. Visualization studies showed that out-of-plane hybrid wicks remain operational only as long as the liquid is constrained within the mesh pores; recession of the meniscus just below the mesh results in instantaneous local dryout. To maintain liquid within the mesh structure, the mesh thickness was increased, and it was determined that the mesh thickness plays the key role in the performance of an out-of-plane hybrid wick.

  1. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M. J.


    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  2. Capillary stretching of elastic fibers (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Stone, Howard A.; Duprat, Camille


    Fibrous media consisting of constrained flexible fibers can be found in many engineered systems (membranes in filters, woven textile, matted paper). When such materials interact with a liquid, the presence of liquid/air interfaces induces capillary forces that deform the fibers. To model this interaction we study the behaviour of a finite volume of liquid deposited on two parallel flexible fibers clamped at both ends. A tension along the fibers is imposed and may be varied. We show that the system undergoes various morphological changes as the interfiber distance, the elasticity and the tension of the fibers are varied. For a certain range of parameters, the liquid spreads along the fibers and pulls them together, leading to the ``zipping'' of the fibers. This capillary adhesion can then be enhanced or reduced by changing the tension within the fibers. We will show that balancing stretching and capillary forces allows the prediction of this transition as well as the conditions for which detachment of the fibers occurs. These results may be used to prevent the clogging of fibrous membranes or to optimize the capture of liquids.

  3. Phase Behaviors of Reservoir Fluids with Capillary Eff ect Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zhiwei


    The study of phase behavior is important for the oil and gas industry. Many approaches have been proposed and developed for phase behavior calculation. In this thesis, an alternative method is introduced to study the phase behavior by means of minimization of Helmholtz free energy. For a system at fixed volume, constant temperature and constant number of moles, the Helmholtz free energy reaches minimum at the equilibrium state. Based on this theory, a stochastic method called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, is implemented to compute the phase diagrams for several pure component and mixture systems. After comparing with experimental and the classical PT-ash calculation, we found the phase diagrams obtained by minimization of the Helmholtz Free Energy approach match the experimental and theoretical diagrams very well. Capillary effect is also considered in this thesis because it has a significant influence on the phase behavior of reservoir fluids. In this part, we focus on computing the phase envelopes, which consists of bubble and dew point lines. Both fixed and calculated capillary pressure from the Young-Laplace equation cases are introduced to study their effects on phase envelopes. We found that the existence of capillary pressure will change the phase envelopes. Positive capillary pressure reduces the dew point and bubble point temperatures under the same pressure condition, while the negative capillary pressure increases the dew point and bubble point temperatures. In addition, the change of contact angle and pore radius will affect the phase envelope. The effect of the pore radius on the phase envelope is insignificant when the radius is very large. These results may become reference for future research and study. Keywords: Phase Behavior; Particle Swarm Optimization; Capillary Pressure; Reservoir Fluids; Phase Equilibrium; Phase Envelope.

  4. Bonding mechanism of ultrasonic wedge bonding of copper wire on Au/Ni/Cu substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-hong; WANG Chun-qing; Y. Norman ZHOU


    The ultrasonic wedge bonding with d25 μm copper wire was achieved on Au/Ni plated Cu substrate at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic wedge bonding mechanism was investigated by using SEM/EDX, pull test, shear test and microhardness test. The results show that the thinning of the Au layer occurs directly below the center of the bonding tool with the bonding power increasing. The interdiffusion between copper wire and Au metallization during the wedge bonding is assumed negligible, and the wedge bonding is achieved by wear action induced by ultrasonic vibration. The ultrasonic power contributes to enhance the deformation of copper wire due to ultrasonic softening effect which is then followed by the strain hardening of the copper wedge bonding.

  5. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  6. High-Throughput Proteomics Using High Efficiency Multiple-Capillary Liquid Chromatography With On-Line High-Performance ESI FTICR Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yufeng (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tolic, Nikola (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Li, Lingjun (Illinois Univ Of-Urbana/Champa); Berger, Scott J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Harkewicz, Richard (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Gordon A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Belov, Mikhail E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))


    We report on the design and application of a high-efficiency multiple-capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system for high-throughput proteome analysis. The multiple-capillary LC system was operated at the pressure of 10,000 psi using commercial LC pumps to deliver the mobile phase and newly developed passive feedback valves to switch the mobile phase flow and introduce samples. The multiple-capillary LC system was composed of several serially connected dual-capillary column devices. The dual-capillary column approach was designed to eliminate the time delay for regeneration (or equilibrium) of the capillary column after its use under the mobile phase gradient condition (i.e. one capillary column was used in separation and the other was washed using mobile phase A). The serially connected dual-capillary columns and ESI sources were operated independently, and could be used for either''backup'' operation or with other mass spectrometer(s). This high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system uses switching valves for all operations and is highly amenable to automation. The separations efficiency of dual-capillary column device, optimal capillary dimensions (column length and packed particle size), suitable mobile phases for electrospray, and the capillary re-generation were investigated. A high magnetic field (11.5 tesla) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was coupled on-line with this high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system through an electrospray ionization source. The capillary LC provided a peak capacity of {approx}600, and the 2-D capillary LC-FTICR provided a combined resolving power of > 6 x 10 7 polypeptide isotopic distributions. For yeast cellular tryptic digests, > 100,000 polypeptides were typically detected, and {approx}1,000 proteins can be characterized in a single run.

  7. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu


    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  8. Heterogeneous Nucleation Induced by Capillary Wave During Acoustic Levitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇军; 解文军; 魏炳波


    The rapid solidification of acoustically levitated drops of Pb-61.9 wt. %Sn eutectic alloy is accomplished. A surface morphology of spreading ripples is observed on a sample undercooled by 15 K. The ripples originate from the centre of sample surface, which is also the heterogeneous nucleation site for eutectic growth. The Faraday instability excited by forced surface vibration has brought about these ripples. They are retained in the solidified sample if the sound pressure level exceeds the threshold pressure required for the appearance of capillary waves.Theoretical calculations indicate that both the pressure and displacement maxima exist in the central part of a levitated drop. The pressure near the sample centre can promote heterogeneous nucleation, which is in agreement qualitatively with the experimental results.

  9. High-shear-rate capillary viscometer for inkjet inks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xi [FUJIFILM Dimatix, Inc., Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Carr, Wallace W.; Bucknall, David G. [School of Polymer, Textile, and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Morris, Jeffrey F. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Benjamin Levich Institute for Physico-Chemical Hydrodynamics, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)


    A capillary viscometer developed to measure the apparent shear viscosity of inkjet inks at high apparent shear rates encountered during inkjet printing is described. By using the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch equation, true shear viscosity versus true shear rate is obtained. The device is comprised of a constant-flow generator, a static pressure monitoring device, a high precision submillimeter capillary die, and a high stiffness flow path. The system, which is calibrated using standard Newtonian low-viscosity silicone oil, can be easily operated and maintained. Results for measurement of the shear-rate-dependent viscosity of carbon-black pigmented water-based inkjet inks at shear rates up to 2x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} are discussed. The Cross model was found to closely fit the experimental data. Inkjet ink samples with similar low-shear-rate viscosities exhibited significantly different shear viscosities at high shear rates depending on particle loading.

  10. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B


    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  11. Anomalous capillary filling and wettability reversal in nanochannels

    CERN Document Server

    Gravelle, Simon; Bocquet, Lydéric; Joly, Laurent


    This work revisits capillary filling dynamics in the regime of nanometric to subnanometric channels. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water in carbon nanotubes, we show that for tube radii below one nanometer, both the filling velocity and the Jurin rise vary non-monotonically with the tube radius. Strikingly, with fixed chemical surface properties, this leads to confinement-induced reversal of the tube wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic for specific values of the radius. By comparing with a model liquid metal, we show that these effects are not specific to water. Using complementary data from slit channels, we then show that they can be described using the disjoin-ing pressure associated with the liquid structuring in confinement. This breakdown of the standard continuum framework is of main importance in the context of capillary effects in nanoporous media, with potential interests ranging from membrane selectivity to mechanical energy storage.

  12. Solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification through a valve-free stepwise injection of multiple reagents employing centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic capillary barrier pressure. (United States)

    Zhang, Hainan; Tran, Hong Hanh; Chung, Bong Hyun; Lee, Nae Yoon


    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique for sequentially introducing multiple sample liquids into microchannels driven by centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic barrier pressure and apply the technique for performing solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification. Three microchannels with varying widths, all equipped with independent sample reservoirs at the inlets, were fabricated on a hydrophobic elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). First, glass beads were packed inside the reaction chamber, and a whole cell containing the DNA extract was introduced into the widest channel by applying centrifugal force for physical adsorption of the DNA onto the glass beads. Next, washing and elution solutions were sequentially introduced into the intermediate and narrowest microchannels, respectively, by gradually increasing the amount of centrifugal force. Through a precise manipulation of the centrifugal force, the DNA adsorbed onto the glass beads was successfully washed and eluted in a continuous manner without the need to introduce each solution manually. A stepwise injection of liquids was successfully demonstrated using multiple ink solutions, the results of which corresponded well with the theoretical analyses. As a practical application, the D1S80 locus of human genomic DNA, which is widely used for forensic purposes, was successfully purified using the microdevice introduced in this study, as demonstrated through successful target amplification. This will pave the way for the construction of a control-free valve system for realizing on-chip DNA purification, which is one of the most labor-intensive and hard-to-miniaturize components, on a greatly simplified and miniaturized platform employing hydrophobic PDMS.

  13. Thermal expansion pump for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Xiangmin


    A thermal expansion pump (TEP) based on a principle of liquid thermal expansion for capillary high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. The novel pump is capable of generating a continuous flow at high pressure for constant and stable delivery of binary solvents from nanoliters to microliters per minute without splitting. Theoretical equations for controlling fluidic output of this pump have been established and validated by a series of experiments. Factors affecting flow rate, such as density discrepancy, liquid compressibility, and mass loss in output, were taken into account. An assembly of the pump system employing two groups of thermal expansion pumps (TEPs) working in turns were fabricated, and a controlling strategy for the pump system to maintain a continuous delivery without pressure fluctuation even at switching points was also developed. Both isocratic and gradients of binary solvent delivery by the TEPs were performed. Reproducibility and standard deviation at different flow rates were determined. A capillary high-performance liquid chromatography (micro-HPLC) system consisting of the TEPs, an injection valve, a homemade packed capillary column (20 cm x 100 microm i.d. with 5 microm C18), and a laser-induced fluorescence detector was set up, and sample separations were carried out. Results of RSD = 4% for flow and RSD = 2% for retention times at 500 nL/min were achieved. Such a pump system has almost no moving parts except for the solvent switches. Its overall costs of manufacture and running are very low. It is proven that the TEPs system has great potential and competitive capabilities in capillary liquid chromatography.

  14. Vertebral body or intervertebral disc wedging: which contributes more to thoracolumbar kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis patients? (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-Zhang


    Abstract Both vertebral body wedging and disc wedging are found in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. However, their relative contribution to thoracolumbar kyphosis is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to compare different contributions of vertebral and disc wedging to the thoracolumbar kyphosis in AS patients, and to analyze the relationship between the apical vertebral wedging angle and thoracolumbar kyphosis. From October 2009 to October 2013, a total of 59 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis with a mean age of 38.1 years were recruited in this study. Based on global kyphosis (GK), 26 patients with GK < 70° were assigned to group A, and the other 33 patients with GK ≥ 70° were included in group B. Each GK was divided into disc wedge angles and vertebral wedge angles. The wedging angle of each disc and vertebra comprising the thoracolumbar kyphosis was measured, and the proportion of the wedging angle to the GK was calculated accordingly. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons were subsequently performed to investigate the different contributions of disc and vertebra to the GK. The correlation between the apical vertebral wedging angle and GK was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. The duration of disease and sex were also recorded in this study. With respect to the mean disease duration, significant difference was observed between the two groups (P < 0.01). The wedging angle and wedging percentage of discs were significantly higher than those of vertebrae in group A (34.8° ± 2.5° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0.01 and 56.6% vs 43.4%, P < 0.01), whereas disc wedging and disc wedging percentage were significantly lower than vertebrae in group B (37.6° ± 7.0° vs 50.1° ± 5.1°, P < 0.01 and 42.7% vs 57.3%, P < 0.01). The wedging of vertebrae was significantly higher in group B than in group A (50.1° ± 5.1° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0

  15. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)


    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  16. Measurement of Liquid Viscosities in Tapered or Parabolic Capillaries. (United States)

    Ershov; Zorin; Starov


    The possibility of using tapered or parabolic capillaries for measurement of liquid viscosities is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that even small deviations in capillary radius from a constant value may substantially affect measurement results. Equations are derived which allow correct analysis of the measurement results in tapered or parabolic capillaries. The following cases are analyzed: a water imbibition into a tapered or parabolic capillary and displacement of one liquid by another immiscible liquid in tapered or parabolic capillaries. Two possibilities are considered: (a) the narrow end of the capillary as capillary inlet and (b) the wide end of the capillary as capillary inlet. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. On capillary self-focusing in a microfluidic system (United States)

    Hein, M.; Seemann, R.; Afkhami, S.


    A computational framework is developed to address capillary self-focusing in step emulsification. The microfluidic system consists of a single shallow and wide microchannel that merges into a deep reservoir. A continuum approach coupled with a volume of fluid method is used to model the capillary self-focusing effect. The original governing equations are reduced using the Hele-Shaw approximation. We show that the interface between the two fluids takes the shape of a neck narrowing in the flow direction just before entering the reservoir, in agreement with our experimental observations. Our computational model relies on the assumption that the pressure at the boundary, where the fluid exits into the reservoir, is the uniform pressure in the reservoir. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. We conjecture that the pressure boundary condition becomes important when the width of the neck is comparable to the depth of the microchannel. A correction to the exit pressure boundary condition is then proposed, which is determined by comparison with experimental data. We also present the experimental observations and the numerical results of the transitions of breakup regimes.

  18. Adsorption and capillary condensation in porous media as a function of the chemical potential of water in carbon dioxide (United States)

    Heath, Jason E.; Bryan, Charles R.; Matteo, Edward N.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Wang, Yifeng; Sallaberry, Cédric J.


    The chemical potential of water may play an important role in adsorption and capillary condensation of water under multiphase conditions at geologic CO2 storage sites. Injection of large volumes of anhydrous CO2 will result in changing values of the chemical potential of water in the supercritical CO2 phase. We hypothesize that the chemical potential will at first reflect the low concentration of dissolved water in the dry CO2. As formation water dissolves into and is transported by the CO2 phase, the chemical potential of water will increase. We present a pore-scale model of the CO2-water interface or menisci configuration based on the augmented Young-Laplace equation, which combines adsorption on flat surfaces and capillary condensation in wedge-shaped pores as a function of chemical potential of water. The results suggest that, at a given chemical potential for triangular and square pores, liquid water saturation will be less in the CO2-water system under potential CO2 sequestration conditions relative to the air-water vadose zone system. The difference derives from lower surface tension of the CO2-water system and thinner liquid water films, important at pore sizes capillary effects will likely be minimal in reservoir rocks, but still may be important in finer grained, clayey caprocks, where very small pores may retain water and draw water back into the system via adsorption and capillary condensation, if dry-out and then rewetting were to occur.

  19. A New Conductivity Detector for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new conductivity detector for capillary electrophoresis consisting of an electrochemical cell and a conductive meter was developed. In the cell, the microelectrode and capillary were inserted through the cell wall and fixed by screws and sealing ring, the ends of microelectrode and capillary were located by a guide with two cross holes. LOD for K+ was 1.5×10-5 mol/L.

  20. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  1. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰


    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  2. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.


    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  3. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing. (United States)

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi


    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment.

