Sample records for capillary fragility

  1. Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Lothar; Holm, Hans-Henrik; Sørensen, Georg;

    What does state fragility means and how is it adressed. Case studies of where it went wrong and where it did not......What does state fragility means and how is it adressed. Case studies of where it went wrong and where it did not...

  2. Osmotic fragility test (United States)

    Spherocytosis - osmotic fragility; Thalassemia - osmotic fragility ... done to detect conditions called hereditary spherocytosis and thalassemia . Hereditary spherocytosis makes red blood cells more fragile ...

  3. National Fragile X Foundation (United States)

    ... Fragile X-associated Disorders Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome FXTAS FXPOI Prevalence Carriers Genetics and Inheritance Testing for Fragile X Treatment & Intervention Consensus Documents on ...

  4. Fragile Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    in China. It uncovers the intimate psychological strains students suffer under the pressure imposed on them by parents and state, where the state acts as a parent, and the parents sometimes reinforce the state. The book offers insights into the intergenerational tensions as work in relation to the ongoing......China's One Child Policy and its rigorous national focus on educational testing are well known. But what happens to those "lucky" few at the very top of the pyramid? Fragile Elite explores the contradictions of being an elite student through ethnographic research conducted at two top universities...... shifts in educational policy and definition of what a "quality" student, child, and citizen is in contemporary China....

  5. Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited developmental disability. A problem with a specific gene causes ... the protein. This causes the symptoms of Fragile X. People with only a small change in the ...

  6. Fragile X Syndrome


    Wilmar Saldarriaga; Flora Tassone; Laura Yuriko González-Teshima; Jose Vicente Forero-Forero; Sebastián Ayala-Zapata; Randi Hagerman


    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disease due to a CGG trinucleotide expansion, named full mutation (greater than 200 CGG repeats), in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene locus Xq27.3; which leads to an hypermethylated region in the gene promoter therefore silencing it and lowering the expression levels of the fragile X mental retardation 1, a protein involved in synaptic plasticity and maturation.  Individuals with FXS present with intellectual disability, autism, hyperactivity, long...

  7. PID controllers' fragility. (United States)

    Alfaro, Víctor M


    In this paper, an index for measuring fragility of proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers is proposed. This index relates the losses of robustness of the control loop when controller parameters change, to the nominal robustness of the control loop. Furthermore, it defines when a PID controller is fragile, nonfragile or resilient.

  8. Education and Fragile States (United States)

    Kirk, Jackie


    Within the fragile states agendas and policies of development agencies and organisations education is of concern; education is a social service sector in which the impacts of state fragility are significant, in terms of access and quality of provision for children, working conditions and support for teachers, good governance and legitimacy for the…

  9. Capillary sample (United States)

    ... several times a day using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited ... do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication ...

  10. Trio Fragile / Olga Kaljundi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljundi, Olga, 1941-2001


    Tallinna Vene Draamateatri galeriis esinenud trupi "Trio Fragile" vernissaazhist. Trio loomingust ja osalejatest : kahe muusiku seltskonnas esineb ka 1984.a. Kunstiülikooli lõpetanud kunstnik Tõnu Talve.

  11. The fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    de Vries, B B; Halley, D J; Oostra, B A; Niermeijer, M F


    The fragile X syndrome is characterised by mental retardation, behavioural features, and physical features, such as a long face with large protruding ears and macro-orchidism. In 1991, after identification of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene, the cytogenetic marker (a fragile site at Xq27.3) became replaced by molecular diagnosis. The fragile X syndrome was one of the first examples of a "novel" class of disorders caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion. In the normal population, the CGG repeat varies from six to 54 units. Affected subjects have expanded CGG repeats (>200) in the first exon of the FMR1 gene (the full mutation). Phenotypically normal carriers of the fragile X syndrome have a repeat in the 43 to 200 range (the premutation). The cloning of the FMR1 gene led to the characterisation of its protein product FMRP, encouraged further clinical studies, and opened up the possibility of more accurate family studies and fragile X screening programmes. Images PMID:9678703

  12. Component fragility research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S. (NCT Engineering, Inc., Lafayette, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))


    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Saldarriaga


    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is a genetic disease due to a CGG trinucleotide expansion, named full mutation (greater than 200 CGG repeats, in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene locus Xq27.3; which leads to an hypermethylated region in the gene promoter therefore silencing it and lowering the expression levels of the fragile X mental retardation 1, a protein involved in synaptic plasticity and maturation.  Individuals with FXS present with intellectual disability, autism, hyperactivity, long face, large or prominent ears and macroorchidism at puberty and thereafter. Most of the young children with FXS will present with language delay, sensory hyper arousal and anxiety. Girls are less affected than boys, only 25% have intellectual disability. Given the genomic features of the syndrome, there are patients with a number of triplet repeats between 55 and 200, known as premutation carriers. Most carriers have a normal IQ but some have developmental problems. The diagnosis of FXS has evolved from karyotype with special culture medium, to molecular techniques that are more sensitive and specific including PCR and Southern Blot. During the last decade, the advances in the knowledge of FXS, has led to the development of investigations on pharmaceutical management or targeted treatments for FXS. Minocycline and sertraline have shown efficacy in children.

  14. Capillary origami


    Py, Charlotte; Reverdy, Paul; Doppler, L.; J. Bico; Roman, B.; Baroud, Charles,


    International audience; The hairs of a wet dog rushing out from a pond assemble into bundles; this is a common example of the effect of capillary forces on flexible structures. From a practical point of the deformation and adhesion of compliant structures induced by interfacial forces may lead to disastrous effects in mechanical microsystems.

  15. Relating Fragile States to Social and Human Fragilities


    Dubois, Jean-Luc; Huyghebaert , Patricia


    Fragile States is a way of naming this particular category of states that have weak performance, insufficient service delivery, weak administrative and government power, and lack of legal rules. Little consideration is usually made to the fact that their own societies may also be fragile and easily jeopardised by inappropriate economic measures or external events. Poverty traps and social exclusion, unjust inequalities with lack of equity, feelings of insecurity and vulnerability, usually und...

  16. International Companies in Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patey, Luke; Kragelund, Peter

    Denmark must not fail to promote corporate social responsibility in fragile states. International companies remain active in these environments, and often worsen rather than alleviate poor governance. Financial transparency and human rights initiatives offer the first step in ensuring...

  17. Stability, fragility, and Rota's Conjecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayhew, D.; Whittle, G.; Zwam, S.H.M. van


    Fix a matroid N. A matroid M is N-fragile if, for each element e of M, at least one of M\\e and M/e has no N-minor. The Bounded Canopy Conjecture is that all GF(q)-representable matroids M that have an N-minor and are N-fragile have branch width bounded by a constant depending only on q and N. A matr

  18. Stability, fragility, and Rota's Conjecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayhew, D.; Whittle, G.; Zwam, S.H.M. van


    Fix a matroid N. A matroid M is N-fragile if, for each element e of M, at least one of M\\e and M/e has no N-minor. The Bounded Canopy Conjecture is that all GF(q)-representable matroids M that have an N-minor and are N-fragile have branch width bounded by a constant depending only on q and N. A matr

  19. Leukocytes in capillary flow. (United States)

    Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Lee, J


    During disease, the flow of blood cells through the capillary network is one of the most perilous events in the microcirculation. Capillary distensibility, cytoplasmic activity of endothelial cells, red cells and leukocytes play an important role in capillary perfusion. Occlusion of capillaries is one of the early signs of vascular failure and is encountered in many different conditions and organs. Adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium via expression of membrane adhesion molecules leads to microvascular entrapment with capillary occlusion.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    ... Just Figuring Out CGG Repeats! Donate Print PDF Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X ... known single gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Read my Story Autism spectrum disorder ( ...

  1. Learning to deliver education in fragile states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greeley


    Full Text Available The Fragile States Group within the Development AssistanceCommittee (DAC of the Organisation for EconomicCooperation and Development is working to advise donors onprovision of education (and other services in ‘fragile states’.

  2. Ectodermal Dysplasia Skin Fragility Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Alan Atalay


    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis first described in 1997 by Mc Grath. EDSFS results from loss of function mutations in plakophilin-1 (PKP1. PKP1 is a structural component of desmosomes, cellcell adhesion complexes. It is also found as a nuclear protein in several cell types that are lack of desmosomes. In skin, however, PKP1 expression is confined mainly to suprabasal keratinocytes and the outer root sheath of hair follicules. Loss of function mutation in PKP1 leads to extensive skin fragility, bullae and erosions following minor trauma, focal keratoderma with painful fissures, alopecia, and nail dystrophy. In some patients hypohidrosis may also be seen. EDSFS is now considered as a specific suprabasal form of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. In this report we describe a 20 year old EDSFS case.

  3. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L


    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  4. Fragile Watermarking Based on Robust Hidden Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新鹏; 王朔中


    Block-wise fragile watermarks can be used to reveal maliciously tampered areas in multimedia products. However a forged content containing a cloned fragile watermark can be constructed by using a series of watermarked data. To defeat this type of counter-feit attack, a novel fragile watermarking technique is proposed in which different pseudo-random data are selected for different host products, and the generated fragile watermark is dependent upon the selected information. While inserting the fragile watermark, the pseudo-random information is also robustly embedded into the host data. Because of the difference between the selected information,different watermarked data cannot be used to forge illegal contents containing a valid fragile watermark.

  5. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T


    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  6. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase 2): A fragility handbook on eighteen components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Shteyngart, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))


    Fragility estimates of seven equipment classes were published in earlier reports. This report presents fragility analysis results from eleven additional equipment categories. The fragility levels are expressed in probabilistic terms. For users' convenience, this concluding report includes a summary of fragility results of all eighteen equipment classes. A set of conversion factors based on judgment is recommended for use of the information for early vintage equipment. The knowledge gained in conducting the Component Fragility Program and similar other programs is expected to provide a new direction for seismic verification and qualification of equipment. 15 refs., 12 tabs.

  7. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria


    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset p

  8. MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung


    Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the fait......Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair...... the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early...

  9. New type of capillary for use as ion beam collimator and air-vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoytschew, V., E-mail: [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Schulte-Borchers, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Božičević Mihalića, Iva [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Perez, R.D. [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (5000) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina)


    Glass capillaries offer a unique way to combine small diameter ion beam collimation with an air-vacuum interface for ambient pressure ion beam applications. Usually they have an opening diameter of a few microns, limiting the air inflow sufficiently to maintain stable conditions on the vacuum side. As the glass capillaries generally are quite thin and fragile, handling of the capillary in the experiment becomes difficult. They also introduce an X-ray background produced by the capillary wall material, which has to be shielded or subtracted from the data for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) applications. To overcome both drawbacks, a new type of conical glass capillary has been developed. It has a higher wall thickness eliminating the low energy X-ray background produced by common capillaries and leading to a more robust lens. The results obtained in first tests show, that this new capillary is suitable for ion beam collimation and encourage further work on the capillary production process to provide thick wall capillaries with an outlet diameter in the single digit micro- or even nanometre range.

  10. Fragile X syndrome: Current insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Delsa Dean


    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a multigenerational disorder having massive adverse effect not only on the individuals but also on their families. It is the most common type of intellectual disability after Down’s syndrome. Over two decades have passed since the discovery of FMR1, the causal gene for FXS, but still little is known about the pathophysiology of this disease. This lack of knowledge presents the major barrier encountered by the scientific community for early diagnosis and effective treatment. Since early diagnosis has important implication in determining the disease status among members of the family tree so the genetic counseling and supportive therapy get hampered in larger perspective. The present review emphasizes on the recent findings in FXS pathophysiology, therapeutics and technical challenges in molecular diagnosis.

  11. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X syndrome (United States)

    ... Van Esch H. The Fragile X premutation: new insights and clinical consequences. Eur J Med Genet. 2006 ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links Copyright ...

  13. Caregiver Burden in Fragile X Families. (United States)

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sciolla, Andres F; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Seritan, Andreea L


    Complex caregiving issues occur in multigenerational families carrying the fragile X mutation and premutation. The same family members may care for children or siblings with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and for elderly parents with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Family caregivers experience anxiety, depression, neglect of personal health care needs, employment difficulties, and loss of social support, leading to isolation and further psychiatric consequences. There is growing awareness of caregiver burden with regard to parents of children with FXS, but much less is known about the needs of informal caregivers of patients with FXTAS. In this paper, we review the available literature to date and provide suggestions for further exploration of caregivers' needs. Evidence-based strategies to address these needs are included. Many more research studies exploring caregiver burden in multigenerational fragile X families are needed, as well as studies aimed at investigating interventions and their impact on reduction.

  14. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus. (United States)

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Guida, M; Enrile, B G


    We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of 2 sons but was absent in the mother's somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. This finding has important implications for counseling fragile X families with deletion mutations.

  15. Fragile phagocytes: FMRP positively regulates engulfment activity. (United States)

    Logan, Mary A


    Defective immune system function is implicated in autism spectrum disorders, including Fragile X syndrome. In this issue, O'Connor et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. demonstrate that phagocytic activity of systemic immune cells is compromised in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Fragile X, highlighting intriguing new mechanistic connections between FMRP, innate immunity, and abnormal development.

  16. Gas-Filled Capillary Model (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.


    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  17. Derivatization in Capillary Electrophoresis. (United States)

    Marina, M Luisa; Castro-Puyana, María


    Capillary electrophoresis is a well-established separation technique in analytical research laboratories worldwide. Its interesting advantages make CE an efficient and potent alternative to other chromatographic techniques. However, it is also recognized that its main drawback is the relatively poor sensitivity when using optical detection. One way to overcome this limitation is to perform a derivatization reaction which is intended to provide the analyte more suitable analytical characteristics enabling a high sensitive detection. Based on the analytical step where the CE derivatization takes place, it can be classified as precapillary (before separation), in-capillary (during separation), or postcapillary (after separation). This chapter describes the application of four different derivatization protocols (in-capillary and precapillary modes) to carry out the achiral and chiral analysis of different compounds in food and biological samples with three different detection modes (UV, LIF, and MS).

  18. How Capillary Rafts Sink

    CERN Document Server

    Protiere, S; Aristoff, J; Stone, H


    We present a fluid dynamics video showing how capillary rafts sink. Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. Thanks to Archimedes principle we can easily predict whether an object sinks or floats. But what happens when several small particles are placed at an interface between two fluids. In this case surface tension also plays an important role. These particles self-assemble by capillarity and thus form what we call a "capillary raft". We show how such capillary rafts sink for varying sizes of particles and define how this parameter affects the sinking process.

  19. Local development in fragile areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Governa


    Full Text Available During the last 20 years some keywords have been extensively used in international debate about local development policies: bottom-up approach, territoriality, policy integration, partnership, cooperation and negotiation among actors and interests. The use of these keywords hides a variety of cultural approaches, theories and practices; this means that we should study local development processes and policies analysing and deconstructing these theoretical approaches in specific situations and experiences. Within this framework, the article critically discuss local development policies involving “fragile” areas like those of the mountains in Lombardy. Reference will be made mainly to the results of a research-action activity on the integrated local development programmes (PISL for the Objective 2 areas of the Region financed during the period of European structural funds programming 2000-2006.Durant les vingt dernières années, quelques mots-clés ont été intensivement employés dans le débat international sur les politiques de développement local : bottom-up approach, territorialité, intégration politique, association, coopération et négociation entre les acteurs et les intérêts. L’utilisation de ce vocabulaire cache une série d’approches, théories et pratiques culturelles. Pour ne pas seulement se contenter de mots, il est nécessaire d’étudier les processus de développement et les politiques locales en analysant et déconstruisant les différentes approches théoriques à la lumière de situations et d’expériences spécifiques. Pour ce faire, cet article présente les politiques de développement local dans des zones fragiles telles que les montagnes de Lombardie. On fera principalement référence aux résultats d’une recherche-action sur les programmes de développement locaux intégrés (PISL pour les territoires de l’Objectif 2 de cette région, programmes financés au cours de la période 2000-2006 par des

  20. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L


    of about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  1. [The many facets of inherited skin fragility]. (United States)

    Has, C; Kiritsi, D


    The inherited skin fragility encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders, collectively designated as epidermolysis bullosa, characterized by recurrent mechanically induced blisters, erosions or wounds. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is broad, as well as the molecular background. Besides the skin, mucosal membranes and other organs can be affected. In real-world practice, patients with mild genetic skin fragility usually do not require medical care and often remain underdiagnosed. In contrast, the well-defined severe EB subtypes are recognized based on typical clinical features. The molecular diagnostics is usually performed in order to allow genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Besides wound care and careful management of the disease complications, new experimental targeted therapies are being developed. New very rare forms of inherited skin fragility have been identified with modern sequencing methods.

  2. Practical Approach to Fragility Analysis of Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasamin Rafie Nazari


    Full Text Available Damages during past earthquakes reveal seismic vulnerability of bridge structures and the necessity of probabilistic approach toward seismic performance evaluation of bridges and its interpretation in terms of decision variables such as repair cost, downtime and life loss. This Procedure involves hazard analysis, structural analysis, damage analysis and loss analysis. The purpose of present study is reviewing different methods developed to derive fragility curves for damage analysis of bridges and demonstrating a simple procedure for fragility analysis using Microsoft Office Excel worksheet to reach probability of occurring predefined level of damage due to different levels of seismic demand parameters. The input of this procedure is the intensity of ground motion and the output is an appropriate estimate of the expected damage. Different observed damages of the bridges are discussed and compared the practical definition of damage states. Different methods of fragility analyses are discussed and a practical step by step example is illustrated.

  3. Biodiversity and its fragility in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Ying-shan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; PU Li-na; HUI Chao-mao


    In Yunnan, 8 major aspects of biodiversity and fragility in landforms, ecosystems, distribution populations, alien invasion, segregation, pollution and maladministration with various menace factors causing biodiversity loss have been described. It is revealed that the facts that the biodiversity and fragility coexists in this paper. Accordingly, 6 major countermeasures for effective conservation and rational utilization of the provincial biodiversity were suggested on the basis of thescientific development concepts, principles of nature protection,conservation biology, resource management and ethnobotany and present status in Yunnan with rich intangible resources such as climatic,ethnical and cultural diversity, etc.

  4. A New Fragile Watermark for Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆唯杰; 陈克非


    Fragile watermarking is a method to verify the integrity and authenticity of multimedia data. A new fragile watermark for image was proposed, which can be used in image verification applications. The paper first described the above two techniques, some of which will be used in the method. Then it described the embedding and authentication process and also analyzed the method to show how it can survive some attacks. The experimental results show that the proposed method doesn't need the watermark or original image on authentication side. It provides more security against attack, and can localize where the tempering has occurred.

  5. Extinction rate fragility in population dynamics. (United States)

    Khasin, M; Dykman, M I


    Population extinction is of central interest for population dynamics. It may occur from a large rare fluctuation. We find that, in contrast to related large-fluctuation effects like noise-induced interstate switching, quite generally extinction rates in multipopulation systems display fragility, where the height of the effective barrier to be overcome in the fluctuation depends on the system parameters nonanalytically. We show that one of the best-known models of epidemiology, the susceptible-infectious-susceptible model, is fragile to total population fluctuations.

  6. Fragile X-Associated Tremor and Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications Fragile X-Associated Tremor and Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS): Overview Skip sharing on social media ... this: Page Content Fragile X-associated tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset condition (occurs ...

  7. Psychiatric treatment with people displaced in or from fragile states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Buckley


    Full Text Available A fragile state is not an ideal environment for any professional to work within` – psychiatric, medical or otherwise. Psychiatrists working to assess psychological distress and mental health in fragile states, or with refugees from fragile states, need to adopt flexible approaches.

  8. Premature ovarian failure (POF) and fragile X premutation females: from POF to to fragile X carrier identification, from fragile X carrier diagnosis to POF association data. (United States)

    Uzielli, M L; Guarducci, S; Lapi, E; Cecconi, A; Ricci, U; Ricotti, G; Biondi, C; Scarselli, B; Vieri, F; Scarnato, P; Gori, F; Sereni, A


    Early menopause in the fragile X carriers has been well documented in several reports. All surveys demonstrated that 13-25% of fragile X carriers experienced premature ovarian failure (POF), defined as menopause before the age of 40 years. In 1995 we started screening two groups of subjects as a part of a Fragile X Research Program: 1) women previously diagnosed as fragile X carriers from the register of our center and 2) women with POF and without a family history of fragile X or other forms of mental retardation. In this study we report the preliminary data collected from 75 fragile X families; in 30 of them, POF was present in one or several subjects, all of whom had a fragile X premutation. None of the women with a full mutation experienced POF in our series of patients. We also identified 89 families without a family history of fragile X or mental retardation, and there were 108 subjects who experienced POF, of which 6.5% had a fragile X premutation. This is 70-fold higher than the background prevalence of fragile X premutation in the Italian population and suggests an association with POF. These data confirm the results of other surveys.

  9. Compaction of Ductile and Fragile Grains (United States)

    Creissac, S.; Pouliquen, O.; Dalloz-Dubrujeaud, B.


    The compaction of powders into tablets is widely used in several industries (cosmetics, food, pharmaceutics…). In all these industries, the composition of the initial powder is complex, and the behaviour under compaction is not well known, also the mechanical behaviour of the tablets. The aim of this paper is to understand the behaviour (pressure vs density) of a simplified media made of fragile and ductile powders, varying the relative ratio of each powder. Some compaction experiments were carried out with glass beads (fragile) and Polyethylen Glycol powder (ductile). We observe two typical behaviours, depending on the relative volumic fraction of each component. A transition is pointed out, observing the evolution of the slope of the curve pressure/density. This transition is explained by geometrical considerations during compaction. A model is proposed, based on the assumption that the studied media can be compare to a diphasic material with a continuous phase (the ductile powder) and a discrete phase (the fragile powder). The result of this model is compare to the experimental results of compaction, and give a good prediction of the behaviour of the different mixing, knowing the behaviour of the ductile and the fragile phase separately. These results were also interpreted in terms of Heckel parameter which characterizes the ability of the powder to deform plastically under compaction. Some mechanical tests were also performed to compare the mechanical resitance of the obtained tablets.

  10. Race and Ethnicity in Fragile Families (United States)

    Hummer, Robert A.; Hamilton, Erin R.


    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born…

  11. How to engage constructively with fragile states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Bennett


    Full Text Available Donors have allocated increasing resources in fragile states tothe reform and/or rebuilding of the architecture of the state – suchas justice systems, the police and army, and the management ofministries – in efforts to support stability. This has been important for all sectors of society, including displaced people.

  12. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen


    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  13. Essays on financial fragility and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, K.


    This thesis investigates various issues in regulation, with three chapters on financial fragility and banking regulation, and one chapter on competition policy. Chapter 2 studies banks’ herding driven by their need for market liquidity, highlighting a trade-off between systemic risk and liquidity cr

  14. Fragile Nucleosomes Influence Pol II Promoter Function. (United States)

    Pradhan, Suman K; Xue, Yong; Carey, Michael F


    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kubik et al. (2015) describe how the RSC chromatin remodeling complex collaborates with two DNA sequence motifs and sequence-specific general regulatory factors to assemble fragile nucleosomes at highly transcribed yeast Pol II promoters, and they distinguish these from promoters bearing stable nucleosomes.

  15. Multipartnered Fertility and Depression among Fragile Families (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Carlson, Marcia J.


    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the association between multipartnered fertility (MPF)--when parents have children with more than one partner--and depression. Random-effects models suggested that MPF is associated with a greater likelihood of depression, net of family structure and other covariates.…

  16. Strengthening Fragile Families through Research and Practice (United States)

    Bembry, James X.


    Almost one third of all children in the United States are born to unmarried parents. This figure is even higher among poor and minority populations. Because of their heightened risk for economic and social problems and family dissolution, disadvantaged, unmarried parents have been called "fragile families." In 2002 the Bush administration…

  17. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad


    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  18. Frequency of fragile X chromosome in normal females. (United States)

    Abuelo, D; Castree, K; Pueschel, S; Padre-Mendoza, T; Zolnierz, K


    Because of the ambiguities in diagnosing carriers of the fragile X syndrome, we studied thirty-six normal females to determine whether the fragile site at Xq27 can be seen in noncarrier females and at what frequency. A fragile site at Xq27 was identified in one out of thirty-six females, occurring at a frequency of 0.5% in her peripheral lymphocytes. We conclude that the fragile Xq27 site occurs only rarely in noncarrier females and that each laboratory should determine its own baseline frequencies of fragile X in order to most accurately distinguish between normal and carrier women.

  19. Reverse mutations in the fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.T.; Houck, G.E. Jr.; Ding, Xiaohua [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)


    Three females were identified who have apparent reversal of fragile X premutations. Based on haplotype analysis of nearby markers, they were found to have inherited a fragile X chromosome from their premutation carrier mothers, and yet had normal size FMR1 repeat alleles. The changes in repeat sizes from mother to daughter was 95 to 35 in the first, 145 to 43 in the second, and 82 to 33 in the third. In the first family, mutations of the nearby microsatellites FRAXAC2 and DXS548 were also observed. In the other two, only mutations involving the FMR1 repeats were found. We suggest differing mutational mechanisms such as gene conversion versus DNA replication slippage may underlie such reversions. We estimate that such revertants may occur among 1% or less of premutation carrier offspring. Our results indicate that women identified to be carriers by linkage should be retested by direct DNA analysis. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Correlated fragile site expression allows the identification of candidate fragile genes involved in immunity and associated with carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puliti Alda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common fragile sites (cfs are specific regions in the human genome that are particularly prone to genomic instability under conditions of replicative stress. Several investigations support the view that common fragile sites play a role in carcinogenesis. We discuss a genome-wide approach based on graph theory and Gene Ontology vocabulary for the functional characterization of common fragile sites and for the identification of genes that contribute to tumour cell biology. Results Common fragile sites were assembled in a network based on a simple measure of correlation among common fragile site patterns of expression. By applying robust measurements to capture in quantitative terms the non triviality of the network, we identified several topological features clearly indicating departure from the Erdos-Renyi random graph model. The most important outcome was the presence of an unexpected large connected component far below the percolation threshold. Most of the best characterized common fragile sites belonged to this connected component. By filtering this connected component with Gene Ontology, statistically significant shared functional features were detected. Common fragile sites were found to be enriched for genes associated to the immune response and to mechanisms involved in tumour progression such as extracellular space remodeling and angiogenesis. Moreover we showed how the internal organization of the graph in communities and even in very simple subgraphs can be a starting point for the identification of new factors of instability at common fragile sites. Conclusion We developed a computational method addressing the fundamental issue of studying the functional content of common fragile sites. Our analysis integrated two different approaches. First, data on common fragile site expression were analyzed in a complex networks framework. Second, outcomes of the network statistical description served as sources for the

  1. Reverse mutation in fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antinolo, G.; Borrego, S.; Cabeza, J.C. [Hospital Universitario, Sevilla (Spain)] [and others


    The fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of familial mental retardation, with an incidence of {approximately}1/1,500 in males and 1/2,500 in females. The clinical expression includes moderate to severe mental retardation, macroorchidism, dysmorphic facial features and behavior disturbances. In 1991, the FMR-1 gene was isolated from the region of the fragile X site. The fragile X phenotype has been found, in most cases, to be characterized at the molecular level by expansion of a (CGG){sub n} repeat and hypermethylation of a CpG island identified in the 5{prime}-UTR of the FMR-1 gene. It has been proposed, and some evidence has been shown, that germ cells carry only premutation alleles and that expansion occurs at a postzygotic stage. A few cases of reduction of the (CGG){sub n} repeat in fragile X syndrome have been reported. These reductions were from a larger premutation to a smaller premutation, in female-to-male transmission, from full mutation to a mosaic pattern, reduction from mosaic full-mutation/premutation females or regression from premutation to normal. We present here the novel observation of a phenotypically normal female carrying a nonmosaic full-mutation allele in somatic cells who transmits a premutation allele to her daughter. This daughter has three mosaic offspring with the full mutation and the premutation. Two of them are monozygotic (MZ) twins sharing a concordant mutation pattern. They are monoamniotic monochorionic, which indicates a late form of twinning. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Tapered capillary optics (United States)

    Hirsch, Gregory


    A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

  3. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente


    A simple coating procedure for generation of a high and pH-independent electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. The bilayer coating was formed by noncovalent adsorption of the ionic polymers Polybrene...

  4. Mouse models of the fragile x premutation and the fragile X associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. (United States)

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Arque, Gloria; Berman, Robert F; Willemsen, Rob; Hukema, Renate K


    The use of mutant mouse models of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease is essential in order to understand the pathogenesis of many genetic diseases such as fragile X syndrome and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). The choice of which animal model is most suitable to mimic a particular disease depends on a range of factors, including anatomical, physiological, and pathological similarities; presence of orthologs of genes of interest; and conservation of basic cell biological and metabolic processes. In this chapter, we will discuss two mouse models of the fragile X premutation which have been generated to study the pathogenesis of FXTAS and the effects of potential therapeutic interventions. Behavioral, molecular, neuropathological, and endocrine features of the mouse models and their relation to human FXTAS are discussed.

  5. Ion guiding in alumina capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhász, Z.; Sulik, B.; Biri, S.;


    Transmission of a few keV impact energy Ne ions through capillaries in anodic alumina membranes has been studied with different ion counting methods using an energy dispersive electrostatic spectrometer, a multichannel plate (MCP) array and sensitive current-measurement. In the present work, we...... focus our attention to the measurements with the MCP array. The alumina capillaries were prepared by electro-chemical oxidation of aluminium foils. For the present experiments guiding of 3-6 keV Ne ions has been studied in two samples with capillary diameter of about 140 nm and 260 nm and with capillary...... length of about 15 μm. At these energies, the ions have been efficiently guided by the capillaries up to few degrees tilt angle. In this work, we compare the results obtained by the energy dispersive spectrometer to those studied by the MCP array. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis (United States)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.


    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  7. Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid (United States)


    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University of California, Davis MIND Institute 2825 50th Street...presentation produced a manuscript. New treatments for fragile X syndrome and autism , Seminar, Hautepierre Hospital, Strasbourg, France, 3/9/2015...Fragile X Conference, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, 5/7/2015. New treatments for fragile X and autism , Conference on Rare

  8. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.


    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  9. Multidimensional capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Grochocki, Wojciech; Markuszewski, Michał J; Quirino, Joselito P


    Multidimensional separation where two or more orthogonal displacement mechanisms are combined is a promising approach to increase peak capacity in CE. The combinations allow dramatic improvement of analytical performance since the total peak capacity is given by a product of the peak capacities of all methods. The initial reports were concentrated on the construction of effective connections between capillaries for 2D analysis. Today, 2D and 3D CE systems are now able to separate real complex biological or environmental mixtures with good repeatability, improved resolution with minimal loss of sample. This review will present the developments in the field of multidimensional CE during the last 15 years. The endeavors in this specific field were on the development of interfaces, interface-free techniques including integrated separations, microdevices, and on-line sample concentration techniques to improve detection sensitivity.

  10. Fragile states and protection under the 1969 African Refugee Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wood


    Full Text Available Current practice in African states highlights both the potential andthe limitations of the 1969 African Refugee Convention in providingprotection to persons displaced from fragile states.

  11. What Should You Know about Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)? (United States)

    ... treatments. Associated Disorders Fragile X-associated disorders. Articles Scientific articles. Free Materials View and print free materials. Data & Statistics Data and statistics highlights. Links to Other Websites ...

  12. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others


    The fragile X full mutation, which is associated with the phenotypic expression of the disorder, is characterized by an expansion of CGG repeat and hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to the FMR1 gene. New mutations leading to amplification of the CGG repeat have not been reported. We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of two affected sons but was absent in the mother`s somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. This was confirmed by dosage analysis of the Southern blot using StB12-3 and an additional probe against the dystrophin gene and by PCR analysis of DXS548 alleles. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. The case reported here clearly demonstrates that FMR1 deletions, unlike the expansions, are not always inherited and the finding of heterozygosity or normal dosage from lymphocyte DNA in the mother of a deletion case does not necessarily rule out the possibility of having a second affected child. The deletion of FMR1 gene may be responsible for a small but significant number of fragile X cases. Therefore, it is imperative that those involved in genetic counseling recognize this diagnostic pitfall. Since it depends upon the size of the mutant clone in the mosaic mother, the exact recurrence risk in germline carriers is unknown. However, prenatal and carrier testing should be performed independently of the outcome of the mother. Furthermore, it is possible that the deletion may not be restricted to the germline, and therefore the mother may actually be a somatic mosaic.

  13. New Semi-Fragile Authentication Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫; 易开祥; 等


    In this paper we propse a semi-fragile watermarking scheme,which can be used for image authentication.Let the original image be performed by l-level discrete wavelet transformation.An approximate wavelet coefficient matrix of the original image and real-value chaotic sequences are than used to generate the content-based and secure watermark.The watermark is embedded into original image by using by using HVS.The tamper detection can idantify the tampered region of the received watermarked image,Experimental results are given.

  14. Capillary flow solder wettability test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.


    A test procedure was developed to assess the capillary flow wettability of solders inside of a confined geometry. The test geometry was comprised of two parallel plates with a controlled gap of constant thickness (0.008 cm, 0.018 cm, 0.025 cm, and 0.038 cm). Capillary flow was assessed by: (1) the meniscus or capillary rise of the solder within the gap, (2) the extent of void formation in the gap, and (3) the time-dependence of the risen solder film. Tests were performed with the lead-free solders.

  15. Analysis of Capillary Rise in Asymmetric Branch-Like Capillary (United States)

    Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Yang, Zhihui; Su, Shuai; Ren, Kai; Huang, Heyu


    Transport in porous media is common in nature, attracting many attentions for a long time. Tree-like network model is often used as a simplification for porous space, expressing the complexity of pore spaces instead of capillary bundle. To investigate spontaneous imbibition characteristics in this network, a dynamic asymmetric branch-like capillary model is used to represent basic network structure, using fractal method to represent tortuosity. This work investigates the influence of parameters on imbibition process in the branch-like capillary model. An analytical equation for the imbibition mass versus time is derived. Parameters from capillary structures to liquid properties are taken into account and analyzed based on the numerical solution of the equation. It is found that the imbibition process in asymmetric branch-like capillary model can be recognized by four sections and brunching tubes are positive for imbibition process. Concomitantly, meniscus arrest event is simulated and discussed. Moreover, the influence of parameters on imbibition process is discussed. These parameters can be classified as static and dynamic. Static parameters mainly change the capillary force, which are related to the ultimate imbibition mass or imbibition ability, while dynamic parameters mainly have influence on resistance of flowing fluid, which are related to the imbibition speed in the imbibition process.

  16. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.


    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  17. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K


    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology, parti

  18. Fragility Fractures in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis. (United States)

    Del Puente, Antonio; Esposito, Antonella; Costa, Luisa; Benigno, Carla; Del Puente, Aurora; Foglia, Francesca; Oriente, Alfonso; Bottiglieri, Paolo; Caso, Francesco; Scarpa, Raffaele


    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) can have peculiar effects on bone, including mechanisms of bone loss such as erosions, but also of bone formation, such as ankylosis or periostitis. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of fractures in patients with PsA as compared to healthy controls and to investigate determinants of fractures among cases. For both cases and controls, radiographs were read to identify vertebral fractures (VF), and the presence of femoral neck or other nonvertebral fractures was obtained from patients' medical history. The prevalence of fragility fractures on radiographic readings did not differ between cases and controls. The number of subjects showing a VF was 33 (36%) among PsA patients and 36 (36%) among controls, with a prevalence of severe VF of 8% among cases and 4% among controls. Controlling for covariates in a logistic model, the only variables showing a significant correlation with the presence of nonvertebral fractures (NVF) were disease duration (p=0.02), age (p=0.03), and bone mineral density at femoral neck (inverse correlation, p=0.04). Fractures should be carefully considered when evaluating the global picture of the patient with PsA for their contribution to the "fragility" profile.

  19. Fragile X syndrome in incestuous families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemanova, E. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)


    Reed suggested the investigation of children 219 from incestuous unions as a method for calculation of the detrimental heterozygosity of man. Some studies of latent genetics load in man have been based on the comparison of health status of incestuous children with their half-sibs born to the same mothers in matings with nonconsanguineous partners. These studies were limited to the detection of autosomal-recessive genes leading to abnormal phenotypes or mental deficiency in homozygotes. The highest coefficient of inbreeding in human beings is 1/4 in offspring of incestuous matings: hence, the high proportion of affected homozygotes and low incidence of affected individuals among their maternal half-sibs. Mental deficiency in incestuous children represents not only cases of simple recessive inheritance. Recently, we observed three incestuous families in which fragile X syndrome was detected. The fra(X) children were born to carriers from incestuous unions as well as to unrelated partners. Therefore, we recommend use of incestuous children and their maternal half-sibs as a control group for studies estimating latent genetic load after investigation for fra(X). The incidence of fra(X) syndrome is high, and mental retardation in heterozygotes is uncommon. Both of these factors can play a role in the occurrence of incest, and in pregnancy at young age, as well as in multiple partnerships. Families of heterozygotes for fragile X should be excluded from the material for the calculation of human latent detrimental (autosomal-recessive) genetic load. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Synaptic vesicle dynamic changes in a model of fragile X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Jantine A C; Lin, Zhanmin; de Gruiter, H Martijn; van 't Spijker, Heleen; Haasdijk, Elize D; Cox, David; Ozcan, Sureyya; van Cappellen, Gert W A; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Willemsen, Rob; de Zeeuw, Chris I; Bahn, Sabine


    BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single-gene disorder that is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). FXS is caused by an expansion of trinucleotide repeats in the promoter region of the fragile X m

  1. Fragility curves for bridges under differential support motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina


    This paper employs the notion of fragility to investigate the seismic vulnerability of bridges subjected to spatially varying support motions. Fragility curves are developed for four highway bridges in California with vastly different structural characteristics. The input in this analysis consists...

