WorldWideScience

Sample records for capillary pattern type

  1. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  2. 3D capillary valves for versatile capillary patterning of channel walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate passive capillary patterning of channel walls with a liquid in situ. Patterning is performed using a novel 3D capillary valve system combining three standard capillary stop valves. A range of different patterns is demonstrated in three channel walls. Capillary patterning was designed

  3. The branching pattern of villous capillaries and structural changes of placental terminal villi in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirkovská, M.; Kučera, T.; Kaláb, J.; Jadrníček, M.; Niedobová, V.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Moravcová, M.; Žižka, Z.; Krejčí, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2012), s. 343-351 ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/09/0733 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : angiogenesis * branching * capillaries * collagen * confocal microscopy * desmin * diabetes * placenta * structure * three-dimensional reconstruction * vascular topology * villi * vimentin Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.117, year: 2012

  4. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Sabri; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Infantile hemangiomas demonstrate a pattern of proliferative growth in infancy followed by a slow phase of involution. In contrast a rare type of vascular tumor, intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma, usually presents beyond the period of infancy with nonspecific symptoms and no evidence of involution. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, imaging, histopathological characteristics and management of intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. We performed a retrospective review of a 20-year period to identify children diagnosed with intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. Patient demographics, imaging and histopathological findings were recorded. We included 18 children (10 boys, 8 girls) with histologically proven intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma - and adequate imaging. The mean age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 1 day to 19 years). Twelve lesions involved muscles of the extremities, 4 were located in the trunk and 2 were in the head and neck. MRI had been performed in all children and demonstrated a soft-tissue mass with flow voids, consistent with fast flow. The lesion was well-circumscribed in 16 children and intralesional fat was seen in 14. Doppler US demonstrated a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly isoechoic to surrounding muscle, with enlarged arterial feeders. Enlarged feeding arteries, inhomogeneous blush and lack of arteriovenous shunting were noted on angiography (n = 5). The most common histopathological findings were lobules of capillaries with plump endothelium and at least some adipose tissue. The lesions were excised in six children. Two children were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 10, follow-up MRI studies ranging from 3 months to 10 years showed that the lesion enlarged in proportion to the child (n = 7), demonstrated slow growth (n = 2) or remained stable (n = 1). There was no change in imaging characteristics on follow-up. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor of

  5. Capillary-Patterns for Biometric Authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paloma Benedicto, J.; Bruekers, A.A.M.; Presura, C.N.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a method using the capillary structuresunder the "distal interphalangeal joint" (DIP joint), which is located between the second and third (distal) phalanges of the finger, for achieving secure biometric authentication. Images of the DIPjoint are acquired using a

  6. THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cvetko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.

  7. The capillary pattern in human masseter muscle during ageing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvetko, E.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Eržen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 135-144 ISSN 1580-3139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D analysis * capillaries * confocal microscopy * human * masseter * muscle Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2013

  8. Nailfold capillary patterns in healthy subjects: a real issue in capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Lubatti, Chiara; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Gutierrez, Marwin; Boracchi, Patrizia; Fornili, Marco; De Angelis, Rossella

    2013-11-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy has been extensively applied in a broad spectrum of pathologic conditions, but very few data have been published in healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to describe the nailfold capillary findings on a large series of healthy subjects using the video-capillaroscopy technique. Nailfold capillaries were studied based on their morphology, dimensions and density. Then, to evaluate jointly the association between different capillary findings in groups of subjects which were homogeneous for their characteristics, cluster analysis was performed. The results (median) of capillary measurements were as follows: loop length 207μm, external diameter 39μm, internal diameter 17μm, apical diameter 17μm, and intercapillary distance 143μm. Based on the cluster analysis three major "normal" morphologic capillaroscopic patterns were depicted: 1) the "normal" pattern mainly with 2 to 5 U-shaped loops/mm and ≤2 tortuous loops/mm; 2) the "perfect normal" pattern with ≥5 U-shaped loops/mm and 3) the "unusual normal" with at least 1 meandering or bushy loop, or at least 1 microhemorrhage, or with >4 crossed loops/mm. Regarding the loop measurements, the majority of subjects had a median of 7capillaries/mm with a median length of 198μm. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterning titania with the conventional and modified micromolding in capillaries technique from sol–gel and dispersion solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ullah Khan and Johan E ten Elshof

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report TiO2 patterns obtained by a soft-lithographic technique called 'micromolding in capillaries' using sol–gel and dispersion solutions. A comparison between patterning with a sol–gel and dispersion solutions has been performed. The patterns obtained from sol–gel solutions showed good adhesion to the substrate and uniform shapes, but large shrinkage, whereas those obtained from dispersion solution had high solid content, but exhibited poor adhesion and non-uniform shapes. A fabrication method of a layer-by-layer structured pattern is also demonstrated. This type of pattern may find application in sensors, waveguides and other photonics elements. The occurrence of an undesirable residue layer, which hinders the fabrication of isolated patterns, is highlighted and a method of prevention is suggested.

  10. New type of capillary for use as ion beam collimator and air-vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoytschew, V., E-mail: valostoytschew@hotmail.com [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Schulte-Borchers, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Božičević Mihalića, Iva [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Perez, R.D. [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (5000) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2016-08-01

    Glass capillaries offer a unique way to combine small diameter ion beam collimation with an air-vacuum interface for ambient pressure ion beam applications. Usually they have an opening diameter of a few microns, limiting the air inflow sufficiently to maintain stable conditions on the vacuum side. As the glass capillaries generally are quite thin and fragile, handling of the capillary in the experiment becomes difficult. They also introduce an X-ray background produced by the capillary wall material, which has to be shielded or subtracted from the data for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) applications. To overcome both drawbacks, a new type of conical glass capillary has been developed. It has a higher wall thickness eliminating the low energy X-ray background produced by common capillaries and leading to a more robust lens. The results obtained in first tests show, that this new capillary is suitable for ion beam collimation and encourage further work on the capillary production process to provide thick wall capillaries with an outlet diameter in the single digit micro- or even nanometre range.

  11. Large scale ZnTe nanostructures on polymer micro patterns via capillary force photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florence, S. Sasi, E-mail: sshanmugaraj@jazanu.edu.sa; Can, N.; Adam, H. [Department of Physics, Jazan University, Jizan-114 (Saudi Arabia); Sachan, P.; Gupta, R. K. [DST-Unit on Nanosciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Arockiasamy, L. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Umadevi, M. [Department of Physics, Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal-624101 (India)

    2016-06-10

    A novel approach to prepare micro patterns ZnTe nanostructures on Si (100) substrate using thermal evaporation is proposed by capillary Force Lithography (CFL) technique on a self-assembled sacrificial Polystyrene mask. Polystyrene thin films on Si substrates are used to fabricate surface micro-relief patterns. ZnTe nanoparticles have been deposited by thermal evaporation method. The deposited ZnTe nanoparticles properties were assessed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). SEM studies indicated that the particles are uniform in size and shape, well dispersed and spherical in shape. This study reports the micro-arrays of ZnTe nanoparticles on a self-assembled sacrificial PS mask using a capillary flow photolithography process which showed excellent, morphological properties which can be used in photovoltaic devices for anti-reflection applications.

  12. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  13. Stripe-like Clay Nanotubes Patterns in Glass Capillary Tubes for Capture of Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxian; He, Rui; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Changren

    2016-03-01

    Here, we used capillary tubes to evaporate an aqueous dispersion of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in a controlled manner to prepare a patterned surface with ordered alignment of the nanotubes . Sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) was added to improve the surface charges of the tubes. An increased negative charge of HNTs is realized by PSS coating (from -26.1 mV to -52.2 mV). When the HNTs aqueous dispersion concentration is higher than 10%, liquid crystal phenomenon of the dispersion is found. A typical shear flow behavior and decreased viscosity upon shear is found when HNTs dispersions with concentrations higher than 10%. Upon drying the HNTs aqueous dispersion in capillary tubes, a regular pattern is formed in the wall of the tube. The width and spacing of the bands increase with HNTs dispersion concentration and decrease with the drying temperature for a given initial concentration. Morphology results show that an ordered alignment of HNTs is found especially for the sample of 10%. The patterned surface can be used as a model for preparing PDMS molding with regular micro-/nanostructure. Also, the HNTs rough surfaces can provide much higher tumor cell capture efficiency compared to blank glass surfaces. The HNTs ordered surfaces provide promising application for biomedical areas such as biosensors.

  14. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  15. Design and Fabrication of 3D-Structured Contactless Capacitive-Type Detector for Capillary Electrophoresis Microchip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C-Y; Lin, C-H; Fu, L-M

    2006-01-01

    Using simple and reliable microfabrication techniques, this study develops a capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchip with 3-dimensional-structured (3D-structured) contactless capacitive detector electrodes mounted parallel to the separation channel. The offchannel electrodes are deposited by Au sputtering and patterned using a standard 'lift-off' process. A vacuum fusion bonding process is employed to seal the lower substrate containing the microchannels and electrodes to an upper glass cover plate. The variation in the capacitance between the electrodes in the side channels is measured as different samples and ions pass through the detection region of the CE separation channel. Samples of Rhodamine B and a commercial sports drink are mixed in different buffer solutions and successfully separated and detected using the developed device. The 3D-structured contactless capacitive-type detection device has microscale dimensions and provides a valuable contribution to the realization of the lab-on-a-chip concept

  16. Conformal dip-coating of patterned surfaces for capillary die-to-substrate self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangeli, M; Ruythooren, W; Van Hoof, C; Celis, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Capillarity-driven self-assembly of small chips onto planar target substrates is a promising alternative to robotic pick-and-place assembly. It critically relies on the selective deposition of thin fluid films on patterned binding sites, which is anyway normally non-conformal. We found that the addition of a thin wetting sidewall, surrounding the entire site perimeter, enables the conformal fluid coverage of arbitrarily shaped sites through dip-coating, significantly improves the reproducibility of the coating process and strongly reduces its sensitivity to surface defects. In this paper we support the feasibility and potential of this method by demonstrating the conformal dip-coating of square and triangular sites conditioned with combinations of different hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface chemistries. We present both experimental and simulative evidence of the advantages brought by the introduction of the wetting boundary on film coverage accuracy. Application of our surface preparation method to capillary self-assembly could result in higher precision in die-to-substrate registration and larger freedom in site shape design

  17. Scalable Patterning of MoS2 Nanoribbons by Micromolding in Capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han; Lu, Ang-Yu; Chang, Yung-Huang; Huang, Jing-Kai; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Li, Lain-Jong; Su, Ching-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    In this study, we report a facile approach to prepare dense arrays of MoS2 nanoribbons by combining procedures of micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) and thermolysis of thiosalts ((NH4)2MoS4) as the printing ink. The obtained MoS2 nanoribbons had a thickness reaching as low as 3.9 nm, a width ranging from 157 to 465 nm, and a length up to 2 cm. MoS2 nanoribbons with an extremely high aspect ratio (length/width) of ∼7.4 × 10(8) were achieved. The MoS2 pattern can be printed on versatile substrates, such as SiO2/Si, sapphire, Au film, FTO/glass, and graphene-coated glass. The degree of crystallinity of the as-prepared MoS2 was discovered to be adjustable by varying the temperature through postannealing. The high-temperature thermolysis (1000 °C) results in high-quality conductive samples, and field-effect transistors based on the patterned MoS2 nanoribbons were demonstrated and characterized, where the carrier mobility was comparable to that of thin-film MoS2. In contrast, the low-temperature-treated samples (170 °C) result in a unique nanocrystalline MoSx structure (x ≈ 2.5), where the abundant and exposed edge sites were obtained from highly dense arrays of nanoribbon structures by this MIMIC patterning method. The patterned MoSx was revealed to have superior electrocatalytic efficiency (an overpotential of ∼211 mV at 10 mA/cm(2) and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/dec) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to the thin-film MoS2. The report introduces a new concept for rapidly fabricating cost-effective and high-density MoS2/MoSx nanostructures on versatile substrates, which may pave the way for potential applications in nanoelectronics/optoelectronics and frontier energy materials.

  18. Scalable Patterning of MoS2Nanoribbons by Micromolding in Capillaries

    KAUST Repository

    Hung, Yu-Han

    2016-07-27

    In this study, we report a facile approach to prepare dense arrays of MoS2 nanoribbons by combining procedures of micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) and thermolysis of thiosalts ((NH4)2MoS4) as the printing ink. The obtained MoS2 nanoribbons had a thickness reaching as low as 3.9 nm, a width ranging from 157 to 465 nm, and a length up to 2 cm. MoS2 nanoribbons with an extremely high aspect ratio (length/width) of ∼7.4 × 108 were achieved. The MoS2 pattern can be printed on versatile substrates, such as SiO2/Si, sapphire, Au film, FTO/glass, and graphene-coated glass. The degree of crystallinity of the as-prepared MoS2 was discovered to be adjustable by varying the temperature through postannealing. The high-temperature thermolysis (1000 °C) results in high-quality conductive samples, and field-effect transistors based on the patterned MoS2 nanoribbons were demonstrated and characterized, where the carrier mobility was comparable to that of thin-film MoS2. In contrast, the low-temperature-treated samples (170 °C) result in a unique nanocrystalline MoSx structure (x ≈ 2.5), where the abundant and exposed edge sites were obtained from highly dense arrays of nanoribbon structures by this MIMIC patterning method. The patterned MoSx was revealed to have superior electrocatalytic efficiency (an overpotential of ∼211 mV at 10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/dec) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to the thin-film MoS2. The report introduces a new concept for rapidly fabricating cost-effective and high-density MoS2/MoSx nanostructures on versatile substrates, which may pave the way for potential applications in nanoelectronics/optoelectronics and frontier energy materials. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  19. Assessment of the Relationship between Diabetic Retinopathy and Nailfold Capillaries in Type 2 Diabetics with a Noninvasive Method: Nailfold Videocapillaroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyit Uyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Nailfold capillaroscopy is an easy and noninvasive technique used to investigate dermal microvasculature. Traditional investigations of vascularity do not detect changes until they are well-established in type 2 diabetics. The objective of the current study was to evaluate nailfold capillaries in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and to determine the association of retinopathy with changes in the nailfold capillaries. Materials and Methods. Capillaroscopic findings by nailfold capillaroscopy and fundoscopic examinations were assessed in 216 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 101 healthy controls included in this prospective study. Results. Retinopathy was detected in 43.05% of diabetic patients (n=93. Capillaroscopic findings including tortuosity (p<0.001, bushy capillary (p<0.001, neoformation (p<0.001, bizarre capillary (p<0.001, microhemorrhage (p=0.001, capillary ectasia (p=0.002, and aneurysm (p=0.004 were significantly higher in diabetic group than control group. In logistic regression analysis, only tortuosity was shown significant (OR, 2.16; p=0.036. There was also a significant relation between diabetes duration and most of the capillaroscopic findings. Conclusion. Capillaroscopic changes were found to be correlated with diabetic retinopathy, in particular with longer disease duration in our study. Capillaroscopic imaging could be a useful new technique for assessment of diabetic microvascular changes.

  20. Impact of maternal diabetes type 1 on proliferative potential, differentiation and apoptotic activity in villous capillaries of term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkovská, Marie; Kučera, Tomáš; Dvořáková, Veronika; Jadrníček, Martin; Moravcová, Milena; Žižka, Zdeněk; Krejčí, Vratislav

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus changes morphology and impairs function of placental capillaries. Here, quantitative parameters characterizing cell proliferation using detection of Ki67, differentiation reflected by nestin expression and apoptosis in placental capillary bed with active caspase 3 as a marker were compared in normal term placentas and placentas from pregnancies complicated by Type 1 maternal diabetes mellitus. Specimens of sixteen diabetic placentas and eight control placentas were collected by systematic uniform random sampling. Immunohistochemical detections of Ki67, nestin, and active caspase 3 were performed in histological sections of five haphazardly chosen blocks per placenta. Twenty fields of view per section, i.e. one hundred fields of view per placenta, were used for analysis of proliferation as well as of apoptosis, and in approximately 70 capillary cross-sections per placenta the nestin-positive segments of their circumference were measured. The percentage of Ki67-positive cells counted in the capillary wall was significantly lower in diabetic group. The counts of Ki67-labelled nuclei per villous area unit were significantly lower in cytotrophoblast and capillary wall of terminal villi in diabetic placenta. The proportion of nestin-labeled segments of capillary circumference was significantly higher in placentas of diabetic group. No differences in the numbers of apoptotic cells were found between studied groups. The results show that the term placenta in Type 1 diabetes has lower potential to enlarge the surface area of structures involved in maternofetal transport, and that the villous capillary bed displays delayed differentiation. Those factors may participate in decreased ability of diabetic placenta to comply with fetal requirements in the final stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Parravano, Mariacristina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Ducoli, Pietro; Stirpe, Mario; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    To illustrate a noninvasive method to analyze the retinal capillary lumen caliber in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Adaptive optics imaging of the retinal capillaries were acquired in two parafoveal regions of interest in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and unaffected controls. Measures of the retinal capillary lumen caliber were quantified using an algorithm written in Matlab by an independent observer in a masked manner. Comparison of the adaptive optics images with red-free and color wide fundus retinography images was also assessed. Eight eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (eight patients, study group), no macular edema, and preserved visual acuity and eight control eyes (eight healthy volunteers; control group) were analyzed. The repeatability of capillary lumen caliber measurements was 0.22 μm (3.5%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.12 and 0.31 μm in the study group. It was 0.30 μm (4.1%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.16 and 0.43 μm in the control group. The average capillary lumen caliber was significantly narrower in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (6.27 ± 1.63 μm) than in the control eyes (7.31 ± 1.59 μm, P = 0.002). The authors demonstrated a noninvasive method to analyze, with micrometric scale of resolution, the lumen of retinal capillaries. The parafoveal capillaries were narrower in patients with Type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy than in healthy subjects, showing the potential capability of adaptive optics imaging to detect pathologic variations of the retinal microvascular structures in vaso-occlusive diseases.

  2. Performance of a split-type air conditioner matched with coiled adiabatic capillary tubes using HCFC22 and HC290

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guobing; Zhang, Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigated the system performance of a split-type air conditioner matching with different coiled adiabatic capillary tubes for HCFC22 and HC290. Experiments were carried out in a room-type calorimeter. The results have shown that (1) similar cooling effects can be achieved by matching various capillary tubes of different inner diameters; (2) parallel capillary tubes presented better system performance and flow stability with weaker inlet pressure fluctuations than the single capillary tube; (3) with the coil diameter of the capillary tube increasing from 40 mm to 120 mm, the mass flow rate tended to increase slightly. But the cooling capacity, input power and energy efficiency ratio (EER) did not show evident tendency of change; (4) the refrigerant charge and mass flow rate for HC290 were only 44% and 47% of that for HCFC22, respectively, due to the much lower density. And HC290 had 4.7-6.7% lower cooling capacity and 12.1-12.3% lower input power with respect to HCFC22. However, the EER of HC290 can be 8.5% higher than that of HCFC22, which exhibits the advantage of using HC290. In addition, the experimental uncertainties were analyzed and some application concerns of HC290 were discussed.

  3. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... COMMENTARY. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES. MELLITUS ... contributions in diabetes mellitus and in various medical disorders. Hence dermatoglyphic .... female cases. These findings are similar to ...

  4. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  5. A chip-type thin-layer electrochemical cell coupled with capillary electrophoresis for online separation of electrode reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jian-Bo, E-mail: jbhe@hfut.edu.cn; Cui, Ting; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Deng, Ning

    2013-07-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new coupling of thin-layer electrolysis with capillary electrophoresis (CE). •Rapid electrolysis, direct sampling followed by online CE separation. •At least 13 products of quercetin oxidation were separated. •Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined from CE peak areas. -- Abstract: A coupling technique of thin-layer electrolysis with high-performance capillary electrophoresis/UV–vis technique(EC/HPCE/UV–vis) is developed for online separation and determination of electrode reaction products. A chip-type thin-layer electrolytic (CTE) cell was designed and fabricated, which contains a capillary channel and a background electrolyte reservoir, allowing rapid electrolysis, direct sampling and online electrophoretic separation. This chip-type setup was characterized based on an electrophoresis expression of Nernst equation that was applied to the redox equilibrium of o-tolidine at different potentials. The utility of the method was demonstrated by separating and determining the electro-oxidation products of quercetin in different pH media. Two main products were always found in the studied time, potential and pH ranges. The variety of products increased not only with increasing potential but also with increasing pH value, and in total, at least 13 products were observed in the electropherograms. This work illustrates a novel example of capillary electrophoresis used online with thin-layer electrolysis to separate and detect electrode reaction products.

  6. A chip-type thin-layer electrochemical cell coupled with capillary electrophoresis for online separation of electrode reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian-Bo; Cui, Ting; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Deng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new coupling of thin-layer electrolysis with capillary electrophoresis (CE). •Rapid electrolysis, direct sampling followed by online CE separation. •At least 13 products of quercetin oxidation were separated. •Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined from CE peak areas. -- Abstract: A coupling technique of thin-layer electrolysis with high-performance capillary electrophoresis/UV–vis technique(EC/HPCE/UV–vis) is developed for online separation and determination of electrode reaction products. A chip-type thin-layer electrolytic (CTE) cell was designed and fabricated, which contains a capillary channel and a background electrolyte reservoir, allowing rapid electrolysis, direct sampling and online electrophoretic separation. This chip-type setup was characterized based on an electrophoresis expression of Nernst equation that was applied to the redox equilibrium of o-tolidine at different potentials. The utility of the method was demonstrated by separating and determining the electro-oxidation products of quercetin in different pH media. Two main products were always found in the studied time, potential and pH ranges. The variety of products increased not only with increasing potential but also with increasing pH value, and in total, at least 13 products were observed in the electropherograms. This work illustrates a novel example of capillary electrophoresis used online with thin-layer electrolysis to separate and detect electrode reaction products

  7. Pattern of peripapillary capillary density loss in ischemic optic neuropathy compared to that in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Aghsaei Fard

    Full Text Available Both non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG damage retinal ganglion cell axons, which are perfused by the radial peripapillary capillaries. To evaluate the pattern of ischemia, we compared peripapillary capillary density (PCD in NAION eyes to POAG eyes matched for visual field mean deviation and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness.31 chronic NAION (>6 months after the acute event and unaffected fellow eyes (31 subjects, 42 moderate and severe POAG eyes (27 subjects, and 77 control eyes (46 healthy subjects were imaged with a commercial optical coherence tomography angiography system (AngioVue, Avanti RTVue-XR, Optovue, CA at two academic institutions. Two concentric circles of diameters 1.95mm (inner and 3.45mm (outer were manually placed on images centered on the optic nerve head, producing an annular region-of-interest. Image analysis with major vessel removal was performed using a custom program. Whole-image, whole-annulus, and sectoral PCDs were measured.Whole-image and whole-annulus PCDs in NAION and moderate and severe POAG eyes were significantly decreased compared to unaffected fellow eyes and control eyes (all P<0.001. Superior and temporal PCD values were affected more than other sectors in both NAION and POAG groups compared to control group. Whole-image and whole-annulus PCDs were not statistically different between NAION and POAG eyes (both P = 0.99. However, of all peripapillary sectors, the inferior sector PCD value was less affected in POAG eyes compared to NAION eyes (P = 0.001. Univariate analysis results also revealed a significant positive correlation between superior and inferior PCDs and corresponding RNFL thicknesses. The inferior sector correlation was greater in POAG than NAION eyes.While the whole PCD values were not different in chronic NAION and POAG, the greater correlation of inferior PCD with corresponding RNFL sectors in POAG compared to NAION suggests greater

  8. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Hemant

    2010-08-11

    Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer continuity or lack thereof

  9. Systematic review of economic evaluation studies and budget impact on ambulatory monitoring of capillary glucose in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Moya Garrido, María Natividad; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Realise a review of studies of economic evaluation about the ambulatory monitoring of capillary glucose (AMGC) in diabetic type II persons. A review of the literature was conducted, in MedLine, various websites, referenced paper and provided by expert's persons. Five studies concluded that the AMGC was a cost-effective strategic, of this papers use Kaiser Permanente data base, its make that these studies could be considered a solely one study. The rest of the papers did not find difference in the AMGC use. The use of AMGC has an uncertainty efficiency. More studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation selectivity patterns of fully charged achiral compounds in capillary electrophoresis with a neutral cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorntantikul, Wasura; Srisa-art, Monpichar; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2013-01-01

    Based on the separation selectivity equation, related to the dimensionless parameters for fully charged achiral analytes using a neutral CD, the separation selectivity can be classified into seven patterns. With respect to CZE without CD, the presence of CD in the buffer may improve, or reduce, the separation selectivity with this effect being accompanied by the same or reversed electrophoretic mobility order for charged analytes. This can depend on the separation selectivity of the two analytes in free solution, the binding selectivity, the separation selectivity of analyte-CD complexes and the ratio of electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in free, and complexed forms. Using positional isomers of benzoic acids and phenoxy acids as test analytes and α-CD as a selector, the observed separation selectivity shapes were found to be in excellent agreement with the predicted separation selectivities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Correlation of MFOLD-predicted DNA secondary structures with separation patterns obtained by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavac, Damjan; Potocnik, Uros; Podpecnik, Darja; Zizek, Teofil; Smerkolj, Sava; Ravnik-Glavac, Metka

    2002-04-01

    We have studied 57 different mutations within three beta-globin gene promoter fragments with sizes 52 bp, 77 bp, and 193 bp by fluorescent capillary electrophoresis CE-SSCP analysis. For each mutation and wild type, energetically most-favorable predicted secondary structures were calculated for sense and antisense strands using the MFOLD DNA-folding algorithm in order to investigate if any correlation exists between predicted DNA structures and actual CE migration time shifts. The overall CE-SSCP detection rate was 100% for all mutations in three studied DNA fragments. For shorter 52 bp and 77 bp DNA fragments we obtained a positive correlation between the migration time shifts and difference in free energy values of predicted secondary structures at all temperatures. For longer 193 bp beta-globin gene fragments with 46 mutations MFOLD predicted different secondary structures for 89% of mutated strands at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. However, the magnitude of the mobility shifts did not necessarily correlate with their secondary structures and free energy values except for the sense strand at 40 degrees C where this correlation was statistically significant (r = 0.312, p = 0.033). Results of this study provided more direct insight into the mechanism of CE-SSCP and showed that MFOLD prediction could be helpful in making decisions about the running temperatures and in prediction of CE-SSCP data patterns, especially for shorter (50-100 bp) DNA fragments. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Pattern of histological types of breast cancer among various age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , there is need to define the epidemiological pattern of breast cancer patients in the Niger delta; assessing their age distribution and histological types towards improved health care planning. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of ...

  13. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Typing of 49 autosomal SNPs by single base extension and capillary electrophoresis for forensic genetic testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    of the amplicons range from 65 to 115 bp. The high sensitivity and the short amplicon sizes make the assay very suitable for typing of degraded DNA samples, and the low mutation rate of SNPs makes the assay very useful for relationship testing. Combined, these advantages make the assay well suited for disaster...

  15. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  16. Single-tube multiplex PCR using type-specific E6/E7 primers and capillary electrophoresis genotypes 21 human papillomaviruses in neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warenholt Janina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV E6/E7 type-specific oncogenes are required for cervical carcinogenesis. Current PCR protocols for genotyping high-risk HPV in cervical screening are not standardized and usually use consensus primers targeting HPV capsid genes, which are often deleted in neoplasia. PCR fragments are detected using specialized equipment and extra steps, including probe hybridization or primer extension. In published papers, analytical sensitivity is typically compared with a different protocol on the same sample set. A single-tube multiplex PCR containing type-specific primers was developed to target the E6/E7 genes of two low-risk and 19 high-risk genotypes (HPV6, 11 and 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82 and the resulting short fragments were directly genotyped by high-resolution fluorescence capillary electrophoresis. Results The method was validated using long oligonucleotide templates, plasmid clones and 207 clinical samples of DNA from liquid-based cytology, fresh and formalin-fixed specimens and FTA Microcards® imprinted with cut tumor surfaces, swabbed cervical cancers or ejected aspirates from nodal metastases of head and neck carcinomas. Between one and five long oligonucleotide targets per sample were detected without false calls. Each of the 21 genotypes was detected in the clinical sample set with up to five types simultaneously detected in individual specimens. All 101 significant cervical neoplasias (CIN 2 and above, except one adenocarcinoma, contained E6/E7 genes. The resulting genotype distribution accorded with the national pattern with HPV16 and 18 accounting for 69% of tumors. Rare HPV types 70 and 73 were present as the sole genotype in one carcinoma each. One cervical SCC contained DNA from HPV6 and 11 only. Six of twelve oropharyngeal cancer metastases and three neck metastases of unknown origin bore E6/E7 DNA; all but one were HPV16. One neck

  17. Dermatoglyphic patterns in type 2 diabetes mellitus | Sehmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dermatoglyphics is the study of epidermal ridge patterns on the palm, fingers, sole and toes. They are genetically determined and are useful in diagnosis of various genetic diseases like Diabetes mellitus. There are three types of fingerprint patterns: Arches, loops and whorls. Finger prints of both hands are not same and ...

  18. Capillary pressure controlled methane hydrate and ice growth-melting patterns in porous media : synthetic silica versus natural sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B.; Webber, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Centre for Gas Research, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Although naturally-occurring gas hydrates (or clathrate hydrates) in marine sediments can pose a hazard to deepwater hydrocarbon production operations, they represent a potential strategic energy reserve. Gas hydrates can also provide a means for deep ocean carbon dioxide disposal through sequestration/storage. They have long-term importance with respect to ocean margin stability, methane release, and global climate change. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding the mechanisms of hydrate growth, accumulation and distribution within the subsurface. Marine sediments which host gas hydrates are commonly fine-grained silts, muds, and clays with narrow mean pore diameters, leading to speculation that capillary phenomena could play a significant role in controlling hydrate distribution in the seafloor, and may be partly responsible for discrepancies between observed and predicted hydrate stability zone thicknesses. A close relationship between hydrate inhibition and pore size has been confirmed through previous laboratory studies. Clathrate stability has been significantly reduced in narrow pores. However, the focus of investigations has generally been hydrate dissociation conditions in porous media, with capillary controls on the equally important process of hydrate growth being largely overlooked. This paper presented the results of an experimental investigation into methane hydrate growth and dissociation equilibria in natural medium grained sandstone. The study also compared data with that previously measured for mesoporous silica glasses. The paper discussed solid-liquid phase behaviour in confined geometries including hysteresis in porous media. It also discussed the experimental equipment and method. It was concluded that, as for synthetic silicas, hydrate growth and dissociation in the sandstone were characterised by a measurable hysteresis between opposing transitions, notably hydrate (or ice) formation occurring at temperatures lower than

  19. Biomimetic Unidirectional Capillary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Eric; Moran, Patrick; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments animals require specialized adaptations to collect adequate water. The Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum) has superhydrophylic skin which draws water out of moist soil or directly from water sources. The water then makes its way into the lizard's unidirectional capillary system, made of overlapping scales, which serves to channel water to its mouth. Testing different channel geometries, repeated ``D'' shaped chambers as in Commans et al. (2015) and truncated isosceles triangle chambers, as found in P. cornutum, we show the ability to have passive, unidirectional, fluid transport. Tests were carried out with the capillaries in a horizontal configuration. While both capillary geometries produced the desired traits, the triangular chambers showed superior unidirectionality, with no observed back flow, while ``D'' chambers showed back flow under testing conditions. The chambers provided similar flow rates. These types of channel systems will find use in microfluidics, notably in medical, printing, and lab-on-chip applications.

  20. Surface magnetization and the role of pattern defects in various types of ripple patterned films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colino, Jose M; Arranz, Miguel A; Barbero, Antonio J; Bollero, A; Camarero, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the magnetic properties of cobalt films with wide-area nanoscale ripple patterns, either on their surface only, or on both the film surface and substrate interface. Angular dependence vectorial-resolved magnetometry measurements and magnetic force microscopy with in situ magnetic field have been used to determine the magnetization reversal processes to correlate them to the different patterned nanostructures. All the samples show well-defined uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the anisotropy axis lying along the ripple direction. Atomic force microscopy of the different types of pattern reveals various pattern defects: height corrugation and breaks of continuity along the ripple direction, and overlapping ripples and Y-shaped defects (pattern dislocation) across the pattern. In spite of the existence of such customary defects of erosive-regime patterns, the type of low-amplitude, surface-patterned films remarkably behave as a macrospin over almost the whole in-plane angular range (340°), with negligible spread of anisotropy axis or energy. In turn, it is found that high-amplitude surface-patterned films develop an angular distribution of anisotropy axes, probably related to the large distribution of amplitudes in a pattern of short ripples, and a significant distribution of anisotropy fields ΔH k /H k up to 15%. On the other hand, films grow on pre-patterned silicon with a significantly longer mean ripple length, and develop a larger anisotropy energy with H k up to 110 mT, probably because of the double interface effect. The switching fields close to the magnetization easy axis of all types of ripple pattern are not well reproduced by the macrospin approximation, but the observed pattern defects seem to be not responsible for the domain wall pinning that occurs with the field applied along the ripple direction. (paper)

  1. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  2. Design patterns for digital item types in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijer, S.; Hartog, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A set of design patterns for digital item types has been developed in response to challenges identified in various projects by teachers in higher education. The goal of the projects in question was to design and develop formative and summative tests, and to develop interactive learning material in

  3. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  4. Capillary blood islet autoantibody screening for identifying pre-type 1 diabetes in the general population: design and initial results of the Fr1da study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Jennifer; Haupt, Florian; Scholz, Marlon; Matzke, Claudia; Warncke, Katharina; Lange, Karin; Assfalg, Robin; Weininger, Katharina; Wittich, Susanne; Löbner, Stephanie; Beyerlein, Andreas; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; Lang, Martin; Laub, Otto; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Bonifacio, Ezio; Achenbach, Peter; Winkler, Christiane; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2016-05-18

    Type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed at an early presymptomatic stage by the detection of islet autoantibodies. The Fr1da study aims to assess whether early staging of type 1 diabetes (1) is feasible at a population-based level, (2) prevents severe metabolic decompensation observed at the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes and (3) reduces psychological distress through preventive teaching and care. Children aged 2-5 years in Bavaria, Germany, will be tested for the presence of multiple islet autoantibodies. Between February 2015 and December 2016, 100 000 children will be screened by primary care paediatricians. Islet autoantibodies are measured in capillary blood samples using a multiplex three-screen ELISA. Samples with ELISA results >97.5th centile are retested using reference radiobinding assays. A venous blood sample is also obtained to confirm the autoantibody status of children with at least two autoantibodies. Children with confirmed multiple islet autoantibodies are diagnosed with pre-type 1 diabetes. These children and their parents are invited to participate in an education and counselling programme at a local diabetes centre. Depression and anxiety, and burden of early diagnosis are also assessed. Of the 1027 Bavarian paediatricians, 39.3% are participating in the study. Overall, 26 760 children have been screened between February 2015 and November 2015. Capillary blood collection was sufficient in volume for islet autoantibody detection in 99.46% of the children. The remaining 0.54% had insufficient blood volume collected. Of the 26 760 capillary samples tested, 0.39% were positive for at least two islet autoantibodies. Staging for early type 1 diabetes within a public health setting appears to be feasible. The study may set new standards for the early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and education. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Technische Universität München (Nr. 70/14). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  5. [Introduction of capillary glycosylated haemoglobin determination in a Primary Care Health Area: Multicentre study of the evolution of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sánchez, M Á; Cervantes-Cuesta, M Á; Brocal-Ibañez, P; Salmeron-Arjona, E; León-Martínez, L P; Cerezo-Sanmartin, M

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a joint intervention that included educational components, self-assessment, and information to optimise diabetes control through the introduction of instant capillary glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) determination in Primary Care. A multicentre prospective descriptive study was carried out over 3years in 10Primary Care Centres of the Area VII Murcia East. At the end of the study there were 804 patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). Patients were divided into 4 groups based on initial values of HbA1c, and if changes in their treatment were needed. HbA1c, body mass index, and blood pressure were monitored. A financial assessment was also performed on the impact of the implementation of a protocol to measure instant capillary RESULTS: A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c values. The initial HbA1c mean value was 7.4±1.4%, which decreased to a final value of 6.9±1.0% (P<.001). At the end of the study, 71.4% of patients included reached diabetic control objectives. In addition, the financial assessment demonstrated that the implementation of this diabetes control system led to a decrease of the 24.7% in spending on glucose strips after the first year of study in Area VII Murcia Health Service. The introduction of capillary HbA1c determination in Primary Care has demonstrated to improve diabetes control and the efficiency of the health personnel. Furthermore, a reduction in the health costs of patients with DM2 was also shown. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Type-2 fuzzy graphical models for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses how to combine type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models to solve a range of real-world pattern recognition problems such as speech recognition, handwritten Chinese character recognition, topic modeling as well as human action recognition. It covers these recent developments while also providing a comprehensive introduction to the fields of type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models. Though primarily intended for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in fuzzy logic and pattern recognition, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers without any previous knowledge of these fields. Dr. Jia Zeng is a Professor at the School of Computer Science and Technology, Soochow University, China. Dr. Zhi-Qiang Liu is a Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, China.

  7. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  8. [Evaluation of DCA vantage for rapid in-clinic measurement of HbA1c on capillary blood in young type 1 diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Arabi, H; Willems, D; Mélot, C; Dorchy, H

    2013-01-01

    Rapid in clinic measurement of glycated hemoglogin (HbA1c) allows to determine the level of metabolic control within a few minutes on capillary blood. We have evaluated the new DCA Vantage (Siemens) based on an immunological technique, replacing the DCA 2000+ (Siemens). The study included 120 unselected young type 1 diabetic patients, with different degrees of metabolic control. The DCA Vantage was compared with the HPLC system (Menarini HA 8160) whose deviation from the DCCT was Vantage was -0.40%. The agreement limits (+/- 1.96 SD) were between 0.14% and -0.93%; this means +/- 0.53% around -0.40%. In conclusion, the DCA Vantage underestimates HbA1c levels; however it met the acceptance criteria of having a coefficient of variation < 3%.

  9. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-04-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat need to navigate through a wide range of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with boundaries in such situations is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism when compared to ideal laboratory conditions. We study the different patterns of ciliary locomotion in glass capillaries of varying diameter and characterize the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight lines as the diameter of the capillary tubes decreases. We predict the swimming velocity in capillaries by modeling the system as a confined cylinder propagating longitudinal metachronal waves that create a finite pressure gradient. Comparing with experiments, we find that such pressure gradient considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized ciliary organisms in restrictive geometries.

  10. Separation of intron 22 inversion type 1 and 2 of hemophilia A by modified inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tzu-Yu; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2014-12-01

    An inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) combined with short-end capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was developed for genotyping of intron 22 inversion Type 1 (Inv22-1) and Type 2 (Inv22-2) of hemophilia A (HA). Severe HA cases are affected by intron 22 inversion around 45-50%. Inv22-1 has higher frequency than Inv22-2. The aim of this study is to distinguish them by genotyping. In order to improve Inv22 genotyping efficiency, five primers were designed and applied to differentiate the wild type, Inv22-1, Inv22-2 and carrier. Three amplicons of 405, 457 and 512 bp were recognized for wild type; 333, 457 and 584 bp for Inv22-1; 385, 405 and 584 bp for Inv22-2. The Inv22-1 carrier has 5 amplicons including 333, 405, 457, 512, 584 bp and Inv22-2 carrier is differentiated by 385, 405, 457, 512 and 584 bp. The amplicons between Inv22-1 and Inv22-2 carriers are only different in 333 bp for Inv22-1 carrier and 385 bp for Inv22-2 carrier. Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was used for separation within 5 min. The separation voltage was set at 8 kV (cathode at detector), and the temperature was kept at 25°C. The sieving matrix was 89 mM Tris, 89 mM boric acid, 2mM EDTA containing 0.4% (w/v) HPMC and 1 μM of YO-PRO(®)-1 Iodide. Total of 50 HA patients (including 35 non-Inv22, 14 Inv22-1, and one Inv22-2 patients) and 7 HA carriers were diagnosed in the application. Seven random samples (5 patients and 2 carriers) were subjected to comparison and gave identical results of DNA sequencing and this modified IS-PCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern of thyroid auto immunity in type 1 and type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, T.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the level of thyroid auto immunity among clinically euthyroid patients of type 1 and type 2 diabetics and to correlate the levels with pattern of diabetes. Blood samples were collected from 163 subjects (51 of type 1, 61 of type 2 diabetics and 51 non- diabetic controls) and sera were separated. They were all clinically euthyroid and selected conveniently. Thyroid profile (FT4, TSH and anti- TPO) was assessed in the three groups and compared. It was observed that at a cut off value of less than 100 units of anti-TPO level was normal, raised anti-TPO antibodies were found in 12% of normal control group, 61% in type 1 and 42.3% in type 2 diabetics. In type 1 diabetics, the TSH was higher in the younger age patients with progressive rise in anti-TPO antibodies level by age. The TSH, anti-TPO antibodies and BSF were significantly higher in type 1 diabetics than in the controls. In type 2 diabetics, TSH was moderately low but anti-TPO antibodies and BSF were higher than in the controls (author)

  12. Ion guiding and losses in insulator capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Vikor, Gy.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Ivan, I.; Gall, F.; Toekesi, K.; Matefi-Tempfli, S.; Matefi-Tempfli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Not long ago it was discovered that insulating capillaries can guide slow ions, so that the ions avoid close contact with the capillary walls and preserve their initial charge state. This phenomenon did not only give a new puzzle for theoreticians but opened the way for new possible applications where ions are manipulated (deflected, focused and directed to different patterns on the irradiated media) with small capillary devices. The most important question for such applications is how large fraction of the ions can be guided to the desired direction. It is already known that the ion guiding is due to the charging up of the inner capillary walls by earlier ion impact events. In tilted capillaries one side of the capillary walls charges up. This deflects the later arriving ions, so that some of them pass through the capillaries nearly parallel with respect to their axes. The angle where the transmission drops to 1/e of the direct transmission at 0 deg is the guiding angle, which characterize the guiding ability. At 0 deg the ideal 100 percent transmission for the ions, which enter the capillaries, is reduced due to the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections. These losses appear in the transmission for tilted capillaries with similar magnitude, since after the deflection region, which usually restricted to the close surroundings of the capillary openings, the guided ions pass through the rest of the capillaries as in non-tilted samples. In our experimental studies with Al 2 O 3 capillaries we found that around 90 percent of the incoming ions are lost. To understand these significant losses, the effects of the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections have been calculated classically. The mirror charge potential was taken from.The model of the capillaries used in the calculations can be seen in Figure 1. The calculations have shown that the effects of mirror charge attraction and the angular

  13. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  14. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    phase bridges is observed. The water may pass the capillary discontinuity before inlet core is at endpoint for spontaneous imbibition. The observations of the water flood experiments have been validated using numerical simulators Eclipse and Sensor. Experimentally measured capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been used to history match the observed production of the waterfloods. The observed variations in production mechanisms at wettability change are confirmed. Direct measurement of saturation methods for measuring capillary pressure scanning curves have been investigated and compared to conventional centrifuge techniques. The same trends are observed for curves measured at different wettabilities, and the capillary pressure curves measured using DMS methods have also been validated in numerical simulations of type Eclipse and Sensor. A feasibility study to develop a new method of measuring capillary pressure at various wettabilities has been performed with encouraging results. The conclusion is that the work should be further developed. The method has potential to enable capillary pressure measurements using live crude oil at reservoir conditions. All in all, several experimental methods applicable in future SCAL synthesis have been presented. The observations are consistent and underline the production mechanisms of fractured chalk reservoirs, and will serve as inspiration in the future evaluations of tertiary oil recovery processes. An innovative approach to the measurement of capillary pressure is suggested.

  15. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T

    2012-02-03

    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  16. The effects of hypercapnia on cortical capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) in anesthetized mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Eugenio; Angleys, Hugo; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2018-01-01

    Capillary flow patterns are highly heterogeneous in the resting brain. During hyperemia, capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH) decreases, in proportion to blood's mean transit time (MTT) in passive, compliant microvascular networks. Previously, we found that functional activation reduces...

  17. Lipid Profile Pattern amongst Type 2 DM subjects with Erectile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:Dyslipidaemia in patientswith diabetesmellitus leads to atherosclerosis and this contributes to erectile dysfunction (ED). This study set out to characterize the lipid profile pattern in diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction. Subject andMethods:Aprospective, cross sectional study carried out at the diabetes clinic of ...

  18. Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z. Y.; Wang, Z.; Xing, R. B.; Han, Y. C.; Lin, J.

    2003-07-01

    Perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid layered compound (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 was synthesized. The patterning of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 thin films on silicon substrate was realized by the micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) process, a kind of soft lithography. Bright green luminescent stripes with different widths (50, 15, 0.8 μm) have been obtained. The structure and optical properties of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, respectively. It is shown that the organic-inorganic layered (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 film was c-axis oriented, paralleling to the substrate plane. Green exciton emission at 525 nm was observed in the film, and the explanations for it were given.