  4. Verification of Varian Enhanced Dynamic Wedge implementation in masterplan treatment planning system. (United States)

    Pasquino, Massimo; Casanova Borca, Valeria; Tofani, Santi; Ozzello, Franca


    This paper investigates the accuracy of the two available calculation algorithms of the Oncentra MasterPlan three-dimensional treatment planning system (TPS)-- the pencil beam method and collapsed-cone convolution--in modeling the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW). Measurements were carried out for a dual high energy (6-15 MV) Varian DHX-S linear accelerator using ionization chambers for beam axis measurements (wedge factors and depth doses), film dosimetry for off-axis dose profiles measurements, and a diode matrix detector for two dimensional absolute dose distributions. Using both calculation algorithms, different configuration of symmetric and asymmetric fields varying the wedge's angle were tested. Accuracy of the treatment planning system was evaluated in terms of percentage differences between measured and calculated values for wedge factors, depth doses, and profiles. As far as the absolute dose distribution was concerned, the gamma index method (Low et al.) was used with 3% and 3 mm as acceptance criteria for dose difference and distance-to-agreement, respectively. Wedge factors and percentage depth doses were within 1% deviation between calculated and measured values. The comparison of measured and calculated dose profiles shows that the Van Dyk's acceptance criteria (Van Dyk et al.) are generally met; a disagreement can be noted for large wedge angles and field size limited to the low dose-low gradient region only. The 2D absolute dose distribution analysis confirms the good accuracy of the two calculation algorithms in modeling the enhanced dynamic wedge.

  5. A computational study of supersonic combustion behind a wedge-shaped flameholder (United States)

    Fureby, C.; Fedina, E.; Tegnér, J.


    In this study, large eddy simulation (LES) has been used to examine supersonic flow, mixing, self-ignition and combustion in a model scramjet combustor and has been compared against the experimental data. The LES model is based on an unstructured finite-volume discretization, using monotonicity-preserving flux reconstruction of the filtered mass, momentum, species and energy equations. Both a two-step and a seven-step hydrogen-air mechanism are used to describe the chemical reactions. Additional comparisons are made with results from a previously presented flamelet model. The subgrid flow terms are modeled using a mixed model, whereas the subgrid turbulence-chemistry interaction terms are modeled using the partially stirred reactor model. Simulations are carried out on a scramjet model experimentally studied at Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt consisting of a one-sided divergent channel with a wedge-shaped flame holder at the base of which hydrogen is injected. The LES predictions are compared with experimental data for velocity, temperature, wall pressure at different cross sections as well as schlieren images, showing good agreement for both first- and second-order statistics. In addition, the LES results are used to illustrate and explain the intrinsic flow, and mixing and combustion features of this combustor.

  6. Mixed Convection Flow of Magnetic Viscoelastic Polymer from a Nonisothermal Wedge with Biot Number Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar


    Full Text Available Magnetic polymers are finding increasing applications in diverse fields of chemical and mechanical engineering. In this paper, we investigate the nonlinear steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of such fluids from a nonisothermal wedge. The incompressible Eyring-Powell non-Newtonian fluid model is employed and a magnetohydrodynamic body force is included in the simulation. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a second-order accurate implicit finite difference Keller Box technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging nondimensional parameters, namely, the Eyring-Powell rheological fluid parameter (ε, local non-Newtonian parameter based on length scale (δ, Prandtl number (Pr, Biot number (γ, pressure gradient parameter (m, magnetic parameter (M, mixed convection parameter (λ, and dimensionless tangential coordinate (ξ, on velocity and temperature evolution in the boundary layer regime is examined in detail. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate and local skin friction are also investigated.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Paul D


    This book is designed to be a practical guide, used by wide audience, including those new to CE, those more experienced, routine users, those interested in technology development, and those involved with applications research. References have been emphasized to allow the reader to explore the detailed specifics and theoretical foundations.This book draws together the rapidly evolving, diverse, and multidisciplinary subject of capillary electrophoresis (CE). It is designed as a practical guide to be used by a wide audience, including those new to CE as well as more experienced users. T

  8. Electromigration dispersion in Capillary Electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen; 10.1007/s11538-011-9708-7


    In a previous paper (S. Ghosal and Z. Chen Bull. Math. Biol. 2010, vol. 72, pg. 2047) it was shown that the evolution of the solute concentration in capillary electrophoresis is described by a nonlinear wave equation that reduced to Burger's equation if the nonlinearity was weak. It was assumed that only strong electrolytes (fully dissociated) were present. In the present paper it is shown that the same governing equation also describes the situation where the electrolytic buffer consists of a single weak acid (or base). A simple approximate formula is derived for the dimensionless peak variance which is shown to agree well with published experimental data.

  9. Computational micro-scale model of control of extravascular water and capillary perfusion in the air blood barrier. (United States)

    Mazzuca, Enrico; Aliverti, Andrea; Miserocchi, Giuseppe


    A computational model of a morphologically-based alveolar capillary unit (ACU) in the rabbit is developed to relate lung fluid balance to mechanical forces between capillary surface and interstitium during development of interstitial edema. We hypothesize that positive values of interstitial liquid pressure Pliq impact on capillary transmural pressure and on blood flow. ACU blood flow, capillary recruitment and filtration are computed by modulating vascular and interstitial pressures. Model results are compared with experimental data of Pliq increasing from ~-10 (control) up to ~4cmH2O in two conditions, hypoxia and collagenase injection. For hypoxia exposure, fitting data requires a linear increase in hydraulic conductivity Lp and capillary pressure PC, that fulfils the need of increase in oxygen delivery. For severe fragmentation of capillary endothelial barrier (collagenase injection), fitting requires a rapid increase in both hydraulic and protein permeability, causing ACU de-recruitment, followed by an increase in PC as a late response to restore blood flow. In conclusion, the model allows to describe the lung adaptive response to edemagenic perturbations; the increase in Pliq, related to the low interstitial compliance, provides an efficient control of extravascular water, by limiting microvascular filtration.

  10. Measured Two-Dimensional Ice-Wedge Polygon Thermal Dynamics (United States)

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Busey, Robert


    Ice-wedge polygons are perhaps the most dominant permafrost related features in the arctic landscape. The microtopography of these features, that includes rims, troughs, and high and low polygon centers, alters the local hydrology, as water tends to collect in the low areas. During winter, wind redistribution of snow leads to an increased snowpack depth in the low areas, while the slightly higher areas often have very thin snow cover, leading to differences across the landscape in vegetation communities and soil moisture between higher and lower areas. These differences in local surface conditions lead to spatial variability of the ground thermal regime in the different microtopographic areas and between different types of ice-wedge polygons. To study these features in depth, we established temperature transects across four different types of ice-wedge polygons near Barrow, Alaska. The transects were composed of five vertical array thermistor probes (VATP) beginning in the center of each polygon and extending through the trough to the rim of the adjacent polygon. Each VATP had 16 thermistors from the surface to a depth of 1.5 m. In addition to these 80 subsurface temperature measurement points per polygon, soil moisture, thermal conductivity, heat flux, and snow depth were all measured in multiple locations for each polygon. Above ground, a full suite of micrometeorological instrumentation was present at each polygon. Data from these sites has been collected continuously for the last three years. We found snow cover, timing and depth, and active layer soil moisture to be major controlling factors in the observed thermal regimes. In troughs and in the centers of low-center polygons, the combined effect of typically saturated soils and increased snow accumulation resulted in the highest mean annual ground temperatures (MAGT). Additionally, these areas were the last part of the polygon to refreeze during the winter. However, increased active layer thickness was not

  11. Metastable olivine wedge beneath northeast China and its applications (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, G.


    When the Pacific slab subducted into the mantle transition zone, there might exist a metastable olivine wedge (MOW) inside the slab due to the phase transition. Lots of researchers have adopted such various methods to detect the characteristics of this MOW as the forward modeling of travel times, shear wave amplitude patterns, teleseismic P wave coda, receiver function imaging, thermodynamic simulation and so on. Almost all results could be more or less affected by the source, the receiver and/or the velocity model passed through by the seismic rays. In this study, we have used 21 deep earthquakes, greater than 400 km and locating beneath northeast China, to study the velocity within the MOW. For more precisions, we have done further modifications in two ways based on our previous studies. (1) Double-difference location method is used to relocate all events with an error of 1-2 km with the data recorded by stations both at northeast China and at Japan. All relocated events locate in a zone about 30 km away from the upper boundary of Pacific slab. (2) Double residual travel times, generated by an event-pair at a common station at only Japan, are used to constrain the velocity anomaly rather than the residuals themselves. As a result, we have found that an ultra-lower velocity zone (ULVZ), averagely -7% relative to the iasp91 model, exists within the subducted Pacific slab around the deep earthquakes, which might be represented as the metastable olivine wedge. Because of the lower-velocity corresponding to the lower-density, the MOW would provide upward buoyancy forces which might prevent the slab from free subduction into the mantle transition zone. This feed-back mechanism of MOW to the slab is called ';parachute-effect', which is characterized by other researchers. In addition, the existence of the ULVZ or the MOW in the slab may supply a possible mechanism for triggering deep earthquakes, called ';phase transformation faulting', which was already proposed few

  12. Sieve plugs in fenestrae of glomerular capillaries--site of the filtration barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Jørgen; Qvortrup, Klaus


    The exact location of the filtration barrier of the glomerular capillary wall, which consists of an endothelium, a basement membrane and a visceral epithelium, has not yet been determined. Apparent discrepancies between different investigators in the past could be explained if postmortem...... artifactual tissue changes, due to subnormal blood pressure or anoxia, have taken place in the endothelium before the tissue and tracers have been sufficiently fixed and immobilized by the fixative. To test this supposition, a new method of fixation, which includes a technique to maintain a physiological...... perfusion pressure and a fixative composed of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute fluid containing glutaraldehyde, was employed combined with contrast enhancement. New observations of the glomerular capillary wall revealed that filamentous plugs (about 90 nm in height) filled the capillary fenestrae...

  13. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven [University Of Texas At Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering


    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  14. Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; Yeshua, Talia; Palchan, Mila; Lovsky, Yulia; Taha, Hesham


    Lithography based on scanning probe microscopic techniques has considerable potential for accurate & localized deposition of material on the nanometer scale. Controlled deposition of metallic features with high purity and spatial accuracy is of great interest for circuit edit applications in the semiconductor industry, for plasmonics & nanophotonics and for basic research in surface enhanced Raman scattering & nanobiophysics. Within the context of metal deposition we will review the development of fountain pen nanochemistry and its most recent emulation Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (ACCE). Using this latter development we will demonstrate achievement of unprecedented control of nanoparticle deposition using a three-electrode geometry. Three electrodes are attached: one on the outside of a metal coated glass probe, one on the inside of a hollow probe in a solution containing Au nanoparticles in the capillary, and a third on the surface where the writing takes place. The three electrodes provide electrical pulses for accurate control of deposition and retraction of the liquid from the surface overcoming the lack of control seen in both dip pen lithography & fountain pen nanochemistry when the tip contacts the surface. With this development, we demonstrate depositing a single 1.3 nm Au nanoparticle onto surfaces such as semiconductors.

  15. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail:; Lega, J., E-mail:


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  16. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks (United States)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy


    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  17. Harvesting liquid from unsaturated vapor - nanoflows induced by capillary condensation (United States)

    Vincent, Olivier; Marguet, Bastien; Stroock, Abraham


    A vapor, even subsaturated, can spontaneously form liquid in nanoscale spaces. This process, known as capillary condensation, plays a fundamental role in various contexts, such as the formation of clouds or the dynamics of hydrocarbons in the geological subsurface. However, large uncertainties remain on the thermodynamics and fluid mechanics of the phenomenon, due to experimental challenges as well as outstanding questions about the validity of macroscale physics at the nanometer scale. We studied experimentally the spatio-temporal dynamics of water condensation in a model nanoporous medium (pore radius 2 nm), taking advantage of the color change of the material upon hydration. We found that at low relative humidities (diffusive fashion, while it occurred through a well-defined capillary-viscous imbibition front at > 60 % RH, driven by a balance between the pore capillary pressure and the condensation stress given by Kelvin equation. Further analyzing the imbibition dynamics as a function of saturation allowed us to extract detailed information about the physics of nano-confined fluids. Our results suggest excellent extension of macroscale fluid dynamics and thermodynamics even in pores 10 molecules in diameter.

  18. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.


    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  19. One-way successive plate cross wedge rolling machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In our last paper(Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci,2009,52(11):3117-3121) we designed the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR(cross wedge rolling).This kind of machine colligates the advantages of high rigidity and small floor space for roller CWR machine and those of simple die manufacture and high precision for plate CWR machine.At the same time,it abandons the shortcomings of complex die manufacture and poor precision for roller CWR machine,and those of poor rigidity and large floor space for plate CWR machine.During rolling,the upper and lower rolling plates of the machine make reciprocating slide toward or away from each other,so the inertial forces should be overcome,which will cause great energy loss,besides,large floor space is needed when the rolled workpiece is large.In order to solve the above problems,this paper presents the one-way successive plate CWR machine,whose rolling plates need not make reciprocating slide.Hence,it has high energy utilization efficiency and production efficiency.Furthermore,the roll scale can be removed automatically.In particular,the machine can produce large axisymmetrical workpieces.

  20. Lateral closed wedge osteotomy for cubitus varus deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Amit


    Full Text Available Background: Lateral closed wedge (LCW osteotomy is a commonly accepted method for the correction of the cubitus varus deformity. The fixation of osteotomy is required to prevent loss of correction achieved. The fixation of the osteotomy by the two screw and figure of eight wire is not stable enough to maintain the correction achieved during surgery. In this prospective study we supplemented the fixation by Kirschner′s (K- wires for stable fixation and evaluated the results. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one cases of the cubitus varus deformity following supracondylar fractures of the humerus were operated by LCW osteotomy during February 2001 to June 2006. The mean age of the patients at the time of corrective surgery was 8.5 years (range 6.6-14 years. The osteotomy was fixed by two screws with figure of eight tension band wire between them and the fixation was supplemented by passing two to three K-wires from the lateral condyle engaging the proximal medial cortex through the osteotomy site. Result: The mean follow-up period was 2.5 years (range seven months to 3.4 years. The results were assessed as per Morrey criteria. Eighteen cases showed excellent results and three cases showed good results. Two cases had superficial pin tract infection. Conclusion: The additional fixation by K wires controls rotational forces effectively besides angulation and translation forces and maintains the correction achieved peroperatively.

  1. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YuQuan; LI ZhiGang; WANG MingHui; GUAN XiaoFang


    Roller cross wedge rolling (CWR) machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process.Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process.Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces.Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR.Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented.There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate.The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates.The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively.Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process.These make the machine re-tain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine.Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  2. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Roller cross wedge rolling(CWR)machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process. Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process. Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces. Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR. Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented. There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate. The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates. The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively. Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process. These make the machine retain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine. Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  3. Influence of intermolecular forces at critical-point wedge filling. (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O


    We use microscopic density functional theory to study filling transitions in systems with long-ranged wall-fluid and short-ranged fluid-fluid forces occurring in a right-angle wedge. By changing the strength of the wall-fluid interaction we can induce both wetting and filling transitions over a wide range of temperatures and study the order of these transitions. At low temperatures we find that both wetting and filling transitions are first order in keeping with predictions of simple local effective Hamiltonian models. However close to the bulk critical point the filling transition is observed to be continuous even though the wetting transition remains first order and the wetting binding potential still exhibits a small activation barrier. The critical singularities for adsorption for the continuous filling transitions depend on whether retarded or nonretarded wall-fluid forces are present and are in excellent agreement with predictions of effective Hamiltonian theory even though the change in the order of the transition was not anticipated.