  2. Dilemmas in counselling females with the fragile X syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); H.M. van den Boer-van den Berg; M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); A. Tibben (Arend)


    textabstractThe dilemmas in counselling a mildly retarded female with the fragile X syndrome and her retarded partner are presented. The fragile X syndrome is an X linked mental retardation disorder that affects males and, often less severely, females. Affected females

  3. Numerical computation of fragility curves for NPP equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, I., E-mail: irmela.zentner@edf.f [LaMSID, Laboratory for the Mechanics of Aging Industrial Structures, UMR EDF/CNRS, 1, av. du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)


    The seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology is a popular approach for evaluating the risk of failure of engineering structures due to earthquake. In this framework, fragility curves express the conditional probability of failure of a structure or component for a given seismic input motion parameter A, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration. The failure probability due to a seismic event is obtained by convolution of fragility curves with seismic hazard curves. In general, a log-normal model is used in order to estimate fragilities. In nuclear engineering practice, these fragilities are determined using safety factors with respect to design earthquake. This approach allows to determine fragility curves based on design study but largely draws on expert judgement and simplifying assumptions. When a more realistic assessment of seismic fragility is needed, simulation-based statistical estimation of fragility curves is more appropriate. In this paper, we will discuss statistical estimation of parameters of fragility curves and present results obtained for a reactor coolant system of nuclear power plant. We have performed non-linear dynamic response analyses using artificially generated strong motion time histories. Uncertainties due to seismic loads as well as model uncertainties are taken into account and propagated using Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Fragile X-Associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI): Condition Information (United States)

    ... Association of FMR1 repeat size with ovarian dysfunction. Human Reproduction, 20 , 402-412. [top] Partington, M. W., York Moore. D., & Turner, G. M. (1996). Confirmation of early menopause in fragile X carriers. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 64 , 370372. [top] National Fragile X Foundation. (n. ...

  5. Financial Inclusion and Financial Fragility: An Empirical Note


    Ghosh, Saibal


    Using data on Indian state-owned banks for 1997-2007, the article tests the relationship between financial inclusion and financial fragility. The findings reveal that these variables are intertwined, with each tending to reinforce the other. More importantly, financial fragility is a non-linear determinant of both availability and use of banking services.

  6. Recurring genomic breaks in independent lineages support genomic fragility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannenhalli Sridhar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that evolutionary breaks in the genome are not randomly distributed, and that certain regions, so-called fragile regions, are predisposed to breakages. Previous approaches to the study of genomic fragility have examined the distribution of breaks, as well as the coincidence of breaks with segmental duplications and repeats, within a single species. In contrast, we investigate whether this regional fragility is an inherent genomic characteristic and is thus conserved over multiple independent lineages. Results We do this by quantifying the extent to which certain genomic regions are disrupted repeatedly in independent lineages. Our investigation, based on Human, Chimp, Mouse, Rat, Dog and Chicken, suggests that the propensity of a chromosomal region to break is significantly correlated among independent lineages, even when covariates are considered. Furthermore, the fragile regions are enriched for segmental duplications. Conclusion Based on a novel methodology, our work provides additional support for the existence of fragile regions.

  7. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis using tangentially connected capillaries. (United States)

    Sahlin, Eskil


    A novel type of fused silica capillary system is described where channels with circular cross-sections are tangentially in contact with each other and connected through a small opening at the contact area. Since the channels are not crossing each other in the same plane, the capillaries can easily be filled with different solutions, i.e. different solutions will be in contact with each other at the contact point. The system has been used to perform different types of two-dimensional separations and the complete system is fully automated where a high voltage switch is used to control the location of the high voltage in the system. Using two model compounds it is demonstrated that a type of two-dimensional separation can be performed using capillary zone electrophoresis at two different pH values. It is also shown that a compound with acid/base properties can be concentrated using a dynamic pH junction mechanism when transferred from the first separation to the second separation. In addition, the system has been used to perform a comprehensive two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis separation of tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin using capillary zone electrophoresis followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

  8. Entanglement and decoherence: fragile and robust entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Novotný, Jaroslav; Jex, Igor


    The destruction of entanglement of open quantum systems by decoherence is investigated in the asymptotic long-time limit. Starting from a general and analytically solvable decoherence model which does not involve any weak-coupling or Markovian assumption it is shown that two fundamentally different classes of entangled states can be distinguished. Quantum states of the first class are fragile against decoherence so that they can be disentangled asymptotically even if coherences between pointer states are still present. Quantum states of the second type are robust against decoherence. Asymptotically they can be disentangled only if also decoherence is perfect. A simple criterion for identifying these two classes on the basis of two-qubit entanglement is presented.

  9. Pathological Plasticity in Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S. Martin


    Full Text Available Deficits in neuronal plasticity are common hallmarks of many neurodevelopmental disorders. In the case of fragile-X syndrome (FXS, disruption in the function of a single gene, FMR1, results in a variety of neurological consequences directly related to problems with the development, maintenance, and capacity of plastic neuronal networks. In this paper, we discuss current research illustrating the mechanisms underlying plasticity deficits in FXS. These processes include synaptic, cell intrinsic, and homeostatic mechanisms both dependent on and independent of abnormal metabotropic glutamate receptor transmission. We place particular emphasis on how identified deficits may play a role in developmental critical periods to produce neuronal networks with permanently decreased capacity to dynamically respond to changes in activity central to learning, memory, and cognition in patients with FXS. Characterizing early developmental deficits in plasticity is fundamental to develop therapies that not only treat symptoms but also minimize the developmental pathology of the disease.

  10. Fragile X syndrome and the amygdala. (United States)

    Suvrathan, Aparna; Chattarji, Sumantra


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most commonly inherited form of mental impairment and autism. Current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying FXS symptoms is derived mainly from studies on the hippocampus and cortex. However, FXS is also associated with strong emotional symptoms, which are likely to involve changes in the amygdala. Unfortunately, the synaptic basis of amygdalar dysfunction in FXS remains largely unexplored. Here we describe recent findings from mouse models of FXS that have identified synaptic defects in the basolateral amygdala that are in many respects distinct from those reported earlier in the hippocampus. Long-term potentiation and surface expression of AMPA-receptors are impaired. Further, presynaptic defects are seen at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Remarkably, some of these synaptic defects in the amygdala are also amenable to pharmacological rescue. These results also underscore the need to modify the current hippocampus-centric framework to better explain FXS-related synaptic dysfunction in the amygdala.

  11. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing (United States)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kushiyama, Shigeru; Yi, Jin-Hak


    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges. The improvement in the fragility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  12. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))


    As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas


    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  14. Invertible chaotic fragile watermarking for robust image authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis [Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 451, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)], E-mail:; Nikolaidis, Nikos [Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 451, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)], E-mail:; Pitas, Ioannis [Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 451, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)], E-mail:


    Fragile watermarking is a popular method for image authentication. In such schemes, a fragile signal that is sensitive to manipulations is embedded in the image, so that it becomes undetectable after any modification of the original work. Most algorithms focus either on the ability to retrieve the original work after watermark detection (invertibility) or on detecting which image parts have been altered (localization). Furthermore, the majority of fragile watermarking schemes suffer from robustness flaws. We propose a new technique that combines localization and invertibility. Moreover, watermark dependency on the original image and the non-linear watermark embedding procedure guarantees that no malicious attacks will manage to create information leaks.

  15. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpouve, N., E-mail: [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M. [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)


    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T{sub g}.

  16. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.


    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  18. Capillary imbibition in parallel tubes (United States)

    McRae, Oliver; Ramakrishnan, T. S.; Bird, James


    In modeling porous media two distinct approaches can be employed; the sample can be examined holistically, using global variables such as porosity, or it can be treated as a network of capillaries connected in series to various intermediate reservoirs. In forced imbibition this series-based description is sufficient to characterize the flow, due to the presence of an externally maintained pressure difference. However, in spontaneous imbibition, flow is driven by an internal capillary pressure, making it unclear whether a series-based model is appropriate. In this talk, we show using numerical simulations the dynamics of spontaneous imbibition in concentrically arranged capillary tubes. This geometry allows both tubes access to a semi-infinite reservoir but with inlets in close enough proximity to allow for interference. We compare and contrast the results of our simulations with theory and previous experiments. Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  19. Capillary interactions in Pickering emulsions (United States)

    Guzowski, J.; Tasinkevych, M.; Dietrich, S.


    The effective capillary interaction potentials for small colloidal particles trapped at the surface of liquid droplets are calculated analytically. Pair potentials between capillary monopoles and dipoles, corresponding to particles floating on a droplet with a fixed center of mass and subjected to external forces and torques, respectively, exhibit a repulsion at large angular separations and an attraction at smaller separations, with the latter resembling the typical behavior for flat interfaces. This change of character is not observed for quadrupoles, corresponding to free particles on a mechanically isolated droplet. The analytical results are compared with the numerical minimization of the surface free energy of the droplet in the presence of spherical or ellipsoidal particles.

  20. The displaced claiming their rights in fragile states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Mulvey


    Full Text Available To date, displaced persons in fragile and conflict-affected stateshave had little success in claiming their rights for housing, land andproperty violations. Creative legal thinking and strategic litigation has the potential to change this.

  1. Establishing local government in fragile states: experimental evidence from Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jochem; I. Murtazashvili; J. Murtazashvili


    International and domestic policy makers often promote elections to establish village government in fragile states. However, two additional options are available in such countries: formalization of self-governing village councils and formalization of community development councils (CDCs). We designe

  2. Financial Reforms and Financial Fragility: A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faizan Iftikhar


    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between financial reforms, financial liberalization and the quality of banking regulation and supervision for financial fragility by applying a dynamic two-step system generalized method of moments GMM panel estimator technique. The finding of this study is that the financial vulnerability of the banking sector could be affected, not only by bank-specific and macro-specific variables; but also by financial liberalization and banking regulations and supervision policies. The empirical results of this study confirm the evidence that financial reforms and financial liberalization significantly enhance the likelihood of financial fragility while strong banking regulations and supervision have an inverse relationship with financial fragility. The results of this study also explain that the lag value of loan growth and unemployment contribute to enhancing financial fragility while equity to assets ratio, natural log of total assets and share of foreign banks reduce financial vulnerability.

  3. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome


    Inga Sophia eKnoth; Sarah eLippe


    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability, associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioural impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil th...

  4. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.


    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  5. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter


    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...... and quantified. (C) 1999 The Society of Rheology. [S0148-6055(99)00103-0]....

  6. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans' bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by Iognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges.The improvement in the fiagility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina CLICHICI


    Full Text Available The paper studied the determinants of Moldovan banking system fragility. It underlines the existing researches into the empirical determinants of banking fragility. The analysis revealed that there are numerous channels through which weaknesses within the macroeconomic conditions and structural characteristics might increase banking system fragility. The main macroeconomic determinants which may have an impact on Moldovan banking system fragility are: excessive domestic liquidity, pro-cyclical character of the banking system, dependence on remittances, financial dollarization. There are also several banking characteristics which play a role for Moldovan banking system fragility: the undermined intermediation function, high level of bad loans, uncertainties in the ownership structure, low presence of foreign strategic investors. The paper employed a quantitative, a qualitative and a comparative analysis using the financial soundness and structural indicators of the Moldovan banking system in order to assess the impact of various determinants on Moldovan banking system fragility. The results reveal a high degree of capitalization and liquidity of Moldovan banking system, factors which contribute and maintain the general stability of the entire financial system.

  8. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Barry Karger


    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  9. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Zaverucha


    Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

  10. Interim Stabilisation in Fragile Security Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nat J. Colletta


    Full Text Available For more than two decades a conventional approach to security promotion has been widely applied by multilateral and bilateral agencies during war-to-peace transitions. Advocates of this approach typically recommend a combination of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR and security sector reform (SSR to consolidate peace-making and peace-building processes (Colletta et al 2009, Muggah 2006. Notwithstanding the broad acceptance of such activities – and the theory that underlies them – there is little evidence that such interventions have contributed to any enduring solution to conflict and fragility (Muggah 2009. Indeed, analysts have come to recognise that the political, economic and social pre-conditions for DDR and SSR – including a relatively functional government, a reasonably stable labour market and a minimum level of social trust – are seldom in place. Even when these ambitious pre-requisites have been achieved, it is not clear that they are sufficient for DDR and SSR to take hold. Nevertheless, these orthodoxies persist in security promotion policy and practice.

  11. Seismic fragility of a reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmann, Davide [Axpo Power AG, Baden (Switzerland); Proske, Dirk [Axpo Power AG, Doettingen (Switzerland); Cervenka, Jan [Cervenka Consulting, Prague (Czech Republic)


    Structures can be exposed to seismic loading. For structures of major importance, extreme seismic loadings have to be considered. The proof of safety for such loadings requires sophisticated analysis. This paper introduces an analysis method which of course still includes simplifications, but yields to a far more realistic estimation of the seismic load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures compared to common methods. It is based on the development of pushover curves and the application of time-histories for the dynamic model to a representative harmonic oscillator. Dynamic parameters of the oscillator, such as modal mass and damping are computed using a soil-structure-interaction analysis. Based on the pushover-curve nonlinear force-deformation-capacities are applied to the oscillator including hysteresis behaviour characteristics. The oscillator is then exposed to time-histories of several earthquakes. Based on this computation the ductility is computed. The ductility can be scaled based upon the scaling of the time-histories. Since both, the uncertainty of the earthquake by using different timehistories and the uncertainty of the structure by using characteristic and mean material values, are considered, the uncertainty of the structure under seismic loading can be explicitly represented by a fragility. (orig.)

  12. Auditory processing in fragile x syndrome. (United States)

    Rotschafer, Sarah E; Razak, Khaleel A


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of intellectual disability and autism. Among other symptoms, FXS patients demonstrate abnormalities in sensory processing and communication. Clinical, behavioral, and electrophysiological studies consistently show auditory hypersensitivity in humans with FXS. Consistent with observations in humans, the Fmr1 KO mouse model of FXS also shows evidence of altered auditory processing and communication deficiencies. A well-known and commonly used phenotype in pre-clinical studies of FXS is audiogenic seizures. In addition, increased acoustic startle response is seen in the Fmr1 KO mice. In vivo electrophysiological recordings indicate hyper-excitable responses, broader frequency tuning, and abnormal spectrotemporal processing in primary auditory cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. Thus, auditory hyper-excitability is a robust, reliable, and translatable biomarker in Fmr1 KO mice. Abnormal auditory evoked responses have been used as outcome measures to test therapeutics in FXS patients. Given that similarly abnormal responses are present in Fmr1 KO mice suggests that cellular mechanisms can be addressed. Sensory cortical deficits are relatively more tractable from a mechanistic perspective than more complex social behaviors that are typically studied in autism and FXS. The focus of this review is to bring together clinical, functional, and structural studies in humans with electrophysiological and behavioral studies in mice to make the case that auditory hypersensitivity provides a unique opportunity to integrate molecular, cellular, circuit level studies with behavioral outcomes in the search for therapeutics for FXS and other autism spectrum disorders.

  13. Cholesterol levels in fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Levin, Rebecca; Shah, Haroon; Mathur, Shaguna; Darnell, Jennifer C; Ouyang, Bichun


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with intellectual disability and behavioral dysfunction, including anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and autistic features. Although individuals with FXS are largely considered healthy and lifespan is not thought to be reduced, very little is known about the long-term medical health of adults with FXS and no systematically collected information is available on standard laboratory measures from metabolic screens. During the course of follow up of a large cohort of patients with FXS we noted that many patients had low cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) values and thus initiated a systematic chart review of all cholesterol values present in charts from a clinic cohort of over 500 patients with FXS. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL were all significantly reduced in males from the FXS cohort relative to age-adjusted population normative data. This finding has relevance for health monitoring in individuals with FXS, for treatments with cholesterol-lowering agents that have been proposed to target the underlying CNS disorder in FXS based on work in animal models, and for potential biomarker development in FXS.

  14. Auditory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Rotschafer


    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is an inherited form of intellectual disability and autism. Among other symptoms, FXS patients demonstrate abnormalities in sensory processing and communication. Clinical, behavioral and electrophysiological studies consistently show auditory hypersensitivity in humans with FXS. Consistent with observations in humans, the Fmr1 KO mouse model of FXS also shows evidence of altered auditory processing and communication deficiencies. A well-known and commonly used phenotype in pre-clinical studies of FXS is audiogenic seizures. In addition, increased acoustic startle is also seen in the Fmr1 KO mice. In vivo electrophysiological recordings indicate hyper-excitable responses, broader frequency tuning and abnormal spectrotemporal processing in primary auditory cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. Thus, auditory hyper-excitability is a robust, reliable and translatable biomarker in Fmr1 KO mice. Abnormal auditory evoked responses have been used as outcome measures to test therapeutics in FXS patients. Given that similarly abnormal responses are present in Fmr1 KO mice suggests that cellular mechanisms can be addressed. Sensory cortical deficits are relatively more tractable from a mechanistic perspective than more complex social behaviors that are typically studied in autism and FXS. The focus of this review is to bring together clinical, functional and structural studies in humans with electrophysiological and behavioral studies in mice to make the case that auditory hypersensitivity provides a unique opportunity to integrate molecular, cellular, circuit level studies with behavioral outcomes in the search for therapeutics for FXS and other autism spectrum disorders.

  15. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon


    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  16. APP Causes Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Mice (United States)

    Westmark, Cara J.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Hays, Seth A.; Filon, Mikolaj J.; Ray, Brian C.; Westmark, Pamela R.; Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Wong, Robert K. S.


    Amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and metabolite levels are altered in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and in the mouse model of the disorder, Fmr1KO mice. Normalization of APP levels in Fmr1KO mice (Fmr1KO/APPHET mice) rescues many disease phenotypes. Thus, APP is a potential biomarker as well as therapeutic target for FXS. Hyperexcitability is a key phenotype of FXS. Herein, we determine the effects of APP levels on hyperexcitability in Fmr1KO brain slices. Fmr1KO/APPHET slices exhibit complete rescue of UP states in a neocortical hyperexcitability model and reduced duration of ictal discharges in a CA3 hippocampal model. These data demonstrate that APP plays a pivotal role in maintaining an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in neural circuits. A model is proposed whereby APP acts as a rheostat in a molecular circuit that modulates hyperexcitability through mGluR5 and FMRP. Both over- and under-expression of APP in the context of the Fmr1KO increases seizure propensity suggesting that an APP rheostat maintains appropriate E/I levels but is overloaded by mGluR5-mediated excitation in the absence of FMRP. These findings are discussed in relation to novel treatment approaches to restore APP homeostasis in FXS. PMID:28018172

  17. Sonoran Desert: Fragile Land of Extremes (United States)

    Produced and Directed by Wessells, Stephen


    'Sonoran Desert: Fragile Land of Extremes' shows how biologists with the U.S. Geological Survey work with other scientists in an effort to better understand native plants and animals such as desert tortoises, saguaro cacti, and Gila monsters. Much of the program was shot in and around Saguaro National Park near Tucson, Arizona. Genetic detective work, using DNA, focuses on understanding the lives of tortoises. Studies of saguaros over many decades clarify how these amazing plants reproduce and thrive in the desert. Threats from fire, diseases in tortoises, and a growing human population motivate the scientists. Their work to identify how these organisms live and survive is a crucial step for the sound management of biological resources on public lands. This 28-minute program, USGS Open-File Report 03-305, was shot entirely in high definition video and produced by the USGS Western Ecological Research Center and Southwest Biological Science Center; produced and directed by Stephen Wessells, Western Region Office of Communications.

  18. Oligomerization properties of fragile-X mental-retardation protein (FMRP) and the fragile-X-related proteins FXR1P and FXR2P

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tamanini (Filippo); L. van Unen (Leontine); C.E. Bakker (Cathy); N. Sacchi; H. Galjaard (Hans); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.T. Hoogeveen (Andre)


    textabstractThe absence of fragile-X mental-retardation protein (FMRP) results in fragile-X syndrome. Two other fragile-X-related (FXR) proteins have been described, FXR1P and FXR2P, which are both very similar in amino acid sequence to FMRP. Interaction between the thr

  19. Epigenetic modifications in human fragile X pluripotent stem cells; Implications in fragile X syndrome modeling. (United States)

    Gerhardt, Jeannine


    Patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. In addition, one-third of FXS patients show characteristics of autism spectrum disorder. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion, which leads to silencing of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene. The absence of the FMR1 gene product, FMRP, is the reason for the disease symptoms. It has been suggested that repeat instability and transcription of the FMR1 gene occur during early embryonic development, while after cell differentiation repeats become stable and the FMR1 gene is silent. Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, are associated with gene silencing and repeat stability at the FMR1 locus. However, the mechanisms leading to gene silencing and repeat expansion are still ambiguous, because studies at the human genomic locus were limited until now. The FXS pluripotent stem cells, recently derived from FXS adult cells and FXS blastocysts, are new useful tools to examine these mechanisms at the human endogenous FMR1 locus. This review summarizes the epigenetic features and experimental studies of FXS human embryonic and FXS induced pluripotent stem cells, generated so far. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Exploiting human neurons.

  20. Fragility fracture: recent developments in risk assessment. (United States)

    Aspray, Terry J


    More than half of older women who sustain a fragility fracture do not have osteoporosis by World Health Organization (WHO) bone mineral density (BMD) criteria; and, while BMD has been used to assess fracture risk for over 30 years, a range of other skeletal and nonskeletal clinical risk factors (CRFs) for fracture have been recognized. More than 30 assessment tools using CRFs have been developed, some predicting fracture risk and others low BMD alone. Recent systematic reviews have reported that many tools have not been validated against fracture incidence, and that the complexity of tools and the number of CRFs included do not ensure best performance with poor assessment of (internal or comparative) validity. Internationally, FRAX® is the most commonly recommended tool, in addition to QFracture in the UK, The Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada (CAROC) tool in Canada and Garvan in Australia. All tools estimate standard 10-year risk of major osteoporotic and 10-year risk of hip fracture: FRAX® is able to estimate fracture risk either with or without BMD, but CAROC and Garvan both require BMD and QFracture does not. The best evidence for the utility of these tools is in case finding but there may be future prospects for the use of 10-year fracture risk as a common currency with reference to the benefits of treatment, whether pharmacological or lifestyle. The use of this metric is important in supporting health economic analyses. However, further calibration studies will be needed to prove that the tools are robust and that their estimates can be used in supporting treatment decisions, independent of BMD.

  1. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar


    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods (United States)

    Dorairaj, Rathissh; Keynton, Robert S.; Roussel, Thomas J.; Crain, Mark M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Walsh, Kevin M.; Naber, John F.; Baldwin, Richard P.; Franco, Danielle B.


    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis in food authenticity. (United States)

    Kvasnicka, Frantisek


    Food authenticity is a term which simply refers to whether the food purchased by the consumer matches its description. False description can occur in many forms, from the undeclared addition of water or other cheaper materials, or the wrong declaration of the amount of a particular ingredient in the product, to making false statements about the source of ingredients i.e., their geographic, plant, or animal origin. The aim of this review is to summarize applications of capillary electrophoresis in food authentication.

  4. Fragile X founder effects and new mutations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, N.; Smits, B.; Curley, D. [New York State Inst. for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others


    The apparent associations between fragile X mutations and nearby microsatellites may reflect both founder effects and microsatellite instability. To gain further insight into their relative contributions, we typed a sample of 56 unrelated control and 37 fragile X chromosomes from an eastern Finnish population for FMR1 CGG repeat lengths, AGG interspersion patterns, DXS548, FRAXAC1, FRAXE and a new polymorphic locus, Alu-L. In the controls, the most common FMR1 allele was 30 repeats with a range of 20 to 47 and a calculated heterozygosity of 88%. A strong founder effect was observed for locus DXS548 with 95% of fragile X chromosomes having the 21 CA repeat (196 bp) allele compared to 17% of controls, while none of the fragile X but 69% of controls had the 20 repeat allele. Analysis of the combined loci DXS548-FRAXAC1-FRAXE showed three founder haplotypes. Haplotype 21-19-16 was found on 27 (75%) of fragile X chromosomes but on none of controls. Three (8.4%) fragile X chromosomes had haplotypes 21-19-15, 21-19-20, and 21-19-25 differing from the common fragile X haplotype only in FRAXE. These could have arisen by recombination or from mutations of FRAXE. A second haplotype 21-18-17 was found in four (11.1%) fragile X chromosomes but only one (1.9%) control. This may represent a more recent founder mutation. A third haplotype 25-21-15, seen in two fragile X chromosomes (5.6%) and one (1.9%) control, was even less common and thus may represent an even more recent mutation or admixture of immigrant types. Analysis of the AGG interspersions within the FMR1 CGG repeat showed that 7/8 premutation chromosomes lacked an AGG whereas all controls had at least one AGG. This supports the hypothesis that the mutation of AGG to CGG leads to repeat instability and mutational expansion. 43 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M. J.


    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  6. Capillary stretching of elastic fibers (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Stone, Howard A.; Duprat, Camille


    Fibrous media consisting of constrained flexible fibers can be found in many engineered systems (membranes in filters, woven textile, matted paper). When such materials interact with a liquid, the presence of liquid/air interfaces induces capillary forces that deform the fibers. To model this interaction we study the behaviour of a finite volume of liquid deposited on two parallel flexible fibers clamped at both ends. A tension along the fibers is imposed and may be varied. We show that the system undergoes various morphological changes as the interfiber distance, the elasticity and the tension of the fibers are varied. For a certain range of parameters, the liquid spreads along the fibers and pulls them together, leading to the ``zipping'' of the fibers. This capillary adhesion can then be enhanced or reduced by changing the tension within the fibers. We will show that balancing stretching and capillary forces allows the prediction of this transition as well as the conditions for which detachment of the fibers occurs. These results may be used to prevent the clogging of fibrous membranes or to optimize the capture of liquids.

  7. Critical Capillary Number of Interfacial Film Displacement in a Capillary Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Changfei


    The role of surface tension and wettability in the dynamics of air-liquid interfaces during immiscible fluid displacement flows in capillary tube driven by pressure has been investigated. The contact angle and capillary number drive the force wetting processes which is controlled by the balance between the capillary and the viscous lubrication forces. The dynamic wetting condition with the critical capillary number is studied analytically and validated experimentally, which demonstrates that the critical capillary number is associated with the contact angle, slip length and capillary radius.

  8. Fragility estimates of smart structures with sensor faults (United States)

    Kim, Yeesock; Bai, Jong-Wha; Albano, Leonard D.


    In this paper, the impact of sensor faults within smart structures is investigated using seismic fragility analysis techniques. Seismic fragility analysis is one of the methods used to evaluate the vulnerability of structural systems under a broad range of earthquake events. It would play an important role in estimating seismic losses and in the decision making process based on vibration control performance of the smart structures during seismic events. In this study, a three-story building employing a highly nonlinear hysteretic magnetorheological (MR) damper is analyzed to estimate the seismic fragility of the smart control system. Different levels of sensor damage scenarios for smart structures are considered to provide a better understanding of the expected fragility estimates due to the impact of sensor failures. Probabilistic demand models are constructed with a Bayesian updating approach while the seismic capacity of smart structures is estimated based on the approximate structural performance of semi-actively controlled structures. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) of ground motion is used as a measure of earthquake intensity. Then the fragility curves for the smart structures are developed and compared with those for the semi-active control systems with different levels of sensor damage scenarios. The responses of an uncontrolled structure are used as a baseline. It is shown from the simulations that the proposed methodology is effective in quantifying the impact of sensor faults within smart structures.

  9. Special article: calculus breakability--fragility and durility. (United States)

    Dretler, S P


    Prior to the use of lithotripsy techniques, there was no requirement for a vocabulary to describe the relative breakability of a urinary calculus. With the introduction of lithotripsy, we became aware that calculi of different radiologic appearances or chemical compositions varied in their susceptibility to fragmentation. Because all truly new distinctions require new expressions to characterize them, we had to create a term to express this new distinction, and the term we chose was "stone fragility." Currently, if we see a 1-cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stone, we say it appears fragile ("easily broken," from the Latin frangere, "to break", but if we see a dense brushite or a cystine stone, we can describe it only in terms of fragile; i.e., "not fragile" or, incorrectly, "hard": an antonym for "fragile" does not exist. In the interest of common understanding and more accurate quantitation of stone breakability, a neologism is suggested that has an appropriate Latin root, is easily spoken, sounds authentic, and is useful. It is proposed that, in the interest of accuracy and as a reflection of our greater sophistication regarding stone breakability, we use the Latin root dur (hard, difficult) and a suffix ile (of, like, pertaining to) to create the terms "durile" (adj; pertaining to or capable of being difficult to break) and "durility" (noun; a quality of being difficult to break or fragment).

  10. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu


    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  11. Aging in Fragile X Premutation Carriers. (United States)

    Lozano, Reymundo; Saito, Naomi; Reed, Dallas; Eldeeb, Marwa; Schneider, Andrea; Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Beckett, Laurel; Hagerman, Randi


    It is now recognized that FMR1 premutation carriers (PC) are at risk to develop a range of neurological, psychiatric, and immune-mediated disorders during adulthood. There are conflicting findings regarding the incidence of hypertension, hypothyroidism, diabetes, and cancer in these patients that warrant further study. A retrospective controlled study was performed in a convenience sample of 248 controls (130 men, 118 women) and 397 FMR1 PC with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) (176 men, 221 women); all participants were at least 45 years old (men: mean 62.4, SD 9.5; women: mean 62.8, SD 9.9; p = 0.63). Memory and cognitive assessments (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III)) and molecular testing (CGG repeats and FMR1-mRNA levels) were performed. Additional data included body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and medical history. A higher percentage of PC subjects self-reported having a diagnosis of hypertension (50.0 vs. 35.0 %, p = 0.006) and thyroid problems (20.4 vs. 10.0 %, p = 0.012) than control subjects. When comparing controls versus PC with FXTAS, the association was higher for diabetes (p = 0.043); however, the effect was not significant after adjusting for demographic predictors. Blood pressure, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and BMI values were not significantly different between the two groups. The PC with FXTAS group performed consistently lower in neuropsychological testing compared with the PC without FXTAS group, but the differences were very small for all but the WAIS full-scale IQ. Based on these findings, it appears that the risk for hypertension, thyroid problems, and diabetes may be more frequent in PC with FXTAS, which will require verification in future studies.

  12. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Livingston


    /pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants.

  13. Whole-of-Government Approaches to Fragile States in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye


    For a number of years fragile states have been high on the foreign policy agendas of the USA and the EU. Both actors look upon fragile states with great concern and consider them as security threats. Officially they give priority to ‘whole-of-government approaches’ (wga) when addressing the threats...... a lack of European interests in the fragile states on continent....... from these states. However, there is a gap between the policy declarations and the policies implemented by the two actors. The missing link in the implementation of wga in Africa is explained by two variables: on the one hand, material interests in the continent and, on the other hand, the institutions...

  14. A nonsense mutation in FMR1 causing fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Dedic, Alma


    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by lack of the FMR1 gene product FMRP. The most frequent cause is the expansion of a CGG repeat located in the 5'UTR of FMR1. Alleles with 200 or more repeats become hypermethylated and transcriptionally silent....... Only few patients with intragenic point mutations in FMR1 have been reported and, currently, routine analysis of patients referred for fragile X syndrome includes solely analysis for repeat expansion and methylation status. We identified a substitution in exon 2 of FMR1, c.80C>A, causing a nonsense...... mutation p.Ser27X, in a patient with classical clinical symptoms of fragile X syndrome. The mother who carried the mutation in heterozygous form presented with mild intellectual impairment. We conclude that further studies including western blot and DNA sequence analysis of the FMR1 gene should...

  15. Fragility in the 14q21q translocation region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Denison


    Full Text Available Aphidicolin (APC-induced chromosomal breakage was analyzed for women representing three generations of a single family and carrying a Robertsonian translocation rob(14q21q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis confirmed the dicentric constitution of the derived chromosome and indicated the absence of beta-satellite signal at the translocation region. Per-individual analysis of metaphases from APC-treated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures identified significantly nonrandom chromosomal breakage at the translocation region in all three individuals examined. The APC-inducible fragility at the 14q21q translocation region suggests that this rearrangement was the result of chromosomal mutation at fragile site(s in the progenitor chromosomes, or that this fragility was the result of the fusion of nonfragile progenitor chromosomes.

  16. Fragile X syndrome in two siblings with major congenital malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampietro, P.F.; Haas, B.R.; Lipper, E. [Cornell Univ. Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others


    We report on 2 brothers with both fragile X and VACTERL-H syndrome. The first sibling, age 5, had bilateral cleft lip and palate, ventricular septal defect, and a hypoplastic thumb. The second sibling, age 2{1/2}, had a trachesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, and vertebral abnormality. High-resolution chromosome analysis showed a 46,XY chromosome constitution in both siblings. By PCR and Southern blot analysis, the siblings were found to have large triplet repeat expansions in the fragile X gene (FMR 1) and both had methylation mosaicism. Enzyme kinetic studies of iduronate sulfatase demonstrated a two-fold increase in activity in the first sib as compared to the second. Possible mechanisms through which the fragile X mutation can cause down-regulation of adjacent loci are discussed. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)


    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  18. Measurement of Liquid Viscosities in Tapered or Parabolic Capillaries. (United States)

    Ershov; Zorin; Starov


    The possibility of using tapered or parabolic capillaries for measurement of liquid viscosities is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that even small deviations in capillary radius from a constant value may substantially affect measurement results. Equations are derived which allow correct analysis of the measurement results in tapered or parabolic capillaries. The following cases are analyzed: a water imbibition into a tapered or parabolic capillary and displacement of one liquid by another immiscible liquid in tapered or parabolic capillaries. Two possibilities are considered: (a) the narrow end of the capillary as capillary inlet and (b) the wide end of the capillary as capillary inlet. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidative stress in experimental hypothyroidism. (United States)

    Dariyerli, Nuran; Toplan, Selmin; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can; Hatemi, Husrev; Yigit, Gunnur


    The present study was planned to explain the relation between erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidative stress and antioxidant statue in primary hypothyroid-induced experimental rats. Twenty-four Spraque Dawley type female rats were divided into two, as control (n = 12) and experimental (n = 12), groups weighing between 160 and 200 g. The experimental group animals have received tap water methimazole added standard fodder to block the iodine pumps for 30 d (75 mg/100 g). Control group animals were fed tap water and only standard fodder for the same period. At the end of 30 d blood samples were drawn from the abdominal aorta of the rats under ether anesthesia. T3, T4, and TSH levels were measured and the animals that had relatively lower T3, T4, and higher TSH levels were accepted as hypothyroid group. Hormone levels of the control group were at euthyroid conditions. Osmotic fragility, as a lipid peroxidation indicator malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant defense system indicators superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the blood samples. Osmotic fragility test results: There was no statistically significant difference found between maximum osmotic hemolysis limit values of both group. Minimum osmotic hemolysis limit value of hypothyroid group was found to be higher than that of control group values (p proof of increased osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes in hypothyroidism. There is no statistically significant difference found between hypothyroid and control groups in the lipid peroxidation indicator MDA and antioxidant indicators SOD and GSH levels. As a result of our study it may be concluded that hypothyroidism may lead to an increase in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes. But the increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility does not originate from lipid peroxidation.

  20. DNA topoisomerases participate in fragility of the oncogene RET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W Dillon

    Full Text Available Fragile site breakage was previously shown to result in rearrangement of the RET oncogene, resembling the rearrangements found in thyroid cancer. Common fragile sites are specific regions of the genome with a high susceptibility to DNA breakage under conditions that partially inhibit DNA replication, and often coincide with genes deleted, amplified, or rearranged in cancer. While a substantial amount of work has been performed investigating DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint proteins vital for maintaining stability at fragile sites, little is known about the initial events leading to DNA breakage at these sites. The purpose of this study was to investigate these initial events through the detection of aphidicolin (APH-induced DNA breakage within the RET oncogene, in which 144 APH-induced DNA breakpoints were mapped on the nucleotide level in human thyroid cells within intron 11 of RET, the breakpoint cluster region found in patients. These breakpoints were located at or near DNA topoisomerase I and/or II predicted cleavage sites, as well as at DNA secondary structural features recognized and preferentially cleaved by DNA topoisomerases I and II. Co-treatment of thyroid cells with APH and the topoisomerase catalytic inhibitors, betulinic acid and merbarone, significantly decreased APH-induced fragile site breakage within RET intron 11 and within the common fragile site FRA3B. These data demonstrate that DNA topoisomerases I and II are involved in initiating APH-induced common fragile site breakage at RET, and may engage the recognition of DNA secondary structures formed during perturbed DNA replication.

  1. A New Conductivity Detector for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new conductivity detector for capillary electrophoresis consisting of an electrochemical cell and a conductive meter was developed. In the cell, the microelectrode and capillary were inserted through the cell wall and fixed by screws and sealing ring, the ends of microelectrode and capillary were located by a guide with two cross holes. LOD for K+ was 1.5×10-5 mol/L.

  2. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Barry Karger


    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Felicia Faienza


    Full Text Available Bone fragility is recognized as one of major comorbidities in Turner Syndrome (TS. The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone (rGH therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on BMD is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies.

  4. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome


    Knoth, Inga S.; Lippé, Sarah


    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability (ID), associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the “fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)”, which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unv...

  5. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies. (United States)

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina


    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies.