  19. Mortality patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-15

    Jan 15, 2010 ... Keywords: causes of death; longevity; type 2 diabetes; Nigeria. Introduction. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has continued ... accounted for the majority of deaths from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

  20. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FINGERPRINT PATTERNS AND CRIME TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    DELİCE, Murat; DUMAN, Ali; ÖZEL, Şaban Ali

    2014-01-01

    The exclusivity of prints at the tip of each individuals fingers is known for thousands of years and these prints are used for security purposes for a long time. Recent developments have pointed out that fingerprint patterns are related to gender, heredity, diseases, blood types and even character. However, the relationship between fingerprint patterns and crime types has not been explored. In order to meet this need, this research study examines the fingerprint patterns of suspects who are i...

  1. Burden and pattern of micro vascular complications in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) afflicts at least 5 million people in Nigeria, with more than 80% having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Microvascular complications increase both morbidity and mortality inpatients with T2DM. The aims of this study were to report the burden of various microvascular complications in ...

  2. Types, Patterns and Outcomes of Personal Watercraft- Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related injuries. Patients injured in Jet Ski accidents were younger than those involved in motorboat accidents (mean age (SD); 25(7.6) vs 32.6(6), p=0.01). Chest injury was the most common type of injury; however, the severity of injury was ...

  3. Mortality patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: People living with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to varied forms of complications which often lead to their premature death. The vulnerability has the greatest impact in type 2 DM because of larger numerical strength, insidious onset and late recognition especially in resourcepoor nations like Nigeria. This study ...

  4. Investigation of transient dynamics of capillary assisted particle assembly yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virganavičius, D. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Juodėnas, M. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Tamulevičius, T., E-mail: tomas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania); Schift, H. [Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tamulevičius, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Regular particles arrays were assembled by capillary force assisted deposition. • Deposition yield dynamics was investigated at different thermal velocity regimes. • Yield transient behavior was approximated with logistic function. • Pattern density influence for switching behavior was assessed. - Abstract: In this paper, the transient behavior of the particle assembly yield dynamics when switching from low yield to high yield deposition at different velocity and thermal regimes is investigated. Capillary force assisted particle assembly (CAPA) using colloidal suspension of green fluorescent 270 nm diameter polystyrene beads was performed on patterned poly (dimethyl siloxane) substrates using a custom-built deposition setup. Two types of patterns with different trapping site densities were used to assess CAPA process dynamics and the influence of pattern density and geometry on the deposition yield transitions. Closely packed 300 nm diameter circular pits ordered in hexagonal arrangement with 300 nm pitch, and 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} square pits with 2 μm spacing were used. 2-D regular structures of the deposited particles were investigated by means of optical fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The fluorescence micrographs were analyzed using a custom algorithm enabling to identify particles and calculate efficiency of the deposition performed at different regimes. Relationship between the spatial distribution of particles in transition zone and ambient conditions was evaluated and quantified by approximation of the yield profile with a logistic function.

  5. Microgravity Investigation of Capillary Driven Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushin, V. R.; Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Skryleva, E. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the present paper is to investigate the capillary driven filtration in porous media under microgravity conditions. New mathematical model that allows taking into account the blurring of the front due to the instability of the displacement that is developing at the front is proposed. The constants in the mathematical model were selected on the basis of the experimental data on imbibition into unsaturated porous media under microgravity conditions. The flow under the action of a combination of capillary forces and a constant pressure drop or a constant flux is considered. The effect of capillary forces and the type of wettability of the medium on the displacement process is studied. A criterion in which case the capillary effects are insignificant and can be neglected is established.

  6. Capillary density: An important parameter in nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Zahra; Karbalaie, Abdolamir; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is one of the various noninvasive bioengineering methods used to investigate skin microcirculation. It is an effective examination for assessing microvascular changes in the peripheral circulation; hence it has a significant role for the diagnosis of Systemic sclerosis with the classic changes of giant capillaries as well as the decline in capillary density with capillary dropout. The decline in capillary density is one of microangiopathic features existing in connective tissue disease. It is detectable with nailfold capillaroscopy. This parameter is assessed by applying quantitative measurement. In this article, we reviewed a common method for calculating the capillary density and the relation between the number of capillaries as well as the existence of digital ulcers, pulmonary arterial hypertension, autoantibodies, scleroderma patterns and different scoring system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma.

  8. Polymer microfluidic device replacing fluids using only capillary force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kwang Hyo; Lee, Dae Sik; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Sung Jin; Pyo, Hyun Bong

    2005-02-01

    A novel polymer microfluidic device for self-wash using only capillary force is presented. A liquid filled in a reaction chamber is replaced by another liquid with no external actuation. All the fluidic actuations in the device is pre-programmed about time and sequence, and accomplished by capillary force naturally. Careful design is necessary for exact actions. The fluidic conduits were designed by the newly derived theoretical equations about the capillary stop pressure and flow time. Simulations using CFD-ACE+ were conducted to check the validity of theory and the performance of the chip. These analytic results were consistent with experimental ones. The chip was made of polymers for the purpose of single use and low price. It was fabricated by sealing the hot-embossed PMMA substrate with a PET film. For simpler fabrication, the chip was of a single height. The embossing master was produced from a nickel-electroplating on a SU8-patterned Ni-plate followed by CMP. The contact angles of liquids on substrates were manipulated through the mixing of surfactants, and the temporal variations were monitored for a more exact design. The real actuation steps in experiment revealed the stable performance of selfwash, and coincided well with the designed ones. The presented microfluidic method can be applicable to other LOCs of special purposes through simple modification. For example, array or serial types would be possible for multiple selfwashes.

  9. Type a behaviour pattern and performance as insurance representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. W. Strumpfer

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Participants were 155 insurance representatives and 116 of them who were still in the same position one year later. The performance criterion represented commission on policies and annuities sold; data were obtained for the year of testing and the next year. The Jenkins Activity Survey was administered. The Type A (M === 6.26; SD == 7.90 was not excessively high. The Factor H score correlated r (114 - 0,23, p = 0,05 with the criterion for the second year; no other score correlated significantly with criterion scores. Interventions to reduce Type A behaviour for health reasons seem unlikely to reduce business performance. Opsomming Die deelnemers was 155 assuransieverteenwoordigers en 116 van hulle wat een jaar later nog in dieselfde pos was. Die prestasiekriterium het kommissie op polisse en annuiteite verteenwoordig; gegewens is vir die jaar van toetsing en die volgende jaar verkry. Jenkins se Aktiviteitsvraelys is toegepas. Die Tipe A (X == 6.26; SA - 790 was nie buitengewoon hoog nie. Die Faktor H-telling het r (114 - 0,23, p - 0,05 met die kriterium vir die tweede jaar gekorreleer; geen ander tellings het beduidend met die kriteriumtellings gekorreleer nie. Dit lyk onwaarskynlik dat intervensies om Tipe A-gedrag om gesondheidsredes te verminder besigheidsprestasie sal verlaag.

  10. Haemotological pattern associated to different types of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Memon, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the abnormalities of haemotological parameters associates to different types of malaria. Design: Observational study. Study Setting and Duration: Present study was carried out in the medicine department, of (LUH) Liaquat University Objective: To assess the abnormalities of haemotological parameters associates to different types of malaria. Design: Observational study. Study Setting and Duration: Present study was carried out in the medicine department, of (LUH) University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital Hyderabad / Jamshoro from March 2013 to august 2013. Method: All the cases after diagnosis having, tuberculosis, hepatitis, typhoid, dengue fever, pregnancy and diagnosis of meningitis excluded from the present study. Blood sample of the patients for CBC were sent to the diagnostic and research laboratory of liaquat medical University Hospital Hyderabad. After reports all the hematological abnormalities was documented. Results: Total 200 patients were selected in this study, and mean age was found as; Mean +- SD 32.4 +- 5.6. Female were found in the majority 58%. Vivax was found most common in the cases with percentage of 68%. According to the haematological abnormalities, in the vivax infected patients abnormal Hb (g/dl) was found in (24.2%) cases and thrombocytopenia was found with the (20.4%) cases in the cases, while Falciparum infected patients mostly abnormal H,b (g/dl) was found in 27 (20.4%) and thrombocytopenia found most common 31 (45.5%) respectively. Conclusion: In the conclusion of this study, there are a big haematological disturbance are evaluated in the malarial affected patients, mostly thrombocytopenia and anemia. (author)

  11. Read/write characteristics of a new type of bit-patterned-media using nano-patterned glassy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Ishimaru, Manabu; Futamoto, Masaaki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports a feasibility study of new type bit-patterned-media using a nano-patterned glassy alloy template for ultra-high density hard disk applications. The prototype bit-patterned-media was prepared using a nano-hole array pattern fabricated on a Pd-based glassy alloy thin film and a Co/Pd multilayered film filled in the nano-holes. The prepared prototype bit-patterned-media had a smooth surface and isolated Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots, where the average dot diameter, the average dot pitch and the average dot height were 30, 60 and 19 nm, respectively. MFM (magnetic force microscope) observation revealed that each dot was magnetized in a perpendicular direction and the magnetization could reverse when an opposite magnetic field was applied. Static read/write tester measurements showed that repeated writing and reading on isolated magnetic dots were possible in combination with conventional magnetic heads and high-accuracy positioning technologies. The present study indicates that the new type of bit-patterned-media composed of nano-hole arrays fabricated on glassy alloy film template and Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots are promising for applications to next generation ultra-high density hard disk drives. - Highlights: ► Prototype BPM using a nano-hole array pattern of imprinted Pd-based glassy alloy thin film and Co/Pd multilayered film was set. ► The prototype BPM has smooth surface and isolated Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots with an average dot diameter of 30 nm. ► Dots acted as perpendicular magnetic dot and were able to read, erase and write in a row by a usual perpendicular magnetic head.

  12. Dietary Patterns, Insulin Resistance, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Whitehall II Study

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton, Sarah A.; Mishra, Gita D.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with insulin resistance and investigate whether this pattern was prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Analysis was based on 7,339 participants of the Whitehall II study. Dietary intake was measured using a 127-item food frequency questionnaire. We used the reduced rank regression method to determine dietary patterns using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance as ...

  13. Self-Selection Patterns of College Roommates as Identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchors, W. Scott; Hale, John, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated patterns and processes by which students (N=422) made unassisted roommate pairings within residence halls using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results indicated introverts, intuitives, feelers, and perceivers each tended to self-select. (BL)

  14. Modular Neural Networks and Type-2 Fuzzy Systems for Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book describes hybrid intelligent systems using type-2 fuzzy logic and modular neural networks for pattern recognition applications. Hybrid intelligent systems combine several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful pattern recognition systems. Type-2 fuzzy logic is an extension of traditional type-1 fuzzy logic that enables managing higher levels of uncertainty in complex real world problems, which are of particular importance in the area of pattern recognition. The book is organized in three main parts, each containing a group of chapters built around a similar subject. The first part consists of chapters with the main theme of theory and design algorithms, which are basically chapters that propose new models and concepts, which are the basis for achieving intelligent pattern recognition. The second part contains chapters with the main theme of using type-2 fuzzy models and modular neural ne...

  15. Intracerebral Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Young; Kim, Jae Kyun; Byun, Jun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eon Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Intracerebral capillary hemangiomas are very rare benign vascular tumors that mostly occur during infancy. We described a 69-year-old man with generalized tonic-clonic seizures who was diagnosed with an intracranial mass. Multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were performed for evaluation of brain, and there was a well-enhancing mass found in the right temporal lobe without a definite feeding vessel. The patient underwent surgery and the pathologic examination demonstrated marked proliferation of small vessels with a lobular pattern in the brain parenchyma, which was confirmed to be capillary hemangioma.

  16. Evaluation of a capillary zone electrophoresis system versus a conventional agarose gel system for routine serum protein separation and monoclonal component typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudiere, L; Boularan, A M; Bonardet, A; Vallat, C; Cristol, J P; Dupuy, A M

    2006-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins is increasingly gaining impact in clinical laboratories. During 2003, we compared the fully automated capillary electrophoresis (CE) system from Beckman (Paragon CZE 2000) with the method agarose gel electrophoresis Sebia (Hydrasis-Hyris, AGE). This new study focused on the evaluation of analytical performance and a comparison including 115 fresh routine samples (group A) and a series of 97 frozen pathologic sera with suspicion of monoclonal protein (group B). Coefficients of variation (CVs %) for the five classical protein fractions have been reported to be consistenly serum samples (group B), there were 90 in which we detected a monoclonal protein by immunofixation (IF) (immunosubtraction (IS) was not used). AGE and Paragon 2000 failed to detect 7 and 12 monoclonal proteins, respectively, leading to a concordance to 92% for AGE and 87% for Paragon 2000 for identifying electrophoretic abnormalities in this group. Beta-globulin abnormalities and M paraprotein were well detected with Paragon 2000. Only 81% (21 vs 26) of the gammopathies were immunotyped with IS by two readers blinded to the IF immunotype. The Paragon 2000 is a reliable alternative to conventional agarose gel electrophoresis combining the advantages of full automation (rapidity, ease of use and cost) with high analytical performance. Qualified interpretation of results requires an adaptation period which could further improve concordance between the methods. Recently, this CE system has been improved by the manufacturer (Beckman) concerning the migration buffer and detection of beta-globulin abnormalities.

  17. Dietary Patterns and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a First Nations Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeds, Jacqueline; Mansuri, Sudaba; Mamakeesick, Mary; Harris, Stewart B; Zinman, Bernard; Gittelsohn, Joel; Wolever, Thomas M S; Connelly, Phillip W; Hanley, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing concern worldwide, particularly in Indigenous communities, which have undergone a marked nutrition transition characterized by reduced intakes of traditional foods and increased intakes of market foods. Few studies have assessed the relationships between differing dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes in Indigenous communities in Canada. The objective of the study was to characterize dietary patterns using factor analysis (FA) and to relate these patterns to the incidence of type 2 diabetes after 10 years of follow up in a First Nations community in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a prospective analysis of 492 participants in the SLHDP who did not have diabetes at baseline (1993 to 1995) and were followed for 10 years. A food-frequency questionnaire was administered, and FA was used to identify patterns of food consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined associations of food patterns with incident type 2 diabetes, adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders. At follow up, 86 participants had developed incident type 2 diabetes. FA revealed 3 prominent dietary patterns: Balanced Market Foods, Beef and Processed Foods and Traditional Foods. After adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, interleukin-6 and adiponectin, the Beef and Processed Foods pattern was associated with increased risk for incident type 2 diabetes (OR=1.38; 95% CI 1.02, 1.86). In contrast, the Balanced Market Foods and Traditional Foods Patterns were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. Dietary interventions should encourage reduced consumption of unhealthful market foods, in combination with improvements in local food environments so as to increase access to healthful foods and reduce food insecurity in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  19. Dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Florianne; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der A, Daphne L.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte

    Although overweight is an important determinant of diabetes risk, it remains unclear whether food choices can still influence the risk for type 2 diabetes in overweight persons. In this paper, we aim to clarify the role of dietary patterns in the development of type 2 diabetes in overweight and

  20. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  1. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  2. Subtypes of the Type II Pit Pattern Reflect Distinct Molecular Subclasses in the Serrated Neoplastic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hironori; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamano, Hiro-O; Sugai, Tamotsu; Kimura, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Matsushita, Hiro-O; Yoshikawa, Kenjiro; Takagi, Ryo; Harada, Eiji; Nakaoka, Michiko; Yoshida, Yuko; Harada, Taku; Sudo, Gota; Eizuka, Makoto; Yorozu, Akira; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Nojima, Masanori; Suzuki, Hiromu; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2018-03-15

    Colorectal serrated lesions (SLs) are important premalignant lesions whose clinical and biological features are not fully understood. We aimed to establish accurate colonoscopic diagnosis and treatment of SLs through evaluation of associations among the morphological, pathological, and molecular characteristics of SLs. A total of 388 premalignant and 18 malignant colorectal lesions were studied. Using magnifying colonoscopy, microsurface structures were assessed based on Kudo's pit pattern classification system, and the Type II pit pattern was subcategorized into classical Type II, Type II-Open (Type II-O) and Type II-Long (Type II-L). BRAF/KRAS mutations and DNA methylation of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) markers (MINT1, - 2, - 12, - 31, p16, and MLH1) were analyzed through pyrosequencing. Type II-O was tightly associated with sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) with BRAF mutation and CIMP-high. Most lesions with simple Type II or Type II-L were hyperplastic polyps, while mixtures of Type II or Type II-L plus more advanced pit patterns (III/IV) were characteristic of traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). Type II-positive TSAs frequently exhibited BRAF mutation and CIMP-low, while Type II-L-positive TSAs were tightly associated with KRAS mutation and CIMP-low. Analysis of lesions containing both premalignant and cancerous components suggested Type II-L-positive TSAs may develop into KRAS-mutated/CIMP-low/microsatellite stable cancers, while Type II-O-positive SSA/Ps develop into BRAF-mutated/CIMP-high/microsatellite unstable cancers. These results suggest that Type II subtypes reflect distinct molecular subclasses in the serrated neoplasia pathway and that they could be useful hallmarks for identifying SLs at high risk of developing into CRC.

  3. Capillary condenser/evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A heat transfer device is disclosed for transferring heat to or from a fluid that is undergoing a phase change. The heat transfer device includes a liquid-vapor manifold in fluid communication with a capillary structure thermally connected to a heat transfer interface, all of which are disposed in a housing to contain the vapor. The liquid-vapor manifold transports liquid in a first direction and conducts vapor in a second, opposite direction. The manifold provides a distributed supply of fluid (vapor or liquid) over the surface of the capillary structure. In one embodiment, the manifold has a fractal structure including one or more layers, each layer having one or more conduits for transporting liquid and one or more openings for conducting vapor. Adjacent layers have an increasing number of openings with decreasing area, and an increasing number of conduits with decreasing cross-sectional area, moving in a direction toward the capillary structure.

  4. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong; Song, YoonJu

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  6. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE

    OpenAIRE

    Poljak, Mario; Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Stuck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap...

  7. Beam Pattern Analysis of the Plate-type Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoewoong; Joo, Youngsang; Park, Changgyu; Kim, Jongbum

    2013-01-01

    Sensor for under-sodium viewing (USV) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been developed. In the developed WG sensor approach, the A0 mode Lamb wave is used and a thin beryllium layer is coated on the waveguide surface to improve the ultrasonic radiation ability in a sodium environment. In this work, the beam pattern radiated from the developed plate-type WG sensor is investigated analytically to understand and predict the ultrasonic beam radiation property of the WG sensor in a liquid. Analytic calculations to obtain beam patterns for two kinds of WG sensors with and without beryllium coating layers were carried out and the results were compared with those obtained by experiments. In this work, the beam pattern of the plate-type WG sensor for USV was investigated analytically. Employing the far-field approximation, the acoustic response at a given measurement position was calculated for the plate-type WG sensors with and without beryllium coating layers. The beam patterns of WG sensors were predicted by the analytic calculation and the corresponding experiments were carried out. The results showed that the far-field beam pattern radiated from the plate-type WG sensor could be well predicted by an analytic calculation. The radiation beam angles obtained by the analytical calculation were in good agreement with those obtained by experiments

  8. Whole-body patterns of the range of joint motion in young adults: masculine type and feminine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moromizato, Keiichi; Kimura, Ryosuke; Fukase, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Ishida, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the whole-body patterns of joint flexibility and their related biological and physical factors contributes not only to clinical assessments but also to the fields of human factors and ergonomics. In this study, ranges of motion (ROMs) at limb and trunk joints of young adults were analysed to understand covariation patterns of different joint motions and to identify factors associated with the variation in ROM. Seventy-eight healthy volunteers (42 males and 36 females) living on Okinawa Island, Japan, were recruited. Passive ROM was measured at multiple joints through the whole body (31 measurements) including the left and right side limbs and trunk. Comparisons between males and females, dominant and non-dominant sides, and antagonistic motions indicated that body structures influence ROMs. In principal component analysis (PCA) on the ROM data, the first principal component (PC1) represented the sex difference and a similar covariation pattern appeared in the analysis within each sex. Multiple regression analysis showed that this component was associated with sex, age, body fat %, iliospinale height, and leg extension strength. The present study identified that there is a spectrum of "masculine" and "feminine" types in the whole-body patterns of joint flexibility. This study also suggested that body proportion and composition, muscle mass and strength, and possibly skeletal structures partly explain such patterns. These results would be important to understand individual variation in susceptibility to joint injuries and diseases and in one's suitable and effective postures and motions.

  9. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  10. Experimental and numerical studies of choked flow through adiabatic and diabatic capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deodhar, Subodh D.; Kothadia, Hardik B.; Iyer, K.N.; Prabhu, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Capillary tubes are extensively used in several cooling applications like refrigeration, electronic cooling etc. Local pressure variation in adiabatic straight capillary tube (mini channel) is studied experimentally and numerically with R134a as the working fluid. Experiments are performed on two straight capillary tubes. It is found that the diameter is the most sensitive design parameter of the capillary tube. Experiments are performed on five helically coiled capillary tubes to quantify the effect of pitch and curvature of helically coiled capillary tube on the pressure drop. Non dimensionalized factor to account coiling of capillary tube is derived to calculate mass flow rate in helically coiled capillary tubes. Flow visualization in adiabatic capillary tube confirms the bubbly nature of two phase flow. Numerical and experimental investigations in diabatic capillary tube suggest that the use of positive displacement pump and choking at the exit of the channel ensures flow stability. - Highlights: • Model is developed to design capillary tube in adiabatic and diabatic condition. • Effect of coil curvature on pressure drop is studied experimentally. • Correlation is developed to predict mass flow rate in helical capillary tubes. • Flow visualization is carried out to check the type of two phase flow. • Effect of choked flow on diabatic capillary tubes is studied experimentally.

  11. Pattern Recognition of Signals for the Fault-Slip Type of Rock Burst in Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault-slip type of rock burst is a major threat to the safety of coal mining, and effectively recognizing its signals patterns is the foundation for the early warning and prevention. At first, a mechanical model of the fault-slip was established and the mechanism of the rock burst induced by the fault-slip was revealed. Then, the patterns of the electromagnetic radiation, acoustic emission (AE, and microseismic signals in the fault-slip type of rock burst were proposed, in that before the rock burst occurs, the electromagnetic radiation intensity near the sliding surface increases rapidly, the AE energy rises exponentially, and the energy released by microseismic events experiences at least one peak and is close to the next peak. At last, in situ investigations were performed at number 1412 coal face in the Huafeng Mine, China. Results showed that the signals patterns proposed are in good agreement with the process of the fault-slip type of rock burst. The pattern recognition can provide a basis for the early warning and the implementation of relief measures of the fault-slip type of rock burst.

  12. Different attention bias patterns in anorexia nervosa restricting and binge/purge types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilon Mann, Tal; Hamdan, Sami; Bar-Haim, Yair; Lazarov, Amit; Enoch-Levy, Adi; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Treasure, Janet; Stein, Daniel

    2018-04-03

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been shown to display both elevated anxiety and attentional biases in threat processing. In this study, we compared threat-related attention patterns of patients with AN restricting type (AN-R; n = 32), AN binge/purge type (AN-B/P; n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 19). A dot-probe task with either eating disorder-related or general and social anxiety-related words was used to measure attention patterns. Severity of eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, and stress were also assessed. Patients with AN-R showed vigilance to both types of threat words, whereas patients with AN-B/P showed avoidance of both threat types. Healthy control participants did not show any attention bias. Attention bias was not associated with any of the demographic, clinical, and psychometric parameters introduced. These findings suggest that there are differential patterns of attention allocation in patients with AN-R and AN-B/P. More research is needed to identify what causes/underlies these differential patterns. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

  14. A new sieving matrix for DNA sequencing, genotyping and mutation detection and high-throughput genotyping with a 96-capillary array system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    Capillary electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a fast separation technique in DNA analysis. In this dissertation, a new sieving matrix is described for DNA analysis, especially DNA sequencing, genetic typing and mutation detection. A high-throughput 96 capillary array electrophoresis system was also demonstrated for simultaneous multiple genotyping. The authors first evaluated the influence of different capillary coatings on the performance of DNA sequencing. A bare capillary was compared with a DB-wax, an FC-coated and a polyvinylpyrrolidone dynamically coated capillary with PEO as sieving matrix. It was found that covalently-coated capillaries had no better performance than bare capillaries while PVP coating provided excellent and reproducible results. The authors also developed a new sieving Matrix for DNA separation based on commercially available poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). This sieving matrix has a very low viscosity and an excellent self-coating effect. Successful separations were achieved in uncoated capillaries. Sequencing of M13mp18 showed good resolution up to 500 bases in treated PVP solution. Temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis and PVP solution was applied to mutation detection. A heteroduplex sample and a homoduplex reference were injected during a pair of continuous runs. A temperature gradient of 10 C with a ramp of 0.7 C/min was swept throughout the capillary. Detection was accomplished by laser induced fluorescence detection. Mutation detection was performed by comparing the pattern changes between the homoduplex and the heteroduplex samples. High throughput, high detection rate and easy operation were achieved in this system. They further demonstrated fast and reliable genotyping based on CTTv STR system by multiple-capillary array electrophoresis. The PCR products from individuals were mixed with pooled allelic ladder as an absolute standard and coinjected with a 96-vial tray. Simultaneous one-color laser-induced fluorescence

  15. Episodes of breathlessness: types and patterns - a qualitative study exploring experiences of patients with advanced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Higginson, Irene J; Benalia, Hamid; Gysels, Marjolein; Murtagh, Fliss Em; Spicer, James; Bausewein, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence and impact of episodic breathlessness, information about characteristics and patterns is scarce. To explore the experience of patients with advanced disease suffering from episodic breathlessness, in order to describe types and patterns. Qualitative design using in-depth interviews with patients suffering from advanced stages of chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer or motor neurone disease. As part of the interviews, patients were asked to draw a graph to illustrate typical patterns of breathlessness episodes. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. The graphs were grouped according to their patterns. Fifty-one participants (15 chronic heart failure, 14 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13 lung cancer and 9 motor neurone disease) were included (mean age 68.2 years, 30 of 51 men, mean Karnofsky 63.1, mean breathlessness intensity 3.2 of 10). Five different types of episodic breathlessness were described: triggered with normal level of breathlessness, triggered with predictable response (always related to trigger level, e.g. slight exertion causes severe breathlessness), triggered with unpredictable response (not related to trigger level), non-triggered attack-like (quick onset, often severe) and wave-like (triggered or non-triggered, gradual onset). Four patterns of episodic breathlessness could be identified based on the graphs with differences regarding onset and recovery of episodes. These did not correspond with the types of breathlessness described before. Patients with advanced disease experience clearly distinguishable types and patterns of episodic breathlessness. The understanding of these will help clinicians to tailor specific management strategies for patients who suffer from episodes of breathlessness.

  16. Practical capillary electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) joined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the most powerful separation technique available to analytical chemists and biochemists. Published research using CE grew from 48 papers in the year of commercial introduction (1988) to 1200 in 1997. While only a dozen major pharmaceutical and biotech companies have reduced CE to routine practice, the applications market is showing real or potential growth in key areas, particularly in the DNA marketplace for genomic mapping and forensic identification. For drug development involving small molecules (including chiral separations), one CE instrument can replace 10 liquid chromatographs in terms of speed of analysis. CE also uses aqueous rather than organic solvents and is thus environmentally friendlier than HPLC. The second edition of Practical Capillary Electrophoresis has been extensively reorganized and rewritten to reflect modern usage in the field, with an emphasis on commercially available apparatus and ...

  17. Eating Patterns and Health Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar Sarmento, Roberta; Peçanha Antonio, Juliana; Lamas de Miranda, Ingrid; Bellicanta Nicoletto, Bruna; Carnevale de Almeida, Jussara

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eating patterns and therapeutic target's achieving in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, patients underwent clinical, laboratory, and nutritional evaluations. Dietary intake was assessed by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and eating patterns identified by cluster analysis. The therapeutic targets were as follows: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, 40 mg/dL for men and >50 mg/dL for women; LDL-cholesterol, studied. We identified two eating patterns: "unhealthy" (n = 100)-high consumption of refined carbohydrates, ultra-processed foods, sweets and desserts ( P fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and LDL-cholesterol than the unhealthy group. Poisson regression confirmed the association of healthy eating pattern with attaining the therapeutic target for fasting plasma glucose [PR, 1.59 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.34); P = 0.018], HbA1c [PR, 2.09 (95% CI, 1.17 to 3.74); P = 0.013], and LDL-cholesterol [PR, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.86); P = 0.042]. A healthy eating pattern, including the frequent intake of whole carbohydrates, dairy, white meat, fish, fruits, and vegetables, is associated with reduced fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and LDL cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  19. Fabrication of Monolithic Bridge Structures by Vacuum-Assisted Capillary-Force Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Suh, Kahp Y.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic bridge structures were fabricated by using capillary-force lithography (CFL), which was developed for patterning polymers over a large area by combining essential features of nanoimprint lithography and capillarity. A patterned soft mold

  20. Patterns and correlates of co-occurrence among multiple types of child maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the patterns and correlates of the types of maltreatment experienced by adolescents aged 9–12, participating in an ongoing longitudinal study on the impact of neglect on children’s development. Using case record abstraction, the study compared the child protection classification and findings from the case record abstraction with regard to the rates of four types of maltreatment (i.e. physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) as well as co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Next, the study examined the frequently observed patterns of child maltreatment. Finally, the study investigated whether aspects of caretaker functioning and the detailed incident characteristics in the cases of neglect differed by the number of different types of maltreatment the children experienced. Results showed significant discrepancies between the Child Protective Service classification and case record abstraction. Child Protective Service classification considerably underestimated the rate of co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Neglect accompanied by physical and emotional abuse was the most common form. Some of the caretaker functioning variables distinguished the number of types of maltreatment. Based on the findings, future-research directions and practice implication were discussed. PMID:29225485

  1. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    OpenAIRE

    Charlaix, Elisabeth; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    28 pages - To appear in 2010 in the Handbook of Nanophysics - Vol 1 - Edited by Klaus Sattler - CRC Press; We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and...

  2. Capillary waves in slow motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  3. In Vivo Microscopy Reveals Extensive Embedding of Capillaries within the Sarcolemma of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glancy, Brian; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Dao, Lam; Bakalar, Matthew; French, Stephanie; Chess, David J.; Taylor, Joni L.; Picard, Martin; Aponte, Angel; Daniels, Mathew P.; Esfahani, Shervin; Cushman, Samuel; Balaban, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide insight into mitochondrial function in vivo, we evaluated the 3D spatial relationship between capillaries, mitochondria, and muscle fibers in live mice. Methods 3D volumes of in vivo murine Tibialis anterior muscles were imaged by multi-photon microscopy (MPM). Muscle fiber type, mitochondrial distribution, number of capillaries, and capillary-to-fiber contact were assessed. The role of myoglobin-facilitated diffusion was examined in myoglobin knockout mice. Distribution of GLUT4 was also evaluated in the context of the capillary and mitochondrial network. Results MPM revealed that 43.6 ± 3.3% of oxidative fiber capillaries had ≥ 50% of their circumference embedded in a groove in the sarcolemma, in vivo. Embedded capillaries were tightly associated with dense mitochondrial populations lateral to capillary grooves and nearly absent below the groove. Mitochondrial distribution, number of embedded capillaries, and capillary-to-fiber contact were proportional to fiber oxidative capacity and unaffected by myoglobin knockout. GLUT4 did not preferentially localize to embedded capillaries. Conclusions Embedding capillaries in the sarcolemma may provide a regulatory mechanism to optimize delivery of oxygen to heterogeneous groups of muscle fibers. We hypothesize that mitochondria locate to paravascular regions due to myofibril voids created by embedded capillaries, not to enhance the delivery of oxygen to the mitochondria. PMID:25279425

  4. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use...... of the quadrivalent vaccine (covering HPV6, 11, 16, 18) may indirectly affect the prevalence of any non-vaccine types. Routine screening samples from 5014 Danish women were tested for 35 HPV genotypes (including 13 high-risk) using the Genomica CLART(®) HPV2 kit, which is a low-density microarray based on PCR...... amplification. Simulation studies were performed both under independence between genotypes and under a common dependence structure as would arise from common risk factors, and simulation results were compared to observed coinfection patterns. Overall HPV prevalence was 37.4%, with multiple infections in 17...

  5. Capillary waves of compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Kerstin; Mecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The interplay of thermal noise and molecular forces is responsible for surprising features of liquids on sub-micrometer lengths-in particular at interfaces. Not only does the surface tension depend on the size of an applied distortion and nanoscopic thin liquid films dewet faster than would be expected from hydrodynamics, but also the dispersion relation of capillary waves differ at the nanoscale from the familiar macroscopic behavior. Starting with the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation we study the coupling of capillary waves to acoustic surface waves which is possible in compressible fluids. We find propagating 'acoustic-capillary waves' at nanometer wavelengths where in incompressible fluids capillary waves are overdamped.

  6. The effect of range and ammunition type on fracture patterns in porcine postcranial flat bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Al Hakeem, Eyad; Bulut, Ozgur; Simmons, Tal

    2018-01-01

    Pig half-carcasses were shot in scapulae, ribs and mandibles with either 0.243 hunting rifle using high velocity expanding ammunition (N = 30) or AK47 using full metal jacketed (FMJ) ammunition (N = 12) from a range of either 5 or 20 m. Fracture patterns related to distance of fire and ammunition type were compared on de-fleshed, macerated, and reconstructed bones. For expanding ammunition, location of fracture on ribs affected the resulting pattern. Scapulae shot from 5 m presented a comminuted pattern different from those shot from 20 m. Mandibles shot from 20 m showed a characteristic radiating pattern at entrance with the opposite ramus un-fractured; those shot from 5 m exhibited fractures to both rami. Using decision tree analysis provided accuracies of 93.8% for scapulae and 87.5% for mandibles. For FMJ, no distance dependent fracture differences were apparent in any bone. Decision tree analysis facilitated the interpretation of fracture patterns caused by projectile trauma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Farah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74 and carbohydrates (r = 0.22, those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34. After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97. Conclusions The

  8. Turtle Flexion Reflex Motor Patterns Show Windup, Mediated Partly by L-type Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith P. Johnson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca2+ channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca2+ channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied. We studied windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, evoked with weak mechanical and electrical stimulation of the dorsal hindlimb foot skin and assessed via a hip flexor (HF nerve recording, in spinal cord-transected and immobilized turtles in vivo. We found that an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, nifedipine, applied at concentrations of 50 μM or 100 μM to the hindlimb enlargement spinal cord, significantly reduced windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, while lower concentrations of nifedipine had no such effect. Nifedipine similarly reduced the amplitude of an individual flexion reflex motor pattern evoked by a stronger mechanical stimulus, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to each flexion reflex as well as to multisecond summation of flexion reflex responses in turtles. We also found that we could elicit flexion reflex windup consistently using a 4-g von Frey filament, which is not usually considered a nociceptive stimulus. Thus, it may be that windup can be evoked by a wide range of tactile stimuli and that L-type calcium channels contribute to multisecond temporal summation of diverse tactile stimuli across vertebrates.

  9. Comparison of Nanohole-Type and Nanopillar-Type Patterned Metallic Electrodes Incorporated in Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyan; Cui, Yanxia; Fung, Kin Hung; Zhang, Ye; Ji, Ting; Hao, Yuying

    2017-09-01

    Both the nanohole- and nanopillar-type patterned metallic electrodes (PMEs) have been introduced in organic solar cells (OSCs) for improving device performances experimentally, but there is few work addressing the similarities and differences between them. In this theoretical work, we systematically compare the impact of the nanohole- and nanopillar-type PMEs on the performance of an OSC based on hybridized cavity resonances. By optimizing the geometrical parameters of each PME, we obtained an interesting result that the integrated absorption efficiencies in the active layer with different optimized PMEs are almost the same (both are equal to 82.4%), outperforming that of the planar control by 9.9%. Though the absorption enhancement spectra of the two different optimal devices are similar as well, the mechanisms of light trapping at the corresponding enhancement peaks are distinct from each other. In a comprehensive view, the nanopillar-type PME is suggested to be applied in the present system, since its optimal design has a moderate filling ratio, which is much easier to fabricate than its counterpart. This work could contribute to the development of high-efficiency OSCs.

  10. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Romaguera, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis - Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in

  11. Capillary contact angle in a completely wet groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Malijevský, A; Rascón, C

    2014-10-03

    We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θ(cap) > 0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.

  12. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  13. MRI growth patterns of plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautner, V.F.; Hartmann, M.; Kluwe, L.; Friedrich, R.E. [University Hospital Eppendorf, Section for Phakomatoses, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Fuensterer, C. [MRI Institute Hamburg-Othmarschen, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with an incidence of 1:3000. Approximately 30% of NF1 patients develop plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) which often cause severe clinical deficits. We studied the growth patterns of 256 plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and associated disfigurement and functional deficits to determine whether there are definable growth types of these tumors. Retrospectively, we evaluated MRI scans obtained during 1997 to 2003 of 256 plexiform neurofibromas from 202 patients with NF1. Clinical investigation was carried out at the same time as the MRI scans. We identified three growth patterns: superficial in 59, displacing in 76, and invasive growth in 121 tumors. The majority (52%) of invasive PNF were found in the face, head and neck area. While superficial PNF primarily caused aesthetic problems, displacing PNF led in most cases to aesthetic problems and pain, while invasive PNF led mainly to functional deficits and disfigurement. Our study demonstrates that PNF have different growth patterns that are associated with specific clinical features. Classification of PNF may open new opportunities in clinical management, especially regarding decisions and options associated with surgical intervention. (orig.)

  14. Element patterns in albatrosses and petrels: Influence of trophic position, foraging range, and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.R.J.; Phillips, R.A.; Shore, R.F.; McGill, R.A.R.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations of 22 essential and non-essential elements among a community of Procellariiformes (and their prey) to identify the extent to which trophic position and foraging range governed element accumulation. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) was used to characterise trophic (δ 15 N) and spatial patterns (δ 13 C) among species. Few consistent patterns were observed in element distributions among species and diet appeared to be highly influential in some instances. Arsenic levels in seabird red blood cells correlated with δ 15 N and δ 13 C, demonstrating the importance of trophic position and foraging range for arsenic distribution. Arsenic concentrations in prey varied significantly across taxa, and in the strength of association with δ 15 N values (trophic level). In most instances, element patterns in Procellariiformes showed the clearest separation among species, indicating that a combination of prey selection and other complex species-specific characteristics (e.g. moult patterns) were generally more important determining factors than trophic level per se. - Trophic position, foraging range, and prey type were found to influence element compositions and concentrations in Procellariiformes from South Georgia.

  15. Capillary optics for radiation focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Lepel, E.A.; Stromswold, D.C.; Stoffels, J.; Sunberg, D.S.; Tenny, H.

    1996-11-01

    Capillary lens technology may ultimately bring benefits to neutron and x-ray-based science like conventional lenses with visible light. Although the technology is not yet 10 years old, these lenses have already had a significant impact in engineering, science, and medicine. Capillary lenses are advantageous when it is desirable to increase the radiation flux at a location without regard to its angular divergence. PNNL has worked to improve the technology in several ways. A single, optimally tapered capillary was manufactured, which allows intensity gains of a factor of 270 for an initially parallel, incident x-ray beam. Feasibility of constructing neutron lenses using 58 Ni (particularly effective at reflecting neutrons) has been explored. Three applications for capillary optics have been identified and studied: neutron telescope, Gandolphi x-ray diffractometry, and neutron radiotherapy. A brief guide is given for determining which potential applications are likely to be helped by capillary optics

  16. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  17. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsova, L A; Bessonova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references

  18. Open tubular capillary column for the separation of cytochrome C tryptic digest in capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-10-01

    A silica capillary of 50 μm internal diameter and 500 mm length (416 mm effective length) was chemically modified with 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl isocyanate in the presence of dibutyl tin dichloride as catalyst. Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate was reacted with the terminal halogen of the bound ligand to incorporate the initiator moiety, and in situ polymerization was performed using a monomer mixture of styrene, N-phenylacrylamide, and methacrylic acid. The resultant open tubular capillary column immobilized with the copolymer layer was used for the separation of tryptic digest of cytochrome C in capillary electrochromatography. The sample was well eluted and separated into many components. The elution patterns of tryptic digest of cytochrome C were studied with respect to pH and water content in the mobile phase. This preliminary study demonstrates that open tubular capillary electrochromatography columns with a modified copolymer layer composed of proper nonpolar and polar units fabricated by reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization can be useful as separation media for proteomic analysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarian, Artaches A.; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A.; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C.; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L"−"1 levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min"−"1, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L"−"1 for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  20. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, Artaches A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McCord, James; Muddiman, David C. [W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Paull, Brett, E-mail: Brett.Paull@utas.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L{sup −1} levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min{sup −1}, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L{sup −1} for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  1. Relationship between homocysteine and non-dipper pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Serdal; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim; Yildiz, Gürsel; Kiliçli, Fatih; Içağasioğlu, Serhat

    2012-07-01

    The rate of reduction of nocturnal blood pressure (NBP) is lesser than normal in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC) disrupts vascular structure and function, no matter the underlying causes. The risk of development of vascular disease is greater in diabetic patients with hyperhomocysteinemia than in patients with normal homocystein levels. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are differences of homocystein levels in dipper and non-dippers patients with type 2 DM. We compared 50 patien-ts (33 females, 17 males) with type 2 DM and 35 healthy individuals (18 females, 17 males ) in a control group. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed and homocysteine levels were measured in all patients. We found that the percentage of non-dipper pattern was 72% in patients with type 2 DM and 57% in control group. In diabetic and control individuals, homocystein levels were higher in non-dipper (respectively 13.4 ± 8.1 µmol/L and 11.8 ± 5 µmol/L) than in dipper subjects (respectively, 11.8 ± 5.8 µmol/L and 10.1 ± 4.2 µmol/L), but there was no significant difference between the two groups (respectively, p = 0.545, p = 0.294). In both groups, homocystein levels were higher in non-dipper than in dipper participants, but there was no significant difference between the groups. High homocystein levels and the non-dipper pattern increases cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the relationship between nocturnal blood pressure changes and homocystein levels should be investigated in a larger study.

  2. Distinct neural patterns enable grasp types decoding in monkey dorsal premotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Li, Yue; Li, Juncheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Chiara Carrozza, Maria; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial grasp pathway, is involved in grasp movements. However, the neural ensemble firing property of PMd during grasp movements and the extent to which it can be used for grasp decoding are still unclear. Approach. To address these issues, we used multielectrode arrays to record both spike and local field potential (LFP) signals in PMd in macaque monkeys performing reaching and grasping of one of four differently shaped objects. Main results. Single and population neuronal activity showed distinct patterns during execution of different grip types. Cluster analysis of neural ensemble signals indicated that the grasp related patterns emerged soon (200-300 ms) after the go cue signal, and faded away during the hold period. The timing and duration of the patterns varied depending on the behaviors of individual monkey. Application of support vector machine model to stable activity patterns revealed classification accuracies of 94% and 89% for each of the two monkeys, indicating a robust, decodable grasp pattern encoded in the PMd. Grasp decoding using LFPs, especially the high-frequency bands, also produced high decoding accuracies. Significance. This study is the first to specify the neuronal population encoding of grasp during the time course of grasp. We demonstrate high grasp decoding performance in PMd. These findings, combined with previous evidence for reach related modulation studies, suggest that PMd may play an important role in generation and maintenance of grasp action and may be a suitable locus for brain-machine interface applications.

  3. Modeling the differentiation of A- and C-type baroreceptor firing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdy, Jacob; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The baroreceptor neurons serve as the primary transducers of blood pressure for the autonomic nervous system and are thus critical in enabling the body to respond effectively to changes in blood pressure. These neurons can be separated into two types (A and C) based on the myelination...... of their axons and their distinct firing patterns elicited in response to specific pressure stimuli. This study has developed a comprehensive model of the afferent baroreceptor discharge built on physiological knowledge of arterial wall mechanics, firing rate responses to controlled pressure stimuli, and ion...

  4. Capillary assisted deposition of carbon nanotube film for strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zida; Xue, Xufeng; Lin, Feng; Wang, Yize; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Advances in stretchable electronics offer the possibility of developing skin-like motion sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their superior electrical properties, have great potential for applications in such sensors. In this paper, we report a method for deposition and patterning of CNTs on soft, elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using capillary action. Micropillar arrays were generated on PDMS surfaces before treatment with plasma to render them hydrophilic. Capillary force enabled by the micropillar array spreads CNT solution evenly on PDMS surfaces. Solvent evaporation leaves a uniform deposition and patterning of CNTs on PDMS surfaces. We studied the effect of the CNT concentration and micropillar gap size on CNT coating uniformity, film conductivity, and piezoresistivity. Leveraging the piezoresistivity of deposited CNT films, we further designed and characterized a device for the contraction force measurement. Our capillary assisted deposition method of CNT films showed great application potential in fabrication of flexible CNT thin films for strain sensing.