  4. Influence of intermolecular forces at critical-point wedge filling (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O.


    We use microscopic density functional theory to study filling transitions in systems with long-ranged wall-fluid and short-ranged fluid-fluid forces occurring in a right-angle wedge. By changing the strength of the wall-fluid interaction we can induce both wetting and filling transitions over a wide range of temperatures and study the order of these transitions. At low temperatures we find that both wetting and filling transitions are first order in keeping with predictions of simple local effective Hamiltonian models. However close to the bulk critical point the filling transition is observed to be continuous even though the wetting transition remains first order and the wetting binding potential still exhibits a small activation barrier. The critical singularities for adsorption for the continuous filling transitions depend on whether retarded or nonretarded wall-fluid forces are present and are in excellent agreement with predictions of effective Hamiltonian theory even though the change in the order of the transition was not anticipated.

  5. Capillary waveguide optrodes for Medical applications (United States)

    Kieslinger, Dietmar; Weigl, Bernhard H.; Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.


    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. The capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Different optical setups have been investigated and compared regarding its waveguiding properties.

  6. Modeling capillary forces for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrangeli, M.; Arutinov, G.; Smits, E.C.P.; Lambert, P.


    Originally applied to the accurate, passive positioning of submillimetric devices, recent works proved capillary self-alignment as effective also for larger components and relatively large initial offsets. In this paper, we describe an analytic quasi-static model of 1D capillary restoring forces tha

  7. Foot alignments influence the effect of knee adduction moment with lateral wedge insoles during gait. (United States)

    Sawada, Tomonori; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Yuta; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Kito, Nobuhiro; Shinkoda, Koichi


    Lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) reduce the peak external knee adduction moment (KAM). However, the efficacy of LWIs is limited in certain individuals for whom they fail to decrease KAM. Possible explanations for a lack of desired LWI response are variations in foot alignments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the immediate biomechanical effects of LWIs depend on individual foot alignments during gait. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. Their feet were categorized as normal, pronated, and supinated using the foot posture index. All subjects were subsequently requested to perform a normal gait under barefoot and LWI conditions. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to record the kinematic and kinetic data, included peak KAM, KAM impulse (KAAI), center of pressure displacement, and knee-ground reaction force lever arm (KLA). Furthermore, lower limb frontal plane kinematic parameters at the rear foot, ankle, knee, and hip were evaluated. Among all feet, there was no significant difference in the peak KAM and KAAI between the conditions. In contrast, the peak KAM was significantly reduced under the LWI condition relative to the barefoot condition in the normal foot group. Reductions in the peak KAM were correlated with a more lateral center of pressure and reduced KLA. In addition, a reduced KLA was correlated with decreased hip adduction. LWIs significantly reduced the peak KAM in normal feet, indicating that biomechanical effects of LWIs vary between individual foot alignments. Our findings suggest that it is helpful to assess individual foot alignment to ensure adequate insole treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis using core-based hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (CHPEI) static-coated capillaries. (United States)

    Boonyakong, Cheerapa; Tucker, Sheryl A


    With unique 3-D architecture, the application of core-based hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (CHPEI), as a capillary coating in capillary electrophoresis, is demonstrated by manipulation of the electroosmotic mobility (EOF). CHPEI coatings (CHPEI5, M(w) approximately 5000 and CHPEI25, M(w) approximately 25,000) were physically adsorbed onto the inner surface of bare fused-silica capillary (BFS) via electrostatic interaction of the oppositely charged molecules by rinsing the capillaries with different CHPEI aqueous solutions. The EOF values of the coated capillaries were measured over the pH range of 4.0-9.0. At higher pH (pH >6) the coated capillary surface possesses excess negative charges, which causes the reversal of the EOF. The magnitudes of the EOF obtained from the coated capillaries were three-fold lower than that of BFS capillary. Desirable reproducibility of the EOF with % RSD (n = 5) capillaries were successfully utilized to separate phenolic compounds, B vitamins, as well as basic drugs and related compounds with reasonable analysis time (capillary and capillary).

  9. Medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy for post-traumatic secondary knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Matsui, Gen; Akiyama, Takenori; Ikemura, Satoshi; Mawatari, Taro


    Osteoarthritis of the knee secondary to femoral fracture is difficult to treat. There are some surgical options, such as total knee arthroplasty or correction osteotomy. Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is an established treatment of gonarthrosis. However, few reports are available on the effectiveness of a medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy. We present a case of a medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy on gonarthrosis secondary to a malunited femoral fracture with varus deformity and leg length discrepancy. This osteotomy was performed at the deformed femur, with locking plate fixation and autologous bone graft. Six months after the surgery, the osteotomy site was filled with bridging callus. Two years later, the Knee Society Score improved from 45 to 90 points. Medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy can be a useful method to treat knee osteoarthritis associated with distal femoral deformity.

  10. Development of Cone Wedge Ring Expansion Test to Evaluate Mechanical Properties of Clad Tubing Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    To determine the hoop tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a cone wedge ring expansion test method was developed. A four-piece wedge insert was designed with tapered angles matched to the cone shape of a loading piston. The ring specimen was expanded in the radial direction by the lateral expansion of the wedges under the downward movement of the piston. The advantages of the proposed method are that implementation of the test setup in a hot cell is simple and easy, and that it enables a direct strain measurement of the test specimen from the piston’s vertical displacement soon after the wedge-clad contact resistance is initiated.

  11. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; M.; R.; Sadat; Hosseini; A.; Darudi


    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractive index profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and applying fringe analysis methods.

  12. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. R. Sadat Hosseini; A. Darudi


    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractiveindex profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer andapplying fringe analysis methods.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Procedures of a Sonar Platform with a Sound Absorption Wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danzhu Yu; Xiongliang Yao; Shaoshi Dai


    Experiments involving a sonar platform with a sound absorption wedge were carried out for the purpose of obtaining the low frequency acoustic characteristics.Acoustic characteristics of a sonar platform model with a sound absorption wedge were measured,and the effects of different wedge laid areas on platform acoustic characteristic were tested.Vibration acceleration and self-noise caused by model vibration were measured in four conditions:0%,36%,60%,and 100% of wedge laid area when the sonar platform was under a single frequency excitation force.An experiment was performed to validate a corresponding numerical calculation.The numerical vibration characteristics of platform area were calculated by the finite element method,and self-noise caused by the vibration in it was predicted by an experiential formula.The conclusions prove that the numerical calculation method can partially replace the experimental process for obtaining vibration and sound characteristics.

  14. Visualization experiment to investigate capillary barrier performance in the context of a Yucca Mountain emplacement drift. (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C; Glass, Robert J; Chocas, Connie; Barker, Glenn; Orear, Lee


    The use of capillary barriers as engineered backfill systems to divert water away from radioactive waste potentially stored in a Yucca Mountain emplacement drift is investigated. We designed and conducted a flow visualization experiment to investigate capillary barrier performance in this context. A two-dimensional, thin slab, test system replicated the physical emplacement drift to one-quarter scale (1.4-m diameter) and included the simulated drift wall, waste canister, pedestal, capillary barrier backfill, and host-rock fracture system. Water was supplied at the top of the simulated drift and allowed to discharge by way of wicks located along the left wall of the cell (simulated fractures) or by a gravity drain at the bottom of the right side (simulated impermeable rock with floor drain). Photographs captured the migration of water and a blue dye tracer within the system, analytical balances measured the mass balance of water, while tensiometers measured the capillary pressure at numerous locations. Of particular concern to this test was the drainage of the capillary barrier, which terminates against the drift wall. We found that while the simulated fractures (left side) and drain (right side) each influenced the performance of the capillary barrier at early time, they had little differential affect at later times. Also of concern was the small disparity in capillary properties between the fine and coarse layer (limited by the need of a fine-grained material that would not filter into the coarse layer under dry conditions). While the capillary barrier was able to divert the majority of flow toward the edges of the system and away from the simulated waste canister, the barrier did not preclude flow in the coarse layer, which was noted to be visually wet next to the waste canister on day 92 and was continuing to take on water at termination on day 112.

  15. Theoretical Design of adiabatic capillary tube of a domestic refrigerator using refrigerant R-600a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo. K. C


    Full Text Available This paper develops a more accurate theoretical procedure for the design of adiabatic capillary tube of a domestic refrigerator considering a rigorous pressure drop analysis on the refrigerant R-600a while expanding through that tube accompanied with phase change through flash vaporization. Here this eliminates the contradiction of existing concepts on the negative value of the frictional pressure drop after a short distance of expansion due to a large part contribution of the actual pressure drop towards the momentum gain pressure drop. Also this verifies that the momentum gain through phase change is by consumption of internal energy part of the enthalpy and no part of the actual pressure drop energy is used in this respect. So with the concept of nearly total pressure drop being used in overcoming the friction the design of an adiabatic capillary tube of available I mm diameter for 0.1 ton refrigeration capacity has been carried out here. This design procedure causes some increase in the required length of the capillary for a given refrigeration capacity due to the omission of momentum pressure drop concept of different references, but is more accurate with consideration of actual changes involved in the expansion. The procedure is applicable for any other refrigerant of any refrigeration capacity

  16. Correlation between liver morphology and portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C; Henriksen, J H;


    destruction and both wedged hepatic vein pressure (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) and wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = 0.67, p less than 0.02). Degree of fatty change, fibrosis, inflammation, necrosis and occurrence of Mallory bodies showed no correlation with portal pressure. After morphometrical...... volume. The present findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that elevated hepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease are in part determined by the severity of the hepatic architectural destruction and subsequent distorsion and compression of the efferent vein system...

  17. Phase relations and dehydration behaviour of calcareous sediments at P-T conditions of accretionary wedge systems (United States)

    Massonne, H.-J.


    In a recent paper (Eur. J. Mineral. 20), Massonne and Willner (2008) presented P-T pseudosections for common rocks involved in accretionary wedge systems and argued that the dehydration of psammopelitic rocks could be an essential process for the formation of these systems. These authors assumed that this dehydration process leads to softening of the sedimentary cover of oceanic crust during early subduction so that this material can be scraped off the basic crust. Since many accretionary wedge systems contain metamorphosed calcareous sediments it was tested which influence carbonates, ignored by Massonne and Willner (2008), could have on the dehydration behaviour of these sediments. For this purpose, P-T pseudosections were calculated for a calcareous greywacke and a marly limestone in the system Na-Ca-K-Fe-Mn-Mg-Al-Si-Ti-C-O-H with the PERPLEX software package (Connolly, 2005) for the pressure-temperature range 1-25 kbar and 150-450°C. In addition to the thermodynamic data and solid solution models already used by Massonne and Willner (2008), a newly created quaternary (Ca-Mn-Mg-Fe2+) solid solution model was applied to carbonate with calcite structure together with an existing dolomite-ankerite model. Aragonite was considered as a pure phase. The Mn end-member was added to the previously used stilpnomelane model in order to calculate the P-T conditions of garnet formation at high pressure. Along a low geotherm of 10-12°C/km, the dehydration behaviour of a calcareous greywacke resembles that of the previously studied psammopelite. However, the relevant dehydration event (release of about 1 wt% H2O) occurs in the temperature interval 270-330°C and, thus, at temperatures about 30°C higher than in an ordinary psammopelite. The calculated compositions of fluids generated at low geotherms (

  18. Analysis of effect of electrolyte types on electrokinetic energy conversion in nanoscale capillaries. (United States)

    Chein, Reiyu; Tsai, Kunyong; Yeh, Liying


    An analytical study on the effect of electrolyte types on the electrokinetic energy conversion is presented using nanoscale cylindrical capillary, which is either positively or negatively charged. The sign of surface charge determines the role and concentration magnitude of ions in the capillary and the energy conversion performance. Our study shows that the electrokinetic energy conversion performance (maximum efficiency, pressure rise and streaming potential) are approximately identical for 1:1 (KCl), 2:1 (CaCl2) and 3:1 (LaCl3) electrolytes when capillary is positively charged. For negatively charged capillary, energy conversion performance degrades significantly with the increase of counter-ion valence. For both positively and negatively charged capillaries, higher maximum efficiency can be resulted in low bulk concentration and surface charge density regimes. However, high maximum pressure rise generation for the pumping is found in the low bulk concentration and high surface charge density regimes. For the electric power generation, higher maximum streaming potential is found when both bulk concentration and surface charge density are low.

  19. Analytical study of Joule heating effects on electrokinetic transportation in capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Xuan, Xiangchun; Li, Dongqing


    Electric fields are often used to transport fluids (by electroosmosis) and separate charged samples (by electrophoresis) in microfluidic devices. However, there exists inevitable Joule heating when electric currents are passing through electrolyte solutions. Joule heating not only increases the fluid temperature, but also produces temperature gradients in cross-stream and axial directions. These temperature effects make fluid properties non-uniform, and hence alter the applied electric potential field and the flow field. The mass species transport is also influenced. In this paper we develop an analytical model to study Joule heating effects on the transport of heat, electricity, momentum and mass species in capillary-based electrophoresis. Close-form formulae are derived for the temperature, applied electrical potential, velocity, and pressure fields at steady state, and the transient concentration field as well. Also available are the compact formulae for the electric current and the volume flow rate through the capillary. It is shown that, due to the thermal end effect, sharp temperature drops appear close to capillary ends, where sharp rises of electric field are required to meet the current continuity. In order to satisfy the mass continuity, pressure gradients have to be induced along the capillary. The resultant curved fluid velocity profile and the increase of molecular diffusion both contribute to the dispersion of samples. However, Joule heating effects enhance the sample transport velocity, reducing the analysis time in capillary electrophoretic separations.

  20. Statics of Magnetic Fluid Drop with Compound Magnetic Core in a Wedge-Shaped Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bashtovoi


    Full Text Available A behavior of magnetic fluid drop with compound magnetic core in a wedge-shaped channel was studied experimentally. The study examines influence of magnetic fluid properties, its volume and magnetic field on statics of the system compound magnet – magnetic fluid drop in wedge-shaped channel. The possibility to change the static conditions of such system by altering magnetic field of the core was observed

  1. Comparison of the homogeneity of breast dose distributions with and without the medial wedge. (United States)

    Ikner, C L; Russo, R; Podgorsak, M B; Proulx, G M; Lee, R J


    Radiation of the intact breast often requires medial and lateral wedges to improve dose homogeneity of its pyramidal shape and to achieve acceptable cosmesis. There is some concern that radiation scatter from the medial wedge may contribute to cancer in the uninvolved breast, yet treatment without the medial wedge is associated with inhomogeneity of magnitudes that affect cosmesis. These homogeneities are identified on treatment plans generated at the central axis (CAX). It is not known if comparing isodose curves at the central axis reflect homogeneity in superior and inferior planes. A study was undertaken to both examine inhomogeneity with and without the medial wedge, and to determine if plan selection at the CAX was representative of homogeneity above and below the CAX. Ten consecutive patients with early breast cancers had cranial, CAX, and caudal CT images of each breast compared with two wedging conditions, lateral only (LW) and medial and lateral wedged conditions (dual wedges = DW). Dosimetry was optimized at the CAX for DW and LW conditions. Dose distributions and hot spots relative to prescribed dose were compared for cranial, CAX, and caudal images. Mean chest wall separations were measured. Six of ten patients had equivalent LW and DW distributions at the levels examined. Only one of these patients had a single off-axis hot spot > 20%. Six patients had comparable LW and DW dosimetry and acceptable hot spots at the central axis, as well as chest wall separations < or = 22 cm. In conclusion, if isodose configurations are commensurate at the CAX, these patients will have homogeneity above and below the CAX. In patients with chest wall separations < or = 22 cm, treatment without the medial wedge is feasible, sparing the contralateral breast dose with little compromise to inhomogeneity in the treated breast.