  6. Semi-Fragile Watermarking for Copyright Protection and Image Authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-feng


    In this paper, we propose a semi-fragile watermarking technology for copyright protection and image authentication. We transform the image into wavelet domain and group the four adjacent wavelet coefficients. Utilizing the characteristics of the human visual system, we embed a digital signal into the average of the four adjacent wavelet coefficients since the mean has better stability than single wavelet coefficient. This method needn't original image when extracts the watermark. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method which is robust to common image process and fragile to malicious attack.

  7. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰


    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  8. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states-Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Mauch; D. Weil; A. Munim; F. Boillot; R. Coninx; S. Huseynova; C. Powell; A. Seita; H. Wembanyama; S. van den Hof


    Objectives: Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived.

  9. Fragile X-Associated Disorders (FXD): A Handbook for Families, Health Care Providers, Counselors, and Educators (United States)

    Fragile X-associated Disorders (FXD) A Handbook for Families, Health Care Providers, Counselors, and Educators For Personal Use Only ... contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Section 1: Genetics of Fragile X-Associated Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Case Scenario of a Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

  10. Capillary electrophoresis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Paul D


    This book is designed to be a practical guide, used by wide audience, including those new to CE, those more experienced, routine users, those interested in technology development, and those involved with applications research. References have been emphasized to allow the reader to explore the detailed specifics and theoretical foundations.This book draws together the rapidly evolving, diverse, and multidisciplinary subject of capillary electrophoresis (CE). It is designed as a practical guide to be used by a wide audience, including those new to CE as well as more experienced users. T

  11. Electromigration dispersion in Capillary Electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen; 10.1007/s11538-011-9708-7


    In a previous paper (S. Ghosal and Z. Chen Bull. Math. Biol. 2010, vol. 72, pg. 2047) it was shown that the evolution of the solute concentration in capillary electrophoresis is described by a nonlinear wave equation that reduced to Burger's equation if the nonlinearity was weak. It was assumed that only strong electrolytes (fully dissociated) were present. In the present paper it is shown that the same governing equation also describes the situation where the electrolytic buffer consists of a single weak acid (or base). A simple approximate formula is derived for the dimensionless peak variance which is shown to agree well with published experimental data.

  12. Capillary Bridges between Soft Substrates (United States)

    Wexler, Jason S.; Heard, Tiara M.; Stone, Howard A.


    A wetting droplet trapped in the thin gap between two elastic bodies will deflect the bodies towards one another. The deformation increases the total capillary adhesion force by increasing the contact radius and narrowing the gap height. For flat droplets, with a large ratio of radius to gap height, the Laplace pressure causes surface deformations that are orders of magnitude larger than those induced by a sessile droplet of the same radius. We present experiments, scalings, and closed-form solutions that describe the deformation. Using variational techniques, we also show that the problem exhibits a bifurcation, where the gap spontaneously closes due to an incremental increase in drop volume.

  13. Between Development and Security: The European Union, Governance and Fragile States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)


    textabstractOver the past five to seven years, most international aid donors have started to pay attention to so-called ‘fragile states’. Generally, the interest in state fragility was spurred by security considerations in the wake of the terrorist attacks of ‘9/11’. Fragile states came to be seen a

  14. Differential Impact of the "FMR1" Gene on Visual Processing in Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Kogan, Cary S.; Boutet, Isabelle; Cornish, Kim; Zangenehpour, Shahin; Mullen, Kathy T.; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Kaloustian, Vazken M. Der; Andermann, Eva; Chaudhuri, Avi


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of heritable mental retardation, affecting (~ around) 1 in 4000 males. The syndrome arises from expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the 5'-untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 ("FMR1") gene, leading to methylation of the promoter sequence and lack of the fragile X mental…

  15. Strategy for reliable prenatal detection of normal male carriers of the fragile X syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); W.H. Deelen (Wouter); C.S. Verma (Chandra); B.A. Oostra (Ben)


    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of fragile X syndrome identifying full mutations has been described. Here we report on a case of a prenatal test concerning a normal male carrier of the fragile X syndrome. Southern blot analysis of the fragile X gene resulted in the identification of a premutation in

  16. Theory of Mind Deficits in Children with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Cornish, K.; Burack, J. A.; Rahman, A.; Munir, F.; Russo, N.; Grant, C.


    Given the consistent findings of theory of mind deficits in children with autism, it would be extremely beneficial to examine the profile of theory of mind abilities in other clinical groups such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS). The aim of the present study was to assess whether boys with FXS are impaired in simple social…

  17. Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models (United States)

    Karaca, E.; Luco, N.


    We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

  18. Synaptic vesicle dynamic changes in a model of fragile X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Broek (Jantine); Z. Lin (Zhanmin); H.M. de Gruiter (H. Martijn); H. van 't Spijker (Heleen); E.D. Haasdijk (Elize); D. Cox (David); S. Ozcan (Sureyya); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); R. Willemsen (Rob); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); S. Bahn (Sabine)


    markdownabstract__Background:__ Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single-gene disorder that is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). FXS is caused by an expansion of trinucleotide repeats in the promoter regio

  19. Noninvasive test for fragile X syndrome, using hair root analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Willemsen (Rob); B. Anar (Burcu); Y. de Diego Otero (Yolanda); B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); Y. Hilhorst-Hofstee (Yvonne); A. Smits; E. van Looveren; P.J. Willems (Patrick); H. Galjaard (Hans); B.A. Oostra (Ben)


    textabstractIdentification of the FMR1 gene and the repeat-amplification mechanism causing fragile X syndrome led to development of reliable DNA-based diagnostic methods, including Southern blot hybridization and PCR. Both methods are performed on DNA isolated from peri

  20. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter


    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  1. Mothers' Economic Conditions and Sources of Support in Fragile Families (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca M.


    Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic…

  2. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D;


    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM ...

  3. Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.


    Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

  4. Open-Label Memantine in Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A.; Mullett, Jennifer E.; McDougle, Christopher J.


    Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of memantine for a number of target symptoms associated with FXS. Medical records describing open-label treatment with memantine in 6 patients with FXS and a comorbid…

  5. What Are the Symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome? (United States)

    ... as tone of voice or specific types of body language. Girls usually do not have severe problems with speech or language. Some children with Fragile X begin talking later than ... feels on their bodies. These sensory issues might cause them to act ...

  6. Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn


    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…

  7. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome (United States)

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf


    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  8. Autism Profiles of Males With Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Harris, Susan W.; Hessl, David; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Ferranti, Jessica; Bacalman, Susan; Barbato, Ingrid; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Paul J.; Herman, Kristin; Hagerman, Randi J.


    Autism, which is common in individuals with fragile X syndrome, is often difficult to diagnose. We compared the diagnostic classifications of two measures for autism diagnosis, the ADOS and the ADI-R, in addition to the DSM-IV-TR in 63 males with this syndrome. Overall, 30% of the subjects met criteria for autistic disorder and 30% met criteria…

  9. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.


    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications.

  10. Infant Development in Fragile X Syndrome: Cross-Syndrome Comparisons (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.


    This study examined the developmental profile of male infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its divergence from typical development and development of infants at high risk for autism associated with familial recurrence (ASIBs). Participants included 174 boys ranging in age from 5 to 28 months. Cross-sectional profiles on the Mullen Scales of…

  11. White Religious Educators Resisting White Fragility: Lessons from Mystics (United States)

    Hess, Mary E.


    Decades of work in dismantling racism have not yielded the kind of results for which religious educators have hoped. One primary reason has been what scholars term "white fragility," a symptom of the structural racism which confers systemic privilege upon White people. Lessons learned from Christian mystics point to powerful ways to…

  12. Fiscal deficits, financial fragility, and the effectiveness of government policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; van Wijnbergen, S.


    Recent developments in the euro area highlighted the interactions between fiscal policy, sovereign debt and financial fragility. We introduce asset choice and sovereign debt holdings in banks’ portfolios in an otherwise standard macroeconomic model with financial frictions, to emphasize a new crowdi

  13. The False Coin Problem, Mathematical Induction and Knowledge Fragility. (United States)

    Movshovitz-Hadar, Nitsa


    Shows fragility of knowledge in connection with a false application of mathematical induction, as observed in a problem-solving course for prospective teachers. The attempt to explain the observations is based upon an analysis of the logic underlying proof by mathematical induction and a concept formation theory. (MKR)

  14. Fragile X Syndrome--From Genes to Cognition (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Hagerman, R. J.; Hessl, D.


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a single gene disorder with an expanded CGG allele on the X chromosome, is the most common form of inherited cognitive impairment. The cognitive deficit ranges from mild learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability. The phenotype includes hyperactivity, short attention span, emotional problems including…

  15. The Neuroanatomy and Neuroendocrinology of Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Hessl, David; Rivera, Susan M.; Reiss, Allan L.


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by a single gene mutation on the X chromosome, offers a unique opportunity for investigation of gene-brain-behavior relationships. Recent advances in molecular genetics, human brain imaging, and behavioral studies have started to unravel the complex pathways leading to the cognitive, psychiatric, and physical…

  16. A new insight into fragile X syndrome among Basque population. (United States)

    Peñagarikano, Olga; Gil, Alberto; Télez, Mercedes; Ortega, Begoña; Flores, Piedad; Veiga, Isabel; Peixoto, Ana; Criado, Begoña; Arrieta, Isabel


    The expansion of a trinucleotide repeat [CGG]n located in the FMR1 X-linked gene is the main cause of fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation. We have analyzed the factors known, to date, to influence the instability of the repeat in 158 normal X chromosomes from the Spanish Basque population. These factors included length of the repeat, AGG interspersion pattern, length of uninterrupted CGG and DXS548-FRAXAC1 markers associated haplotype. Previous investigations on Basques showed an absence of this disorder among mentally retarded individuals that was likely due to a low prevalence of large CGG alleles and the presence of AGG interruptions on them. The present report suggests that, although the frequency of large alleles is low and they do maintain AGG interruptions, different mutational pathways that might lead to fragile X syndrome could be occurring among Basques. These pathways mainly include alleles with internal sequences 9 + 9 + n and 9 + 12 + 9 that show fragile X associated haplotypes. Besides, the lack of the most proximal AGG interruption, proposed recently as a novel factor involved in CGG repeat instability, was highly identified among alleles with long pure CGG tracts, which showed an internal sequence n + 9. The data suggest that, despite the lower incidence of large alleles, the prevalence of potentially unstable alleles among Basques is similar to that of other Caucasian populations and that these alleles could become fragile X chromosomes.

  17. Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; Yeshua, Talia; Palchan, Mila; Lovsky, Yulia; Taha, Hesham


    Lithography based on scanning probe microscopic techniques has considerable potential for accurate & localized deposition of material on the nanometer scale. Controlled deposition of metallic features with high purity and spatial accuracy is of great interest for circuit edit applications in the semiconductor industry, for plasmonics & nanophotonics and for basic research in surface enhanced Raman scattering & nanobiophysics. Within the context of metal deposition we will review the development of fountain pen nanochemistry and its most recent emulation Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (ACCE). Using this latter development we will demonstrate achievement of unprecedented control of nanoparticle deposition using a three-electrode geometry. Three electrodes are attached: one on the outside of a metal coated glass probe, one on the inside of a hollow probe in a solution containing Au nanoparticles in the capillary, and a third on the surface where the writing takes place. The three electrodes provide electrical pulses for accurate control of deposition and retraction of the liquid from the surface overcoming the lack of control seen in both dip pen lithography & fountain pen nanochemistry when the tip contacts the surface. With this development, we demonstrate depositing a single 1.3 nm Au nanoparticle onto surfaces such as semiconductors.

  18. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail:; Lega, J., E-mail:


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  19. Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards (United States)

    Ham, H. J.; Lee, S.; Choi, S. H.; Yun, W. S.


    Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards Hee Jung Ham1, Seung-Hun Choi1, Woo-Seok Yun1, Sungsu Lee2 1Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea 2Division of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Korea ABSTRACT In this study, fragility functions are developed to estimate expected volcanic ash damages of the agricultural sector in Korea. The fragility functions are derived from two approaches: 1) empirical approach based on field observations of impacts to agriculture from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano in Indonesia and 2) the FOSM (first-order second-moment) analytical approach based on distribution and thickness of volcanic ash observed from the 1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens and agricultural facility specifications in Korea. Fragility function to each agricultural commodity class is presented by a cumulative distribution function of the generalized extreme value distribution. Different functions are developed to estimate production losses from outdoor and greenhouse farming. Seasonal climate influences vulnerability of each agricultural crop and is found to be a crucial component in determining fragility of agricultural commodities to an ash fall. In the study, the seasonality coefficient is established as a multiplier of fragility function to consider the seasonal vulnerability. Yields of the different agricultural commodities are obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service to create a baseline for future agricultural volcanic loss estimation. Numerically simulated examples of scenario ash fall events at Mt. Baekdu volcano are utilized to illustrate the application of the developed fragility functions. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Development of Advanced Volcanic Disaster Response System considering Potential Volcanic Risk around Korea' [MPSS-NH-2015-81] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, Ministry of Public Safety and Security of

  20. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.


    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  1. Capillary waveguide optrodes for Medical applications (United States)

    Kieslinger, Dietmar; Weigl, Bernhard H.; Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.


    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. The capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Different optical setups have been investigated and compared regarding its waveguiding properties.

  2. Modeling capillary forces for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrangeli, M.; Arutinov, G.; Smits, E.C.P.; Lambert, P.


    Originally applied to the accurate, passive positioning of submillimetric devices, recent works proved capillary self-alignment as effective also for larger components and relatively large initial offsets. In this paper, we describe an analytic quasi-static model of 1D capillary restoring forces tha

  3. Capillary electrophoresis using core-based hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (CHPEI) static-coated capillaries. (United States)

    Boonyakong, Cheerapa; Tucker, Sheryl A


    With unique 3-D architecture, the application of core-based hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (CHPEI), as a capillary coating in capillary electrophoresis, is demonstrated by manipulation of the electroosmotic mobility (EOF). CHPEI coatings (CHPEI5, M(w) approximately 5000 and CHPEI25, M(w) approximately 25,000) were physically adsorbed onto the inner surface of bare fused-silica capillary (BFS) via electrostatic interaction of the oppositely charged molecules by rinsing the capillaries with different CHPEI aqueous solutions. The EOF values of the coated capillaries were measured over the pH range of 4.0-9.0. At higher pH (pH >6) the coated capillary surface possesses excess negative charges, which causes the reversal of the EOF. The magnitudes of the EOF obtained from the coated capillaries were three-fold lower than that of BFS capillary. Desirable reproducibility of the EOF with % RSD (n = 5) capillaries were successfully utilized to separate phenolic compounds, B vitamins, as well as basic drugs and related compounds with reasonable analysis time (capillary and capillary).

  4. Clinical assessment tools identify functional deficits in fragility fracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames TD


    Full Text Available Tyler D Ames,1 Corinne E Wee,1 Khoi M Le,1 Tiffany L Wang,1 Julie Y Bishop,2 Laura S Phieffer,2 Carmen E Quatman2 1The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 2Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Purpose: To identify inexpensive, noninvasive, portable, clinical assessment tools that can be used to assess functional performance measures that may put older patients at risk for falls such as balance, handgrip strength, and lumbopelvic control.Patients and methods: Twenty fragility fracture patients and 21 healthy control subjects were evaluated using clinical assessment tools (Nintendo Wii Balance Board [WBB], a handheld dynamometer, and an application for the Apple iPod Touch, the Level Belt that measure functional performance during activity of daily living tasks. The main outcome measurements were balance (WBB, handgrip strength (handheld dynamometer, and lumbopelvic control (iPod Touch Level Belt, which were compared between fragility fracture patients and healthy controls.Results: Fragility fracture patients had lower scores on the vertical component of the WBB Torso Twist task (P=0.042 and greater medial–lateral lumbopelvic sway during a 40 m walk (P=0.026 when compared to healthy controls. Unexpectedly, the fracture patients had significantly higher scores on the left leg (P=0.020 and total components (P=0.010 of the WBB Single Leg Stand task as well as less faults during the left Single Leg Stand task (P=0.003.Conclusion: The clinical assessment tools utilized in this study are relatively inexpensive and portable tools of performance measures capable of detecting differences in postural sway between fragility fracture patients and controls. Keywords: fall risk, geriatric fracture, Nintendo Wii Balance Board, Level Belt, fragility fracture

  5. Vitamin E effect on osmotic fragility in β thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Fitrianto


    Full Text Available Background Blood transfusion remains the main therapy for anemia in β thalassemia major patients. However, frequent transfusions can cause oxidative stress in response to iron overload. Vitamin E is considered to be the best lipid-soluble exogenous antioxidant in humans. It can protect phospholipid membrane from peroxidation. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility is a useful test to assess for the improvement of red blood cells in thalassemia patients after vitamin E supplementation. Objective To investigate the effect of vitamin E for improving erythrocyte osmotic fragility in β- thalassemia major and for decreasing the need for frequent transfusions. Methods This was a double blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial on children aged 2-14 years with thalassemia major who received frequent blood transfusions. Fifty subjects were divided into 2 groups: group I with vitamin E supplementation and group II with placebo, as a control group, for a period of 1 month. Pre- and post-treatment data on erythrocyte osmotic fragility and hemoglobin level were analyzed with non-paired T-test. Results Improved erythrocyte osmotic fragility was found: in group I, pre-treatment 31.59 (SD 6.342% to post-treatment 38.08 (SD 7.165%, compared to the control group pre-treatment 34.40 (SD 6.985% to post-treatment 29.26 (SD 9.011% (P=0.0001. Comparison of the mean delta Hb level in group I was 0.94 (SD 0.605 gr% and that of group II was - 0.23 (SD 1.199 gr% (P= 0.0001. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation improves erythrocyte fragility and Hb level in β-thalassemia major pediatric patients. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:280-3.].

  6. Fragile X gene instability: Anchoring AGGs and linked microsatellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Nan; Yang, Weihong; Dobkin, C. [Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others


    Interspersed AGGs within the FMR1 gene CGG repeat region may anchor the sequence and prevent slippage during replication. In order to detect the AGG position variations, we developed a method employing partial MnlI restriction analysis and analyzed X chromosomes from 187 males, including 133 normal controls (17 with 20-34 and 16 with 35-52 repeats), plus 54 fragile X premutations with 56-180 repeats. Among controls, the interspersed AGG positions were highly polymorphic, with heterozygosity of 91%. Among the control samples, 1.5% had no AGG positions, 25% had one, 71% had two, and 3% had three. Among the fragile X premutation samples, 63% had no AGG, while 37% had only one AGG. Analysis of premutation samples within fragile X families showed that variation occurred only within the 3{prime} end of the region. Thus, the instability was polar. Controls with {ge}15 pure CGG repeats were associated with the longest alleles of two nearby microsatellites, FRAXAC1 with 20-21 repeats and DXS548 with 202-206 bp and with increased microsatellite heterzygosity. The association of long pure CGG regions, as with fragile X chromosomes, with the longer and more heterozygous microsatellite alleles suggests they may be related mechanistically. Further, our results do not support a recent suggestion that the frequency of fragile X alleles may be increasing. Finally, analysis of a set of nonhuman primate samples showed that long pure CGG tracks are variable in size and are located within the 3{prime} region, which suggests that polar instability within FMR1 is evolutionarily quite old. 55 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Fragile X premutation is a significant risk factor for premature ovarian failure: the International Collaborative POF in Fragile X study--preliminary data. (United States)

    Allingham-Hawkins, D J; Babul-Hirji, R; Chitayat, D; Holden, J J; Yang, K T; Lee, C; Hudson, R; Gorwill, H; Nolin, S L; Glicksman, A; Jenkins, E C; Brown, W T; Howard-Peebles, P N; Becchi, C; Cummings, E; Fallon, L; Seitz, S; Black, S H; Vianna-Morgante, A M; Costa, S S; Otto, P A; Mingroni-Netto, R C; Murray, A; Webb, J; Vieri, F


    The preliminary results of an international collaborative study examining premature menopause in fragile X carriers are presented. A total of 760 women from fragile X families was surveyed about their fragile X carrier status and their menstrual and reproductive histories. Among the subjects, 395 carried a premutation, 128 carried a full mutation, and 237 were noncarriers. Sixty-three (16%) of the premutation carriers had experienced menopause prior to the age of 40 compared with none of the full mutation carriers and one (0.4%) of the controls. Based on these preliminary data, there is a significant association between fragile X premutation carrier status and premature menopause.

  8. The psychiatric presentation of fragile x: evolution of the diagnosis and treatment of the psychiatric comorbidities of fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Tranfaglia, Michael R


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders worldwide. It presents with a distinct behavioral phenotype which overlaps significantly with that of autism. Unlike autism and most common psychiatric disorders, the neurobiology of fragile X is relatively well understood. Lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein causes dysregulation of synaptically driven protein synthesis, which in turn causes global disruption of synaptic plasticity. Thus, FXS can be considered a disorder of synaptic plasticity, and a developmental disorder in the purest sense: mutation of the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) gene results in abnormal synaptic development in response to experience. Accumulation of this abnormal synaptic development, over time, leads to a characteristic and surprisingly consistent behavioral phenotype of attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsivity, multiple anxiety symptoms, repetitive/perseverative/stereotypic behaviors, unstable affect, aggression, and self-injurious behavior. Many features of the behavioral and psychiatric phenotype of FXS follow a developmental course, waxing and waning over the life span. In most cases, symptoms present as a mixed clinical picture, not fitting established diagnostic categories. There have been many clinical trials in fragile X subjects, but no placebo-controlled trials of adequate size or methodology utilizing the most commonly prescribed psychiatric medications. However, large and well-designed trials of investigational agents which target the underlying pathology of FXS have recently been completed or are under way. While the literature offers little guidance to the clinician treating patients with FXS today, potentially disease-modifying treatments may be available in the near future.

  9. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla


    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  10. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (United States)

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo


    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  11. Two-dimensional capillary origami (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  12. Capillary Separation: Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (United States)

    Terabe, Shigeru


    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), a separation mode of capillary electrophoresis (CE), has enabled the separation of electrically neutral analytes. MEKC can be performed by adding an ionic micelle to the running solution of CE without modifying the instrument. Its separation principle is based on the differential migration of the ionic micelles and the bulk running buffer under electrophoresis conditions and on the interaction between the analyte and the micelle. Hence, MEKC's separation principle is similar to that of chromatography. MEKC is a useful technique particularly for the separation of small molecules, both neutral and charged, and yields high-efficiency separation in a short time with minimum amounts of sample and reagents. To improve the concentration sensitivity of detection, several on-line sample preconcentration techniques such as sweeping have been developed.

  13. Equipment fragility data base. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cover, L.E.


    Part of the effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has been directed at generating a fragility data base for equipment used in control and safety systems in commercial nuclear power plants. Component fragility data have been compiled in various forms, depending on their content, intended use, and level of reduction. The data are stored in a relational data base on the LLNL CEC 7600 computers; this provides easy accessibility for LLNL computer users. This report describes the present structure of the data base and presents its contents through the use of tables. This report is a revision of an earlier one of the same name and numbers (NUREG/CR-2680) and (UCRL-53038). Additional data have been included and the presentation has been revised to enhance its usability.

  14. Strong to fragile transition in a model of liquid silica


    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Badro, James; Gillet, Philippe


    The transport properties of an ionic model for liquid silica at high temperatures and pressure are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. With increasing pressure, a clear change from "strong" to "fragile" behaviour (according to Angell's classification of glass-forming liquids) is observed, albeit only on the small viscosity range that can be explored in MD simulations.. This change is related to structural changes, from an almost perfect four-fold coordination to an imperfect fi...

  15. Craniofacial characteristics of fragile X syndrome in mouse and man



    For a disorder as common as fragile X syndrome, the most common hereditary form of cognitive impairment, the facial features are relatively ill defined. An elongated face and prominent ears are the most commonly accepted dysmorphic hallmarks. We analysed 3D facial photographs of 51 males and 15 females with full FMR1 mutations and 9 females with a premutation using dense-surface modelling techniques and a new technique that forms a directed graph with normalized face shapes as nodes and edges...

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Minocycline: Therapeutic Avenues for Fragile X Syndrome


    Siller, Saul S; Kendal Broadie


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS patients suffer a broad range of other neurological symptoms, including hyperactivity, disrupted circadian activity cycles, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and childhood seizures. The high incidence and devastating effects of this disease state make finding effective pharmacological treatments imperative. Recently, reports in both mouse and Drosophila FXS disease models ...

  17. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse


    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Silverman, Jill L.; Crawley, Jacqueline N


    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively si...

  18. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome


    Rueda Martínez de Santos, José Ramón; Ballesteros Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Tejada, María Isabel


    Es rerproducción del documento publicado en Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods: Systematic review of the literature and...

  19. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome


    Rueda, Jose-Ramon; BALLESTEROS, JAVIER; Tejada, Maria-Isabel


    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one pharmacol...

  20. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome


    Tejada Maria-Isabel; Ballesteros Javier; Rueda Jose-Ramon


    Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one ...

  1. Screening and diagnosis for the fragile X syndrome among the mentally retarded: an epidemiological and psychological survey. Collaborative Fragile X Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); A. Tibben (Arend); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); S. Mohkamsing; H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); E. Mol; K. Gelsema; M. van Rijn; D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk)


    textabstractThe fragile X syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation disorder caused by an expanded CGG repeat in the first exon of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene. Its frequency, X-linked inheritance, and consequences for relatives all prompt for diagnosis

  2. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.


    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  3. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. (United States)

    Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J


    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects some but not all carriers of small, noncoding CGG-repeat expansions (55-200 repeats; premutation) within the fragile X gene (FMR1). Principal features of FXTAS include intention tremor, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, memory and executive function deficits, autonomic dysfunction, brain atrophy with white matter disease, and cognitive decline. Although FXTAS was originally considered to be confined to the premutation range, rare individuals with a gray zone (45-54 repeats) or an unmethylated full mutation (>200 repeats) allele have now been described, the constant feature of the disorder remaining the requirement for FMR1 expression, in contradistinction to the gene silencing mechanism of fragile X syndrome. Although transcriptional activity is required for FXTAS pathogenesis, the specific trigger(s) for FXTAS pathogenesis remains elusive, highlighting the need for more research in this area. This need is underscored by recent neuroimaging findings of changes in the central nervous system that consistently appear well before the onset of clinical symptoms, thus creating an opportunity to delay or prevent the appearance of FXTAS.

  4. Craniofacial characteristics of fragile X syndrome in mouse and man. (United States)

    Heulens, Inge; Suttie, Michael; Postnov, Andrei; De Clerck, Nora; Perrotta, Concetta S; Mattina, Teresa; Faravelli, Francesca; Forzano, Francesca; Kooy, R Frank; Hammond, Peter


    For a disorder as common as fragile X syndrome, the most common hereditary form of cognitive impairment, the facial features are relatively ill defined. An elongated face and prominent ears are the most commonly accepted dysmorphic hallmarks. We analysed 3D facial photographs of 51 males and 15 females with full FMR1 mutations and 9 females with a premutation using dense-surface modelling techniques and a new technique that forms a directed graph with normalized face shapes as nodes and edges linking those with closest dysmorphism. In addition to reconfirming known features, we confirmed the occurrence of some at an earlier age than previously recorded. We also identified as yet unrecorded facial characteristics such as reduced facial depth, hypoplasticity of the nasal bone-cartilage interface and narrow mid-facial width exaggerating ear prominence. As no consistent craniofacial abnormalities had been reported in animal models, we analysed micro-CT images of the fragile X mouse model. Results indicated altered dimensions in the mandible and both outer and inner skull, with the latter potentially reflecting differences in neuroanatomy. We extrapolated the mouse results to face shape differences of the human fragile X face.

  5. Premature ovarian failure (POF in Brazilian fragile X carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Vianna-Morgante


    Full Text Available The gynecological and reproductive histories of 193 women from fragile X families were surveyed. Among the 101 carriers of the premutation, 14 experienced premature menopause, contrarily to their 37 fully mutated and 55 noncarrier female relatives. Although premature menopause showed a tendency to cluster in certain fragile X families, as a group, the premutated women experienced menopause earlier than noncarriers. This suggests that premature menopause may be the extreme effect of a spectrum of ovarian anomalies associated with the fragile X premutation.Entrevistamos 193 mulheres de famílias com afetados pela síndrome do cromossomo X frágil, quanto a sua história ginecológica e reprodutiva. Entre as 101 portadoras da pré-mutação, 14 tiveram menopausa precoce, mas nenhuma das 37 portadoras da mutação completa ou das 55 não portadoras apresentaram esta anomalia. Observamos uma tendência para a concentração da menopausa precoce em certas famílias, o que poderia significar uma peculiariedade de certas pré-mutações. Entretanto, o fato de as mulheres pré-mutadas tenderem a entrar em menopausa mais cedo do que as não portadoras sugere que a menopausa precoce seja o extremo do espectro de efeitos ovarianos da pré-mutação.

  6. Applicability of chemically modified capillaries in chiral capillary electrophoresis for methamphetamine profiling. (United States)

    Iwata, Yuko T; Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki


    We examined the applicability of chemically modified capillaries on the chiral capillary electrophoresis of essential compounds for methamphetamine (MA) profiling (MA, amphetamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine) using highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector. Four types of chemically modified capillaries, namely, FunCap-CE/Type D (possessing diol groups), Type A (amino groups), Type C (carboxyl groups), and Type S (sulfate groups), were evaluated. Repeatability, speed, and good chiral resolution sufficient for routine MA profiling were achieved with the Type S capillary.

  7. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin coating for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Shah, Roopa S; Wang, Qinggang; Lee, Milton L


    Coating the interior surface of a fused-silica capillary with a polymeric material has long been used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to reduce or eliminate electroosmotic flow and suppress adsorption. A cycloaliphatic epoxide-based resin was bonded to silane treated capillaries and crosslinked with a curing agent. The epoxy resin coating significantly reduced electroosmotic flow over a pH range of 3-10. This coating was sufficiently hydrophilic to suppress protein adsorption. The epoxy resin coated capillary was used to separate several acidic and basic proteins and peptides. Separation efficiencies greater than 400,000 theoretical plates were achieved. The relative standard deviations in migration times for proteins were methods.

  8. Uptake of water droplets by nonwetting capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Geoff R; Hendy, Shaun C


    We present direct experimental evidence that water droplets can spontaneously penetrate non-wetting capillaries, driven by the action of Laplace pressure due to high droplet curvature. Using high-speed optical imaging, microcapillaries of radius 50 to 150 micron, and water microdroplets of average radius between 100 and 1900 micron, we demonstrate that there is a critical droplet radius below which water droplets can be taken up by hydrophobised glass and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillaries. The rate of capillary uptake is shown to depend strongly on droplet size, with smaller droplets being absorbed more quickly. Droplet size is also shown to influence meniscus motion in a pre-filled non-wetting capillary, and quantitative measurements of this effect result in a derived water-PTFE static contact angle between 96 degrees and 114 degrees. Our measurements confirm recent theoretical predictions and simulations for metal nanodroplets penetrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The results are relevant to a wide ...

  9. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P


    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.


    The electrophoretic behavior of bensulfuron Me, sulfometuron Me, nicosulfuron (Accent), chlorimuron Et, thifensulfuron Me (Harmony), metsulfuron Me, and chlorsulfuron was studied under capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) conditio...

  11. Capillary electrochromatography using fibers as stationary phases. (United States)

    Jinno, K; Watanabe, H; Saito, Y; Takeichi, T


    Fiber-packed capillary columns have been evaluated in chromatographic performance in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The change of electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity and selectivity using different kinds of fiber materials was examined. Although the EOF velocity among the different fiber packed columns was almost the same, retention of parabens was larger on the Kevlar-packed column than on the Zylon-packed one, and was larger on the as-span-type fiber-packed column than on the high-modulus-type packed one. Using 200 microm ID x 5 cm Kevlar packed column combined with a 100 microm ID x 20 cm precolumn capillary and a 530 microm ID x 45 cm postcolumn capillary, the separation of three parabens within 30 s was achieved. Other compounds were also separated in a few minutes by the fiber-packed CEC method.

  12. Capillary Optics generate stronger X-rays (United States)


    NASA scientist, in the Space Sciences lab at Marshall, works with capillary optics that generate more intense X-rays than conventional sources. This capability is useful in studying the structure of important proteins.

  13. Unusual intraosseous capillary hemangioma of the mandible. (United States)

    Dereci, Omur; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Ay, Sinan


    Intraosseous hemangioma is a benign vascular neoplasm, which is mostly seen in vertebrae, maxillofacial bones, and long bones. Intraosseous hemangioma is rarely seen on jaw bones compared to other skeletal bones and usually occurs in the cavernous form. Capillary intraosseous hemangioma of jaws is an uncommon form of intraosseous hemangioma and has not been thoroughly described so far. In this study, a case of capillary intraosseous hemangioma of the mandible was presented with relevant literature review.

  14. Unusual intraosseous capillary hemangioma of the mandible


    Dereci, Omur; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Ay, Sinan


    Intraosseous hemangioma is a benign vascular neoplasm, which is mostly seen in vertebrae, maxillofacial bones, and long bones. Intraosseous hemangioma is rarely seen on jaw bones compared to other skeletal bones and usually occurs in the cavernous form. Capillary intraosseous hemangioma of jaws is an uncommon form of intraosseous hemangioma and has not been thoroughly described so far. In this study, a case of capillary intraosseous hemangioma of the mandible was presented with relevant liter...

  15. Bundled capillary electrophoresis using microstructured fibres. (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin; Gibson, Graham T T; Oleschuk, Richard D


    Joule heating, arising from the electric current passing through the capillary, causes many undesired effects in CE that ultimately result in band broadening. The use of narrow-bore capillaries helps to solve this problem as smaller cross-sectional area results in decreased Joule heating and the rate of heat dissipation is increased by the larger surface-to-volume ratio. Issues arising from such small capillaries, such as poor detection sensitivity, low loading capacity and high flow-induced backpressure (complicating capillary loading) can be avoided by using a bundle of small capillaries operating simultaneously that share buffer reservoirs. Microstructured fibres, originally designed as waveguides in the telecommunication industry, are essentially a bundle of parallel ∼5 μm id channels that extend the length of a fibre having otherwise similar dimensions to conventional CE capillaries. This work presents the use of microstructured fibres for CZE, taking advantage of their relatively high surface-to-volume ratio and the small individual size of each channel to effect highly efficient separations, particularly for dye-labelled peptides.

  16. Ion guiding in curved glass capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Takao M. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, Tokihiro [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kanai, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yasunori [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    Straight and curved glass capillaries were tested for the guiding of 8 keV Ar{sup 8+} ion beams. The straight capillary was about 50 mm long and 0.87 mm/1.1 mm in inner/outer diameter. One of the two curved capillaries was similar, but was curved with a 270 mm radius. The other was 53 mm long, had diameters of 2.34 mm/2.99 mm, and was curved with a 150 mm radius. The corresponding bending angles of the two curved capillaries were 9.6° and 17.5°, respectively. Transmission through the straight capillary disappeared when the tilt angle was larger than 5°. The curved capillaries guided the ion beams into their corresponding bending angles, which were much larger than 5°, with transmission efficiencies of a few tens percent. This demonstrates the possibility of developing a new scheme of simple small beam deflectors and related beam optics.

  17. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries. (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji


    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis.

  18. Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Degraded Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Kim, M.K.; Choi, I-K.


    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Brookhaven National Laboratory are conducting a collaborative research project to develop seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the goals of this collaboration endeavor is to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The essential part of this collaboration is aimed at achieving a better understanding of the effects of aging on the performance of SSCs and ultimately on the safety of NPPs. A recent search of the degradation occurrences of structures and passive components (SPCs) showed that the rate of aging related degradation in NPPs was not significantly large but increasing, as the plants get older. The slow but increasing rate of degradation of SPCs can potentially affect the safety of the older plants and become an important factor in decision making in the current trend of extending the operating license period of the plants (e.g., in the U.S. from 40 years to 60 years, and even potentially to 80 years). The condition and performance of major aged NPP structures such as the containment contributes to the life span of a plant. A frequent misconception of such low degradation rate of SPCs is that such degradation may not pose significant risk to plant safety. However, under low probability high consequence initiating events, such as large earthquakes, SPCs that have slowly degraded over many years could potentially affect plant safety and these effects need to be better understood. As part of the KAERI-BNL collaboration, a condensate storage tank (CST) was analyzed to estimate its seismic fragility capacities under various postulated degradation scenarios. CSTs were shown to have a significant impact on the seismic core damage frequency of a nuclear power plant. The seismic fragility capacity of the CST was developed

  19. DNA testing for fragile X syndrome: implications for parents and family.


    van Rijn, M A; de Vries, B B; Tibben, A; van den Ouweland, A M; Halley, D J; Niermeijer, M F


    The fragile X syndrome is an X linked, semidominant mental retardation disorder caused by the amplification of a CGG repeat in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene. Nineteen fragile X families in which the mutated FMR1 gene segregated were evaluated. The implications of the diagnosis for the parents and family were studied through pedigree information, interviews, and questionnaires. Information about the heredity of fragile X syndrome was only disseminated by family members to a third (124/366) of th...