  5. Study of type a and b behavior patterns in patients with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: People with type A behavior pattern are reported to have more stress, nervousness, and anxiety. In this study, MS patients had more characteristics of type A than type B behavior. This behavior was increased in individuals with EDSS score >4.5.

  6. Spatial pattern of tree diversity and evenness across forest types in Majella National Park, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Redowan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Estimation of tree diversity at broader scale is important for conservation planning. Tree diversity should be measured and understood in terms of diversity and evenness, two integral components to describe the structure of a biological community. Variation of the tree diversity and evenness with elevation, topographic relief, aspect, terrain shape, slope, soil nutrient, solar radiation etc. are well documented. Methods Present study explores the variation of tree diversity (measured as Shannon diversity and evenness indices of Majella National Park, Italy with five available forest types namely evergreen oak woods, deciduous oak woods, black/aleppo pine stands, hop-hornbeam forest and beech forest, using satellite, environmental and field data. Results Hop-hornbeam forest was found to be most diverse and even while evergreen Oak woods was the lowest diverse and even. Diversity and evenness of forest types were concurrent to each other i.e. forest type which was more diverse was also more even. As a broad pattern, majority portion of the study area belonged to medium diversity and high evenness class. Conclusions Satellite images and other GIS data proved useful tools in monitoring variation of tree diversity and evenness across various forest types. Present study findings may have implications in prioritizing conservation zones of high tree diversity at Majella.

  7. Stereotypic Laryngeal and Respiratory Motor Patterns Generate Different Call Types in Rat Ultrasound Vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIEDE, TOBIAS

    2014-01-01

    Rodents produce highly variable ultrasound whistles as communication signals unlike many other mammals, who employ flow-induced vocal fold oscillations to produce sound. The role of larynx muscles in controlling sound features across different call types in ultrasound vocalization (USV) was investigated using laryngeal muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity, subglottal pressure measurements and vocal sound output in awake and spontaneously behaving Sprague–Dawley rats. Results support the hypothesis that glottal shape determines fundamental frequency. EMG activities of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles were aligned with call duration. EMG intensity increased with fundamental frequency. Phasic activities of both muscles were aligned with fast changing fundamental frequency contours, for example in trills. Activities of the sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles, two muscles involved in vocal production in other mammals, are not critical for the production of rat USV. To test how stereotypic laryngeal and respiratory activity are across call types and individuals, sets of ten EMG and subglottal pressure parameters were measured in six different call types from six rats. Using discriminant function analysis, on average 80% of parameter sets were correctly assigned to their respective call type. This was significantly higher than the chance level. Since fundamental frequency features of USV are tightly associated with stereotypic activity of intrinsic laryngeal muscles and muscles contributing to build-up of subglottal pressure, USV provide insight into the neurophysiological control of peripheral vocal motor patterns. PMID:23423862

  8. Pattern of dyslipidaemia and its association with hypovitaminosis d in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, F.; Seetlani, N.K.

    2017-01-01

    Macrovascular atherosclerosis is an important long-term complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Concurrent dyslipidaemia acts as an additional risk factor for these complications. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. These modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease are inter-related. In the presence of an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated metabolic abnormalities and widespread vitamin D deficiency in Pakistan, this association needs to be investigated. The purpose of our study was to determine the pattern of dyslipidaemia and its association with low vitamin D levels in South Asian diabetics. Methods: The study was designed as a quantitative cross-sectional study. It was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Sir Syed College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Karachi from January to June 2014. A total of 168 adult consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of both the genders were included. Data was collected and analysed using SPSS-20.0. The association of dyslipidaemia with vitamin D status was computed through Chi-square test. Results: We found that dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan. High total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides show significant association with vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: In order to decrease the development of diabetic complications aggressive management of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia is required. Vitamin D supplementation may play a dual role in these situations. (author)

  9. Capillary gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Modern state of gas adsorption chromatography in open capillary columns has been analyzed. The history of the method development and its role in gas chromatography, ways to construct open adsorptional capillary columns, foundations of the theory of retention and washing of chromatographic regions in gas adsorption capillary columns have been considered. The fields is extensively and for analyzing volatile compounds of different isotopic composition, inorganic and organic gases, volatile organic polar compounds, aqueous solutions of organic compounds. Separation of nuclear-spin isomers and isotopes of hydrogen is the first illustrative example of practical application of the adsorption capillary chromatography. It is shown that duration of protium and deuterium nuclear isomers may be reduced if the column temperature is brought to 47 K

  10. Performing chemical reactions in virtual capillary of surface tension ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow paths were fabricated by making parallel lines using permanent marker pen ink or other polymer on glass surfaces. Two mirror image patterned glass plates were then sandwiched one on top of the other, separated by a thin gap - created using a spacer. The aqueous liquid moves between the surfaces by capillary ...

  11. Capillary viscosimetry on ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, L M; Odenbach, S

    2008-01-01

    Experiments performed for different ferrofluids under shear flow have shown that an increase of the magnetic field strength applied to the sample yields an increase of the fluid's viscosity, the so called magnetoviscous effect. It has been shown that the magnitude of the effect is strongly related to the modification of the microstructure of ferrofluids and can be influenced by varying both the dipole-dipole interaction between the particles and the concentration of large particles within the fluid. This result has been further used to synthesize new ferrofluids which, on one hand, are more compatible for technical applications but, on the other hand, led to difficulties for the experimenters in measuring the viscous behavior in the presence of a magnetic field. To overcome this problem, a specially designed ferrofluid-compatible capillary viscometer has been developed. Within this paper, the experimental setup as well as experimental results concerning the investigation of the magnetoviscous effect in both diluted and concentrated cobalt-based ferrofluids are presented

  12. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in Nepalese individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Daya Ram; Khadka, Dipendra; Sigdel, Manoj; Yadav, Naval Kishor; Acharya, Shreedhar; Kafle, Ramchandra; Sapkota, Ravindra Mohan; Sigdel, Tara

    2017-04-04

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely detection and characterization of this condition help clinicians estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease and take appropriate preventive measures. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and predictors of dyslipidemia in a cohort of Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes. We found mixed dyslipidemia as the most prevalent (88.1%) and isolated dyslipidemia (10.1%) as the least prevalent forms of dyslipidemia in our patients. The most prevalent form of single dyslipidemia was high LDL-C (73.8%) and combined dyslipidemia was high TG, high LDL-C and low HDL-C (44.7%). Prevalence of all single and mixed dyslipidemia was higher in patients with poor glycemic control and hypertension. The glycemic status of patients correlated with their fasting serum lipid profile. Dyslipidemia was associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension. It is highly prevalent in Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes. Urgent lifestyle modification, sustained glycemic control and aggressive lipid lowering treatment plans are necessary to minimize the future risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  13. Identification of V-type nerve agents in vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator and fluoridating conversion tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, Y; Nagoya, T; Kurimata, N; Sodeyama, M; Seto, Y

    2017-07-01

    A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary GC column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride. Sample vapors of VX and RVX were converted into O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EtGB) and O-isobutyl methylphosphonofluoridate (iBuGB), respectively. These fluoridated derivatives were detected within 10 min. No compounds were detected when the VX and RVX samples were analyzed without the conversion tube. A vapor sample of tabun (GA) was analyzed, in which GA and O-ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate were detected. The molar recovery percentages of EtGB and iBuGB from VX and RVX vapors varied from 0.3 to 17%, which was attributed to variations in the vaporization efficiency of the glass vapor container. The conversion efficiencies of the VX-G conversion tube for VX and RVX to their phosphonate derivatives were estimated to be 40%. VX and RVX vapors were detected at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg m -3 . Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the analyses of VX and RVX. In the presence of 160 mg m -3 gasoline, the detection limits of VX and RVX vapor were increased to 20 mg m -3 . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of nasal cavity hemangiomas according to histological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Sun Won; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Yeo Ju; Lee, Ha Young [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Tae Young [Dept. of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Hye [Dept. of Radiology, nha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To compare computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between two histological types of nasal hemangiomas (cavernous hemangioma and capillary or lobular capillary hemangioma). CT (n = 20; six pre-contrast; 20 post-enhancement) and MRI (n = 7) images from 23 patients (16 men and seven women; mean age, 43 years; range, 13-73 years) with a pathologically diagnosed nasal cavity hemangioma (17 capillary and lobular capillary hemangiomas and six cavernous hemangiomas) were reviewed, focusing on lesion location, size, origin, contour, enhancement pattern, attenuation or signal intensity (SI), and bony changes. The 17 capillary and lobular hemangiomas averaged 13 mm (range, 4-37 mm) in size, and most (n = 13) were round. Fourteen capillary hemangiomas had marked or moderate early phase enhancement on CT, which dissipated during the delayed phase. Four capillary hemangiomas on MRI showed marked enhancement. Bony changes were usually not seen on CT or MRI (seen on five cases, 29.4%). Half of the lesions (2/4) had low SI on T1-weighted MRI images and heterogeneously high SI with signal voids on T2-weighted images. The six cavernous hemangiomas were larger than the capillary type (mean, 20.5 mm; range, 10-39 mm) and most had lobulating contours (n = 4), with characteristic enhancement patterns (three centripetal and three multifocal nodular), bony remodeling (n = 4, 66.7%), and mild to moderate heterogeneous enhancement during the early and delayed phases. CT and MRI findings are different between the two histological types of nasal hemangiomas, particularly in the enhancement pattern and size, which can assist in preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgical tumor excision.

  15. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Patterns Across Europe: A Population-based Multi-database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Jetty A; Heintjes, Edith M; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Blin, Patrick; Lassalle, Régis; Hall, Gillian C; Lapi, Francesco; Bianchini, Elisa; Hammar, Niklas; Bezemer, Irene D; Herings, Ron M C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment patterns in daily practice in 5 European countries and whether these reflect differences in guidelines. Prescriptions for drugs used in diabetes treatment during a 5-year study period were obtained from electronic databases. Patients initiating T2DM treatment during the study period were included. An SAS analysis tool was developed to create episodes of use of drug classes, which resulted in treatment patterns. A total of 253,530 patients initiating T2DM treatment during the study period were included; 52% to 55% were male, and the mean age ranged from 62 to 67 years. Metformin was the most common initial treatment in all countries. After initial therapy, most patients in the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom switched to a combination of metformin + a sulfonylurea derivative (SU). In Italy, metformin in combination with an SU was outnumbered by "other treatment," mainly because of repaglinide use. In France, treatments including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were most frequent as second- and fourth-line treatment. Metformin monotherapy was again most commonly observed as the third line of treatment in all countries. Fourth treatment was a combination of metformin + an SU in the Netherlands and Spain; in the United Kingdom and France, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were the most frequently used fourth line of treatment. This study provides a comprehensive overview of T2DM treatment patterns among patients initiating T2DM treatment in 5 European countries. There were differences, especially regarding the uptake of newer incretin-based treatments, which are usually prescribed as a second and/or third treatment in agreement with local guidelines. These variations reflect the differences between the national guidelines of these countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. II. Statistical correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C.; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of Liesegang-type patterns formed in a gaseous HCl-NH3 system by ammonium chloride precipitation along glass tubes, as described in Paper I [J. C. Torres-Guzmán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174701 (2016)] of this work. We focus on the detection and characterization of short and long-range correlations within the non-stationary sequence of apparently irregular precipitation bands. To this end we applied several techniques to estimate spatial correlations stemming from different fields, namely, linear auto-correlation via the power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and methods developed in the context of random matrix theory (RMT). In particular RMT methods disclose well pronounced long-range correlations over at least 40 bands in terms of both, band positions and intensity values. By using a variant of the DFA we furnish proof of the nonlinear nature of the detected long-range correlations.

  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment patterns in U.S. nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowitz, Barbara; Allen, Carrie; O'Shea, Terrence; Dalal, Mehul R; Haumschild, Mark; DiGenio, Andres

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes) in nursing home residents (NHRs) is increasing, concurrently with obesity and other comorbid conditions. NHR would benefit greatly from antidiabetic medications that would improve glycemic control and give a lower risk of hypoglycemia but that do not contribute to weight gain in obese individuals. To examine the prescription patterns to NHRs with diabetes, including the use of newer injectable therapies such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Treatment patterns of diabetes in NHR were analyzed using Minimum Data Set records and prescription claims from the Omnicare Senior Health Outcomes data repository (May 2011-September 2012). The prevalence of diabetes in this population of 229,283 NHRs was 35.4%. Among the 44,665 NHRs with diabetes and prescription claims data, the prevalence of obesity (40.3%) and multiple comorbidities (100%) was high. Approximately 20% of the NHRs with diabetes were aged diabetes that was untreated with medications during the study period. Insulin was the mainstay of treatment (>80%), followed by oral agents (54%). GLP-1 receptor agonist use was low (0.5%) and associated with poor treatment persistence. Considerations other than glycemic control may drive prescribing decisions, contrary to recommendations from the American Diabetes Association, American Medical Directors Association, and European Association for the Study of Diabetes.

  18. Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

  19. Residential Racial Isolation and Spatial Patterning of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Durham, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Kimbro, Rachel T; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2018-05-14

    Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. We construct a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) for blacks, which measures the extent to which blacks are exposed to only one another, to estimate associations of diabetes with RI and examine how RI relates to spatial patterning in diabetes. We obtained 2007-2011 electronic health records from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse. Patient data were linked to RI based on census block of residence. We use aspatial and spatial Bayesian models to assess spatial variation in diabetes and relationships with RI. Compared to spatial models with patient age and sex, residual geographic heterogeneity in diabetes in spatial models that also included RI was 29% and 24% lower for non-Hispanic whites and blacks, respectively. A 0.20 unit increase in RI was associated with 1.24 (95% credible interval: 1.17, 1.31) and 1.07 (1.05, 1.10) increased risk of diabetes for whites and blacks, respectively. Improved understanding of neighborhood characteristics associated with diabetes can inform development of policy interventions.

  20. Patterns of plant diversity in seven temperate forest types of Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ahmad Dar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biodiversity patterns were analyzed in seven temperate forest types [Populus deltoides (PD, Juglans regia, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, mixed coniferous, Abies pindrow (AP and Betula utilis (BU] of Kashmir Himalaya. A total of 177 plant species (158 genera, 66 families were recorded. Most of the species are herbs (82.5%, while shrubs account for 9.6% and trees represent 7.9%. Species richness ranged from 24 (PD to 96 (AP. Shannon, Simpson, and Fisher α indices varied: 0.17–1.06, 0.46–1.22, and 2.01–2.82 for trees; 0.36–0.94, 0.43–0.75, and 0.08–0.35 for shrubs; and 0.35–1.41, 0.27–0.95, and 5.61–39.98 for herbs, respectively. A total of five species were endemic. The total stems and basal area of trees were 35,794 stems (stand mean 330 stems/ha and 481.1 m2 (stand mean 40.2 m2/ha, respectively. The mean density and basal area ranged from 103 stems/ha (BU to 1,201 stems/ha (PD, and from 19.4 m2/ha (BU to 51.9 m2/ha (AP, respectively. Tree density decreased with increase in diameter class. A positive relationship was obtained between elevation and species richness and between elevation and evenness (R2 = 0.37 and 0.19, respectively. Tree and shrub communities were homogenous in nature across the seven forest types, while herbs showed heterogeneous distribution pattern.

  1. Hospital admission patterns subsequent to diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children : a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Norman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 1 diabetes are known to have a higher hospital admission rate than the underlying population and may also be admitted for procedures that would normally be carried out on a day surgery basis for non-diabetics. Emergency admission rates have sometimes been used as indicators of quality of diabetes care. In preparation for a study of hospital admissions, a systematic review was carried out on hospital admissions for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, whilst under the age of 15. The main thrust of this review was to ascertain where there were gaps in the literature for studies investigating post-diagnosis hospitalisations, rather than to try to draw conclusions from the disparate data sets. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane LibrarMEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for the period 1986 to 2006, to identify publications relating to hospital admissions subsequent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes under the age of 15. Results Thirty-two publications met all inclusion criteria, 16 in Northern America, 11 in Europe and 5 in Australasia. Most of the studies selected were focussed on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA or diabetes-related hospital admissions and only four studies included data on all admissions. Admission rates with DKA as primary diagnosis varied widely between 0.01 to 0.18 per patient-year as did those for other diabetes-related co-morbidity ranging from 0.05 to 0.38 per patient year, making it difficult to interpret data from different study designs. However, people with Type 1 diabetes are three times more likely to be hospitalised than the non-diabetic populations and stay in hospital twice as long. Conclusion Few studies report on all admissions to hospital in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes whilst under the age of 15 years. Health care costs for type 1 patients are higher than those for the general population and information on associated patterns of

  2. Distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 variants in different types of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Saamaaneh; Asadi, Malek Hossein; Farsinejad, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    OCT4 is a key regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells which can potentially encode three spliced variants designated OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1. Based on cancer stem cell concept, it is suggested that the stemness factors misexpressed in cancer cells and potentially is involved in tumorigenesis. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the potential expression of OCT4 variants in breast cancer tissues. A total of 94 tumoral and peritumoral breast specimens were evaluated with respect to the expression of OCT4 variants using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. We detected the expression of OCT4 variants in breast tumor tissues with no or very low levels of expression in peritumoral samples of the same patients. While OCT4B was highly expressed in lobular type of breast cancer, OCT4A and OCTB1 variants are highly expressed in low grade (I and II) ductal tumors. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed a considerable association between the expression level of OCT4 variants and the expression of ER, PR, Her2 and P53 factors. All data demonstrated a distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 spliced variants in different types of breast cancer and provide further evidence for the involvement of embryonic genes in carcinogenesis.

  3. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  4. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R; Miyashita, W; Yoneyama, K; Okuda, Y

    2006-03-01

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid 4He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  5. Heterogeneous pattern of bone disease in adult type 1 Gaucher disease: clinical and pathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dussen, L; Lips, P; van Essen, H W; Hollak, C E M; Bravenboer, N

    2014-09-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages, so-called Gaucher cells, as a result of a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Bone complications are an important cause of morbidity of GD and are thought to result from imbalance in bone remodeling. Bone manifestations among GD patients demonstrate a large variation including increased osteoclastic bone resorption, low bone formation and osteonecrosis. The purpose of the current case series is to describe the histological features observed in undecalcified bone samples, obtained from three GD patients, and evaluate the relationship with clinical features in these patients. Bone fragments were obtained from three adult type 1 GD patients with variable degrees of bone disease during orthopedic surgery. Specimens were embedded without prior decalcification in methylmethacrylate and prepared for histology according to standardized laboratory procedures. Histology revealed a heterogeneous pattern of bone involvement. High cellularity of bone marrow, abundant presence of Gaucher cells (GCs) and high turnover were observed in a patient with a history of multiple bone complications, while minimal bone turnover and few GCs were detected in the mildest affected patient in this series. An intermediate picture with relatively low bone turnover and a substantial amount of Gaucher cells was demonstrated in the third, moderately affected patient. No gross abnormalities in three biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide) were noted. Plastic embedding and subsequent Goldner and TRAP staining offered a unique possibility to study bone histological findings in GD. Our data show that bone manifestations in GD may vary both clinically as well as histologically and bone disease in GD will likely require a personalized approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  6. High-resolution recombination patterns in a region of human chromosome 21 measured by sperm typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Tiemann-Boege

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, classical crossover studies and linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis of genomic regions suggested that human meiotic crossovers may not be randomly distributed along chromosomes but are focused instead in "hot spots." Recent sperm typing studies provided data at very high resolution and accuracy that defined the physical limits of a number of hot spots. The data were also used to test whether patterns of LD can predict hot spot locations. These sperm typing studies focused on several small regions of the genome already known or suspected of containing a hot spot based on the presence of LD breakdown or previous experimental evidence of hot spot activity. Comparable data on target regions not specifically chosen using these two criteria is lacking but is needed to make an unbiased test of whether LD data alone can accurately predict active hot spots. We used sperm typing to estimate recombination in 17 almost contiguous ~5 kb intervals spanning 103 kb of human Chromosome 21. We found two intervals that contained new hot spots. The comparison of our data with recombination rates predicted by statistical analyses of LD showed that, overall, the two datasets corresponded well, except for one predicted hot spot that showed little crossing over. This study doubles the experimental data on recombination in men at the highest resolution and accuracy and supports the emerging genome-wide picture that recombination is localized in small regions separated by cold areas. Detailed study of one of the new hot spots revealed a sperm donor with a decrease in recombination intensity at the canonical recombination site but an increase in crossover activity nearby. This unique finding suggests that the position and intensity of hot spots may evolve by means of a concerted mechanism that maintains the overall recombination intensity in the region.

  7. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  8. Identification of a consistent pattern of mutations in neurovirulent variants derived from the sabin vaccine strain of poliovirus type 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Equestre, M; Genovese, D; Cavalieri, F; Fiore, L; Santoro, R; Perez Bercoff, R

    1991-01-01

    Complete nucleotide sequencing of the RNAs of two unrelated neurovirulent isolates of Sabin-related poliovirus type 2 revealed that two nucleotides and one amino acid (amino acid 143 in the major capsid protein VP1) consistently departed from the sequences of the nonneurovirulent poliovirus type 2 712 and Sabin vaccine strains. This pattern of mutation appeared to be a feature common to all neurovirulent variants of poliovirus type 2.

  9. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A.; Gaynor, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses

  10. On the origin of patterning in movable Latin type : Renaissance standardisation, systematisation, and unitisation of textura and roman type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    This PhD-research is conducted to test the hypothesis that Gutenberg and consorts developed a standardised and even unitised system for the production of textura type, and that this system was extrapolated for the production of roman type in Renaissance Italy. For roman type, Humanistic handwriting

  11. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Frank

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced rank regression (RRR is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668 dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001. The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides.

  12. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATTERN OF DYSLIPIDAEMIA AND ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Vijayrao Rajkondawar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present research was undertaken to study the pattern of dyslipidaemia and varied clinical manifestations of ischaemic heart disease, its risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetes Mellitus (DM has become major public health problem in India. It is not only increasing in morbidity and mortality, but also decreases the quality of life. Also, disease and its complications are causing heavy economic burden for patients suffering from it.1,2 Diabetes is endemic globally with increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. Diabetes is a major cause of mortality, but several studies indicate that it is likely underreported as a cause of death. A recent estimate suggested that diabetes was the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and was responsible for almost 3 million deaths annually (1.7-5.2% of all deaths. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients attending the outpatient department or admitted to medical wards, ICU of tertiary care centre and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were evaluated clinically. A baseline Electrocardiogram (ECG was taken in all cases irrespective of clinical evidence of cardiac involvement. Patients with normal ECG pattern were further evaluated by Treadmill Testing (TMT or stress test for subclinical cardiac involvement. Risk factor evaluation was done in all cases. RESULTS Prevalence of IHD was found to be 41% with a male predominance (1.067:1. Evaluation of risk factors has shown its strong association with IHD. Incidence of IHD was high when low HDL (P 25 had negatively significant association with IHD in type 2 diabetics (P=0.072. Smoking was not statistically associated (P=0.577 and in male alcoholics, IHD had positive association with alcohol (P=0.193. CONCLUSION The current study points out that there exists an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease in diabetics with few, but not all risk factors contributing to it. Early detection, optimal glycaemic

  13. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Jernigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green and eukaryotic (green and brown algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis, five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata, and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp. were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram “fingerprints” were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred.

  14. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  15. Analysis of fuel management pattern of research reactor core of the MTR type design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lily Suparlina; Tukiran Surbakti

    2014-01-01

    Research reactor core design needs neutronics parameter calculation use computer codes. Research reactor MTR type is very interested because can be used as research and also a radioisotope production. The research reactor in Indonesia right now is already 25 years old. Therefore, it is needed to design a new research reactor as a compact core. Recent research reactor core is not enough to meet criteria acceptance in the UCD which already determined namely thermal neutron flux in the core is 1.0x10 15 n/cm 2 s. so that it is necessary to be redesign the alternative core design. The new research reactor design is a MTR type with 5x5 configuration core, uses U9Mo-Al fuel, 70 cm of high and uses two certainly fuel management pattern. The aim of this research is to achieve neutron flux in the core to meet the criteria acceptance in the UCD. Calculation is done by using WIMSD-B, Batan-FUEL and Batan-3DIFF codes. The neutronic parameters to be achieved by this calculation are the power level of 50 MW thermal and core cycle of 20 days. The neutronics parameter calculation is done for new U-9Mo-Al fuel with variation of densities.The result of calculation showed that the fresh core with 5x5 configuration, 360 gram, 390 gram and 450 gram of fuel loadings have meet safety margin and acceptance criteria in the UCD at the thermal neutron flux is more then 1.0 x 10 15 n/cm 2 s. But for equilibrium core is only the 450 gram of loading meet the acceptance criteria. (author)

  16. Type I interferon and pattern recognition receptor signaling following particulate matter inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdely Aaron

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Welding, a process that generates an aerosol containing gases and metal-rich particulates, induces adverse physiological effects including inflammation, immunosuppression and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study utilized microarray technology and subsequent pathway analysis as an exploratory search for markers/mechanisms of in vivo systemic effects following inhalation. Mice were exposed by inhalation to gas metal arc – stainless steel (GMA-SS welding fume at 40 mg/m3 for 3 hr/d for 10 d and sacrificed 4 hr, 14 d and 28 d post-exposure. Whole blood cells, aorta and lung were harvested for global gene expression analysis with subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR. Serum was collected for protein profiling. Results The novel finding was a dominant type I interferon signaling network with the transcription factor Irf7 as a central component maintained through 28 d. Remarkably, these effects showed consistency across all tissues indicating a systemic type I interferon response that was complemented by changes in serum proteins (decreased MMP-9, CRP and increased VCAM1, oncostatin M, IP-10. In addition, pulmonary expression of interferon α and β and Irf7 specific pattern recognition receptors (PRR and signaling molecules (Ddx58, Ifih1, Dhx58, ISGF3 were induced, an effect that showed specificity when compared to other inflammatory exposures. Also, a canonical pathway indicated a coordinated response of multiple PRR and associated signaling molecules (Tlr7, Tlr2, Clec7a, Nlrp3, Myd88 to inhalation of GMA-SS. Conclusion This methodological approach has the potential to identify consistent, prominent and/or novel pathways and provides insight into mechanisms that contribute to pulmonary and systemic effects following toxicant exposure.

  17. Genetic variability of Artemisia capillaris (Wormwood capillary) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variability among individuals of Artemisia capillaris from state of Terengganu, Malaysia was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The samples were collected from differences regional in Terengganu State. The genomic DNA was extracted from the samples leaves.

  18. Polarization Characteristics of Zebra Patterns in Type IV Solar Radio Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T.; Iwai, K.; Katoh, Y.; Masuda, S.

    2017-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of zebra patterns (ZPs) in type IV solar bursts were studied. We analyzed 21 ZP events observed by the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System between 2010 and 2015 and identified the following characteristics: a degree of circular polarization (DCP) in the range of 0%–70%, a temporal delay of 0–70 ms between the two circularly polarized components (i.e., the right- and left-handed components), and dominant ordinary-mode emission in about 81% of the events. For most events, the relation between the dominant and delayed components could be interpreted in the framework of fundamental plasma emission and depolarization during propagation, though the values of DCP and delay were distributed across wide ranges. Furthermore, it was found that the DCP and delay were positively correlated (rank correlation coefficient R = 0.62). As a possible interpretation of this relationship, we considered a model based on depolarization due to reflections at sharp density boundaries assuming fundamental plasma emission. The model calculations of depolarization including multiple reflections and group delay during propagation in the inhomogeneous corona showed that the DCP and delay decreased as the number of reflections increased, which is consistent with the observational results. The dispersive polarization characteristics could be explained by the different numbers of reflections causing depolarization.

  19. Polarization Characteristics of Zebra Patterns in Type IV Solar Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T. [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Iwai, K. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Katoh, Y. [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Masuda, S., E-mail: k.kaneda@pparc.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Space—Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    The polarization characteristics of zebra patterns (ZPs) in type IV solar bursts were studied. We analyzed 21 ZP events observed by the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System between 2010 and 2015 and identified the following characteristics: a degree of circular polarization (DCP) in the range of 0%–70%, a temporal delay of 0–70 ms between the two circularly polarized components (i.e., the right- and left-handed components), and dominant ordinary-mode emission in about 81% of the events. For most events, the relation between the dominant and delayed components could be interpreted in the framework of fundamental plasma emission and depolarization during propagation, though the values of DCP and delay were distributed across wide ranges. Furthermore, it was found that the DCP and delay were positively correlated (rank correlation coefficient R = 0.62). As a possible interpretation of this relationship, we considered a model based on depolarization due to reflections at sharp density boundaries assuming fundamental plasma emission. The model calculations of depolarization including multiple reflections and group delay during propagation in the inhomogeneous corona showed that the DCP and delay decreased as the number of reflections increased, which is consistent with the observational results. The dispersive polarization characteristics could be explained by the different numbers of reflections causing depolarization.

  20. Changing patterns in deforestation avoidance by different protection types in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusys, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    This study quantifies how much deforestation was avoided due to legal protection in Legal Amazon in strictly protected areas, sustainable use areas, and indigenous lands. Only regions that are protected de jure (i.e., where deforestation is avoided due to effective laws rather than remoteness) were considered, so that the potential of legal protection could be better assessed. This is a cross-sectional approach, which allows comparisons in terms of avoided deforestation among the different types of protection in the same period. This study covers three different periods. Regions protected de jure were sampled by estimating a threshold distance at which deforestation starts to diminish and retaining all pixels up to that distance, and deforestation that has been avoided due to legal protection was estimated by matching. Indigenous lands avoided the highest percentage of deforestation during the 2001-2004 and 2005-2008 periods, followed by those under strict protection and sustainable use areas, in respective order. Shifting patterns in deforestation avoidance are clearly noticeable for the 2009-2014 period when 1) strictly protected areas outperformed indigenous lands in terms of the percentage of saved forests, 2) some protected regions began to attract deforestation instead of avoiding it, and 3) sustainable use areas, on average, did not avoid deforestation.

  1. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2018-02-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  2. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  3. Association of Major Dietary Patterns with General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane Basiri, Marjan; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmood; Reza Eshraghian, Mohammad; Noorshahi, Neda; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Nikbazm, Ronak; Karimi, Zeinab; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns associated with general and abdominal obesity in type 2 diabetic patients. We included 728 patients (35 - 65 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in this cross-sectional study. The usual dietary intake of individuals over 1 year was collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured according to standard protocol. The two major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the general obesity when compared to the lowest quintile (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI = 0.26 - 0.79, P for trend = 0.02), while patients in the highest quintile of the unhealthy dietary pattern scores had greater odds for the general obesity (OR = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.8 - 5.9, P for trend diabetes mellitus, a healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated and an unhealthy dietary pattern is directly associated with general obesity.

  4. Characterization of sleep breathing pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes: sweet sleep study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lecube

    Full Text Available Although sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, it is unknown whether or not subjects with and without T2D share the same sleep breathing pattern.A cross-sectional study in patients with SAHS according to the presence (n = 132 or not (n = 264 of T2D. Both groups were matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A subgroup of 125 subjects was also matched by AHI. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and heart failure. A higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI was observed in T2D patients [32.2 (10.2-114.0 vs. 25.6 (10.2-123.4 events/hours; p = 0.002. When sleep events were evaluated separately, patients with T2D showed a significant increase in apnea events [8.4 (0.1-87.7 vs. 6.3 (0.0-105.6 e/h; p = 0.044, as well as a two-fold increase in the percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation <90% [15.7 (0.0-97.0 vs. 7.9 (0.0-95.6 %; <0.001], higher rates of oxygen desaturation events, and also higher daily sleepiness [7.0 (0.0-21.0 vs. 5.0 (0.0-21.0; p = 0.006] than subjects without T2D. Significant positive correlations between fasting plasma glucose and AHI, the apnea events, and CT90 were observed. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2D was independently associated with AHI (R2 = 0.217, the apnea index (R2 = 0.194, CT90 (R2 = 0.222, and desaturation events.T2D patients present a different pattern of sleep breathing than subject without diabetes. The most important differences are the severity of hypoxemia and the number of apneas whereas the incidence of hypopnea episodes is similar.

  5. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  6. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...

  7. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  9. Capillary condensation and evaporation in alumina nanopores with controlled modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Liu, Lifeng; Lee, Woo; Gösele, Ulrich; Coasne, Benoit

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide presenting not interconnected pores with controlled modulations is studied using adsorption experiments and molecular simulations. Both the experimental and simulation data show that capillary condensation and evaporation are driven by the smallest size of the nanopore (constriction). The adsorption isotherms for the open and closed pores are almost identical if constrictions are added to the system. The latter result implies that the type of pore ending does not matter in modulated pores. Thus, the presence of hysteresis loops observed in adsorption isotherms measured in straight nanopores with closed bottom ends can be explained in terms of geometrical inhomogeneities along the pore axis. More generally, these results provide a general picture of capillary condensation and evaporation in constricted or modulated pores that can be used for the interpretation of adsorption in disordered porous materials.

  10. X-ray focusing using capillary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Chapman, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    A new form of X-ray focusing device based on glass capillary arrays is presented. Theoretical and experimental results for array of circular capillaries and theoretical and computational results for square hole capillaries are given. It is envisaged that devices such as these will find wide applications in X-ray optics as achromatic condensers and collimators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jana; Boklund, Anette; Halasa, Tariq H B; Toft, Nils; Lentz, Hartmut H K

    2017-01-01

    Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network

  12. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schulz

    Full Text Available Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the

  13. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto S. Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on ovigeny in parasitoids is important for basic studies on physiology and applied biological control. The ovigeny pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied in newly-emerged females at seven, 14, 24 and 48 h intervals after their emergence from Tenebrio molitor L. pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Females of P. elaeisis presented ovaries composed by four ovarioles of the meroistic polytrophic type. The yolk accumulation and chorionogenesis in P. elaeisis were concluded 24 h after the female emergence. The 48 h-old females show a high quantity of egg ready for oviposition. These findings can help to improve the mass production of P. elaeisis and the augmentative biological control by using this natural enemy.O conhecimento da ovigenia em parasitóides é importante para estudos básicos em fisiologia e para o controle biológico aplicado. O padrão de ovigenia e OVIGENY OF Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE o tipo de ovaríolo do parasitóide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenopera: Eulophidae foram estudados em fêmeas recém-emergidas e em intervalos de sete, 14, 24 de 48 horas após a emergência em pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de P. elaesis apresentaram o ovário composto por quatro ovaríolos do tipo meroístico politrófico. A deposição de vitelo e corionogênese em P. elaeisis foram concluídas 24 horas após a emergência. Fêmeas com 48 horas de idade apresentam grande quantidade de ovos prontos para a oviposição. Esses resultados podem ajudar a melhoria da produção massal de P. elaeisis e o controle biológico aplicado com esse parasitóide.

  14. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were ...

  15. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  16. Generalizability of dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  17. Confounding by dietary pattern of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  18. Dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes among Ghanaian migrants in Europe and their compatriots in Ghana : the RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Addo, Juliet; Amoah, Stephen K; Smeeth, Liam; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Spranger, Joachim; Agyemang, Charles; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Beune, Erik; Stronks, Karien; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the associations of dietary patterns (DPs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Ghanaian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the multi-centre, cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants) study (n = 4543), three overall DPs ("mixed",

  19. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  20. Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence…

  1. [The relationship between cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of type A personality pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Güler, Murat; Basim, H Nejat

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between cognitive and emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of Type A personality pattern. The Raven Progressive Matrices, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Inventory, Stress Symptoms Scale, and Type A Personality Scale were administered to 271 university students. Two groups, Type As and Type Bs were created according to the Type A Personality Scale scores and were compared in terms of their scores on the other scales that were administered. Our analyses showed that stress symptoms were negatively correlated with effective coping, stress management, and general mood dimensions of the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. They were also positively correlated with ineffective coping and Type A behaviors. Being female also significantly predicted stress symptoms. When the participants were grouped according to Type A Personality Scale scores as Type As and Type Bs, the regression analysis showed that the stress symptoms of Type As were significantly predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles and deficiencies in the general mood component of emotional intelligence, whereas the stress symptoms of Type Bs were predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles, overuse of ineffective coping styles, and increase in the intrapersonal abilities component of emotional intelligence. Stress symptoms can be related to the variables associated with personality styles. It is suggested that stress management programs for Type As should include exercises that increase emotional intelligence, especially the components of drawing pleasure from their life situation, being more positive, hopeful and optimistic.

  2. Dietary patterns associated with HbA1c and LDL cholesterol among individuals with type 1 diabetes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Mendez, Michelle A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Du, Shufa; Rosamond, Wayne; Popkin, Barry M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To identify dietary patterns that influence cardiometabolic risk among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of T1D in China (n=99). Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns from a set of 20 food groups that maximized the explained variation in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Results Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by low intakes of wheat products and high-fat cakes, and high intakes of beans and pickled vegetables. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by low intakes of high-fat cakes, nuts/seeds, fish/shellfish, and teas/coffee, and high intakes of rice and eggs. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary pattern 1 had significantly (pfor age and household income. Dietary pattern 2 was not associated with HbA1c or LDL cholesterol. Conclusions We identified a dietary pattern that is significantly related to HbA1c and LDL cholesterol. These findings provide support for behavioral strategies to prevent complications in individuals with T1D in China. PMID:25630525

  3. An Apparent Deficiency of Lymphatic Capillaries in the Islets of Langerhans in the Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgren, Erik; Korsgren, Olle

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is crucial for efficient immune surveillance and for the maintenance of a physiological pressure in the interstitial space. Even so, almost no information is available concerning the lymph drainage of the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas. Immunohistochemical staining allowed us to distinguish lymphatic capillaries from blood capillaries. Almost no lymphatic capillaries were found within the islets in pancreatic biopsy specimens from subjects without diabetes or from subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Lymphatic capillaries were, however, found at the islet-exocrine interface, frequently located along blood capillaries and other fibrotic structures within or close to the islet capsule. Lymphatic capillaries were regularly found in the exocrine pancreas, with small lymphatic vessels located close to and around acini. Larger collecting lymphatic vessels were located in fibrotic septa between the exocrine lobules and adjacent to the ductal system of the pancreas. In summary, we report a pronounced deficiency of lymphatic capillaries in human islets, a finding with implications for immune surveillance and the regulation of interstitial fluid transport in the endocrine pancreas as well as for the pathophysiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Takeshi; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saito, Miyoko; Tamasawa, Atsuko; Nakayama, Shiho; Someya, Yuki; Ishida, Hidenori; Gosho, Masahiko; Kanazawa, Akio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters. The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses. Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern) had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern) had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern) had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP. The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients. UMIN000010932.

  5. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  6. DNA Methylation Patterns in Cord Blood of Neonates Across Gestational Age: Association With Cell-Type Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Susan M; Okrah, Kwame; Shetty, Amol; Corrada Bravo, Hector

    A statistical methodology is available to estimate the proportion of cell types (cellular heterogeneity) in adult whole blood specimens used in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). However, there is no methodology to estimate the proportion of cell types in umbilical cord blood (also a heterogeneous tissue) used in EWAS. The objectives of this study were to determine whether differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns in umbilical cord blood are the result of blood cell type proportion changes that typically occur across gestational age and to demonstrate the effect of cell type proportion confounding by comparing preterm infants exposed and not exposed to antenatal steroids. We obtained DNAm profiles of cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation27k BeadChip array for 385 neonates from the Boston Birth Cohort. We estimated cell type proportions for six cell types using the deconvolution method developed by . The cell type proportion estimates segregated into two groups that were significantly different by gestational age, indicating that gestational age was associated with cell type proportion. Among infants exposed to antenatal steroids, the number of differentially methylated CpGs dropped from 127 to 1 after controlling for cell type proportion. EWAS utilizing cord blood are confounded by cell type proportion. Careful study design including correction for cell type proportion and interpretation of results of EWAS using cord blood are critical.

  7. MCL and mincle: C-type lectin receptors that sense damaged self and pathogen associated molecular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Richardson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MCL (macrophage C-type lectin and mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin comprise part of an extensive repertoire of pattern recognition receptors with the ability to sense damage associated and pathogen associated molecular patterns. In this review we cover the discovery and molecular characterization of these C-type lectin receptors, and highlight recent advances in the understanding of their roles in orchestrating the response of the immune system to bacterial and fungal infection, and damaged self. We also discuss the identification and structure-activity relationships of activating ligands, particularly trehalose dimycolate (TDM and related mycobacterial glycolipids, which have significant potential in the development of TH1/TH17 vaccination strategies.

  8. [Is the use of plastic capillary tubes justified for blood gases analysis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurès, Marie-Françoise; Bozonnat, Marie-Cécile; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Some clinical units, such as neonatal or maternity units, preferentially use capillary tubes when analysing blood gases. Using glass tubes is delicate and nurses must recollect blood when breaking. In order to eliminate this problem, we tested flexible, plastic capillary tubes in both the above mentionned units and in our biochemistry laboratory. Each unit, where glass tubes were habitually used, tested 200 flexible, plastic capillary tubes. In addition, the nursing staffed filled out a questionnaire concerned tube usage. Both units clearly preferred using the flexible tubes. In the laboratory, results for blood gas analyses were compared between rigid glass and flexible plastic capillary tubes for 112 patients. Concordance tests did not showed significant differences between the two tube types, except for hematocrit and total haemoglobin. A questionnaire was also presented to the lab technician, who confirmed the easier usability of plastic capillary tubes.

  9. Method of changing the control rod pattern in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to change the control rod pattern in a short time with ease, as well as improve the availability factor of the reactor. Method: Control rods other than those being inserted into the reactor core are inserted into the reactor core to reduce the power by the reduction in the reactor core flow rate. Then, the control rod to be operated is operated partially for the change of the control rod pattern to restrict the linear heat rating of the fuels to less than 0.1 kW/ft per one hour to change the control pattern to the aimed control rod pattern. Then, the reactor core flow rate is increased after the pattern exchange for the control rod to increase the power. Since only the control rod operation is performed without adjusting the reactor core flow rate upon change of the control rod pattern, procedures can be made simply in a short time to thereby improve the availability factor of the reactor. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  11. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  12. Capillary Refill using Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science The opportunities within augmented reality is growing. Augmented reality is a combination of the real and the virtual world in real time, and large companies like Microsoft and Google is now investing heavily in the technology. This thesis presents a solution for simulating a medical test called capillary refill, by using augmented reality. The simulation is performed with an augmented reality headset called HoloLens. The HoloLens will recognise a mark...

  13. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorairaj, Rathissh [Hillsboro, OR; Keynton, Robert S [Louisville, KY; Roussel, Thomas J [Louisville, KY; Crain, Mark M [Georgetown, IN; Jackson, Douglas J [New Albany, IN; Walsh, Kevin M [Louisville, KY; Naber, John F [Goshen, KY; Baldwin, Richard P [Louisville, KY; Franco, Danielle B [Mount Washington, KY

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  14. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of nailfold capillaries by capillaroscopy in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Christian; Kundi, Michael; Katzenschlager, Reinhold; Hirschl, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy (NVC) is a diagnostic tool particularly useful in the differential diagnosis of rheumatic and connective tissue diseases. Although successfully applied since many years, little is known about prevalence and distribution of NVC changes in healthy individuals. NVC was performed in 120 individuals (57 men and 63 women; age 18 to 70 years) randomly selected according to predefined age and sex strata. Diseases associated with NVC changes were excluded. The nailfolds of eight fingers were assessed according to standardized procedures. A scoring system was developed based on the distribution of the number of morphologically deviating capillaries, microhaemorrhages, and capillary density. Only 18 individuals (15 %) had no deviation in morphology, haemorrhages, or capillary density on any finger. Overall 67 % had morphological changes, 48 % had microhaemorrhages, and 40 % of volunteers below 40 years of age and 18 % above age 40 had less than 8 capillaries/mm. Among morphological changes tortous (43 %), ramified (47 %), and bushy capillaries (27 %) were the most frequently altered capillary types. A semiquantitative scoring system was developed in such a way that a score above 1 indicates an extreme position (above the 90th percentile) in the distribution of scores among healthy individuals. Altered capillaries occur frequently among healthy individuals and should be interpreted as normal unless a suspicious increase in their frequency is determined by reference to the scoring system. Megacapillaries and diffuse loss of capillaries were not found and seem to be of specific diagnostic value.