  2. The effect of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges during cycling: a systematic review


    Yeo, Boon K; Bonanno, Daniel R


    Background The use of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges in cycling are largely based on theoretical benefits and anecdotal evidence. This review aimed to systematically collect all published research on this topic, critically evaluate the methods and summarise the findings. Methods Study inclusion criteria were: all empirical studies that evaluated the effects of foot orthoses or in-shoe wedges on cycling; outcome measures that investigated physiological parameters, kinematics and kinetics of ...

  3. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection stacking for citalopram drug to achieve highly sensitive detection and enantioseparation by capillary electrophoresis%毛细管电泳-压力辅助电动进样技术对药物西酞普兰的高灵敏检测及手性拆分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中其; 叶峰; 王永乐; 李爱梅


    应用压力辅助电动进样( pressure⁃assisted electrokinetic injection, PAEKI)技术开发了毛细管电泳( CE)对阳离子手性药物西酞普兰( citalopram, CIT)拆分的高灵敏度分析方法。在电动进样( electrokinetic injection, EKI)过程中,由于CIT的两个对映异构体与手性选择试剂( sulfated⁃β⁃cyclodextrin, S⁃β⁃CD)之间的动态平衡常数存在差异而导致了电动歧视效应。因此,在EKI过程前向毛细管中充满不含手性选择剂的背景电解质,从而抑制电动进样歧视。通过两个步骤优化PAEKI过程中的关键参数得到电渗流和反向压力之间的平衡条件。在最优的PAEKI条件下(+10 kV,0�2 psi(约1�4 kPa)),两个对映异构体在205 nm紫外检测条件下的检出限( LOD;S/N=3)达到1�1和2�2 ng/mL。灵敏度较常规的压力进样平均提高了62倍,方法的检测灵敏度达到了ng/mL ( ppb),有望成为检测人体体液中CIT对映异构体的有效方法。%Pressure⁃assisted electrokinetic injection ( PAEKI) was applied to the highly sensitive enantiosepara⁃tion of the positively charged drug citalopram ( CIT) by capillary electrophoresis ( CE) . It was found that the in⁃jection discrimination occurred in electrokinetic injection ( EKI) process due to the different dynamic equilibri⁃um constant between chiral selector ( sulfated⁃β⁃cyclodextrin, S⁃β⁃CD) and two isomers of CIT. Herein, it was proposed to use the background electrolyte ( BGE) without chiral selector to fill the capillary, and then start the EKI step to eliminate the injection discrimination of free analytes. The critical parameters in PAEKI could be optimized in two steps to seek the balance between the electroosmotic flow ( EOF ) and the counterbalance pressure. Under the optimized PAEKI conditions (+10 kV, 0�2 psi ( ca. 1�4 kPa) ) , the obtained LODs ( S/N=3) of the two isomers were 1�1

  4. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini


    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  5. Assessment of a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer for Doppler wind lidar. (United States)

    McKay, Jack A


    The Fabry-Perot interferometer is the standard instrument for the direct detection Doppler lidar measurement of atmospheric wind speeds. The multibeam Fizeau wedge has some practical advantages over the Fabry-Perot, such as the linear fringe pattern, and is evaluated for this application. The optimal Fizeau must have a resolving power of 10(6) or more. As the multibeam Fizeau wedge is pushed to such high resolving power, the interference fringes of the device become complicated by asymmetry and secondary maxima. A simple condition for the interferometer plate reflectance, optical gap, and wedge angle reveals whether a set of parameters will yield simple, Airy-like fringes or complex Fizeau fringes. Tilting of the Fizeau wedge improves the fringe shape and permits an extension of the regime of Airy-like fringes to higher resolving power. Sufficient resolving power for the wind lidar application is shown to be possible with a large-gap, low-finesse multibeam Fizeau wedge. Liabilities of the multibeam Fizeau wedge in the wind lidar application include a smaller acceptance solid angle and calibration sensitivity to localized deviations of the plates from the ideal.

  6. Experimental study of slot jet impingement heat transfer on a wedge-shaped surface (United States)

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Irani, Mohammad


    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the convective heat transfer rate from a wedge-shaped surface to a rectangular subsonic air jet impinging onto the apex of the wedge. The jet Reynolds number, nozzle-to-surface distance and the wedge angle were considered as the main parameters. Jet Reynolds number was ranged from 5,000 to 20,000 and two dimensionless nozzle-to-surface distances h/w = 4 and 10 were examined. The apex angle of the wedge ranged from 30° to 180° where the latter case corresponds with that of a flat surface. Velocity profile and turbulence intensity were provided for free jet flow using hot wire anemometer. Local and average Nusselt numbers on the impinged surface are presented for all the configurations. Based on the results presented, the local Nusselt number at the stagnation region increases as the wedge angle is decreased but, it then decreases over the remaining area of the impinged surface. Average Nusselt number over the whole surface is maximum when the wedge angle is 180° (i.e. plane surface) for any jet and nozzle-to-surface configuration.


    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Shintani, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Keisuke; Maruya, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Tetsuya; Houmura, Kenichi

    This paper describes the effect of sea-level rise (SLR) on the salt wedge intrusion in terms of ecological system in Kushiro wetland. Kushiro wetland was registered by Ramsar Treaty and the largest wetland in Japan. A previous study demonstrates that the salt wedge intrusion may not affect ecological system of Kushiro wetland, such as loss of freshwater plants along Kushiro River. However, it is revealed that SLR may occur in the end of the 21st century, which enhances the increase in the distance of the salt wedge intrusion along Kushiro River and the loss of endangered species of Kushiro wetland along Kushiro River. This study thus aims to investigate the influence of the salt wedge intrusion on freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and to clarify the salt wedge intrusion when SLR occurs due to climate change. We attempted to investigate the influence of SLR on endangered species along Kyu-Kushiro River in which sea water is likely to intrude up to about 8 km from the river mouth. As results, it is suggested from field observations that salinity may decrease freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and it clarifies the possibility that the salt wedge intrudes Kushiro River due to SLR by using 3D hydrodynamic model, Fantom3D.

  8. Improve the transconductance of a graphene field-effect transistor by folding graphene into a wedge (United States)

    Cao, Guiming; Liu, Weihua; Cao, Meng; Li, Xin; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Bangdao


    The transport property of a graphene wedge channel is studied theoretically and its leakage current through field emission is estimated when considering the effect of the internal electric field. The transconductance of the graphene transistor is improved from 0.016 to 0.321 μS μm-1 when the graphene is folded into a wedge (with angle of wedge π/6 and radius curvature 2.7 nm at the tip), while the wedge height is much smaller than the space between the top-gate and the channel. The improved transconductance is due to the locally enhanced electric field, which results in a potential well and causes electron accumulation at the wedge tip. The leakage current through field emission J FE shows a super-linear increase with the channel conductive current J DS, where overall the electron supply for the field emission at the wedge tip is improved by the channel bias voltage V DS.

  9. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla


    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  10. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (United States)

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo


    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  11. Two-dimensional capillary origami (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  12. Capillary Separation: Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (United States)

    Terabe, Shigeru


    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), a separation mode of capillary electrophoresis (CE), has enabled the separation of electrically neutral analytes. MEKC can be performed by adding an ionic micelle to the running solution of CE without modifying the instrument. Its separation principle is based on the differential migration of the ionic micelles and the bulk running buffer under electrophoresis conditions and on the interaction between the analyte and the micelle. Hence, MEKC's separation principle is similar to that of chromatography. MEKC is a useful technique particularly for the separation of small molecules, both neutral and charged, and yields high-efficiency separation in a short time with minimum amounts of sample and reagents. To improve the concentration sensitivity of detection, several on-line sample preconcentration techniques such as sweeping have been developed.

  13. Active Aerothermoelastic Control of Hypersonic Double-wedge Lifting Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laith K Abbas; Chen Qian; Piergiovanni Marzocca; Gürdal Zafer; Abdalla Mostafa


    Designing reentry space vehicles and high-speed aireraft requires special attention to the nonlinear thermoelastic and aerodynamic instability of their structural components. The thermal effects are important since temperature environment brings dramatic influences on the static and dynamic behaviors of flight structures in supersonic/hypersonic regimes and is likely to cause instability, catastrophic failure and oscillations resulting in structural failure due to fatigue. In order to understand the dynamic behaviors of these "hot"structures, a double-wedge lifting surface with combining freeplay and cubic structural nonlinearities in both plunging and pitching degrees-of-freedom operating in supersonic/hypersonic flight speed regimes has been analyzed. A third order piston theory aerodynamic isused to estimate the applied nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads. Also considered is the loss of torsiunal stiffness that may be incurredby lifting surfaces subject to axial stresses induced by aerodynamic heating. The aerodynamic heating effects are estimated based on theadiabatic wall temperature due to high speed airstreams. As a recently emerging technology, the active aerothermoelastic control isaimed at providing solutions to a large number of problems involving the aeronautica Faerospace flight vehicle structures. To preventsuch damaging phenomena from occurring, an application of linear and nonlinear active control methods on both flutter boundary andpost-flutter behavior has been fulfilled. In this paper, modeling issues as well as numerical simulation have been presented and pertinent conclusions outlined. It is evidenced that a serious loss of torsional stiffness may induce the dynamic instability; however active controlcan be used to expand the flutter boundary and convert unstable limit cycle oscillations (LCO) into the stable LCO and/or to shift the transition between these two states toward higher flight Mach numbers.

  14. Modes of continental extension in a lithospheric wedge (United States)

    Wu, G.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.


    We studied extension of a lithospheric wedge as an approximation to an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We ran a series of numerical models to quantify the effects of the strength of the lower crust and a mid-crustal shear zone (MCSZ) on the extension processes. When the MCSZ is present, we found that the regional lower crustal flow plays a critical role in controlling the modes of extension. The compensation is long-wavelength when the lower crust flows from the highest to the lowest elevation in order to compensate upper crustal thinning. In response to this motion, the mantle flows towards the highest elevation in order to balance for the lower crust leaving the area under the highest topography. For weak (wet quartz regime with partial melting) or intermediate (wet quartz regime), or strong (dry quartz regime) lower crust, we recognized three predominantly decoupled modes of extension characterized by 1) significant lower crustal exhumation exemplified as a large massif, 2) formation of core complexes and detachment faults, and 3) distributive domino faulting, respectively. Without the MCSZ, however, the lower crustal flow is essentially subdued with predominantly coupled extension. For weak or intermediate, or strong lower crust, we recognized three coupled modes characterized by 1) localized generally symmetric crustal exhumation, 2) distributed grabens and narrow rifts, and 3) wide continental margins, respectively. The MCSZ controls the degree of decoupling of the lower crustal flow such that a frictionally stronger MCSZ does not change the behaviors of the models but results in a more distributed extension. Due to the long-wavelength compensation, subhorizontal Moho is achieved where intensive extension occurred for all the decoupled models with a MCSZ. Natural counterparts for each mode may be easily identified, for instance, in the Basin and Range or the Aegean.

  15. Laboratory investigation of water extraction effects on saltwater wedge displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noorabadi


    Full Text Available There is a close connection between saltwater intrusion into aquifers and groundwater extraction. Freshwater extraction in coastal aquifers is one of the most important reasons for the saltwater intrusion into these aquifers. Condition of extraction system such as well depth, discharge rate, saltwater concentration and etc. could affect this process widely. Thus, investigating different extraction conditions comprises many management advantages.  In the present study, the effects of freshwater extraction on saltwater interface displacement have been investigated in a laboratory box. Three different well depths (H were considered with combinations of 3 different extraction rates (Q and 3 saltwater concentrations (C for detailed investigation of the effects of these factors variations on saltwater displacement. SEAWAT model has been used to simulate all the scenarios to numerically study of the process. The experimental and numerical results showed that when the C and Q rates were small and the well depth was shallow, the saltwater interface wouldn’t reach the extraction well, so the extracted water remained uncontaminated. When the C and Q rates were increased and the well was deepened, the salinity of the extracted water became higher. When the Q and C rates were high enough, in the shallow well depth, the final concentration of the extracted water was low but a huge part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater, furthermore when the well was deepened enough, the final concentration of the extracted water was increased but a small part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater. Finally, the results showed that when the Q and H rates were high enough, the extraction well behaved like a barrier and didn’t allow the advancing saltwater wedge toe to be intruded beyond the wells.

  16. Three-dimensional vertebral wedging in mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie-Anne Scherrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vertebral wedging is associated with spinal deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Reporting frontal and sagittal wedging separately could be misleading since these are projected values of a single three-dimensional deformation of the vertebral body. The objectives of this study were to determine if three-dimensional vertebral body wedging is present in mild scoliosis and if there are a preferential vertebral level, position and plane of deformation with increasing scoliotic severity. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-seven adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls with mild to moderate Cobb angles (10° to 50° participated in this study. All subjects had at least one set of bi-planar radiographs taken with the EOS® X-ray imaging system prior to any treatment. Subjects were divided into two groups, separating the mild (under 20° from the moderate (20° and over spinal scoliotic deformities. Wedging was calculated in three different geometric planes with respect to the smallest edge of the vertebral body. RESULTS: Factorial analyses of variance revealed a main effect for the scoliosis severity but no main effect of vertebral Levels (apex and each of the three vertebrae above and below it (F = 1.78, p = 0.101. Main effects of vertebral Positions (apex and above or below it (F = 4.20, p = 0.015 and wedging Planes (F = 34.36, p<0.001 were also noted. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated a greater wedging in the inferior group of vertebrae (3.6° than the superior group (2.9°, p = 0.019 and a significantly greater wedging (p≤0.03 along the sagittal plane (4.3°. CONCLUSIONS: Vertebral wedging was present in mild scoliosis and increased as the scoliosis progressed. The greater wedging of the inferior group of vertebrae could be important in estimating the most distal vertebral segment to be restrained by bracing or to be fused in surgery. Largest vertebral body wedging values obtained in the sagittal plane support

  17. Sequential alterations in the diameters of capillaries in rabbit skeletal muscle following deep transverse friction - a morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gregory


    Full Text Available Objective: The precise mechanisms by which massage promotes repair in injured soft tissue are unknown. Various authorshave attributed the beneficial effects of massage to vasodilation and increased skin and muscle blood flow. The aim of this study was to determine whether deep transverse friction massage (DTF causes capillary vasodilation in untraumatised skeletal muscle. Setting: Academic institution.Interventions: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were anaesthetised and the left biceps femoris muscle received 10 minutes of DTF. Following treatment, wedge biopsies were taken from the musclewithin 10 minutes of treatment (R1 - 4, 24 hours (R5 - 8 and 6 days(R9 - 12 after treatment. To serve as controls, similar biopsies weretaken from the right biceps femoris of animals. The samples were fixed, dehydrated and embedded in epoxy resin.Transverse sections (1µm of muscle were cut, stained with 1% aqueous alkaline toluidine blue and examined with a light microscope using a 40X objective. Images containing capillaries were captured using an image analyser with SIS software and the cross sectional diameters of at least 60 capillaries were measured from each specimen. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in capillary diameter. Results: The mean capillary diameters in control muscle averaged 4.76 µm. DTF caused a significant immediate increase of 17.3% in cross sectional area (p<0.001, which was not significantly increased by 10.0% after 24 hours (p>0.05. Six days after treatment the cross-sectional area of the treated muscle was 7.6% smaller than the controls. Conclusions: This confirms the contention that DTF stimulates muscle blood flow immediately after treatment and this may account for its beneficial effects in certain conditions. 