  20. Beyond the Factor of Safety: Developing Fragility Curves to Characterize System Reliability (United States)


    hysteretic devices. Computers and Structures 86: 1769–1781. Celik, O. C., and B. R. Ellingwood. 2008. Modeling beam- column joints in fragility...fragility curves for reinforced concrete frame structures using an empirical model of the shear and bond- slip behavior of beam column joints exposed...southeastern United States. Fragility curves were developed for five components of each bridge type ( columns , steel bearings, expansion bearings, fixed

  1. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient. (United States)

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal


    The electro-osmotic flow, a significant factor in capillary electrophoretic separations, is very sensitive to small changes in structure and surface roughness of the inner surface of fused silica capillary. Besides a number of negative effects, the electro-osmotic flow can also have a positive effect on the separation. An example could be fused silica capillaries with homogenous surface roughness along their entire separation length as produced by etching with supercritical water. Different strains of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were separated on that type of capillaries. In the present study, fused-silica capillaries with a gradient of surface roughness were prepared and their basic behavior was studied in capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-visible detection. First the influence of the electro-osmotic flow on the peak shape of a marker of electro-osmotic flow, thiourea, has been discussed. An antifungal agent, hydrophobic amphotericin B, and a protein marker, albumin, have been used as model analytes. A significant narrowing of the detected zones of the examined analytes was achieved in supercritical-water-treated capillaries as compared to the electrophoretic separation in smooth capillaries. Minimum detectable amounts of 5 ng/mL amphotericin B and 5 μg/mL albumin were reached with this method.

  2. Impaired skin capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; Tangelder, GJ; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA


    Capillary rarefaction occurs in many tissues in patients with essential hypertension and may contribute to an increased vascular resistance and impaired muscle metabolism. Rarefaction may be caused by a structural (anatomic) absence of capillaries, functional nonperfusion, or both. The aim of this s

  3. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A; Ramsay, Lauren M; Dada, Oluwatosin O; Cermak, Nathan; Dovichi, Norman J


    CIEF and CZE are coupled with LIF detection to create an ultrasensitive 2-D separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer-filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first-dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second-dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second-dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125.

  4. Hair root FMRP expression for screening of fragile X full mutation females


    Lantip Rujito; Dwi Kustiani; Lies Anne Severijnen; Peter Hanzon; Sultana MH Faradz; Rob Willemsen


    The fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, caused by an expansion of the cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeat in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene located on the X chromosome. Antibody tests have been developed to identify fragile X patients, based on the presence or absence of fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP) in both lymphocytes and hair roots. The objective of this study was to compare correlations of hair root and lympho...

  5. A Novel Polybrene/Chondroitin Sulfate C Double Coated Capillary and Its Application in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU,Ying-Xiang(杜迎翔); HONDA,Susumu; TAGA,Atsushi; LIU,Wen-Ying(刘文英); SUZUKI,Shigeo


    A new capillary coated by double polymer, polybrene/chondroitin sulfate C (P/CC), was developed using a simple procedure. The P/CC double coated capillary showed long lifetime,strong chemical stability and good reproducibility. It endured during more than 100 replicated analyses and was also tolerant to HCl (1 mol/L), NaOH (0.01 mol/L), CH3OH and CH3CN. The P/CC double coated capillary can be applied to basic drug analyses. The adsorption of basic drugs to the capillary wall was suppressed and the peak tailing greatly decreased. The use of the P/CC double coated capillary allowed excelent separation of the enantiomers of some basic drugs by using chondroitin sulfate C as the chiral selector, ami the peak symmetry of basic drugs was further improved under these conditions.

  6. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mertz


    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10{sup -3} that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  7. Thermodynamics and fragility of glass-forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battezzati, L., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro NIS, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dalla Fontana, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro NIS, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)


    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic and dynamic properties of metallic melts compared with those of other glass formers. ► Relationships between ΔS{sub g}/ΔC{sub p,g} and relevant temperatures for the glass demonstrated. ► Correspondence with either hyperbolic or Gaussian distribution of the states in the PEL shown. ► Correlations allow estimate of unknown quantities and pinpoint peculiar behavior of liquid. -- Abstract: The existing correlation between the extensive properties, ΔH and ΔS, the enthalpy and entropy difference between liquid and crystal phases has been checked to relate metallic glasses to other classes of amorphous materials. Expressing the specific heat difference, ΔC{sub p}, of molten and crystalline metallic glass-formers as a function of temperature with different functional trends, parametric expressions of fragility are derived using relevant temperatures for alloys. It is shown that relationships between the ΔS{sub g}/ΔC{sub p,g} ratio and such temperatures are useful to estimate unknown quantities when the experimental determination of the specific heat is possible. Thermodynamic indicators of fragility are compared to the kinetic fragility obtained from viscosity data accounting for the estimated errors on parameters which are derived from extrapolations. The outcome of the analysis indicates that a relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic parameters exists. Moreover a systematic scatter for some alloys indicates a diverse behavior which can be ascribed to structure modification either in the liquid or in the solid reference state.

  8. Kinetics of the glass transition of fragile soft colloidal suspensions (United States)

    Saha, Debasish; Joshi, Yogesh M.; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini


    Microscopic relaxation time scales are estimated from the autocorrelation functions obtained by dynamic light scattering experiments for Laponite suspensions with different concentrations (CL), added salt concentrations (CS), and temperatures (T). It has been shown in an earlier work [D. Saha, Y. M. Joshi, and R. Bandyopadhyay, Soft Matter 10, 3292 (2014)] that the evolutions of relaxation time scales of colloidal glasses can be compared with molecular glass formers by mapping the waiting time (tw) of the former with the inverse of thermodynamic temperature (1/T) of the latter. In this work, the fragility parameter D, which signifies the deviation from Arrhenius behavior, is obtained from fits to the time evolutions of the structural relaxation time scales. For the Laponite suspensions studied in this work, D is seen to be independent of CL and CS but is weakly dependent on T. Interestingly, the behavior of D corroborates the behavior of fragility in molecular glass formers with respect to equivalent variables. Furthermore, the stretching exponent β, which quantifies the width w of the spectrum of structural relaxation time scales, is seen to depend on tw. A hypothetical Kauzmann time tk, analogous to the Kauzmann temperature for molecular glasses, is defined as the time scale at which w diverges. Corresponding to the Vogel temperature defined for molecular glasses, a hypothetical Vogel time tα ∞ is also defined as the time at which the structural relaxation time diverges. Interestingly, a correlation is observed between tk and tα ∞ , which is remarkably similar to that known for fragile molecular glass formers. A coupling model that accounts for the tw-dependence of the stretching exponent is used to analyse and explain the observed correlation between tk and tα ∞ .

  9. A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. A. Khan; T. K. Datta; S. Ahmad


    A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges using Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA)procedure is presented for determining their failure probability under random ground motion. Seismic input to the bridge support is considered to be a risk consistent response spectrum which is obtained from a separate analysis. For the response analysis, the bridge deck is modeled as a beam supported on springs at different points. The stiffnesses of the springs are determined by a separate 2D static analysis of cable-tower-deck system. The analysis provides a coupled stiffness matrix for the spring system. A continuum method of analysis using dynamic stiffness is used to determine the dynamic properties of the bridges .The response of the bridge deck is obtained by the response spectrum method of analysis as applied to multidegree of freedom system which duly takes into account the quasi - static component of bridge deck vibration. The fragility analysis includes uncertainties arising due to the variation in ground motion, material property, modeling, method of analysis,ductility factor and damage concentration effect. Probability of failure of the bridge deck is determined by the First Order Second Moment (FOSM) method of reliability. A three span double plane symmetrical fan type cable stayed bridge of total span 689 m, is used as an illustrative example. The fragility curves for the bridge deck failure are obtained under a number of parametric variations. Some of the important conclusions of the study indicate that (i) not only vertical component but also the horizontal component of ground motion has considerable effect on the probability of failure; (ii) ground motion with no time lag between support excitations provides a smaller probability of failure as compared to ground motion with very large time lag between support excitation; and (iii) probability of failure may considerably increase for soft soil condition.

  10. Intestinl fragility during ochratoxicosis and aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.



    Graded concentrations of dietary ochratoxin (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 microgram/g) and aflatoxin (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 microgram/g) were fed to broiler chicks from hatching to 3 weeks of age. The breaking strength of the large intestines was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by ochratoxin (2, 4, and 8 microgram/g), but not by aflatoxin. This fragility was accompanied by an increase in the weight of the large intestine relative to body weight of birds fed ochratoxin (4.0 a...

  11. [The usefulness of protective creams on fragile and aged skin]. (United States)

    Rueda López, Justo; Guerrero Palmero, Alberto; Muñoz Bueno, Ana Maria; Esquius i Carbonell, Jacint; Rosell Moreno, Carmen


    The ADDERMIS protective cream has these properties: it prevents skin maceration, exercises a regenerative effect, has bacteriostatic and bactericide activity, possesses a noted anti-inflammatory effect and reduces the risk of mycotic infections. Its application is indicated for use in cases of: skin lesions, such as bed sores or leg ulcers, which require the use of a barrier product; dermatitis lesions in zones of skin folds or due to diaper use; to prevent friction zones; fragile skin; peeling, zones where cracks in the skin appear...and to use for cases of incontinence when diapers are required.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dan; Wu Qianhong; Wang Yumin


    Due to the lack of a unified authentication model certain mistakes occurred in the use of the watermarking authentication methods. To clarify the confusion, authentication models of robust and fragile watermarking are developed respectively in the paper. Concrete algorithms are proposed to prove the models that different Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domains are utilized to embed the watermarks and quantization method is presented with Just Notice Differences (JNDs) threshold as the quantization size. After the key technologies about the two methods are discussed, we detail the comparison of the two modes and recommend their respective application scenarios as applicable results.

  13. A new semi-fragile watermarking algorithm for image authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN De-zhi; HU Yu-ping


    This paper presents a new semi-fragile watermarking algorithm for image authentication which extracts image features from the low frequency domain to generate two watermarks: one for classifying of the intentional content modification and the other for indicating the modified location. The algorithm provides an effective mechanism for image authentication. The watermark generation and watermark embedment are disposed in the image itself, and the received image authentication needs no information about the original image or watermark. The algorithm increases watermark security and prevents forged watermark. Experimental results show that the algorithm can identify intentional content modification and incidental tampering, and also indicate the location where a modification takes place.

  14. Emerging pharmacologic treatment options for fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer TL


    Full Text Available Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Craig A Erickson Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common single gene cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Caused by a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene and the subsequent deficiency in fragile X mental retardation protein, patients with FXS experience a range of physical, behavioral, and intellectual debilitations. The FXS field, as a whole, has recently met with some challenges, as several targeted clinical trials with high expectations of success have failed to elucidate significant improvements in a variety of symptom domains. As new clinical trials in FXS are planned, there has been much discussion about the use of the commonly used clinical outcome measures, as well as study design considerations, patient stratification, and optimal age range for treatment. The evidence that modification of these drug targets and use of these failed compounds would prove to be efficacious in human clinical study were rooted in years of basic and translational research. There are questions arising as to the use of the mouse models for studying FXS treatment development. This issue is twofold: many of the symptom domains and molecular and biochemical changes assessed and indicative of efficacy in mouse model study are not easily amenable to clinical trials in people with FXS because of the intolerability of the testing paradigm or a lack of noninvasive techniques (prepulse inhibition, sensory hypersensitivity, startle reactivity, or electrophysiologic, biochemical, or structural changes in the brain; and capturing subtle yet meaningful changes in symptom domains such as sociability, anxiety, and hyperactivity in human FXS clinical trials is challenging with the currently used measures (typically parent/caregiver rating scales. Clinicians, researchers, and the

  15. Detect Image Tamper by Semi-Fragile Digital Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFeilong; WANGYangsheng


    To authenticate the integrity of image while resisting some valid image processing such as JPEG compression, a semi-fragile image watermarking is described. Image name, one of the image features, has been used as the key of pseudo-random function to generate the special watermarks for the different image. Watermarks are embedded by changing the relationship between the blocks' DCT DC coefficients, and the image tamper are detected with the relationship of these DCT DC coefficients.Experimental results show that the proposed technique can resist JPEG compression, and detect image tamper in the meantime.

  16. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C


    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core.

  17. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension. (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert


    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  18. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow (United States)

    Sarveswaran, K.; Kurz, V.; Dong, Z.; Tanaka, T.; Penny, S.; Timp, G.


    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using “live cell lithography”(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision—no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100–1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function.

  19. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongjun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the μM level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  20. Capillary rise of water in hydrophilic nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Gruener, Simon; Wallacher, Dirk; Kityk, Andriy V; Huber, Patrick; 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.067301


    We report on the capillary rise of water in three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic silica pores with 3.5nm and 5nm mean radii, respectively (porous Vycor monoliths). We find classical square root of time Lucas-Washburn laws for the imbibition dynamics over the entire capillary rise times of up to 16h investigated. Provided we assume two preadsorbed strongly bound layers of water molecules resting at the silica walls, which corresponds to a negative velocity slip length of -0.5nm for water flow in silica nanopores, we can describe the filling process by a retained fluidity and capillarity of water in the pore center. This anticipated partitioning in two dynamic components reflects the structural-thermodynamic partitioning in strongly silica bound water layers and capillary condensed water in the pore center which is documented by sorption isotherm measurements.

  1. Photosensitive diazotized poly(ethylene glycol) covalent capillary coatings for analysis of proteins by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Chen, Xin; Cong, Hailin; Shu, Xi; Peng, Qiaohong


    A new method for the fabrication of covalently cross-linked capillary coatings of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is described using diazotized PEG (diazo-PEG) as a new photosensitive coating agent. The film of diazo-PEG depends on ionic bonding and was first prepared on the inner surface of capillary by self-assembly, and ionic bonding was converted into covalent bonding after reaction of ultraviolet light with diazo groups through unique photochemical reaction. The covalently bonded coating impedance adsorption of protein on the central surface of capillary and hence the four proteins ribonuclease A, cytochrome c, bovine serum albumin, and lysosome can be baseline separated by using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The covalently cross-linked diazo-PEG capillary column coatings not only improved the CE separation performance for proteins compared to non-covalently cross-linked coatings or bare capillary but also showed a remarkable chemical solidity and repeatability. Because photosensitive diazo-PEG took the place of the highly noxious and silane moisture-sensitive coating reagents in the fabrication of covalent coating, this technique shows the advantage of being environment-friendly and having a high efficiency for CE to make the covalently bonded capillaries.

  2. Mach-like capillary-gravity wakes. (United States)

    Moisy, Frédéric; Rabaud, Marc


    We determine experimentally the angle α of maximum wave amplitude in the far-field wake behind a vertical surface-piercing cylinder translated at constant velocity U for Bond numbers Bo(D)=D/λ(c) ranging between 0.1 and 4.2, where D is the cylinder diameter and λ(c) the capillary length. In all cases the wake angle is found to follow a Mach-like law at large velocity, α∼U(-1), but with different prefactors depending on the value of Bo(D). For small Bo(D) (large capillary effects), the wake angle approximately follows the law α≃c(g,min)/U, where c(g,min) is the minimum group velocity of capillary-gravity waves. For larger Bo(D) (weak capillary effects), we recover a law α∼√[gD]/U similar to that found for ship wakes at large velocity [Rabaud and Moisy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214503 (2013)]. Using the general property of dispersive waves that the characteristic wavelength of the wave packet emitted by a disturbance is of order of the disturbance size, we propose a simple model that describes the transition between these two Mach-like regimes as the Bond number is varied. We show that the new capillary law α≃c(g,min)/U originates from the presence of a capillary cusp angle (distinct from the usual gravity cusp angle), along which the energy radiated by the disturbance accumulates for Bond numbers of order of unity. This model, complemented by numerical simulations of the surface elevation induced by a moving Gaussian pressure disturbance, is in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  3. Neurological and endocrine phenotypes of fragile X carrier women. (United States)

    Hall, D; Todorova-Koteva, K; Pandya, S; Bernard, B; Ouyang, B; Walsh, M; Pounardjian, T; Deburghraeve, C; Zhou, L; Losh, M; Leehey, M; Berry-Kravis, E


    Women who carry fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1)gene premutation expansions frequently report neurological or endocrine symptoms and prior studies have predominantly focused on questionnaire report of medical issues. Premutation carrier (PMC) women (n = 33) and non-carrier controls (n = 13) were recruited and evaluated by a neurologist, neuropsychologist, and endocrinologist. Blood and skin biopsies were collected for molecular measures. Scales for movement disorders, neuropathy, cognitive function, psychiatric symptoms, sleep, and quality of life were completed. The average age of the women was 51 years (n = 46) and average CGG repeat size was 91 ± 24.9 in the FMR1 PMC women. Seventy percent of the PMC women had an abnormal neurological examination. PMC women had significantly higher scores on the Fragile X-Associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) rating scale, more neuropathy, and difficulty with tandem gait compared to controls. Central sensitivity syndromes, a neuroticism profile on the NEO Personality Profile, and sleep disorders were also prevalent. Discrepancies between subject report and examination findings were also seen. This pilot study suggests that women with the FMR1 premutation may have a phenotype that overlaps with that seen in FXTAS. Additional research with larger sample sizes is warranted to better delineate the clinical features.

  4. Evaluation of Seismic Fragility of Weir Structures in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Seog Ju


    Full Text Available In order to reduce earthquake damage of multifunctional weir systems similar to a dam structure, this study focused on probabilistic seismic risk assessment of the weir structure using the fragility methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCS, with emphasis on the uncertainties of the seismic ground motions in terms of near field induced pulse-like motions and far field faults. The 2D simple linear elastic plain strain finite element (FE model including soil structure foundations using tie connection method in ABAQUS was developed to incorporate the uncertainty. In addition, five different limit states as safety criteria were defined for the seismic vulnerability of the weir system. As a consequence, the results obtained from multiple linear time history analyses revealed that the weir structure was more vulnerable to the tensile stress of the mass concrete in both near and far field ground motions specified earthquake hazard levels. In addition, the system subjected to near field motions was primarily more fragile than that under far field ground motions. On the other hand, the probability of failure due to the tensile stress at weir sill and stilling basin showed the similar trend in the overall peak ground acceleration levels.

  5. Molecular/clinical correlations in females with fragile X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobesky, W.E.; Riddle, J.; Hagerman, R.J. [Children`s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others


    Females who are affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) can have significant physical, neuropsychological and emotional involvement. This study was designed to explore the relationships between these three domains and to learn how the degree of involvement in each of these phenotypic areas relates to molecular parameters including CGG repeat length and activation ratio (the proportion of normal FMR1 alleles on the active X chromosome). Three groups of females were studied: 35 women who grew up in a fragile X family but do not carry an FMR1 mutation, 92 women with a premutation, and 29 women with a full mutation. Correlations between neurocognitive, physical and emotional traits were calculated for each of the three groups. Within the full mutation group significant correlations were seen between schizotypal traits and full scale IQ. The Lie scale was significantly correlated with the physical findings index. The activation ratio correlated significantly with the measure of executive function (r = .50, P = .01). There was a trend toward correlations of activation ratio with the physical index score, outer ear prominence and IQ. CGG repeat number significantly correlated only with the physical index (r = .44, P = .0 1). Thus, activation ratio may be the more pertinent molecular parameter in full mutation women in determining the degree of cognitive and physical phenotypic involvement. 29 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Tragedy on grade crossing: driver failure or systemic fragility? (United States)

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; de Gouveia Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Mioto, Odilamar Lopes; Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Perin, Fernanda Oliveira


    In 2010, an accident occurred in Americana-SP, Brazil, involving two trains and one bus on a Grade Crossing, when 10 people died and 17 were injured including workers. This paper aims to analyze the accident using the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents (MAPA). The method provides observation of work, interviews and analysis of documents to understand precedents of the event in the following stages: to understand the usual work from the involved people, the changes occurred in the system, the operation of barriers, managerial and organizational aspects. By the end, measures are suggested to avoid new occurrences. The accident took place at night in a site with insufficient lighting. The working conditions of bus drivers, train operators and watchmen are inadequate. There were only symbolic barriers (visual and acoustic signals) triggered manually by watchman upon train operator radio communication. The fragility of the barrier system associated to poor lighting and short time to trigger the signaling seem to play a critical role in the event. Contrary to the official report which resulted in guilt of the bus driver, the conclusion of the paper emphasizes the fragility of the safety system and the need of level crossing reproject.

  7. Tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks of Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Goel R.K.


    A considerable amount of tunnelling has been going on in India for various projects such as hydroelectric power, irrigation, roads and railways. Most of these projects are located in Himalayas, far away from the urban areas. Tunnelling through weak and jointed rock masses such as the one in the Himalayas is a challenging task for the planners, designers, engineers and geologists because of high overburden, thickly vegetated surface, weak, poor and fragile rocks and highly varying geology with the presence of numerous small and big shear zones, faults, etc. Due to these reasons, various tunnelling problems have been faced in the past and are still being encountered. Failures and the problems may be regarded as challenges and opportunities for generating new knowledge base and thereby increasing self-reliance in tunnelling. The experiences of Himalayan tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks covering varying and mixed geology, understanding on tunnelling in squeezing ground conditions and applicability of TBM in Himalayas are presented. It has also been highlighted that the probe holes planning, drilling and mon-itoring shall be followed seriously to reduce the geological surprises.

  8. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Sophia eKnoth


    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability, associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioural impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN, N2 and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  9. Profiles of aberrant white matter microstructure in fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Hall, Scott S; Dougherty, Robert F; Reiss, Allan L


    Previous studies attempting to quantify white matter (WM) microstructure in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have produced inconsistent findings, most likely due to the various control groups employed, differing analysis methods, and failure to examine for potential motion artifact. In addition, analyses have heretofore lacked sufficient specificity to provide regional information. In this study, we used Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ) to identify specific regions of aberrant WM microstructure along WM tracts in patients with FXS that differed from controls who were matched on age, IQ and degree of autistic symptoms. Participants were 20 patients with FXS, aged 10 to 23 years, and 20 matched controls. Using Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ), we created Tract Profiles of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along 18 major WM fascicles. We found that fractional anisotropy was significantly increased in the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), right uncinate fasciculus, and left cingulum hippocampus in individuals with FXS compared to controls. Conversely, mean diffusivity was significantly decreased in the right ILF in patients with FXS compared to controls. Age was significantly negatively associated with MD values across both groups in 11 tracts. Taken together, these findings indicate that FXS results in abnormal WM microstructure in specific regions of the ILF and uncinate fasciculus, most likely caused by inefficient synaptic pruning as a result of decreased or absent Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Profiles of aberrant white matter microstructure in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S. Hall


    Full Text Available Previous studies attempting to quantify white matter (WM microstructure in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS have produced inconsistent findings, most likely due to the various control groups employed, differing analysis methods, and failure to examine for potential motion artifact. In addition, analyses have heretofore lacked sufficient specificity to provide regional information. In this study, we used Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ to identify specific regions of aberrant WM microstructure along WM tracts in patients with FXS that differed from controls who were matched on age, IQ and degree of autistic symptoms. Participants were 20 patients with FXS, aged 10 to 23 years, and 20 matched controls. Using Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ, we created Tract Profiles of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along 18 major WM fascicles. We found that fractional anisotropy was significantly increased in the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, right uncinate fasciculus, and left cingulum hippocampus in individuals with FXS compared to controls. Conversely, mean diffusivity was significantly decreased in the right ILF in patients with FXS compared to controls. Age was significantly negatively associated with MD values across both groups in 11 tracts. Taken together, these findings indicate that FXS results in abnormal WM microstructure in specific regions of the ILF and uncinate fasciculus, most likely caused by inefficient synaptic pruning as a result of decreased or absent Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse. (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Leach, Prescott T; Silverman, Jill L; Crawley, Jacqueline N


    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS.

  12. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Knoth, Inga S; Lippé, Sarah


    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability (ID), associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the "fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)", which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP) studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN), N2, and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  13. Fragile X syndrome: Are signaling lipids the missing culprits? (United States)

    Tabet, Ricardos; Vitale, Nicolas; Moine, Hervé


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. FXS results from the absence of FMRP, an RNA binding protein associated to ribosomes that influences the translation of specific mRNAs in post-synaptic compartments of neurons. The main molecular consequence of the absence of FMRP is an excessive translation of neuronal protein in several areas of the brain. This local protein synthesis deregulation is proposed to underlie the defect in synaptic plasticity responsible for FXS. Recent findings in neurons of the fragile X mouse model (Fmr1-KO) uncovered another consequence of the lack of FMRP: a deregulation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)/phosphatidic acid (PA) homeostasis. DAG and PA are two interconvertible lipids that influence membrane architecture and that act as essential signaling molecules that activate various downstream effectors, including master regulators of local protein synthesis and actin polymerization. As a consequence, DAG and PA govern a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, vesicle/membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal organization. At the synapse, the level of these lipids is proposed to influence the synaptic activation status. FMRP appears as a master regulator of this neuronal process by controlling the translation of a diacylglycerol kinase enzyme that converts DAG into PA. The deregulated levels of DAG and PA caused by the absence of FMRP could represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of FXS.

  14. Loss of fragile histidine triad protein in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po Zhao; Xin Song; Yuan-Yuan Nin; Ya-Li Lu; Xiang-Hong Li


    AIM: To investigate the expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene protein, Fhit, which is recently thought to be a candidate tumor suppressor. Abnormal expression of fragile histidine triad has been found in a variety of human cancers,but little is known about its expression in human hepatocellular carcinogenesis and evolution.METHODS: Sections of 83 primary human hepatocellular carcionoma with corresponding para-neoplastic liver tissue and 10 normal liver tissue were evaluated immunohistochemically for Fhit protein expression.RESULTS: All normal liver tissue and para-neoplastic liver tissue showed a strong expression of Fhit, whereas 50 of 83(65.0 %) carcinomas showed a marked loss or absence of Fhit expression. The differences of Fhit expression between carcinoma and normal or para-neoplastic liver tissue werehighly significant (P=0.000). The proportion of carcinomas with reduced Fhit expression showed an increasing trend (a) with decreasing differentiation or higher histological grade (P=0.219); (b) in tumors with higher clinical stage Ⅲ and ⅣV (91.3 %, P=0.000), compared with tumors with lower stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ (27.6 %); and (c) in cancers with bigger tumor size (>50 mm) (75.0 %, P=0.017), compared withsmaller tumor size (≤ 50 mm). CONCLUSION: FHIT inactivation seems to be both an earlyand a later event, associated with carcinogenesis andprogression to more aggressive hepatocellular carcinomas.Thus, evaluation of Fhit expression by immunohistochemistryin hepatocellular carcinoma may provide important diagnosticand prognostic information in clinical application.

  15. Dementia in Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nitrini

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a cause of movement disorders and cognitive decline which has probably been underdiagnosed, especially if its prevalence proves similar to those of progressive supranuclear palsy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who presented with action tremor, gait ataxia and forgetfulness. There was a family history of tremor and dementia, and one of the patient's grandsons was mentally deficient. Neuropsychological evaluation disclosed a frontal network syndrome. MRI showed hyperintensity of both middle cerebellar peduncles, a major diagnostic hallmark of FXTAS. Genetic testing revealed premutation of the FMR1 gene with an expanded (CGG90 repeat. The diagnosis of FXTAS is important for genetic counseling because the daughters of the affected individuals are at high risk of having offspring with fragile X syndrome. Tremors and cognitive decline should raise the diagnostic hypothesis of FXTAS, which MRI may subsequently reinforce, while the detection of the FMR1 premutation can confirm the condition.

  16. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng


    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences.The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows

  17. Capillary origami and superhydrophobic membrane surfaces (United States)

    Geraldi, N. R.; Ouali, F. F.; Morris, R. H.; McHale, G.; Newton, M. I.


    Capillary origami uses surface tension to fold and shape solid films and membranes into three-dimensional structures. It uses the fact that solid surfaces, no matter how hydrophobic, will tend to adhere to and wrap around the surface of a liquid. In this work, we report that a superhydrophobic coating can be created, which can completely suppress wrapping as a contacting water droplet evaporates. We also show that using a wetting azeotropic solution of allyl alcohol, which penetrates the surface features, can enhance liquid adhesion and create more powerful Capillary Origami. These findings create the possibility of selectively shaping membrane substrates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova


    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography (PET Quantification of GABAA Receptors in the Brain of Fragile X Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte D'Hulst

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, evidence has accumulated that the GABAA receptor is compromised in animal models for fragile X syndrome (FXS, a common hereditary form of intellectual disability. In mouse and fly models, agonists of the GABAA receptor were able to rescue specific consequences of the fragile X mutation. Here, we imaged and quantified GABAA receptors in vivo in brain of fragile X patients using Positron Emission Topography (PET and [11C]flumazenil, a known high-affinity and specific ligand for the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors. We measured regional GABAA receptor availability in 10 fragile X patients and 10 control subjects. We found a significant reduction of on average 10% in GABAA receptor binding potential throughout the brain in fragile X patients. In the thalamus, the brain region showing the largest difference, the GABAA receptor availability was even reduced with 17%. This is one of the first reports of a PET study of human fragile X brain and directly demonstrates that the GABAA receptor availability is reduced in fragile X patients. The study reinforces previous hypotheses that the GABAA receptor is a potential target for rational pharmacological treatment of fragile X syndrome.

  20. Delineating the Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X Syndromes (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Nelson, Lisa; Richards, Caroline; Hall, Scott


    An atypical presentation of autism spectrum disorder is noted in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X syndromes, but there are few detailed empirical descriptions. Participants in this study were individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n = 130, M age = 17.19), Fragile X syndrome (n = 182, M age = 16.94), and autism spectrum disorder (n = 142, M…

  1. Public private cooperation fragile states: Report on field research mission to North Kivu and Ituri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, P.; Bolhuis, E.E.; Klaver, D.C.; Zawadi, Y.


    This field study is part of the Schokland project to research among others the possibilities for Public Private Cooperation (PPC) in stimulating Economic Growth in Fragile States. Fragile states are relatively far behind in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and in order to reduce fra

  2. Between Development and Security: The European Union, Governance and Fragile States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)


    textabstractThis paper presents an analysis of recently adopted EU policies on fragile states. While the European Union has incorporated governance issues into its strategies for fragile states, its approach to governance has a highly technocratic character, with a strong emphasis on public sector r

  3. Identification and Investigation of Native Chromosomal Fragile Sites in the Avian Cell Line DT40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Constanze

    Chromosomal fragile sites are a cytogenetic phenomenon of genome instability that manifests in gaps or breaks on metaphase chromosomes. Diverse mechanisms are involved in their expression but all of them originate from the idea of replication impairment as the main driver for fragility. Cellular ...... kingdom....

  4. Transport of fragile X mental retardation protein via granules in neurites of PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. de Diego Otero (Yolanda); E.A.W.F.M. Severijnen (Lies-Anne); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); M. Schrier (Mariëtte); R. Willemsen (Rob); B.A. Oostra (Ben)


    textabstractLack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes fragile X syndrome, a common form of inherited mental retardation. FMRP is an RNA binding protein thought to be involved in translation efficiency and/or trafficking of certain mRNAs. Recently, a subset of mRNAs

  5. The fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winarni, T.I.; Mundhofir, F.E.P.; Ediati, A.; Belladona, M.; Nillesen, W.M.; Yntema, H.G.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Faradz, S.M.H.; Hagerman, R.J.


    Fragile X-associated disorders caused by the premutation of the FMR1 gene, includes the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS affects more than 40% of premutation males over the age of 50 and 75% over the age of 80. FMR1 molecular analysis was done using PCR and confirmed by Sou

  6. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.


    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  7. Ocular Motor Indicators of Executive Dysfunction in Fragile X and Turner Syndromes (United States)

    Lasker, Adrian G.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Zee, David S.


    Fragile X and Turner syndromes are two X-chromosome-related disorders associated with executive function and visual spatial deficits. In the present study, we used ocular motor paradigms to examine evidence that disruption to different neurological pathways underlies these deficits. We tested 17 females with fragile X, 19 females with Turner…

  8. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus


    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  9. Analysis of base isolation and energy dissipation systems for NPP structures using fragility models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpe, A. [Technical Univ. of Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Structural Mechanics; Carausu, A. [Technical Univ. of Iasi (Romania). Dept. od Mathematics


    Some extensions of analytical models for base isolation and energy dissipation systems, involving fragility models, are presented. The equation of motion is extended with a term corresponding to Energy Dissipation effect, and the fragility of IEDS (Isolation and Energy Dissipations Systems) is evaluated using a bilinear regression line. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Cerebral protein synthesis in a knockin mouse model of the fragile X premutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Qin (Mei); T. Huang (Tianjian); Z. Liu (Zhonghua); M. Kader (Michael); T. Burlin (Thomas); Z. Xia (Zengyan); Z. Zeidler (Zachary); R.K. Hukema (Renate); C.B. Smith (Carolyn B.)


    textabstractThe (CGG)n-repeat in the 5’-untransiated region of the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMRi) gene is polymorphic and may become unstable on transmission to the next generation. In fragile X syndrome, CGG repeat lengths exceed 200, resulting in silencing of FMRi and absence of its prot

  11. An Investigation of Narrative Ability in Boys with Autism and Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Hogan-Brown, Abigail L.; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.; Mueffelmann, Deborah J.


    Whereas pragmatic language difficulties are characteristic of both autism and Fragile X syndrome, it is unclear whether such deficits are qualitatively similar or whether certain skills are differentially affected. This study compared narrative competence in boys with autism, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and typical development. Results…

  12. Medium-Range Order Structure and Fragility of Superheated Melts of Amorphous CuHf Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Xiu-Fang; SUN Bao-An; HU Li-Na


    @@ The structural factors of amorphous CuHf alloys at different temperatures are determined by using a high temperature x-ray diffractometer. It is found that not only the short-range order structure but also the medium-range order structure exists in amorphous CuHf alloys. The dynamic viscosities of CuHf alloy melts are measured by a torsional oscillation viscometer. The fragility of superheated melts of CuHf alloys is calculated based on the viscosity data. The experimental results show that the glass-forming ability of the CuHf alloys is closely related to the fragility of their superheated melt. The relationship between the medium-range order structures and the fragility of superheated melts has also been established in amorphous CuHf alloys. In contrast to the fragility of supercooled liquids, the fragility of superheated liquids promises a better approach to reflecting the dynamics of glass forming liquids.

  13. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.


    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  14. High-frequency capillary waves excited by oscillating microbubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Pommella, Angelo; Poulichet, Vincent; Garbin, Valeria


    This fluid dynamics video shows high-frequency capillary waves excited by the volumetric oscillations of microbubbles near a free surface. The frequency of the capillary waves is controlled by the oscillation frequency of the microbubbles, which are driven by an ultrasound field. Radial capillary waves produced by single bubbles and interference patterns generated by the superposition of capillary waves from multiple bubbles are shown.

  15. Robust and fragile Werner states in the collective dephasing Robust and fragile Werner states in the collective dephasing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, S B; Li, S B; Xu, J B; Li, Shang-Bin; Xu, Jing-Bo; Li, Shang-Bin; Xu, Jing-Bo


    We investigate the concurrence and Bell violation of the Werner or Werner-like states in the presence of collective dephasing. It is shown that the Werner and certain kinds of Werner-like states are robust against the collective dephasing, and some kinds of Werner-like states is fragile and becomes completely disentangled in a finite-time. The threshold time of complete disentanglement of the Werner state is given. The influence of external driving field on the finite-time disentanglement of Werner states is discussed. Finally, we present a simple method to control the stationary state entanglement of two qubits. We investigate the concurrence and Bell violation of the Werner or Werner-like states in the presence of collective dephasing. It is shown that the Werner and certain kinds of Werner-like states are robust against the collective dephasing, and some kinds of Werner-like states is fragile and becomes completely disentangled in a finite-time. The threshold time of complete disentanglement of the Werner ...

  16. Molecular analyses of neurogenic defects in a human pluripotent stem cell model of fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Boland, Michael J; Nazor, Kristopher L; Tran, Ha T; Szücs, Attila; Lynch, Candace L; Paredes, Ryder; Tassone, Flora; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Hagerman, Randi J; Loring, Jeanne F


    New research suggests that common pathways are altered in many neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder; however, little is known about early molecular events that contribute to the pathology of these diseases. The study of monogenic, neurodevelopmental disorders with a high incidence of autistic behaviours, such as fragile X syndrome, has the potential to identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder as well as fragile X syndrome. In vitro generation of human disease-relevant cell types provides the ability to investigate aspects of disease that are impossible to study in patients or animal models. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells recapitulates development of the neocortex, an area affected in both fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. We have generated induced human pluripotent stem cells from several individuals clinically diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. When differentiated to dorsal forebrain cell fates, our fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cell lines exhibited reproducible aberrant neurogenic phenotypes. Using global gene expression and DNA methylation profiling, we have analysed the early stages of neurogenesis in fragile X syndrome human pluripotent stem cells. We discovered aberrant DNA methylation patterns at specific genomic regions in fragile X syndrome cells, and identified dysregulated gene- and network-level correlates of fragile X syndrome that are associated with developmental signalling, cell migration, and neuronal maturation. Integration of our gene expression and epigenetic analysis identified altered epigenetic-mediated transcriptional regulation of a distinct set of genes in fragile X syndrome. These fragile X syndrome-aberrant networks are significantly enriched for genes associated with autism spectrum disorder, giving support to the idea that underlying similarities exist among these neurodevelopmental diseases.