  16. Recent advances in the preparation and application of monolithic capillary columns in separation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tingting; Yang, Xi; Xu, Yujing; Ji, Yibing

    2016-01-01

    Novel column technologies involving various materials and efficient reactions have been investigated for the fabrication of monolithic capillary columns in the field of analytical chemistry. In addition to the development of these miniaturized systems, a variety of microscale separation applications have achieved noteworthy results, providing a stepping stone for new types of chromatographic columns with improved efficiency and selectivity. Three novel strategies for the preparation of capillary monoliths, including ionic liquid-based approaches, nanoparticle-based approaches and “click chemistry”, are highlighted in this review. Furthermore, we present the employment of state-of-the-art capillary monolithic stationary phases for enantioseparation, solid-phase microextraction, mixed-mode separation and immobilized enzyme reactors. The review concludes with recommendations for future studies and improvements in this field of research. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel monolithic capillary columns have shown powerful potential in analytical chemistry field. • Various materials including ionic liquids and nanoparticles involved into capillary monolithic micro-devices are concluded. • Click chemistry strategy applied for preparing monolithic capillary columns is reviewed. • Recent strategies utilized in constructing different capillary monoliths for enantiomeric separation are summarized. • Advancement of capillary monoliths for complex samples analysis is comprehensively described.

  17. Recent advances in the preparation and application of monolithic capillary columns in separation science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tingting; Yang, Xi; Xu, Yujing [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Ji, Yibing, E-mail: jiyibing@msn.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China)

    2016-08-10

    Novel column technologies involving various materials and efficient reactions have been investigated for the fabrication of monolithic capillary columns in the field of analytical chemistry. In addition to the development of these miniaturized systems, a variety of microscale separation applications have achieved noteworthy results, providing a stepping stone for new types of chromatographic columns with improved efficiency and selectivity. Three novel strategies for the preparation of capillary monoliths, including ionic liquid-based approaches, nanoparticle-based approaches and “click chemistry”, are highlighted in this review. Furthermore, we present the employment of state-of-the-art capillary monolithic stationary phases for enantioseparation, solid-phase microextraction, mixed-mode separation and immobilized enzyme reactors. The review concludes with recommendations for future studies and improvements in this field of research. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel monolithic capillary columns have shown powerful potential in analytical chemistry field. • Various materials including ionic liquids and nanoparticles involved into capillary monolithic micro-devices are concluded. • Click chemistry strategy applied for preparing monolithic capillary columns is reviewed. • Recent strategies utilized in constructing different capillary monoliths for enantiomeric separation are summarized. • Advancement of capillary monoliths for complex samples analysis is comprehensively described.

  18. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple coating procedure for generation of a high and pH-independent electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. The bilayer coating was formed by noncovalent adsorption of the ionic polymers Polybrene...... capillaries was (4.9+/-0.1) x 10(-4) cm2V(-1)s(-1) in a pH-range of 2-10 (ionic strength = 30 mM). When alkaline compounds were used as test substances intracapillary and intercapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 2% RSD, respectively in the entire...... pH range. The coating was fairly stable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and this made it possible to perform fast MEKC separations at low pH. When neutral compounds were used as test substances, the intracapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 2% RSD in a pH range of 2...

  19. Dietary patterns and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Remón, Alexander; Kirwan, Richard; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

    2018-01-22

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach for examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns. Our objective was to systematically review the current findings on the effects of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. In this review, we describe and discuss the relationships between dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Prudent, Seventh-day Adventists, and Western, with risk of obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenearive diseases. Evidence is increasing from both observational and clinical studies that plant-based dietary patterns, which are rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are valuable in preventing various chronic diseases, whereas a diet high in red and processed meat, refined grains and added sugar seems to increase said risk. Dietary pattern analysis might be especially valuable to the development and evaluation of food-based dietary guidelines.

  20. Process-morphology scaling relations quantify self-organization in capillary densified nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ashley L; Stein, Itai Y; Cui, Kehang; Wardle, Brian L

    2018-02-07

    Capillary-mediated densification is an inexpensive and versatile approach to tune the application-specific properties and packing morphology of bulk nanofiber (NF) arrays, such as aligned carbon nanotubes. While NF length governs elasto-capillary self-assembly, the geometry of cellular patterns formed by capillary densified NFs cannot be precisely predicted by existing theories. This originates from the recently quantified orders of magnitude lower than expected NF array effective axial elastic modulus (E), and here we show via parametric experimentation and modeling that E determines the width, area, and wall thickness of the resulting cellular pattern. Both experiments and models show that further tuning of the cellular pattern is possible by altering the NF-substrate adhesion strength, which could enable the broad use of this facile approach to predictably pattern NF arrays for high value applications.

  1. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  2. Healthful dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Deirdre K; Hu, Frank B; Chavarro, Jorge; Rosner, Bernard; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Zhang, Cuilin

    2012-11-12

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached epidemic proportions. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for T2DM after pregnancy. Adherence to healthful dietary patterns has been inversely associated with T2DM in the general population; however, whether these dietary patterns are associated with progression to T2DM among a susceptible population is unknown. Four thousand four hundred thirteen participants from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort with prior GDM were followed up from 1991 to 2005. We derived the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) dietary pattern adherence scores from a post-GDM validated food-frequency questionnaire, with cumulative average updating every 4 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models estimated the relative risk (hazard ratios) and 95% confidence intervals. We observed 491 cases of incident T2DM during 52 743 person-years. All 3 patterns were inversely associated with T2DM risk with adjustment for age, total calorie intake, age at first birth, parity, ethnicity, parental diabetes, oral contraceptive use, menopause, and smoking. When we compared participants with the highest adherence (quartile 4) vs lowest (quartile 1), the aMED pattern was associated with 40% lower risk of T2DM (hazard ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.44-0.82; P=.002]); the DASH pattern, with 46% lower risk (0.54 [0.39-0.73; P.001]); and the aHEI pattern, with 57% lower risk (0.43 [0.31-0.59; P.001]). Adjustment for body mass index moderately attenuated these findings. Adherence to healthful dietary patterns is associated with lower T2DM risk among women with a history of GDM. The inverse associations are partly mediated by body mass index.

  3. Patterns induced by super cross-diffusion in a predator-prey system with Michaelis-Menten type harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Wu, Ranchao; Chen, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Turing instability and pattern formation in a super cross-diffusion predator-prey system with Michaelis-Menten type predator harvesting are investigated. Stability of equilibrium points is first explored with or without super cross-diffusion. It is found that cross-diffusion could induce instability of equilibria. To further derive the conditions of Turing instability, the linear stability analysis is carried out. From theoretical analysis, note that cross-diffusion is the key mechanism for the formation of spatial patterns. By taking cross-diffusion rate as bifurcation parameter, we derive amplitude equations near the Turing bifurcation point for the excited modes by means of weakly nonlinear theory. Dynamical analysis of the amplitude equations interprets the structural transitions and stability of various forms of Turing patterns. Furthermore, the theoretical results are illustrated via numerical simulations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Nutrition Facts Panel use is associated with diet quality and dietary patterns among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Shebl, Fatma M; Hawley, Nicola L; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Vega-López, Sonia; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Baseline cross-sectional data from a clinical trial were used to assess the association between NFP use and dietary intake. Diet was measured using two methods: (i) a diet quality score (the Healthy Eating Index-2010) derived from a single 24 h recall and (ii) dietary pattern (exploratory factor analyses) from an FFQ. Multivariable logistic and non-parametric quantile regressions were conducted, as appropriate. Settings Hartford County, Connecticut, USA. Latino adults (n 203), ≥21 years of age, with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, glycosylated Hb≥7 %, and without medical conditions limiting physical activity. Participants' education level, diabetes-related knowledge and English speaking were positively associated with NFP use. At the higher percentiles of diet quality score, NFP use was significantly associated with higher diet quality. Similarly, NFP users were more likely to consume a 'healthy' dietary pattern (P=0·003) and less likely to consume a 'fried snack' pattern (P=0·048) compared with NFP non-users. The association between reported NFP use and diet quality was positive and significantly stronger among participants who reported consuming a healthier diet. While NFP use was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, not using NFP was associated with a less-healthy, fried snack pattern. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand whether improving NFP use could be an effective intervention to improve diet quality among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Effects of hemisphere speech dominance and seizure focus on patterns of behavioral response errors for three types of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R; MacDonald, K

    1997-03-01

    We used a protocol consisting of a continuous presentation of stimuli with associated response requests during an intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP) to study the effects of hemisphere injected (speech dominant vs. nondominant) and seizure focus (left temporal lobe vs. right temporal lobe) on the pattern of behavioral response errors for three types of visual stimuli (pictures of common objects, words, and abstract forms). Injection of the left speech dominant hemisphere compared to the right nondominant hemisphere increased overall errors and affected the pattern of behavioral errors. The presence of a seizure focus in the contralateral hemisphere increased overall errors, particularly for the right temporal lobe seizure patients, but did not affect the pattern of behavioral errors. Left hemisphere injections disrupted both naming and reading responses at a rate similar to that of matching-to-sample performance. Also, a short-term memory deficit was observed with all three stimuli. Long-term memory testing following the left hemisphere injection indicated that only for pictures of common objects were there fewer errors during the early postinjection period than for the later long-term memory testing. Therefore, despite the inability to respond to picture stimuli, picture items, but not words or forms, could be sufficiently encoded for later recall. In contrast, right hemisphere injections resulted in few errors, with a pattern suggesting a mild general cognitive decrease. A selective weakness in learning unfamiliar forms was found. Our findings indicate that different patterns of behavioral deficits occur following the left vs. right hemisphere injections, with selective patterns specific to stimulus type.

  6. A Boyer-Moore (or Watson-Watson) type algorithm for regular tree pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, B.W.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Eikelder, ten H.M.M.; Hemerik, C.; Rem, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this chapter, I outline a new algorithm for regular tree pattern matching. The existence of this algorithm was first mentioned in the statements accompanying my dissertation, [2]. In order to avoid repeating the material in my dissertation, it is assumed that the reader is familiar with Chapters

  7. High-resolution imprint and soft lithography for patterning self-assembling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, X.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the continuous development of patterning strategies in several different areas of unconventional nanofabrication. A series of soft lithography approaches (microcontact printing, nanomolding in capillaries), nanoimprint lithography (NIL), and capillary force lithography

  8. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics. (technical note)

  9. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  10. Trends in frequency of type 2 diabetes in Mexico and its relationship to dietary patterns and contextual factors

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Soto-Estrada; Laura Moreno Altamirano; Juan José García-García; Iván Ochoa Moreno; Martín Silberman

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the evolution of the frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its relationship to eating patterns in Mexico from 1961 to 2013, and the Gini coefficient, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Mexico ranked sixth in world prevalence of diabetes in 2015 with an estimated 11.4 million Mexicans affected. Method: Using data from the Balance Sheets Food published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the means of apparent ...

  11. Medicine on demand, medication patterns and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, E.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that currently affects approximately 5% of the general population in Western countries. Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes cases. In the last decades, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased steeply due to a combination of

  12. Influence of Lexical Factors on Word-Finding Accuracy, Error Patterns, and Substitution Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.; German, Diane J.; Jagielko, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    This retrospective, exploratory investigation examined the types of target words that 66 children with/without word-finding difficulties (WFD) had difficulty naming, and the types of errors they made. Words were studied with reference to lexical factors (LFs) that might influence naming performance: word frequency, familiarity, length, phonotactic…

  13. Positioning of the sensor cell on the sensing area using cell trapping pattern in incubation type planar patch clamp biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Takada, Noriko; Uno, Hidetaka; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2012-08-01

    Positioning the sensor cell on the micropore of the sensor chip and keeping it there during incubation are problematic tasks for incubation type planar patch clamp biosensors. To solve these problems, we formed on the Si sensor chip's surface a cell trapping pattern consisting of a lattice pattern with a round area 5 μm deep and with the micropore at the center of the round area. The surface of the sensor chip was coated with extra cellular matrix collagen IV, and HEK293 cells on which a chimera molecule of channel-rhodopsin-wide-receiver (ChR-WR) was expressed, were then seeded. We examined the effects of this cell trapping pattern on the biosensor's operation. In the case of a flat sensor chip without a cell trapping pattern, it took several days before the sensor cell covered the micropore and formed an almost confluent state. As a result, multi-cell layers easily formed and made channel current measurements impossible. On the other hand, the sensor chip with cell trapping pattern easily trapped cells in the round area, and formed the colony consisted of the cell monolayer covering the micropore. A laser (473 nm wavelength) induced channel current was observed from the whole cell arrangement formed using the nystatin perforation technique. The observed channel current characteristics matched measurements made by using a pipette patch clamp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS. Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser’s syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms.

  15. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characteri...

  16. Capillary concentrators for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heald, S.M.; Brewe, D.L.; Kim, K.H.; Brown, F.C.; Barg, B.; Stern, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary concentrators condense x-rays by multiple reflections down a gradually tapering capillary. They can provide sub-micron beam spots, and are promising candidates for use in the next generation x-ray microprobe beamlines. The weak energy dependence of their properties make them especially useful for energy scanning applications such as micro-XAFS. This paper examines the potential performance of capillary optics for an x-ray microprobe, as well as some practical issues such as fabrication and alignment. Best performance at third generation sources requires long capillaries, and the authors have been using fiber optics techniques to fabricate capillaries up to one meter in length. The performance of shorter (less than about 0.5 m) capillaries has often been found to agree well with theoretical calculations, indicating the inner surface is a high quality x-ray reflector. These capillaries have been tested at the NSLS for imaging and micro-XAFS down to 2.6 microm resolution with excellent results. On an unfocused bend magnet line flux density approaching 10 6 ph/sec/microm 2 has been achieved. While nearly optimum profiles have been achieved for longer capillaries, the results have been disappointing, and alignment problems are suspected. The dramatic improvement in performance possible at third generation synchrotrons such as the APS is discussed along with improvements possible by using the capillaries in conjunction with coupling optics

  17. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰

    2010-01-01

    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  18. Patterns of Service Use in Two Types of Managed Behavioral Health Care Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M.; Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Ritter, Grant; Zolotusky, Galina; McGuire, Thomas G.; Reif, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe service use patterns by level of care in two managed care products: employee assistance program (EAP) combined with behavioral health benefits, and standard behavioral health benefits. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of administrative data for 2004 from a national managed behavioral health care organization (MBHO). Utilization of 11 specific service categories was compared across products. The weighted sample reflected exact matching on sociodemographics (N= 710,014 unweighted; 286,750 weighted). Results In the EAP/behavioral health product,, the proportion of enrollees with outpatient mental health and substance abuse office visits (including EAP) was higher (pEAP/behavioral health and standard behavioral health care products had distinct utilization patterns in this large MBHO. In particular, greater use of certain outpatient services was observed within the EAP/behavioral health product. PMID:20044425

  19. Patterns of service use in two types of managed behavioral health care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Ritter, Grant; Zolotusky, Galima; McGuire, Thomas G; Reif, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The study examined service use patterns by level of care in two managed care plans offered by a national managed behavioral health care organization (MBHO): an employee assistance program (EAP) combined with a standard behavioral health plan (integrated plan) and a standard behavioral health plan. The cross-sectional analysis used 2004 administrative data from the MBHO. Utilization of 11 specific service categories was compared. The weighted sample reflected exact matching on sociodemographic characteristics (unweighted N=710,014; weighted N=286,750). A larger proportion of enrollees in the integrated plan than in the standard plan used outpatient mental health and substance abuse office visits (including EAP visits) (p<.01) and substance abuse intensive outpatient or day treatment (p<.05), and the proportion using residential substance abuse rehabilitation was lower (p<.05). The integrated and standard products had distinct utilization patterns in this large MBHO. In particular, greater use of certain outpatient services was observed in the integrated plan.

  20. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ...... distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element...

  2. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  3. Dietary patterns in Greenland and their relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2013-01-01

    into normal glucose tolerance, IGT, IFG or T2DM. HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index) and HOMA-β (homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function) were calculated. SUBJECTS: Data included 2374 Inuit, aged 18+ years. RESULTS: Participants with a traditional dietary pattern had higher...... fasting plasma glucose (mean 5·73 (95 % CI 5·68, 5·78) mmol/l, P HOMA-β (48·66 (95 % CI 46·86, 50·40), P

  4. Objective measurements of activity patterns in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, S L; Fleischer, J; Hoeyem, P; Laugesen, E; Poulsen, P L; Christiansen, J S; Ejskjær, N; Hansen, T K

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate physical activity in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes using objective measures. We analysed data from a study aimed at assessing carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in which a piezoelectric accelerometer was worn by 100 people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and by 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Differences in physical activity patterns were investigated. Compared with the control group, the people with Type 2 diabetes spent significantly more time engaged in sedentary or lower level activities during the day, with a mean (sd) time of 926 (44) vs 898 (70) min, P sedentary lifestyle compared with well-matched controls. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  5. Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soto-De Leon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%, while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%, or were of mestizo (-24.6% or black (-40.9% ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  6. Oscillatory patterns in the light curves of five long-term monitored type 1 active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Andjelka B.; Pérez-Hernández, Ernesto; Popović, Luka Č.; Shapovalova, Alla I.; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Ilić, Dragana

    2018-04-01

    New combined data of five well-known type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are probed with a novel hybrid method in a search for oscillatory behaviour. Additional analysis of artificial light curves obtained from the coupled oscillatory models gives confirmation for detected periods that could have a physical background. We find periodic variations in the long-term light curves of 3C 390.3, NGC 4151 and NGC 5548, and E1821 + 643, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.6. We show that the oscillatory patterns of two binary black hole candidates, NGC 5548 and E1821 + 643, correspond to qualitatively different dynamical regimes of chaos and stability, respectively. We demonstrate that the absence of oscillatory patterns in Arp 102B could be the result of a weak coupling between oscillatory mechanisms. This is the first good evidence that 3C 390.3 and Arp 102B, categorized as double-peaked Balmer line objects, have qualitative different dynamics. Our analysis shows a novelty in the oscillatory dynamical patterns of the light curves of these type 1 AGNs.

  7. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  8. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  9. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  10. Metabolic pattern analysis of early detection in Alzheimer's disease from other types of dementias and correlated with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, R. H.; Lee, C. W.; Jung, Y. A.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Seo, T. S

    2004-01-01

    PET/CT studies have demonstrated temporoparietal hypometabolism in probable and definite Alzheimer's disease (AD), a pattern that may help differentiate AD from other types of dementias. Seeking to distinguish Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined brain glucose metabolism of DLB and AD. Identification of individual differences in patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) interactions may be important for early detection of AD. We elucidate the relationship between reduced cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Ten patients with the diagnosis of AD, 3 DLB patients underwent 18F-FDG PET CT. We applied statistical mapping procedure to evaluate the diagnostic power of rCMRglc patterns for differentiation and also correlated with Korean-mini mental status exam (K-MMSE) score include orientation time, place, registration, attention, calculation, recaIl, language and visuospatial function. Glucose metabolic pattern analysis confirmed AD and DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions involving parietotemporal association, posterior cingulate, and frontal association cortex. DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions in the occipital cortex, particularly in the primary visual cortex. Covariate analysis revealed that occipital metabolic changes in DLB were independent from those in the adjacent parietotemporal cortices. AnaIysis of clinically diagnosed probable AD patients showed a significantly higher frequency of primary visual metabolic reduction among patients who fulfilled clinical criteria for DLB. occipital hypometabolism is a potential discriminate marker to distinguish DLB versus AD

  11. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system.

  12. The Relationship between Land Use and Travel Patterns: Variations by Household Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanen, T.; Dijst, M.J.; Dieleman, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter we address the following question: Does the direction and/or magnitude of the influence of urban form on travel vary across different household types? If the answer is `yes', we can suggest the existence of interaction effects in the impact of urban form. If, on the other hand,

  13. Percieved Coercion, Resistance to Persuasion, and the Type A Behavior Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.

    1980-01-01

    Gender differences in resistance to stress are not rooted in recognition of coercive elements, but in differences in responding to coercive elements. Type As are particularly sensitive to threats to personal control. The critical difference may be in the frequency rather than the intensity of the stress. (JAC)

  14. Unhealthy dietary patterns associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes: The EURODIAB study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussel, van B.C.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Henry, R.M.A.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Ferreira, I.; Chaturvedi, N.; Toeller, M.; Fuller, J.H.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - A healthy diet has been inversely associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and low-grade inflammation (LGI). We investigated the association between nutrient consumption and biomarkers of ED and LGI in type 1 diabetes. Methods and results - We investigated 491 individuals.

  15. WISC-R Scatter and Patterns in Three Types of Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Turbey, Carolyn B.

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) subtest scatter and Bannatyne recategorization scores were investigated with three types of learning disabilities in children 6 to 16 years old: visual-motor and visual-perceptual disability (N=66); auditory-perceptual and receptive language deficit (N=18); and memory deficit (N=12). Three…

  16. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  17. Histological type is not an independent prognostic factor for the risk pattern of breast cancer recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwast, A.B.G.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Grandjean, I.; Ho, V.K.Y.; Voogd, A.C.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.E.; Sangen, M.J.C.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.G.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Siesling, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is less common than invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) and appears to have a distinct biology. Inconsistent findings regarding disease-free survival (DFS) are probably due to the fact that histologic type is related to hormone receptor status. This study aims to

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber P Arêas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10 and iMLSB (4. The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81 were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7. There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.

  19. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  20. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ogihara

    Full Text Available While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters.The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses.Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP.The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients.UMIN000010932.

  1. Characterization for capillary barriers effects in a sand box test using time-lapsed GPR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, S.; Ishii, N.; Morii, T.

    2017-12-01

    Capillary barriers have been known as the method to protect subsurface regions against infiltration from soil surface. It is caused by essentially heterogeneous structure in permeability or soil physical property and produce non-uniform infiltration process then, in order to estimate the actual situation of the capillary barrier effect, the site-characterization with imaging technique like geophysical prospecting is effective. In this study, we examine the applicability of GPR to characterization for capillary barriers. We built a sand box with 90x340x90cm in which a thin high-permeable gravel layer was embedded as a capillary barrier. We conducted an infiltration test in the sand box using porous tube array for irrigation. It is expected to lead to non-uniform flow of soil water induced by capillary barrier effects. We monitored this process by various types of GPR measurements, including time-lapsed common offset profiling (COP) with multi- frequency antenna and transmission measurements like cross-borehole radar. At first, we conducted GPR common-offset survey. It could show the depth of capillary barrier in sand box. After that we conducted the infiltration test and GPR monitoring for infiltration process. GPR profiles can detect the wetting front and estimate water content change in the soil layer above the capillary barrier. From spatial change in these results we can estimate the effect of capillary barrier and the zone where the break through occur or not. Based on these results, we will discuss the applicability of GPR for monitoring the phenomena around the capillary barrier of soil. At first, we conducted GPR common-offset survey. It could show the depth of capillary barrier in sand box. After that we conducted the infiltration test and GPR monitoring for infiltration process. GPR profiles can detect the wetting front and estimate water content change in the soil layer above the capillary barrier. From spatial change in these results we can estimate the

  2. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  3. Assembly for connecting the column ends of two capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, B.; Auer, M.; Pospisil, P.

    1984-01-01

    In gas chromatography, the column ends of two capillary columns are inserted into a straight capillary from both sides forming annular gaps. The capillary is located in a tee out of which the capillary columns are sealingly guided, and to which carrier gas is supplied by means of a flushing flow conduit. A ''straight-forward operation'' having capillary columns connected in series and a ''flush-back operation'' are possible. The dead volume between the capillary columns can be kept small

  4. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  5. Dietary pattern and mortality in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: does a vegetable- and fish-rich diet improve mortality? An explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Araki, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Iijima, Katsuya; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    To assess the effect of dietary patterns on all deaths and diabetes-related deaths in the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial (J-EDIT). We investigated relationships between that of overall mortality and dietary pattern, and diabetes-related deaths and dietary pattern as observed among 912 registered cases of the J-EDIT study, which is a prospective follow-up study of elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Factor analysis with the factor number 3 led to deriving three dietary patterns (healthy type, snack type and greasy type). The relationship between these patterns and overall mortality or diabetes-related death was investigated. Although not statistically significant, there was a lower tendency of overall mortality and diabetes-related deaths for the healthy type dietary pattern. When the tendencies of overall mortality were analyzed for "young-old," who are younger than 75 years-of age, and "old-old" of over 75 years-of-age, the mortality rate for the greasy type and healthy type dietary patterns were nearly the same and higher than the snack type dietary pattern in young-old. In contrast, in old-old, a higher mortality rate was reported for the greasy type dietary pattern and a lower mortality rate was reported for the healthy type dietary pattern. The hazard ratio by Cox regression analysis for greasy type to healthy type in old-old was 3.03 (P = 0.04, CI 1.07-8.57). Furthermore, in old-old, as vegetable consumption increased, the lower the tendency foroverall mortality, and the more fish that was consumed, the overall mortality significantly decreased (P = 0.020) in the tertile. The greasy type dietary pattern with an increased amount of sugar, fat and meat led to poor life prognosis for elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. The healthy type dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fish, which is similar to the Mediterranean diet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet, was suggested to improve life prognosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics

  6. Photonic crystals with plasmonic patterns: novel type of the heterostructures for enhanced magneto-optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, N E; Belotelov, V I; Prokopov, A R; Shaposhnikov, A N; Berzhansky, V N; Kozhaev, M A; Andreev, S N; Zvezdin, A K; Ravishankar, Ajith P; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Bykov, D A

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer structure consisting of a magnetophotonic crystal with a rare-earth iron garnet microresonator layer and plasmonic grating deposited on it was fabricated and studied in order to combine functionalities of photonic and plasmonic crystals. The plasmonic pattern allows excitation of the hybrid plasmonic-waveguide modes localized in dielectric Bragg mirrors of the magnetophotonic crystal or waveguide modes inside its microresonator layer. These modes give rise to the additional resonances in the optical spectra of the structure and to the enhancement of the magneto-optical effects. The Faraday effect increases by about 50% at the microresonator modes while the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect demonstrates pronounced peculiarities at both hybrid waveguide modes and microresonator modes and increases by several times with respect to the case of the bare magnetophotonic crystal without the metal grating. (paper)

  7. Association patterns of volatile metabolites in urinary excretions among Type-2 Non-Insulin dependent diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Shahzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patterns of volatile metabolites in urine are important to detect abnormalities associated with diabetes. Present study was conducted to find out the excretion patterns of endogenously produced alcohols in urine for type 2 (Non-Insulin Dependent diabetes mellitus. A cross sectional analytical study was conducted with duration extended from Jan to Mar 2015. Methods: The current study included 40 patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. In total, 10 sex and age matched subjects with no history of any disease were considered as controls. Blood sugar was estimated by autoanalyzer using standard kit of Merck following manufacturer`s instructions. Urine sugar was quantitatively detected by biuret reagent using titration technique. Urinary alcohol was identified and estimated by gas chromatography. Urinary ketone bodies were estimated by urinary strip. Results: It was observed that level of fasting blood sugar was significantly increased (P<0.001 in patients as compared to their controls. The blood sugar and urinary alcohol in patients were 3.0% and 6.0% respectively. Urinary ketone bodies were found to be 2+. On the other hand urine sugar, alcohol and ketone bodies were not detected in the negative control subjects. Conclusions: It is concluded that urinary alcohol is endogenously produced in patients with type 2 diabetes due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia. However further work is needed to find out the ratio of urinary and blood alcohol which may confirm the present findings.

  8. Capillary density and capillary-to-fibre ratio in vastus lateralis muscle of untrained and trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Semik, D; Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Duda, K; Kilarski, W M

    2005-01-01

    Muscle fibre profile area (Af), volume density (Vv), capillary-to-fibre ratio (CF) and number of capillaries per fibre square millimetre (CD) were determined from needle biopsies of vastus lateralis of twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background. Seven subjects were untrained students (group A), nine were national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B) with the background of 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training, and eight subjects were sprint-power athletes (group C) with 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase. Capillaries were visualized and counted using CD31 antibodies against endothelial cells. There were significant differences in the Vv of type I and type II muscle fibres in both trained groups, B (51.8%; 25.6%) and C (50.5%; 26.4%). However, in untrained group A that was treated as a reference group, the difference between Vv of type I and type II fibres was less prominent, nevertheless statistically significant (42.1%; 35.1%). There was also a significant difference in CF: 1.9 in group A and 2.1 in groups B and C. The number of capillaries per mm2 (CD) was 245 (group A), 308 (group B) and 325 (group C). Significant differences (Pski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance.

  9. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  10. Design and evaluation of capillary coupled with optical fiber light-emitting diode induced fluorescence detection for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongyun; Li, Meng; Guo, Lihong; Yuan, Hongyan; Wang, Chunling; Xiao, Dan

    2013-09-01

    A new detector, capillary coupled with optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (CCOF-LED-IFD, using CCOF for short), is introduced for CE. The strategy of the present work was that the optical fiber and separation capillary were, in the parallel direction, fastened in a fixation capillary with larger inner diameter. By employing larger inner diameter, the fixation capillary allowed the large diameter of the optical fiber to be inserted into it. By transmitting an enhanced excitation light through the optical fiber, the detection sensitivity was improved. The advantages of the CCOF-CE system were validated by the detection of riboflavin, and the results were compared to those obtained by the in-capillary common optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (IC-COF-LED-IFD, using COF for short). The LODs of CCOF-CE and COF-CE were 0.29 nM and 11.0 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. The intraday (n = 6) repeatability and interday (n = 6) reproducibility of migration time and corresponding peak area for both types of CE were all less than 1.10 and 3.30%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was judged by employing standard addition method, and recoveries obtained were in the range of 98.0-102.4%. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the proposed system was largely improved, and that its reproducibility and accuracy were satisfactory. The proposed system was successfully applied to separate and determine riboflavin in real sample. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural tertiary care centre, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayarama N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common secondary cause of hyperlipidaemia, particularly, if glycaemic control is poor, which in-turn is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The spectrum of dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus can include all the various types of dyslipidemia identified in the general population Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, done on type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 to April 2012 . All the patients were interviewed with pre-designed Performa. Fasting lipid profile and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of patients were measured. Patients suffering from other causes of secondary dyslipidemia were excluded. Patients having one or more parameters outside the targets recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA were considered to have dyslipidemia. Results: A total of 820 type 2 DM patients (533 males and 287 females were studied. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among diabetic males was 95.4 % and 86.75% in females. Among males with dyslipidemia the proportion of patients with mixed dyslipidemia, combined two parameter dyslipidemia and isolated single parameter dyslipidemia were 24.5%, 44.2%, and 31.2% respectively. Figures for the same among female patients stood at 27.3%, 42.97% and 29.7% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of type 2 diabetic patients were dyslipidimic. The most common pattern of dyslipidemia among males was combined dyslipidemia with high triglycerides (TG and low High density lipoprotein (HDL and in females it was high Low density lipoprotein (LDL and low HDL. The most prevalent lipid abnormality in our study was low HDL followed by high TG. No significant relation was found between HbA1c and serum lipid parameters

  12. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural tertiary care centre, southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayarama N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common secondary cause of hyperlipidaemia, particularly, if glycaemic control is poor, which in-turn is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The spectrum of dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus can include all the various types of dyslipidemia identified in the general population Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, done on type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 to April 2012 . All the patients were interviewed with pre-designed Performa. Fasting lipid profile and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of patients were measured. Patients suffering from other causes of secondary dyslipidemia were excluded. Patients having one or more parameters outside the targets recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA were considered to have dyslipidemia. Results: A total of 820 type 2 DM patients (533 males and 287 females were studied. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among diabetic males was 95.4 % and 86.75% in females. Among males with dyslipidemia the proportion of patients with mixed dyslipidemia, combined two parameter dyslipidemia and isolated single parameter dyslipidemia were 24.5%, 44.2%, and 31.2% respectively. Figures for the same among female patients stood at 27.3%, 42.97%and29.7%respectively. Conclusion: Majority of type 2 diabetic patients were dyslipidimic. The most common pattern of dyslipidemia among males was combined dyslipidemia with high triglycerides (TG and low High density lipoprotein (HDL and in females it was high Low density lipoprotein (LDL and low HDL. The most prevalent lipid abnormality in our study was low HDL followed by high TG. No significant relation was found between HbA1c and serum lipid parameters.

  13. Weather Type classification over Chile; patterns, trends, and impact in precipitation and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, T.; Trigo, R. M.; Garreaud, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Andes Cordillera induces considerable disturbances on the structure and evolution of the pressure systems that influences South America. Different weather types for southern South America are derived from the daily maps of geopotential height at 850hPa corresponding to a 42 year period, spanning from 1958 to 2000. Here we have used the ECWMF ERA-40 reanalysis dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al., 1993) developed for the UK. We have identified 8 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 6 main directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Iberia). This classification was applied to two regions of study (CLnorth and CLsouth) which differ 20° in latitude, so that the vast Chile territory could be covered. Then were assessed the impact of the occurrence of this weather types in precipitation in Chile, as well as in the distribution of precipitation and temperature fields (reanalysis data) in southern half of South America. The results allow to conclude that the precipitation in central region of Chile is largely linked with the class occurrence (concerning CLnorth) of cyclonic circulation and of West quadrant (SW, W and NW), despite of it's relatively low frequency. In CLsouth, for its part, it is verified that the most frequent circulation is from the west quadrant, although the associated amount of rainfall is lower than in CLnorth. There was also a general decrease of precipitation at local weather stations chosen in the considered period of study, particularly in austral winter.

  14. Regimes of wave type patterning driven by refractory actin feedback: transition from static polarization to dynamic wave behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W R; Edelstein-Keshet, L; Carlsson, A E

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of waves, patches, and peaks of actin are observed experimentally in many living cells. Models of this phenomenon have been based on the interplay between filamentous actin (F-actin) and its nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) that activate the Arp2/3 complex. Here we present an alternative biologically-motivated model for F-actin-NPF interaction based on properties of GTPases acting as NPFs. GTPases (such as Cdc42, Rac) are known to promote actin nucleation, and to have active membrane-bound and inactive cytosolic forms. The model is a natural extension of a previous mathematical mini-model of small GTPases that generates static cell polarization. Like other modellers, we assume that F-actin negative feedback shapes the observed patterns by suppressing the trailing edge of NPF-generated wave-fronts, hence localizing the activity spatially. We find that our NPF-actin model generates a rich set of behaviours, spanning a transition from static polarization to single pulses, reflecting waves, wave trains, and oscillations localized at the cell edge. The model is developed with simplicity in mind to investigate the interaction between nucleation promoting factor kinetics and negative feedback. It explains distinct types of pattern initiation mechanisms, and identifies parameter regimes corresponding to distinct behaviours. We show that weak actin feedback yields static patterning, moderate feedback yields dynamical behaviour such as travelling waves, and strong feedback can lead to wave trains or total suppression of patterning. We use a recently introduced nonlinear bifurcation analysis to explore the parameter space of this model and predict its behaviour with simulations validating those results. (paper)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Megalencephaly Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Cincinnati Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformations ...

  16. The handyman's brain: a neuroimaging meta-analysis describing the similarities and differences between grip type and pattern in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M; Rauch, H G; Stein, D J; Brooks, S J

    2014-11-15

    Handgrip is a ubiquitous human movement that was critical in our evolution. However, the differences in brain activity between grip type (i.e. power or precision) and pattern (i.e. dynamic or static) are not fully understood. In order to address this, we performed Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analysis between grip type and grip pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. ALE provides a probabilistic summary of the BOLD response in hundreds of subjects, which is often beyond the scope of a single fMRI experiment. We collected data from 28 functional magnetic resonance data sets, which included a total of 398 male and female subjects. Using ALE, we analyzed the BOLD response during power, precision, static and dynamic grip in a range of forces and age in right handed healthy individuals without physical impairment, cardiovascular or neurological dysfunction using a variety of grip tools, feedback and experimental training. Power grip generates unique activation in the postcentral gyrus (areas 1 and 3b) and precision grip generates unique activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA, area 6) and precentral gyrus (area 4a). Dynamic handgrip generates unique activation in the precentral gyrus (area 4p) and SMA (area 6) and of particular interest, both dynamic and static grip share activation in the area 2 of the postcentral gyrus, an area implicated in the evolution of handgrip. According to effect size analysis, precision and dynamic grip generates stronger activity than power and static, respectively. Our study demonstrates specific differences between grip type and pattern. However, there was a large degree of overlap in the pre and postcentral gyrus, SMA and areas of the frontal-parietal-cerebellar network, which indicates that other mechanisms are potentially involved in regulating handgrip. Further, our study provides empirically based regions of interest, which can be downloaded here within, that can be used to more effectively

  17. Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Eric; Khatri, Minesh; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2017-07-01

    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Diseases other than sepsis that can result in capillary leak syndrome include the idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome or Clarkson's disease, engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, autoimmune diseases, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. Drugs including some interleukins, some monoclonal antibodies, and gemcitabine can also cause capillary leak syndrome. Acute kidney injury is commonly seen in all of these diseases. In addition to hypotension, cytokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in capillary leak syndrome. Fluid management is a critical part of the treatment of capillary leak syndrome; hypovolemia and hypotension can cause organ injury, whereas capillary leakage of administered fluid can worsen organ edema leading to progressive organ injury. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diseases other than sepsis that produce capillary leak and review their collective pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Texas horned lizard as model for robust capillary structures for passive directional transport of cooling lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanns, Philipp; Winands, Kai; Pothen, Mario; Bott, Raya A.; Wagner, Hermann; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Moisture-harvesting lizards, such as the Texas horned lizard Phrynosoma cornutum, have remarkable adaptations for inhabiting arid regions. Special skin structures, in particular capillary channels in between imbricate overlapping scales, enable the lizard to collect water by capillarity and to transport it to the snout for ingestion. This fluid transport is passive and directional towards the lizard's snout. The directionality is based on geometric principles, namely on a periodic pattern of interconnected half-open capillary channels that narrow and widen. Following a biomimetic approach, these principles were transferred to technical prototype design and manufacturing. Capillary structures, 50 μm to 300 μm wide and approx. 70 μm deep, were realized by use of a pulsed picosecond laser in hot working tool steel, hardened to 52 HRC. In order to achieve highest functionality, strategies were developed to minimize potential structural inaccuracies, which can occur at the bottom of the capillary structures caused by the laser process. Such inaccuracies are in the range of 10 μm to 15 μm and form sub-capillary structures with greater capillary forces than the main channels. Hence, an Acceleration Compensation Algorithm was developed for the laser process to minimize or even avoid these inaccuracies. The capillary design was also identified to have substantial influence; by a hexagonal capillary network of non-parallel capillaries potential influences of sub-capillaries on the functionality were reduced to realize a robust passive directional capillary transport. Such smart surface structures can lead to improvements of technical systems by decreasing energy consumption and increasing the resource efficiency.

  19. In situ preparation of multilayer coated capillary column with HKUST-1 for separation of neutral small organic molecules by open tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin-Yin; Lv, Wen-Juan; Ren, Cui-Ling; Niu, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2018-01-12

    The popularity of novel nanoparticles coated capillary column has aroused widespread attention of researchers. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with special structure and chemical properties have received great interest in separation sciences. This work presents the investigation of HKUST-1 (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology-1, called Cu 3 (BTC) 2 or MOF-199) nanoparticles as a new type of coating material for capillary electrochromatography. For the first time, three layers coating (3-LC), five layers coating (5-LC), ten layers coating (10-LC), fifteen layers coating (15-LC), twenty layers coating(20-LC) and twenty-five layers coating (25-LC) capillary columns coated with HKUST-1 nanoparticles were synthesized by covalent bond with in situ, layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) indicated that HKUST-1 was successfully grafted on the inner wall of the capillary. The separating performances of 3-LC, 5-LC, 10-LC, 15-LC, 20-LC and 25-LC open tubular (OT) capillary columns were studied with some neutral small organic molecules. The results indicated that the neutral small organic molecules were separated successfully with 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns because of the size selectivity of lattice aperture and hydrophobicity of organic ligands. In addition, 10-LC and 15-LC OT capillary columns showed better performance for the separation of certain phenolic compounds. Furthermore, 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns exhibited good intra-day repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs; %) of migration time and peak areas lying in the range of 0.3-1.2% and 0.5-4.2%, respectively. For inter-day reproducibility, the RSDs of the three OT capillary columns were found to be lying in the range of 0.3-5.5% and 0.3-4.5% for migration time and peak area, respectively. The RSDs of retention times for column

  20. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Ramsay, Lauren M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Cermak, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis are coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to create an ultrasensitive two-dimensional separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125. PMID:20603830

  1. Improving flow patterns and spillage characteristics of a box-type commercial kitchen hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Han, Meng-Ji; Priyambodo, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    A conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood and its improved version (termed the "IQV commercial kitchen hood") were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection methods. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique qualitatively revealed the flow field of the hood and the areas apt for leakages of hood containment. The tracer-gas concentration detection method measured the quantitative leakage levels of the hood containment. The oil mists that were generated in the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood leaked significantly into the environment from the areas near the front edges of ceiling and side walls. Around these areas, the boundary-layer separation occurred, inducing highly unsteady and turbulent recirculating flow, and leading to spillages of hood containment due to inappropriate aerodynamic design at the front edges of the ceiling and side walls. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood showed that the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face attained very large values on an order of magnitude about 10(3)-10(4) ppb. By combining the backward-offset narrow suction slot, deflection plates, and quarter-circular arcs at the hood entrance, the IQV commercial kitchen hood presented a flow field containing four backward-inclined cyclone flow structures. The oil mists generated by cooking were coherently confined in these upward-rising cyclone flow structures and finally exhausted through the narrow suction slot. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the IQV commercial kitchen hood showed that the order of magnitude of the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face is negligibly small--only about 10(0) ppb across the whole hood face.

  2. Abundance patterns in the interstellar medium of early-type galaxies observed with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konami, Saori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Nagino, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed 17 early-type galaxies, 13 ellipticals and 4 S0 galaxies, observed with Suzaku, and investigated metal abundances (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) and abundance ratios (O/Fe, Mg/Fe, and Si/Fe) in the interstellar medium (ISM). The emission from each on-source region, which is four times the effective radius, r e , is reproduced with one-temperature (1T) or two-temperature (2T) thermal plasma models as well as a multi-temperature model, using APEC plasma code version 2.0.1. The multi-temperature model gave almost the same abundances and abundance ratios with the 1T or 2T models. The weighted averages of the O, Mg, Si, and Fe abundances of all the sample galaxies derived from the multi-temperature model fits are 0.83 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.80 ± 0.02, and 0.80 ± 0.02 solar, respectively, in solar units according to the solar abundance table by Lodders in 2003. These abundances show no significant dependence on the morphology and environment. The systematic differences in the derived metal abundances between versions 2.0.1 and 1.3.1 of the APEC plasma codes were investigated. The derived O and Mg abundances in the ISM agree with the stellar metallicity within an aperture with a radius of one r e derived from optical spectroscopy. From these results, we discuss the past and present Type Ia supernova rates and star formation histories in early-type galaxies.

  3. Religiosity and prejudice: different patterns for two types of religious internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Maria; Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between religiosity and prejudice has shown inconsistent findings. We argue that it is necessary to distinguish between different types of religiosity and that its relationship with prejudice is mediated by different values. Results of two studies conducted in Italy show that identified religiosity and introjected religiosity predict different levels of prejudice toward Muslim immigrants. Moreover, the negative relationship between identified religiosity and prejudice was mediated by prosocial values, whereas valuing conformity mediated the positive relationship between introjected religiosity and prejudice. The results show that it is possible to better understand the relationship between religiosity and prejudice by disentangling the different ways of being religious.

  4. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  5. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  6. Optimized GF(2k) ONB type I multiplier architecture based on the Massey-Omura multiplication pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournaris, A P; Koufopavlou, O

    2005-01-01

    Multiplication in GF(2 k ) finite fields is becoming rapidly a very promising solution for fast, small, efficient binary algorithms designed for hardware applications. GF(2 k ) finite fields defined over optimal normal bases (ONB) can be very advantageous in term of gates number and multiplication time delay. Many ONB multipliers works have been proposed that use the Massey-Omura multiplication pattern. In this paper, a method for designing type I optimal normal basis multipliers and an optimal normal basis (ONB) type I multiplier hardware architecture is proposed that, through parallelism and pairing categorization of the ONB multiplication table matrix, achieves very interesting results in terms of gate number and multiplication time delay

  7. Error identification, disclosure, and reporting: practice patterns of three emergency medicine provider types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Cherri; Xie, Jipan; Weiner, Bryan; Hooker, James

    2004-02-01

    To gather preliminary data on how the three major types of emergency medicine (EM) providers, physicians, nurses (RNs), and out-of-hospital personnel (EMTs), differ in error identification, disclosure, and reporting. A convenience sample of emergency department (ED) providers completed a brief survey designed to evaluate error frequency, disclosure, and reporting practices as well as error-based discussion and educational activities. One hundred sixteen subjects participated: 41 EMTs (35%), 33 RNs (28%), and 42 physicians (36%). Forty-five percent of EMTs, 56% of RNs, and 21% of physicians identified no clinical errors during the preceding year. When errors were identified, physicians learned of them via dialogue with RNs (58%), patients (13%), pharmacy (35%), and attending physicians (35%). For known errors, all providers were equally unlikely to inform the team caring for the patient. Disclosure to patients was limited and varied by provider type (19% EMTs, 23% RNs, and 74% physicians). Disclosure education was rare, with error to a patient. Error discussions are widespread, with all providers indicating they discussed their own as well as the errors of others. This study suggests that error identification, disclosure, and reporting challenge all members of the ED care delivery team. Provider-specific education and enhanced teamwork training will be required to further the transformation of the ED into a high-reliability organization.