  18. [A simple preparation method of an electric heating apparatus for heating capillary chromatographic columns and its application in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system]. (United States)

    Jin, Zuyao; Lü, Yayao; Zhou, Shanshan; Hao, Feiran; Fu, Bin; Ying, Wantao; Qian, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yangjun


    For deep coverage of proteome, especially in performing qualitative identification and quantitative analysis of low-abundance proteins, the most commonly used method is the application of a longer capillary chromatographic column or a capillary column packed with smaller particle sizes. However, this causes another problem, the very high back pressure which results in liquid leaks in some connection parts in a liquid chromatograph. To solve this problem, an electric heating apparatus was developed to raise the temperature of a capillary column for reducing its back pressure, which was further applied in a capillary high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system (cHPLC-MS/MS), and evaluated in the terms of chromatographic column back pressure and chromatographic column efficiency using bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic digests and yeast tryptic digests, separately. The results showed that at the optimum current, our electric heating apparatus could reduce the column pressure of a capillary column packed with 3 µm packing materials by at least 50% during the separation of BSA tryptic digestion and yeast tryptic digestion, compared with that without electric heating. The column efficiency was also increased slightly. This suggested that the electric heating apparatus can significantly reduce the column pressure, which provides an efficient way to use capillary chromatographic columns packed with smaller sizes of particles at a lower pressure.

  19. Vertical blow ups of capillary surfaces in $R^3$, Part 2: Nonconvex corners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Lancaster


    Full Text Available The goal of this note is to continue the investigation started in Part One of the structure of "blown up" sets of the form $mathcal{P}imes mathbb{R}$ and $mathcal{N}imes mathbb{R}$ when $mathcal{P}, mathcal{N} subset mathbb{R}^{2}$ and $mathcal{P}$ (or $mathcal{N}$ minimizes an appropriate functional and the domain has a nonconvex corner. Sets like $mathcal{P}imes mathbb{R}$ can be the limits of the blow ups of subgraphs of solutions of capillary surface or other prescribed mean curvature problems, for example. Danzhu Shi recently proved that in a wedge domain $Omega$ whose boundary has a nonconvex corner at a point $O$ and assuming the correctness of the Concus-Finn Conjecture for contact angles $0$ and $pi$, a capillary surface in positive gravity in $Omegaimesmathbb{R}$ must be discontinuous under certain conditions. As an application, we extend the conclusion of Shi's Theorem to the case where the prescribed mean curvature is zero without any assumption about the Concus-Finn Conjecture.

  20. Process Based Explanations for Correlations Between the Structural and Seismic Segmentation of the Cascadia Subduction Wedge (United States)

    Fuller, C. W.; Brandon, M. T.; Willett, S. D.


    Variations in the geological and geophysical characteristics of the Cascadia subduction wedge, the region between the trench and arc, result in along-strike wedge segmentation. We focus on explaining the large-scale structural segmentation and how processes causing this segmentation influence segmentation with respect to the seismic behavior of the wedge and subduction thrust. The relationships we develop illustrate the fundamental interplay of processes controlling long-term structure and short-term seismic behavior. Our conclusions are based on the results of numerical models designed to simulate the growth and evolution of the Cascadia subduction wedge through the accretion of a thin layer of sediment to the basaltic Coast Range Terrane (CRT) of the Cascadia margin. Two aspects of wedge structural segmentation are of interest: (1) segmentation with respect to the location or absence of large, continental shelf, forearc basins, and (2) segmentation with respect to the Coastal Range (CR) structural high. Our models illustrate that the form of the submarine portion of the Cascadia wedge, including the basins or lack thereof, is a consequence of the frictional behavior of this region of wedge, subduction thrust strength, wedge strength, and dip thrust. We propose that basin segments have stronger wedge material, a weaker thrust, or a steeper thrust than basin free segments. The presence of basins is significant because they stabilize the margin and prevent subduction and accretion related deformation. This stabilization allows the thrust to preferentially support thermally induced, fluid overpressures and undergo fault healing thus increasing the likelihood of large coseismic slip within basin segments. While no historical earthquake data supporting this argument exists for Cascadia, such behavior has been observed in many margins (Song and Simons, 2003; Wells et al., 2003). It is reasonable to assume that large earthquakes in Cascadia will have the same association

  1. CFD simulation and optimization of the capillary throttling of air-flotation unit (United States)

    Bin, Huang; Yi, Jiajing; Tao, Jiayue; Lu, Rongsheng


    With respect to orifice throttling or compensating, capillary throttling has following advantages: smaller mass flow rate and stronger anti-interference ability. This paper firstly gives the required average pressure of air-film when shipping a piece of LCD glass. Then, dimensional flow model of the capillary throttling of air-flotation unit is established. Based on the model, we firstly analyze the flowing process of the lubricated air through the capillary. Secondly, the pressure distribution equation of air-film is derived from the Navier-Stokes Equation. Furthermore, the approximate functional relations between model parameters and static characteristics of the air-film, such as mass flow rate, static bearing capacity, are obtained and then influence of the former on the latter is analyzed . Finally, according to the continuity of air flow, the function relation between model parameters and pressure of core nodes in the air-film is also derived. On foundation of theoretical analysis, the impacts of each model parameter on static characteristics of the air-film flow field, are respectively simulated and analyzed by CFD software Fluent. Based on these simulations and analysis, radius and length of the capillary, density of the gas supply orifices and other model parameters are optimized. Finally, the best unit model is acquired, which greatly improves the static working performance of air-film in air-flotation unit. Research results of this paper can provide guidance and basis for the design and optimization of air-flotation transporting system.

  2. Effect of Laterally Wedged Insoles on the External Knee Adduction Moment across Different Reference Frames.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Biomechanical effects of laterally wedged insoles are assessed by reduction in the knee adduction moment. However, the degree of reduction may vary depending on the reference frame with which it is calculated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reference frame on the reduction in the knee adduction moment by laterally wedged insoles.Twenty-nine healthy participants performed gait trials with a laterally wedged insole and with a flat insole as a control. The knee adduction moment, including the first and second peaks and the angular impulse, were calculated using four different reference frames: the femoral frame, tibial frame, laboratory frame and the Joint Coordinate System.There were significant effects of reference frame on the knee adduction moment first and second peaks (P < 0.001 for both variables, while the effect was not significant for the angular impulse (P = 0.84. No significant interaction between the gait condition and reference frame was found in either of the knee adduction moment variables (P = 0.99 for all variables, indicating that the effects of laterally wedged insole on the knee adduction moments were similar across the four reference frames. On the other hand, the average percent changes ranged from 9% to 16% for the first peak, from 16% to 18% for the second peak and from 17% to 21% for the angular impulse when using the different reference frames.The effects of laterally wedged insole on the reduction in the knee adduction moment were similar across the reference frames. On the other hand, Researchers need to recognize that when the percent change was used as the parameter of the efficacy of laterally wedged insole, the choice of reference frame may influence the interpretation of how laterally wedged insoles affect the knee adduction moment.

  3. Rainfall induced groundwater mound in wedge-shaped promontories: The Strack-Chernyshov model revisited (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Kayumov, I. R.; Al-Maktoumi, A.


    An analytical solution to the Poisson equation governing Strack's discharge potential (squared thickness of a saturated zone in an unconfined aquifer) is obtained in a wedge-shaped domain with given head boundary conditions on the wedge sides (specified water level in an open water body around a porous promontory). The discharge vector components, maximum elevation of the water table in promontory vertical cross-sections, quantity of groundwater seeping through segments of the wedge sides, the volume of fresh groundwater in the mound are found. For acute angles, the solution to the problem is non-unique and specification of the behaviour at infinity is needed. A "basic" solution is distinguished, which minimizes the water table height above a horizontal bedrock. MODFLOW simulations are carried out in a finite triangular island and compare solutions with a constant-head, no-flow and "basic" boundary condition on one side of the triangle. Far from the tip of an infinite-size promontory one has to be cautious with truncation of the simulated flow domains and imposing corresponding boundary conditions. For a right and obtuse wedge angles, there are no positive solutions for the case of constant accretion on the water table. In a particular case of a confined rigid wedge-shaped aquifer and incompressible fluid, from an explicit solution to the Laplace equation for the hydraulic head with arbitrary time-space varying boundary conditions along the promontory rays, essentially 2-D transient Darcian flows within the wedge are computed. They illustrate that surface water waves on the promontory boundaries can generate strong Darcian waves inside the porous wedge. Evaporation from the water table and sea-water intruded interface (rather than a horizontal bed) are straightforward generalizations for the Poissonian Strack potential.

  4. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.


    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  5. Capillary states of granular materials in the funicular state (United States)

    Delenne, Jean-Yves; Richefeu, Vincent; Radjai, Farhang


    Using a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann model, we investigate the capillary states of a 2D granular packing gradually saturated by condensation from a homogeneously injected vapor phase. The internal stresses induced by surface tension and Laplace pressure are directly calculated from the forces acting on the grains with increasing amount of liquid. The evolution of cohesive strength with the amount of liquid reveals four different states reflecting the connectivity of the liquid phase and local grain environments. It increases in the pendular state, characterized by binary liquid bridges holding the grains together, and within the funicular state with an increasing number of liquid clusters connected to several grains. Beyond 40% of saturation, the cohesive strength falls off due to a decreasing Laplace pressure of liquid clusters.

  6. Structural and metamorphic evolution of serpentinites and rodingites recycled in the Alpine subduction wedge (United States)

    Zanoni, D.; Rebay, G.; Spalla, M. I.


    Hydration-dehydration of mantle rocks affects the viscosity of the mantle wedge and plays a prominent role in subduction zone tectonics, facilitating marble cake-type instead of large-slice dynamics. An accurate structural and petrologic investigation of serpentinites from orogenic belts, supported by their long-lived structural memory, can help to recognize pressure-sensitive mineral assemblages for deciphering their P-prograde and -retrograde tectonic trajectories. The European Alps preserve large volumes of the hydrated upper part of the oceanic lithosphere that represents the main water carrier into the Alpine subduction zone. Therefore, it is important to understand what happens during subduction when these rocks reach P-T conditions proximal to those that trigger the break-down of serpentine, formed during oceanic metamorphism, to produce olivine and clinopyroxene. Rodingites associated with serpentinites are usually derived from metasomatic ocean floor processes but rodingitization can also happen in subduction environments. Multiscale structural and petrologic analyses of serpentinites and enclosed rodingites have been combined to define the HP mineral assemblages in the Zermatt-Saas ophiolites. They record 3 syn-metamorphic stages of ductile deformation during the Alpine cycle, following the ocean floor history that is testified by structural and metamorphic relics in both rock types. D1 and D2 developed under HP to UHP conditions and D3 under lower P conditions. Syn-D2 assemblages in serpentinites and rodingites indicate conditions of 2.5 ± 0.3 GPa and 600 ± 20°C. This interdisciplinary approach shows that the dominant structural and metamorphic imprint of the Zermatt-Saas eclogitized serpentinites and rodingites developed during the Alpine subduction and that subduction-related serpentinite de-hydration occurred exclusively at Pmax conditions, during D2 deformation. In contrast, in the favourable rodingite bulk composition (Ca-rich), hydrated minerals

  7. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.


    design/type on the effectiveness of lateral wedging has not been investigated so far. The Purpose of the present study was to explore alterations in knee loading due to lateral foot wedges in three different shoes. Methods: Thirteen healthy participants with no history of knee pain were tested using...... three-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analysed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full-length laterally wedged insole. Results: There were significant shoe wedge interactions on the first...... and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...

  8. Applicability of chemically modified capillaries in chiral capillary electrophoresis for methamphetamine profiling. (United States)

    Iwata, Yuko T; Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki


    We examined the applicability of chemically modified capillaries on the chiral capillary electrophoresis of essential compounds for methamphetamine (MA) profiling (MA, amphetamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine) using highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector. Four types of chemically modified capillaries, namely, FunCap-CE/Type D (possessing diol groups), Type A (amino groups), Type C (carboxyl groups), and Type S (sulfate groups), were evaluated. Repeatability, speed, and good chiral resolution sufficient for routine MA profiling were achieved with the Type S capillary.

  9. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin coating for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Shah, Roopa S; Wang, Qinggang; Lee, Milton L


    Coating the interior surface of a fused-silica capillary with a polymeric material has long been used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to reduce or eliminate electroosmotic flow and suppress adsorption. A cycloaliphatic epoxide-based resin was bonded to silane treated capillaries and crosslinked with a curing agent. The epoxy resin coating significantly reduced electroosmotic flow over a pH range of 3-10. This coating was sufficiently hydrophilic to suppress protein adsorption. The epoxy resin coated capillary was used to separate several acidic and basic proteins and peptides. Separation efficiencies greater than 400,000 theoretical plates were achieved. The relative standard deviations in migration times for proteins were methods.

  10. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P


    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.


    The electrophoretic behavior of bensulfuron Me, sulfometuron Me, nicosulfuron (Accent), chlorimuron Et, thifensulfuron Me (Harmony), metsulfuron Me, and chlorsulfuron was studied under capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) conditio...

  12. Capillary electrochromatography using fibers as stationary phases. (United States)

    Jinno, K; Watanabe, H; Saito, Y; Takeichi, T


    Fiber-packed capillary columns have been evaluated in chromatographic performance in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The change of electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity and selectivity using different kinds of fiber materials was examined. Although the EOF velocity among the different fiber packed columns was almost the same, retention of parabens was larger on the Kevlar-packed column than on the Zylon-packed one, and was larger on the as-span-type fiber-packed column than on the high-modulus-type packed one. Using 200 microm ID x 5 cm Kevlar packed column combined with a 100 microm ID x 20 cm precolumn capillary and a 530 microm ID x 45 cm postcolumn capillary, the separation of three parabens within 30 s was achieved. Other compounds were also separated in a few minutes by the fiber-packed CEC method.

  13. Capillary Optics generate stronger X-rays (United States)


    NASA scientist, in the Space Sciences lab at Marshall, works with capillary optics that generate more intense X-rays than conventional sources. This capability is useful in studying the structure of important proteins.

  14. Wetting and spreading of nanofluids on solid surfaces driven by the structural disjoining pressure: statics analysis and experiments. (United States)

    Kondiparty, Kirti; Nikolov, Alex; Wu, Stanley; Wasan, Darsh


    The wetting and spreading of nanofluids composed of liquid suspensions of nanoparticles have significant technological applications. Recent studies have revealed that, compared to the spreading of base liquids without nanoparticles, the spreading of wetting nanofluids on solid surfaces is enhanced by the structural disjoining pressure. Here, we present our experimental observations and the results of the statics analysis based on the augmented Laplace equation (which takes into account the contribution of the structural disjoining pressure) on the effects of the nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, contact angle, and drop size (i.e., the capillary and hydrostatic pressure); we examined the effects on the displacement of the drop-meniscus profile and spontaneous spreading of a nanofluid as a film on a solid surface. Our analyses indicate that a suitable combination of the nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, contact angle, and capillary pressure can result not only in the displacement of the three-phase contact line but also in the spontaneous spreading of the nanofluid as a film on a solid surface. We show here, for the first time, that the complete wetting and spontaneous spreading of the nanofluid as a film driven by the structural disjoining pressure gradient (arising due to the nanoparticle ordering in the confined wedge film) is possible by decreasing the nanoparticle size and the interfacial tension, even at a nonzero equilibrium contact angle. Experiments were conducted on the spreading of a nanofluid composed of 5, 10, 12.5, and 20 vol % silica suspensions of 20 nm (geometric diameter) particles. A drop of canola oil was placed underneath the glass surface surrounded by the nanofluid, and the spreading of the nanofluid was monitored using an advanced optical technique. The effect of an electrolyte, such as sodium chloride, on the nanofluid spreading phenomena was also explored. On the basis of the experimental results, we can conclude

  15. Molar volume and adsorption isotherm dependence of capillary forces in nanoasperity contacts. (United States)

    Asay, David B; Kim, Seong H


    The magnitude of the capillary force at any given temperature and adsorbate partial pressure depends primarily on four factors: the surface tension of the adsorbate, its liquid molar volume, its isothermal behavior, and the contact geometry. At large contacting radii, the adsorbate surface tension and the contact geometry are dominating. This is the case of surface force apparatus measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments with micrometer-size spheres. However, as the size of contacting asperities decreases to the nanoscale as in AFM experiments with sharp tips, the molar volume and isotherm of the adsorbate become very important to capillary formation as well as capillary adhesion. This effect is experimentally and theoretically explored with simple alcohol molecules (ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol) which have comparable surface tensions but differing liquid molar volumes. Adsorption isotherms for these alcohols on silicon oxide are also reported.