  17. Expression and identification of folate-sensitive fragile sites in British Suffolk sheep (Ovis aries)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Ali; Muhammad Abdullah; Masroor Ellahi Babar; Khalid Javed; Asif Nadeem


    An investigation to understand the dynamics and biological significance of fragile site expression, and identification of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) induced chromosomal gaps/breaks, were carried out in an experimental flock of 45 Suffolk sheep. The statistical comparison revealed, highly significant variation in the frequency of chromosomal fragile site expression between control and FUdR cultures. Mean (± S.D.) values for cells with gaps and breaks, or aberrant cell count (AC), and the number of aberrations (NoA) per animal were 2.02 ± 0.34, 2.42 ± 0.48, 13.26 ± 0.85 and 21.87 ± 1.88 ($P \\lt 0.01$) in control and FUdR cultures, respectively. The comparison of age revealed nonsignificant variation between control and FUdR cultures. The G-band analysis of fragile site data revealed gaps in 29 autosomal and two X-chromosomal bands in the control cultures, whereas FUdR treated cultures scored 78 unstable bands in autosomes of which 56 were significantly fragile. X-chromosomes expressed breaks and gaps in six G-negative bands and five of them (Xq13, Xq15, Xq17, Xq24 and Xq26) were significantly fragile. The distribution comparison of autosomal fragile sites between sex groups did not reveal any significant variation. Female X-chromosomes were significantly more fragile than the male X-chromosomes. The distribution comparison for age groups (lambs versus adults) revealed significantly higher number of fragile bands in adults. Comparison of published data on reciprocal translocations in sheep with the fragile-site data obtained in this study indicated that the break sites of both phenomena were correlated. Similarities were also found between fragile sites and breakpoints of evolutionary significance in family Bovidae.

  18. Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Monolithic Capillary Columns: Preparation and Chiral Applications. (United States)

    Adly, Frady G; Antwi, Nana Yaa; Ghanem, Ashraf


    In this review, the recently reported approaches for the preparation of cyclodextrin-functionalized capillary monolithic columns are highlighted, with few applications in chiral separations using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Chirality 28:97-109, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. In-capillary detection of fast antibody-peptide binding using fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Qin, Yuqin; Qiu, Lin; Qin, Haifang; Ding, Shumin; Liu, Li; Teng, Yiwan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Cheli; Li, Jinchen; Wang, Jianhao; Jiang, Pengju


    Herein, we report a technique for detecting the fast binding of antibody-peptide inside a capillary. Anti-HA was mixed and interacted with FAM-labeled HA tag (FAM-E4 ) inside the capillary. Fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE-FL) was employed to measure and record the binding process. The efficiency of the antibody-peptide binding on in-capillary assays was found to be affected by the molar ratio. Furthermore, the stability of anti-HA-FAM-E4 complex was investigated as well. The results indicated that E4 YPYDVPDYA (E4) or TAMRA-E4 YPYDVPDYA (TAMRA-E4) had the same binding priorities with anti-HA. The addition of excess E4 or TAMRA-E4 could lead to partial dissociation of the complex and take a two-step mechanism including dissociation and association. This method can be applied to detect a wide range of biomolecular interactions.

  20. Preparation approaches of the coated capillaries with liposomes in capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Tian, Yan-Ping; He, Wen; Xiao, Yu-Xiu; Wei, Juan; Feng, Yu-Qi


    The use of liposomes as coating materials in capillary electrophoresis has recently emerged as an important and popular research area. There are three preparation methods that are commonly used for coating capillaries with liposomes, namely physical adsorption, avidin-biotin binding and covalent coupling. Herein, the three different coating methods were compared, and the liposome-coated capillaries prepared by these methods were evaluated by studying systematically their EOF characterization and performance (repeatability, reproducibility and lifetime). The amount of immobilized phospholipids and the interactions between liposome or phospholipid membrane and neutral compounds for the liposome-coated capillaries prepared by these methods were also investigated in detail. Finally, the merits and disadvantages for each coating method were reviewed.

  1. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  2. Drops: The collapse of capillary jets (United States)

    Cordoba, Antonio; Cordoba, Diego; Fefferman, Charles; Fontelos, Marco A.


    The appearance of fluid filaments during the evolution of a viscous fluid jet is a commonly observed phenomenon. It is shown here that the break-up of such a jet subject to capillary forces is impossible through the collapse of a uniform filament. PMID:12172005

  3. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida;


    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  4. Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis. (United States)

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry


    In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials.

  5. Electroviscous effects in capillary filling of nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders


    We theoretically examine the widespread hypothesis of an electroviscous origin of the increase in apparent viscosity observed in recent experiments on capillary filling of nanochannels. Including Debye-layer corrections to the hydraulic resistance, we find that the apparent viscosity reaches a ma...

  6. Elastic deformation due to tangential capillary forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Marchand, Antonin; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.


    A sessile liquid drop can deform the substrate on which it rests if the solid is sufficiently “soft.” In this paper we compute the detailed spatial structure of the capillary forces exerted by the drop on the solid substrate using a model based on Density Functional Theory. We show that, in addition

  7. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth


    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capi....... The theory can be applied to the description of flocculations in two-dimensional systems of colloids....

  8. Shift dynamics of capillary self-alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutinov, G.; Mastrangeli, M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Heck, G.V.; Schoo, H.F.M.; Toonder, J.J.M. den; Dietzel, A.H.


    This paper describes the dynamics of capillary self-alignment of components with initial shift offsets from matching receptor sites. The analysis of the full uniaxial self-alignment dynamics of foil-based mesoscopic dies from pre-alignment to final settling evidenced three distinct, sequential regim

  9. Nanoparticles as a tool in capillary electrochromatography


    Ribeiro, Susana


    Two different types of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles against (R)-propranolol were used to separate the enantiomers of propranolol in capillary electrochromatography mode, methacrylic acid based nanoparticles and core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles. Partial filling technique was used to avoid interference of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles in UV detection. With methacrylic acid based nanoparticles it was not possible to obtain enantiomer s...

  10. I’m incredible—or am I? : On the socialization of fragile self-views in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.


    I’m incredible—or am I? This is a recurring and daunting question for children with fragile self-views, whose feelings of self-worth crumble in the face of setbacks. What are the origins of children’s fragile self-views, and how can interventions reduce the fragility of children’s self-views? The cu

  11. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.


    An extensive study on spontaneous and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine induced fragile sites identified Xq31 in cattle (Bos taurus) and (Xq24, Xq26) in sheep (Ovis aries) in addition to several autosomal fragile sites (under publication). A ZOO-FISH study using three cloned human fragile-X probes with CCG/CG...

  12. Recent advances of ionic liquids and polymeric ionic liquids in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Tang, Sheng; Liu, Shujuan; Guo, Yong; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang


    Ionic liquids (ILs) and polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) with unique and fascinating properties have drawn considerable interest for their use in separation science, especially in chromatographic techniques. In this article, significant contributions of ILs and PILs in the improvement of capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are described, and a specific overview of the most relevant examples of their applications in the last five years is also given. Accordingly, some general conclusions and future perspectives in these areas are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of migration behaviour of therapeutic peptide hormones in capillary electrophoresis using polybrene-coated capillaries. (United States)

    Aptisa, Ghiulendan; Benavente, Fernando; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria; Chirila, Elisabeta; Barbosa, José


    Modelling electrophoretic mobility as a function of pH can be simultaneously used for determination of ionization constants and for rapid selection of the optimum pH for separation of mixtures of the modelled compounds. In this work, equations describing the effect of pH on electrophoretic behaviour were used to investigate migration of a series of polyprotic amphoteric peptide hormones between pH 2 and 12 in polybrene-coated capillaries. Polybrene (hexadimethrin bromide) is a polymer composed of quaternary amines that is strongly adsorbed by the fused-silica inner surface, preventing undesired interactions between the peptides and the inner capillary wall. In polybrene-coated capillaries the separation voltage must be reversed, because of the anodic electroosmotic flow promoted by the polycationic polymer attached to the inner capillary wall. The possibility of using polybrene-coated capillaries for determination of accurate ionization constants has been evaluated and the optimum pH for separation of a mixture of the peptide hormones studied has been selected. Advantages and disadvantages of using bare fused-silica and polybrene-coated capillaries for these purposes are discussed.

  14. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman


    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  15. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with multicentric follicular lymphoma. (United States)

    Crosaz, Odile; Vilaplana-Grosso, Federico; Alleaume, Charline; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Bedu-Leperlier, Anne-Sophie; Marignac, Geneviève; Hubert, Blaise; Rosenberg, Dan


    An 11-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was presented for a right flank wound. On clinical examination, a single non-painful skin tear lesion with irregular edges was detected. During the examination, star-shaped cigarette paper-like skin lesions appeared spontaneously. An abdominal mass was also palpated. Feline skin fragility syndrome (FSFS) was suspected and a multicentric lymphoma was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. The cat's condition declined and it died spontaneously. Post-mortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of lymphoma. Neoplastic lymphocytes were not observed in the skin. Histological analysis of the skin was consistent with the morphological aspects of FSFS. A possible direct link between the two conditions remains a matter of speculation, but this case report provides the first description of FSFS associated with multicentric follicular lymphoma. Thus, multicentric follicular lymphoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats presenting with FSFS.

  16. International Transmission of Shocks and Fragility of a Bank Network

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Xiaobing; Kim, Beom Jun


    The weighted and directed network of countries based on the number of overseas banks is analyzed in terms of its fragility to the banking crisis of one country. We use two different models to describe transmission of shocks, one local and the other global. Depending on the original source of the crisis, the overall size of crisis impacts is found to differ country by country. For the two-step local spreading model, it is revealed that the scale of the first impact is determined by the out-strength, the total number of overseas branches of the country at the origin of the crisis, while the second impact becomes more serious if the in-strength at the origin is increased. For the global spreading model, some countries named "triggers" are found to play important roles in shock transmission, and the importance of the feed-forward-loop mechanism is pointed out. We also discuss practical policy implications of the present work.

  17. Cyclical Cohabitation Among Unmarried Parents in Fragile Families. (United States)

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Teitler, Julien


    Building on past research suggesting that cohabitation is an ambiguous family form, the authors examined an understudied residential pattern among unmarried parents: cyclical cohabitation, in which parents have multiple cohabitation spells with each other. Using 9 years of panel data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,084), they found that 10% of all parents with nonmarital births, and nearly a quarter of those living together when the child is 9 years old, are cyclical cohabitors. Cyclically cohabiting mothers reported more material hardships than mothers in most other relationship patterns but also reported more father involvement with children. On all measures of child well-being, except grade retention, children of cyclically cohabiting parents fared no worse than children of stably cohabiting biological parents and did not differ significantly from any other group.

  18. Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Kimberly A [ORNL; Weigand, Gilbert G [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL


    Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.

  19. Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W. P.; Onesto, A. T.; DeVita, V.


    This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis.

  20. Fragile Watermarking for Image Authentication Using the Characteristic of SVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang


    Full Text Available Digital image authentication has become a hot topic in the last few years. In this paper, a pixel-based fragile watermarking method is presented for image tamper identification and localization. By analyzing the left and right singular matrices of SVD, it is found that the matrix product between the first column of the left singular matrix and the transposition of the first column in the right singular matrix is closely related to the image texture features. Based on this characteristic, a binary watermark consisting of image texture information is generated and inserted into the least significant bit (LSB of the original host image. To improve the security of the presented algorithm, the Arnold transform is applied twice in the watermark embedding process. Experimental results indicate that the proposed watermarking algorithm has high security and perceptual invisibility. Moreover, it can detect and locate the tampered region effectively for various malicious attacks.

  1. Brief Report: Autism Symptoms in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome. (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E; Tonnsen, Bridgette L; McCary, Lindsay M; Caravella, Kelly E; Shinkareva, Svetlana V


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although 50-75 % of children with FXS meet ASD criteria, no studies have compared ASD symptoms in infants with FXS versus other high risk groups, such as siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs). Using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants, our findings indicate that 53 % of 12-month infants with FXS fall in the "at risk" category compared to 17 and 6 % for age-matched ASIBs and controls, respectively. Elevated atypical motor behaviors were associated with elevated risk for FXS. Cross-syndrome comparisons are essential to understanding the heterogeneity of ASD and identifying candidate markers that will facilitate differential diagnosis of ASD in genetic disorders such as FXS.

  2. Why Stay Engaged with a State Deemed Fragile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Bae, Jinsun

    the expectation of gains, the convenience of repeating the work and the logic of appropriateness. This case expands our understanding of engagement that is often understood to a great degree as a rationalist affair between the engaging and target states. It also affirms the usefulness of constructivist IR......Based on the constructivist international relations (IR) approach, the authors study Sweden’s engagement with the DPRK as a unique case to understand motivations for engaging in a so-called fragile state. Besides having its embassy in Pyongyang and serving as a protecting power for the U.S., Sweden...... approach in accounting for today’s engagement practices involving more stakeholders and less strict cost-benefit calculation....

  3. Identification of the fragile X syndrome: phenotype and educational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Medina Gómez


    Full Text Available Researchers confirm that fragile X syndrome is the leading cause of hereditary intellectual disability, but it is still largely unknown by educational professionals, health professionals and social service workers. An early detection could avoid transmission of the genetic disorder and would enable the establishment of the most appropriate interventions for each person. Great progress has been made over the last years in the understanding of the neurodevelopmental disorder. In this article, an extensive review about the most relevant studies and contributions that have been made so far concerning its molecular, brain, cognitive and conceptual interactions, the tools to sift in order to detect possible affected people, and also some tips on interventions. Nevertheless there should be continued progress in order to improve the assessment and the assistance in each particular case.

  4. High Pressure Brillouin Scattering in the Fragile Glass Former Cumene (United States)

    Ransom, Tim; Oliver, William


    In recent years full-spectrum analysis in light-scattering has been utilized to explore the liquid-glass transition at variable temperature and ambient pressure. In this study we present temperature- and pressure-dependent Brillouin scattering results for the fragile glass-former cumene. Both equal-angle forward scattering and depolarized backscattering geometries are used, and high pressures are attained by the use of a diamond anvil cell mounted in a custom temperature-controlled housing. Opening up the variable pressure regime to full-spectrum analysis will allow more stringent tests of mode-coupling theory as well as greater insight into the behavior of glass-forming systems.

  5. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejada Maria-Isabel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one pharmacological treatment with placebo or other treatment in individuals with diagnosis of FXS syndrome and assessed the efficacy and/or safety of the treatments. Studies were identified by a search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Databases using the terms fragile X and treatment. Risk of bias of the studies was assessed by using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Results The search identified 276 potential articles and 14 studies satisfied inclusion criteria. Of these, 10 studies on folic acid (9 with crossover design, only 1 of them with good methodological quality and low risk of bias did not find in general significant improvements. A small sample size trial assessed dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD and found some improvements in those taking methylphenidate, but the length of follow-up was too short. Two studies on L-acetylcarnitine, showed positive effects and no side effects in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD. Finally, one study on patients with an additional diagnosis of autism assessed ampakine compound CX516 and found no significant differences between treatment and placebo. Regarding safety, none of the studies that assessed that area found relevant side effects, but the number of patients included was too small to detect side effects with low incidence. Conclusion Currently there is no robust evidence to support recommendations on pharmacological treatments in patients with

  6. Capillary Interactions between a Probe Tip and a Nanoparticle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Ning; WANG Le-Feng; RONG Wei-Bin


    To understand capillary interactions between probe tips and nanoparticles under ambient conditions,a theoretical model of capillary forces between them is developed based on the geometric relations. It is found that the contribution of surface tension force to the total capillary force attains to similar order of magnitude as the capillary pressure force in many cases.It is also shown that the tip shape and the radial distance of the meniscus have great influence on the capillary force.The capillary force decreases with the increasing separation distances,and the variance of the contact angles may change the magnitudes of capillary forces several times at large radial distances.The applicability of the symmetric meniscus approximation is discussed.

  7. Gold nanoparticles deposited capillaries for in-capillary microextraction capillary zone electrophoresis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Knobel, Gaston; Wilson, Walter B; Calimag-Williams, Korina; Campiglia, Andres D


    This article presents the first application of gold nanoparticles deposited capillaries as pre-concentration devices for in-capillary microextraction CZE and their use for the analysis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in synthetic urine samples. The successful separation of 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHbap), 4-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 5-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene under a single set of electrophoretic conditions is demonstrated as well as the feasibility to obtain competitive ultraviolet absorption LOD with commercial instrumentation. Enrichment factors ranging from 87 (9-OHphe) to 100 (3-OHbap) made it possible to obtain LOD ranging from 9 ng/mL (9-OHphe and 3-OHbap) to 14 ng/mL (4-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene).

  8. Occurrence of aneuploidy for the X chromosome in over 1,300 unrelated specimens screened for the fragile X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An apparent association between the occurrence of the fragile X syndrome and Klinefelter and Down syndromes has been reported over the past few years. We reported 3 cells with extra X chromosomes [XXY (one cell), XXXY (2 cells)] in a fragile X male who exhibited 37 fragile X chromosomes in 200 cells studied. After making this observation, we decided to determine the number of X chromosomes in all fragile X chromosome analyses to see if there was any increased mitotic nondisjunction for the X chromosome. We conclude that there was no association between the fragile X syndrome and X chromosome mitotic nondisjunction/aneuploidy in this group of individuals. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Scaling up nutrition in fragile and conflict-affected states: the pivotal role of governance. (United States)

    Taylor, Sebastian A J; Perez-Ferrer, Carolina; Griffiths, Andrew; Brunner, Eric


    Acute and chronic undernutrition undermine conditions for health, stability and socioeconomic development across the developing world. Although fragile and conflict-affected states have some of the highest rates of undernutrition globally, their response to the multilateral 'Scaling Up Nutrition' (SUN) initiative in its first two-year period was ambivalent. The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting fragile and conflict-affected states' engagement with SUN, and to examine what differentiated those fragile states that joined SUN in its first phase from those that did not. Drawing on global databases (Unicef, World Bank, UNDP), and qualitative country case studies (Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Yemen) we used bivariate logistic regressions and principal component analysis to assess social, economic and political factors across 41 fragile states looking for systematic differences between those that had signed up to SUN before March 2013 (n = 16), and those that had not (n = 25). While prevalence of malnutrition, health system functioning and level of citizen empowerment had little or no impact on a fragile state's likelihood of joining SUN, the quality of governance (QOG) strongly predicted accession. SUN-signatory fragile states scored systematically better on the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and the Worldwide Governance Indicators 'effectiveness of government' indices. We conclude that strengthening governance in fragile states may enhance their engagement with initiatives such as SUN, but also (recognising the potential for endogeneity), that the way aid is structured and delivered in fragile states may be an underlying determinant of whether and how governance in such contexts improves. The research demonstrates that more nuanced analysis of conditions within and among countries classed as 'fragile and conflict-affected' is both possible and necessary if aid

  10. Non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper focuses on the problem of non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain switched linear systems. The controller gain to be designed is assumed to have additive gain variations. Based on multiple-Lyapunov function technique, the design of non-fragile hybrid guaranteed cost controllers is derived to make the corresponding closed-loop system asymptotically stable for all admissible uncertainties. Furthermore, a convex optimization approach with LMIs constraints is introduced to select the optimal non-fragile guaranteed cost controllers. Finally, a simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. A Bayesian formulation of seismic fragility analysis of safety related equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z-L.; Pandey, M.; Xie, W-C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)


    A Bayesian approach to seismic fragility analysis of safety-related equipment is formulated. Unlike treating two sources of uncertainty of in the parameter estimation in two steps separately using the classical statistics, a Bayesian hierarchical model is advocated for interpreting and combining the various uncertainties more clearly in this article. In addition, with the availability of additional earthquake experience data and shaking table test results, a Bayesian approach to updating the fragility model of safety-related equipment is formulated by incorporating acquired failure and survivor evidence. Numerical results show the significance in fragility analysis using the Bayesian approach. (author)

  12. The Role of Chain Length in Nonergodicity Factor and Fragility of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalle-Ferrie, Cecile; Niss, Kristine; Sokolov, Alexei


    between the fragility of glass-formers and their nonergodicity factor, determined by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) in the glass. We extend this molecular liquid study to two model polymers— polystyrene (PS) and polyisobutylene (PIB)—for which we change the molecular weight. Polymers offer...... the opportunity to change the fragility without altering the chemical structure, just by changing the chain length. Thus, we specifically chose PS and PIB because they exhibit opposite dependences of fragility with molecular weight. Our analysis for these two polymers reveals no unique correlation between...

  13. 易损数字水印技术:研究与应用%Fragile Digital Watermarking: Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆唯杰; 陈克非


    Recently, digital watermarking techniques for multimedia get fast growth. Digital watermark is some in-formation that will bring no perceptual feeling when embedded in the multimedia data. There are mainly two kind ofwatermark: robust watermark for copyright protection and fragile watermark for data integrity and data authentici-ty. In this paper, we will mainly focus on fragile watermarking. For the purpose of multimedia integrity and authen-ticity protection, we classify current methods into three categories: digital signature techniques, fragile watermarkingtechniques based on Hash function and other fragile digital watermarking techniques. And we discuss each category inthis paper, and especially discuss fragile watermarking in detail. Such a classification will help us understand thefunctions of digital signature and fragile watermarking in data integrity and authenticity protection. And we also dis-cuss some attacks on fragile watermarking and its applications.

  14. [Congenital pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis in a newborn]. (United States)

    Sposito Cavallo, Sandra L; Macias Sobrino, Luciano A; Marenco Altamar, Luifer J; Mejía Alquichire, Andrés F


    Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis is a rare entity characterized by the proliferation of capillaries into alveolar walls, interlobular septa, pleura and pulmonary interstitium, without malignant characteristics, with almost constant association with pulmonary hypertension. Until now two cases of congenital presentation have been reported in the literature. This is the third case in a newborn; he has not followed the usual pattern associated with pulmonary hypertension as occurs in most patients with this pathology; the highest incidence is among 20-40 years old. We report a preterm newborn patient of 36 weeks of gestation with progressive respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation by constant desaturation during his clinical evolution without clinical, radiological or ultrasonographic signs of pulmonary hypertension.

  15. Capillary droplets on Leidenfrost micro-ratchets

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Alvaro G; Römer, Gertwillem R B E; Pathiraj, B; Veld, Albertus Huis in 't; Lohse, Detlef


    Leidenfrost ratchets are structures with the ability of transporting liquid droplets when heated over the critical Leidenfrost temperature. Once this temperature is reached, the droplet levitates over the surface and moves in the direction marked by the slope of the ratchet at terminal velocities around 10 cm/s. Here we provide new experiments with micron-sized ratchets, which have been produced with picosecond pulse laser ablation. In the following work, we use a simple method to measure the thrust driving droplets of capillary size over the micro-ratchets. The mechanism responsible for the force acting on the drop on superheated ratchets has been recently under debate. We extend the recently proposed 'viscous mechanism' proposed by Dupeaux et al. [Europhys. Lett., 96, 58001 (2011)] to capillary droplets and find good agreement with our measurements.

  16. The geometry and wetting of capillary folding

    CERN Document Server

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe


    Capillary forces are involved in a variety of natural phenomena, ranging from droplet breakup to the physics of clouds. The forces from surface tension can also be exploited in industrial application provided the length scales involved are small enough. Recent experimental investigations showed how to take advantage of capillarity to fold planar structures into three-dimensional configurations by selectively melting polymeric hinges joining otherwise rigid shapes. In this paper we use theoretical calculations to quantify the role of geometry and fluid wetting on the final folded state. Considering folding in two and three dimensions, studying both hydrophilic and hydrophobic situations with possible contact angle hysteresis, and addressing the shapes to be folded to be successively infinite, finite, curved, kinked, elastic, we are able to derive an overview of the geometrical parameter space available for capillary folding.

  17. Capillary fluid loop developments in Astrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, C.; Ounougha, L.; Bonzom, P. [Astrium SAS, Toulouse (France); Supper, W. [ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Puillet, C. [CNES, Toulouse (France)


    Over the past decade, Astrium has been involved in the development of capillary pumped fluid loops. In the frame of the French technological demonstrator spacecraft called STENTOR, Astrium has gained experience on capillary fluid loop design and manufacturing. After the STENTOR cylindrical evaporator type was successfully tested and qualified, Astrium has developed miniaturised fluid loops for thermal dissipation of electronic devices. For such applications, the use of a flat shape evaporator is very promising, limiting the volume and the mass of the thermal hardware. Both technologies have been submitted to a comprehensive one-g test program and will be flight-tested in the near future. Through a comparative of the reached performances, some main advantages and drawbacks of each design are listed and a definition of what should be the next generation of Astrium fluid loops is given. (author)

  18. Modeling Microscopic Chemical Sensors in Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad


    Nanotechnology-based microscopic robots could provide accurate in vivo measurement of chemicals in the bloodstream for detailed biological research and as an aid to medical treatment. Quantitative performance estimates of such devices require models of how chemicals in the blood diffuse to the devices. This paper models microscopic robots and red blood cells (erythrocytes) in capillaries using realistic distorted cell shapes. The models evaluate two sensing scenarios: robots moving with the cells past a chemical source on the vessel wall, and robots attached to the wall for longer-term chemical monitoring. Using axial symmetric geometry with realistic flow speeds and diffusion coefficients, we compare detection performance with a simpler model that does not include the cells. The average chemical absorption is quantitatively similar in both models, indicating the simpler model is an adequate design guide to sensor performance in capillaries. However, determining the variation in forces and absorption as cells...

  19. Space-Time Resolved Capillary Wave Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Berhanu, Michael


    We report experiments on the full space and time resolved statistics of capillary wave turbulence at the air-water interface. The three-dimensional shape of the free interface is measured as a function of time by using the optical method of Diffusing Light Photography associated with a fast camera. Linear and nonlinear dispersion relations are extracted from the spatio-temporal power spectrum of wave amplitude. When wave turbulence regime is reached, we observe power-law spectra both in frequency and in wave number, whose exponents are found in agreement with the predictions of capillary wave turbulence theory. Finally, the temporal dynamics of the spatial energy spectrum highlights the occurrence of stochastic bursts transferring wave energy through the spatial scales.

  20. Capillary flow through heat-pipe wicks (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.


    Theoretical expressions are obtained for the capillary-pressure limit and permeability of a fibrous wick in terms of the porosity and fiber diameter. Hysteresis in capillary pressure is included through the introduction of an empirical hysteresis constant. A partial-saturation model based on the statistical distribution of local porosity requires an additional empirical constant, the standard deviation. The theory is compared to results of a beta-ray absorption experiment that measured the liquid content of a partially saturated wick and to results of permeability measurements on partially and fully saturated wicks. A simple wick-weighing experiment is described that yields values for the empirical hysteresis constant and the standard deviation. Theoretical results are used to design an optimum wick.

  1. Chemical Power for Microscopic Robots in Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad


    The power available to microscopic robots (nanorobots) that oxidize bloodstream glucose while aggregated in circumferential rings on capillary walls is evaluated with a numerical model using axial symmetry and time-averaged release of oxygen from passing red blood cells. Robots about one micron in size can produce up to several tens of picowatts, in steady-state, if they fully use oxygen reaching their surface from the blood plasma. Robots with pumps and tanks for onboard oxygen storage could collect oxygen to support burst power demands two to three orders of magnitude larger. We evaluate effects of oxygen depletion and local heating on surrounding tissue. These results give the power constraints when robots rely entirely on ambient available oxygen and identify aspects of the robot design significantly affecting available power. More generally, our numerical model provides an approach to evaluating robot design choices for nanomedicine treatments in and near capillaries.

  2. Capillary deposition of advected floating particles (United States)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Debaisieux, Aymeric; Gregori, Federico


    The deposition and aggregation of particles flowing through a confined environment can dramatically hinder the transport of suspensions. Yet, the mechanisms responsible for the deposition of particles in shear flow are not fully understood. Here, we use an experimental model system in which floating particles are advected on the surface of a water channel and deposited on fixed obstacles through attractive capillary effects. By varying the flow rate of the liquid, the wetting properties and size of the particles and obstacles, we can tune the magnitude of the capillary and hydrodynamic forces that determine the probability of deposition and the equilibrium position on the substrate. We show that arrays of obstacles can be designed to efficiently capture the floating particles advected by the flow.

  3. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)


    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  4. Capillary Electrophoresis in the Presence of Fosfomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fosfomyein, a sodim salt of cis-(3-methyloxiranyl) phosphonic acid, was used as electrolyte in binary methanol-water media for capillary electrophoresis. The variety of electroosmotic flow with pH*,methanol concentration and ionic strength was investigated. The migration behavior of nine bases was examined under various conditions, and the separation of thymine, cytosine, 5-flurouracil, 4,6-diamino-pyrimidine, purine was accomplished.

  5. Novel cationic polyelectrolyte coatings for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Duša, Filip; Witos, Joanna; Karjalainen, Erno; Viitala, Tapani; Tenhu, Heikki; Wiedmer, Susanne K


    The use of bare fused silica capillary in CE can sometimes be inconvenient due to undesirable effects including adsorption of sample or instability of the EOF. This can often be avoided by coating the inner surface of the capillary. In this work, we present and characterize two novel polyelectrolyte coatings (PECs) poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium iodide) (PMOTAI) and poly(3-methyl-1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-imidazolium chloride) (PIL-1) for CE. The coated capillaries were studied using a series of aqueous buffers of varying pH, ionic strength, and composition. Our results show that the investigated polyelectrolytes are usable as semi-permanent (physically adsorbed) coatings with at least five runs stability before a short coating regeneration is necessary. Both PECs showed a considerably decreased stability at pH 11.0. The EOF was higher using Good's buffers than with sodium phosphate buffer at the same pH and ionic strength. The thickness of the PEC layers studied by quartz crystal microbalance was 0.83 and 0.52 nm for PMOTAI and PIL-1, respectively. The hydrophobicity of the PEC layers was determined by analysis of a homologous series of alkyl benzoates and expressed as the distribution constants. Our result demonstrates that both PECs had comparable hydrophobicity, which enabled separation of compounds with log Po/w > 2. The ability to separate cationic drugs was shown with β-blockers, compounds often misused in doping. Both coatings were also able to separate hydrolysis products of the ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate at highly acidic conditions, where bare fused silica capillaries failed to accomplish the separation.

  6. Capillary condensation for fluids in spherical cavities


    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek


    The capillary condensation for fluids into spherical nano-cavities is analyzed within the frame of two theoretical approaches. One description is based on a widely used simplified version of the droplet model formulated for studying atomic nuclei. The other, is a more elaborated calculation performed by applying a density functional theory. The agreement between both models is examined and it is shown that a small correction to the simple fluid model improves the predictions. A connection to ...

  7. Capillary floating and the billiard ball problem


    Gutkin, Eugene


    We establish a connection between capillary floating in neutral equilibrium and the billiard ball problem. This allows us to reduce the question of floating in neutral equilibrium at any orientation with a prescribed contact angle for infinite homogeneous cylinders to a question about billiard caustics for their orthogonal cross-sections. We solve the billiard problem. As an application, we characterize the possible contact angles and exhibit an infinite family of real analytic non-round cyli...

  8. Spatial reconstruction of facial skin capillaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchuk O.I.


    Full Text Available To define structural and functional changes of skin capillaries in women of different age groups in this work intraoperational biopsy material of skin of 205 women at the age from 19 to 75 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face and neck skin correction, was investigated. Skin material of cheek face region, temple region of head and anterior neck region was morphologically processed. To define parameters of dermal capillars and spatial reconstruction of intrapapillary capillary loops, serial sections was investigated with the help of morphometry. It was determined, that microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops. Essential struc-tural and functional changes observed in skin of cheek region in women of 33-40 years and in temple region of head and anterior neck region in women of 41-50 years. It is typical at the patients with nicotinic dependence, ischemic heart disease, hypertonic disease, a diabetes, and also adiposity of a different degree essential infringement of microvessels bed structure of a skin that gives the basis for allocation of the given contingent of patients as group high intraoperative and postoperative risk at carrying out of operative interventions for correction of face skin involutive changes.

  9. Improving the sensitivity in chiral capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Elena; Marina, María Luisa; Crego, Antonio L


    CE is known for being one of the most powerful analytical techniques when performing enantioseparations due to its numerous advantages such as excellent separation efficiency and extremely low solvents and reagents consumption, all of them derived from the capillary small dimensions. Moreover, it is worth highlighting that unlike in chromatographic techniques, in CE the chiral selector is generally within the separation medium instead of being attached to the separation column which makes the method optimization a more versatile task. Despite its numerous advantages, when using UV-Vis detection, CE lacks of sensitivity detection due to its short optical path length derived from the narrow separation capillary. This issue can be overcome by means of different approaches, either by sample treatment procedures or by in-capillary preconcentration techniques or even by employing detection systems more sensitive than UV-Vis, such as LIF or MS. The present review assembles the latest contributions regarding improvements of sensitivity in chiral CE published from June 2013 until May 2015, which follows the works included in a previous review reported by Sánchez-Hernández et al. [Electrophoresis 2014, 35, 12-27].

  10. Capillary condensation as a morphological transition. (United States)

    Kornev, Konstantin G; Shingareva, Inna K; Neimark, Alexander V


    The process of capillary condensation/evaporation in cylindrical pores is considered within the idea of symmetry breaking. Capillary condensation/evaporation is treated as a morphological transition between the wetting film configurations of different symmetry. We considered two models: (i) the classical Laplace theory of capillarity and (ii) the Derjaguin model which takes into account the surface forces expressed in terms of the disjoining pressure. Following the idea of Everett and Haynes, the problem of condensation/evaporation is considered as a transition from bumps/undulations to lenses. Using the method of phase portraits, we discuss the mathematical mechanisms of this transition hidden in the Laplace and Derjaguin equations. Analyzing the energetic barriers of the bump and lens formation, it is shown that the bump formation is a prerogative of capillary condensation: for the vapor-liquid transition in a pore, the bump plays the same role as the spherical nucleus in a bulk fluid. We show also that the Derjaguin model admits a variety of interfacial configurations responsible for film patterning at specific conditions.

  11. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules. (United States)

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan


    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  12. Highly conductive, printable pastes from capillary suspensions (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Koos, Erin; Willenbacher, Norbert


    We have used the capillary suspension phenomenon to design conductive pastes for printed electronic applications, such as front side metallization of solar cells, without non-volatile, organic additives that often deteriorate electrical properties. Adding a small amount of a second, immiscible fluid to a suspension creates a network of liquid bridges between the particles. This capillary force-controlled microstructure allows for tuning the flow behavior in a wide range. Yield stress and low-shear viscosity can be adjusted such that long-term stability is provided by inhibiting sedimentation, and, even more importantly, narrow line widths and high aspect ratios are accessible. These ternary mixtures, called capillary suspensions, exhibit a strong degree of shear thinning that allows for conventional coating or printing equipment to be used. Finally, the secondary fluid, beneficial for stability and processing of the wet paste, completely evaporates during drying and sintering. Thus, we obtained high purity silver and nickel layers with a conductivity two times greater than could be obtained with state-of-the-art, commercial materials. This revolutionary concept can be easily applied to other systems using inorganic or even organic conductive particles and represents a fundamental paradigm change to the formulation of pastes for printed electronics.

  13. Capillary adhesion forces between flexible fibers (United States)

    Duprat, Camille; Protière, Suzie


    We consider the capillary adhesion produced by a drop placed between two elastic fibers. We measure the force exerted by the drop as we vary the inter-fiber distance, and report two types of wet adhesion: a weak capillary adhesion, where a liquid drop bridges the fibers, and a strong elastocapillary adhesion where the liquid is spread between two collapsed fibers. The weak adhesion is characterized by a force that increases linearly with the liquid length. With flexible fibers, the force exerted by the drop can induce deformation and rapid collapse, or zipping, of the fibers. This zipping results in a sudden increase of the wetted length and a force that departs from the linear evolution. As the inter-fiber distance is subsequently increased, the liquid length decreases while the fibers deformation increases, and the force actually reaches a plateau, i.e. remains constant until unzipping, or detachment of the fibers occurs. We measure the value of this plateau, i.e. the maximal adhesion force, as we vary the drop volume and the fibers elasticity. We also show that flexibility extends capillary adhesion to inter-fiber distances impossible to reach with rigid fibers, while keeping a constant pull-out force characteristic of the elastocapillary coupling.

  14. Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guo


    Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.

  15. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media. (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed


    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  16. Common fragile site profiling in epithelial and erythroid cells reveals that most recurrent cancer deletions lie in fragile sites hosting large genes. (United States)

    Le Tallec, Benoît; Millot, Gaël Armel; Blin, Marion Esther; Brison, Olivier; Dutrillaux, Bernard; Debatisse, Michelle


    Cancer genomes exhibit numerous deletions, some of which inactivate tumor suppressor genes and/or correspond to unstable genomic regions, notably common fragile sites (CFSs). However, 70%-80% of recurrent deletions cataloged in tumors remain unexplained. Recent findings that CFS setting is cell-type dependent prompted us to reevaluate the contribution of CFS to cancer deletions. By combining extensive CFS molecular mapping and a comprehensive analysis of CFS features, we show that the pool of CFSs for all human cell types consists of chromosome regions with genes over 300 kb long, and different subsets of these loci are committed to fragility in different cell types. Interestingly, we find that transcription of large genes does not dictate CFS fragility. We further demonstrate that, like CFSs, cancer deletions are significantly enriched in genes over 300 kb long. We now provide evidence that over 50% of recurrent cancer deletions originate from CFSs associated with large genes.