  8. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  9. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J.

    2000-01-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated dose rate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years reflect the

  10. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J

    2000-07-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated doserate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years

  11. Drug utilization and therapy provision patterns by prescriber types among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sooyoung Shin College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST, Ajou University, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Republic of Korea Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE poses a growing challenge for healthcare systems, affecting an increasing number of people in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the prescribing patterns of SLE therapies and to compare common drug regimens prescribed by provider types.Methods: Sampled national health insurance claims data in 2015 were used to select eligible SLE patients. Frequency analyses were carried out regarding patient characteristics related to relevant SLE prescriptions. Patient-days were calculated per substance and per drug class and then categorized by provider types. Differences in drug utilization trends among the main types of providers were examined with the chi-square test.Results: A total of 2,074 patients with SLE were selected for study inclusion. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was provided for up to 67.9% of patients, frequently in conjunction with other SLE therapies. About 33.2% and 18.7% of steroid users were treated for more than 150 days and 300 days during the study period, respectively. The provider group that most frequently prescribed systemic corticosteroids was dermatologists. Hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial considered pivotal to SLE management, was prescribed for only 32.4% of patients, predominantly by rheumatologists. Antimalarial therapy was associated with the longest therapy duration (257.7±120.1 days, followed by immunosuppressant therapy (187.0±153.0 days. Prescription rates of antimalarials and immunosuppressants were substantially lower in primary care doctor group and particularly in dermatologist group, compared to rheumatologist group (P-value associated with prescription patterns by provider types was <0.001 for both drug classes.Conclusion: The drug utilization patterns among the main provider groups commonly

  12. Usage of capillary electrophoresis for common hemoglobinopathies screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ebrahimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are most common inherited disorders in the world; approximately 7 percent of the worldwide population and 5-6 percent of population of Iran are carriers. The hemoglobin disorders inherit as autosomal recessive and are very common in the Mediterranean area and much of the Asia and Africa. The control of this inherited disorders need to genetic counseling and accurate screening by more advanced and more accurate methods. This study explains features of current Iran hemoglobin disorders, nominates the accessible methods for screening them and introduces the capillary zone electrophoresis as a rapid and more accurate method. The required data were extracted of various articles and then for good explanation, current Iran hemoglobinopathies properties were showed in the tables and electropherograms of important hemoglobin disorders in Iran population were provided for help to interpretation results of blood tests by capillary zone electrophoresis method. Hemoglobin disorders are including thalassemias and hemoglobin variants; Disruption in the production and malfunction of globin chains cause types of hemoglobin disorders. We cannot introduce one of clinical laboratory tests as critical and basic method for screening and distinguishing types of inherited hemoglobin disorders as alone. For distinguishing the types of them must be prepared enough information and data of the hemoglobin disorders and for more accurate analysis must be used simultaneously different methods as gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, isoelectric focusing, capillary zone electrophoresis or molecular tests. The capillary electrophoresis is an accurate and rapid method for screening types of the hemoglobin disorders. Other side this method cannot analyze all of them, so must be used biochemical, biophysical and molecular methods for confirmation the results. This review showed we can use the capillary electrophoresis and HPLC as two

  13. Usage of Capillary Electrophoresis for screening common Hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are most common inherited disorders in the world approximately 7 percent of the worldwide population and 5-6 percent of population of Iran are carriers. For control of this inherited hemoglobin disorders need to accurate screening by more advanced and more accurate methods. This study explains features of current Iran hemoglobin disorders, nominates the accessible methods for screening them and introduces the capillary zone electrophoresis as a rapid & more accurate method. The required data were extracted of various articles and then for good explanation, current Iran hemoglobinopathies properties were showed in the tables and electropherograms of important hemoglobin disorders in Iran population were provided for help to interpretation results of blood tests by capillary zone electrophoresis method. Hemoglobin disorders are including thalassemias & hemoglobin variants Disruption in the production and malfunction of globin chains cause types of hemoglobin disorders. We cannot introduce one of clinical laboratory tests as critical and basic method for screening and distinguishing types of inherited hemoglobin disorders as alone. For distinguishing the types of them must be prepared enough information and data of the hemoglobin disorders and for more accurate analysis must be used simultaneously different methods as Gel electrophoresis, High performance liquid chromatography, Isoelectric focusing, Capillary zone electrophoresis or molecular tests. The capillary electrophoresis is an accurate and rapid method for screening types of the hemoglobin disorders. Other side this method cannot analyze all of them, so must be used biochemical, biophysical and molecular methods for confirmation the results. This review showed we can use the capillary electrophoresis and HPLC as two complementary methods for hemoglobinopathies screening. We can analyze by the methods more hemoglobin disorders and decrease more laboratory errors. Moreover

  14. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.

  15. Visualization and void fraction measurement of decompressed boiling flow in a capillary tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, H.; Murakawa, H.; Takenaka, N.; Takiguchi, K.; Okamoto, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Kitaide, Y.; Maruyama, N.

    2011-01-01

    A capillary tube is often used as a throttle for a refrigerating cycle. Subcooled refrigerant usually flows from a condenser into the capillary tube. Then, the refrigerant is decompressed along the capillary tube. When the static pressure falls below the saturation pressure for the liquid temperature, spontaneous boiling occurs. A vapor-liquid two-phase mixture is discharged from the tube. In designing a capillary tube, it is necessary to calculate the flow rate for given boundary conditions on pressure and temperature at the inlet and exit. Since total pressure loss is dominated by frictional and acceleration losses during two-phase flow, it is first necessary to specify the boiling inception point. However, there will be a delay in boiling inception during decompressed flow. This study aimed to clarify the boiling inception point and two-phase flow characteristics of refrigerant in a capillary tube. Refrigerant flows in a coiled copper capillary tube were visualized by neutron radiography. The one-dimensional distribution of volumetric average void fraction was measured from radiographs through image processing. From the void fraction distribution, the boiling inception point was determined. Moreover, a simplified CT method was successfully applied to a radiograph for cross-sectional measurements. The experimental results show the flow pattern transition from intermittent flow to annular flow that occurred at a void fraction of about 0.45.

  16. Study of the flow development of polymer solutions through capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J.; De Vargas, L.; Tejero, M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow experiments through capillaries with semirigid and rigid polymers in aqueous solutions were carried out in order to study the dependence of the flow development on the molecular conformation and the length to diameter ratio (L/D), of the capillary at relatively low shear rates. It was found that the apparent viscosity has a strong dependence upon the ratio L/D for a given shear rate, although an asymptotic value is reached. This dependence was reflected in the non-linearity of Bagley's plots. The asymptotic value was attained at lower L/D values for semirigid molecules than for rigid ones, showing the influence of the molecular conformation on the flow field development due to the different modes of relaxation for each type of molecule. (Author)

  17. Stacking and discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Z K

    2000-08-01

    Discontinuous buffers for capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) can be used under less rigid conditions compared to those for isotachophoresis for stacking. They can be prepared simply by modifying the sample itself, either by addition of small inorganic ions, low conductivity diluents, or both, and also by adjusting its pH, meanwhile injecting a large volume on the capillary. Zwitterionic and organic-based buffers such as triethanolamine and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) are well suited for stacking due to their low conductivity, provided the buffer is discontinuous as demonstrated here. A simple mechanism based on discontinuous buffers is described to explain many of the observed stacking types in CZE, pointing out the many similarities to transient isotachophoresis.

  18. FDG PET/CT patterns of treatment failure of malignant pleural mesothelioma: relationship to histologic type, treatment algorithm, and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Mamede, Marcelo [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston, MA (United States); Trotman-Dickenson, Beatrice; Hatabu, Hiroto [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Thoracic Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sugarbaker, David J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This study investigated the diagnostic performance and prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in suspected malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) recurrence, in the context of patterns and intensity of FDG uptake, histologic type, and treatment algorithm. Fifty patients with MPM underwent FDG PET/CT for restaging 11 {+-} 6 months after therapy. Tumor relapse was confirmed by histopathology, and by clinical evolution and subsequent imaging. Progression-free survival was defined as the time between treatment and the earliest clinical evidence of recurrence. Survival after FDG PET/CT was defined as the time between the scan and death or last follow-up. Overall survival was defined as the time between initial treatment and death or last follow-up date. Treatment failure was confirmed in 42 patients (30 epithelial and 12 non-epithelial MPM). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for FDG PET/CT were 97.6, 75, 94, 86, and 95.3%, respectively. FDG PET/CT evidence of single site of recurrence was observed in the ipsilateral hemithorax in 18 patients (44%), contralaterally in 2 (5%), and in the abdomen in 1 patient (2%). Bilateral thoracic relapse was detected in three patients (7%). Simultaneous recurrence in the ipsilateral hemithorax and abdomen was observed in ten (24%) patients and in seven (17%) in all three cavities. Unsuspected distant metastases were detected in 11 patients (26%). Four patterns of uptake were observed in recurrent disease: focal, linear, mixed (focal/linear), and encasing, with a significant difference between the intensity of uptake in malignant lesions compared to benign post-therapeutic changes. Lesion uptake was lower in patients previously treated with more aggressive therapy and higher in intrathoracic lesions of patients with distant metastases. FDG PET/CT helped in the selection of 12 patients (29%) who benefited from additional previously

  19. FDG PET/CT patterns of treatment failure of malignant pleural mesothelioma: relationship to histologic type, treatment algorithm, and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Mamede, Marcelo; Trotman-Dickenson, Beatrice; Hatabu, Hiroto; Sugarbaker, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic performance and prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in suspected malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) recurrence, in the context of patterns and intensity of FDG uptake, histologic type, and treatment algorithm. Fifty patients with MPM underwent FDG PET/CT for restaging 11 ± 6 months after therapy. Tumor relapse was confirmed by histopathology, and by clinical evolution and subsequent imaging. Progression-free survival was defined as the time between treatment and the earliest clinical evidence of recurrence. Survival after FDG PET/CT was defined as the time between the scan and death or last follow-up. Overall survival was defined as the time between initial treatment and death or last follow-up date. Treatment failure was confirmed in 42 patients (30 epithelial and 12 non-epithelial MPM). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for FDG PET/CT were 97.6, 75, 94, 86, and 95.3%, respectively. FDG PET/CT evidence of single site of recurrence was observed in the ipsilateral hemithorax in 18 patients (44%), contralaterally in 2 (5%), and in the abdomen in 1 patient (2%). Bilateral thoracic relapse was detected in three patients (7%). Simultaneous recurrence in the ipsilateral hemithorax and abdomen was observed in ten (24%) patients and in seven (17%) in all three cavities. Unsuspected distant metastases were detected in 11 patients (26%). Four patterns of uptake were observed in recurrent disease: focal, linear, mixed (focal/linear), and encasing, with a significant difference between the intensity of uptake in malignant lesions compared to benign post-therapeutic changes. Lesion uptake was lower in patients previously treated with more aggressive therapy and higher in intrathoracic lesions of patients with distant metastases. FDG PET/CT helped in the selection of 12 patients (29%) who benefited from additional previously

  20. An objective daily Weather Type classification for Iberia since 1850; patterns, trends, variability and impact in precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Valente, M. A.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years a large number of automated classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns have been published covering the entire European continent or specific sub-regions (Huth et al., 2008). This generalized use of objective classifications results from their relatively straightforward computation but crucially from their capacity to provide simple description of typical synoptic conditions as well as their climatic and environmental impact. For this purpose, the vast majority of authors has employed the Reanalyses datasets, namely from either NCEP/NCAR or ECMWF projects. However, both these widely used datasets suffer from important caveats, namely their restricted temporal coverage, that is limited to the last six decades (NCEP/NCAR since 1948 and ECMWF since 1958). This limitation has been partially mitigated by the recent availability of continuous daily mean sea level pressure obtained within the European project EMULATE, that extended the historic records over the extra-tropical Atlantic and Europe (70°-25° N by 70° W-50° E), for the period 1850 to the present (Ansell, T. J. et al. 2006). Here we have used the extended EMULATE dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al 1993) adapted for the center of the Iberian Peninsula. We have identified 10 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 8 directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Portugal) and Lorenzo et al. 2008 (for Galicia, northwestern Iberia). We have evaluated trends of monthly/seasonal frequency of each WT for the entire period and several shorter periods. Finally, we use the long-term precipitation time series from Lisbon (recently digitized) and Cadiz (southern Spain) to evaluate, the impact of each WT on the precipitation regime. It is shown that the Anticyclonic (A) type, although being the most frequent class in winter, gives a rather small contribution to

  1. Different nerve ultrasound patterns in charcot-marie-tooth types and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Luca; Coraci, Daniele; Lucchetta, Marta; Paolasso, Ilaria; Pazzaglia, Costanza; Granata, Giuseppe; Cacciavillani, Mario; Luigetti, Marco; Manganelli, Fiore; Pisciotta, Chiara; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Briani, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Nerve ultrasound in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease has focused mostly on the upper limbs. We performed an evaluation of a large cohort of CMT patients in which we sonographically characterized nerve abnormalities in different disease types, ages, and nerves. Seventy patients affected by different CMT types and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) were evaluated, assessing median, ulnar, fibular, tibial, and sural nerves bilaterally. Data were correlated with age. Nerve dimensions were correlated with CMT type, age, and nerve site. Nerves were larger in demyelinating than in axonal neuropathies. Nerve involvement was symmetric. CMT1 patients had larger nerves than did patients with other CMT types. Patients with HNPP showed enlargement at entrapment sites. Our study confirms the general symmetry of ultrasound nerve patterns in CMT. When compared with ultrasound studies of nerves of the upper limbs, evaluation of the lower limbs did not provide additional information. Muscle Nerve 57: E18-E23, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Beverage-consumption patterns and associations with metabolic risk factors among low-income Latinos with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, Latinos experience disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications than non-Latino whites. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Reducing caloric intake, particularly from energy-dense, low-nutrient foods or beverages, can be an effective and key strategy for metabolic and weight control. However, little is known about the contribution of various types of beverages, including but not limited to SSBs, to total caloric intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Low-income Latinos (87.7% Puerto Rican) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention trial (N=238) provided cross-sectional, descriptive data on beverage-consumption patterns, anthropometric outcomes, and metabolic characteristics. Beverages accounted for one fifth of the total daily caloric intake. SSBs and milk beverages, respectively, contributed 9.6% of calories to overall daily caloric intake. Interventions directed at diabetes risk factors among low-income Latinos with diabetes can benefit from consideration of beverage-consumption behaviors as an important strategy to reduce caloric and sugar intake. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional differences in milk and complementary feeding patterns in infants participating in an international nutritional type 1 diabetes prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Anita M; Virtanen, Suvi M; Sorkio, Susa; Bärlund, Sonja; Cuthbertson, David; Uusitalo, Ulla; Lawson, Margaret L; Salonen, Marja; Berseth, Carol L; Ormisson, Anne; Lehtonen, Eveliina; Savilahti, Erkki; Becker, Dorothy J; Dupré, John; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Knip, Mikael; Åkerblom, Hans K

    2017-07-01

    Differences in breastfeeding, other milk feeding and complementary feeding patterns were evaluated in infants at increased genetic risk with and without maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk is an international nutritional primary prevention double-blinded randomized trial to test whether weaning to extensively hydrolyzed vs. intact cow's milk protein formula will decrease the development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D. Infant diet was prospectively assessed at two visits and seven telephone interviews between birth and 8 months. Countries were grouped into seven regions: Australia, Canada, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Central Europe I, Central Europe II and the United States. Newborn infants with a first-degree relative with T1D and increased human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to T1D were recruited. A lower proportion of infants born to mothers with than without T1D were breastfed until 6 months of age in all regions (range, 51% to 60% vs. 70% to 80%). Complementary feeding patterns differed more by region than by maternal T1D. In Northern Europe, a higher proportion of infants consumed vegetables and fruits daily compared with other regions. Consumption of meat was more frequent in all European regions, whereas cereal consumption was most frequent in Southern Europe, Canada and the United States. Maternal T1D status was associated with breastfeeding and other milk feeding patterns similarly across regions but was unrelated to the introduction of complementary foods. Infant feeding patterns differed significantly among regions and were largely inconsistent with current recommended guidelines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. To determine the patterns of dyslipidaemia amongst the macrovascular complications of type - II diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.A.; Fayyaz, M.; Jamil, A.; Sharif, N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the characteristics of dyslipidaemia amongst the type 2 diabetic patient with macrovascular complications like ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease and to compare the variables of dyslipidemia in male and female subjects under study. Design: A prospective observational analytic study. Setting and place of Study: Study was conducted in medical unit-III of Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur, over a period of 6 months from July, 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008. Procedure: A total of hundred patients of type 2 diabetes were randomly selected for study. Those who had hyperlipidaemia due to secondary causes e.x. nephrotic syndrome, drugs, hypothyroidism etc. were excluded. Blood samples were taken for serum sugar fasting and random and fasting lipid profile. For statistical analysis student t.test at 5% level of significance was used. All mean values were presented as mean +- SD (Standard Deviation). Majority of patients presented in middle and old age category, and they had poor glycemic control. The female patients had uncontrolled hyper glycemic and hypertensive (BP = 145 +- 25.72 / 85.6 +- 76 mm/Hg) than males and their mean random serum sugar was 246.64 +- 105 mg% High percentage of complications were observed in patients of middle age group with great frequency of cardiovascular complications like coronary heart diseases and hypertension (52%) followed by cerebrovascular complications (30%) and peripheral vascular disease (18%). The lipid profile was in high risk range in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In patients with CHD, the mean +SD concentration of cholesterol was 207.08 +- 27.94 mg/dl, HDL - C was 34.8 +- 6.27 mg/dl and TC : HDLC ratio > 6, (normally TC:HDLC ratio should be 40 mg/dl). In patients with CVA, HDL - C was 35.09 +- 6 mg/dl and triglycerides was 146.9 +- 50.70 mg/dl and these variables meet the definition of isolated low HDL - C (defined as TG < 150 mg% and HDL

  5. To determine the patterns of dyslipidaemia amongst the macrovascular complications of type - II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, M A; Fayyaz, M; Jamil, A; Sharif, N [Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To assess the characteristics of dyslipidaemia amongst the type 2 diabetic patient with macrovascular complications like ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease and to compare the variables of dyslipidemia in male and female subjects under study. Design: A prospective observational analytic study. Setting and place of Study: Study was conducted in medical unit-III of Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur, over a period of 6 months from July, 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008. Procedure: A total of hundred patients of type 2 diabetes were randomly selected for study. Those who had hyperlipidaemia due to secondary causes e.x. nephrotic syndrome, drugs, hypothyroidism etc. were excluded. Blood samples were taken for serum sugar fasting and random and fasting lipid profile. For statistical analysis student t.test at 5% level of significance was used. All mean values were presented as mean +- SD (Standard Deviation). Majority of patients presented in middle and old age category, and they had poor glycemic control. The female patients had uncontrolled hyper glycemic and hypertensive (BP = 145 +- 25.72 / 85.6 +- 76 mm/Hg) than males and their mean random serum sugar was 246.64 +- 105 mg% High percentage of complications were observed in patients of middle age group with great frequency of cardiovascular complications like coronary heart diseases and hypertension (52%) followed by cerebrovascular complications (30%) and peripheral vascular disease (18%). The lipid profile was in high risk range in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In patients with CHD, the mean +SD concentration of cholesterol was 207.08 +- 27.94 mg/dl, HDL - C was 34.8 +- 6.27 mg/dl and TC : HDLC ratio > 6, (normally TC:HDLC ratio should be < 5 and HDL - C > 40 mg/dl). In patients with CVA, HDL - C was 35.09 +- 6 mg/dl and triglycerides was 146.9 +- 50.70 mg/dl and these variables meet the definition of isolated low HDL - C (defined as TG

  6. Tc-99m HMPAO brain uptake patterns in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.C.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.; Ell, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional gamma camera SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO (10 MBq/kg patient weight) was carried out in 21 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), fulfilling the criteria established by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the ADRDA criteria (nine with amnesia as the main symptom [group 1], 12 with amnesia, aphasia, and/or apraxia and agnosia [group 2], and eight age-matched control subjects. Perfusion was quantitatively studied by means of cerebrum-cerebellum activity ratios. In group 1, perfusion deficits in the mesial cortex of the temporal lobes (right, 0.70; left, 0.68) were found, and ratios were significantly lower than in the control group (right, 0.77; left, 0.76 [P < .05]). Group 2 showed low ratios throughout both temporal lobes (mesial and lateral cortex), bilaterally in the posterior parietal cortex (right, 0.69; left, 0.66 [control: right, 0.80; left, 0.81] [P < .001]), and left frontal cortex (0.75 [control, 0.79] [P < .05]). In conclusion, SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO identifies perfusion deficits in patients with DAT, and these correlate well with the clinical findings and are significantly different from those in the control group

  7. Cartilage collagen type II seromarker patterns in axial spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Heidi Lausten; Gudmann, Natasja Staehr; Christensen, Anne Friesgaard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible association between type II collagen turnover seromarkers and disease profile in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Outpatients with axial SpA (n = 110) or PsA (n = 101) underwent clinical examination including......-smokers, 0.43 ng/ml (p = 0.02), while PIIANP was higher in HLA-B27 positive, 2312 ng/ml versus negative patients, 2021 ng/ml (p = 0.03). In PsA, PIIANP and C2M did not differ between patients and controls, but PIIANP was elevated in patients not receiving DMARDs, 2726 ng/ml. In PsA, PIIANP and C2M did...... not differ according to smoking and HLA-B27. Cartilage degradation assessed by C2M is increased in SpA irrespective of treatment but not in PsA. Cartilage synthesis reflected by PIIANP is increased in untreated SpA and PsA. PIIANP correlates with CRP in SpA while not in PsA. In DMARD-naïve SpA but not in PsA...

  8. Prevalence and pattern of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in newly detected type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsna, Viveka P; Sahoo, Abhay; Sreenivas, V; Deepak, K K

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 145 consecutive recently detected type 2 diabetics. Ninety-nine healthy persons served as controls. Criteria for normalcy were, heart rate variation during deep breathing >or=15 beats/min, deep breathing expiratory to inspiratory R-R ratio >or=1.21, Valsalva ratio >or=1.21, sustained handgrip test >or=16 mm of mercury, cold pressor test >or=10, BP response to standing or=1.04. An abnormal test was defined as the above parameters being or=30 mm of mercury and

  9. Capillary Assembly of Colloids: Interactions on Planar and Curved Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Iris B.; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    2018-03-01

    In directed assembly, small building blocks are assembled into an organized structure under the influence of guiding fields. Capillary interactions provide a versatile route for structure formation. Colloids adsorbed on fluid interfaces distort the interface, which creates an associated energy field. When neighboring distortions overlap, colloids interact to minimize interfacial area. Contact line pinning, particle shape, and surface chemistry play important roles in structure formation. Interface curvature acts like an external field; particles migrate and assemble in patterns dictated by curvature gradients. We review basic analysis and recent findings in this rapidly evolving literature. Understanding the roles of assembly is essential for tuning the mechanical, physical, and optical properties of the structure.

  10. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  11. Parity among interpretation methods of MLEE patterns and disparity among clustering methods in epidemiological typing of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Höfling, José Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The typing of C. albicans by MLEE (multilocus enzyme electrophoresis) is dependent on the interpretation of enzyme electrophoretic patterns, and the study of the epidemiological relationships of these yeasts can be conducted by cluster analysis. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to first determine the discriminatory power of genetic interpretation (deduction of the allelic composition of diploid organisms) and numerical interpretation (mere determination of the presence and absence of bands) of MLEE patterns, and then to determine the concordance (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient) and similarity (Jaccard similarity coefficient) of the groups of strains generated by three cluster analysis models, and the discriminatory power of such models as well [model A: genetic interpretation, genetic distance matrix of Nei (d(ij)) and UPGMA dendrogram; model B: genetic interpretation, Dice similarity matrix (S(D1)) and UPGMA dendrogram; model C: numerical interpretation, Dice similarity matrix (S(D2)) and UPGMA dendrogram]. MLEE was found to be a powerful and reliable tool for the typing of C. albicans due to its high discriminatory power (>0.9). Discriminatory power indicated that numerical interpretation is a method capable of discriminating a greater number of strains (47 versus 43 subtypes), but also pointed to model B as a method capable of providing a greater number of groups, suggesting its use for the typing of C. albicans by MLEE and cluster analysis. Very good agreement was only observed between the elements of the matrices S(D1) and S(D2), but a large majority of the groups generated in the three UPGMA dendrograms showed similarity S(J) between 4.8% and 75%, suggesting disparities in the conclusions obtained by the cluster assays.

  12. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  13. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Salehi; Asma Kazemi; Jafar Hasan Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day) on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identi...

  14. Touchscreen typing-pattern analysis for detecting fine motor skills decline in early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovakis, Dimitrios; Hadjidimitriou, Stelios; Charisis, Vasileios; Bostantzopoulou, Sevasti; Katsarou, Zoe; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2018-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative movement disorder causing progressive disability that severely affects patients' quality of life. While early treatment can produce significant benefits for patients, the mildness of many early signs combined with the lack of accessible high-frequency monitoring tools may delay clinical diagnosis. To meet this need, user interaction data from consumer technologies have recently been exploited towards unsupervised screening for PD symptoms in daily life. Similarly, this work proposes a method for detecting fine motor skills decline in early PD patients via analysis of patterns emerging from finger interaction with touchscreen smartphones during natural typing. Our approach relies on low-/higher-order statistical features of keystrokes timing and pressure variables, computed from short typing sessions. Features are fed into a two-stage multi-model classification pipeline that reaches a decision on the subject's status (PD patient/control) by gradually fusing prediction probabilities obtained for individual typing sessions and keystroke variables. This method achieved an AUC = 0.92 and 0.82/0.81 sensitivity/specificity (matched groups of 18 early PD patients/15 controls) with discriminant features plausibly correlating with clinical scores of relevant PD motor symptoms. These findings suggest an improvement over similar approaches, thereby constituting a further step towards unobtrusive early PD detection from routine activities.

  15. Difference in Degradation Patterns on Inulin-type Fructans among Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus paracasei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Yuji; Nomoto, Ryohei; Osawa, Ro

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains were assessed for their degradation patterns of various carbohydrates with specific reference to inulin-type fructans in comparison with those of Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Firstly, growth curves on glucose, fructose, sucrose and inulin-type fructans with increasing degrees of fructose polymerization (i.e., 1-kestose, fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) of the strains were compared. L. paracasei DSM 20020 grew well on all these sugars, while the growth rates of the 4 L. delbrueckii strains were markedly higher on the fructans with a greater degree of polymerization than on fructose and sucrose. Secondly, sugar compositions of spent cultures of the strains of L. delbrueckii and L. paracasei grown in mMRS containing either the fructans or inulin were determined by thin layer chromatography, in which the spent cultures of L. paracasei DSM 20020 showed spots of short fructose and sucrose fractions, whereas those of the L. delbrueckii strains did not show such spots at all. These results suggest that, unlike the L. paracasei strains, the L. delbrueckii strains do not degrade the inulin-type fructans extracellularly, but transport the fructans capable of greater polymerization preferentially into their cells to be degraded intracellularly for their growth.

  16. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  17. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  18. Characterization of asphaltenes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, W.T.; Tüdös, A.J.; Grutters, M.; Shepherd, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis was used for the separation and characterization of asphaltene samples from different sources. For the separation medium (background electrolyte), mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and a high-permittivity organic solvent could be used. The best results were obtained

  19. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  20. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of coiled adiabatic capillary tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The objective of this study is to extend and validate the model developed and presented in previous works [O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part I: mathematical formulation and numerical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (2) (2002) 173-182; O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part II: experimental validation and parametric studies, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (4) (2002) 379-391] to coiled adiabatic capillary tube expansion devices working with pure and mixed refrigerants. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step by step method. A special treatment has been implemented in order to consider transitions (subcooled liquid region, metastable liquid region, metastable two-phase region and equilibrium two-phase region). All the flow variables (enthalpies, temperatures, pressures, vapor qualities, velocities, heat fluxes, etc.) together with the thermophysical properties are evaluated at each point of the grid in which the domain is discretized. The numerical model allows analysis of aspects such as geometry, type of fluid (pure substances and mixtures), critical or non-critical flow conditions, metastable regions, and transient aspects. Comparison of the numerical simulation with a wide range of experimental data presented in the technical literature will be shown in the present article in order to validate the model developed. (author)

  1. Attempt to run urinary protein electrophoresis using capillary technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Michele

    2014-10-01

    The study of urinary protein has a predominant place in the diagnosis of kidney disease. The most common technique is agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE). For several years, the technique of choice applied to the analysis of serum proteins has been CE, a system that uses capillary fused silica, subjected to high voltage to separate and measure serum proteins. The purpose of this paper was to perform capillary electrophoresis on urinary proteins which, at present, are not interpretable due to the many nonspecific peaks visible when using gel electrophoresis. In order to carry out our research, we used a capillary V8 analyzer together with an agarose gel system from the same company. AGE was taken as the reference method, for which urine was used without any pretreatment. For the V8 system, urine was subjected to purification on granular-activated carbon and then inserted into the V8 analyzer, selecting a program suitable for liquids with low protein content. We examined 19 urine samples collected over 24 hrs from both hospitalized and external patients with different types of proteinuria plus a serum diluted 1/61 considered as a control to recognize the bands. Both methods showed the same protein fractions and classified the proteinuria in a similar way. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Vulvar Lobular Capillary Hemangioma (Pyogenic Granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian-Mei Chong

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma is considered a reactive hyperproliferative vascular response to trauma or other stimuli. The name “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. There are a few cases of lobular capillary hemangioma of the glans penis but it is rare on the female genitalia. We present this case to help physicians become aware that lobular capillary hemangiomas may occur at this site.

  3. Simulation of capillary bridges between nanoscale particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörmann, Michael; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2014-02-04

    Capillary forces are very important as they exceed in general other adhesion forces. But at the same time the exact calculation of these forces is very complex, so often assumptions and approximations are used. Previous research was done with regard to micrometer sized particles, but the behavior of nanoscale particles is different. Hence, the results for micrometer sized particles cannot be directly transferred when considering nanoscale particles. Therefore, a simulation method was developed to calculate numerically the shape of a rotationally symmetrical capillary bridge between two spherical particles or a particle and a plate. The capillary bridge in the gap between the particles is formed due to capillary condensation and is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gas phase. Hence the Kelvin equation and the Young-Laplace equation can be used to calculate the profile of the capillary bridge, depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. The bridge profile consists of several elements that are determined consecutively and interpolated linearly. After the shape is determined, the volume and force, divided into capillary pressure force and surface tension force, can be calculated. The validation of this numerical model will be shown by comparison with several different analytical calculations for micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that two often used approximations, (1) the toroidal approximation and (2) the use of an effective radius, cannot be used for nanoscale particles without remarkable mistake. It will be discussed how the capillary force and its components depend on different parameters, like particle size, relative humidity, contact angle, and distance, respectively. The rupture of a capillary bridge due to particle separation will also be presented.

  4. Daily oviposition patterns of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae on different types of aqueous substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae Giles is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the factors that influence its daily oviposition pattern is crucial if field interventions targeting gravid females are to be successful. This laboratory study investigated the effect of oviposition substrate and time of blood feeding on daily oviposition patterns of An. gambiae mosquitoes. Methods Greenhouse-reared gravid and hypergravid (delayed oviposition onset An. gambiae sensu stricto and wild-caught An. gambiae sensu lato were exposed to three types of substrates in choice and no-choice cage bioassays: water from a predominantly anopheline colonised ground pool (anopheline habitat water, swamp water mainly colonised by culicine larvae (culicine habitat water and distilled water. The daily oviposition pattern and the number of eggs oviposited on each substrate during the entire egg-laying period were determined. The results were subjected to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure. Results The main oviposition time for greenhouse-reared An. gambiae s.s. was between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs, approximately one hour after sunset. Wild-caught gravid An. gambiae s.l. displayed two distinct peak oviposition times between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs and between 22:00 and 23:00 hrs, respectively. During these times, both greenhouse-reared and wild-caught mosquitoes significantly (P P Conclusion This study shows that the peak oviposition time of An. gambiae s.l. may be regulated by the light-dark cycle rather than oviposition habitat characteristics or feeding times. However, the number of eggs laid by the female mosquito during the peak oviposition time is affected by the suitability of the habitat.

  5. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  6. Time pattern of exercise-induced changes in type I collagen turnover after prolonged endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Asp, S

    2000-01-01

    after exercise, collagen resorption did not change from basal levels throughout the remaining period (P > 0.05). Muscle breakdown was elevated during the days following the exercise and peaked 24 hours after the exercise (S-CK concentration: 3,133 +/- 579 U/liter). The findings in the present study......Type I collagen is known to adapt to physical activity, and biomarkers of collagen turnover indicate that synthesis can be influenced by a single intense exercise bout, but the exact time pattern of these latter changes are largely undescribed. In the present study, 17 healthy young males had...... after completion of a marathon run (42 km). Serum concentrations of creatine kinase (S-CK) were measured as an indicator of muscular breakdown in response to the exercise bout. After a transient decrease in collagen formation immediately after exercise (plasma PICP concentration: 176 +/- 17 microg/liter...

  7. The Effects of Land Use Patterns on Tour Type Choice. The Application of a Hybrid Choice Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Abreu e Silva, João; Sottile, Eleonora; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    to travel. Workers who reside in more central, mixed and traditional urban spaces tend to have a higher propensity to travel. Workers who live in more diverse areas have a higher probability of engaging in more complex work related tours. Working in more suburban areas reduces the probability of engaging......The relations between travel behavior and land use patterns have been the object of intensive research in the last two decades. Due to their immediate policy implications, mode choice and vehicle miles of travel (VMT) have been the main focus of attention. Other relevant dimensions, like trip...... of the latent propensity to travel in the discrete choice among types of tours. This model is applied to a travel diary of workers collected in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area in 2009. Different model specifications were built, testing the inclusion of purportedly built land use factors, which have the advantage...

  8. Optimization of a slab heating pattern for minimum energy consumption in a walking-beam type reheating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jiin-Yuh; Huang, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of the temperature history of steel slabs was performed in order to obtain the optimal heating pattern of these slabs with minimum energy consumption in a walking-beam type reheating furnace. An algorithm developed with a simplified conjugated-gradient method combined with a shooting method, was used as an optimizer to design the furnace temperature distribution, including the preheating zone, heating zone and soaking zone temperatures. Comparison with the in-situ experimental data indicated that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of the thermal behavior of a slab in the reheating furnace. The effect of the furnace temperature distribution on the design requirements, such as energy required for heating a slab, slab temperature uniformity at the furnace exit and slab discharging temperature, were investigated. The parametric study results indicated that energy consumption significantly decreases with reductions in the preheating zone temperature. The optimal design also resulted in lower energy consumption for heating a slab as compared to the original operational conditions in the steel plant. - Highlights: • The heating process of steel slabs in a reheating furnace is numerically simulated. • An algorithm is developed to search for the optimal heating pattern of a slab. • Energy consumption decreases with reductions in the preheating zone temperature

  9. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  10. Investigation of cortical thickness abnormalities in lithium-free adults with bipolar type I disorder using cortical pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Shen, Jim K.; Penfold, Conor; Ahlf, Kyle; Rasser, Paul E.; Fischer, Jeffrey; Yang, Yilan; Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several lines of evidence implicate gray matter abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar disorder. Findings however, have been largely inconsistent across studies. Differences in patients’ medication status or mood state, or the application of traditional volumetric methods that are insensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences may have contributed to these inconsistent findings. Given this, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with cortical pattern matching methods to assess cortical thickness abnormalities in euthymic bipolar subjects who were not treated with lithium. Method Sixty-five subjects, including 34 lithium-free euthymic subjects with bipolar (type I) disorder and 31 healthy subjects were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were processed to measure cortical gray matter thickness. Cortical pattern matching methods associated homologous brain regions across subjects. Spatially normalized thickness maps were analyzed to assess illness effects and associations with clinical variables. Results Relative to healthy subjects, euthymic bipolar I subjects had significantly thinner gray matter in bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Areas 11, 10, 8 and 44) and left anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann Areas 24/32). Additionally, thinning in these regions was more pronounced in patients with a history of psychosis. No areas of thicker cortex were detected in bipolar subjects versus healthy subjects. Conclusions Using a technique that is highly sensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences, significant regional cortical thinning was found in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21285139

  11. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-05-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-d diet diaries were available at the age of 36, 43 and 53 years for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary pattern scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n 106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole-grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at the age of 43 years among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at the age of 43 years had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5·45 (95 % CI 2·01, 14·79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 sd unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1·67 (95 % CI 1·20, 2·43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not in men.

  13. Systematic literature review on patterns of pharmacological treatment and adherence among patients with bipolar disorder type I in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene M

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mallik Greene,1 Luciano Paladini,2 Teresa Lemmer,2 Alexandra Piedade,2 Maelys Touya,3 Otavio Clark2 1Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Evidências – Kantar Health, Campinas, Brazil; 3Lundbeck Pharmaceuticals Services, LLC, Deerfield, IL, USA Background: Bipolar disorder type I (BD-I is a chronic condition characterized by mania episodes followed by syndromic recovery periods, usually permeated by depressive symptomatology and recurring acute manic episodes. It requires long-term pharmacological treatment; thus, it is critical to understand the patterns of drug therapy use and medication compliance to better plan health care policies and needs. This systematic literature review aims to study these data among patients with BD-I in the USA, focusing on medications to treat mania. Methods: Articles published in the last 10 years to October 2016 were searched on MEDLINE and Embase. Studies on patterns of drug therapy, concordance of prescription with clinical practice guidelines, and adherence and persistence with pharmacological treatments for BD-I in the USA under observational conditions, with focus on treatments for mania, were selected. Results: Treatment prevalence for BD-I is low in the USA, with the most current study showing a 46% 12-month rate. There is a lack of studies addressing the use of long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs have been used by nearly all patients receiving oral antipsychotics since the 2000s. However, 30%–60% of individuals with BD do not receive appropriate treatment, and adherence to oral therapies is poor, with medication possession ratios ≥80% seen in only approximately 60% of patients. For persistence rates, results suggest that treatment duration is short for a condition with recommendation for at least 6 months of maintenance therapy. Literature indicates that LAI SGAs may be

  14. Capillary Self-Alignment of Microchips on Soft Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft micro devices and stretchable electronics have attracted great interest for their potential applications in sensory skins and wearable bio-integrated devices. One of the most important steps in building printed circuits is the alignment of assembled micro objects. Previously, the capillary self-alignment of microchips driven by surface tension effects has been shown to be able to achieve high-throughput and high-precision in the integration of micro parts on rigid hydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces. In this paper, the self-alignment of microchips on a patterned soft and stretchable substrate, which consists of hydrophilic pads surrounded by a superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS background, is demonstrated for the first time. A simple process has been developed for making superhydrophobic soft surface by replicating nanostructures of black silicon onto a PDMS surface. Different kinds of PDMS have been investigated, and the parameters for fabricating superhydrophobic PDMS have been optimized. A self-alignment strategy has been proposed that can result in reliable self-alignment on a soft PDMS substrate. Our results show that capillary self-alignment has great potential for building soft printed circuits.

  15. Correlation between enhancement characteristics of MR mammography and capillary density of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellinger, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.poellinger@charite.de [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); El-Ghannam, Sahra; Diekmann, Susanne; Fischer, Thomas [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Kristiansen, Glen [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Pathology, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Fritzsche, Florian [Institut für Histologie und Zytologie, Bahnhofplatz 11, Postfach, 9101 Herisau (Switzerland); Fallenberg, Eva [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Morawietz, Lars [Diagnostik Ernst von Bergmann GmbH, Charlottenstr. 72, 14467 Potsdam (Germany); Diekmann, Felix [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We correlate capillary density of breast lesions with MRM. • Capillary density correlates with tumor enhancement for all lesions. • However no such correlation exists for the malignant or benign groups separately. • Mean vessel number of lymphatic vessels do not correlate with tumor enhancement.These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. • These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. - Abstract: Objective: To correlate capillary density of breast lesions using the markers D2-40, CD31, and CD34 with early and late enhancement of magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study, and informed consent was available from all patients. The study included 64 women with 66 histologically proven breast lesions (41 malignant, 25 benign). MR-enhancement 1 min after contrast medium administration was determined in the tumor (I{sub t1}/I{sub t0} ratio) and in comparison to the surrounding tissue (I{sub t1}/I{sub t1-fat} ratio). Capillary density was quantified based on immunohistological staining with D2-40, CD31, and CD34 in breast tumors and surrounding breast tissue. Mean capillary densities were correlated with contrast enhancement in the tumor and surrounding breast tissue. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to test whether lesions with different MR enhancement patterns differed in terms of capillary density. Results: For CD34, there was statistically significant correlation between capillary density and tumor enhancement (r = 0.329, p = 0.012), however not for the malignant or benign groups separately. Mean vessel number identified by staining with D2-40 and CD31 did not correlate significantly with tumor enhancement (D2-40: r = −0.188, p = 0.130; CD31: r = 0.095, p = 0.448). There were no statistically significant differences in capillary density between breast lesions with delayed enhancement or a plateau and lesions showing

  16. Correlation between enhancement characteristics of MR mammography and capillary density of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellinger, Alexander; El-Ghannam, Sahra; Diekmann, Susanne; Fischer, Thomas; Kristiansen, Glen; Fritzsche, Florian; Fallenberg, Eva; Morawietz, Lars; Diekmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We correlate capillary density of breast lesions with MRM. • Capillary density correlates with tumor enhancement for all lesions. • However no such correlation exists for the malignant or benign groups separately. • Mean vessel number of lymphatic vessels do not correlate with tumor enhancement.These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. • These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. - Abstract: Objective: To correlate capillary density of breast lesions using the markers D2-40, CD31, and CD34 with early and late enhancement of magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study, and informed consent was available from all patients. The study included 64 women with 66 histologically proven breast lesions (41 malignant, 25 benign). MR-enhancement 1 min after contrast medium administration was determined in the tumor (I t1 /I t0 ratio) and in comparison to the surrounding tissue (I t1 /I t1-fat ratio). Capillary density was quantified based on immunohistological staining with D2-40, CD31, and CD34 in breast tumors and surrounding breast tissue. Mean capillary densities were correlated with contrast enhancement in the tumor and surrounding breast tissue. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to test whether lesions with different MR enhancement patterns differed in terms of capillary density. Results: For CD34, there was statistically significant correlation between capillary density and tumor enhancement (r = 0.329, p = 0.012), however not for the malignant or benign groups separately. Mean vessel number identified by staining with D2-40 and CD31 did not correlate significantly with tumor enhancement (D2-40: r = −0.188, p = 0.130; CD31: r = 0.095, p = 0.448). There were no statistically significant differences in capillary density between breast lesions with delayed enhancement or a plateau and lesions showing washout (Kruskal

  17. Impaired skin capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; Tangelder, GJ; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA

    Capillary rarefaction occurs in many tissues in patients with essential hypertension and may contribute to an increased vascular resistance and impaired muscle metabolism. Rarefaction may be caused by a structural (anatomic) absence of capillaries, functional nonperfusion, or both. The aim of this

  18. Monoliths in capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Rantamäki, A. H.; Duša, Filip; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 7-8 (2016), s. 880-912 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrochromatography * capillary liquid chromatography * mass spec- trometry * monolithic columns Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  19. Alterations in the muscle-to-capillary interface in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Halim Samy M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that decreased capillarization of limb skeletal muscle is implicated in the decreased exercise tolerance in COPD patients. We have recently demonstrated decreased number of capillaries per muscle fibre (CAF but no changes in CAF in relation to fibre area (CAFA, which is based on the diffusion distance between the capillary and muscle fibre. The aim of the current study is to investigate the muscle-to-capillary interface which is an important factor involved in oxygen supply to the muscle that has previously been suggested to be a more sensitive marker for changes in the capillary bed compared to CAF and CAFA. Methods 23 COPD patients and 12 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Muscle-to-capillary interface was assessed in muscle biopsies from the tibialis anterior muscle using the following parameters: 1 The capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:Fi which is defined as the sum of the fractional contributions of all capillary contacts around the fibre 2 The ratio between C:Fi and the fibre perimeter (CFPE-index 3 The ratio between length of capillary and fibre perimeter (LC/PF which is also referred to as the index of tortuosity. Exercise capacity was determined using the 6-min walking test. Results A positive correlation was found between CFPE-index and ascending disease severity with CFPE-index for type I fibres being significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between exercise capacity and CFPE-index for both type I and type IIa fibres. Conclusion It can be concluded that the muscle-to-capillary interface is disturbed in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with COPD and that interface is strongly correlated to increased disease severity and to decreased exercise capacity in this patient group.