  16. Manufacturing and microstructural characterization of sintered nickel wicks for capillary pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimbrecht Eduardo Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Sintered nickel powder is proposed to be used as porous wicks in heat pipes and capillary pumps. In this work the manufacturing procedure for tubular wicks for capillary pump application is discussed. The porosity, mechanical resistance and roundness of tubular wicks made of carbonila powder, atomized powder and a powder mixture of both are analyzed. A powder mixture was selected as the best raw material. In this case, pore size in the range of 2 to 24 mm and porosity about 50% were measured. First tests carried out in the laboratory, using acetone as the working fluid, show capillary pumping pressures up to 4 kPa and heat fluxes of about 1 W/cm2 in a two-phase heat transfer loop.

  17. Test results of reliable and very high capillary multi-evaporators / condenser loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oost, S.; Dubois, M.; Bekaert, G. [Societe Anonyme Belge de Construction Aeronautique - SABCA (Belgium)


    The paper present the results of various SABCA activities in the field of two-phase heat transport system. These results have been based on a critical review and analysis of the existing two-phase loop and of the future loop needs in space applications. The research and the development of a high capillary wick (capillary pressure up to 38 000 Pa) are described. These activities have led towards the development of a reliable high performance capillary loop concept (HPCPL), which is discussed in details. Several loop configurations mono/multi-evaporators have been ground tested. The presented results of various tests clearly show the viability of this concept for future applications. Proposed flight demonstrations as well as potential applications conclude this paper. (authors) 7 refs.

  18. Unusual intraosseous capillary hemangioma of the mandible. (United States)

    Dereci, Omur; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Ay, Sinan


    Intraosseous hemangioma is a benign vascular neoplasm, which is mostly seen in vertebrae, maxillofacial bones, and long bones. Intraosseous hemangioma is rarely seen on jaw bones compared to other skeletal bones and usually occurs in the cavernous form. Capillary intraosseous hemangioma of jaws is an uncommon form of intraosseous hemangioma and has not been thoroughly described so far. In this study, a case of capillary intraosseous hemangioma of the mandible was presented with relevant literature review.

  19. Unusual intraosseous capillary hemangioma of the mandible


    Dereci, Omur; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Ay, Sinan


    Intraosseous hemangioma is a benign vascular neoplasm, which is mostly seen in vertebrae, maxillofacial bones, and long bones. Intraosseous hemangioma is rarely seen on jaw bones compared to other skeletal bones and usually occurs in the cavernous form. Capillary intraosseous hemangioma of jaws is an uncommon form of intraosseous hemangioma and has not been thoroughly described so far. In this study, a case of capillary intraosseous hemangioma of the mandible was presented with relevant liter...

  20. Elasto-capillary collapse of floating structures - Non-linear response of elastic structures under capillary forces

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, N; Roman, B; Bico, J; Caps, H


    Flexible rings and rectangle structures floating at the surface of water are prone to deflect under the action of surface pressure induced by the addition of surfactant molecules on the bath. While the frames of rectangles bend inward or outward for any surface pressure difference, circles are only deformed by compression beyond a critical buckling load. However, compressed frames also undergo a secondary buckling instability leading to a rhoboidal shape. Following the pioneering works of \\cite{Hu} and \\cite{Zell}, we describe both experimentally and theoretically the different elasto-capillary deflection and buckling modes as a function of the material parameters. In particular we show how this original fluid structure interaction may be used to probe the adsorption of surfactant molecules at liquid interfaces.

  1. Bundled capillary electrophoresis using microstructured fibres. (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin; Gibson, Graham T T; Oleschuk, Richard D


    Joule heating, arising from the electric current passing through the capillary, causes many undesired effects in CE that ultimately result in band broadening. The use of narrow-bore capillaries helps to solve this problem as smaller cross-sectional area results in decreased Joule heating and the rate of heat dissipation is increased by the larger surface-to-volume ratio. Issues arising from such small capillaries, such as poor detection sensitivity, low loading capacity and high flow-induced backpressure (complicating capillary loading) can be avoided by using a bundle of small capillaries operating simultaneously that share buffer reservoirs. Microstructured fibres, originally designed as waveguides in the telecommunication industry, are essentially a bundle of parallel ∼5 μm id channels that extend the length of a fibre having otherwise similar dimensions to conventional CE capillaries. This work presents the use of microstructured fibres for CZE, taking advantage of their relatively high surface-to-volume ratio and the small individual size of each channel to effect highly efficient separations, particularly for dye-labelled peptides.

  2. Ion guiding in curved glass capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Takao M. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, Tokihiro [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kanai, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yasunori [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    Straight and curved glass capillaries were tested for the guiding of 8 keV Ar{sup 8+} ion beams. The straight capillary was about 50 mm long and 0.87 mm/1.1 mm in inner/outer diameter. One of the two curved capillaries was similar, but was curved with a 270 mm radius. The other was 53 mm long, had diameters of 2.34 mm/2.99 mm, and was curved with a 150 mm radius. The corresponding bending angles of the two curved capillaries were 9.6° and 17.5°, respectively. Transmission through the straight capillary disappeared when the tilt angle was larger than 5°. The curved capillaries guided the ion beams into their corresponding bending angles, which were much larger than 5°, with transmission efficiencies of a few tens percent. This demonstrates the possibility of developing a new scheme of simple small beam deflectors and related beam optics.

  3. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries. (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji


    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis.

  4. Enhanced dynamic wedge output factors for Varian 2300CD and the case for a reference database. (United States)

    Njeh, Christopher F


    Dose inhomogeneity in treatment planning can be compensated using physical wedges. Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) were introduced by Varian to overcome some of the shortcomings of physical wedges. The objectives of this study were to measure EDW output factors for 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies for a Varian 2300CD. Secondly, to review the literature in terms of published enhanced dynamic wedge output factors (EDWOF) for different Varian models and thereby add credence to the case of the validity of reference databases. The enhanced dynamic wedge output factors were measured for the Varian 2300CD for both 6MV and 20 MV photon energies. Twelve papers with published EDWOF for different Varian linac models were found in the literature. Comparing our results with the published mean, we found an excellent agreement for 6 MV EDWOF, with the percentage differences ranging from 0.01% to 0.57%, with a mean of 0.03%. The coefficient of variation of published EDWOF ranged from 0.17% to 0.85% and 0.1% to 0.9% for the for 6 MV and 18 MV photon energies, respectively. This paper provides the first published EDWOF for 20 MV photon energy. In addition, we have provided the first compendium of EDWOFs for different Varian linac models. The consistency of value across models and institution provide further support that a standard dataset of basic photon and electron dosimetry could be established as a guide for future commissioning, beam modeling, and quality assurance purposes.

  5. Analysis of bonded anisotropic wedges with interface crack under anti-plane shear loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The antiplane stress analysis of two anisotropic finite wedges with arbitrary radii and apex angles that are bonded together along a common edge is investigated. The wedge radial boundaries can be subjected to displacement-displacement boundary condi-tions, and the circular boundary of the wedge is free from any traction. The new finite complex transforms are employed to solve the problem. These finite complex transforms have complex analogies to both kinds of standard finite Mellin transforms. The traction free condition on the crack faces is expressed as a singular integral equation by using the exact analytical method. The explicit terms for the strength of singularity are extracted, showing the dependence of the order of the stress singularity on the wedge angle, material constants, and boundary conditions. A numerical method is used for solving the resul-tant singular integral equations. The displacement boundary condition may be a general term of the Taylor series expansion for the displacement prescribed on the radial edge of the wedge. Thus, the analysis of every kind of displacement boundary conditions can be obtained by the achieved results from the foregoing general displacement boundary condition. The obtained stress intensity factors (SIFs) at the crack tips are plotted and compared with those obtained by the finite element analysis (FEA).

  6. Study and evaluation of the Siemens virtual wedge factor: dosimetric monitor system and variable field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon Rio, J R Sendon; Martinez, C Otero; GarcIa, M Sanchez; Busto, R Lobato; Vega, V Luna; Sueiro, J Mosquera; Camean, M Pombar [Servizo de Radiofisica e Proteccion Radioloxica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail:


    In the year 1997 Siemens introduced the virtual wedge in its accelerators. The idea was that a dose profile similar to that of a physical wedge can be obtained by moving one of the accelerator jaws at a constant speed while the dose rate is changing. This work explores the observed behaviour of virtual wedge factors. A model is suggested which takes into account that at any point in time, when the jaw moves, the dose at a point of interest in the phantom is not only due to the direct beam. It also depends on the scattered radiation in the phantom, the head scatter and the behaviour of the monitoring system of the accelerator. Measurements are performed in a Siemens Primus accelerator and compared to the model predictions. It is shown that the model agrees reasonably well with measurements spanning a wide range of conditions. A strong dependence of virtual wedge factors on the dosimetric board has been confirmed and an explanation has been given on how the balance between different contributions is responsible for virtual wedge factors values.

  7. Parental arc magma compositions dominantly controlled by mantle-wedge thermal structure (United States)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Katz, Richard F.; Dungan, Michael A.; Escrig, Stéphane


    The processes that lead to the fourfold variation in arc-averaged compositions of mafic arc lavas remain controversial. Control by the mantle-wedge thermal structure is supported by chemical correlations with the thickness of the underlying arc crust, which affects the thermal state of the wedge. Control by down-going slab temperature is supported by correlations with the slab thermal parameter. The Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone provides a test of these hypotheses. Here we use chemical data to demonstrate that the Southern Volcanic Zone and global arc averages define the same chemical trends, both among elements and between elements and crustal thickness. But in contrast to the global arc system, the Southern Volcanic Zone is built on crust of variable thickness with a constant slab thermal parameter. This natural experiment, along with a set of numerical simulations, shows that global arc compositional variability is dominated by different extents of melting that are controlled by the thermal structure of the mantle wedge. Slab temperatures play a subordinate role. Variations in the subducting slab's fluid flux and sediment compositions, as well as mantle-wedge heterogeneities, produce second-order effects that are manifested as distinctive trace element and isotopic signatures; these can be more clearly elucidated once the importance of wedge thermal structure is recognized.

  8. Measurement of photoneutron dose produced by wedge filters of a high energy linac using polycarbonate films. (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Hashemi-Malayeri, Bijan; Raisali, Gholamreza; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Sharafi, Ali Akbar; Torkzadeh, Falamarz


    Radiotherapy represents the most widely spread technique to control and treat cancer. To increase the treatment efficiency, high energy linacs are used. However, applying high energy photon beams leads to a non-negligible dose of neutrons contaminating therapeutic beams. In addition, using conventional linacs necessitates applying wedge filters in some clinical conditions. However, there is not enough information on the effect of these filters on the photoneutrons produced. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of photoneutron dose equivalent due to the use of linac wedge filters. A high energy (18 MV) linear accelerator (Elekta SL 75/25) was studied. Polycarbonate films were used to measure the dose equivalent of photoneutrons. After electrochemical etching of the films, the neutron dose equivalent was calculated using Hp(10) factor, and its variation on the patient plane at 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 cm from the center of the X-ray beam was determined. By increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreased rapidly for the open and wedged fields. Increasing of the field size increased the photoneutron dose equivalent. The use of wedge filter increased the proportion of the neutron dose equivalent. The increase can be accounted for by the selective absorption of the high energy photons by the wedge filter.

  9. Development of hydrophobic clay–alumina based capillary membrane for desalination of brine by membrane distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Das


    Full Text Available Clay–alumina compositions of 0, 20, 40 and 55 weight percent (wt% clay and rest alumina were maintained in porous support preparation by extrusion followed by sintering at 1300 °C for 2.5 h to obtain 3 mm/2 mm (outer diameter/inner diameter capillary. 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (97% (C8 was used to modify the capillary surface of all compositions without any intermediate membrane layer to impart hydrophobic characteristics and compared in terms of contact angle produced by the capillaries with water and liquid entry pressure (LEPw. FTIR analysis showed that the hydrophilic surface of the capillary membranes was efficiently modified by the proposed grafting method. Capillary with 55 wt% clay produced a pore size of 1.43 micron and was considered as an ideal candidate for grafting with C8 polymer to impart surface hydrophobicity. The contact angle and LEPw value obtained for this modified membrane (C-55-M were 145° and 1 bar, respectively. The modified capillary membrane was applied for desalination of brine by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD at a feed pressure of 0.85 bar. Maximum flux obtained for C-55-M membrane was 98.66 L/m2 day at a temperature difference of 60 °C with salt rejection of 99.96%. Mass transfer coefficient of C-55-M was 16 × 10−3 mm/s at feed temperature of 70 °C.

  10. Capillary SFC-APCI-MS characterization of PACs obtained by the fractionation of a contaminated pond sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.; Sim, P.G.; Crain, S.M. [National Research Council, Halifax (Canada); Benoit, F.M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Capillary supercritical fluid chromotography can be directly coupled to a mass spectrometer by utilizing interfaces based on the direct fluid interface. In these, the capillary restrictor passes through a probe, at the end of which is positioned a heating element used to directly heat the end of the capillary restrictor to prevent solute precipitation and freezing of the mobile phase in the restrictor during decompression. Such SFC interfaces, which pass directly into the source of the MS, suffer from sensitivity problems, especially in the electron impact mode. Many of the problem associated with SFC-MS could effectively be removed if the ionization of the compounds were to occur at atmospheric pressure. Capillary SFC was combined with APCI-MS via heated pneumatic nebulizer interfaces modified for use with SFC, and applied to analyze a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic compounds obtained by the fractionation of a contaminated pond sediment.

  11. Increased capillary permeability for plasma proteins in oral contraceptive users. (United States)

    Tollan, A; Kvenild, K; Strand, H; Oian, P; Maltau, J M


    The transcapillary fluid balance was examined in eleven women before administration of a monophasic oral contraceptive (desogestrel 0.15 mg, ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg), and after three and six months of use. The interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured by the "wick" method, and the interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method in subcutaneous tissue on thorax and leg. During the six-month observation period, the following changes were observed: Plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased (mean 1.8 mmHg, p = 0.047), as well as serum albumin (mean 5.1 g/l, p = 0.0006), total protein concentration (mean 2.8 g/l, p = 0.0006), hemoglobin (mean 0.5 g/dl, p = 0.014) and hematocrit (mean 1.8%, p = 0.047). Blood pressure and body weight remained unchanged, but foot volume showed a significant increase. The colloid osmotic pressure gradient (plasma-interstitium) was significantly reduced. The results indicate an increase in plasma volume in addition to an increased capillary permeability to plasma proteins during oral contraceptive use. We suggest that the observed changes in transcapillary fluid balance is caused by the estrogen component of the oral contraceptive pill.

  12. Crossover from shear-driven to thermally activated drainage of liquid-infused microscale capillaries (United States)

    Colosqui, Carlos E.; Wexler, Jason S.; Liu, Ying; Stone, Howard A.