  17. Genetic linkage heterogeneity in the fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Brown, W T; Gross, A C; Chan, C B; Jenkins, E C


    Genetic linkage between a factor IX DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the fragile X chromosome marker was analyzed in eight fragile X pedigrees and compared to eight previously reported pedigrees. A large pedigree with apparently full penetrance in all male members showed a high frequency of recombination. A lod score of -7.39 at theta = 0 and a maximum score of 0.26 at theta = 0.32 were calculated. A second large pedigree with a nonpenetrant male showed tight linkage with a maximum lod score of 3.13 at theta = 0, a result similar to one large pedigree with a nonpenetrant male previously reported. The differences in lod scores seen in these large pedigrees suggested there was genetic heterogeneity in linkage between families which appeared to relate to the presence of nonpenetrant males. The combined lod score for the three pedigrees with nonpenetrant males was 6.84 at theta = 0. For the 13 other pedigrees without nonpenetrant males the combined lod score was -21.81 at theta = 0, with a peak of 0.98 at theta = 0.28. When lod scores from all 16 families were combined, the value was -15.14 at theta = 0 and the overall maximum was 5.13 at theta = 0.17. To determine whether genetic heterogeneity was present, three statistical tests for heterogeneity were employed. First, a "predivided-sample" test was used. The 16 pedigrees were divided into two classes, NP and P, based upon whether or not any nonpenetrant males were detected in the pedigree. This test gave evidence for significant genetic heterogeneity whether the three large pedigrees with seven or more informative males (P less than 0.005), the eight pedigrees with three informative males (P less than 0.001), or all 16 pedigrees (P less than 0.001) were included in the analysis. Second, Morton's large sample test was employed. Significant heterogeneity was present when the analysis was restricted to the three large pedigrees (P less than 0.025), or to the eight pedigrees with informative males

  18. The Durability and Fragility of Knowledge Infrastructures: Lessons Learned from Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Borgman, Christine L; Sands, Ashley E; Golshan, Milena S


    Infrastructures are not inherently durable or fragile, yet all are fragile over the long term. Durability requires care and maintenance of individual components and the links between them. Astronomy is an ideal domain in which to study knowledge infrastructures, due to its long history, transparency, and accumulation of observational data over a period of centuries. Research reported here draws upon a long-term study of scientific data practices to ask questions about the durability and fragility of infrastructures for data in astronomy. Methods include interviews, ethnography, and document analysis. As astronomy has become a digital science, the community has invested in shared instruments, data standards, digital archives, metadata and discovery services, and other relatively durable infrastructure components. Several features of data practices in astronomy contribute to the fragility of that infrastructure. These include different archiving practices between ground- and space-based missions, between sky su...

  19. Longer brainstem auditory evoked response latencies of individuals with fragile X syndrome related to sedation. (United States)

    Miezejeski, C M; Heaney, G; Belser, R; Brown, W T; Jenkins, E C; Sersen, E A


    Brainstem auditory evoked response latencies were studies in 75 males (13 with fragile X syndrome, 18 with mental retardation due to other causes, and 44 with no disability). Latency values were obtained for each ear for the positive deflections of waves I (P1), III (P3), and V (P5). Some individuals with mental retardation required sedation. Contrary to previous report, latencies obtained for individuals with fragile X did not differ from those obtained for persons without mental retardation. Persons receiving sedation, whether or not their retardation was due to fragile X, had longer latencies for wave P5 than persons who did not receive sedation. This effect of sedation may also explain the previously reported increased latencies for persons with fragile X.

  20. Financial fragility, sovereign default risk and the limits to commercial bank bail-outs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; van der Kwaak, C.


    We analyse the poisonous interaction between bank rescues, financial fragility and sovereign debt discounts. In our model balance sheet constrained financial intermediaries finance both capital expenditure of intermediate goods producers and government deficits. The financial intermediaries face the

  1. In-capillary derivatization and capillary electrophoresis separation of amino acid neurotransmitters from brain microdialysis samples. (United States)

    Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine; Renaud, Louis; Renaud, Bernard; Zimmer, Luc


    A new in-capillary derivatization method with naphtalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehyde (NDA)/CN(-) has been developed for capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection of brain microdialysate amino acids. Samples are sandwiched between two plugs of reagent mixture at the capillary inlet and subsequently separated. Highest derivatization yields are obtained by using a reagent to sample plug length ratio equal to 4, performing a first electrophoretic mixing followed by a zero potential amplification step before applying the separation voltage and using a NaCN to NDA concentration ratio equal to 1. This new single-step methodology allows the analysis of amino acid neurotransmitters in rat brain microdialysis samples.

  2. A covalent modified hydrophilic capillary for enhanced capillary electrophoresis of biopolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Guo Shan; Xue Yu; Yin Mao Wei; Xiao Hui Zheng; Jian Bin Zheng


    δ-Gluconolactone was covalently coupled to aminopropyl derivatized capillary,which created hydrophilic brushes on the inner wall of the capillary.The coated capillary was shown to generate a stable electroosmotic flow(EOF)in the investigated pH range of 2.0-9.0 and to suppress effectively the adsorption of proteins.And it enabled separation of some biopolymer mixtures including basic proteins,DNA and tryptic digested bovine serum albumin(BSA)within 15 min with efficiencies up to 450,000 plates/m.The intra-and inter-day reproducibility of the coating referring to the retention times of proteins were satisfactory with mean relative standard deviations(R.S.D.)of 0.8 and 1.7%,respectively.

  3. Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Developmentally Regulates Activity-Dependent Axon Pruning


    Tessier, Charles R.; Broadie, Kendal


    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity ...

  4. On the fragility of fractional-order PID controllers for FOPDT processes. (United States)

    Padula, Fabrizio; Visioli, Antonio


    This paper analyzes the fragility issue of fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers applied to integer first-order plus-dead-time processes. In particular, the effects of the variations of the controller parameters on the achieved control system robustness and performance are investigated. Results show that this kind of controllers is more fragile with respect to the standard proportional-integral-derivative controllers and therefore a significant attention should be paid by the user in their tuning.

  5. Phonological Accuracy and Intelligibility in Connected Speech of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome (United States)

    Barnes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Martin, Gary E.; Berni, Mary C.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Sideris, John


    Purpose: To compare the phonological accuracy and speech intelligibility of boys with fragile X syndrome with autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD), fragile X syndrome only (FXS-O), Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys. Method: Participants were 32 boys with FXS-O (3-14 years), 31 with FXS-ASD (5-15 years), 34 with DS (4-16 years),…

  6. Developing Xenopus Laevis as a Model to Screen Drugs for Fragile X Syndrome (United States)


    Gordon Research Seminar and Conference: Fragile X and Autism –Related Disorders , May 31-June 6, 2014 Dysregulation of Fragile X Mental Retardation...loss of FMRP. We tested the effect of knocking down FMPR expression on visually guided behavior , seizure and brain development. We established a...demonstrated the capacity to rescue the decreased FMRP expression by gene delivery. We characterized an innate visually-guided avoidance behavior in tadpoles

  7. Capillary climb dynamics in the limits of prevailing capillary and gravity force. (United States)

    Bijeljic, B; Markicevic, B; Navaz, H K


    The dynamics of capillary climb of a wetting liquid into a porous medium that is opposed by gravity force is studied numerically. We use the capillary network model, in which an actual porous medium is represented as a network of pores and throats, each following a predefined size distribution function. The liquid potential in the pores along the liquid interface within the network is calculated as a result of capillary and gravity forces. The solution is general, and accounts for changes in the climbing height and climbing velocity. The numerical results for the capillary climb reveal that there are at least two distinct flow mechanisms. Initially, the flow is characterized by high climbing velocity, in which the capillary force is higher than the gravity force, and the flow is the viscous force dominated. For this single-phase flow, the Washburn equation can be used to predict the changes of climbing height over time. Later, for longer times and larger climbing height, the capillary and gravity forces become comparable, and one observes a slower increase in the climbing height as a function of time. Due to the two forces being comparable, the gas-liquid sharp interface transforms into flow front, where the multiphase flow develops. The numerical results from this study, expressed as the climbing height as a power law function of time, indicate that the two powers, which correspond to the two distinct mechanisms, differ significantly. The comparison of the powers with experimental data indicates good agreement. Furthermore, the power value from the Washburn solution is also analyzed, where it should be equal to 1/2 for purely viscous force driven flow. This is in contrast to the power value of ∼0.43 that is found experimentally. We show from the numerical solution that this discrepancy is due to the momentum dissipation on the liquid interface.

  8. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales


    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  9. Breaking Good: Accounting for Fragility of Genomic Regions in Rearrangement Distance Estimation. (United States)

    Biller, Priscila; Guéguen, Laurent; Knibbe, Carole; Tannier, Eric


    Models of evolution by genome rearrangements are prone to two types of flaws: One is to ignore the diversity of susceptibility to breakage across genomic regions, and the other is to suppose that susceptibility values are given. Without necessarily supposing their precise localization, we call "solid" the regions that are improbably broken by rearrangements and "fragile" the regions outside solid ones. We propose a model of evolution by inversions where breakage probabilities vary across fragile regions and over time. It contains as a particular case the uniform breakage model on the nucleotidic sequence, where breakage probabilities are proportional to fragile region lengths. This is very different from the frequently used pseudouniform model where all fragile regions have the same probability to break. Estimations of rearrangement distances based on the pseudouniform model completely fail on simulations with the truly uniform model. On pairs of amniote genomes, we show that identifying coding genes with solid regions yields incoherent distance estimations, especially with the pseudouniform model, and to a lesser extent with the truly uniform model. This incoherence is solved when we coestimate the number of fragile regions with the rearrangement distance. The estimated number of fragile regions is surprisingly small, suggesting that a minority of regions are recurrently used by rearrangements. Estimations for several pairs of genomes at different divergence times are in agreement with a slowly evolvable colocalization of active genomic regions in the cell.

  10. Does fragility of glass formation determine the strength of Tg-nanoconfinement effects? (United States)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Marvin, Michael D.; Wiener, Nicholas R.; Mackura, Mark E.; Simmons, David S.


    Nanoscale confinement has been shown to alter the glass transition and associated mechanical and transport properties of glass-forming materials. Inspired by expected interrelations between nanoconfinement effects, cooperative dynamics in supercooled liquids, and the "fragility" (or temperature-abruptness) of the glass transition, it is commonly expected that nanoconfinement effects on Tg should be more pronounced for more fragile glass formers. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations of glass formation in the bulk and under nanoconfinement of model polymers in which we systematically tune fragility by several routes. Results indicate that a correlation between fragility and the strength of nanoconfinement effects is weak to modest at best when considering all systems but can appear to be stronger when considering a subset of systems. This outcome is consistent with a reanalysis of the Adam-Gibbs theory of glass formation indicating that fragility does not necessarily track in a universal way with the scale of cooperative motion in glass-forming liquids. Finally, we find that factors such as composition gradients or variability in measurement sensitivity to different parts of the dynamic gradient have the potential to significantly confound efforts to identify trends in Tg-nanoconfinement effects with variables such as fragility, emphasizing the importance of employing diverse data sets and multiple metrologies in the study of this problem.

  11. Seismic fragility analysis of highway bridges considering multi-dimensional performance limit state (United States)

    Wang, Qi'ang; Wu, Ziyan; Liu, Shukui


    Fragility analysis for highway bridges has become increasingly important in the risk assessment of highway transportation networks exposed to seismic hazards. This study introduces a methodology to calculate fragility that considers multi-dimensional performance limit state parameters and makes a first attempt to develop fragility curves for a multispan continuous (MSC) concrete girder bridge considering two performance limit state parameters: column ductility and transverse deformation in the abutments. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the performance limit states, which are compared with the seismic response parameters in the calculation of fragility, should be properly modeled as randomly interdependent variables instead of deterministic quantities. The sensitivity of fragility curves is also investigated when the dependency between the limit states is different. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to describe the vulnerable behavior of bridges which are sensitive to multiple response parameters and that the fragility information generated by this method will be more reliable and likely to be implemented into transportation network loss estimation.

  12. Probabilistic Studies on Seismic Fragility of Different Pipe Sizes Based on Monotonic Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BuSeog Ju


    Full Text Available This paper presents the seismic fragility of piping systems based on monotonic experimental tests. The fragility, conditional probability of failure for a given level of intensity measure, generally used to evaluate the structural safety and indentify the fault tree with respect to seismically induced failures. The nonlinear FE models of threaded T-joint systems based on monotonic experimental results were developed in OpenSees, using the ElasticPPGap material. In order to evaluate the seismic fragility of Tjoint piping systems, 1-inch and 2-inch threaded T-joint systems, were incorporated with main hospital piping system, and multiple nonlinear time history analyses related to Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. Consequently, seismic fragility of piping system at 1-inch and 2-inch threaded T-joint connections corresponding to ductility level was developed. It was interesting to observe that 2-inch threaded T-joint was more fragile rather than 1-inch threaded T-joint, based on the nonlinear FE model by monotonic tests and also location 1 was more fragile rather than location 2 for both 1-inch and 2-inch T-joint.

  13. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Fragilities of Square Well Fluids with Tunable Barriers to Bond Breaking. (United States)

    Parmar, Anshul D S; Sastry, Srikanth


    An understanding of the origin of fragility, which the rapidity of change of viscosity and related dynamical quantities, has been sought by a variety of approaches over the years. Within the framework of the Adam-Gibbs relation, fragility is in principle related to both the temperature variation of configurational entropy and the high temperature activation energy. Many theoretical analyses have been focused on the variation of configuration entropy, although the importance of the high temperature activation energy in determining the fragility of a glass former has also been emphasized. We explore the latter aspect by considering a model liquid whose high temperature activation energy is modified by hand, through the introduction of a tunable barrier to bond breaking. We show that changes in such a barrier are able to modify the fragility measured from the temperature dependence of dynamical quantities, while a thermodynamic measure of fragility obtained from the configurational entropy remains unchanged. We discuss the implications of our results to our understanding of fragility, and outline open questions that merit further investigation.

  14. Separation and analysis of triazine herbcide residues by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y


    Triazines are widely used in agriculture around the world as selective pre- and post-emergence herbicides for the control of broad leaf and grassy weeds. With high toxicity and persistence, triazines can contaminate the environment and crops, so the development of rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of different triazines is necessary. Capillary electrophoresis comprises a group of techniques used to separate chemical mixtures. Analytical separation is based on different electrophoretic mobilities. This review focuses on the analysis of triazine herbicides with different modes of capillary electrophoresis, including capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography and nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. Determinations of triazines in various matrices such as surface water, groundwater, vegetables, soil and grains are emphasized.

  15. Fluorescent polymer coated capillaries as optofluidic refractometric sensors. (United States)

    Rowland, Kristopher J; François, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M


    A capillary microresonator platform for refractometric sensing is demonstrated by coating the interior of thick-walled silica capillaries with a sub-wavelength layer of high refractive index, dye-doped polymer. No intermediate processing, such as etching or tapering, of the capillary is required. Side illumination and detection of the polymer layer reveals a fluorescence spectrum that is periodically modulated by whispering gallery mode resonances within the layer. Using a Fourier technique to calculate the spectral resonance shifts, the fabricated capillary resonators exhibited refractometric sensitivities up to approximately 30 nm/RIU upon flowing aqueous glucose through them. These sensors could be readily integrated with existing biological and chemical separation platforms such as capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography where such thick walled capillaries are routinely used with polymer coatings. A review of the modelling required to calculate whispering gallery eigenmodes of such inverted cylindrical resonators is also presented.

  16. An axial approach to detection in capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.A.


    Our approach involves on-axis illumination of the compounds inside the capillary detection region and is applied to absorbance and fluorescence detection. Absorbance measurements were made by focussing an incident laser beam into one capillary end; by using signals collected over the entire length of analyte band, this enhances the analytical path length of conventional absorbance detection 60x. This instrument offers a 15x improvement in detection limits. Three fluorescence detection experiments are discussed, all of which involve insertion of an optical fiber into capillary. The first uses a high refractive index liquid phase to obtain total internal reflectance along capillary axis, this reducing light scatter. The second uses a charge-coupled device camera for simultaneous imaging of a capillary array (this may be useful in genome sequencing, etc.). The third is a study of fluid motion inside the capillary under pressure-driven and electroosmotic flow. The thesis is divided into four parts. Figs, tabs.

  17. Colloid Mobilization and Transport during Capillary Fringe Fluctuations (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus


    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead filled column. Confocal images showed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively-charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively-charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively-charged and hydrophilic positively-charged colloids did.

  18. Bone fragility fractures in hemodialysis patients: Croatian surveys. (United States)

    Šimunović, Iva; Pavlović, Draško; Kudumija, Boris; Mihaljević, Dubravka; Lovčić, Vesna; Jakić, Marko


    Disturbances of bone mineral metabolism are common complications of chronic kidney disease with bone fractures as one of the most important consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of bone fractures among Croatian hemodialysis patients and to determine the possible fracture risk. The study was carried out in 767 hemodialysis patients from nine Croatian hemodialysis centers. Demographic, laboratory and bone fracture data were collected from medical records as well as therapy with vitamin D analogs. Fragility fractures were defined according to the World Health Organization definition. In 31 patient a total of 36 fractures were recorded. The prevalence of patients with bone fractures was 4.0%. The mean age of patients with fractures was 68.6 years. There were 9 male and 22 female patients with frac- tures. The mean hemodialysis duration was 63.3 months. Among all fractures the most common were hip fractures (39%) followed by forearm fractures (22%). This is the first study regarding epidemiology of bone fractures in Croatian hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of patients with bone fractures in our group of hemodialysis patients is high. Fractures were more frequent among women and older patients, patients who have been longer on dialysis and in patients with higher concentration of PTH.

  19. Gliomas and the vascular fragility of the blood brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo eDubois


    Full Text Available Astrocytes, members of the glial family, interact through the exchange of soluble factors or by directly contacting neurons and other brain cells, such as microglia and endothelial cells. Astrocytic projections interact with vessels and act as additional elements of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB. By mechanisms not fully understood, astrocytes can undergo oncogenic transformation and give rise to gliomas. The tumors take advantage of the BBB to ensure survival and continuous growth. A glioma can develop into a very aggressive tumor, the glioblastoma (GBM, characterized by a highly heterogeneous cell population (including tumor stem cells, extensive proliferation and migration. Nevertheless, gliomas can also give rise to slow growing tumors and in both cases, the afflux of blood, via BBB is crucial. Glioma cells migrate to different regions of the brain guided by the extension of blood vessels, colonizing the healthy adjacent tissue. In the clinical context, GBM can lead to tumor-derived seizures, which represent a challenge to patients and clinicians, since drugs used for its treatment must be able to cross the BBB. Uncontrolled and fast growth also leads to the disruption of the chimeric and fragile vessels in the tumor mass resulting in peritumoral edema. Although hormonal therapy is currently used to control the edema, it is not always efficient. In this review we comment the points cited above, considering the importance of the blood brain barrier and the concerns that arise when this barrier is affected.

  20. Gliomas and the vascular fragility of the blood brain barrier (United States)

    Dubois, Luiz Gustavo; Campanati, Loraine; Righy, Cassia; D’Andrea-Meira, Isabella; Spohr, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio e; Porto-Carreiro, Isabel; Pereira, Claudia Maria; Balça-Silva, Joana; Kahn, Suzana Assad; DosSantos, Marcos F.; Oliveira, Marcela de Almeida Rabello; Ximenes-da-Silva, Adriana; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Faveret, Eduardo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo


    Astrocytes, members of the glial family, interact through the exchange of soluble factors or by directly contacting neurons and other brain cells, such as microglia and endothelial cells. Astrocytic projections interact with vessels and act as additional elements of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). By mechanisms not fully understood, astrocytes can undergo oncogenic transformation and give rise to gliomas. The tumors take advantage of the BBB to ensure survival and continuous growth. A glioma can develop into a very aggressive tumor, the glioblastoma (GBM), characterized by a highly heterogeneous cell population (including tumor stem cells), extensive proliferation and migration. Nevertheless, gliomas can also give rise to slow growing tumors and in both cases, the afflux of blood, via BBB is crucial. Glioma cells migrate to different regions of the brain guided by the extension of blood vessels, colonizing the healthy adjacent tissue. In the clinical context, GBM can lead to tumor-derived seizures, which represent a challenge to patients and clinicians, since drugs used for its treatment must be able to cross the BBB. Uncontrolled and fast growth also leads to the disruption of the chimeric and fragile vessels in the tumor mass resulting in peritumoral edema. Although hormonal therapy is currently used to control the edema, it is not always efficient. In this review we comment the points cited above, considering the importance of the BBB and the concerns that arise when this barrier is affected. PMID:25565956

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases and minocycline: therapeutic avenues for fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Siller, Saul S; Broadie, Kendal


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS patients suffer a broad range of other neurological symptoms, including hyperactivity, disrupted circadian activity cycles, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and childhood seizures. The high incidence and devastating effects of this disease state make finding effective pharmacological treatments imperative. Recently, reports in both mouse and Drosophila FXS disease models have indicated that the tetracycline derivative minocycline may hold great therapeutic promise for FXS patients. Both models strongly suggest that minocycline acts on the FXS disease state via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a class of zinc-dependent extracellular proteases important in tissue remodeling and cell-cell signaling. Recent FXS clinical trials indicate that minocycline may be effective in treating human patients. In this paper, we summarize the recent studies in Drosophila and mouse FXS disease models and human FXS patients, which indicate that minocycline may be an effective FXS therapeutic treatment, and discuss the data forming the basis for the proposed minocycline mechanism of action as an MMP inhibitor.

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Minocycline: Therapeutic Avenues for Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul S. Siller


    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common known genetic form of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS patients suffer a broad range of other neurological symptoms, including hyperactivity, disrupted circadian activity cycles, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and childhood seizures. The high incidence and devastating effects of this disease state make finding effective pharmacological treatments imperative. Recently, reports in both mouse and Drosophila FXS disease models have indicated that the tetracycline derivative minocycline may hold great therapeutic promise for FXS patients. Both models strongly suggest that minocycline acts on the FXS disease state via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a class of zinc-dependent extracellular proteases important in tissue remodeling and cell-cell signaling. Recent FXS clinical trials indicate that minocycline may be effective in treating human patients. In this paper, we summarize the recent studies in Drosophila and mouse FXS disease models and human FXS patients, which indicate that minocycline may be an effective FXS therapeutic treatment, and discuss the data forming the basis for the proposed minocycline mechanism of action as an MMP inhibitor.

  3. Men's economic status and marital transitions of fragile families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sassler


    Full Text Available Background: Men's ability to fill the provider role remains a consistent requirement for marriage across the class spectrum and cross-nationally. Fiscal concerns appear less salient for transitions to parenthood or to informal unions such as cohabitation. Objective: This paper evaluates whether marital expectations and marital transitions of new mothers are associated with the economic characteristics of father. Methods: Analyses are based on observed and imputed data on fathers from the first two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Logistic regression models assess factors predicting mothers' initial expectations of marrying their baby's father, and transitions into marital unions by the second interview. Results: Most women expect to marry their baby's father, although estimates are lower when men's data are repaired by imputation. Multivariate analyses find mother's marital expectations are most strongly associated with men's educational attainment, but not with men's earnings at the child's birth. Transitions to marriage are positively associated with men's earnings levels, although estimates are considerably lower than previously reported thresholds. Furthermore, the odds of marrying do not increase monotonically as men's income level rises once missing data are imputed. Conclusions: Theories regarding prerequisites for marriage must better account for growing heterogeneity in the unmarried population. Standard economic predictors of marriage for the overall population are less applicable for this sample of new parents. Ultimately, this study highlights the importance of including information on missing fathers. Excluding them may produce misleading statistical associations between men's economic measures and women's marriage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Mandal


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Binomial Transform based fragile image watermarking technique has been proposed for color image authentication. The Binomial Transform (BT is used to convert each 2 × 2 sub-image block of the carrier image into transformed block corresponding to red, green and blue channels in sliding window manner. One/two/three watermark bits are embedded in second/third/fourth transformed components starting from the least significant bit’s position (LSB-0. An adjustment has been incorporated to adjust embedded component closer to the actual value without hampering the fabricated bits. The inverse Binomial transform (IBT is used to convert the transformed components back into the spatial domain. A delicate re-adjustment method is applied on the first transformed component to remain the pixel components in a valid range. The embedding operation in succession generates the final watermarked image. At the receiving end, whole watermark is extracted based on the reverse procedure and authentication is done through computed message digest and extracted bits. Experimental results conform that the proposed technique produces high payload and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR as compared to existing transformation based techniques[1, 5].

  5. Assessment of seismic damage of multistory structures using fragility curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser E. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Performance-based design, PBD, is gaining popularity and its concept hasbeen applied in many international seismic building codes. In this research, five real structures designed according to the Egyptian Building Code, which does not consider PBD, are considered and modeled in a three dimensional way using the software SeismoStruct in order to assess their performance under expected earthquakes. The structures are 2-story, 4- story, 6-story, 8-story and 10-story reinforced concrete framed structures. The structural system of these structures is of the moment-resisting frame type, with and without shear walls. The structures weredesigned under dead, live and seismic forces of “Zone 3” with a design acceleration of 0.15g.The models were analyzed using incremental dynamic analysis, IDA, considering 12 real records of historical earthquakes. IDA curves were developed for all analyzed models, considering four damage states. Fragility curves were subsequently developed to provide an overview of the expected seismic performance of a typical low or mid-rise multistory reinforced concrete framed structure in Egypt as designed in accordance with thecurrent Egyptian Building Code.

  6. Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Piping Fragility due to Earthquake Fault Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Seog Ju


    Full Text Available A lifeline system, serving as an energy-supply system, is an essential component of urban infrastructure. In a hospital, for example, the piping system supplies elements essential for hospital operations, such as water and fire-suppression foam. Such nonstructural components, especially piping systems and their subcomponents, must remain operational and functional during earthquake-induced fires. But the behavior of piping systems as subjected to seismic ground motions is very complex, owing particularly to the nonlinearity affected by the existence of many connections such as T-joints and elbows. The present study carried out a probabilistic risk assessment on a hospital fire-protection piping system’s acceleration-sensitive 2-inch T-joint sprinkler components under seismic ground motions. Specifically, the system’s seismic capacity, using an experimental-test-based nonlinear finite element (FE model, was evaluated for the probability of failure under different earthquake-fault mechanisms including normal fault, reverse fault, strike-slip fault, and near-source ground motions. It was observed that the probabilistic failure of the T-joint of the fire-protection piping system varied significantly according to the fault mechanisms. The normal-fault mechanism led to a higher probability of system failure at locations 1 and 2. The strike-slip fault mechanism, contrastingly, affected the lowest fragility of the piping system at a higher PGA.

  7. Institutional fragility – challenge for peacebuilding in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi


    Full Text Available Peace building, as part of conflict resolution strategy, is challenged by several internal factors with socio-economic, political, governmental nature, and factors coming from outside the country and violent past under governance of ex Yugoslavia/Serbia. This process becomes more difficult by the transition from socialist to free economy. Kosovo independence undermines taking responsibilities by institutions on peace building perspective which will bring to the gradual reconciliation with neighbors, including Serbia. Growing authoritarian tendencies on decision making mechanisms chock already existing fragile democracy. Enhancing the rule of law and system of justice will create a good basement for elimination of corruption and increase the quality of governance as strengthening elements of the social peace and reconciliation between the communities inside Kosovo.                              Even that, Kosovo institutions have made huge efforts in building the state mechanisms in preparation for the country’s independence phase. Rise of care in the rule of law, legislation implementation, efforts for combating corruption as a major source of state vulnerability, democratic institution building, and economic development, will be the challenges faced Kosovo’s future.

  8. Fragile Social Norms: (Un Sustainable Exploration of Forest Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn


    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources is a central problem in the international agenda. The particular case of Amazon forest is at the top on the international environmental debate. Two related problems are keys to be considered in the discussion of sustainable development in this region. First the predatory use of the natural resources of the forest mainly timber and genetic resources. Second the recognition of the existence of a population of around 20 million inhabitants in the region defined as “Legal Amazon Area”, aiming the improvement on the living conditions, enhancement of income level and acceleration of development. How to match both objectives is a puzzle faced by the present generation.The region is populated by initiatives of international non-governmental-organizations, most of them carrying good intentions but lacking the necessary knowledge on local formal and informal institutions to find ways to reach sustainable development. The result is the accelerated process of natural resources depletion, and social disorganization. The case of the production of Brazilian Nuts stands as a corollary of the lack of an institutional structure of property rights that does not provide incentives for sustainable development. The opposite effect is being observed as a result of the fragility of observable institutional arrangements.The case provides the counterfactual for the analysis of Ostrom (1990; 2008, where she presents virtuous cases of sustainable exploration of natural resources, mostly based on informal but solid institutions.

  9. Fragile-X mental retardation: molecular diagnosis in Argentine patients. (United States)

    Florencia, Giliberto; Irene, Szijan; Veronica, Ferreiro


    Fragile-X-syndrome (FXS) is the most common type of inherited cognitive impairment. The underlying molecular alteration consists of a CGG-repeat amplification within the FMR-1 gene. The phenotype is only apparent once a threshold in the number of repeats has been exceeded (full mutation). The aim of this study was to characterize the FMR-1 CGG-repeat status in Argentine patients exhibiting mental retardation. A total of 330 blood samples from patients were analyzed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Initially, DNA from 78 affected individuals were studied by PCR. Since this method is unable to detect high molecular weight alleles, however, we undertook a second approach using the Southern blotting technique to analyze the CGG repeat number and methylation status. Southern blot analysis showed an altered pattern in 14 out of 240 (6%) unrelated patients, with half of them presenting a mosaic pattern. Eight out of 17 families (47%) showed a (suggest deleting highlight). The characteristic FXS pattern was identified in 8/17 families (47%), and in 4 of these families 25% of the individuals presented with a mosaic model. The expansion from pre-mutation to full mutation was shown to occur both at the pre and post zygotic levels. The detection of FXS mutations has allowed us to offer more informed genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and reliable patient follow-up.

  10. Modified monolithic silica capillary for preconcentration of catecholamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chang; Tusyo-shi Komazu


    Preconcentration of catecholamines by the modified monolithic silica in the capillary was investigated in this study. In order to achieve a microchip-based method for determining catecholamines in the saliva, the monolithic silica was fabricated in the capillary and the monolithic silica was chemically modified by on-column reaction with phenylboronate. Different modified methods were compared. The concentration conditions were optimized. This study indicates the applicability of the modified monolithic silica capillary when it was used to concentrate catecholamines.

  11. Method for analysing glycoprotein isoforms by capillary electrophoresis


    Frutos, Mercedes de; Díez-Masa, José Carlos; Morales-Cid, Gabriel


    [EN] The present invention relates to a new method for the purification, concentration, separation and determination of the isoforms of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in human blood serum samples using capillary electrophoresis. The new method is based on the immunocapture and preconcentration of the sample within the separation capillary by using an immunoadsorbent phase magnetically immobilized within the electrophoresis capillary and the subsequent desorption and separation of the glycopr...

  12. The study of polyoxometalates formation using capillary zone electrophoresis. (United States)

    Zdanov, Artem A; Shuvaeva, Olga V


    The formation process of polyoxometalates [PMo12 O40 ](3-) and [PMo12 - x Vx O40 ](-3-x) has been studied in aqueous solutions of 0.1 M malonate buffer at pH 2.8-3.0 using CZE. Two different approaches, pre-capillary and in-capillary, were examined and compared. In precapillary mode, the reaction mixture of the reactants and reaction products was injected into the capillary followed by the separation procedure. In in-capillary mode, the sequential input of the reagents and running electrolyte into the capillary and the species separation occurs simultaneously. The optimal parameters of in-capillary separation were established as functions of applied voltage and the length of the intermediate buffer zone between the reagents in the capillary. As a result the best-compromise conditions for the separation of the mixtures containing the reactants, intermediates, and reaction products, in order to achieve the best efficiency, symmetry, and peak areas, were achieved at -18 kV and the input parameter of 900 mbar·s. It was also shown that in-capillary mode is more informative than pre-capillary mode for studying the complex compound formation process.

  13. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II research comprises designing, constructing, and testing a chip-based capillary electrochromatography (CEC) prototype for separation and analysis of...

  14. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.


    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  15. Novel Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography for Mars Organic Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a powerful new technology - next generation Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography ? a high performance and low power...

  16. Capillary Micro-Flow Through a Fiber Bundle(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-dan; WANG Ji-hui; TAN Hua; GAO Guo-qiang


    The present work considered the capillary micro-flow through a fiber bundle. The resin heights in the fiber bundle as a function of time were used to determine the experimental values of capillary pressure and the permeability by the nonlinear regression fitting method. The fitting curves showed a good agreement with experiments. However, these values of capillary pressure from short- time experiments were much lower than the theoretical results from the Yang-Laplace Equation. More accurate capillary pressure was predicted from the presented long-run experiment.

  17. Novel Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography for Mars Organic Detector Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a powerful new technology - next generation Micro-Capillary Electrochromatography - a high performance and low power...

  18. A Prediction Model of the Capillary Pressure J-Function (United States)

    Xu, W. S.; Luo, P. Y.; Sun, L.; Lin, N.


    The capillary pressure J-function is a dimensionless measure of the capillary pressure of a fluid in a porous medium. The function was derived based on a capillary bundle model. However, the dependence of the J-function on the saturation Sw is not well understood. A prediction model for it is presented based on capillary pressure model, and the J-function prediction model is a power function instead of an exponential or polynomial function. Relative permeability is calculated with the J-function prediction model, resulting in an easier calculation and results that are more representative. PMID:27603701

  19. Trajectories of Early Brain Volume Development in Fragile X and Autism RH: Trajectory of Brain Volume in Fragile X (United States)

    Hazlett, Heather Cody; Poe, Michele D.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Styner, Martin; MacFall, James R.; Reiss, Allan L.; Piven, Joseph


    Objective To examine patterns of early brain growth in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared to a comparison group (controls) and a group with idiopathic autism. Method The study included 53 boys between 18–42 months of age with FXS, 68 boys with idiopathic autism (ASD), and a comparison group of 50 typically-developing and developmentally-delayed controls. We examined structural brain volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) across two timepoints between ages 2–3 and 4–5 years and examined total brain volumes and regional (lobar) tissue volumes. Additionally, we studied a selected group of subcortical structures implicated in the behavioral features of FXS (e.g., basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala). Results Children with FXS had greater global brain volumes compared to controls, but were not different than children with idiopathic autism, and the rate of brain growth between ages 2 and 5 paralleled that seen in controls. In contrast to the children with idiopathic autism who had generalized cortical lobe enlargement, the children with FXS showed a specific enlargement in temporal lobe white matter, cerebellar gray matter, and caudate nucleus, but significantly smaller amygdala. Conclusions This structural longitudinal MRI study of preschoolers with FXS observed generalized brain overgrowth in FXS compared to controls, evident at age 2 and maintained across ages 4–5. We also find different patterns of brain growth that distinguishes boys with FXS from children with idiopathic autism. PMID:22917205

  20. Effective viscosity of magnetic nanofluids through capillaries. (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh


    The simultaneous effect of magnetic field and temperature on the capillary viscosity of magnetic nanofluid is an important parameter for a new class of applications such as nanoduct flow, nanomotors, micro- and nanofluidic devices, for transformer cooling, magnetic targeted drug delivery, etc. The effective viscosity of a nanofluid is explained based on the rotation of the particles and the effect of torque on it due to an externally applied magnetic field. Two types of fluids are used here, temperature-sensitive and non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids. In both types of fluids, decrease in effective viscosity with temperature is observed, but in both cases the mechanism for the decrement is quite different. One is due to temperature dependence of the magnetic moment and the other is due to removal of the secondary surfactant. For temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids, a Curie temperature of ~80 °C is extracted from this study. For non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids ~65% of the secondary surfactant is removed for a change in temperature, ΔT = 40 °C. This is analogous with removal of a drug from magnetic particles for targeted drug delivery. Further, a linear dependence of effective viscosity with different capillary size and ξ (angle between magnetic field and flow direction, ξε[0,π/2]) is also observed. This linear dependence can also be a good approximation for the study of magnetic drug targeting, as in the human body the capillaries are of different sizes, and the externally applied magnetic field is not always parallel or perpendicular to the drug flow direction.

  1. Design and evaluation of capillary electrophoresis in dynamically coated capillaries coupled with chemiluminescence detection. (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Han, Ning; Zhang, Lingyi; Du, Yiping; Zhang, Weibing


    A dynamic coating capillary electrophoresis coupled with a simplified on-line chemiluminescence detection system was designed and evaluated. In the proposed system, poly-vinylpyrrolidone was used as dynamic coating substance in the separation buffer to reduce the unwanted protein non-specific adsorption, which was first applied in capillary electrophoresis coupling with on-line chemiluminescence detection. In order to avoid complex processing, an ordinary plastic cuvette was modified as a three-way joint. The chemiluminescence reaction conditions and capillary electrophoresis separation conditions were investigated in detail. The results showed that the coated capillary can be injected protein samples at least 30 times continuously with good repeatability. Under optimal conditions, the chemiluminescence relative intensity was linear with the concentration of hemoglobin in the range of 4-1850 μg mL(-1) and the detection limit was 2.0 μg mL(-1) (S/N=3). The relative standard deviation of migration times and peak heights for 40 μg mL(-1) hemoglobin were 2.5% and 4.1% (n=11) respectively. Interference of matrix effects was overcome by the calibration according to standard addition methods. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully and was applied to detect the concentration of hemoglobin in the serum of haemolytic patients.

  2. On-capillary derivatisation as an approach to enhancing sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Glatz, Zdeněk


    Separation technologies play an important role in revealing biological processes at various omic levels, in pharmacological and clinical research. In this context, CE is a strong candidate for analyses of samples with rapidly increasing complexity. Even though CE is well known for its many advantages in this regard, the sensitivity of CE analyses is insufficient for many applications. Accordingly, there are generally three main options for enhancing the sensitivity of CE analyses - using special detection techniques, using sample pre-concentration and derivatisation. Derivatisation is often the method of choice for many laboratories, since it is simple and provides several advantages such as small sample volume demand and the possibility of automation. Although it can be performed in different ways depending on where the reaction takes place, this article reviews one of the simplest and at the same time most useful approaches on-capillary derivatisation. Even if in many cases the use of on-capillary derivatisation alone is enough to improve the detection sensitivity, on other occasions it needs to be employed in combination with the other above-mentioned strategies. After a simple discussion of derivatisation in general, special attention is focused on the on-capillary approach and methodologies available for on-capillary reactant mixing. Its applications in various fields are also described.