  20. Fire patterns in piñon and juniper land cover types in the Semiarid Western United States from 1984 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; Peter J. Weisberg

    2018-01-01

    Increases in area burned and fire size have been reported across a wide range of forest and shrubland types in the Western United States in recent decades, but little is known about potential changes in fire regimes of piñon and juniper land cover types. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns of fire in piñon and juniper land cover types from the National Gap Analysis...

  1. Eating patterns in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Associations with metabolic control, insulin omission, and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisting, Line; Reas, Deborah Lynn; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate eating patterns among male and female adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the associations with age, zBMI, eating disorder (ED) pathology, intentional insulin omission, and metabolic control. The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (58.6% females) with child-onset T1D, mean age of 15.7 years (SD 1.8) and mean zBMI of 0.4 (SD 0.8). The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) assessed meal/snack frequency and ED pathology. T1D clinical data was obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. A significantly lower proportion of females than males (73.8% vs 97.7%) consumed breakfast on a daily basis. Approximately 50% of both genders ate lunch and 90% ate dinner daily. Among females, skipping breakfast was significantly associated with higher global ED psychopathology, shape concerns, self-induced vomiting, binge eating, insulin omission due to shape/weight concerns, and poorer metabolic control. Less frequent lunch consumption was significantly associated with poorer metabolic control. Skipping dinner was significantly associated with older age, higher dietary restraint, eating concerns, self-induced vomiting, and insulin omission. Among males, less frequent consumption of lunch and evening snacks was associated with attitudinal features of ED, including shape/weight concerns and dietary restraint. Among adolescents with T1D, irregular or infrequent meal consumption appears to signal potential ED pathology, as well as being associated with poorer metabolic control. These findings suggest the importance of routinely assessing eating patterns in adolescents with T1D to improve detection of ED pathology and to facilitate improved metabolic control and the associated risk of somatic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Asuka; Fujimaki, Yuko; Fujimori, Shin; Isogawa, Akihiro; Onishi, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2017-03-29

    The aim of this study was to test the psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma (self-esteem and social participation) and their relationship to self-stigma, patient activation for engaging in self-care and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional study. 2 tertiary-level hospitals and 2 secondary-level hospitals in Japan. A consecutive sample of 209 outpatients with T2DM. Inclusion criteria were as follows: presence of T2DM, age 20-74 years, no diagnosis of dementia and/or psychosis, and no need for urgent medical procedures. Study measures included a self-administered questionnaire to assess the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the 3 subscales of 36-question Short Form Health Survey (SF-36; Social Function, Role Physical, Role Emotional), Self-Stigma Scale and Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13). Glycated haemoglobin was obtained from same day blood work. In our previous qualitative study, we found that psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma varied according to patients' levels of illness-related self-esteem as well as attitudes towards social participation. For quantitative consistency, we used the SES scale to measure self-esteem and the SF-36 subscales to measure social participation. We then divided participants into 4 groups by exhibited psychological and behavioural patterns: group A (high SES/high SF-36), group B (high SES/low SF-36), group C (low SES/high SF-36) and group D (low SES/low SF-36). Using analysis of covariance after controlling for age and sex, there was a significant difference in self-stigma levels between the four groups (F[3203]=15.70, pstigma levels in group D. Group D also had significantly lower PAM-13 scores than those of groups A (pstigma and poorer patient activation for self-care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B

    2006-07-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  4. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B.

    2006-01-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  5. Functional and chemical stability of a medicinal herb, Artemisia capillaris, following gamma sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Bae, Mun Hyoung; Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The stability of functional and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated (10 kGy) Artemisia capillaris, a widely used herb in the traditional Oriental medicine, was investigated. Functional properties of the extracts of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris were compared in antioxidant activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and protection of lymphocyte and plasmid DNA. Their chemical properties were assessed by HPLC analysis, comparing with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, which were isolated from ethylacetate fraction as major compounds with strong antioxidant activities. No significant difference in functional properties between irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris was found in all antioxidant assays. Also HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris revealed the preservation of chlorogenic acid ({sub t}R=3.124 min) and caffeic acid ({sub t}R=3.672 min), and showed almost the same pattern in the general peaks. These results suggest that the chemical components and antioxidant properties of A. capillaris are not affected largely by gamma-ray irradiation. Therefore, this study may provide evidence that the irradiated herbs retain their potential functional properties.

  6. Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

    2015-02-03

    Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone.

  7. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Sleep Pattern, Duration and Quality in Relation with Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Gozashti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances have been shown to be associated with diabetes control, but the relation between planned wakings or napping with glycemic indices has not been evaluated yet. This study evaluated the relation between sleep quality, duration, and pattern, including daytime napping of people with diabetes and their glycemic control. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. We enrolled 118 people with type 2 diabetes receiving oral agents without major complications at the Shahid Bahonar Center, Kerman. The age, weight, height, serum HbA1c, as well as other glycemic indices and lipid profile were measured. BMI was also calculated. All participants were requested to fill in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire to evaluate their sleep quality. In addition, they were inquired about their sleep schedule during day and night. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between HbA1c and sleep pattern variables. The variables were also compared between participants with or without napping using t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA. The mean age was 58±11 years and mean HbA1c (% was 7.8±11 (62±13 mmol/mol. Sleep duration and the number of sleep segments significantly predicted HbA1c (F (2,114=5.232, P=0.007, R2=0.084. A one-hour increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.174% (1.4 mmol/mol decrement in HbA1c. PSQI score did not contribute to the regression model. Moreover, participants who napped (66% had a lower HbA1c (7.6±1 compared to others (8.1±1.3 (P=0.04. We concluded that napping and segmented sleep are associated with a better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and there is a linear correlation between sleep duration and better glycemic control.

  9. Sleep Pattern, Duration and Quality in Relation with Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Eslami, Nazanin; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Pakmanesh, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Sleep disturbances have been shown to be associated with diabetes control, but the relation between planned wakings or napping with glycemic indices has not been evaluated yet. This study evaluated the relation between sleep quality, duration, and pattern, including daytime napping of people with diabetes and their glycemic control. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. We enrolled 118 people with type 2 diabetes receiving oral agents without major complications at the Shahid Bahonar Center, Kerman. The age, weight, height, serum HbA1c, as well as other glycemic indices and lipid profile were measured. BMI was also calculated. All participants were requested to fill in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to evaluate their sleep quality. In addition, they were inquired about their sleep schedule during day and night. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between HbA1c and sleep pattern variables. The variables were also compared between participants with or without napping using t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age was 58±11 years and mean HbA1c (%) was 7.8±11 (62±13 mmol/mol). Sleep duration and the number of sleep segments significantly predicted HbA1c (F (2,114)=5.232, P=0.007, R2=0.084). A one-hour increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.174% (1.4 mmol/mol) decrement in HbA1c. PSQI score did not contribute to the regression model. Moreover, participants who napped (66%) had a lower HbA1c (7.6±1) compared to others (8.1±1.3) (P=0.04). We concluded that napping and segmented sleep are associated with a better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and there is a linear correlation between sleep duration and better glycemic control.

  10. Transmission properties of C60 ions through micro- and nano-capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Majima, Takuya; Tomita, Shigeo; Sasa, Kimikazu; Narumi, Kazumasa; Saitoh, Yuichi; Chiba, Atsuya; Yamada, Keisuke; Hirata, Koichi; Shibata, Hiromi; Itoh, Akio

    2013-01-01

    We apply the capillary beam-focusing method for the C 60 fullerene projectiles in the velocity range between 0.14 and 0.2 a.u. We study the C 60 transmission properties through two different types of capillaries: (1) borosilicate glass microcapillary with an outlet diameter of 5.5 μm, and (2) Al 2 O 3 multi-capillary foil with a pore size of about 70 nm and a high aspect ratio of about 750. We measured the transmitted particle composition by using the electrostatic deflection method combined with the microchannel plate imaging technique. For the experiments with the single microcapillary, the main transmission component is found to be primary C 60 beams that are focused in the area equal to the capillary outlet diameter. Minor components are charge-exchanged C 60 ions and charged or neutral fragments (fullerene-like C 60-2m and small C n particles), and their fractions decrease with decreasing the projectile velocity. It is concluded that the C 60 transmission fraction is considerably high for both types of the capillaries in the present velocity range

  11. Transmission properties of C{sub 60} ions through micro- and nano-capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Hidetsugu, E-mail: tsuchida@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Majima, Takuya [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Shigeo [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Sasa, Kimikazu [Tandem Accelerator Complex, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Narumi, Kazumasa; Saitoh, Yuichi; Chiba, Atsuya; Yamada, Keisuke [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hirata, Koichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Itoh, Akio [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We apply the capillary beam-focusing method for the C{sub 60} fullerene projectiles in the velocity range between 0.14 and 0.2 a.u. We study the C{sub 60} transmission properties through two different types of capillaries: (1) borosilicate glass microcapillary with an outlet diameter of 5.5 μm, and (2) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-capillary foil with a pore size of about 70 nm and a high aspect ratio of about 750. We measured the transmitted particle composition by using the electrostatic deflection method combined with the microchannel plate imaging technique. For the experiments with the single microcapillary, the main transmission component is found to be primary C{sub 60} beams that are focused in the area equal to the capillary outlet diameter. Minor components are charge-exchanged C{sub 60} ions and charged or neutral fragments (fullerene-like C{sub 60-2m} and small C{sub n} particles), and their fractions decrease with decreasing the projectile velocity. It is concluded that the C{sub 60} transmission fraction is considerably high for both types of the capillaries in the present velocity range.

  12. PAL application to the study of sorption mechanism in polymers - capillary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Shimadzu, A.; Ikeda, K.

    1999-01-01

    The positron annihilation lifetime technique can be applied to the study of the sorption mechanism in polymers in a quite unique way. In our previous experiments it had been shown that τ 3 and I 3 of polymers show a V-shaped dependence as a function of the contact with vapours. The decreasing part of the V-shaped dependence had been attributed to the Langmuir-type sorption, and the increasing part of delayed occurrence of the Henry-type sorption. But since there was some doubt that the capillary effect, i.e. the vapour to be sorbed is deposited in between the polymer membranes, might be involved in the increasing part, we performed a careful experiment to avoid the capillary effect. We have performed further experiments in a careful conditions to avoid the capillary effect, and have observed the same V-shape as before. Thus our interpretation of the V-shaped dependence has been established. Furthermore, in another example it is shown a case where the capillary effect is observed. This latter case is an example how positron annihilation lifetime can distinguish the real sorption and false sorption (capillary effect). (author)

  13. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the pattern of sensitization in different types of feeding in healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bogdanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the rate of milk protein sensitization during different types of feeding in healthy infants of Moscow. A total of 200 apparently healthy children were followed up. According to feeding patterns, there were 100 formula-fed babies (a study group and 100 breast-fed ones (a comparison group. Subgroup 1 of the study group included 51 infants receiving formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics; Subgroup 2 consisted of 49 infants having formulas based on cow's milk-serum proteins with prebiotics. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora was investigated by gas liquid chromatography; the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies against cow's and goat's milk proteins in coprofllrates were determined by noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay using special test systems (Allergopharma, Germany before and during the ingestion of the formulas with prebiotics. The use of the formulas containing prebiotics led to increases in acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations and anaerobic index in both subgroups. However, their highest values in the coproflltrates were observed in Subgroup 1 and breast-fed infants. Analysis of allergen-specific IgE and IgC antibodies before formula indigestion showed that the level of latent sensitization to goat's milk protein was substantially lower than that to cow's milk protein (+ Class 1 and + Class 2, respectively. Subgroup 1 showed a more pronounced tendency to decrease the rate of latent sensitization to these types of protein. Thus, the most pronounced positive tendency in the examined indicators was observed in babies receiving breast milk or formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics.

  14. The association between circulating endostatin and a disturbed circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuopio, Jonas; Östgren, Carl Johan; Länne, Toste; Lind, Lars; Ruge, Toralph; Carlsson, Axel C; Larsson, Anders; Nyström, Fredrik H; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2018-02-28

    Endostatin, cleaved from collagen XVIII in the extracellular matrix, is a promising circulating biomarker for cardiovascular damage. It possesses anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrotic functions and has even been suggested to be involved in blood pressure regulation. Less is known if endostatin levels relate to circadian blood pressure patterns. In the present paper we studied the association between circulating levels of endostatin and nocturnal dipping in blood pressure. We used the CARDIPP-study, a cohort of middle aged, type 2 diabetics (n = 593, 32% women), with data on both 24-hour and office blood pressure, serum-endostatin, cardiovascular risk factors, and incident major cardiovascular events. Nocturnal dipping was defined as a >10% difference between day- and night-time blood pressures. Two-hundred four participants (34%) were classified as non-dippers. The mean endostatin levels were significantly higher in non-dippers compared to dippers (mean ± standard deviation: 62.6 ± 1.8 µg/l vs. 58.7 ± 1.6 µg/l, respectively, p = .007). Higher serum levels of endostatin were associated with a diminished decline in nocturnal blood pressure adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, mean systolic day blood pressure, hypertension treatment, glomerular filtration rate, and prevalent cardiovascular disease (regression coefficient per SD increase of endostatin -0.01, 95% CI, -0.02-(-0.001), p = .03). Structural equation modelling analyses suggest that endostatin mediates 7% of the association between non-dipping and major cardiovascular events. We found an independent association between higher circulating levels of endostatin and a reduced difference between day- and night-time systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yet endostatin mediated only a small portion of the association between non-dipping and cardiovascular events arguing against a clinical utility of our findings.

  15. Patterns and correlates of serum magnesium levels in subsets of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde O Odusan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium (Mg is the 4th most common mineral and the 2nd most abundant intracellular cation in the body. It plays major roles in various physiological activities and has been implicated in many disease states. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the patterns and correlates of serum Mg in cohorts of type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients comprising 63 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM alone and 62 with diabetes and hypertension (HT were compared with fifty controls matched for sex and age. Basic data, HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose (FBG were obtained while serum Mg was measured by colorimeter. Relationship between serum Mg and glucose control was considered while serum Mg < 1.6 mg/dl was considered as hypomagnesemia. Results: The mean serum Mg of all patients was 2.06 ± 0.49 mg/dl, not statistically different from controls at 2.22 ± 0.48 mg/dl. About ¼ (23.2% of the patients had hypomagnesemia which was significantly more than 12% of controls. Although the patients with diabetes and HT were older and more of females than those with DM alone, the mean serum Mg was comparable (2.03 ± 0.49 vs. 2.09 + 0.50 mg/dl. Twenty-seven percent (27% of patients who had DM alone was more than 19.3% with HT and diabetes combined. Whereas the FBG was comparable in patients with hypomagnesemia and normal serum Mg, HbA1c was significantly higher in the hypomagnesemia group (8.39 ± 0.98 vs. 6.75 ± 1.22%, P = 0.021. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is common in T2DM outpatients occurring approximately one in four patients. It is associated with poor long-term control.

  16. Roles of tropical SST patterns during two types of ENSO in modulating wintertime rainfall over southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Huang, Qing-Lan; Tam, Chi-Yung; Wang, Weiqiang; Chen, Sheng; Zhu, Congwen

    2018-03-01

    The impacts of the eastern-Pacific (EP) and central-Pacific (CP) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the southern China wintertime rainfall (SCWR) have been investigated. Results show that wintertime rainfall over most stations in southern China is enhanced (suppressed) during the EP (CP) El Niño, which are attributed to different atmospheric responses in the western North Pacific (WNP) and South China Sea (SCS) during two types of ENSO. When EP El Niño occurs, an anomalous low-level anticyclone is present over WNP/the Philippines region, resulting in stronger-than-normal southwesterlies over SCS. Such a wind branch acts to suppress East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and enhance moisture supply, implying surplus SCWR. During CP El Niño, however, anomalous sinking and low-level anticyclonic flow are found to cover a broad region in SCS. These circulation features are associated with moisture divergence over the northern part of SCS and suppressed SCWR. General circulation model experiments have also been conducted to study influence of various tropical sea surface temperature (SST) patterns on the EAWM atmospheric circulation. For EP El Niño, formation of anomalous low-level WNP anticyclone is jointly attributed to positive/negative SST anomalies (SSTA) over the central-to-eastern/ western equatorial Pacific. However, both positive and negative CP Niño-related-SSTA, located respectively over the central Pacific and WNP/SCS, offset each other and contribute a weak but broad-scale anticyclone centered at SCS. These results suggest that, besides the vital role of SST warming, SST cooling over SCS/WNP during two types of El Niño should be considered carefully for understanding the El Niño-EAWM relationship.

  17. Capillary density and capillary-to-fibre ratio in vastus lateralis muscle of untrained and trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Kilarski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Muscle fibre profile area (Af, volume density (Vv, capillary-to-fibre ratio (CF and number of capillaries per fibre square millimetre (CD were determined from needle biopsies of vastus lateralis of twenty-four male volunteers (mean ± SD: age 25.4±5.8 years, height 178.6±5.5 cm, body mass 72.1±7.7 kg of different training background. Seven subjects were untrained students (group A, nine were national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B with the background of 7.8±2.9 years of specialised training, and eight subjects were sprint-power athletes (group C with 12.8±8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase. Capillaries were visualized and counted using CD31 antibodies against endothelial cells. There were significant differences in the Vv of type I and type II muscle fibres in both trained groups, B (51.8%; 25.6% and C (50.5%; 26.4%. However, in untrained group A that was treated as a reference group, the difference between Vv of type I and type II fibres was less prominent, nevertheless statistically significant (42.1%; 35.1%. There was also a significant difference in CF: 1.9 in group A and 2.1 in groups B and C. The number of capillaries per mm2 (CD was 245 (group A, 308 (group B and 325 (group C. Significant differences (P<0.05 in CF and CD, were found only between group A (1.9; 245 and both groups of trained men, B and C (2.1; 308 and 325. However, endurance athletes (group B, such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance.

  18. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Analysis of In-Flight Collision Process During V-Type Firing Pattern in Surface Blasting Using Simple Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Lalit Singh; Raina, Avtar K.

    2015-10-01

    Blasting is a unit operation in Mine-Mill Fragmentation System (MMFS) and plays a vital role in mining cost. One of the goals of MMFS is to achieve optimum fragment size at minimal cost. Blast fragmentation optimization is known to result in better explosive energy utilization. Fragmentation depends on the rock, explosive and blast design variables. If burden, spacing and type of explosive used in a mine are kept constant, the firing sequence of blast-holes plays a vital role in rock fragmentation. To obtain smaller fragmentation size, mining professionals and relevant publications recommend V- or extended V-pattern of firing sequence. In doing so, it is assumed that the in-flight air collision breaks larger rock fragments into smaller ones, thus aiding further fragmentation. There is very little support to the phenomenon of breakage during in-flight collision of fragments during blasting in published literature. In order to assess the breakage of in-flight fragments due to collision, a mathematical simulation was carried over using basic principles of physics. The calculations revealed that the collision breakage is dependent on velocity of fragments, mass of fragments, the strength of the rock and the area of fragments over which collision takes place. For higher strength rocks, the in-flight collision breakage is very difficult to achieve. This leads to the conclusion that the concept demands an in-depth investigation and validation.

  20. A Rare Multifocal Pattern of Type 2 Autoimmune Pancreatitis with Negative IgG4: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall That May Mimic Multifocal Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Hota

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP is an increasingly recognized form of acute pancreatitis characterized by obstructive jaundice with a rapid and dramatic treatment response to steroid therapy. Recently, AIP has been divided into two distinct phenotypes: lymphoplasmocytic sclerosing pancreatitis AIP (type 1 and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis AIP (type 2; each of which have their own distinct demographics, diagnostic criteria, and histopathological features. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a multifocal pattern of type 2 AIP characterized with both CT and MR imaging. This rare imaging pattern of AIP may mimic the appearance of more worrisome malignant etiologies such as multifocal pancreatic adenocarcinoma or lymphoma, with overlapping imaging characteristics potentially complicating or delaying diagnosis. Therefore, recognition of this atypical pattern of AIP and avoidance of this potential diagnostic pitfall is crucial.

  1. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossev, D.P.; Warren, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  2. Temporal-spatial patterns of three types of pesticide loadings in a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Cai, Guanqing; Tysklind, Mats; Yang, Wanyin; Hao, Fanghua; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-10-01

    Pesticide loadings to watersheds increase during agricultural development and may vary in accordance with different crop types and seasons. High pesticide loadings can potentially result in polluted stream water. The objective of this study was to determine the pesticide loadings and concentrations of three typical pesticides (atrazine, oxadiazon, and isoprothiolane) in river water from a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed in northern China. During this study, we evaluated the watershed pesticide loss patterns for two crop types over three decades. For this purpose, we integrated data from field investigations, laboratory experiments, and modeling simulations involving a distributed hydrological solute transport model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT). SWAT was employed to compare the temporal-spatial fate and behaviors of atrazine, oxadiazon, and isoprothiolane from 1990 to 2014 in a watershed area amounting to 141.5 km 2 . The results showed that the three pesticides could be detected at different locations throughout the watershed, and isoprothiolane was detected at the maximum value of 1.082 μg/L in surface runoff of paddy land. The temporal trend for the yearly loading of atrazine decreased slightly over time, but the trends for oxadiazon and isoprothiolane increased markedly over an 18-year analysis period. In regard to the pesticide concentrations in water, atrazine was associated with the largest value of nearly 1.4 μg/L. July and August were the found to be prime periods for pesticide loss from paddy land, and the biggest monthly loss of atrazine from dryland appeared in June. Under similar usage conditions, isoprothiolane loading from paddy fields ranked as the largest one among the three types of pesticides and reached up to 17 g/ha. Limited monitoring data were useful for validating the model, which yielded valuable temporal-spatial data on the fate of pesticides in this watershed. With the expansion of paddy rice cultivation, risks

  3. A Computational Model of Peripheral Photocoagulation for the Prevention of Progressive Diabetic Capillary Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Gast

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a computational model of the propagation of retinal ischemia in diabetic retinopathy and analyzed the consequences of various patterns and sizes of burns in peripheral retinal photocoagulation. The model addresses retinal ischemia as a phenomenon of adverse local feedback in which once a capillary is occluded there is an elevated probability of occlusion of adjacent capillaries resulting in enlarging areas of retinal ischemia as is commonly seen clinically. Retinal burns of different sizes and patterns, treated as local oxygen sources, are predicted to have different effects on the propagation of retinal ischemia. The patterns of retinal burns are optimized with regard to minimization of the sum of the photocoagulated retina and computer predicted ischemic retina. Our simulations show that certain patterns of retinal burns are effective at preventing the spatial spread of ischemia by creating oxygenated boundaries across which the ischemia does not propagate. This model makes no statement about current PRP treatment of avascular peripheral retina and notes that the usual spot sizes used in PRP will not prevent ischemic propagation in still vascularized retinal areas. The model seems to show that a properly patterned laser treatment of still vascularized peripheral retina may be able to prevent or at least constrain the propagation of diabetic retinal ischemia in those retinal areas with intact capillaries.

  4. Infraglottic lobular capillary hemangioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Ly Pham Hoang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH is a benign proliferation of capillary blood vessels adopting a lobular configuration. A laryngeal origin of LCH is exceedingly rare. Here, we describe a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a subglottic lesion, leading to a subglottic stenosis. Histopathologic findings of the lesion implicated an LCH, which was removed successfully by a coblator. This is the first report of a subglottic LCH. Physicians should be aware of this unique lesion and laryngeal LCH should be considered in diagnosing the cause of a subglottic stenosis. Additionally, coblation should be an effective treatment for laryngeal LCH.

  5. Use of Plastic Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rachel R.; Hong, Young-Soo; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of crystallization of biomolecules in plastic capillaries (Nalgene 870 PFA tubing) are presented. These crystallization methods used batch, free-interface liquid- liquid diffusion alone, or a combination with vapor diffusion. Results demonstrated growth of crystals of test proteins such as thaumatin and glucose isomerase, as well as protein studied in our laboratory such dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Once the solutions were loaded in capillaries, they were stored in the tubes in frozen state at cryogenic temperatures until the desired time of activation of crystallization experiments.

  6. Can positrons be guided by insulating capillaries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.; Toekesi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Investigations of guiding of few hundred eV antiparticles by macroscopic insulating capillaries have been described. Using subfemtoamp positron and electron beams, we demonstrated that a portion of the entering beams were transmitted and emerged in the direction of the capillary. We also demonstrated that the transmitted intensities decreased as the capillary tilt angle was increased (see Fig. 1). Both of these are indications of guiding. However, a comparison with transmitted photon data implies that the positron transmission may result from geometric factors associated with our diffuse beams and tapered capillary used in these studies. For electrons, the comparison indicates differences which could imply that even very low intensity beams can be guided. Measurements of the transmitted intensity as a function of charge entering the capillary were inconclusive as no major increases in the transmitted intensity were observed. 2D static simulations imply that our beam intensities, although extremely small with respect to previous guiding experiments, were capable of supplying sufficient charge for guiding to occur. Although not definitive, our study implies that sub-femtoamp beam intensities are sufficient to form charge patches and produce guiding. This may have been observed for electrons with the question remaining open for positrons. That guiding was not clearly seen may have been due to the capillary geometry used or it may indicate that although sufficient charge is being supplied, the surface and bulk resistivities of glass permit this charge to dissipate faster than it is formed. This aspect was not taken into consideration in our simulations but a crude estimate of the discharge rate implies that beam intensities on the order of pA, rather than fA as used here, may be required for guiding to occur in the capillaries used here. Additional studies are required to definitively answer the question as to whether antiparticles

  7. Capillary condensation of adsorbates in porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Toshihide; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2011-11-14

    Hysteresis in capillary condensation is important for the fundamental study and application of porous materials, and yet experiments on porous materials are sometimes difficult to interpret because of the many interactions and complex solid structures involved in the condensation and evaporation processes. Here we make an overview of the significant progress in understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis phenomena in mesopores that have followed from experiment and simulation applied to highly ordered mesoporous materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 over the last few decades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hysteretic capillary condensation in a porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, M.P.; Hallock, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the behavior of hysteresis subloops in the capillary condensation of 4 He in the porous material Nuclepore. For hysteretic systems composed of many independent elements, the Preisach model may be used to predict the behavior of the resulting hysteresis. One prediction is that subloops with common chemical potential endpoints will be congruent. The observations of such subloops show that the prediction of congruence fails for this capillary condensation system. To understand deviations from Preisach behavior the authors modify the model to account for intersections among the pores. The modified model is in close agreement with the experimental results

  9. Studies on pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C; Larour, J; Rous, J [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Favre, M; Moreno, J; Chuaqui, H; Wyndham, E [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Zambra, M [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Wong, C S [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Plasma Research Lab

    1997-12-31

    Preliminary results on radiation characteristics of pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges are presented. The device combines the on axis electron beam assisted ionization capabilities of the transient hollow cathode discharge with a novel high voltage low inductance geometrical design, which integrates the local energy storage into the electrode system. A nanosecond regime high temperature plasma is produced in a long, high aspect ratio capillary, with light emission in the UV to XUV region. The discharge is operated from near vacuum to pressure in the 1000 mTorr range. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs.

  10. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  11. X-ray diffraction from ideal mosaic crystals in external fields of certain types. I. Atomic displacements and the corresponding diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treushnikov, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of the theoretical description of X-ray diffraction from ideal mosaic crystals under the effect of various external fields has been formulated. Electric, magnetic, electromagnetic, and acoustic perturbations are considered. The atomic displacements in crystals under the effect of external fields and the types of the corresponding diffraction patterns are analyzed for various types of perturbations. The crystal classes are determined in which atomic displacements can be recorded experimentally. Diffraction patterns formed under the effect of various external factors are considered on the basis of the derived dependence of the structure factor on the characteristics of an applied force field

  12. Quantification of nucleotides by ICPMS: coupling of ICPMS with capillary electrophoresis or capillary HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, S.; Takatsu, A.; Yarita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Chiba, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quantification of nucleotides in small volumes of biological samples has eagerly been demanded. A method using ICPMS coupled with capillary electrophoresis or capillary liquid chromatography is reported. A new interface system, which consists of a double tube nebulizer inserted with a fused silica capillary tube and a cylinder mini-chamber with a sheath gas inlet, was designed. Moreover, the surface conditions of the sampling and skimmer cones, and the introduction of H 2 gas into the plasma were found to significantly improve the signal/background ratio for phosphorus determination at m/z 31. (author)

  13. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  14. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocek, P; Gebauer, P; Beckers, J L

    2001-04-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the migration of analytes is strongly deteriorated due to the presence of a system zone. System zones in phthalate buffers may be easily detected by UV detection and manifest themselves as peaks or dips. Peak shape diagrams are advantageously used for the prediction of the migration behavior of system zones in phthalate background electrolyte (BGE) systems at various pH. It is shown that the mobility of the system zone varies strongly with pH, is practically zero at pH values below 4 and above 7, and shows a maximum at pH 5. Thus, the system peak may coincide either with the peaks of various analytes or with the electroosmotic flow (EOF) peak. Experiments are given showing the effects of such coincidences as, e.g., zigzag detection patterns, double EOF peaks, and/or unusually broad peaks/dips. The message of this contribution is to show how to understand the electrophoretic properties of phthalate BGEs that, regardless of possible failure regions, may be successfully used in the analytical practice of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE).

  15. Hysteretic capillary condensation of 4He on Nuclepore substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godshalk, K.M.; Smith, D.T.; Hallock, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the approach to capillary condensation and the hysteresis encountered in capillary condensation are reported for helium adsorbed on the polycarbonate substrate Nuclepore. (Author) (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  16. Viscosity measurement in the capillary tube viscometer under unsteady flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Jun; Yoo, Sang Sin; Suh, Sang Ho

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load cell system that measures the mass flow rate, interfaces, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force

  17. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of synthetic short-chain oligoribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellai, L; Onori, A M; Desiderio, C; Fanali, S

    1998-12-01

    Thirty synthetic oligoribonucleotides, 3 to 18 nucleotides (nt) long, were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, under nondenaturing conditions, using a commercial kit. The migration time t(m) was dependent on nt length and composition, capillary length, operating temperature, and type of sieving polymer. Under fixed experimental conditions, the t(m) proved predictable by the equation: t(m) = [0.22(n-1) + 6.14A/n + 6.86G/n + 3.61 (C+U)/n] min, for n>3, where A/n, G/n, C/n, U/n is the frequency of each type of nt within the oligonucleotide (ONT). The equation accounts for the influence of charge-to-mass ratio on t(m), but not for structural effects, if present. This approximation is acceptable for short ONTs. The possibility of detecting n+1, n-1, n-2 impurities, having predicted the t(m), is of crucial importance in assessing the purity of synthetic ONTs dedicated to structural studies. This appears to be feasible. High resolution was shown among homologous series of ONTs of increasing length, and in some cases, even within groups of ONTs of the same length but different composition. The addition of 7 M urea to the buffer, as denaturing agent, accelerates the t(m) and significantly lowers the resolution for the shortest ONTs. It was also possible to monitor the state of association of mixtures of RNA and DNA sequence-complementary strands.

  18. Nature of capillary condensation and evaporation processes in ordered porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman, Annie; Ortega, Camille

    2005-11-08

    We report on a detailed experimental study of capillary condensation-evaporation processes of N(2) in ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica. We have carried out measurements of boundary hysteresis loops, reversal curves, and subloops in order to test whether this material behaves as an assembly of independent cylindrical pores open at both ends. With these data, we come to the conclusion that, whereas the boundary hysteresis loop has the classical shape of type H1 associated with condensation-evaporation in cylindrical pores open at both ends, the capillary evaporation does not take place at equilibrium as it is generally assumed. Moreover, the pores do not desorb independently of one another.

  19. Influence of the nature of interfaces on the capillary transport in layered materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derluyn, Hannelore; Janssen, Hans; Carmeliet, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and quantitative analysis of capillary transport across the interface brick–mortar joint in masonry. Moisture profiles are measured with X-ray projection. The influence of curing conditions is analyzed by considering three types of mortars: cured in a mould......, between capillary wet and dry bricks. A decrease in moisture inflow for the mortars cured between bricks is measured. The pore structure and the moisture transport properties of mortar change significantly due to water extraction from the initially wet mortar to the bricks during curing. Numerical...... simulations reveal the existence of a hydraulic interface resistance between brick and wet/dry cured mortar....

  20. Lactic Acid Extraction and Mass Transfer Characteristics in Slug Flow Capillary Microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, S.; Winkelman, J.G.N.; Schuur, Boelo; heeres, h.j.; Yue, J.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary microreactors operated under the slug flow regime were investigated for the separation of lactic acid from the aqueous phase using liquid–liquid reactive extraction. The experiments were performed at a 1:1 flow ratio of the aqueous to organic phases in a setup consisting of an inlet Y-type

  1. Association between Type, Amount, and Pattern of Carbohydrate Consumption with Dental Caries in 12-Year-Olds in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Morou-Bermúdez, Evangelia; Colon, Alina M; Torres, Roxana Y; Elías-Boneta, Augusto R

    2016-01-01

    To identify the types, food sources, and pattern of carbohydrates that significantly contribute to dental caries in Puerto Rican children. As part of an island-wide cross-sectional oral health study in 1,587 twelve-year-olds, diet intake was assessed in a representative subset (n = 801) with a 24-hour dietary recall. Carbohydrate intake was quantified using a computer-based diet analysis program. Caries was assessed using the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research diagnostic criteria. Odds ratios were used to associate carbohydrate intake quartiles with caries, after controlling for important confounders. A total of 723 subjects had complete data. Most were females (54%) and attended public schools (77%). The caries prevalence was 33%. The highest quartile intake for the following sugars significantly increased the odds of caries compared to the lowest quartile: total carbohydrates (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.08-3.46), total sugars (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.01-351), sucrose (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.13-3.70), fructose (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.05-3.62), and inositol (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.38-4.63). The main food sources of these sugars were juices, including natural juices with no added sugars, and sweetened beverages. The odds of caries also increased significantly in children whose 10% of total energy intake was from total sugars (OR = 3.76, 95% CI = 1.03-13.7). After adjusting for important caries risk factors, total carbohydrates, total sugars, ≥10% kilocaloric energy from total sugars, and sucrose, fructose, and inositol intake significantly increased caries risk. Our findings can help raise awareness about the potential caries risk from the main sources of these sugars, natural fruit juices and sweetened beverages, which are consumed in great quantities in many societies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Isolation of a candidate human telomerase catalytic subunit gene, which reveals complex splicing patterns in different cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, A; Bowtell, D D; Abud, H E; Hime, G R; Venter, D J; Keese, P K; Duncan, E L; Reddel, R R; Jefferson, R A

    1997-11-01

    Telomerase is a multicomponent reverse transcriptase enzyme that adds DNA repeats to the ends of chromosomes using its RNA component as a template for synthesis. Telomerase activity is detected in the germline as well as the majority of tumors and immortal cell lines, and at low levels in several types of normal cells. We have cloned a human gene homologous to a protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Euplotes aediculatus that has reverse transcriptase motifs and is thought to be the catalytic subunit of telomerase in those species. This gene is present in the human genome as a single copy sequence with a dominant transcript of approximately 4 kb in a human colon cancer cell line, LIM1215. The cDNA sequence was determined using clones from a LIM1215 cDNA library and by RT-PCR, cRACE and 3'RACE on mRNA from the same source. We show that the gene is expressed in several normal tissues, telomerase-positive post-crisis (immortal) cell lines and various tumors but is not expressed in the majority of normal tissues analyzed, pre-crisis (non-immortal) cells and telomerase-negative immortal (ALT) cell lines. Multiple products were identified by RT-PCR using primers within the reverse transcriptase domain. Sequencing of these products suggests that they arise by alternative splicing. Strikingly, various tumors, cell lines and even normal tissues (colonic crypt and testis) showed considerable differences in the splicing patterns. Alternative splicing of the telomerase catalytic subunit transcript may be important for the regulation of telomerase activity and may give rise to proteins with different biochemical functions.

  3. Advanced portrayal of SMIL coating by allying CZE performance with in-capillary topographic and charge-related surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Leitner, Michael; Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Bonazza, Klaus [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent; Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Ebner, Andreas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stutz, Hanno, E-mail: hanno.stutz@sbg.ac.at [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-01-25

    A successive multiple ionic polymer layer (SMIL) coating composed of four layers improved the capillary electrophoretic separation of a recombinant major birch pollen allergen and closely related variants when poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propansulfonate) (55% PAMAMPS) replaced dextran sulfate as terminal SMIL layer. 55% PAMAMPS decelerated the electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to its lower charge density. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate SMIL properties directly on the inner capillary surface and to relate them to EOF measurements and results of associated CZE separations of a mixture of model proteins and peptides that were performed in the same capillary. For the first time, AFM-based biosensing topography and recognition imaging mode (TREC) under liquid conditions was applied for a sequential characterization of the inner surface of a SMIL coated capillary after selected treatments including pristine SMIL, SMIL after contact with the model mixture, after alkaline rinsing, and the replenishment of the terminal polyelectrolyte layer. A cantilever with tip-tethered avidin was used to determine the charge homogeneity of the SMIL surface in the TREC mode. SMIL coated rectangular capillaries with 100 μm internal diameter assured accessibility of the inner surface for this cantilever type. Observed changes in CZE performance and EOF mobility during capillary treatment were also reflected by alterations in surface roughness and charge distribution of the SMIL coating. A renewal of the terminal SMIL layer restored the original surface properties of SMIL and the separation performance. The alliance of the novel TREC approach and CZE results allows for an improved understanding and a comprehensive insight in effects occurring on capillary coatings. - Highlights: • SMIL coating with a terminal layer of reduced charge density improves CZE separation. • Capillaries with rectangular diameter allow for in-capillary TREC-AFM measurement.

  4. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  5. Capillary Condensation in Pores with Rough Walls:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryk, P.; Rżysko, W.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Sokołowski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-52 ISSN 0021-9797 Grant - others:TOK(XE) 509249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : adsorption * pore * capillary condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  6. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior

  7. Delayed Capillary Breakup of Falling Viscous Jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, A.; Eggers, J.; Bonn, D.; Habibi, M.; Ribe, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin jets of viscous fluid like honey falling from capillary nozzles can attain lengths exceeding 10 m before breaking up into droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau (surface tension) instability. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and WKB analysis of the growth of shape perturbations on a jet

  8. Imbibition of ``Open Capillary'': Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Marie; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Okumura, Ko

    2015-11-01

    Control or transportation of small amount of liquid is one of the most important issues in various contexts including medical sciences or pharmaceutical industries to fuel delivery. We studied imbibition of ``open capillary'' both experimentally and theoretically, and found simple scaling laws for both statics and dynamics of the imbibition, similarly as that of imbibition of capillary tubes. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of ``precursor film,'' which developed ahead of the imbibing front, and the dynamics of it is described well by another scaling law for capillary rise in a corner. Then, to show capabilities of open capillaries, we demonstrated two experiments by fabricating micro mixing devices to achieve (1) simultaneous multi-color change of the Bromothymol blue (BTB) solution and (2) expression of the green florescent protein (GFP). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). M. T. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  9. Van de Graaff generator for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Castro, Eric R; Guijt, Rosanne M; Tarn, Mark D; Manz, Andreas

    2017-09-29

    A new approach for high voltage capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed, which replaces the standard high voltage power supply with a Van de Graaff generator, a low current power source. Because the Van de Graaff generator is a current-limited source (10μA), potentials exceeding 100kV can be generated for CE when the electrical resistance of the capillary is maximized. This was achieved by decreasing the capillary diameter and reducing the buffer ionic strength. Using 2mM borate buffer and a 5μm i.d. capillary, fluorescently labeled amino acids were separated with efficiencies up to 3.5 million plates; a 5.7 fold improvement in separation efficiency compared to a normal power supply (NPS) typically used in CE. This separation efficiency was realized using a simple set-up without significant Joule heating, making the Van de Graaff generator a promising alternative for applying the high potentials required for enhancing resolution in the separation and analysis of highly complex samples, for example mixtures of glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  11. Analytical biotechnology: Capillary electrophoresis and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, C.; Nikelly, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The papers describe the separation, characterization, and equipment required for the electrophoresis or chromatography of cyclic nucleotides, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, recombinant DNA products, pheromones, peptides, and other biological materials. One paper, On-column radioisotope detection for capillary electrophoresis, has been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. Simulation of the Flow Through Porous Layers Composed of Converging-Diverging Capillary Fissures or Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a porous medium is modelled by a network of converging-diverging capillaries which may be considered as fissures or tubes. This model makes it necessary to consider flows through capillary fissures or tubes. Therefore an analytical method for deriving the relationships between pressure drops, volumetric flow rates and velocities for the following fluids: Newtonian, polar, power-law, pseudoplastic (DeHaven and Sisko types) and Shulmanian, was developed. Next, considerations on the models of pore network for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were presented. The models, similar to the schemes of central finite differences may provide a good basis for transforming the governing equations of a flow through the porous medium into a set of linear or quasi-linear algebraic equations. It was shown that the some coefficients in these algebraic equations depend on the kind of the capillary convergence.

  13. Attempts to retreat from a dead-ended long capillary by backward swimming in Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki eKunita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We have observed how the ciliate Paramecium attempts to retreat from the dead-end of a long capillary that is too narrow for turning. After many trial-and-error episodes of short-term backward swimming (SBS, which is the conventional avoidance behavior exhibited in free swimming when an obstacle is faced, long-term backward swimming (LBS that lasted five to ten times longer was developed. LBS may have a beneficial effect for complete withdrawal from the capillary space, although in our experiment it was impossible for the organism to do so due to the capillary length. In order to identify a physically possible mechanism for LBS, we propose model equations for the membrane potential of Hodgkin-Huxley type, which describe the control of ciliary movement. The physiological implications and physical mechanism of the development of LBS are discussed.

  14. Optoelectronic Capillary Sensors in Microfluidic and Point-of-Care Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Borecki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review, based on the published literature and on the authors’ own research, of the current state of the art of fiber-optic capillary sensors and related instrumentation as well as their applications, with special emphasis on point-of-care chemical and biochemical sensors, systematizing the various types of sensors from the point of view of the principles of their construction and operation. Unlike classical fiber-optic sensors which rely on changes in light propagation inside the fiber as affected by outside conditions, optical capillary sensors rely on changes of light transmission in capillaries filled with the analyzed liquid, which opens the possibility of interesting new applications, while raising specific issues relating to the construction, materials and instrumentation of those sensors.

  15. A study of capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, N; Gavare, Z; Revalde, G; Skudra, Ja; Veilande, R

    2011-01-01

    Low-pressure capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures are studied. The discharge size is 0.5 mm (500 μm) in radius. According to the literature, such types of plasma sources are classified as microplasmas. The studies include spectrally resolved optical measurements, tomographic reconstructions and numerical simulations using the collisional-radiative model for an Ar-Hg plasma. We discuss the problems of theoretical modelling and experimental diagnostics of microplasma sources. It is shown that the conventional collisional-radiative model, based on the assumption that transportation of atoms in the highly excited states can be neglected, has limitations in modelling a capillary discharge in an Ar-Hg mixture. It is found that diffusion of highly excited mercury atoms to the wall influences the emission properties of the capillary discharge. We have concluded that applications of the emission tomography method to microplasmas require a special analysis in each particular case.