    The shear-driven drainage of capillary grooves filled with viscous liquid is a dynamic wetting phenomenon relevant to numerous industrial processes and lubricant-infused surfaces for drag reduction and antifouling. Prior work has reported that a finite length L∞ of the capillary groove can remain indefinitely filled with liquid even when large shear stresses are applied. The mechanism preventing full drainage is attributed to a balance between the shear-driven flow and a counterflow driven by capillary pressures caused by deformation of the free surface. In this work, we examine closely the approach to the final equilibrium length L∞ and report a crossover to a slow drainage regime that cannot be described by conventional dynamic models considering solely hydrodynamic and capillary forces. The slow drainage regime observed in experiments can be instead modeled by a kinetic equation describing a sequence of random thermally activated transitions between multiple metastable states caused by surface defects with nanoscale dimensions. Our findings provide insights on the critical role that natural or engineered surface roughness with nanoscale dimensions can play in the imbibition and drainage of capillaries and other dynamic wetting processes in microscale systems.

  13. Study of the electroosmotic flow as a means to propel the mobile phase in capillary electrochromatography in view of further miniaturization of capillary electrochromatography systems. (United States)

    Szekely, Laszlo; Freitag, Ruth


    In this paper, we investigate the phenomenon of electroosmosis as a means to propel a mobile phase, in particular in view of an application in microfluidic systems, which are characterized by significantly smaller volumes of the reservoirs and the separation channels compared to conventional instrumentation. In the microfluidic chip, pH changes due to water electrolysis quickly showed an effect on the electroosmotic flow (EOF), which could be counteracted by either regularly exchanging or buffering the mobile phase. Surface treatment was of no effect in regard to EOF stabilization in empty channels but may have an influence in channels filled with a charged monolith. In fused-silica capillaries the EOF was generally found to decrease from 'naked' to surface-treated to monolith-filled capillaries. The EOF tended to be higher when an organic solvent (acetonitrile) was added to the mobile phase and could be further increased by substituting the water with equal amounts of methanol. In addition, the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the EOF was investigated. In a microfluidic chip with empty (cross-)channels such an effect could be responsible for a redirection of the flow. In capillaries partially filled with a noncharged (non-EOF-generating) monolith, a linear relationship could be established between the EOF created in the empty section of the capillary (apparent mobility) and the length of the monolith (backpressure). In capillaries partially filled with a charged (EOF-producing) monolith, flow inhomogeneities must be expected as a consequence of a superimposition of hydrodynamic pressure and EOF as mobile phase driving force.

  14. A fully integrated high-Q Whispering-Gallery Wedge Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ramiro-Manzano, F; Pavesi, L; Pucker, G; Ghulinyan, M


    Microresonator devices which posses ultra-high quality factors are essential for fundamental investigations and applications. Microsphere and microtoroid resonators support remarkably high Q's at optical frequencies, while planarity constrains preclude their integration into functional lightwave circuits. Conventional semiconductor processing can also be used to realize ultra-high-Q's with planar wedge-resonators. Still, their full integration with side-coupled dielectric waveguides remains an issue. Here we show the full monolithic integration of a wedge-resonator/waveguide vertically-coupled system on a silicon chip. In this approach the cavity and the waveguide lay in different planes. This permits to realize the shallow-angle wedge while the waveguide remains intact, allowing therefore to engineer a coupling of arbitrary strength between these two. The precise size-control and the robustness against post-processing operation due to its monolithic integration makes this system a prominent platform for indu...

  15. Stress singularity in a top of composite wedge with internal functionally graded material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Tikhomirov


    Full Text Available The antiplane problem of the composite wedge consisting of two homogeneous external wedge-shaped areas and an intermediate zone of the interphase is studied. The interphase material is assumed functionally graded. It is shown that the problem in each area is harmonic within the quadratic law of inhomogeneity of the material in the transverse direction. The influence of the interphase on the stress state at the top of the wedge is analyzed. As compared to the ideal contact of external materials, the presence of the interphase leads both to decrease and increase in the singularity exponent. Moreover, the stress asymptotic may have two singular terms for some values of the composite parameters.

  16. Water Impact of Rigid Wedges in Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawan Shah


    Full Text Available A combined experimental and numerical investigation was conducted into impact of rigid wedges on water in two-dimensional fluid conditions. Drop test experiments were conducted involving symmetric rigid wedges of varying angle and mass impacted onto water. The kinematic behaviour of the wedge and water was characterised using high-speed video. Numerical models were analysed in LS-DYNA® that combined regions of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles and a Lagrangian element mesh. The analysis captured the majority of experimental results and trends, within the bounds of experimental variance. Further, the combined modelling technique presented a highly attractive combination of computational efficiency and accuracy, making it a suitable candidate for aircraft ditching investigations.

  17. The synthesis and adsorption properties of some carbohydrate-terminated dendrimer wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, R L


    A range of dendritic molecules that are designed to bind to a cotton surface has been synthesised. The architecture of the molecules allows the location of various functional, property modifying units at the focus and the attachment of recognition groups at the periphery of a dendritic molecule with wedge topology. The synthesis and characterisation of dendrimer wedges up to the second generation using a divergent approach has been performed. These wedges are readily built up using a simple and efficient stepwise pathway from the central core, and surface recognising species are subsequently attached to the molecule utilising procedures developed in conjunction with Unilever Research Laboratories. Work has been carried out to assess their adsorption onto a cotton surface and the postulated adsorption mechanism is discussed.

  18. Pervasive seismic wave reflectivity and metasomatism of the Tonga mantle wedge. (United States)

    Zheng, Yingcai; Lay, Thorne; Flanagan, Megan P; Williams, Quentin


    Subduction zones play critical roles in the recycling of oceanic lithosphere and the generation of continental crust. Seismic imaging can reveal structures associated with key dynamic processes occurring in the upper-mantle wedge above the sinking oceanic slab. Three-dimensional images of reflecting interfaces throughout the upper-mantle wedge above the subducting Tonga slab were obtained by migration of teleseismic recordings of underside P- and S-wave reflections. Laterally continuous weak reflectors with tens of kilometers of topography were detected at depths near 90, 125, 200, 250, 300, 330, 390, 410, and 450 kilometers. P- and S-wave impedances decreased at the 330-kilometer and 450-kilometer reflectors, and S-wave impedance decreased near 200 kilometers in the vicinity of the slab and near 390 kilometers, just above the global 410-kilometer increase. The pervasive seismic reflectivity results from phase transitions and compositional zonation associated with extensive metasomatism involving slab-derived fluids rising through the wedge.

  19. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido


    Analogue model experiments are widely used to gain insights into the evolution of geological structures. In this study, we present a direct comparison of experimental results of 14 analogue modelling laboratories using prescribed set-ups. A quantitative analysis of the results will document the variability among models and will allow an appraisal of reproducibility and limits of interpretation. This has direct implications for comparisons between structures in analogue models and natural field examples. All laboratories used the same frictional analogue materials (quartz and corundum sand) and prescribed model-building techniques (sieving and levelling). Although each laboratory used its own experimental apparatus, the same type of self-adhesive foil was used to cover the base and all the walls of the experimental apparatus in order to guarantee identical boundary conditions (i.e. identical shear stresses at the base and walls). Three experimental set-ups using only brittle frictional materials were examined. In each of the three set-ups the model was shortened by a vertical wall, which moved with respect to the fixed base and the three remaining sidewalls. The minimum width of the model (dimension parallel to mobile wall) was also prescribed. In the first experimental set-up, a quartz sand wedge with a surface slope of ˜20° was pushed by a mobile wall. All models conformed to the critical taper theory, maintained a stable surface slope and did not show internal deformation. In the next two experimental set-ups, a horizontal sand pack consisting of alternating quartz sand and corundum sand layers was shortened from one side by the mobile wall. In one of the set-ups a thin rigid sheet covered part of the model base and was attached to the mobile wall (i.e. a basal velocity discontinuity distant from the mobile wall). In the other set-up a basal rigid sheet was absent and the basal velocity discontinuity was located at the mobile wall. In both types of experiments

  20. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient. (United States)

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal


    The electro-osmotic flow, a significant factor in capillary electrophoretic separations, is very sensitive to small changes in structure and surface roughness of the inner surface of fused silica capillary. Besides a number of negative effects, the electro-osmotic flow can also have a positive effect on the separation. An example could be fused silica capillaries with homogenous surface roughness along their entire separation length as produced by etching with supercritical water. Different strains of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were separated on that type of capillaries. In the present study, fused-silica capillaries with a gradient of surface roughness were prepared and their basic behavior was studied in capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-visible detection. First the influence of the electro-osmotic flow on the peak shape of a marker of electro-osmotic flow, thiourea, has been discussed. An antifungal agent, hydrophobic amphotericin B, and a protein marker, albumin, have been used as model analytes. A significant narrowing of the detected zones of the examined analytes was achieved in supercritical-water-treated capillaries as compared to the electrophoretic separation in smooth capillaries. Minimum detectable amounts of 5 ng/mL amphotericin B and 5 μg/mL albumin were reached with this method.

  1. Impaired skin capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; Tangelder, GJ; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA


    Capillary rarefaction occurs in many tissues in patients with essential hypertension and may contribute to an increased vascular resistance and impaired muscle metabolism. Rarefaction may be caused by a structural (anatomic) absence of capillaries, functional nonperfusion, or both. The aim of this s

  2. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A; Ramsay, Lauren M; Dada, Oluwatosin O; Cermak, Nathan; Dovichi, Norman J


    CIEF and CZE are coupled with LIF detection to create an ultrasensitive 2-D separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer-filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first-dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second-dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second-dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125.

  3. A Novel Polybrene/Chondroitin Sulfate C Double Coated Capillary and Its Application in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU,Ying-Xiang(杜迎翔); HONDA,Susumu; TAGA,Atsushi; LIU,Wen-Ying(刘文英); SUZUKI,Shigeo


    A new capillary coated by double polymer, polybrene/chondroitin sulfate C (P/CC), was developed using a simple procedure. The P/CC double coated capillary showed long lifetime,strong chemical stability and good reproducibility. It endured during more than 100 replicated analyses and was also tolerant to HCl (1 mol/L), NaOH (0.01 mol/L), CH3OH and CH3CN. The P/CC double coated capillary can be applied to basic drug analyses. The adsorption of basic drugs to the capillary wall was suppressed and the peak tailing greatly decreased. The use of the P/CC double coated capillary allowed excelent separation of the enantiomers of some basic drugs by using chondroitin sulfate C as the chiral selector, ami the peak symmetry of basic drugs was further improved under these conditions.

  4. Trace element features of hydrothermal and inherited igneous zircon grains in mantle wedge environment: A case study from the Myanmar jadeitite (United States)

    Lei, Weiyan; Shi, Guanghai; Santosh, M.; Ng, Yinok; Liu, Yingxin; Wang, Jing; Xie, Gen; Ju, Yan


    Jadeitites are considered to crystallise in ultramafic rocks in the subduction channel presumably from the overlying mantle wedge, and therefore zircons from these rocks provide important insights into mantle wedge processes. Here we investigate hydrothermal zircon (Group II) formed within a subduction zone and compare these with the igneous zircon cores (Group I) from the Myanmar jadeitite. Previous U-Pb studies reported ages of Groups I and II zircons as 163 Ma, and 147 Ma respectively, and both show isotope signature of the depleted mantle. Group I zircons have much higher total concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) (500-1945 ppm) than those of Group II zircon (112-307 ppm), and contains relatively higher abundance of Y, Nb, Ta, Ti, Th and U with higher (Sm/La)N ratios (25.3-501) and Ce-anomalies (8.04-140) but lower (Yb/Gd)N ratios (9.76-57.0) than those of the Group II ((Sm/La)N ratios = 2.12-32.2, Ce-anomalies = 1.63-19.6, (Yb/Gd)N ratios = 44.8-142). Hf concentrations are broadly similar in both Groups. The Group I zircons are considered to be magmatic and crystallised from H2O-rich basaltic melt at relatively high pressure in the mantle wedge, whereas the Group II zircon overgrowth took place through recrystallisation and precipitation with distinct dissolution of the Group I zircons. Variation in the concentration of trace elements in zircons from Groups I to II in the mantle wedge is related to an intra-oceanic subduction system in the presence of Na-rich hydrothermal fluids under high-pressure and low-temperature. The Ti-in-zircon thermometer yield a mean crystallisation temperature of 742 ± 141 °C for Group I zircons, whereas the Group II zircons yield 339 ± 33 °C. The two groups of zircons also provide insights into the probable protolith involved in formation of the Myanmar jadeitite.

  5. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of an Integrated Sleeve-Wedge Anchorage for CFRP Rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Smith, Scott T.; Täljsten, Björn;


    . Recently, an integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage has been successfully developed specifically for CFRP rods. This paper in turn presents a numerical simulation of the newly developed anchorage using ABAQUS. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, which considers material non-linearity, uses...... hexagonal elements for the barrel and CFRP rod and tetrahedral elements for the integrated sleeve-wedge. The simulated barrel surface strains are shown to compare well with optically measured strains, however, the numerical results are shown to be sensitive to the mechanical properties of the anchorage...

  6. Global Solutions of Shock Reflection by Wedges for the Nonlinear Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei DENG; Wei XIANG


    When a plane shock hits a wedge head on,it experiences a reflection-diffraction process and then a self-similar reflected shock moves outward as the original shock moves forward in time.In this paper,shock reflection by large-angle wedges for compressible flow modeled by the nonlinear wave equation is studied and a global theory of existence,stability and regularity is established.Moreover,C0,1 is the optimal regularity for the solutions across the degenerate sonic boundary.

  7. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)


    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper the motion of cylindrical particles in a wedge-shaped flow was studied. The velocity distribution of wedge-shaped flow was simulated first, then the Euler-Lagrange model used to calculate the motion of cylindrical particles. The evolution of particle location, velocity and orientation with time was examined. The trajectories of the particles with different particle Stokes number, rate of flow and initial particle orientation were drawn. The results indicate that the Stokes number and initial orientation are important parameters which affect the particle motion. The conclusions are helpful to the engineering applications.

  9. Reconstruction of Bulk Operators within the Entanglement Wedge in Gauge-Gravity Duality (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Harlow, Daniel; Wall, Aron C.


    In this Letter we prove a simple theorem in quantum information theory, which implies that bulk operators in the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence can be reconstructed as CFT operators in a spatial subregion A , provided that they lie in its entanglement wedge. This is an improvement on existing reconstruction methods, which have at most succeeded in the smaller causal wedge. The proof is a combination of the recent work of Jafferis, Lewkowycz, Maldacena, and Suh on the quantum relative entropy of a CFT subregion with earlier ideas interpreting the correspondence as a quantum error correcting code.

  10. Bulk Reconstruction in the Entanglement Wedge in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi; Wall, Aron C


    In this note we prove a simple theorem in quantum information theory, which implies that bulk operators in the Anti-de Sitter / Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence can be reconstructed as CFT operators in a spatial subregion $A$, provided that they lie in its entanglement wedge. This is an improvement on existing reconstruction methods, which have at most succeeded in the smaller causal wedge. The proof is a combination of the recent work of Jafferis, Lewkowycz, Maldacena, and Suh on the quantum relative entropy of a CFT subregion with earlier ideas interpreting the correspondence as a quantum error correcting code.

  11. Laparoscopic wedge resection of synchronous gastric intraepithelial neoplasia and stromal tumor: a case report. (United States)

    Mou, Yi-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Xie, Kun; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ke


    Synchronous occurrence of epithelial neoplasia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach is uncommon. Only rare cases have been reported in the literature. We present here a 60-year-old female case of synchronous occurrence of gastric high-level intraepithelial neoplasia and GIST with the features of 22 similar cases and detailed information reported in the English-language literature summarized. In the present patient, epithelial neoplasia and GIST were removed en bloc by laparoscopic wedge resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case treated by laparoscopic wedge resection.