  3. Capillary Network, Cancer and Kleiber Law

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, G; Licciardi, S; Guiot, C; Deisboeck, T S


    We develop a heuristic model embedding Kleiber and Murray laws to describe mass growth, metastasis and vascularization in cancer. We analyze the relevant dynamics using different evolution equations (Verhulst, Gompertz and others). Their extension to reaction diffusion equation of the Fisher type is then used to describe the relevant metastatic spreading in space. Regarding this last point, we suggest that cancer diffusion may be regulated by Levy flights mechanisms and discuss the possibility that the associated reaction diffusion equations are of the fractional type, with the fractional coefficient being determined by the fractal nature of the capillary evolution.

  4. Capillary-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop (United States)


    New type of capillary-pumped heat-transfer loop primes itself at startup. Removes substantial quantities of heat like that generated by people and equipment in rooms and vehicles. Creates continuous path for its working fluid; both vapor and liquid move in same direction. Key element in operation of loop is formation of slugs of liquid, condensed from vapor and moved along loop by vapor bubbles before and after it. Both evaporator and condenser contain axial arteries carrying water. Heat entering evaporator from heat source provides energy for transport of fluid and heat. Dimensions in inches.

  5. Intraneural capillary hemangioma of the cauda equina. (United States)

    Mastronardi, L; Guiducci, A; Frondizi, D; Carletti, S; Spera, C; Maira, G


    A case of intraneural capillary hemangioma involving the dorsal root of a spinal nerve of the cauda equina is reported. The patient was a 41-year-old man with a 3-month history of intermittent left lumbosciatalgia. MRI and CT myelography showed a space-occupying mass at the level of the cauda equina. Laminectomy of L5 and complete removal of the lesion were performed without neurological problems. The clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of hemangiomas of the cauda equina are analyzed.

  6. Elastic deformation due to tangential capillary forces

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Siddhartha; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H


    A sessile liquid drop can deform the substrate on which it rests if the solid is sufficiently "soft". In this paper we compute the detailed spatial structure of the capillary forces exerted by the drop on the solid substrate using a model based on Density Functional Theory. We show that, in addition to the normal forces, the drop exerts a previously unaccounted tangential force. The resultant effect on the solid is a pulling force near the contact line directed towards the interior of the drop, i.e. not along the interface. The resulting elastic deformations of the solid are worked out and illustrate the importance of the tangential forces.

  7. Capillary floating and the billiard ball problem

    CERN Document Server

    Gutkin, Eugene


    We establish a connection between capillary floating in neutral equilibrium and the billiard ball problem. This allows us to reduce the question of floating in neutral equilibrium at any orientation with a prescribed contact angle for infinite homogeneous cylinders to a question about billiard caustics for their orthogonal cross-sections. We solve the billiard problem. As an application, we characterize the possible contact angles and exhibit an infinite family of real analytic non-round cylinders that float in neutral equilibrium at any orientation with constant contact angles.

  8. Experimental study on capillary filling in nanochannels (United States)

    Yang, Min; Cao, Bing-Yang; Wang, Wei; Yun, He-Ming; Chen, Bao-Ming


    We investigated the capillary filling kinetics of deionized water in nanochannels with heights of 50-120 nm. The measured position of the moving meniscus was proportional to the square root of time, as predicted by the LW equation. However, the extracted slopes were significantly smaller than the predictions based on the bulk properties. This unusual behavior was found to be mainly caused by the electro-viscous effect and dynamic contact angle, which was significantly larger than the static angle. In addition, when the filling distance reached about 600 μm, bubbles tended to be formed, leading to the main meniscus was almost immobile.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates. (United States)

    Zaia, Joseph


    The development of methods for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-line mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS) is driven by the need for accurate, robust, and sensitive glycomics analysis for basic biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics. One important capability is to profile glycan mixtures with respect to the patterns of substituents including sialic acids, acetate, sulfate, phosphate, and other groups. There is additional need for an MS-compatible separation system capable of resolving carbohydrate isomers. This chapter summarizes applications of CS/MS to analysis of carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and glycopeptides that have appeared since 2008. Readers are referred to recent comprehensive reviews covering earlier publications.

  10. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing


    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  11. Comparison of three modifications of fused-silica capillaries and untreated capillaries for protein profiling of maize extracts by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Pobozy, Ewa; Sentkowska, Aleksandra; Piskor, Anna


    In this work, capillary electrophoresis was applied to protein profiling of fractionated extracts of maize. A comparative study on the application of uncoated fused-silica capillaries and capillaries modified with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, ω-iodoalkylammonium salt and a commercially available neutral capillary covalently coated with polyacrylamide is presented. The coating stability, background electrolyte composition, and separation efficiency were investigated. It was found that for zeins separation, the most stable and efficient was the capillary coated with polyacrylamide. Finally, the usefulness of these methods was studied for the differentiation of zein fraction in transgenic and nontransgenic maize. Zeins extracted from maize standards containing 0 and 5% m/m genetic modification were successfully separated, but slight differences were observed in terms of the zein content. Albumin and globulin fractions were analyzed with the use of unmodified fused-silica capillary with borate buffer pH 9 and the capillary coated with polyacrylamide with phosphate buffer pH 3. In the albumin fraction, additional peaks were found in genetically modified samples.

  12. Another baby? Father involvement and childbearing in fragile families. (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E; Kamp Dush, Claire M


    An historic number of women in the United States have children outside of marriage, and with more than one father, yet little research has examined the association between family process and women's childbearing decisions. Using a subsample of unmarried women from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2028), a study of primarily low-income unmarried parents, we conducted discrete-time survival analysis models to predict whether women had another child with the focal child's father (same-father birth) or with a new father (new-father birth). Father involvement was measured by engagement, indirect care, accessibility, and financial support. Overall, mothers who reported greater engagement and indirect care from the focal child's father were more likely to have a same-father birth even when he was not living in her home, and were also less likely to have a new-father birth. Further, mothers who reported greater accessibility and stable financial support from the focal child's nonresident father were also less likely to have a new-father birth. One pathway through which this may have occurred was that single mothers who perceived less indirect care and accessibility from the focal child's nonresident father were more likely to begin new romantic relationships. Indeed, whether or not the mother had a new romantic partner partially mediated the association between indirect care and a same-father birth and fully mediated the association between accessibility and a new-father birth, suggesting that one pathway linking father involvement to a new-father birth was through maternal repartnering. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

  13. Longitudinal trajectories of aberrant behavior in fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L


    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman et al., 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population.

  14. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein. (United States)

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M


    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population.

  15. Seismic fragility analysis of seismically isolated nuclear power plants piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi Firoozabad, Ehsan, E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub-Gyu, E-mail: [KOCED Seismic Simulation Test Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan Campus Mulgeum, Yangsan, Kyungsangnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung-Suk, E-mail: [KOCED Seismic Simulation Test Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan Campus Mulgeum, Yangsan, Kyungsangnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam-Sik, E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The critical points of a seismically isolated NPP piping system are identified. • The simulation results are validated through a monotonic and cyclic test of the critical points. • The conditional mean spectrum method is used to scale the selected records. • The fragility curves of the NPP piping system are estimated. • Computation of the fragility parameters is addressed. - Abstract: Nuclear power plants are high risk facilities due to the possibility of sudden seismic events, because any possible failure could initiate catastrophic radioactive contamination. The seismic fragility analysis of NPPs and related equipments (such as piping systems) is a proven method to determine their performance against any possible earthquake. In this study the Brookhaven National laboratory benchmark model of a piping system was considered for the fragility analysis. A tensile test was conducted to define the material properties. An initial seismic analysis of the piping system is performed to indicate the critical sections of the piping system. Numerical analysis was validated through a monotonic and cyclic loading experiment of two identified critical points of the piping system. The tests were conducted at the Korea Construction Engineering Development (KOCED) Seismic Simulation Test Center, Pusan National University, Korea. Fragility curves were expressed for critical points of the system as a function of the spectral acceleration of the records and the maximum relative displacement. The standard deviation of the response and capacity were calculated using mathematical formulas, assuming that those follow a log-normal distribution. We determined that the fragility curve of a pipe elbow must be derived for both the opening and closing mode, regarding the difference between the capacities of the elbow on those modes. The high confidence of low probability of failure for the considered fragility functions in a straight section in any direction is

  16. Raman and DSC studies of fragility in tellurium-zinc oxide glass formers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrou, Elissaios [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Kripotou, Sotiria; Raptis, Constantine [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Turrell, Sylvia [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman (CNRS 8516), Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications (CERLA-FR CNRS 2416), Universite de Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Syassen, Karl [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Raman scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements have been carried out in four mixed (TeO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(ZnO){sub x} (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) glasses at high temperatures (Raman and DSC through the glass transition) and high pressures (Raman) with the aim of determining the fragility of these glass forming oxides. Four different criteria, corresponding to four parameters, were applied to assess the fragility of the glasses. From the DSC studies, we have obtained the fragility parameter m which corresponds to the slopes of Arrhenius (lnQ vs. 1/T{sub g}, were Q is the heating rate) plots, and the glass transition width {delta}T{sub g}. Also, from the low-frequency Raman scattering, and in particular the boson peak intensity of the glasses at T{sub g}, we have estimated the fragility ratio r{sub R} (T{sub g}) = I{sub min}/I{sub max} whose value serves as another (empirical) fragility criterion. Finally, from high pressure Raman measurements on the glasses, we have estimated the Grueneisen parameter {gamma}{sub T} for each glass, which constitutes the fourth fragility parameter adopted in this work. Considering the four parameters {delta}T{sub g}, m, r (T{sub g}) and {gamma}{sub T} and the generally accepted (empirical) fragility criteria, we conclude that the mixed tellurium-zinc oxides constitute strong-to-intermediate glass formers (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Wakefield Resonant Excitation by Intense Laser Pulse in Capillary Plasma%Wakefield Resonant Excitation by Intense Laser Pulse in Capillary Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周素云; 袁孝; 刘明萍


    The laser-induced plasma wakefield in a capillary is investigated on the basis of a simple two-dimensional analytical model. It is shown that as an intense laser pulse reshaped by the capillary wall propagates in capillary plasma, it resonantly excites a strong wakefield if a suitable laser pulse width and capillary radius are chosen for a certain plasma density. The dependence of the laser width and capillary radius on the plasma density for resonance conditions is considered. The wakefield amplitude and longitudinal scale of bubbles in capillary plasma are much larger than those in unbounded plasma, so the capillary guided plasma wakefield is more favorable to electron acceleration.

  18. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard


    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape.

  19. Capillary surface discontinuities above reentrant corners (United States)

    Korevaar, H. J.


    A particular configuration of a vertical capillary tube for which S is the equilibrium interface between two fluids in the presence of a downward pointing gravitational field was investigated. S is the graph a function u whose domain is the (horizontal) cross section gamma of the tube. The mean curvature of S is proportional to its height above a fixed reference plane and lambda is a prescribed constant and may be taken between zero and pi/2. Domains gamma for which us is a bounded function but does not extend continuously to d gamma are sought. Simple domains are found and the behavior of u in those domains is studied. An important comparison principle that has been used in the literature to derive many of the results in capillarity is reviewed. It allows one to deduce the approximate shape of a capillary surface by constructing comparison surfaces with mean curvature and contact angle close to those of the (unknown) solution surface. In the context of nonparametric problems the comparison principle leads to height estimates above and below for the function u. An example from the literature where these height estimates have been used successfully is described. The promised domains for which the bounded u does not extend continuously to the boundary are constructed. The point on the boundary at which u has a jump discontinuity will be the vertext of a re-entrant corner having any interior angle theta pi. Using the comparison principle the behavior of u near this point is studied.

  20. Observations of gravity-capillary lump interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Masnadi, Naeem


    In this experimental study, we investigate the interaction of gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by two surface pressure sources moving side by side at constant speed. The nonlinear response of a water surface to a single source moving at a speed just below the minimum phase speed of linear gravity-capillary waves in deep water ($c_{min}\\approx23$ cm s$^{-1}$) consists of periodic generation of pairs of three-dimensional solitary waves (or lumps) in a V-shaped pattern downstream of the source. In the reference frame of the laboratory, these unsteady lumps propagate in a direction oblique to the motion of the source. In the present experiments, the strength of the two sources is adjusted to produce nearly identical responses and the free surface deformations are visualized using photography-based techniques. The first lumps generated by the two sources move in intersecting directions that make a half angle of approximately 15 degrees and collide in the center-plane between the sources. A steep depressi...

  1. Capillary wrinkling of thin bilayer polymeric sheets (United States)

    Chang, Jooyoung; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas

    We have investigated capillary force induced wrinkling on a floated polymeric bilayer thin sheet. The origin of the wrinkle pattern is compressional hoop stress caused by the capillary force of a water droplet placed on the floated polymeric thin sheet afore investigated. Herein, we study the effect of the differences of surface energy arising from the hydrophobicity of Polystyrene (PS Mw: 97 K, Contact Angle: 88 º) and the hydrophilicity of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA Mw: 99K, Contact Angle: 68 º) on two sides of a bilayer film. We measure the number and the length of the wrinkles by broadly varying the range of thicknesses of top (9 nm to 550 nm) and bottom layer (25 nm to 330 nm). At the same, there is only a small contrast in mechanical properties of the two layers (PS E = 3.4 GPa, and PMMA E = 3 GPa). The number of the wrinkles is not strongly affected by the composition (PS(Top)/PMMA(Bottom) or PMMA(Top)/PS(Bottom)) and the thickness of each and overall bilayer system. However, the length of the wrinkle is governed by the contact angle of the drop on the top layer of bilayer system. We also compare this to the wrinkle pattern obtained in monolayer systems over a wide range of thickness from PS and PMMA (7 nm to 1 μm). W.M. Keck Foundation.

  2. Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures using capillary forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honschoten, van J.W.; Berenschot, J.W.; Sanders, R.G.P.; Abelmann, L.; Tas, N.R.; Elwenspoek, M.


    In this paper we describe the fabrication of threedimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar structures are folded to produce 3D-objects. To this purpose use is made of capillary interactions and surface tension forces. Capillarity is a particul

  3. A Simple Double-Source Model for Interference of Capillaries (United States)

    Hou, Zhibo; Zhao, Xiaohong; Xiao, Jinghua


    A simple but physically intuitive double-source model is proposed to explain the interferogram of a laser-capillary system, where two effective virtual sources are used to describe the rays reflected by and transmitted through the capillary. The locations of the two virtual sources are functions of the observing positions on the target screen. An…

  4. Capillary condensation in porous alumina observed by positronium lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Eugeniu [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering-Horia Hulubei, Atomistilor Street 407, CP MG 06, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Center for Advanced Studies in Physics of the Roumanian Academy, Casa Academiei Romane, Calea 13 Septembrie No. 13, Bucharest (Romania); Vata, Ion [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering-Horia Hulubei, Atomistilor Street 407, CP MG 06, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail:; Toderian, Stefan; Dudu, Dorin; Rusen, Ion; Stefan, Nitisor [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering-Horia Hulubei, Atomistilor Street 407, CP MG 06, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)


    The PALS method based on time distribution measurements has been used to study capillary condensation of different gases adsorbed in microporous alumina powder. The isotherms exhibit features which are associated with a shifted gas-liquid transition. The sorption and desorption processes are irreversible presenting a hysteresis effect. Suggestions on some new aspects of the capillary condensation dynamics are made.

  5. Potential of capillary electrophoresis for the profiling of propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.


    The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection for the profiling of Propolis, a hive product, is investigated. Water extracts of Propolis were analyzed with both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 7.0 and 9.3, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) wit

  6. Most robust and fragile two-qubit entangled states under depolarizing channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Chao-Qian; Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin


    In the two-qubit system under the local depolarizing channels, the most robust and the most fragile states for a given concurrence or negativity are derived. For the one-sided channel, with the aid of the evolution equation for entanglement given by Konrad \\emph{et al.} [Nat. Phys. 4, 99 (2008)], the pure states are proved to be the most robust. Based on a generalization of the evolution equation, we classify the ansatz states in our investigation by the amount of robustness, and consequently derive the most fragile states. For the two-sided channel, the pure states are proved to be the most robust for a fixed concurrence, but is the most fragile with a given negativity when the channel is uniform. Under the uniform channel, for a given negativity, the most robust states are the ones with the maximal concurrence, which are also the most fragile states when the concurrence is given in the region of [1/2,1]. When the entanglement approaches zero, the most fragile states for a given negativity become the pure st...

  7. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with vertebral fragility fractures. (United States)

    Maier, G S; Seeger, J B; Horas, K; Roth, K E; Kurth, A A; Maus, U


    Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as a common risk factor for fragility fractures and poor fracture healing. Epidemiological data on vitamin D deficiency have been gathered in various populations, but the association between vertebral fragility fractures and hypovitaminosis D, especially in males, remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) in patients presenting with vertebral fragility fractures and to determine whether patients with a vertebral fracture were at greater risk of hypovitaminosis D than a control population. Furthermore, we studied the seasonal variations in the serum vitamin D levels of tested patients in order to clarify the relationship between other known risk factors for osteoporosis and vitamin D levels. We measured the serum 25-OH D levels of 246 patients admitted with vertebral fractures (105 men, 141 female, mean age 69 years, sd 8.5), and in 392 orthopaedic patients with back pain and no fractures (219 men, 173 female, mean age 63 years, sd 11) to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. Statistical analysis found a significant difference in vitamin D levels between patients with vertebral fragility fracture and the control group (p = 0.036). In addition, there was a significant main effect of the tested variables: obesity (p vitamin D levels and gender (p = 0.34). Vitamin D insufficiency was shown to be a risk factor for vertebral fragility fractures in both men and women.

  8. Evaluation of Fragility of the Economic System in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    From two aspects,namely the sensitivity of regional economic system to internal and external interference,and its resilience,we establish the evaluation indicator system of fragility of the economic system in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone,and evaluate the internal differences in fragility of the regional economic system,using set pair analysis method. The results show that there is a great difference in fragility of the economic system between different administrative units; the difference in resilience is the major factor responsible for difference in fragility of the economic system in various cities and counties within the region; according to the difference in fragility characteristics,we conduct classification as follows: Nanchang City is a low-sensitivity and high-resilience type; Jiujiang City is a high-sensitivity and high-resilience type; Jiujiang County,Xingzi County,Yongxiu County,Hukou County,Duchang County,Ruichang County,De’an Xian,Wuning County,Pengze County,Leping City, Dongxiang County,Fengcheng City and Gao’an City are a high-sensitivity and low-resilience type; other cities and counties are a low-sensitivity and low-resilience type.

  9. Viscosity of liquid Ag-In-Sb-Te: Evidence of a fragile-to-strong crossover (United States)

    Orava, J.; Weber, H.; Kaban, I.; Greer, A. L.


    The temperature-dependent viscosity η(T) is measured for the equilibrium liquid of the chalcogenide Ag-In-Sb-Te (AIST), the first time this has been reported for a material of actual interest for phase-change memory. The measurements, in the range 829-1254 K, are made using an oscillating-crucible viscometer, and show a liquid with high fragility and low viscosity, similar to liquid pure metals. Combining the high-temperature viscosity measurements with values inferred from crystal growth rates in the supercooled liquid allows the form of η(T) to be estimated over the entire temperature range from above the melting point down to the glass transition. It is then clear that η(T) for liquid AIST cannot be described with a single fragility value, unlike other phase-change chalcogenides such as liquid Ge-Sb-Te. There is clear evidence for a fragile-to-strong crossover on cooling liquid AIST, similar to that analyzed in Te85Ge15. The change in fragility associated with the crossover in both these cases is rather weak, giving a broad temperature range over which η(T) is near-Arrhenius. We discuss how such behavior may be beneficial for the performance of phase-change memory. Consideration of the fragile-to-strong crossover in liquid chalcogenides may be important in tuning compositions to optimize the device performance.

  10. Dynamic behavior of fragile X full mutations in cultured female fetal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jie SUN; Xiao HAN


    AIM: To assess mitotic stability of the fragile X full mutations and its relationship with DNA methylation. METHODS:The length change of the expanded CGG repeats was examined and correlated it with the methylation status in the DNA samples isolated from the fibroblasts derived from a fragile X female fetus and a fragile X male adult, respectively.RESULTS: A dramatic instability of the expanded CGG repeats in the female fetal fibroblasts was observed. Southem blot analysis revealed that the 6.9-kb major expanded band detected in passage 2 was completely replaced by a 7.7-kb band after passage 30. Fibroblast clones derived from the passage 3 displayed an unstable expansion of the CGG repeat during clonal proliferation, while methylation status of the CGG repeat region was maintained. In contrast, in fragile X male fibroblasts the expanded CGG repeats were stable during clonal proliferation.CONCLUSION: The mitotic instability of expanded CGG repeat is not always restricted in early development window as proposed previously and other elements rather than DNA methylation could affect the stability of the expanded CGG repeats in fragile X female fetal fibroblast cells.

  11. Disentangling interatomic repulsion and anharmonicity in the viscosity and fragility of glasses (United States)

    Krausser, J.; Lagogianni, A. E.; Samwer, K.; Zaccone, A.


    Within the shoving model of the glass transition, the relaxation time and the viscosity are related to the local cage rigidity. This approach can be extended down to the atomic level in terms of the interatomic interaction or potential of mean force. We applied this approach to both real metallic glass formers and model Lennard-Jones glasses. The main outcome of this analysis is that in metallic glasses the thermal expansion contribution is mostly independent of composition and is uncorrelated with the interatomic repulsion: As a consequence, the fragility increases upon increasing the interatomic repulsion steepness. In the Lennard-Jones glasses, the scenario is opposite: Thermal expansion and interatomic repulsion contributions are strongly correlated, and the fragility decreases upon increasing the repulsion steepness. This framework allows one to tell apart systems where "soft atoms make strong glasses" from those where, instead, "soft atoms make fragile glasses." Hence, it opens up the way for the rational, atomistic tuning of the fragility and viscosity of widely different glass-forming materials all the way from strong to fragile.

  12. Fragile X premutation in women: recognizing the health challenges beyond primary ovarian insufficiency. (United States)

    Hoyos, Luis R; Thakur, Mili


    Fragile X premutation carriers have 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Women with this premutation face many physical and emotional challenges in their life. Approximately 20% of these women will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). In addition, they suffer from increased rates of menstrual dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, reduction in age of menopause, infertility, dizygotic twinning, and risk of having an offspring with a premutation or full mutation. Consequent chronic hypoestrogenism may result in impaired bone health and increased cardiovascular risk. Neuropsychiatric issues include risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, neuropathy, musculoskeletal problems, increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances independent of the stress of raising an offspring with fragile X syndrome and higher risk of postpartum depression. Some studies have reported a higher prevalence of thyroid abnormalities and hypertension in these women. Reproductive health providers play an important role in the health supervision of women with fragile X premutation. Awareness of these risks and correlation of the various manifestations could help in early diagnosis and coordination of care and services for these women and their families. This paper reviews current evidence regarding the possible conditions that may present in women with premutation-sized repeats beyond FXPOI.

  13. Pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate bearing sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shicai; LIU Changling; YE Yuguang; LIU Yufeng


    To better understand the relationship between the pore capillary pressure and hydrate saturation in sedi-ments, a new method was proposed. First, the phase equilibria of methane hydrate in fine-grained silica sands were measured. As to the equilibrium data, the pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate were calculated. The results showed that the phase equilibria of methane hydrates in fine-grained silica sands changed due to the depressed activity of pore water caused by the surface group and negatively charged characteristic of silica particles as well as the capillary pressure in small pores together. The capil-lary pressure increased with the increase of methane hydrate saturation due to the decrease of the available pore space. However, the capillary-saturation relationship could not yet be described quantitatively because of the stochastic habit of hydrate growth.

  14. Capillary electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analysis of a polydisperse fluorosurfactant. (United States)

    Al-Jarah, Suhair Yousif; Sjödahl, Johan; Woldegiorgis, Andreas; Emmer, Asa


    A fluorosurfactant has been studied using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The fluorosurfactant, FC134, can be used as a buffer additive in capillary electrophoresis in order to decrease wall adsorption of proteins and in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. However, it has been discovered that this fluorosurfactant is polydisperse, thus containing substances with different lengths and structures. In this work, the fluorosurfactant sample components were separated by capillary electrophoresis. An uncoated as well as a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary were used with running electrolytes containing methanol and acetic acid. Following the capillary electrophoretic separation, fractions were collected for further analysis by MALDI-MS. Non-fractionated samples were also analyzed both by MALDI-MS and by ESI-MS.

  15. Fatal Primary Capillary Leak Syndrome in a Late Preterm Newborn. (United States)

    Kulihova, Katarina; Prochazkova, Martina; Semberova, Jana; Janota, Jan


    Primary capillary leak syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by episodes of vascular collapse and plasma extravasation, which may lead to multiple organ failure. Primary capillary leak is extremely rare in children. The authors report a case of a late preterm newborn with fatal capillary leak syndrome of unknown etiology, manifesting as hypotension unresponsive to treatment, extravasation leading to generalised edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation and finally, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Aggressive volumotherapy and a combination of inotropes and high doses of terlipressin did not influence systemic vascular collapse and plasma extravasation. The newborn developed multiple organ failure and died on day 27 of life. Investigations performed failed to reveal any specific cause of capillary leak. This is the first report of a fatal primary capillary leak syndrome in a newborn.

  16. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, Artaches A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McCord, James; Muddiman, David C. [W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Paull, Brett, E-mail: [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)


    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L{sup −1} levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min{sup −1}, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L{sup −1} for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  17. Determination of Amino Acids in Single Human Lymphocytes after On-capillary Derivatization by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Amino acids in individual human lymphocytes were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with electrochemical detection after on-capillary derivatization. In order to inject cells easily, a cell injector was designed. Four amino acids (serine, alanine, taurine, and glycine) in single human lymphocytes have been identified. Quantitation has been accomplished through the use of calibration curves.

  18. NRL capillary Z-pinch experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethian, J.D.; Gerber, K.A.; Robson, A.E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); DeSilva, A.W. [Sachs/Freeman Associates, Inc., Landover, MD (United States)]|[Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)


    The current renewed interest in the dense linear z-pinch is due in large part to a recent Los Alamos Study which concluded that a z- pinch based reactor could produce 4.4 KJ of fusion energy per pulse for the modest input of 140 kJ per pulse, if a straight pinch could be maintained for 2 {mu}sec. Early attempts to achieve suitable high density z-pinches were of the implosion type which produced hollow pressure profiles that quickly resulted in disruptive m = 0 instabilities. These instabilities are not found in the gas embedded pinch in which an initially small diameter plasma is kept in radial equilibrium by following a prescribed current waveform. Unfortunately, these pinches are prone to a rapid accretion of the surrounding gas during the early stages of formation. Our approach is to form the pinch inside small diameter quartz capillaries filled with neutral hydrogen. This fixes the line density. By driving currents through the pinch at a rate that exceeds that necessary for radial equilibrium, we expect the pinch to contract away from the walls and be subject to compressional, as well as ohmic heating. This contraction will, of course, produce a plasma between the pinch and the capillary wall, but we anticipate this ``corona`` will be kept at a low temperature (i.e., high resistance) by radiation and hence shunt only a small fraction of the pinch current. We also expect negligible impurities in the pinch as the classical mixing time will be much longer than the pinch duration at the densities (10{sup 21}- 10{sup 22} ions/cm{sup 3}) and magnetic fields (1 - 10 MG) involved. However, we do expect the presence of the dense corona to reduce the growth rate of the m = 1 instability. Our results demonstrate that a z-pinch can be formed inside a capillary, but our limited current rise rates and peak current have limited our test abilities. Planned improvements in electrical equipment should yield successful testing results.

  19. Human keratin diseases: hereditary fragility of specific epithelial tissues. (United States)

    Corden, L D; McLean, W H


    Keratins are heteropolymeric proteins which form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton in epithelial cells. Since 1991, mutations in several keratin genes have been found to cause a variety of human diseases affecting the epidermis and other epithelial structures. Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) was the first mechanobullous disease for which the underlying genetic lesion was found, with mutations in both the K5 and K14 genes rendering basal epidermal keratinocytes less resilient to trauma, resulting in skin fragility. The site of mutation in the keratin protein correlates with phenotypic severity in this disorder. Since mutations were identified in the basal cell keratins, the total number of keratin genes associated with diseases has risen to eleven. The rod domains of suprabasal keratins K1 and K10 are mutated in bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (BCIE; also called epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, EH) and mosaicism for K1/K10 mutations results in a nevoid distribution of EH. An unusual mutation in the VI domain of K1 has also been found to cause diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (DNEPPK). Mutations in palmoplantar specific keratin K9 cause epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) and mutations in the late differentiation suprabasal keratin K2e cause ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens (IBS). In the last year or so, mutations were discovered in differentiation specific keratins K6a and K16 causing pachyonychia congenita type 1 and K17 mutations occur in pachyonychia congenita type 2. K16 and K17 mutations have also been reported to produce phenotypes with little or no nail changes: K16 mutations can present as focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (NEPPK) and K17 mutations can result in a phenotype resembling steatocystoma multiplex. Recently, mutation of mucosal keratin pair K4 and K13 has been shown to underlie white sponge nevus (WSN). This year, the first mutations in a keratin-associated protein, plectin, were shown to

  20. Automated Detection of Trinucleotide Repeats in Fragile X Syndrome. (United States)

    Hamdan; Tynan; Fenwick; Leon


    Background: The conventional method for diagnosis of fragile X syndrome has been amplification of the trinucleotide repeat region of the FMR-1 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis to detect full expansion and hypermethylation. "Stuttering" resulting from incomplete amplification is still observed in the PCR products despite the use of reagents that reduce the secondary structure of the GC-rich template. In addition, PCR products can be detected by autoradiography only after 1 to 2 days of exposure. By combination of a recently reported amplification protocol with fluorescence detection of PCR products in an automated DNA sequencer, the PCR protocol for amplification of trinucleotide repeats was simplified. This modified protocol is highly reproducible, more accurate, and less costly than the conventional protocol because of the elimination of radioisotopes from the PCR. Methods and Results: PCRs were conducted with betaine and Pfu DNA polymerase. This improved PCR protocol allowed immediate detection of PCR products in agarose gels containing ethidium bromide. Stuttering was completely eliminated and fragments of up to 1kb ( approximately 250 repeats) were visible in agarose gels. PCR products were automatically detected by laser fluorescence in an automated DNA sequencer by inclusion of a fluorescently-labeled primer in the PCR reaction. A short electrophoresis run of 100 minutes in denaturing acrylamide gels was sufficient to give high resolution of fragments with higher accuracy and sensitivity than conventional detection by autoradiography. Conclusions: A simple, nonradioactive protocol that is more rapid and less expensive than the conventional PCR protocol for the detection of trinucleotide repeats has been developed. By use of this detection protocol, fragment sizes containing up to 100 repeats could be detected, alleles differing by one trinucleotide repeat were clearly resolved, and heterogeneous repeat patterns such as those

  1. Double-layer poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary for highly sensitive and stable capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry glycan analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Zhao, Ming-Zhe; Liu, Jing-Xin; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang


    Glycosylation plays an important role in protein conformations and functions as well as many biological activities. Capillary electrophoresis combined with various detection methods provided remarkable developments for high-sensitivity glycan profiling. The coating of the capillary is needed for highly polar molecules from complex biosamples. A poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary is commonly utilized in the capillary electrophoresis separation of saccharides sample due to the high-hydrophilicity properties. A modified facile coating workflow was carried out to acquire a novel multiple-layer poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary for highly sensitive and stable analysis of glycans. The migration time fluctuation was used as index in the optimization of layers and a double layer was finally chosen, considering both the effects and simplicity in fabrication. With migration time relative standard deviation less than 1% and theoretical plates kept stable during 100 consecutive separations, the method was presented to be suitable for the analysis of glycosylation with wide linear dynamic range and good reproducibility. The glycan profiling of enzymatically released N-glycans from human serum was obtained by the presented capillary electrophoresis method combined with mass spectrometry detection with acceptable results.

  2. Targeted pharmacological treatment of autism spectrum disorders: fragile X and Rett syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen eWang


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are genetically and clinically heterogeneous and lack effective medications to treat their core symptoms. Studies of syndromic ASDs caused by single gene mutations have provided insights into the pathophysiology of autism. Fragile X and Rett syndromes belong to the syndromic ASDs in which preclinical studies have identified rational targets for drug therapies focused on correcting underlying neural dysfunction. These preclinical discoveries are increasingly translating into exciting human clinical trials. Since there are significant molecular and neurobiological overlaps among ASDs, targeted treatments developed for fragile X and Rett syndromes may be helpful for autism of different etiologies. Here, we review the targeted pharmacological treatment of fragile X and Rett syndromes and discuss related issues in both preclinical studies and clinical trials of potential therapies for the diseases.

  3. [The profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit]. (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia Honório Silva; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira


    The scope of this study was to identify the profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit. It involved an observational, exploratory, household -based and cross-sectional study conducted with 139 elderly individuals. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire requesting the following information: personal history, family and self-reported diseases, socio-demographic information, level of physical activity, behavior variables, number of falls in the last year, depressive symptoms, unintentional weight loss and fatigue. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were also taken and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Descriptive analyses and Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were performed, with a significance level of p fragility among the elderly was: frail (16.9%), pre-frail (61.8%) and non-frail (21.3%), respectively. The fragility profile was associated with: age (p factors associated with this syndrome.

  4. Deletion in the FMR1 gene in a fragile-X male

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannermaa, A.; Pulkkinen, L.; Kajanoja, E. [Kuopio Univ., Hospital (Finland)] [and others


    The pathogenesis of fragile-X syndrome is a consequence of absence of the FMR1 gene product associated with expansion of the CGG repeat and abnormal methylation of this and a CpG island 250 hp proximal to the CGG repeat located at exon 1 in the FMR1 gene. While this is usually the case, some suspected fragile-X syndrome patients have been described with a mutation other than CGG expansion. We describe here an affected fragile-X male, who was found to be mosaic of a full mutation of the CGG expansion and a deletion in the FMR1 gene. The patient`s phenotype is probably mainly due to the effect of the full mutation of the repeat sequence. Thus, the influence of the deletion is difficult to evaluate. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  5. A Scandinavian case of skin fragility, alopecia and cardiomyopathy caused by DSP mutations. (United States)

    Vahlquist, A; Virtanen, M; Hellström-Pigg, M; Dragomir, A; Ryberg, K; Wilson, N J; Östman--Smith, I; Lu, L; McGrath, J A; Smith, F J D


    Congenital skin fragility is a heterogeneous disorder with epidermolysis bullosa and various skin infections as the leading causes. However, even rare diseases must be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal skin blistering, including some genetic syndromes with extracutaneous involvement. One such syndrome is ectodermal dysplasia due to deficiency of desmoplakin, a desmosomal protein essential for cellular cohesion in both epithelia and cardiac tissues. Desmoplakin is encoded by the DSP gene, which is localized on chromosome 6p24. Both dominant and recessive mutations in this gene have been reported to cause skin fragility and keratinization defects. We report a child born with a fragile epidermis, alopecia, thick nails, and focal hyperkeratoses on the digits and knees. She was found to have a deficiency of desmoplakin caused by compound heterozygous DSP mutations. She has gradually developed signs of a left ventricular cardiomyopathy.

  6. Non-fragile decentralized H∞ controller design for uncertain linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhihua; Chen Yuepeng; Zhang Qingling


    Considering the design problem of non-fragile decentralized H∞ controller with gain variations, the dynamic feedback controller by measurement feedback for uncertain linear systems is constructed and studied. The parameter uncertainties are considered to be unknown but norm bounded. The design procedures are investigated in terms of positive definite solutions to modify algebraic Riccati inequalities. Using information exchange among local controllers, the designed non-fragile decentralized H∞ controllers guarantee that the uncertain closed-loop linear systems are stable and with H∞ -norm bound on disturbance attenuation. A sufficient condition that there are such non-fragile H∞ controllers is obtained by algebraic Riccati inequalities. The approaches to solve modified algebraic Riccati inequalities are carried out preliminarily. Finally, a numerical example to show the validity of the proposed approach is given.

  7. Analysis of unstable DNA sequence in FRM1 gene in Polish families with fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, Michal; Bal, Jerzy; Obersztyn, Ewa; Bocian, Ewa; Mazurczak, Tadeusz [Instytut Matki i Dziecka, Warsaw (Poland); Zygulska, Marta; Horst, Juergen [Institute of Human Genetics, Muenster (Germany); Deelen, Wout H.; Halley, Dicky J.J. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    The unstable DNA sequence in the FMR1 gene was analyzed in 85 individuals from Polish families with fragile X syndrome in order to characterize mutations responsible for the disease in Poland. In all affected individuals classified on the basis of clinical features and expression of the fragile site at X(q27.3) a large expansion of the unstable sequence (full mutation) was detected. About 5% (2 of 43) of individuals with full mutation did not express the fragile site. Among normal alleles, ranging in size from 20 to 41 CGC repeats, allele with 29 repeats was the most frequent (37%). Transmission of premutated and fully mutated alleles to the offspring was always associated with size increase. No change in repeat number was found when normal alleles were transmitted. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Improving the performance of DCT-based fragile watermarking using intelligent optimization algorithms (United States)

    Aslantas, Veysel; Ozer, Saban; Ozturk, Serkan


    The performance of a fragile watermarking method based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) has been improved in this paper by using intelligent optimization algorithms (IOA), namely genetic algorithm, differential evolution algorithm, clonal selection algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm. In DCT based fragile watermarking techniques, watermark embedding can usually be achieved by modifying the least significant bits of the transformation coefficients. After the embedding process is completed, transforming the modified coefficients from the frequency domain to the spatial domain produces some rounding errors due to the conversion of real numbers to integers. The rounding errors caused by this transformation process were corrected by the use of intelligent optimization algorithms mentioned above. This paper gives experimental results which show the feasibility of using these optimization algorithms for the fragile watermarking and demonstrate the accuracy of these methods. The performance comparison of the algorithms was also realized.