  16. Stability and interactions of nanocolloids at fluid interfaces: effects of capillary waves and line tensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehle, H; Oettel, M

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the effective potential for nanoparticles trapped at a fluid interface within a simple model which incorporates surface and line tensions as well as a thermal average over interface fluctuations (capillary waves). For a single colloid, a reduced steepness of the potential well hindering movements out of the interface plane compared to rigid interface models is observed, and an instability of the capillary wave partition sum in the case of negative line tensions is pointed out. For two colloids, averaging over the capillary waves leads to an effective Casimir-type interaction which is long ranged, power-like in the inverse distance, but whose power sensitively depends on possible restrictions of the colloid degrees of freedom. A nonzero line tension leads to changes in the magnitude but not in the functional form of the effective potential asymptotics

  17. Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Szebenyi, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Woll, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Finkelstein, K.; Dale, D.; Wang, Y.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gillilan, R.; Cook, M.; Bilderback, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

  18. Analysis of glycated hemoglobin A1c by capillary electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koval, Dušan; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 413, č. 1 (2011), s. 8-15 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P485; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * capillary isoelectric focusing * glycated hemoglobin HbA1c Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2011

  19. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 20 markers was previously described. It has considerable discrimination power, reproducibility, and low cost, especially since the markers proposed can be typed by agarose-gel electrophoresis. However in an emergency situation, faster genotyping and access to representative databases is necessary. Results Genotyping of B. anthracis reference strains and isolates from France and Italy was done using a 25 loci MLVA assay combining 21 previously described loci and 4 new ones. DNA was amplified in 4 multiplex PCR reactions and the length of the resulting 25 amplicons was estimated by automated capillary electrophoresis. The results were reproducible and the data were consistent with other gel based methods once differences in mobility patterns were taken into account. Some alleles previously unresolved by agarose gel electrophoresis could be resolved by capillary electrophoresis, thus further increasing the assay resolution. One particular locus, Bams30, is the result of a recombination between a 27 bp tandem repeat and a 9 bp tandem repeat. The analysis of the array illustrates the evolution process of tandem repeats. Conclusion In a crisis situation of suspected bioterrorism, standardization, speed and accuracy, together with the availability of reference typing data are important issues, as illustrated by the 2001 anthrax letters event. In this report we describe an upgrade of the previously published MLVA method for genotyping of B. anthracis and apply the method to the typing of French and Italian B. anthracis strain collections. The increased number of markers studied compared to reports using only 8 loci greatly improves the discrimination power of the technique. An Italian strain belonging to the

  20. Wavelet-based feature extraction applied to small-angle x-ray scattering patterns from breast tissue: a tool for differentiating between tissue types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, G; Pearson, S; Murison, R; Hall, C; Siu, K; Evans, A; Rogers, K; Lewis, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of wavelet decomposition to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from human breast tissue produced by a synchrotron source. The pixel intensities of SAXS patterns of normal, benign and malignant tissue types were transformed into wavelet coefficients. Statistical analysis found significant differences between the wavelet coefficients describing the patterns produced by different tissue types. These differences were then correlated with position in the image and have been linked to the supra-molecular structural changes that occur in breast tissue in the presence of disease. Specifically, results indicate that there are significant differences between healthy and diseased tissues in the wavelet coefficients that describe the peaks produced by the axial d-spacing of collagen. These differences suggest that a useful classification tool could be based upon the spectral information within the axial peaks

  1. Fundamental and future prospects of printed ambipolar fluorene-type polymer light-emitting transistors for improved external quantum efficiency, mobility, and emission pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajii, Hirotake

    2018-05-01

    In this review, we focus on the improved external quantum efficiency, field-effect mobility, and emission pattern of top-gate-type polymer light-emitting transistors (PLETs) based on ambipolar fluorene-type polymers. A low-temperature, high-efficiency, printable red phosphorescent PLET based on poly(alkylfluorene) with modified alkyl side chains fabricated by a film transfer process is demonstrated. Device fabrication based on oriented films leads to an improved EL intensity owing to the increase in field-effect mobility. There are three factors that affect the transport of carriers, i.e., the energy level, threshold voltage, and mobility of each layer for heterostructure PLETs, which result in various emission patterns such as the line-shaped, multicolor and in-plane emission pattern in the full-channel area between source and drain electrodes. Fundamentals and future prospects in heterostructure devices are discussed and reviewed.

  2. Global dispersal pattern of HIV type 1 subtype CRF01-AE : A genetic trace of human mobility related to heterosexual sexual activities centralized in southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01-AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01-AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set

  3. Usefulness of ST elevation score by using vector-projected virtual 187-channel ECG for risk stratification in patients with Brugada-type ECG pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Ishikawa

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: The ST elevation score in VP-ECG objectively documented the degree of ST elevation in surface ECG in Brugada-type ECG patterns. The ST-elevation score might be useful for risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic Brugada syndrome.

  4. Distribution patterns of the metastases of the lung carcinoma in relation to histological type of the primary tumor: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Savic Milovanovic

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: While, overall, the most frequent hematogenous metastases occur in the liver and adrenal glands, various histological types of lung cancer show specific dissemination patterns. Knowing distribution of metastases is essential for making algorithms of treatment, as well as for improving clinical assessment of the patients with unclear clinical findings and suspicion on occult primary lung cancer.

  5. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31481518X; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-01-01

    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  6. Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Fontes, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated a unique computerized glass puller that can make parabolic or elliptically tapered glass capillaries for microbeam x-ray experiments from hollow glass tubing. We have produced optics that work in a single-bounce imaging mode or in a multi-bounce condensing mode. The imaging-mode capillaries have been used to create 20 to 50 micron diameter x-ray beams at 12 keV that are quite useful for imaging diffraction patterns from tiny bundles of carbon and Kevlar fibers. The condensing-mode capillaries are useful for creating submicron diameter beams and show great promise in x-ray fluorescence applications with femtogram sensitivity for patterned Er and Ti dopants diffused into an optically-active lithium niobate wafer

  7. An innovative technique for estimating water saturation from capillary pressure in clastic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoti, Lukumon; Ayolabi, Elijah Adebowale; James, Logan

    2017-11-01

    A major drawback of old resistivity tools is the poor vertical resolution and estimation of hydrocarbon when applying water saturation (Sw) from historical resistivity method. In this study, we have provided an alternative method called saturation height function to estimate hydrocarbon in some clastic reservoirs in the Niger Delta. The saturation height function was derived from pseudo capillary pressure curves generated using modern wells with complete log data. Our method was based on the determination of rock type from log derived porosity-permeability relationship, supported by volume of shale for its classification into different zones. Leverette-J functions were derived for each rock type. Our results show good correlation between Sw from resistivity based method and Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves in wells with modern log data. The resistivity based model overestimates Sw in some wells while Sw from the pseudo capillary pressure curves validates and predicts more accurate Sw. In addition, the result of Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves replaces that of resistivity based model in a well where the resistivity equipment failed. The plot of hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV) from J-function against HCPV from Archie shows that wells with high HCPV have high sand qualities and vice versa. This was further used to predict the geometry of stratigraphic units. The model presented here freshly addresses the gap in the estimation of Sw and is applicable to reservoirs of similar rock type in other frontier basins worldwide.

  8. Early capillary flux homogenization in response to neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Boas, David A

    2016-02-01

    This Brief Communication reports early homogenization of capillary network flow during somatosensory activation in the rat cerebral cortex. We used optical coherence tomography and statistical intensity variation analysis for tracing changes in the red blood cell flux over hundreds of capillaries nearly at the same time with 1-s resolution. We observed that while the mean capillary flux exhibited a typical increase during activation, the standard deviation of the capillary flux exhibited an early decrease that happened before the mean flux increase. This network-level data is consistent with the theoretical hypothesis that capillary flow homogenizes during activation to improve oxygen delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Applications of capillary optics for focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces applications of focused ion beams (∼1 μm) with glass capillaries systems. A first report on the interaction between ion beams and glass capillaries was published in 1996. The guiding capabilities of glass capillaries were discovered due to ion reflection from inner wall of glass surfaces. Meanwhile, the similar optics have been already realized in focusing X-rays using glass capillaries. The basic technology of X-rays optics using glass capillaries had been developed in the 1980's and 1900's. Also, low energy atom scattering spectroscopy for insulator material analysis will be mentioned. (author)

  10. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  11. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria

    ) to investigate effects of silages with different methanogenic potential (early grass, late grass, and maize) combined with a CH4-reducing feed additive (crushed rapeseed) on bacterial and methanogenic communities in the rumen. Bacterial and methanogenic community patterns were evaluated by T-RFLP analysis of 16S...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...... significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch...

  12. Dependence of the productivity of maize and soybean intercropping systems on hybrid type and plant arrangement pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolijanović Željko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems could improve utilization of the most important resources (soil, water and nutrients, provide a better control of weeds, pests and diseases, and finally higher productivity, especially under rain-fed growing conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of three maize (Zea mays L. prolific hybrids (FAO 500, 600 and 700 and the spatial intercrop patterns on the above-ground biomass and grain yields of maize and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill, on chernozem soil type at Zemun Polje, Belgrade, in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications and three treatments: 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in strips for each maize hybrid (three variants, 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in alternate rows for each hybrid (another three variants and monocrops of both maize and soybeans. To optimize the ecological and economic benefits of maize/soybean intercrop in terms of yield, variety selection and compatibility of the component crops should be made using established agronomic management practices involving the two crops. Suitable maize varieties for maize/soybean intercrop systems are varieties that have less dense canopy. These varieties would therefore have lesser shading effect to the understory beans. However, establishment of an appropriate spatial arrangement of the component crops would be essential to alleviate negative effects especially on the less competitive crop. The intercropping system in alternate rows showed significantly higher above-ground biomass and grain yields in comparation with both the strip intercropping system and maize monocrops in 2004. Soybean gave significantly lower above-ground biomass and grain yield in intercrops than in monocrops. Maize prolific hybrid growing in intercropping with soybean as legume crop, increased productivity of cropping system, especially in favourable agroecological conditions. Maize and soybean yields

  13. Empirically derived dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis on prospective observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Ghiasvand, Reza; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2016-02-01

    To systematically review prospective cohort studies about the association between dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence, and to quantify the effects using a meta-analysis. Databases such as PubMed, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS and Google Scholar were searched up to 15 January 2015. Cohort studies which tried to examine the association between empirically derived dietary patterns and incident T2DM were selected. The relative risks (RR) and their 95 % confidence intervals for diabetes among participants with highest v. lowest adherence to derived dietary patterns were incorporated into meta-analysis using random-effects models. Ten studies (n 404 528) were enrolled in the systematic review and meta-analysis; our analysis revealed that adherence to the 'healthy' dietary patterns significantly reduced the risk of T2DM (RR=0·86; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·90), while the 'unhealthy' dietary patterns adversely affected diabetes risk (RR=1·30; 95 % CI 1·18, 1·43). Subgroup analysis showed that unhealthy dietary patterns in which foods with high phytochemical content were also loaded did not significantly increase T2DM risk (RR=1·06; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·30). 'Healthy' dietary patterns containing vegetables, fruits and whole grains can lower diabetes risk by 14 %. Consuming higher amounts of red and processed meats, high-fat dairy and refined grains in the context of 'unhealthy' dietary patterns will increase diabetes risk by 30 %; while including foods with high phytochemical content in these patterns can modify this effect.

  14. Magneto-capillary valve for integrated purification and enrichment of nucleic acids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Dulk, Remco C; Schmidt, Kristiane A; Sabatté, Gwénola; Liébana, Susana; Prins, Menno W J

    2013-01-07

    We describe the magneto-capillary valve (MCV) technology, a flexible approach for integrated biological sample preparation within the concept of stationary microfluidics. Rather than moving liquids in a microfluidic device, discrete units of liquid are present at fixed positions in the device and magnetic particles are actuated between the fluids. The MCV concept is characterized by the use of two planar surfaces at a capillary mutual distance, with specific features to confine the fluids by capillary forces, and the use of a gas or a phase-change material separating the stationary aqueous liquids. We have studied the physics of magneto-capillary valving by quantifying the magnetic force as a function of time and position, which reveals the balance of magnetic, capillary and frictional forces in the system. By purification experiments with a fluorescent tracer we have measured the amount of co-transported liquid, which is a key parameter for efficient purification. To demonstrate the versatility of the technology, several MCV device architectures were tested in a series of biological assays, showing the purification and enrichment of nucleic acids and proteins. Target recovery comparable to non-miniaturized commercial kits was observed for the extraction of DNA from human cells in buffer, using a device architecture with patterned air valves. Experiments using an enrichment module and patterned air valves demonstrate a 40-fold effective enrichment of DNA in buffer. DNA was also successfully purified from blood plasma using paraffin phase-change valves. Finally, the enrichment of a protein biomarker (prostate-specific antigen) using geometrical air valves resulted in a 7-fold increase of detection signal. The MCV technology is versatile, offers extensive freedom for the design of fully integrated systems, and is expected to be manufacturable in a cost-effective way. We conclude that the MCV technology can become an important enabling technology for point

  15. Muscle Fiber Type Composition and Knee Extension Isometric Strength Fatigue Patterns in Power- and Endurance-Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1980-01-01

    There is a degree of uniqueness in fatigue patterns, particularly between different levels of absolute maximum strength. Caution should be used when analyzing fatigue curves among subjects with unspecified strength levels. (CJ)

  16. Biofabrication of Tobacco mosaic virus-nanoscaffolded supercapacitors via temporal capillary microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Faheng; Chu, Sangwook; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Culver, James N.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the implementation of temporal capillary microfluidic patterns and biological nanoscaffolds in autonomous microfabrication of nanostructured symmetric electrochemical supercapacitors. A photoresist layer was first patterned on the substrate, forming a capillary microfluidics layer with two separated interdigitated microchannels. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) macromolecules suspended in solution are autonomously delivered into the microfluidics, and form a dense bio-nanoscaffolds layer within an hour. This TMV layer is utilized in the electroless plating and thermal oxidation for creating nanostructured NiO supercapacitor. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycle showed a 3.6-fold increase in areal capacitance for the nanostructured electrode compared to planar structures. The rapid creation of nanostructure-textured microdevices with only simple photolithography and bionanostructure self-assembly can completely eliminate the needs for sophisticated synthesis or deposition processes. This method will contribute to rapid prototyping of wide range of nano-/micro-devices with enhanced performance.

  17. Design of Capillary Flows with Spatially Graded Porous Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo; Figliuzzi, Bruno Michel; Buie, Cullen

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a new capillary tube model, consisting of multi-layered capillary tubes oriented in the direction of flow, to predict capillary speeds on spatially graded porous films. Capillary flows through thin porous media have been widely utilized for small size liquid transport systems. However, for most media it is challenging to realize arbitrary shapes and spatially functionalized micro-structures with variable flow properties. Therefore, conventional media can only be used for capillary flows obeying Washburn's equation and the modifications thereof. Given this background, we recently developed a method called breakdown anodization (BDA) to produce highly wetting porous films. The resulting surfaces show nearly zero contact angles and fast water spreading speed. Furthermore, capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity can be expressed as functions of capillary height when customized electric fields are used in BDA. From the capillary tube model, we derived a general capillary flow equation of motion in terms of capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity. The theoretical model shows good agreement with experimental capillary flows. The study will provide novel design methodologies for paper-based microfluidic devices.

  18. Capillary Interactions between a Probe Tip and a Nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ning, Sun; Le-Feng, Wang; Wei-Bin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    To understand capillary interactions between probe tips and nanoparticles under ambient conditions, a theoretical model of capillary forces between them is developed based on the geometric relations. It is found that the contribution of surface tension force to the total capillary force attains to similar order of magnitude as the capillary pressure force in many cases. It is also shown that the tip shape and the radial distance of the meniscus have great influence on the capillary force. The capillary force decreases with the increasing separation distances, and the variance of the contact angles may change the magnitudes of capillary forces several times at large radial distances. The applicability of the symmetric meniscus approximation is discussed. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  19. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling "drop-on-a-floating-sheet" experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  20. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals Pattern on Blood Lipid Profile, Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, Insulin and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Salehi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present clinical trial study aims at investigating the effect of daily energy intake in 6 isocaloric meals in comparison with the current meal pattern (3 meals and 2 small snacks per day on type 2 diabetes risk markers in diabetes during 3-month period. Methods: Eighty four type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into 6 isocaloric meal diet or a balanced diet (3 meals and 2 snacks previous meal pattern. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed before and after the investigation for fasting blood sugar (FBS, two-hour post-prandial glucose (2hPP, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, and molondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. Results: HbA1c (P=0.00 and body mass index (BMI (P=0.04 values decreased significantly in the 6 isocaloric meal pattern compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in fasting serum glucose (P=0.09, insulin (P=0.65, total cholesterol (P=0.32, LDL-C (P=0.43, HDL-C (P=0.40 cholesterol, triglyceride (P=0.40, MDA (P=0.13 and 2hPP serum glucose (P=0.30 concentrations between the 6 isocaloric meal and tradition meal pattern. Conclusion: Six isocaloric meal pattern in comparison with the current meal pattern led to weight loss and improved glycemic control. Serum lipid profile and MDA did not change significantly. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201205179780N1

  1. Trends in frequency of type 2 diabetes in Mexico and its relationship to dietary patterns and contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Soto-Estrada

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the evolution of the frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D and its relationship to eating patterns in Mexico from 1961 to 2013, and the Gini coefficient, Human Development Index (HDI and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Mexico ranked sixth in world prevalence of diabetes in 2015 with an estimated 11.4 million Mexicans affected. Method: Using data from the Balance Sheets Food published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, the means of apparent food consumption (kcal/person/day were grouped by decades. Data for mortality rate for diabetes were obtained from 1990 until 2015. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the diabetes mellitus mortality rate and all food groups. Pearson's correlation explored the relationship between socio economic indicators and the prevalence of T2D diabetes. Results: The mortality rate for T2D has increased over the last decades. An increase of 647.9 kcal/person/day in apparent food consumption was observed. Cereal and legume consumption decreased, while apparent sugar, animal food and animal fat and vegetable oil consumption increased substantially. HDI and GDP showed a directly proportional relationship to diabetes. Spearman's correlation coefficient was statistically significant only for sugar. The Gini coefficient suggests that in lower inequalities there is an increased frequency of diabetes. Conclusions: The increase in the mortality rate of type 2 diabetes was constant during the study period, which coincides with the increase in energy density of Mexican eating patterns from 1961 to 2013. The higher the Gini coefficient, HDI and GDP, the higher the mortality observed for diabetes. Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la evolución de la frecuencia de la diabetes tipo 2 y su relación con los patrones alimentarios en México de 1961 a 2013, así como el coeficiente de Gini, el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH y el producto interno bruto (PIB. México ocup

  2. Effect of hindpaw electrical stimulation on capillary flow heterogeneity and oxygen delivery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuandong; Wei, Wei; Li, Chenxi; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-02-01

    We report a novel use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) based angiography to visualize and quantify dynamic response of cerebral capillary flow pattern in mice upon hindpaw electrical stimulation through the measurement of the capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH) and capillary mean transit time (MTT) in a wide dynamic range of a great number of vessels in vivo. The OCT system was developed to have a central wavelength of 1310 nm, a spatial resolution of 8 µm and a system dynamic range of 105 dB at an imaging rate of 92 kHz. The mapping of dynamic cerebral microcirculations was enabled by optical microangiography protocol. From the imaging results, the spatial homogenization of capillary velocity (decreased CTH) was observed in the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to the stimulation, along with an increase in the MTT in the ROI to maintain sufficient oxygen exchange within the brain tissue during functional activation. We validated the oxygen consumption due to an increase of the MTT through demonstrating an increase in the deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbR) during the stimulation by the use of laser speckle contrast imaging.

  3. Histopathologic diversity of gastric cancers: Relationship between enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and histological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Miyasaka, Mitsutoshi; Muraki, Toshio; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Oki, Eiji; Oda, Yoshinao; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced computed tomography gastrography (CE-CTG) to predict the histological type of gastric cancer. We analyzed 47 consecutive patients with resectable advanced gastric cancer preoperatively evaluated by multiphasic dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. Two radiologists independently reviewed the CT images and they determined the peak enhancement phase, and then measured the CT attenuation value of the gastric lesion for each phase. The histological types of gastric cancers were assigned to three groups as differentiated-type, undifferentiated-type, and mixed-type. We compared the peak enhancement phase of the three types and compared the CT attenuation values in each phase. The peak enhancement was significantly different between the three types of gastric cancers for both readers (reader 1, p=0.001; reader 2, p=0.009); most of the undifferentiated types had peak enhancement in the delayed phase. The CT attenuation values of undifferentiated type were significantly higher than those of differentiated or mixed type in the delayed phase according to both readers (reader 1, p=0.002; reader 2, p=0.004). CE-CTG could provide helpful information in diagnosing the histological type of gastric cancers preoperatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences. The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows for the fabrication of MC-CE devices. It describes the operating principles that make integration possible and illustrates some achievements already made by the application of MC-CE devices in hospitals, clinics, food safety, and environmental research. The authors envision further applications for private and public use once the proof-of-concept stage has been passed and obstacles to increased commercialization are ad...

  5. The effects of capillary dysfunction on oxygen and glucose extraction in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Terkelsen, Astrid J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is associated with disturbances in endoneurial metabolism and microvascular morphology, but the roles of these factors in the aetiopathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remain unclear. Changes in endoneurial capillary morphology and vascular reactivity apparently predate the dev...... inflammation and glucose clearance from blood. We discuss the implications of these predictions in relation to the prevention and management of diabetic complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and suggest ways of testing these hypotheses in experimental and clinical settings....

  6. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of mycolic acid cleavage products, cellular fatty acids, and alcohols of Mycobacterium xenopi.

    OpenAIRE

    Luquin, M; Lopez, F; Ausina, V

    1989-01-01

    The fatty acids, alcohols, and mycolic acids of 26 strains of Mycobacterium xenopi were studied by capillary gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. All strains contained alpha-, keto-, and omega-carboxymycolates. The primary mycolic acid cleavage product was hexacosanoic acid. The fatty acid patterns and, especially, the presence of 2-docosanol are characteristic markers of M. xenopi.

  7. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  8. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  9. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Barkhordari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists. Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP compared to those found in normal tissue. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system. Results: High expression of several classes of glycan was seen de novo in capillary endothelial cells from patients with UIP including small complex and bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-linked sequences bolund by Concanavalin A and erythro-phytohemagglutinin, respectively, GalNAca1 residues bound by Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and L-fucosylated derivatives of type II glycan chains recognized by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. Glycans bound by agglutinins from Lycopersicon esculentum (β1,4GlcNAc and Wisteria floribunda (GalNAc as well as GlcNAc oligomers bound by Phytolacca americana and succinylated Wheat Germ agglutinin were also seen in the capillary endothelial cells of UIP. In contrast, L-fucosylated derivatives of type I glycan chains were absent in cells from cases of UIP when Anguilla anguilla agglutinin was applied, unlike the situation in normal tissue. Conclusion: These results may indicate existence of two distinct populations of endothelial cell in UIP with markedly different patterns of glycosylation, reflecting a pattern of differentiation and angiogenesis, which is not detectable morphologically.

  10. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  11. The order of condensation in capillary grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p co (L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p sat − p co (L) = 2σcosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θ cap ; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σsinθ cap /L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θ cap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented. (fast track communication)

  12. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan

    2005-05-15

    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  13. The order of condensation in capillary grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-05-15

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p(co)(L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p(sat) - p(co)(L) = 2σ cosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θcap; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σ sinθcap/L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θcap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented.

  14. Sedentary Patterns, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Association to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís B. Sardinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D, with a negative impact on several physiological outcomes, whereas breaks in sedentary time (BST have been proposed as a viable solution to mitigate some of these effects. However, little is known about the independent associations of sedentary pursuits, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF variables with glycemic control. We investigated the independent associations of total sedentary time, BST, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and CRF with glycemic outcomes in patients with T2D.Methods: Total sedentary time, BST, and MVPA were assessed in 66 participants (29 women with T2D, using accelerometry. Glucose and insulin were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test, with the respective calculations of HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was also analyzed. CRF was measured in a maximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gases analysis. Multiple regressions were used for data analysis.Results: Regardless of CRF, total sedentary time was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 0.25, p = 0.044. Adjusting for MVPA, total sedentary time was related to fasting glucose (β = 0.32, p = 0.037. No associations between total sedentary time and the remaining glycemic outcomes, after adjusting for MVPA. BST had favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.28, p = 0.047 and fasting glucose (β = −0.25, p = 0.046, when adjusted for MVPA, and with HOMA-IR (β = −0.25, p = 0.036, Matsuda index (β = 0.26, p = 0.036, and fasting glucose (β = −0.22, p = 0.038, following adjustment for CRF. When adjusting for total sedentary time, only CRF yielded favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.29, p = 0.039, fasting glucose (β = −0.32, p = 0.012, and glucose at 120-min (β = −0.26, p = 0.035, and no associations were found for MVPA with none of the metabolic outcomes.Conclusion: The results from this

  15. Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.

  16. Use of self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody screening in relatives: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Rafkin, L E; Matheson, D; Henderson, C; Boulware, D; Besser, R E J; Ferrara, C; Yu, L; Steck, A K; Bingley, P J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody testing to identify risk in relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes. Participants were recruited via the observational TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study, which screens and monitors relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes for islet autoantibodies. Relatives were sent kits for capillary blood collection, with written instructions, an online instructional video link and a questionnaire. Sera from capillary blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin and zinc transporter 8. 'Successful' sample collection was defined as obtaining sufficient volume and quality to provide definitive autoantibody results, including confirmation of positive results by repeat assay. In 240 relatives who returned samples, the median (range) age was 15.5 (1-49) years and 51% were male. Of these samples, 98% were sufficient for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and zinc transporter 8 autoantibody testing and 84% for insulin autoantibody testing and complete autoantibody screen. The upper 90% confidence bound for unsuccessful collection was 4.4% for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and/or zinc transporter 8 autoantibody assays, and 19.3% for insulin autoantibodies. Despite 43% of 220 questionnaire respondents finding capillary blood collection uncomfortable or painful, 82% preferred home self-collection of capillary blood samples compared with outpatient venepuncture (90% of those aged 18 years). The perceived difficulty of collecting capillary blood samples did not affect success rate. Self-collected capillary blood sampling offers a feasible alternative to venous sampling, with the potential to facilitate autoantibody screening for Type 1 diabetes risk. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  17. Aberrant distribution patterns of corneodesmosomal components of tape-stripped corneocytes in atopic dermatitis and related skin conditions (ichthyosis vulgaris, Netherton syndrome and peeling skin syndrome type B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Satomi; Kishibe, Mari; Honma, Masaru; Murakami, Masamoto; Mizuno, Yuki; Suga, Yasushi; Seishima, Mariko; Ohguchi, Yuka; Akiyama, Masashi; Hirose, Kenji; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2013-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), Netherton syndrome (NS) and peeling skin syndrome type B (PSS) may show some clinical phenotypic overlap. Corneodesmosomes are crucial for maintaining stratum corneum integrity and the components' localization can be visualized by immunostaining tape-stripped corneocytes. In normal skin, they are detected at the cell periphery. To determine whether AD, NS, PSS and ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) have differences in the corneodesmosomal components' distribution and corneocytes surface areas. Corneocytes were tape-stripped from a control group (n=12) and a disease group (37 AD cases, 3 IV cases, 4 NS cases, and 3 PSS cases), and analyzed with immunofluorescent microscopy. The distribution patterns of corneodesmosomal components: desmoglein 1, corneodesmosin, and desmocollin 1 were classified into four types: peripheral, sparse diffuse, dense diffuse and partial diffuse. Corneocyte surface areas were also measured. The corneodesmosome staining patterns were abnormal in the disease group. Other than in the 3 PSS cases, all three components showed similar patterns in each category. In lesional AD skin, the dense diffuse pattern was prominent. A high rate of the partial diffuse pattern, loss of linear cell-cell contacts, and irregular stripping manners were unique to NS. Only in PSS was corneodesmosin staining virtually absent. The corneocyte surface areas correlated significantly with the rate of combined sparse and dense diffuse patterns of desmoglein 1. This method may be used to assess abnormally differentiated corneocytes in AD and other diseases tested. In PSS samples, tape stripping analysis may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic test. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  19. Expression patterns of cell cycle components in sporadic and neurofibromatosis type 1-related malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agesen, Trude Holmeide; Florenes, Viva Ann; Molenaar, Willemina M.; Lind, Guro E.; Berner, Jeane-Marie; Plaat, Boudewijn E.C.; Komdeur, Rudy; Myklebost, Ola; van den Berg, Eva; Lothe, Ragnhild A.

    The molecular biology underlying the development of highly malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) remains mostly unknown. In the present study, the expression pattern of 10 selected cell cycle components is investigated in a series of 15 MPNSTs from patients with (n = 9) or without (n =

  20. Evaluation of the walking pattern in two types of patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: copers and non-copers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, Erik B; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2003-01-01

    . It is suggested that the copers stabilized their knee joint by co-contraction of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles, while the non-copers lacked this ability. Instead, the non-copers reduced the knee extensor moment in order to decrease anterior displacement of the tibia. The walking pattern differences...

  1. Soil respiration patterns for four major land-use types of the agro-pastoral region of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-use types and management practices are critical factors that affect soil CO2 efflux (Rs). In the agro-pastoral area of northern China, land-use types have changed considerably during the last 60 years due to changes in the social-economic status of the human population and associated changes i...

  2. Non-growing season soil CO2 efflux patterns in five land-use types in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgrazing and unsuitable farming practices have led to grassland degradation in northern China. This studhy examined soil CO2 efflux (Fc) from five land-use types during the non-growing season on the southeastern edge of the Mongolian Plateau in China. The land-use types included three native v...

  3. Capillary origami: superhydrophobic ribbon surfaces and liquid marbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen McHale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the wetting of a solid by a liquid it is often assumed that the substrate is rigid. However, for an elastic substrate the rigidity depends on the cube of its thickness and so reduces rapidly as the substrate becomes thinner as it approaches becoming a thin sheet. In such circumstances, it has been shown that the capillary forces caused by a contacting droplet of a liquid can shape the solid rather than the solid shaping the liquid. A substrate can be bent and folded as a (pinned droplet evaporates or even instantaneously and spontaneously wrapped on contact with a droplet. When this effect is used to create three dimensional shapes from initially flat sheets, the effect is called capillary origami or droplet wrapping.In this work, we consider how the conditions for the spontaneous, capillary induced, folding of a thin ribbon substrate might be altered by a rigid surface structure that, for a rigid substrate, would be expected to create Cassie–Baxter and Wenzel effects. For smooth thin substrates, droplet wrapping can occur for all liquids, including those for which the Young’s law contact angle (defined by the interfacial tensions is greater than 90° and which would therefore normally be considered relatively hydrophobic. However, consideration of the balance between bending and interfacial energies suggests that the tendency for droplet wrapping can be suppressed for some liquids by providing the flexible solid surface with a rigid topographic structure. In general, it is known that when a liquid interacts with such a structure it can either fully penetrate the structure (the Wenzel case or it can bridge between the asperities of the structure (the Cassie–Baxter case.In this report, we show theoretically that droplet wrapping should occur with both types of solid–liquid contact. We also derive a condition for the transition between the Cassie–Baxter and Wenzel type droplet wrapping and relate it to the same transition condition

  4. Capillary condensation in one-dimensional irregular confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Thomas P; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Taraskin, Sergei N

    2013-07-01

    A lattice-gas model with heterogeneity is developed for the description of fluid condensation in finite sized one-dimensional pores of arbitrary shape. Mapping to the random-field Ising model allows an exact solution of the model to be obtained at zero-temperature, reproducing the experimentally observed dependence of the amount of fluid adsorbed in the pore on external pressure. It is demonstrated that the disorder controls the sorption for long pores and can result in H2-type hysteresis. Finite-temperature Metropolis dynamics simulations support analytical findings in the limit of low temperatures. The proposed framework is viewed as a fundamental building block of the theory of capillary condensation necessary for reliable structural analysis of complex porous media from adsorption-desorption data.

  5. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  6. Condensation and Evaporation Transitions in Deep Capillary Grooves

    OpenAIRE

    Malijevský, A. (Alexandr); Parry, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard-Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature $T_w$ condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metas...

  7. Blood capillary length estimation from three-dimensional microscopic data by image analysis and stereology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubínová, Lucie; Mao, Xiao Wen; Janáček, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the capillary bed characterized by its length or length density are relevant in many biomedical studies. A reliable assessment of capillary length from two-dimensional (2D), thin histological sections is a rather difficult task as it requires physical cutting of such sections in randomized directions. This is often technically demanding, inefficient, or outright impossible. However, if 3D image data of the microscopic structure under investigation are available, methods of length estimation that do not require randomized physical cutting of sections may be applied. Two different rat brain regions were optically sliced by confocal microscopy and resulting 3D images processed by three types of capillary length estimation methods: (1) stereological methods based on a computer generation of isotropic uniform random virtual test probes in 3D, either in the form of spatial grids of virtual "slicer" planes or spherical probes; (2) automatic method employing a digital version of the Crofton relations using the Euler characteristic of planar sections of the binary image; and (3) interactive "tracer" method for length measurement based on a manual delineation in 3D of the axes of capillary segments. The presented methods were compared in terms of their practical applicability, efficiency, and precision.

  8. Quantification of local matrix deformations and mechanical properties during capillary morphogenesis in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Weidling, John W; Singh, Rahul; Botvinick, Elliot L; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Putnam, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    Reciprocal mechanical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to play important instructive roles in branching morphogenesis. However, most studies to date have failed to characterize these interactions on a length scale relevant to cells, especially in three-dimensional (3D) matrices. Here we utilized two complementary methods, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) and laser optical tweezers-based active microrheology (AMR), to quantify endothelial cell (EC)-mediated deformations of individual ECM elements and the local ECM mechanical properties, respectively, during the process of capillary morphogenesis in a 3D cell culture model. In experiments in which the ECM density was systematically varied, STICS revealed that the rate at which ECs deformed individual ECM fibers on the microscale positively correlated with capillary sprouting on the macroscale. ECs expressing constitutively active V14-RhoA displaced individual matrix fibers at significantly faster rates and displayed enhanced capillary sprouting relative to wild-type cells, while those expressing dominant-negative N19-RhoA behaved in an opposite fashion. In parallel, AMR revealed a local stiffening of the ECM proximal to the tips of sprouting ECs. By quantifying the dynamic physical properties of the cell-ECM interface in both space and time, we identified a correlation linking ECM deformation rates and local ECM stiffening at the microscale with capillary morphogenesis at the macroscale. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Quantification of local matrix deformations and mechanical properties during capillary morphogenesis in 3D†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Weidling, John W.; Singh, Rahul; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal mechanical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to play important instructive roles in branching morphogenesis. However, most studies to date have failed to characterize these interactions on a length scale relevant to cells, especially in three-dimensional (3D) matrices. Here we utilized two complementary methods, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) and laser optical tweezers-based active microrheology (AMR), to quantify endothelial cell (EC)-mediated deformations of individual ECM elements and the local ECM mechanical properties, respectively, during the process of capillary morphogenesis in a 3D cell culture model. In experiments in which the ECM density was systematically varied, STICS revealed that the rate at which ECs deformed individual ECM fibers on the microscale positively correlated with capillary sprouting on the macroscale. ECs expressing constitutively active V14-RhoA displaced individual matrix fibers at significantly faster rates and displayed enhanced capillary sprouting relative to wild-type cells, while those expressing dominant-negative N19-RhoA behaved in an opposite fashion. In parallel, AMR revealed a local stiffening of the ECM proximal to the tips of sprouting ECs. By quantifying the dynamic physical properties of the cell-ECM interface in both space and time, we identified a correlation linking ECM deformation rates and local ECM stiffening at the microscale with capillary morphogenesis at the macroscale. PMID:22281872

  10. Moisture Transfer in Concrete: Numerical Determination of the Capillary Conductivity Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Elie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We numerically investigated moisture transfer in buildings made of concrete. We considered three types of concrete: normal concrete, pumice concrete and cellular concrete. We present the results of a 1-D liquid water flow in such materials. We evaluated the moisture distribution in building materials using the Runge-Kutta fourth-and-fifth-order method. The DOPRI5 code was used as an integrator. The model calculated the resulting moisture content and other moisture-dependent physical parameters. The moisture curves were plotted. The dampness data obtained was utilized for the numerical computation of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity of moisture. Different profiles of this coefficient are represented. Calculations were performed for four different values of the outdoor temperature: -5°C, 0°C, 5°C and 10°C. We determined that the curves corresponding to small time intervals of wetting are associated with great amplitudes of the capillary conductivity . The amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity decrease as the time interval increases. High outdoor temperatures induce high amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity.

  11. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II research comprises designing, constructing, and testing a chip-based capillary electrochromatography (CEC) prototype for separation and analysis of...

  12. Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nano-capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabagov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the main directions in X-ray optics and analyzing the development of capillary optics, a general theory of radiation propagation through capillary structures is described in both geometrical optics and wave optics approximations. Analysis of radiation field structure inside a capillary waveguide shows that wave propagation in channels can be of a purely modal nature, with transmitted energy mostly concentrated in the immediate neighbourhood of capillary inner walls. A qualitative change in radiation scattering with decreasing channel diameter 0 namely, the transition from surface channeling in microcapillaries to bulk channeling in nanocapillaries - is discussed [ru

  13. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute: How the Heart Works National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Arteriovenous Malformation Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Arteriovenous Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Stroke: Epilepsy Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Microcephaly Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Microcephaly Centers ...

  16. [Different patterns of 123I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation in patients with type I and II CD36 deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Toba, K; Ogawa, Y; Aizawa, Y; Tanabe, N; Miyajima, S; Kusano, Y; Nagatomo, T; Hirokawa, Y

    1997-12-01

    The CD36 molecule is a multifunctional membrane type receptor glycoprotein that reacts with thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFA are one of the major cardiac energy substrates, hence LCFA metabolism may have an important role in cardiac diseases. In this study, we analyzed CD36 expression in 200 patients with heart diseases [44 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 55 with angina pectoris (AP) and 59 with other miscellaneous heart diseases] using a flow cytometer. 123I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial accumulation was also examined in some patients. Eight patients (2 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 2 with OMI, and 3 with AP) were diagnosed as having type I CD36 deficiency (neither platelets nor monocytes expressed CD36). Sixteen patients (3 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 1 with OMI, 8 with AP, and 3 with other heart diseases) showed type II CD36 deficiency (monocytes expressed CD36 but platelets did not). In all 8 patients with type I CD36 deficiency, there was no BMIPP accumulation in the heart. However, in 13 patients with type II CD36 deficiency, focally reduced BMIPP accumulation was observed, but there were no patients without BMIPP accumulation. CD36 deficiency was observed in a higher proportion (12%) of patients with heart disease in this study than in a reported control study. Type I CD36 deficiency is associated with absence of BMIPP accumulation in the heart, hence it may have an important role in LCFA metabolic disorders and some types of cardiac hypertrophy as well as other heart diseases.

  17. Different patterns of 123I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation in patients with type I and II CD36 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Nagatomo, Takafumi; Toba, Ken; Ogawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyajima, Seiichi; Kusano, Yoriko; Hirokawa, Yoichi.

    1997-01-01

    The CD36 molecule is a multifunctional membrane type receptor glycoprotein that reacts with thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFA are one of the major cardiac energy substrates, hence LCFA metabolism may have an important role in cardiac diseases. In this study, we analyzed CD36 expression in 200 patients with heart diseases (44 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 55 with angina pectoris (AP) and 59 with other miscellaneous heart diseases) using a flow cytometer. 123 I-β-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial accumulation was also examined in some patients. Eight patients (2 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 2 with OMI, and 3 with AP) were diagnosed as having type I CD36 deficiency (neither platelets nor monocytes expressed CD36). Sixteen patients (3 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 1 with OMI, 8 with AP, and 3 with other heart diseases) showed type II CD36 deficiency (monocytes expressed CD36 but platelets did not). In all 8 patients with type I CD36 deficiency, there was no BMIPP accumulation in the heart. However, in 13 patients with type II CD36 deficiency, focally reduced BMIPP accumulation was observed, but there were no patients without BMIPP accumulation. CD36 deficiency was observed in a higher proportion (12%) of patients with heart disease in this study than in a reported control study. Type I CD36 deficiency is associated with absence of BMIPP accumulation in the heart, hence it may have an important role in LCFA metabolic disorders and some types of cardiac hypertrophy as well as other heart diseases. (author)

  18. Different patterns of {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation in patients with type I and II CD36 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Nagatomo, Takafumi [Niigata Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan); Toba, Ken; Ogawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyajima, Seiichi; Kusano, Yoriko; Hirokawa, Yoichi

    1997-12-01

    The CD36 molecule is a multifunctional membrane type receptor glycoprotein that reacts with thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFA are one of the major cardiac energy substrates, hence LCFA metabolism may have an important role in cardiac diseases. In this study, we analyzed CD36 expression in 200 patients with heart diseases (44 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 55 with angina pectoris (AP) and 59 with other miscellaneous heart diseases) using a flow cytometer. {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial accumulation was also examined in some patients. Eight patients (2 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 2 with OMI, and 3 with AP) were diagnosed as having type I CD36 deficiency (neither platelets nor monocytes expressed CD36). Sixteen patients (3 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 1 with OMI, 8 with AP, and 3 with other heart diseases) showed type II CD36 deficiency (monocytes expressed CD36 but platelets did not). In all 8 patients with type I CD36 deficiency, there was no BMIPP accumulation in the heart. However, in 13 patients with type II CD36 deficiency, focally reduced BMIPP accumulation was observed, but there were no patients without BMIPP accumulation. CD36 deficiency was observed in a higher proportion (12%) of patients with heart disease in this study than in a reported control study. Type I CD36 deficiency is associated with absence of BMIPP accumulation in the heart, hence it may have an important role in LCFA metabolic disorders and some types of cardiac hypertrophy as well as other heart diseases. (author)

  19. Comparative Analysis of WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Genes Revealed Their Parent-of-Origin and Cell Type-Specific Expression Pattern During Early Embryogenesis in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX gene is a plant-specific clade of homeobox transcription factors. Increasing evidences reveal that WOXs play critical roles in early embryogenesis, which involves zygote development, initiation of zygote division, and apical or basal cell lineage establishment. However, how WOXs regulate these developmental events remains largely unknown, and even detailed expression pattern in gametes and early proembryos is not yet available. Here, 13 WOX family genes were identified in Nicotiana tabacum genome. Comparative analysis of 13 WOX family genes with their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals relatively conserved expression pattern of WUS and WOX5 in shoot/root apical meristem. Whereas variations were also found, e.g., lacking homolog of WOX8 (a marker for suspensor cell in tobacco genome and the expression of WOX2/WOX9 in both apical cell and basal cell. Transient transcriptional activity analysis revealed that WOXs in WUS clade have repressive activities for their target's transcription, whereas WOXs in ancient and intermediate clade have activation activities, giving a molecular basis for the phylogenetic classification of tobacco WOXs into three major clades. Expression pattern analysis revealed that some WOXs (e.g., WOX 13a expressed in both male and female gametes and some WOXs (e.g., WOX 11 and WOX 13b displayed the characteristics of parent-of-origin genes. Interestingly, some WOXs (e.g., WOX2 and WOX9, which are essential for early embryo patterning, were de novo transcribed in zygote, indicating relevant mechanism for embryo pattern formation is only established in zygote right after fertilization and not carried in by gametes. We also found that most WOXs displayed a stage-specific and cell type-specific expression pattern. Taken together, this work provides a detailed landscape of WOXs in tobacco during fertilization and early embryogenesis, which will facilitate the understanding of their specific roles

  20. Methods of forming and using porous structures for energy efficient separation of light gases by capillary condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamur, Narasimhan; Carrera, Martin E.; Devlin, David J.; Archuleta, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for separating one or more condensable compounds from a mixture of two or more gases of differing volatilities by capillary fractionation in a membrane-type apparatus, and a method of forming porous structures therefor. More particularly, the invention includes methods of forming and using an apparatus consisting, at least in part, of a porous structure having capillary-type passages extending between a plurality of small openings on the first side and larger openings on a second side of the structure, the passages being adapted to permit a condensed liquid to flow therethrough substantially by capillary forces, whereby vapors from the mixture are condensed, at least in part, and substantially in and adjacent to the openings on the first side, and are caused to flow in a condensed liquid state, substantially in the absence of vapor, from the openings on the first side to the openings on the second side.

  1. Modelization and simulation of capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona Cortes, F.; Aguilar Villa, G.; Clavero Gracia, C.; Gracia Lozano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Among the different underground transport phenomena, that due to water flows is of great relevance. Water flows in infiltration and percolation processes are responsible of the transport of hazardous wastes towards phreatic layers. From the industrial and geological standpoints, there is a great interest in the design of natural devices to avoid the flows transporting polluting substances. This interest is increased when devices are used to isolate radioactive waste repositories, whose life is to be longer than several hundred years. The so-called natural devices are those based on the superimposition of material with different hydraulic properties. In particular, the flow retention in this kind stratified media, in unsaturated conditions, is basically due to the capillary barrier effect, resulting from placing a low conductivity material over another with a high hydraulic conductivity. Covers designed from the effect above have also to allow a drainage of the upper layer. The lower cost of these covers, with respect to other kinds of protection systems, and the stability in time of their components make them very attractive. However, a previous investigation to determine their effectivity is required. In this report we present the computer code BCSIM, useful for easy simulations of unsaturated flows in a capillary barrier configuration with drainage, and which is intended to serve as a tool for designing efficient covers. The model, the numerical algorithm and several implementation aspects are described. Results obtained in several simulations, confirming the effectivity of capillary barriers as a technique to build safety covers for hazardous waste repositories, are presented. (Author)

  2. Dual specificity of activin type II receptor ActRIIb in dorso-ventral patterning during zebrafish embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaso, H; Suzuki, A; Tada, M; Ueno, N

    1999-04-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are thought to regulate specification of a variety of tissue types in early embryogenesis. These effects are mediated through a cell surface receptor complex, consisting of two classes of ser/thr kinase receptor, type I and type II. In the present study, cDNA encoding zebrafish activin type II receptors, ActRIIa and ActRIIb was cloned and characterized. Overexpression of ActRIIb in zebrafish embryos caused dorsalization of embryos, as observed in activin-overexpressing embryos. However, in blastula stage embryos, ActRIIb induced formation of both dorsal and ventro-lateral mesoderm. It has been suggested that these inducing signals from ActRIIb are mediated through each specific type I receptor, TARAM-A and BMPRIA, depending on activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), respectively. In addition, it was shown that a kinase-deleted form of ActRIIb (dnActRIIb) suppressed both activin- and BMP-like signaling pathways. These results suggest that ActRIIb at least has dual roles in both activin and BMP signaling pathways during zebrafish embryogenesis.