  12. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension. (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert


    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  13. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow (United States)

    Sarveswaran, K.; Kurz, V.; Dong, Z.; Tanaka, T.; Penny, S.; Timp, G.


    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using “live cell lithography”(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision—no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100–1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function.

  14. The short-term effects of increasing plasma colloid osmotic pressure in patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbald, W.J.; Driedger, A.A.; Wells, G.A.; Myers, M.L.; Lefcoe, M.


    We infused hyperoncotic albumin (25 or 50 gm of a 50% solution) into patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema (adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)) to evaluate its effect on the transmicrovascular flux from blood to pulmonary edema fluid of two radiotracers--/sup 111/In-DTPA (mol wt 504) and /sup 125/I-human serum albumin (HSA) (mol wt 69,000). Two groups of patients were studied--one with a modest increase in permeability of the pulmonary alveolocapillary membrane to /sup 125/I-HSA (group 1) and another with a large increase in permeability to /sup 125/I-HSA (group 2). We used furosemide, when necessary, to minimize the effect of albumin infusion to increase the pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure (Pmv), measured clinically as the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Therapy significantly increased the mean colloid osmotic pressure (COP) in both groups, but not the mean PCWP or calculated Pmv. Albumin had no significant effect on the mean pulmonary transmicrovascular flux of the radiotracers in either group, despite the increase in COP. In individual patients, a change in the Pmv in response to albumin infusion was directly correlated with the change in flux of /sup 111/In-DTPA (group 1: delta In-DTPA (%) . 8.66 + 1.4 delta Pmv (%) r . 0.51, P less than 0.02; group 2: delta In-DTPA (%) . -3.43 + 1.6 delta Pmv (%) r . 0.67, P less than 0.01). A change in the transmicrovascular flux of I-HSA also correlated with a change in the intravascular Starling forces in both groups. We conclude that albumin infusion in patients with ARDS will not augment the pulmonary transmicrovascular flux of low or high molecular-weight solutes when the effect of albumin to increase the Pmv is minimized; nor, however, does an increase in plasma COP significantly reduce the flux of such solutes.

  15. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær


    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  16. Determination of refractive index of a simple negative, positive, or zero power lens using wedged plated interferometer (United States)

    Shukla, R. P.; Perera, G. M.; George, M. C.; Venkateswarlu, P.


    A nondestructive technique for measuring the refractive index of a negative lens using a wedged plate interferometer is described. The method can be also used for measuring the refractive index of convex or zero power lenses. Schematic diagrams are presented for the use of a wedged plate interferometer for measuring the refractive index of a concave lens and of a convex lens.

  17. The effects of various kinds of lateral wedge insoles on performance of individuals with knee joint osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rafiaee


    Conclusion: Using lateral wedge insole is a simple, inexpensive therapy for decreasing pain and improving quality of life; however, most research must be carried out to find the effects of lateral wedge on severity of knee joint OA and aligning TFA.

  18. 76 FR 24856 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks... (United States)


    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) from the People's Republic of China..., track tools and wedges; (3) picks and mattocks; and (4) axes, adzes and similar hewing tools. Hand...

  19. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks... (United States)


    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) (``Hand Tools'') from the People's... & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

  20. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.


    three-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analysed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full-length laterally wedged insole. Results: There were significant shoe wedge interactions on the first...

  1. Accuracy and initial stability of open- and closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric RSA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Welsing, R.T.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Rijnberg, W.J.; Loon, C.J.M. van; Kampen, A. van


    We analyzed the difference in angle-correction accuracy and initial stability between open-wedge (OWO) and closed-wedge tibial valgus osteotomy (CWO). Five fresh-frozen pairs of human cadaver lower limbs were used; their bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with DEXA and a planned 7 degrees valgu

  2. A two-dimensional model of the pressing section of a paper machine including dynamic capillary effects

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg P.


    Paper production is a problem with significant importance for society; it is also a challenging topic for scientific investigation. This study is concerned with the simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. A two-dimensional model is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical model accounts for the coexistence of saturated and unsaturated zones in a multilayer computational domain. The discretization is performed by the MPFA-O method. Numerical experiments are carried out for parameters that are typical of the production process. The static and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relations are tested to evaluate the influence of the dynamic capillary effect. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongjun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the μM level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  4. Capillary rise of water in hydrophilic nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Gruener, Simon; Wallacher, Dirk; Kityk, Andriy V; Huber, Patrick; 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.067301


    We report on the capillary rise of water in three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic silica pores with 3.5nm and 5nm mean radii, respectively (porous Vycor monoliths). We find classical square root of time Lucas-Washburn laws for the imbibition dynamics over the entire capillary rise times of up to 16h investigated. Provided we assume two preadsorbed strongly bound layers of water molecules resting at the silica walls, which corresponds to a negative velocity slip length of -0.5nm for water flow in silica nanopores, we can describe the filling process by a retained fluidity and capillarity of water in the pore center. This anticipated partitioning in two dynamic components reflects the structural-thermodynamic partitioning in strongly silica bound water layers and capillary condensed water in the pore center which is documented by sorption isotherm measurements.

  5. The distribution and depth of ion doses implanted into wedges by plasma immersion ion implantation in drifting and stationary plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, R N; Devasahayam, S; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M M [School of Physics (A28), University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    The distribution of ion dose arising from plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of a complex shape in the form of a wedge is measured. Two types of plasma are considered: a drifting titanium plasma derived from a pulsed cathodic arc and a stationary plasma generated by PIII pulses in oxygen or nitrogen gas. The distributions of the implanted material over the surface of the aluminium wedge were studied using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering. The effects of varying the apex angles of the wedge and the plasma density are investigated. We conclude that ion-focusing effects at the apex of the wedge were more important for the drifting plasma than for the stationary plasmas. In a drifting plasma, the ion drift velocity directed towards the apex of the wedge compresses the sheath close to the apex and enhances the concentration of the dose. For the stationary plasma, the dose is more uniform.

  6. Long range hybrid tube-wedge plasmonic waveguide with extreme light confinement and good fabrication error tolerance. (United States)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Xu, Kai; Wang, Liang


    We studied a novel long range hybrid tube-wedge plasmonic (LRHTWP) waveguide consisting of a high index dielectric nanotube placed above a triangular metal wedge substrate. Using comprehensive numerical simulations on guiding properties of the designed waveguide, it is found that extreme light confinement and low propagation loss are obtained due to strong coupling between dielectric nanotube mode and wedge plasmon polariton. Comparing with previous studied hybrid plasmonic waveguides, the LRHTWP waveguide has longer propagation length and tighter mode confinement. In addition, the LRHTWP waveguide is quite tolerant to practical fabrication errors such as variation of the wedge tip angle and the horizontal misalignment between the nanotube and the metal wedge. The proposed LRHTWP waveguide could have many application potentials for various high performance nanophotonic components.

  7. Photosensitive diazotized poly(ethylene glycol) covalent capillary coatings for analysis of proteins by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Chen, Xin; Cong, Hailin; Shu, Xi; Peng, Qiaohong


    A new method for the fabrication of covalently cross-linked capillary coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is described using diazotized PEG (diazo-PEG) as a new photosensitive coating agent. The film of diazo-PEG depends on ionic bonding and was first prepared on the inner surface of capillary by self-assembly, and ionic bonding was converted into covalent bonding after reaction of ultraviolet light with diazo groups through unique photochemical reaction. The covalently bonded coating impedance adsorption of protein on the central surface of capillary and hence the four proteins ribonuclease A, cytochrome c, bovine serum albumin, and lysosome can be baseline separated by using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The covalently cross-linked diazo-PEG capillary column coatings not only improved the CE separation performance for proteins compared to non-covalently cross-linked coatings or bare capillary but also showed a remarkable chemical solidity and repeatability. Because photosensitive diazo-PEG took the place of the highly noxious and silane moisture-sensitive coating reagents in the fabrication of covalent coating, this technique shows the advantage of being environment-friendly and having a high efficiency for CE to make the covalently bonded capillaries.

  8. Laterally wedged insoles in knee osteoarthritis: do biomechanical effects decline after one month of wear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to determine whether the effect of laterally wedged insoles on the adduction moment in knee osteoarthritis (OA declined after one month of wear, and whether higher reported use of insoles was associated with a reduced effect on the adduction moment at one month. Methods Twenty people with medial compartment OA underwent gait analysis in their own shoes wearing i no insoles and; ii insoles wedged laterally 5° in random order. Testing occurred at baseline and after one month of use of the insoles. Participants recorded daily use of insoles in a log-book. Outcomes were the first and second peak external knee adduction moment and the adduction angular impulse, compared across conditions and time with repeated measures general linear models. Correlations were obtained between total insole use and change in gait parameters with used insoles at one month, and change scores were compared between high and low users of insoles using general linear models. Results There was a significant main effect for condition, whereby insoles significantly reduced the adduction moment (all p Conclusion Effects of laterally wedged insoles on the adduction moment do not appear to decline after one month of continuous use, suggesting that significant wedge degradation does not occur over the short-term.

  9. A new GTD slope diffraction coefficient for plane wave illumination of a wedge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael; Breinbjerg, Olav


    Two wedge problems including slope diffraction are solved: one in which the incident field is a non-uniform plane wave, and one in which it is an inhomogeneous plane wave. The two solutions lead to the same GTD slope diffraction coefficient. This coefficient reveals the existence of a coupling ef...

  10. A Novel Continuous Extrusion Process to Fabricate Wedge-Shaped Light Guide Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tse Hsiao


    Full Text Available Backlight modules are key components in thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD. Among the components of a backlight module, the light guide plate (LGP plays the most important role controlling the light projected to the eyes of users. A wedge-shaped LGP, with its asymmetrical structure, is usually fabricated by an injection proces, but the fabrication time of this process is long. This study proposes a continuous extrusion process to fabricate wedge-shaped LGPs. This continuous process has advantages for mass production. Besides a T-die and rollers, this system also has an in situ monitor of the melt-bank that forms during the extrusion process, helping control the plate thickness. Results show that the melt bank has a close relationship with the plate thickness. The temperature of the bottom heater and roller was adjusted to reduce the surface deformation of the wedge-shaped plate. This continuous extrusion system can successfully manufacture wedge-shaped LGPs for mass production.

  11. Open wedge metatarsal osteotomy versus crescentic osteotomy to correct severe hallux valgus deformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Jens Ulrik; Hamborg-Petersen, Ellen; Herold, Niels;


    operation for severe hallux valgus, comparing the open wedge osteotomy to the crescentic osteotomy which is our traditional treatment. METHODS: Forty-five patients with severe hallux valgus (hallux valgus angle >35̊, and intermetatarsal angle >15̊) were included in this study. The treatment was proximal...

  12. Dissolved organic carbon loss from Yedoma permafrost amplified by ice wedge thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J. E.; Mann, P. J.; Dowdy, K. L.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Bulygina, E. B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Holmes, R. M.


    Pleistocene Yedoma permafrost contains nearly a third of all organic matter (OM) stored in circum-arctic permafrost and is characterized by the presence of massive ice wedges. Due to its rapid formation by sediment accumulation and subsequent frozen storage, Yedoma OM is relatively well preserved an

  13. Estimation of treatment efficacy with complier average causal effects (CACE) in a randomized stepped wedge trial. (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Arnold, Benjamin F; Reygadas, Fermin; Hubbard, Alan E; Colford, John M


    Complier average causal effects (CACE) estimate the impact of an intervention among treatment compliers in randomized trials. Methods used to estimate CACE have been outlined for parallel-arm trials (e.g., using an instrumental variables (IV) estimator) but not for other randomized study designs. Here, we propose a method for estimating CACE in randomized stepped wedge trials, where experimental units cross over from control conditions to intervention conditions in a randomized sequence. We illustrate the approach with a cluster-randomized drinking water trial conducted in rural Mexico from 2009 to 2011. Additionally, we evaluated the plausibility of assumptions required to estimate CACE using the IV approach, which are testable in stepped wedge trials but not in parallel-arm trials. We observed small increases in the magnitude of CACE risk differences compared with intention-to-treat estimates for drinking water contamination (risk difference (RD) = -22% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33, -11) vs. RD = -19% (95% CI: -26, -12)) and diarrhea (RD = -0.8% (95% CI: -2.1, 0.4) vs. RD = -0.1% (95% CI: -1.1, 0.9)). Assumptions required for IV analysis were probably violated. Stepped wedge trials allow investigators to estimate CACE with an approach that avoids the stronger assumptions required for CACE estimation in parallel-arm trials. Inclusion of CACE estimates in stepped wedge trials with imperfect compliance could enhance reporting and interpretation of the results of such trials.

  14. On the shape of a droplet in a wedge: new insight from electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baratian, D.; Cavalli, A.; Ende, van den H.T.M.; Mugele, F.


    The equilibrium morphology of liquid drops exposed to geometric constraints can be rather complex. Even for simple geometries, analytical solutions are scarce. Here, we investigate the equilibrium shape and position of liquid drops confined in the wedge between two solid surfaces at an angle α. Usin

  15. Quantitative planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph: visualisation of a supersonic wedge flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Bakker, P.G.


    Planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph is demonstrated as a diagnostic tool for quantitative flow visualisation of internal supersonic wedge flow. A dedicated Bayesian deconvolution filter is used to remove the spectral structure that is introduced by the spectrograph. The 2D density field is d

  16. Analysis on electromagnetic scattering by a wedge with impedance faces under exact impedance boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴良超; 汪茂光


    Under the exact impedance boundary condition (EIBC), by using wave equations and the longitudinal field method, the electromagnetic scattenng by an impedance wedge has been analysed in detail, following the Maliuzhinets approach, and the uniform diffraction coefficient of the diffracted field has been presented.

  17. Fossil predation: did some clavilithine fasciolariid gastropods employ valve-wedging to feed on bivalves?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Geerat J.


    Several gastropods, including members of the Busyconinae, wedge or chip bivalve prey by inserting the outer lip between the valves. This habit, which is associated with an abapically downwardly convex outer lip, often results in breakage and subsequent repair of the lip. I tested the hypothesis that

  18. On the role of lateral waves in the radiation from the dielectric wedge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter


    The field on the dielectric wedge is approximated by a plane-wave expansion as in [1]. Contributions from this solution to both the surface field and the radiation field are examined. Finally, an experimental radiation field is compared with the plane-wave solution and with a geometric-optical di...

  19. Optical necklaces generated by the diffraction on a stack of dielectric wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izdebskaya, Yana [Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, V.I. Vernandsky Taurida National University, Simferopol 95007, Crimea (Ukraine)], E-mail:


    We demonstrate that the regular ring-shaped arrays of Gaussian beams, or optical necklaces, can be generated using diffraction on a stack of dielectric wedges. A condition for self-similarity and structural stability of the beams has been derived and shows good comparison with experimental data.

  20. Nanoscale guiding for cold atoms based on surface plasmons along the tips of metallic wedges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng-Ling; Tang Wei-Min; Zhou Ming; Gao Chuan-Yu


    We propose a novel scheme to guide neutral cold atoms in a nanoscale region based on surface plasmons (SPs) of one pair and two pairs of tips of metallic wedges with locally enhanced light intensity and sub-optical wavelength resolution.We analyze the near-field intensity distribution of the tip of the metallic wedge by the FDTD method,and study the total intensity as well as the total potential of optical potentials and van der Waals potentials for 87Rb atoms in the light field of one pair and two pairs of tips of metallic wedges.It shows that the total potentials of one pair and two pairs of tips of metallic wedges can generate a gravito-optical trap and a dark closed trap for nanoscale guiding of neutral cold atoms.Guided atoms can be cooled with efficient intensity-gradient Sisyphus cooling by blue-detuned light field.This provides an important step towards the generation of hybrid systems consisting of isolated atoms and solid devices.