  3. Capillary Flow of Liquid Metals in Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehsara, Mohammad

    Capillary flow is driven or controlled by capillary forces, exerted at the triple line where the fluid phases meet the solid boundary. Phase field (PF) models naturally accommodate diffusive triple line motion with variable contact angle, thus allowing for the no-slip boundary condition without the stress singularities. Moreover, they are uniquely suited for modeling of topological discontinuities which often arise during capillary flows. In this study, we consider diffusive triple line motion within two PF models: the compositionally compressible (CC) and the incompressible (IC) models. We derive the IC model as a systematic approximation to the CC model, based on a suitable choice of continuum velocity field. The CC model, applied to the fluids of dissimilar mass densities, exhibits a computational instability at the triple line. The IC model perfectly represents the analytic equilibria. We develop the parameter identification procedure and show that the triple line kinetics can be well represented by the IC model's diffusive boundary condition. The IC model is first tested by benchmarking the phase-field and experimental kinetics of water, and silicone oil spreading over the glass plates in which two systems do not interact with the substrate. Then, two high-temperature physical settings involving spreading of the molten Al-Si alloy: one over a rough wetting substrate, the other over a non-wetting substrate are modeled in a T-joint structure which is a typical geometric configuration for many brazing and soldering applications. Surface roughness directly influences the spreading of the molten metal by causing break-ups of the liquid film and trapping the liquid away from the joint. In the early stages of capillary flow over non-wetting surface, the melting and flow are concurrent, so that the kinetics of wetting is strongly affected by the variations in effective viscosity of the partially molten metal. We define adequate time-dependent functions for the

  4. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  5. Paramecium swimming in a capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-03-01

    Micro-organisms exhibit different strategies for swimming in complex environments. Many micro-swimmers such as paramecium congregate and tend to live near wall. We investigate how paramecium moves in a confined space as compared to its motion in an unbounded fluid. A new theoretical model based on Taylor's sheet is developed, to study such boundary effects. In experiments, paramecia are put inside capillary tubes and their swimming behavior is observed. The data obtained from experiments is used to test the validity of our theoretical model and understand how the cilia influence the locomotion of paramecia in confined geometries.

  6. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  7. Modulation of capillary condensation by trace component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of trace component on capillary condensation (CC is investigated systematically using a classical density functional theory. It is discovered that (i presence of the trace component makes the CC to occur at much lower condensation pressure than when its absence; (ii Lennard-Jones potential parameters like size parameter and energy parameter of the trace component, and its concentration in the bulk adsorption system, show their effects the most remarkably within a particular range beyond which the effects eventually become insignificant. The present discoveries have implications in low pressure storage of gases, separation and enrichment of low concentration component, and easy control of CC transition, etc.

  8. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  10. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  11. Electro-capillary effects in capillary filling dynamics of electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Jayabrata; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-09-21

    The flow of electrorheological fluids is characterized by an apparent increase in viscosity manifested by the yield stress property of the fluid, which is a function of the applied electric field and the concentration of the suspended solute phase within the dielectric medium. This property of electrorheological fluids generally hinders flow through a capillary if the imposed shear stress is lower than the induced yield stress. This results in a plug-like zone in the flow profile, thus giving the fluid Bingham plastic properties. In the present work, we study such influences of the yield stress on the capillary filling dynamics of an electrorheological fluid by employing a rheologically consistent reduced order formalism. One important feature of the theoretical formalism is its ability to address the intricate interplay between the surface tension and viscous forces, both of which depend sensitively on the electric field. Our analysis reveals that the progress of the capillary front is hindered at an intermediate temporal regime, which is attributable to the increase of the span of the plug-zone across the channel width with time. With a preliminary understanding on the cessation of the capillary front advancement due to the yield stress property of the electrorheological fluids, we further strive to achieve a basic comparison with an experimental study made earlier. Reasonable agreements with the reported data support our theoretical framework. Comprehensive scaling analysis brings further insight to our reported observations over various temporal regimes.

  12. Effects of dietary pattern and education on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Dr. Sardjito Central General Hospital, Yogyakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinorita, Hemi; Saádah; Jazakillah, Setyowati

    2008-04-01

    to recognize the effect of education and diet on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Dr. Sardjito Central General Hospital, Jogjakarta. a cross-sectional study was conducted in 88 patients with type 2 DM who had routine visit to the outpatient clinic in Endocrinology Division of Dr. Sardjito Central General Hospital, Jogjakarta. As inclusion criteria, patients who had routine visit in 3 month continuously with fasting plasma glucose (GDN) 126 mg/dl as poor glycemic control group. Data were recorded which included age, sex, period of DM, daily diet pattern, and education received. we found that glycemic control was not affected by sex (p=0.52) and age (p=0.38), but it was affected by period of DM (p=0.02). Glycemic control in the present study was affected by dietary pattern (p=0.01), but not by education (p=1.00). the present study has found significant correlation between regulation of dietary pattern and glycemic control (p=0.01).

  13. MRI findings, patterns of disease distribution, and muscle fat fraction calculation in five patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 F disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mileto, Achille; Minutoli, Fabio; Settineri, Nicola; Donato, Rocco; Ascenti, Giorgio; Blandino, Alfredo [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Messina (Italy); Mazzeo, Anna; Di Leo, Rita [Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Scienze Psichiatriche ed Anestesiologiche, Messina (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in five patients with late-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 F, due to a previously unknown mutation. Five patients (three males, two females) underwent MRI of the lower limbs to define the pattern of muscle involvement and evaluate the muscle fat fraction (MFF) of residual thigh muscle with gradient-echo (GRE) dual-echo dual-flip angle technique. Evaluation of fatty infiltration both by visual inspection and MFF calculation was performed. A proximal-to-distal gradient of muscle involvement was depicted in male patients with extensive muscle wasting of lower legs, less severe impairment of distal thigh muscles, and sparing of proximal thigh muscles. A peculiar phenotype finding was that no or only slight muscle abnormalities could be found in the two female patients. We described the pattern of muscle involvement and disease progression in a family with CMT disease type 2 F. GRE dual-echo dual-flip angle MRI technique is a valuable technique to obtain a rapid quantification of MFF. (orig.)

  14. Reliability of widefield capillary microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M; Masetto, A; Steele, R; Arthurs, E; Baron, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine intra- and inter-observer reliability of widefield microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Five SSc patients were examined with a STEMV-8 Zeiss biomicroscope with 50x magnification. The nailfold of the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers of both hands of each patient were photographed twice by each of two observers, once in the morning and again in the afternoon (total of 32 pictures). Two raters reviewed the photographs to produce capillary density readings. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the readings were computed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Additional analyses were undertaken to determine the impact of other sources of variability in the data, namely patient, finger, technician and time. Intra-and inter-rater reliability were substantial (ICC 0.72-0.84) when raters were reading the same photographs or photographs taken at the same time of day. Agreement was only fair between morning and afternoon density readings (ICC 0.30-0.37). Patients, individual fingers and technician accounted for a large part of the variability in the data (combined variance component of 7.69 out of the total 12.23). The coefficient of variation of widefield microscopy was 24%. Although intra- and inter-rater reliability of nailfold capillary density measurements using widefield microscopy are good, proper standardisation of the conditions under which capillaroscopy is done and better imaging of nailfold capillary abnormalities should be considered if nailfold capillary density is to be used as an outcome measure in multi-centre clinical trials in SSc.

  15. Cell-of-Origin Patterns Dominate the Molecular Classification of 10,000 Tumors from 33 Types of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoadley, Katherine A.; Yau, Christina; Hinoue, Toshinori; Wolf, Denise M.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Drill, Esther; Shen, Ronglai; Taylor, Alison M.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Akbani, Rehan; Bowlby, Reanne; Wong, Christopher K.; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schneider, Barbara G.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Malta, Tathiane M.; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher C.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, olanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Stuart, Joshua M.; Benz, Christopher C.; Laird, Peter W.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted comprehensive integrative molecular analyses of the complete set of tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), consisting of approximately 10,000 specimens and representing 33 types of cancer. We performed molecular clustering using data on chromosome-arm-level aneuploidy, DNA

  16. Long-term patterns of adherence to medication therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken Linnemann; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2017-01-01

    : Adherence to six medicine groups (metformin, sulfonylureas, acetylsalicylic acid, thiazide diuretics, renin angiotensin system inhibitors, and statins) were analysed among 5,232 patients with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary referral hospital during 1998-2009. Rate-ratios of initiation of treatment, recurrent...

  17. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; Mccarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995–2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 ± 37,444 fruits; 12,009 ± 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 ± 7,667 fruits; 5,079 ± 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 ± 8,351 fruits; 4,621 ± 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 ± 8,301 fruits; 4,102 ± 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 ± 5,034 fruits; 3,261 ± 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995–2003). Fruit availability was highest June–September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. As a result, land managers could enhance fruit

  18. Role of mixed boundaries on flow in open capillary channels with curved air-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Lian-Ping; Or, Dani; Lazouskaya, Volha; Jin, Yan

    2012-09-04

    Flow in unsaturated porous media or in engineered microfluidic systems is dominated by capillary and viscous forces. Consequently, flow regimes may differ markedly from conventional flows, reflecting strong interfacial influences on small bodies of flowing liquids. In this work, we visualized liquid transport patterns in open capillary channels with a range of opening sizes from 0.6 to 5.0 mm using laser scanning confocal microscopy combined with fluorescent latex particles (1.0 μm) as tracers at a mean velocity of ∼0.50 mm s(-1). The observed velocity profiles indicate limited mobility at the air-water interface. The application of the Stokes equation with mixed boundary conditions (i.e., no slip on the channel walls and partial slip or shear stress at the air-water interface) clearly illustrates the increasing importance of interfacial shear stress with decreasing channel size. Interfacial shear stress emerges from the velocity gradient from the adjoining no-slip walls to the center where flow is trapped in a region in which capillary forces dominate. In addition, the increased contribution of capillary forces (relative to viscous forces) to flow on the microscale leads to increased interfacial curvature, which, together with interfacial shear stress, affects the velocity distribution and flow pattern (e.g., reverse flow in the contact line region). We found that partial slip, rather than the commonly used stress-free condition, provided a more accurate description of the boundary condition at the confined air-water interface, reflecting the key role that surface/interface effects play in controlling flow behavior on the nanoscale and microscale.

  19. The characteristics of transferrin variants by carbohydrate-deficient transferrin tests using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Yoon, Kap Joon; Lee, Jong-Han

    2018-04-17

    Transferrin is the major plasma transport protein for iron. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of transferrin variant by carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) test using capillary zone electrophoresis. We retrospectively analyzed the CDT tests of 2449 patients from March 2009 to May 2017 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. CDT was quantified using a Capillarys 2 system (Sebia, Lisses, France) by capillary zone electrophoresis. The characteristics of variant transferrin patterns using electropherogram of CDT tests were analyzed. Seventy-seven (3.1%) patients were classified as variant transferrin. Mean age of these patients was 51.8 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3.5:1. The most common variants were the BC variants (n = 37), followed by the CD variants (n = 27), unclear patterns (n = 7), BD variants (n = 3), CC variants (n = 2), misclassification (n = 1). In the variant Tf group, the most common disease was alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n = 22, 28.6%), followed by the toxic effects of substances (n = 17, 22.1%), and mental and behavioral disorders attributable to alcohol (n = 11, 14.3%). Nonvariant group showed a predominance of the toxic substance effects (n = 880, 37.1%), a personal history of suicide attempts (n = 634, 26.7%), and mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol (n = 336, 14.2%). We analyzed the basic characteristics of variant transferrin by CDT tests using capillary zone electrophoresis. The prevalence of variant transferrin was 3.1% of the study subjects. Male patients, alcohol abusers, and liver cirrhosis patients predominated in the variant transferrin population. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate variant transferrin in clinical practice. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Rapid detection of drug resistance and mutational patterns of extensively drug-resistant strains by a novel GenoType® MTBDRsl assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB is a major concern in the India. The burden of XDR-TB is increasing due to inadequate monitoring, lack of proper diagnosis, and treatment. The GenoType ® Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance second line (MTBDRsl assay is a novel line probe assay used for the rapid detection of mutational patterns conferring resistance to XDR-TB. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the rapid detection of drug resistance and mutational patterns of the XDR-TB by a novel GenoType ® MTBDRsl assay. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 98 multidrug-resistant (MDR M. tuberculosis isolates for second line drugs susceptibility testing by 1% proportion method (BacT/ALERT 3D system and GenoType ® MTBDRsl assay for rapid detection of conferring drug resistance to XDR-TB. Results: A total of seven (17.4% were identified as XDR-TB by using standard phenotypic method. The concordance between phenotypic and GenoType ® MTBDRsl assay was 91.7-100% for different antibiotics. The sensitivity and specificity of the MTBDRsl assay were 100% and 100% for aminoglycosides; 100% and 100% for fluoroquinolones; 91.7% and 100% for ethambutol. The most frequent mutations and patterns were gyrA MUT1 (A90V in seven (41.2% and gyrA + WT1-3 + MUT1 in four (23.5%; rrs MUT1 (A1401G in 11 (64.7%, and rrs WT1-2 + MUT1 in eight (47.1%; and embB MUT1B (M306V in 11 (64.7% strains. Conclusions: These data suggest that the GenoType ® MTBDRsl assay is rapid, novel test for detection of resistance to second line anti-tubercular drugs. This assay provides additional information about the frequency and mutational patterns responsible for XDR-TB resistance.

  1. Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M; Suter, Jonathan D; Zourob, Mohammed; Fan, Xudong

    2007-02-01

    We developed a novel miniaturized and multiplexed, on-capillary, refractive index (RI) detector using liquid core optical ring resonators (LCORRs) for future development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices. The LCORR employs a glass capillary with a diameter of approximately 100 mum and a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator along which the light circulates in the form of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGM has an evanescent field extending into the capillary core and responds to the RI change due to the analyte conducted in the capillary, thus permitting label-free measurement. The resonating nature of the WGM enables repetitive light-analyte interaction, significantly enhancing the LCORR sensitivity. This LCORR architecture achieves dual use of the capillary as a sensor head and a CE fluidic channel, allowing for integrated, multiplexed, and noninvasive on-capillary detection at any location along the capillary. In this work, we used electro-osmotic flow and glycerol as a model system to demonstrate the fluid transport capability of the LCORRs. In addition, we performed flow speed measurement on the LCORR to demonstrate its flow analysis capability. Finally, using the LCORR's label-free sensing mechanism, we accurately deduced the analyte concentration in real time at a given point on the capillary. A sensitivity of 20 nm/RIU (refractive index units) was observed, leading to an RI detection limit of 10-6 RIU. The LCORR marries photonic technology with microfluidics and enables rapid on-capillary sample analysis and flow profile monitoring. The investigation in this regard will open a door to novel high-throughput CE devices and lab-on-a-chip sensors in the future.

  2. Changes in drug resistance patterns following the introduction of HIV type 1 non-B subtypes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mendoza, Carmen; Garrido, Carolina; Poveda, Eva; Corral, Angélica; Zahonero, Natalia; Treviño, Ana; Anta, Lourdes; Soriano, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Natural genetic variability at the pol gene may account for differences in drug susceptibility and selection of resistance patterns across HIV-1 clades. Spread of non-B subtypes along with changes in antiretroviral drug use may have modified drug resistance patterns in recent years. All HIV-1 clinical samples sent to a reference laboratory located in Madrid for drug resistance testing since January 2000 were analyzed. The pol gene was sequenced and HIV-1 subtypes were assigned using the Stanford algorithm and phylogenetic analyses for non-B subtypes. Drug resistance mutations were recorded using the IAS-USA mutation list (April 2008). A total of 3034 specimens from 730 antiretroviral-naive individuals (92 with non-B subtypes) and 1569 antiretroviral-experienced patients (97 with non-B subtypes) were examined. The prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in the study period increased from 4.4% (2000-2003) to 10.1% (2004-2007) (p 41.8%) and G (17.5%). Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) were more prevalent in B than non-B subtypes, in both drug-naive (6.2% vs. 1%; p < 0.01) and treatment-experienced patients (49% vs. 30%, p < 0.01). K103N was most frequent in B than non-B subtypes (34% vs. 21%; p < 0.01); conversely, 106A/M was more prevalent in non-B than B clades (11% vs. 5%). Codon 179 mutations associated with etravirine resistance were more frequent in non-B than B subtypes. Finally, secondary protease resistance mutations were more common in non-B than B clades, with a potentially significant impact at least on tipranavir. The prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has increased since the year 2000 in a large drug resistance database in Spain, determining changes in drug resistance patterns that may influence the susceptibility to new antiretroviral drugs and have an impact on genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms.

  3. Capillary discharge sources of hard UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachoncinlle, C; Dussart, R; Robert, E; Goetze, S; Pons, J; Mohanty, S R; Viladrosa, R; Fleurier, C; Pouvesle, J M

    2002-01-01

    We developed and studied three different extreme ultraviolet (EUV) capillary discharge sources either dedicated to the generation of coherent or incoherent EUV radiation. The CAPELLA source has been developed especially as an EUV source for the metrology at 13.4 nm. With one of these sources, we were able to produce gain on the Balmer-Hα (18.22 nm) and Hβ (13.46 nm) spectral lines in carbon plasma. By injecting 70 GW cm -3 we measured gain-length products up to 1.62 and 3.02 for the Hα and Hβ, respectively optimization of the EUV capillary source CAPELLA led to the development of an EUV lamp which emits 2 mJ in the bandwidth of the MoSi mirror, per joule stored, per shot and in full solid angle. The wall-plug efficiency is 0.2%. Stability of this lamp is better than 4% and the lamp can operate at repetition rate of 50 Hz

  4. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape

  5. Neutrophil migration through preexisting holes in the basal laminae of alveolar capillaries and epithelium during streptococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D C; Behzad, A R; Chu, F

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there are preexisting holes in the endothelial and epithelial basal laminae of alveolar walls and to determine the path taken by neutrophils as they migrate from the capillaries to the airspace of the alveoli during inflammation. Using transmission electron microscopy and serial thin sections of normal rabbit and mouse lung, we have demonstrated the presence of slit-like holes in the capillary basal laminae and round holes in the basal laminae of type 2 pneumocytes. The slits in the capillary basal laminae were observed at the intersection of the thick and thin walls where endothelium, pericytes, and fibroblasts make close contact. The round holes in the type 2 cell basal laminae were observed at sites of close contact with fibroblasts. Neutrophils were observed to migrate through these slits and holes during streptococcal pneumonia in rabbit lungs. We conclude that during inflammation in the lung, migrating neutrophils displace pericytes and fibroblasts from the slits in the capillary basal lamina and then crawl through these slits into the alveolar interstitium. We postulate that neutrophils find their way to type 2 pneumocytes by following interstitial fibroblasts. We believe that neutrophils displace fibroblasts from their close contacts with the type 2 cells and then crawl through the holes in the basal lamina into the basal lateral space of the type 2 cells. From there, neutrophils migrate into the alveolar airspace.

  6. Quantitative analysis by microchip capillary electrophoresis – current limitations and problem-solving strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.; Götz, S.; Künnemeyer, Jens; Karst, U.

    2008-01-01

    Obstacles and possible solutions for the application of microchip capillary electrophoresis in quantitative analysis are described and critically discussed. Differences between the phenomena occurring during conventional capillary electrophoresis and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis are

  7. Heterogeneity of capillary spacing in the hypertrophied plantaris muscle from young-adult and old rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Morse, C.I.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity of capillary spacing may affect tissue oxygenation. The determinants of heterogeneity of capillary spacing are, however, unknown. To investigate whether 1) impaired angiogenesis and increased heterogeneity of capillary spacing delays development of hypertrophy during aging and 2)

  8. Long-term patterns of adherence to medication therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken Linnemann; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2017-01-01

    : Adherence to six medicine groups (metformin, sulfonylureas, acetylsalicylic acid, thiazide diuretics, renin angiotensin system inhibitors, and statins) were analysed among 5,232 patients with type 2 diabetes at a tertiary referral hospital during 1998-2009. Rate-ratios of initiation of treatment, recurrent......AIMS: Poor adherence to medication therapy among type 2 diabetes patients is a clinical challenge. We aimed to determine which factors are associated with the three phases of long-term adherence to medication: initiation, implementation and discontinuation in a register-based study. METHODS...... gaps in supply of medication, and discontinuation of treatment were analysed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor initiation rather than poor implementation or discontinuation was the main contributor to medication nonadherence. Polypharmacy was a risk factor for slower initiation of treatment...

  9. Use of GenoType® MTBDRplus assay to assess drug resistance and mutation patterns of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis isolates in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health problem. The diagnosis of MDR-TB is of paramount importance in establishing appropriate clinical management and infection control measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate drug resistance and mutational patterns in clinical isolates MDR-TB by GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. Material and Methods: A total of 350 non-repeated sputum specimens were collected from highly suspected drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases; which were processed by microscopy, culture, differentiation and first line drug susceptibility testing (DST using BacT/ALERT 3D system. Results: Among a total of 125 mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains, readable results were obtained from 120 (96% strains by GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. Only 45 MDR-TB isolates were analysed for the performance, frequency and mutational patterns by GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. The sensitivity of the GenoType® MDRTBplus assay for detecting individual resistance to rifampicin (RIF, isoniazid (INH and multidrug resistance was found to be 95.8%, 96.3% and 97.7%, respectively. Mutation in codon S531L of the rpoB gene and codon S315T1 of katG genes were dominated in MDR-TB strains, respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The GenoType® MTBDRplus assay is highly sensitive with short turnaround times and a rapid test for the detection of the most common mutations conferring resistance in MDR-TB strains that can readily be included in a routine laboratory workflow.

  10. [The monophasic pattern in oral glucose tolerance test as a predictive risk factor of type 2 diabetes in obese paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-10-01

    The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11.1±2years, and of whom 90.3% were Caucasian. Risk factors for T2D were compared in patients with a monophasic or biphasic pattern during the performance of an OGTT, as well as anthropometric and biochemical variables, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function. The shape of the glucose curve was monophasic in 50.2% of patients (50.8% male), biphasic in 48.5% (47.6% males), and indeterminate in 1.3%. The monophasic pattern showed lower insulin-sensitivity and worse beta-cell function. Patients with a biphasic pattern had a higher BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure, although the results were not significant. Latin-American patients had significantly lower serum glucose levels with higher insulin levels during the OGTT. The pattern of response to an OGTT reflects different metabolic phenotypes. Paediatric patients with a biphasic pattern have lower risk-profiling for T2D. The performing of an OGTT could be useful to implement early intervention strategies in children and adolescents with obesity, in order to prevent the development of pre-diabetes or T2D. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for porous granular materials: Pore morphology method vs. pore unit assembly method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweijen, Thomas; Aslannejad, Hamed; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    2017-09-01

    In studies of two-phase flow in complex porous media it is often desirable to have an estimation of the capillary pressure-saturation curve prior to measurements. Therefore, we compare in this research the capability of three pore-scale approaches in reproducing experimentally measured capillary pressure-saturation curves. To do so, we have generated 12 packings of spheres that are representative of four different glass-bead packings and eight different sand packings, for which we have found experimental data on the capillary pressure-saturation curve in the literature. In generating the packings, we matched the particle size distributions and porosity values of the granular materials. We have used three different pore-scale approaches for generating the capillary pressure-saturation curves of each packing: i) the Pore Unit Assembly (PUA) method in combination with the Mayer and Stowe-Princen (MS-P) approximation for estimating the entry pressures of pore throats, ii) the PUA method in combination with the hemisphere approximation, and iii) the Pore Morphology Method (PMM) in combination with the hemisphere approximation. The three approaches were also used to produce capillary pressure-saturation curves for the coating layer of paper, used in inkjet printing. Curves for such layers are extremely difficult to determine experimentally, due to their very small thickness and the presence of extremely small pores (less than one micrometer in size). Results indicate that the PMM and PUA-hemisphere method give similar capillary pressure-saturation curves, because both methods rely on a hemisphere to represent the air-water interface. The ability of the hemisphere approximation and the MS-P approximation to reproduce correct capillary pressure seems to depend on the type of particle size distribution, with the hemisphere approximation working well for narrowly distributed granular materials.

  12. Isotherms of Capillary Condensation Influenced by Formation of Adsorption Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churaev; Starke; Adolphs

    2000-01-15

    Isotherms of capillary condensation are often used to determine the vapor sorption capacity of porous adsorbents as well as the pore size distribution by radii. In this paper, for calculating the volume of capillary condensate and of adsorption films in a porous body, an approach based on the theory of surface forces is used. Adsorption isotherms and disjoining pressure isotherms of wetting films are presented here in an exponential form discussed earlier. The calculations were made for straight cylindrical capillaries of different radii and slit pores of different width. The mechanisms of capillary condensation differ in cylindrical and slit pores. In cylindrical pores capillary condensation occurs due to capillary instability of curved wetting films on a capillary surface, when film thickness grows. In the case of slit pores, coalescence of wetting films formed on opposite slit surfaces proceeds under the action of attractive dispersion forces. Partial volumes of liquid in the state of both capillary condensate and adsorbed films are calculated dependent on the relative vapor pressure in a surrounding media. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  14. Capillary condensation in porous alumina observed by positronium lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Eugeniu; Vata, Ion; Toderian, Stefan; Dudu, Dorin; Rusen, Ion; Stefan, Nitisor

    2008-01-01

    The PALS method based on time distribution measurements has been used to study capillary condensation of different gases adsorbed in microporous alumina powder. The isotherms exhibit features which are associated with a shifted gas-liquid transition. The sorption and desorption processes are irreversible presenting a hysteresis effect. Suggestions on some new aspects of the capillary condensation dynamics are made

  15. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  16. Potential of capillary electrophoresis for the profiling of propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection for the profiling of Propolis, a hive product, is investigated. Water extracts of Propolis were analyzed with both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 7.0 and 9.3, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)

  17. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary...

  18. First report of microcephaly-capillary malformations syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome is a newly described autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, multiple cutaneous capillary malformations, intractable epilepsy and profound developmental delay. We present the first description of MIC-CAP syndrome in Russia.

  19. Thermodynamics of Capillary Rise: Why Is the Meniscus Curved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Ulf; Eriksson, Jan Christer

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamics of capillary rise is explained as the gravitational elevation of the whole column of liquid caused by the positive connection between the liquid, and the solid wall of the capillary tube. The curvature of the meniscus is ascribed to the maintenance of a physiochemical balance throughout the gravitational column of liquid.

  20. Geometry Effects of Capillary on the Evaporation from the Meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Choong Hyo; Jin, Song Wan; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2007-01-01

    The effect of capillary cross-section geometry on evaporation is investigated in terms of the meniscus shape, evaporation rate and evaporation-induced flow for circular, square and rectangular cross-sectional capillaries. The shapes of water and ethanol menisci are not much different from each other in square and rectangular capillaries even though the surface tension of water is much larger than that of ethanol. On the other hand, the shapes of water and ethanol menisci are very different from each other in circular capillary. The averaged evaporation fluxes in circular and rectangular capillaries are measured by tracking the meniscus position. At a given position, the averaged evaporation flux in rectangular capillaries in much larger than that in circular capillary with comparable hydraulic diameter. The flow near the evaporating meniscus is also measured using micro-PIV, so that the rotating vortex motion is observed near the evaporating ethanol and methanol menisci except for the case of methanol meniscus in rectangular capillary. This difference is considered to be due to the existence of corner menisci at the four corners

  1. Radiographic patterns and survival of patients with early and late brain metastases in EGFR wild type and mutant non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Ren; Yamada, Andrew; Weber, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) in NSCLC is a negative prognostic indicator. In the era of EGFR mutations we evaluated the difference between early (≤6 months from diagnosis) versus late BM (>6 months), in EGFR wild type (WT) and mutant (MT) NSCLC patients with respect to radiographic patterns and overall...... BM: WT 24.9 months versus MT 25.6 months (p = 0.51). In multivariate analysis chemotherapy, single lesion and late BM were associated with better survival in WT patients whereas age, and systemic treatment but not BM timing or single lesion were predictive of better outcomes in MT patients. In early...

  2. Relationship of Eating Patterns and Metabolic Parameters, and Teneligliptin Treatment: Interim Results from Post-marketing Surveillance in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Haneda, Masakazu; Ito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Hiraide, Sonoe; Matsukawa, Miyuki; Ueno, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Healthy eating is a critical aspect of the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Disrupted eating patterns can result in poor glucose control and increase the likelihood of diabetic complications. Teneligliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity for 24 h and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia after all three daily meals. This interim analysis of data from the large-scale post-marketing surveillance of teneligliptin (RUBY) in Japan examined eating patterns and their relationship with metabolic parameters and diabetic complications. We also examined whether eating patterns affected safety and efficacy of teneligliptin. We analyzed baseline data from survey forms collected in RUBY between May 2013 and June 2017, including patient characteristics, metabolic parameters, and eating patterns (eating three meals per day or not; timing of evening meal) before teneligliptin treatment was initiated. Safety and efficacy of 12 months' teneligliptin (20-40 mg/day) treatment was assessed. Data from 10,532 patients were available for analysis. Most patients who did not eat three meals per day (n  =757) or who ate their evening meal after 10 PM (n  =206) were 64 years old or younger. At baseline, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in those patients who did not eat three meals per day (p < 0.05) or who ate their evening meal late (p < 0.05). Diabetic complications were more common in patients who did not eat three meals per day. Treatment with teneligliptin reduced HbA1c over 6 or 12 months across all eating patterns, with a low incidence of adverse drug reactions. Eating patterns may be associated with altered metabolic parameters and diabetic complications among Japanese patients with T2DM. Teneligliptin may be well tolerated and improve hyperglycemia in patients

  3. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Paper Capillary Enables Effective Sampling for Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-06-06

    Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.

  5. Capillary array electrophoresis using laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.; Mathies, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has found widespread application in analytical and biomedical research, and the scope and sophistication of CE is still rapidly advancing. Gel-filled capillaries have been employed for the rapid separation and analysis of synthetic polynucleotides, DNA sequencing fragments, and DNA restriction fragments. Open-tube capillary electrophoresis has attained subattomole detection levels in amino acid separations 14 and proven its utility for the separation of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. Separation of the optical isomers of dansyl amino acids has also been successfully demonstrated. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and on-column derivatization can all be performed on CE columns, demonstrating the utility of capillary electrophoresis as an analytical and micropreparative tool. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A macrothermodynamic approach to the limit of reversible capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trens, Philippe; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Galarneau, Anne; Brunel, Daniel; Fubini, Bice; Garrone, Edoardo; Fajula, François; Di Renzo, Francesco

    2005-08-30

    The threshold of reversible capillary condensation is a well-defined thermodynamic property, as evidenced by corresponding states treatment of literature and experimental data on the lowest closure point of the hysteresis loop in capillary condensation-evaporation cycles for several adsorbates. The nonhysteretical filling of small mesopores presents the properties of a first-order phase transition, confirming that the limit of condensation reversibility does not coincide with the pore critical point. The enthalpy of reversible capillary condensation can be calculated by a Clausius-Clapeyron approach and is consistently larger than the condensation heat in unconfined conditions. Calorimetric data on the capillary condensation of tert-butyl alcohol in MCM-41 silica confirm a 20% increase of condensation heat in small mesopores. This enthalpic advantage makes easier the overcoming of the adhesion forces by the capillary forces and justifies the disappearing of the hysteresis loop.

  7. Generalized polymer effective charge measurement by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Joseph; Koval, Dušan; Besson, Adeline; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, Hervé

    2014-11-28

    In this work, we have generalized the use of capillary isotachophoresis as a universal method for determination of effective charge of anionic and cationic (co)polymers on ordinary capillary electrophoresis instruments. This method is applicable to a broad range of strong or weak polyelectrolytes with good repeatability. Experimental parameters (components and concentrations of leading and terminating electrolytes, capillary diameters, constant electric current intensity) were optimized for implementation in 100 μm i.d. capillaries for both polyanions and polycations. Determined values of polymer effective charge were in a very good agreement with those obtained by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Uncertainty of the effective charge measurement using isotachophoresis was addressed and estimated to be ∼5-10% for solutes with mobilities in the 20-50 × 10(-9)m(2)V(-1)s(-1) range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological and genetic evolution of HIV type 1 in two siblings with different patterns of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Chiara; Leitner, Thomas; Laurén, Anna; Karlsson, Ingrid; Pastore, Angela; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the immunological and virological factors that may lead to different patterns of disease progression characteristic of HIV-1-infected children, two HIV-1-infected siblings, a slow and a fast progressor, were followed prospectively before the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Viral coreceptor usage, including the use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors, macrophage tropism, and sensitivity to the CC-chemokine RANTES, has been studied. An autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody response has been documented using peripheral blood mononuclear cells- and GHOST(3) cell line-based assays. Viral evolution was investigated by env C2-V3 region sequence analysis. Although both siblings were infected with HIV-1 of the R5 phenotype, their viruses showed important biological differences. In the fast progressor there was a higher RANTES sensitivity of the early virus, an increased trend to change the mode of CCR5 receptor use, and a larger genetic evolution. Both children developed an autologous neutralizing antibody response starting from the second year with evidence of the continuous emergence of resistant variants. A marked viral genetic and phenotypic evolution was documented in the fast progressor sibling, which is accompanied by a high viral RANTES sensitivity and persistent neutralizing antibodies.

  9. A two-dimensional model of the pressing section of a paper machine including dynamic capillary effects

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg P.; Printsypar, Galina; Rief, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical

  10. Calculation of hydraulic conductivities and capillary rise in peat soils from bulk density and solid matter volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recently it was demonstrated how unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of soils can be calculated from granular composition and organic matter content (BLOEMEN, 1980a). This type of calculations has to be restricted to mineral soils because the capillary properties of organic soils will not be

  11. Venous, Arterialized-Venous, or Capillary Glucose Reference Measurements for the Accuracy Assessment of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, Jort; van Steen, Sigrid C.; deGraaff, Peter; Chan, Man W.; van Amstel, Rombout B. E.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background: Different reference methods are used for the accuracy assessment of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. The effect of using venous, arterialized-venous, or capillary reference measurements on CGM accuracy is unclear. Methods: We evaluated 21 individuals with type 1 diabetes

  12. Rapid capillary coating by epoxy-poly-(dimethylacrylamide): Performance in capillary zone electrophoresis of protein and polystyrene carboxylate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiari, M.; Cretich, M.; Šťastná, Miroslava; Radko, S. P.; Chrambach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2001), s. 656-659 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary coating * capillary zone electrophoresis * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001

  13. Flexible or leaky attention in creative people? Distinct patterns of attention for different types of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya; Saporta, Arielle; Beeman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Creativity has been putatively linked to distinct forms of attention, but which aspects of creativity and which components of attention remains unclear. Two experiments examined how divergent thinking and creative achievement relate to visual attention. In both experiments, participants identified target letters (S or H) within hierarchical stimuli (global letters made of local letters), after being cued to either the local or global level. In Experiment 1, participants identified the targets more quickly following valid cues (80% of trials) than following invalid cues. However, this smaller validity effect was associated with higher divergent thinking, suggesting that divergent thinking was related to quicker overcoming of invalid cues, and thus to flexible attention. Creative achievement was unrelated to the validity effect. Experiment 2 examined whether divergent thinking (or creative achievement) is related to "leaky attention," so that when cued to one level of a stimulus, some information is still processed, or leaks in, from the non-cued level. In this case, the cued stimulus level always contained a target, and the non-cued level was congruent, neutral, or incongruent with the target. Divergent thinking did not relate to stimulus congruency. In contrast, high creative achievement was related to quicker responses to the congruent than to the incongruent stimuli, suggesting that real-world creative achievement is indeed associated with leaky attention, whereas standard laboratory tests of divergent thinking are not. Together, these results elucidate distinct patterns of attention for different measures of creativity. Specifically, creative achievers may have leaky attention, as suggested by previous literature, whereas divergent thinkers have selective yet flexible attention.

  14. A study of the breakdown of Friedel's law in electron backscatter Kikuchi diffraction patterns: Application to zincblende-type structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba-Kishi, K.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The breakdown of Friedel's law has been observed in backscatter Kikuchi diffraction patterns (BKDP) obtained in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) from a series of zincblende structures including GaAs, InP, GaSb, CdHgTe and the minerals sphalerite (ZnS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ) and tetrahedrite (Cu 12 Sb 4 S 13 ). Differences in intensities were observed between the reflections 11anti 1 and 5anti 1anti 1 in InP, GaSb, CdHgTe and sphalerite, thus allowing the non-centrosymmetric point group anti 43 m to be determined. In GaAs, differences in intensities were noted between anti 511 and anti 5anti 11. In chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite, non-equivalent intensities were observed between anti 215 and 2anti 1anti 5 and between 3anti 1anti 2 and 31anti 2, respectively. In addition, BKDPs obtained from chalcopyrite revealed a small displacement at the point where the pair of equivalent reflections anti 406 and 460 intersect within the Kikuchi band 02anti 2. The presence of this displacement together with observation of the breakdown of Friedel's law confirmed the tetragonal point group anti 42m for chalcopyrite. Although the point groups of GaAs, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite were derived successfully using BKDPs, determination of their space groups proved unsuccessful. The superstructure reflections were invisible because the structure factors are very small. The behaviour of the invisible 200 reflection in GaAs is investigated using many-beam dynamical intensity profiles calculated across the h00 systematic row of reflections. Dynamical intensity profiles calculated across the h00 systematic rows of reflections for Ge, InP and sphalerite are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. [Investigation of OXA type beta-lactamases and PFGE patterns in Acinetobacter baumannii strains resistant to carbapenems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyik, Serafettin; Arslan, Uğur; Türk Dağı, Hatice; Seyhan, Tuba; Fındık, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic and multidrug-resistant pathogen leading to nosocomial infections. Over the last 10 years, a significant and threatening increase in resistance to carbapenems, mainly due to the dissemination of class D beta-lactamases, has been reported in A.baumannii worldwide. The most common types of beta-lactamases causing carbapenem resistance in A.baumannii are the OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-40, OXA-58 and OXA-143 type serine beta-lactamases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of OXA type beta-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii strains and the clonal relationship between the strains. A total of 105 non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii strains isolated from various clinical samples (68 blood, 18 bronchoalveolar lavage, 13 drainage, 3 urine, 2 cerebrospinal fluid and 1 catheter samples) in the Microbiology Laboratories of Selcuk University, Meram (2009-2012) and Selcuklu (2007-2008) Medical School Hospitals, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and Phoenix 100 BD (BD Diagnostic, USA) and Vitek II (bioMerieux, France) automated systems. Carbapenem susceptibility test was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the CLSI standards. bla(OXA 23-like), bla(OXA 24-like), bla(OXA 58-like) and bla(OXA 51-like) genes were amplified by multiplex PCR assay and clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using ApaI enzyme. The bla(OXA 51-like) gene was determined in all carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii isolates, while the bla(OXA 23-like) and bla(OXA 58-like) genes were detected in 46.6% and 53.3% of isolates, respectively. However bla(OXA 24-like) gene was not demonstrated in any isolates. bla(OXA 23-like) gene was determined in both Meram and Selcuklu Medical School hospitals, but bla(OXA 58-like) gene was detected only in Meram Medical School hospital. PFGE analysis of the isolates revealed 32 different

  16. Patterns of prospective memory impairment among individuals with depression: the influence of cue type and delay interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi Ryan; Weinborn, Michael; Loft, Shayne; Maybery, Murray

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of cue type and delay interval on prospective memory performance in depressed, compared to non-depressed, individuals using a clinically relevant measure, the Memory for Intentions Screening Test. The depressed group demonstrated impaired performance on time-based, but not event-based, prospective memory tasks relative to the nondepressed group. The depressed group also demonstrated impaired prospective memory on tasks with longer delay intervals (15 min), but not on tasks with shorter delay intervals (2 min). These data support theoretical frameworks that posit that depression is associated with deficits in cognitive initiative (i.e., reduced ability to voluntarily direct attention to relevant tasks) and thus that depressed individuals are susceptible to poor performance on strategically demanding tasks. The results also raise multiple avenues for developing interventions (e.g., implementation intentions) to improve prospective memory performance among individuals with depression, with potential implications for medication and other treatment adherence.

  17. Growth of metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in capillary using liquid-phase epitaxy for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-02-13

    Much attention is being paid to applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as stationary phases in chromatography because of their fascinating properties, such as large surface-to-volume ratios, high levels of porosity, and selective adsorption. HKUST-1 is one of the best-studied face-centered-cubic MOF containing nano-sized channels and side pockets for film growth. However, growth of HKUST-1 framework inside capillary column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography is a challenge work. In this work, we carry out the growth of HKUST-1 on the inner wall of capillary by using liquid-phase epitaxy process at room temperature. The fabricated HKUST-1@capillary can be successfully used for the separation of substituted benzene including methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, benzene series, phenolic acids, and benzoic acids derivates. High column efficiency of 1.5×10(5) N/m for methylbenzene was achieved. The formation of HKUST-1 grown in the capillary was confirmed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy images, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction. The column showed long lifetime and excellent stability. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day repeatability of the HKUST-1@capillary were lower than 7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical activity patterns of children in Toronto: the relative role of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michelle R; Faulkner, Guy E; Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron

    2012-07-23

    A child's opportunity for physical activity and the safety of engaging in activity are influenced by built environment (BE) elements. This study examined the relationship of neighbourhood type and socio-economic status (SES) with activity using a sampling frame that purposely located schools in varying neighbourhoods to ensure that there was variability in BE characteristics and SES. Participants (1,027 Grade 5 & 6 students, Toronto, ON) were drawn from 16 schools that varied by neighbourhood type (pre-1946 "old/urban BE" with grid-based street layout versus post-1946 "new/inner-suburban BE" with looping street layout) and socio-economic status (low and high SES). Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry for seven days. Only children living within 1.6 km of school were included in the analyses (n=713; boys=339, girls=374). Generalized linear mixed models examined sex-specific differences in physical activity across four geographic stratifications: old BE, low-SES (OL); old BE, high-SES (OH); new BE, low-SES (NL); and new BE, high-SES (NH). Children who attended schools in more affluent neighbourhoods (urban and inner-suburban) had more positive physical activity profiles. Across school days, boys were more active in inner-suburban neighbourhoods whereas urban and inner-suburban girls' activity levels were similar. On the weekend, the influence of the neighbourhood environment was stronger, especially for girls and also for boys with respect to total activity and the accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. These findings focus attention on the need to consider the broader social and temporal contexts of specific geographic locations when planning and implementing built environment interventions to increase physical activity among children.

  19. A two-dimensional model of the pressing section of a paper machine including dynamic capillary effects

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg P.

    2013-05-15

    Paper production is a problem with significant importance for society; it is also a challenging topic for scientific investigation. This study is concerned with the simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. A two-dimensional model is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical model accounts for the coexistence of saturated and unsaturated zones in a multilayer computational domain. The discretization is performed by the MPFA-O method. Numerical experiments are carried out for parameters that are typical of the production process. The static and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relations are tested to evaluate the influence of the dynamic capillary effect. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  20. Longitudinal Patterns of Glycemic Control and Blood Pressure in Pregnant Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Phenotypes from Functional Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Li, Dan; Duan, Leo L; Altaye, Mekibib; Miodovnik, Menachem; Khoury, Jane C

    2016-11-01

    Objective  To identify phenotypes of type 1 diabetes control and associations with maternal/neonatal characteristics based on blood pressure (BP), glucose, and insulin curves during gestation, using a novel functional data analysis approach that accounts for sparse longitudinal patterns of medical monitoring during pregnancy. Methods  We performed a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of women with type 1 diabetes whose BP, glucose, and insulin requirements were monitored throughout gestation as part of a program-project grant. Scores from sparse functional principal component analysis (fPCA) were used to classify gestational profiles according to the degree of control for each monitored measure. Phenotypes created using fPCA were compared with respect to maternal and neonatal characteristics and outcome. Results  Most of the gestational profile variation in the monitored measures was explained by the first principal component (82-94%). Profiles clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, or low heterogeneity, relative to the overall mean response. Phenotypes were associated with baseline characteristics, longitudinal changes in glycohemoglobin A1 and weight, and to pregnancy-related outcomes. Conclusion  Three distinct longitudinal patterns of glucose, insulin, and BP control were found. By identifying these phenotypes, interventions can be targeted for subgroups at highest risk for compromised outcome, to optimize diabetes management during pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.