  9. Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiano, C.M. [United Cerebral Palsy of Nassau County, Roosevelt, NY (United States); Demb, H.B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Brown, W.T. [Inst. for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY (United States)


    Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

  10. Race and the fragility of the legal distinction between juveniles and adults. (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Levine, Cynthia S; Dweck, Carol S; Eberhardt, Jennifer L


    Legal precedent establishes juvenile offenders as inherently less culpable than adult offenders and thus protects juveniles from the most severe of punishments. But how fragile might these protections be? In the present study, simply bringing to mind a Black (vs. White) juvenile offender led participants to view juveniles in general as significantly more similar to adults in their inherent culpability and to express more support for severe sentencing. Indeed, these differences in participants' perceptions of this foundational legal precedent distinguishing between juveniles and adults accounted for their greater support for severe punishment. These results highlight the fragility of protections for juveniles when race is in play. Furthermore, we suggest that this fragility may have broad implications for how juveniles are seen and treated in the criminal justice system.

  11. Race and the fragility of the legal distinction between juveniles and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeta Rattan

    Full Text Available Legal precedent establishes juvenile offenders as inherently less culpable than adult offenders and thus protects juveniles from the most severe of punishments. But how fragile might these protections be? In the present study, simply bringing to mind a Black (vs. White juvenile offender led participants to view juveniles in general as significantly more similar to adults in their inherent culpability and to express more support for severe sentencing. Indeed, these differences in participants' perceptions of this foundational legal precedent distinguishing between juveniles and adults accounted for their greater support for severe punishment. These results highlight the fragility of protections for juveniles when race is in play. Furthermore, we suggest that this fragility may have broad implications for how juveniles are seen and treated in the criminal justice system.


    Fujimi, Toshio; Mazda, Taiji; Mizokami, Shoshi; Kiyota, Reo

    This paper evaluates the seismic damage probabilistically. The target area of this study is Kumamoto urban road network. The procedures of this study are making the fragility curve, and then calculating indirect traffic damage based on fragility curve. Making the fragility curve includes three types of bridge pier. GUIDELINE FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGE SEISMIC DESIGN in 1972, SPECIFICATION FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES Part V Seismic design in 1980 and 1990. To calculate traffic damage, it is considered scenario earthquake and the model of traffic assignment. Scenario earthquake is of Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone. The model of assignment is User Equilibrium Assignment. This study has yielded two results as the distribution of indirect traffic damage is normal, and there are 69 bridges in the area has failure probability, which are designed before 1980, and exist within 10km from the epicenter.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis of intact basic proteins using noncovalently triple-layer coated capillaries. (United States)

    Haselberg, Rob; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W


    The usefulness of a noncovalent, positively charged capillary coating for the efficient analysis of intact basic proteins with CE was studied. Capillaries were coated by subsequent flushing with solutions of 10% w/v Polybrene (PB), 3% w/v dextran sulfate (DS), and again 10% w/v PB. Coating characterization studies showed that stable coatings could be produced which exhibited a pH-independent and highly reproducible EOF. The PB-DS-PB coating was evaluated with Tris phosphate BGEs of various pH using the four basic model proteins: alpha-chymotrypsinogen A, ribonuclease A, cytochrome c, and lysozyme. Typical migration time RSDs for the proteins were less than 0.85%, and apparent plate numbers were above 125,000 using a capillary length of 40 cm. The high separation efficiency allowed detection of several minor impurities in the model proteins. Using a BGE of medium pH, the CE system with triple-layer coating appeared to be useful for the repeatable profiling of recombinant humanized mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G(1) showing a characteristic pattern of glycoforms. The CE system was also applied to the characterization of two llama antibodies, which were produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, revealing the presence of a side product in one of the antibodies. The high migration time stability allowed the reliable determination of antibody-antigen binding by monitoring migration time shifts. Finally, the feasibility of using the PB-DS-PB coated capillaries for CE with mass spectrometric detection was shown by the characterization of the impure llama antibody sample.

  14. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry using noncovalently coated capillaries for the analysis of biopharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Haselberg, R; Brinks, V; Hawe, A; de Jong, G J; Somsen, G W


    In this work, the usefulness of capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for the analysis of biopharmaceuticals was studied. Noncovalently bound capillary coatings consisting of Polybrene-poly(vinyl sulfonic acid) or Polybrene-dextran sulfate-Polybrene were used to minimize protein and peptide adsorption, and achieve good separation efficiencies. The potential of the capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) system to characterize degradation products was investigated by analyzing samples of the drugs, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and oxytocin, which had been subjected to prolonged storage, heat exposure, and/or different pH values. Modifications could be assigned based on accurate masses as obtained with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) and migration times with respect to the parent compound. For heat-exposed rhGH, oxidations, sulfonate formation, and deamidations were observed. Oxytocin showed strong deamidation (up to 40%) upon heat exposure at low pH, whereas at medium and high pH, mainly dimer (>10%) and trisulfide formation (6-7%) occurred. Recombinant human interferon-β-1a (rhIFN-β) was used to evaluate the capability of the CE-MS method to assess glycan heterogeneity of pharmaceutical proteins. Analysis of this N-glycosylated protein revealed a cluster of resolved peaks which appeared to be caused by at least ten glycoforms differing merely in sialic acid and hexose N-acetylhexosamine composition. Based on the relative peak area (assuming an equimolar response per glycoform), a quantitative profile could be derived with the disialytated biantennary glycoform as most abundant (52%). Such a profile may be useful for in-process and quality control of rhIFN-β batches. It is concluded that the separation power provided by combined capillary electrophoresis and TOF-MS allows discrimination of highly related protein species.

  15. Gravity-capillary free-surface flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc


    Free surface problems occur in many aspects of science and of everyday life such as the waves on a beach, bubbles rising in a glass of champagne, melting ice, pouring flows from a container and sails billowing in the wind. Consequently, the effect of surface tension on gravity-capillary flows continues to be a fertile field of research in applied mathematics and engineering. Concentrating on applications arising from fluid dynamics, Vanden-Broeck draws upon his years of experience in the field to address the many challenges involved in attempting to describe such flows mathematically. Whilst careful numerical techniques are implemented to solve the basic equations, an emphasis is placed upon the reader developing a deep understanding of the structure of the resulting solutions. The author also reviews relevant concepts in fluid mechanics to help readers from other scientific fields who are interested in free boundary problems.

  16. Dynamic Stability of Equilibrium Capillary Drops (United States)

    Feldman, William M.; Kim, Inwon C.


    We investigate a model for contact angle motion of quasi-static capillary drops resting on a horizontal plane. We prove global in time existence and long time behavior (convergence to equilibrium) in a class of star-shaped initial data for which we show that topological changes of drops can be ruled out for all times. Our result applies to any drop which is initially star-shaped with respect to a small ball inside the drop, given that the volume of the drop is sufficiently large. For the analysis, we combine geometric arguments based on the moving-plane type method with energy dissipation methods based on the formal gradient flow structure of the problem.

  17. Effects of Ground Motion Input on the Derived Fragility Functions: Case study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Hancilar, Ufuk; Harmandar, Ebru; Çakti, Eser


    Empirical fragility functions are derived by statistical processing of the data on: i) Damaged and undamaged buildings, and ii) Ground motion intensity values at the buildings' locations. This study investigates effects of different ground motion inputs on the derived fragility functions. The previously constructed fragility curves (Hancilar et al. 2013), which rely on specific shaking intensity maps published by the USGS after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, are compared with the fragility functions computed in the present study. Building data come from field surveys of 6,347 buildings that are grouped with respect to structural material type and number of stories. For damage assessment, the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) damage grades are adopted. The simplest way to account for the variability in ground motion input could have been achieved by employing different ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and their standard variations. However, in this work, we prefer to rely on stochastically simulated ground motions of the Haiti earthquake. We employ five different source models available in the literature and calculate the resulting strong ground motion in time domain. In our simulations we also consider the local site effects by published studies on NEHRP site classes and micro-zoning maps of the city of Port-au-Prince. We estimate the regional distributions from the waveforms simulated at the same coordinates that we have damage information from. The estimated spatial distributions of peak ground accelerations and velocities, PGA and PGV respectively, are then used as input to fragility computations. The results show that changing the ground motion input causes significant variability in the resulting fragility functions.

  18. Hyperactivity, perseveration and increased responding during attentional rule acquisition in the Fragile X mouse model. (United States)

    Kramvis, Ioannis; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Loos, Maarten; Meredith, Rhiannon


    Attentional deficits and executive function impairments are common to many neurodevelopmental disorders of intellectual disability and autism, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the knockout mouse model for FXS, significant changes in synaptic plasticity and connectivity are found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-a prominent region for attentional processing and executive control. Given these alterations in PFC synaptic function, we tested whether adult Fragile X knockout mice exhibited corresponding impairments in inhibitory control, perseveration, and sustained attention. Furthermore, we investigated individual performance during attentional rule acquisition. Using the 5-choice serial reaction time task, our results show no impairments in inhibitory control and sustained attention. Fragile X knockout mice exhibited enhanced levels of correct and incorrect responding, as well as perseveration of responding during initial phases of rule acquisition, that normalized with training. For both knockout and wild type mice, pharmacological attenuation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling did not affect response accuracy but reduced impulsive responses and increased omission errors. Upon rule reversal, Fragile X knockout mice made more correct and incorrect responses, similar to the initial phases of rule acquisition. Analogous to heightened activity upon novel rule acquisition, Fragile X knockout mice were transiently hyperactive in both a novel open field (OF) arena and novel home cage. Hyperactivity ceased with familiarization to the environment. Our findings demonstrate normal inhibitory control and sustained attention but heightened perseveration, responding, and hyperactivity during novel rule acquisition and during exposure to novel environments in Fragile X knockout mice. We therefore provide evidence for subtle but significant differences in the processing of novel stimuli in the mouse model for the FXS.

  19. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment (United States)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.


    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  20. A novel covalent coupling method for coating of capillaries with liposomes in capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Xu, Jian-Rong; Xiao, Yu-Xiu; Liao, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Guo-Fu; Feng, Yu-Qi


    A novel covalent coupling method for coating of capillaries with liposomes has been developed, which includes three steps: (i) epoxy-diol coating, (ii) activation with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanesulfonyl chloride, and (iii) liposome coupling. The coating conditions, such as the reaction time and temperature of liposome coupling, the content of dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine in liposomes, were optimized. Vesicles were visualized on the inner silica wall as confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The effectiveness of the coating was demonstrated by investigating the effect of pH of BGE on EOF and separating neutral compounds. The intra- and inter-capillary variations in EOF are 4.02% RSD (n=30) and 6.72% RSD (n=4) respectively, and the coated capillaries can be used to perform analysis at least for one month without any performance deterioration when stored at 4 degrees C. A set of drugs with diverse structures was applied into the developed liposome-coated CE. The normalized capacity factor (K) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate drug-membrane interactions. The relationship between log K and the fraction dose absorbed in humans (Fa%) shows that the liposome-coated CE can be utilized for in vitro prediction of Fa% of drugs that follow the transcellular passive transport route.

  1. Fragile X and autism : intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments


    Hoem, Gry


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (>200 repeats) in the 5’ un-translated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of a number of other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) occurs in an additio...

  2. A Scheme of Fragile Watermarking Based on SVD and 2D Chaotic Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fen-lin; GAO Shan-qing; GE Xin


    This paper proposed a novel fragile watermarking scheme based on singular value decomposition (SVD)and 2D chaotic mapping. It obtains chaotic initial values from the image blocks singular value decomposition and the user's key, then uses the chaotic mapping to get the chaotic sequence and inserts the sequence into the LSBs of the image blocks to get the watermarked image blocks. The paper reconstructed the watermarked image from all the embedded blocks. The analysis and experimental results show that the scheme is pretty fragile to tampering,and it can localize the tampering position accurately, reach 3 × 3 blocks.

  3. Promoter-Bound Trinucleotide Repeat mRNA Drives Epigenetic Silencing in Fragile X Syndrome


    Colak, Dilek; Zaninovic, Nikica; Cohen, Michael S.; Rosenwaks, Zev; Yang, Wang-Yong; Gerhardt, Jeannine; Disney, Matthew D.; Jaffrey, Samie R.


    Epigenetic gene silencing is seen in several repeat-expansion diseases. In fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic form of mental retardation, a CGG trinucleotide–repeat expansion adjacent to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene promoter results in its epigenetic silencing. Here, we show that FMR1 silencing is mediated by the FMR1 mRNA. The FMR1 mRNA contains the transcribed CGG-repeat tract as part of the 5′ untranslated region, which hybridizes to the complementary CGG-repeat ...

  4. The iso-structural viscosity, configurational entropy and fragility of oxide liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng


    This paper describes how the fragility of a liquid is linked to the ratio between the energy barrier (Eeq) for the equilibrium viscous behavior and that (Eiso) for the non-equilibrium iso-structural viscous behavior. Using the concept of iso-structural viscosity, two functions describing the vari......This paper describes how the fragility of a liquid is linked to the ratio between the energy barrier (Eeq) for the equilibrium viscous behavior and that (Eiso) for the non-equilibrium iso-structural viscous behavior. Using the concept of iso-structural viscosity, two functions describing...

  5. Acute nursing care of the older adult with fragility hip fracture: An international perspective (Part 2)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Ann Butler


    The second part of this paper provides those who care for orthopaedic patients with evidence-supported international perspectives about acute nursing care of the older adult with fragility hip fracture. Developed by an international group of nurse experts and guided by a range of information from research and clinical practice, it focuses on nurse sensitive quality indicators during the acute hospitalisation for fragility hip fracture. Optimal care for the patient who has experienced such a fracture is the focus. This includes (in the first, earlier, part):\\r\

  6. Nurse-parent dialogue: illuminating the evolving pattern of families with children who are medically fragile. (United States)

    Tommet, Patricia A


    Guided by Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness, this study explored the pattern of nurse-parent interaction in families with children who were medically fragile by applying the hermeneutic, dialectic method of interviewing and analysis. Living with children who are medically fragile was manifested by continual uncertainity. Families changed from trying to gain control of their uncertainty to learning to live in the uncertainty, as they evolved through an initial p[eriod of disruption and disorganization to organization at another level. This required new ways of relating to friends, family, healthcare providers, and the community, expanding the consciousness of the family.

  7. Increased chromosome fragility as a consequence of blood folate levels, smoking status, and coffee consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.T.L.; Reidy, J.A.; Annest, J.L.; Welty, T.K.; Zhou, H. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))


    Chromosome fragility in 96 h, low-folate cultures was found to be associated with smoking status, coffee consumption, and blood folate level. The higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations in cigarette smokers was attributable to lower red cell folate levels in smokers compared with nonsmokers. There was a positive linear relationship between the average cups of coffee consumed per day and the proportion of cells with aberrations. This association was independent of the effects of smoking and red cell folate level. These data suggest that smoking history, coffee consumption, and red cell folate level are important considerations for the design and interpretation of fragile site studies in cancer cytogenetics.

  8. Capillary dynamics driven by molecular self-layering. (United States)

    Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh


    Capillary dynamics is a ubiquitous everyday phenomenon. It has practical applications in diverse fields, including ink-jet printing, lab-on-a-chip, biotechnology, and coating. Understanding capillary dynamics requires essential knowledge on the molecular level of how fluid molecules interact with a solid substrate (the wall). Recent studies conducted with the surface force apparatus (SFA), atomic force microscope (AFM), and statistical mechanics simulation revealed that molecules/nanoparticles confined into the film/wall surfaces tend to self-layer into 2D layer/s and even 2D in-layer with increased confinement and fluid volume fraction. Here, the capillary rise dynamics of simple molecular fluids in cylindrical capillary is explained by the molecular self-layering model. The proposed model considers the role of the molecular shape on self-layering and its effect on the molecularly thin film viscosity in regards to the advancing (dynamic) contact angle. The model was tested to explain the capillary rise dynamics of fluids of spherical, cylindrical, and disk shape molecules in borosilicate glass capillaries. The good agreement between the capillary rise data and SFA data from the literature for simple fluid self-layering shows the validity of the present model. The present model provides new insights into the design of many applications where dynamic wetting is important because it reveals the significant impact of molecular self-layering close to the wall on dynamic wetting.

  9. Capillary Contact Angle in a Completely Wet Groove (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Malijevský, A.; Rascón, C.


    We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θcap(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θcap>0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θcap(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.

  10. Converging of Argon Cluster Ion Beams with a Glass Capillary (United States)

    Shoji, Kazuhiro; Iuchi, Kensuke; Izumi, Motoki; Moritani, Kousuke; Inui, Norio; Mochiji, Kozo

    We have investigated the converging behavior of argon gas cluster ion beam passed through a glass capillary. The gas cluster ions are attractive as a projectile for SIMS from the view point of minimization of the damages. The cluster ion beam of 5 keV consisting of 500˜3000 argon atoms was injected in the capillary. The inner diameters of the capillary at the inlet and outlet were 0.8 mm and 9.6˜140 μm, respectively. Ion current from the outlet of the all the capillaries were detected. We obtained the converging factor of 2˜7, which depended on the incident ion current. The kinetic energy of the incident ions was found to be reduced by 20˜30% by passing through the capillary. Contrary, the velocity of the ions was not changed. These facts suggest that the cluster becomes 20˜30% smaller in mass by passing through the capillary. As far as we know, this is the first report on the study of the converging of cluster ions by using a glass capillary.

  11. Trapped liquid drop at the end of capillary. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjia; Yen, Hung-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong


    The liquid drop captured at the capillary end, which is observed in capillary valve and pendant drop technique, is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Because of contact line pinning of the lower meniscus, the lower contact angle is able to rise from the intrinsic contact angle (θ*) so that the external force acting on the drop can be balanced by the capillary force. In the absence of contact angle hysteresis (CAH), the upper contact angle remains at θ*. However, in the presence of CAH, the upper contact angle can descend to provide more capillary force. The coupling between the lower and upper contact angles determines the equilibrium shape of the captured drop. In a capillary valve, the pinned contact line can move across the edge as the pressure difference exceeds the valving pressure, which depends on the geometrical characteristic and wetting property of the valve opening. When CAH is considered, the valving pressure is elevated because the capillary force is enhanced by the receding contact angle. For a pendant drop under gravity, the maximal capillary force is achieved as the lower contact angle reaches 180° in the absence of CAH. However, in the presence of CAH, four regimes can be identified by three critical drop volumes. The lower contact angle can exceed 180°, and therefore the drop takes on the shape of a light bulb, which does not exist in the absence of CAH. The comparisons between Surface Evolver simulations and experiments are quite well.

  12. Capillary rise with velocity-dependent dynamic contact angle. (United States)

    Popescu, M N; Ralston, J; Sedev, R


    The classic description of the rate of capillary rise given by the Washburn equation, which assumes that the contact angle preserves the equilibrium value at all times, has been recently questioned in the light of the known experimental dependence of the dynamic contact angle on the velocity of the contact line. For a number of such proposed functions of velocity for the dynamic contact angle, we analyze the resulting dependences of the contact angle and of the time of rise, respectively, on the height of the capillary rise. By applying our results to the particular cases of a high-viscosity silicone oil and water, respectively, in a glass capillary, we show that, in general, strong similarities arise between the various approaches and the classic theory in what concerns the time dependence of the capillary rise, which explains the lack of consistent experimental evidence for deviations in the rate of capillary rise from the Washburn equation. However, for a strong dependency of the contact angle on the velocity in the range of small velocities, as in the case of water on glass, one of the models predicts significant deviations even for the time dependence of the capillary rise. Moreover, our results show that the time or height dependence of the contact angle during the capillary rise can clearly discriminate between the various models.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The fragile X syndrome, which often presents in childhood with overgrowth, may in some cases show some diagnostic overlap with classical Sotos syndrome. We describe four fragile X patients with general overgrowth, all of whom are from families with other affected relatives who show the classic Marti

  14. Effects of Sampling Context on Spontaneous Expressive Language in Males with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Brown, W. Ted


    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the impact of sampling context on multiple aspects of expressive language in male participants with fragile X syndrome in comparison to male participants with Down syndrome or typical development. Method: Participants with fragile X syndrome (n = 27), ages 10-17 years, were matched groupwise on…

  15. Perseveration in the Connected Speech of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy; Sideris, John; Vanderbilt, Jacqueline; Moskowitz, Lauren


    Verbal perseveration is a frequently reported language characteristic of males with Fragile X syndrome and may be a defining feature or hallmark of the syndrome. We compared the verbal perseveration of boys with Fragile X syndrome with (n = 29) and without (n = 30) autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (n = 27), and typically…

  16. Seismic fragility of RC shear walls in nuclear power plant part 2: Influence of uncertainty in material parameters on fragility of concrete shear walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Sammiuddin [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)


    Highlights: • A simulation-based fragility evaluation framework is presented. • The framework incorporates uncertainties and randomness in damage plasticity model of RC shear walls. • The framework also incorporates randomness in earthquake time histories. • Performance of RC shear walls is characterized in terms of two different limit states. • Significance of considering uncertainties in material constitutive model is illustrated. - Abstract: Part 2 of this two-part manuscript builds upon the conclusions from Part 1 by evaluating whether or not it is important to considering uncertainties in material constitutive model parameters in the fragility assessment of concrete shear walls. A particular application of a box-shaped shear wall is considered because this particular specimen was tested in the past under the JNES/NUPEC program in Japan and has been used extensively by various researchers around the world to conduct studies on reconciliation of experimental and analytical results. A simulation-based fragility evaluation framework is presented in this paper. The uniqueness of this framework lies in incorporation of the uncertainties and randomness associated with the parameters of damage plasticity model as well as earthquake input motions, which are essential for estimating the demands. Unlike most of the previous studies that focus mostly on shear capacity, two different performance limit states based on maximum shear strains and maximum shear force are considered in the fragility assessment. For each performance limit state, variation in the probability of failure due to uncertainties in the material constitutive model is determined for illustrating the significance of considering such uncertainties.

  17. Plasma Acceleration from RF Discharge in Dielectric Capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Dunaevsky; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch


    Plasma acceleration from rf discharge in dielectric capillary was demonstrated. Observed plasma flow had ion energies of approximately 100 eV and electron energies of approximately 20 eV. The discharge was powered by a MHz-range rf generator and fed by Ar. Experimental results indicate possible validity of assumptions about formation of a potential difference at the open end of the capillary and presence of hot electron fraction in the capillary discharge. Simplicity and small dimensions of the source are attractive for micro-propulsion applications.

  18. Capillary-Driven Flow in Liquid Filaments Connecting Orthogonal Channels (United States)

    Allen, Jeffrey S.


    Capillary phenomena plays an important role in the management of product water in PEM fuel cells because of the length scales associated with the porous layers and the gas flow channels. The distribution of liquid water within the network of gas flow channels can be dramatically altered by capillary flow. We experimentally demonstrate the rapid movement of significant volumes of liquid via capillarity through thin liquid films which connect orthogonal channels. The microfluidic experiments discussed provide a good benchmark against which the proper modeling of capillarity by computational models may be tested. The effect of surface wettability, as expressed through the contact angle, on capillary flow will also be discussed.

  19. [Capillary hemangioma of the spinal cord: case report]. (United States)

    Holanda, Maurus Marques de Almeida; Sarmento, Stênio Abrantes; Andrade, Rodrigo Vasconcelos Correia Lima de; Nóbrega, Evaldo de Sousa; Silva, José Alberto Gonçalves da


    We report a rare case of spinal cord capillary hemangioma in a 79-year-old woman, presented with paraparesia that had progressed within 8 months. Radiologically, the lesion resemble other vascular spinal cord tumors. The patient underwent surgery and the outcome was good. Histologically, the lesion resembled capillary hemangioma of skin or soft tissue, composed of lobules of small capillaries with associated feeding vessels, all enveloped by a delicate fibrous capsule. A review of the published cases in the literature is provided as well as a discussion of the clinical, radiological and histological aspects of the lesion and the differential diagnosis. Knowledge of its existence may avoid misdiagnosis of this benign lesion.

  20. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail:; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  1. Corrugated capillary as THz Cherenkov Smith-Purcell radiator (United States)

    Lekomtsev, K. V.; Aryshev, A. S.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Ponomarenko, A. A.; Sukharev, V. M.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Strikhanov, M. N.


    In this article we discussed Particle In Cell electromagnetic simulations and mechanical design of dielectric capillaries that produce THz Cherenkov Smith-Purcell radiation (ChSPR), arising when a femtosecond electron multi-bunch beam propagates through corrugated and non-corrugated dielectric capillaries with metallic radiation reflectors. We investigated the influence of the four-bunch beam on the SPR field spectrum and on the ChSPR power spectrum, and the influence of the non-central beam propagation on the ChSPR power spectrum. We also discussed the design and assembly of the capillaries, constructed as sets of cylindrical rings.

  2. Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) Motor Dysfunction Modeled in Mice. (United States)

    Foote, Molly; Arque, Gloria; Berman, Robert F; Santos, Mónica


    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects some carriers of the fragile X premutation (PM). In PM carriers, there is a moderate expansion of a CGG trinucleotide sequence (55-200 repeats) in the fragile X gene (FMR1) leading to increased FMR1 mRNA and small to moderate decreases in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. The key symptoms of FXTAS include cerebellar gait ataxia, kinetic tremor, sensorimotor deficits, neuropsychiatric changes, and dementia. While the specific trigger(s) that causes PM carriers to progress to FXTAS pathogenesis remains elusive, the use of animal models has shed light on the underlying neurobiology of the altered pathways involved in disease development. In this review, we examine the current use of mouse models to study PM and FXTAS, focusing on recent advances in the field. Specifically, we will discuss the construct, face, and predictive validities of these PM mouse models, the insights into the underlying disease mechanisms, and potential treatments.

  3. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)


    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  4. A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Management of Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Alanay, Y.; Unal, F.; Turanli, G.; Alikasifoglu, M.; Alehan, D.; Akyol, U.; Belgin, E.; Sener, C.; Aktas, D.; Boduroglu, I.; Utine, E.; Volkan-Salanci, B.; Ozusta, S.; Genc, A.; Basar, F.; Sevinc, S.; Tuncbilek, E.


    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability. Since the identification of the responsible gene ("FMR1") and its protein (FMRP), there has been enormous progress in both clinical and pathogenetic research on the neurobehavioural aspects of the condition. However, studies regarding other medical…

  5. Profiles of Receptive and Expressive Language Abilities in Boys with Comorbid Fragile X Syndrome and Autism (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted


    The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…

  6. Neural Correlates of Visual Short-term Memory Dissociate between Fragile and Working Memory Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.; Sligte, I.G.; Vries, J.G. de; Cohen, M.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.


    Evidence is accumulating that the classic two-stage model of visual STM (VSTM), comprising iconic memory (IM) and visual working memory (WM), is incomplete. A third memory stage, termed fragile VSTM (FM), seems to exist in between IM and WM [Vandenbroucke, A. R. E., Sligte, I. G., & Lamme, V. A. F.

  7. Isolation and genetic charac-terization of a fragile plantmutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fragile rice mutant was isolated from an M2 population of indica variety Shuang Ke Zao (SKZ) treated with (-rays, and designated as fp1 (fragile plant 1) because of its fragile leaves and culms. To map FP1 locus, an F2 mapping population was derived from a cross between the fp1 and C-bao, a polymorphic japonic variety. The primary mapping result places the FP1 locus in an interval between two molecular markers, microsatellite marker RM16 (3.1 cM proximal to FP1) and STS marker G144a (9.1 cM distal to FP1) in the centromere region of chromosome 3. A CAPS marker C524a was further developed between RM16 and G144a, with 0.4 cM genetic distances to the FP1 locus, providing a practical starting point for constructing a BAC contig spanning the FP1 locus and cloning the fp1 gene. Allelism test demonstrated that fp1 is allelic to bc1, a fragile rice mutant reported previously.

  8. Cognitive, Environmental, and Linguistic Predictors of Syntax in Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome (United States)

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.


    Purpose: To examine which cognitive, environmental, and speech-language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys, and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method: We obtained Index of Productive Syntax ( Scarborough, 1990) scores for…

  9. Biobehavioral Indicators of Social Fear in Young Children with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Deal, Sara C.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.


    Anxiety is among the most impairing conditions associated with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and is putatively linked to atypical physiological arousal. However, few studies have examined this association in young children with FXS. The authors examined whether patterns of arousal and behavior during an experimental stranger approach paradigm differ…

  10. Contemporaneous versus Retrospective Reports of Cohabitation in the Fragile Families Survey (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Koball, Heather


    We compare contemporaneous and retrospective reports of cohabitation among unmarried mothers in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 2,524). We find that (a) many mothers revise their reports of whether they cohabited at the time of the birth of their child and (b) revisions in reports are systematically related to individuals'…

  11. Perceived Quality of Life in Mothers of Children with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C.; Skinner, Debra G.; Bailey, Donald B.


    A mixed method approach was used to explore quality of life of 101 mothers of children with fragile X syndrome. Mothers completed a self-report of personal quality of life and measures of mental health and well-being. A subset was interviewed about quality of life. The distribution of scores on the Quality of Life Inventory was similar to the…

  12. Deletion of PTEN Produces Deficits in Conditioned Fear and Increases Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (United States)

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Smith, Gregory D.; Morrison, Jessica B.; White, Jessika


    The phosphatase and tensin homolog detected on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene product modulates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The PI3K pathway has been found to be involved in the regulation of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which is important for long-term depression and in the formation of new…

  13. Trajectories of Early Brain Volume Development in Fragile X Syndrome and Autism (United States)

    Hazlett, Heather Cody; Poe, Michele D.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Styner, Martin; MacFall, James R.; Reiss, Allan L.; Piven, Joseph


    Objective: To examine patterns of early brain growth in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared with a comparison group (controls) and a group with idiopathic autism. Method: The study included 53 boys 18 to 42 months of age with FXS, 68 boys with idiopathic autism (autism spectrum disorder), and a comparison group of 50 typically…

  14. Pharmacological treatment of fragile X syndrome with GABAergic drugs in a knockout mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heulens, Inge; D'Hulst, Charlotte; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter P.; Kooy, R. Frank


    Molecular and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for a general downregulation of the GABAergic system in the Fmr1 knockout mouse. GABA(A) receptors are the main inhibitory receptors in the brain and the GABA(A) receptor was proposed as a novel target for treatment of the fragile X s

  15. Early Negative Affect Predicts Anxiety, Not Autism, in Preschool Boys with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Malone, Patrick S.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.


    Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) face high risk for anxiety disorders, yet no studies have explored FXS as a high-risk sample for investigating early manifestations of anxiety outcomes. Negative affect is one of the most salient predictors of problem behaviors and has been associated with both anxiety and autistic outcomes in clinical and…

  16. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.


    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ("n" = 1,998 for mothers…

  17. Maternal Responses to Child Frustration and Requests for Help in Dyads with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Wheeler, A. C.; Hatton, D.; Holloway, V. T.; Sideris, J.; Neebe, E. C.; Roberts, J. E.; Reznick, J. S.


    Background: Variability in behaviour displayed by children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) may be partially attributable to environmental factors such as maternal responsivity. The purpose of this study was to explore variables associated with maternal behaviour during a task designed to elicit frustration in their children with FXS. Methods:…

  18. Correlates of Maternal Behaviours in Mothers of Children with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne; Hatton, Deborah; Reichardt, Alison; Bailey, Don


    Background: The behaviours of 24 mothers of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with their affected children were examined during planned observations in their homes. The goal of this study was to describe concurrent maternal interactive behaviour and the factors that influence the type and frequency of these behaviours within this group.…

  19. A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salter, D. M.; Heisselmann, D.; Chaparro, G.; van der Wolk, G.; Reissaus, P.; Borst, A. G.; Dawson, R. W.; de Kuyper, E.; Drinkwater, G.; Gebauer, K.; Hutcheon, M.; Linnartz, H.; Molster, F. J.; Stoll, B.; van der Tuijn, P. C.; Fraser, H. J.; Blum, J.


    We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in region

  20. Functional Skills of Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: A Lifespan Cross-Sectional Analysis (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Holiday, David; Bishop, Ellen; Olmsted, Murrey


    Parents of 1,105 male and 283 female children with fragile X syndrome described functional skill attainment in eating, dressing, toileting, bathing/hygiene, communication, articulation, and reading. The majority of adult children had mastered many skills independently. Most adults were verbal, used the toilet, dressed, ate independently, bathed,…

  1. Profiling Fragile X Syndrome in Males: Strengths and Weaknesses in Cognitive Abilities (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J. W.; Huizinga, M.; Huizenga, H. M.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Hamel, B. J. C.; Curfs, L. M. G.; Ramakers, G. J. A.


    The present study examined the cognitive profile in Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) males, and investigated whether cognitive profiles are similar for FXS males at different levels of intellectual functioning. Cognitive abilities in non-verbal, verbal, memory and executive functioning domains were contrasted to both a non-verbal and verbal mental age…

  2. Evidence of a Distinct Behavioral Phenotype in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Bodfish, James W.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.; Piven, Joseph


    Objective: How does the behavioral expression of autism in fragile X syndrome (FXS + Aut) compare with idiopathic autism (iAut)? Although social impairments and restricted, repetitive behaviors are common to these variants of autism, closer examination of these symptom domains may reveal meaningful similarities and differences. To this end, the…

  3. Investigating Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Fast-Mapping Study (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard


    Fast-mapping paradigms have not been used previously to examine the process of word learning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are likely to have intellectual impairment, language delays, and symptoms of autism. In this study, a fast-mapping task was used to investigate associative word learning in 4- to 10-year-old boys with FXS relative…

  4. Expressive Language in Male Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome with and without Comorbid Autism (United States)

    Kover, S. T.; Abbeduto, L.


    Background: Approximately one-quarter of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) meet diagnostic criteria for autism; however, it is unclear whether individuals with comorbid FXS and autism are simply more severely affected than their peers with only FXS or whether they have qualitatively different profiles of behavioural impairments. To address…

  5. Reliability of Eye Tracking and Pupillometry Measures in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Scaggs, Felicia; Hervey, Crystal; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David


    Recent insight into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has led to the proposal and development of new pharmaceutical treatment strategies, and the initiation of clinical trials aimed at correcting core symptoms of the developmental disorder. Consequently, there is an urgent and critical need for outcome…

  6. A "Learning Platform" Approach to Outcome Measurement in Fragile X Syndrome: A Preliminary Psychometric Study (United States)

    Hall, S. S.; Hammond, J. L.; Hirt, M.; Reiss, A. L.


    Background: Clinical trials of medications to alleviate the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are now underway. However, there are few reliable, valid and/or sensitive outcome measures available that can be directly administered to individuals with FXS. The majority of assessments employed in clinical…

  7. Treatments for Fragile X Syndrome: A Closer Look at the Data (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.


    Research into the determinants and developmental course of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has made remarkable progress over the last 25 years. However, treatments to ameliorate the symptoms of FXS have been less forthcoming. While there is optimism in the field that the pace of intervention research is quickening, there has been a bias toward…

  8. Emotion Recognition and Visual-Scan Paths in Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Shaw, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.


    This study investigated emotion recognition abilities and visual scanning of emotional faces in 16 Fragile X syndrome (FXS) individuals compared to 16 chronological-age and 16 mental-age matched controls. The relationships between emotion recognition, visual scan-paths and symptoms of social anxiety, schizotypy and autism were also explored.…

  9. Mathematics Learning Disability in Girls with Turner Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Henry, Anne E.


    Two studies were carried out to examine the persistence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of mathematics learning disability (MLD) in girls with Turner syndrome or fragile X during the primary school years (ages 5-9 years). In Study 1, the rate of MLD for each syndrome group exceeded the rate observed in a grade-matched comparison group,…

  10. Informal sector dynamics in times of fragile growth: the case of Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); J. Lay (Jann); J. Vaillant (Julia); F. Roubaud (François)


    textabstractAbstract: This paper investigates the dynamics of the informal sector in Madagascar during a period of fragile growth. Overall, the behavior of informal firms in terms of earnings, employment and capital accumulation points to a degree of heterogeneity which goes beyond a simple dualisti

  11. Transcription-replication conflicts at chromosomal fragile sites—consequences in M phase and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Vibe Hallundbæk; Lisby, Michael


    transcription and replication patterns. At the same time, these chromosomal fragile sites engage in aberrant DNA structures in mitosis. Here, we discuss the mechanistic details of transcription–replication conflicts including putative scenarios for R-loop-induced replication inhibition to understand how...... transcription–replication conflicts transition from S phase into various aberrant DNA structures in mitosis....

  12. Ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 interacts with fragile X-related protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ma; Shuya He; Yang Yang; Qiong Chen; Weichun Xiao; Binyuan Li; Jiao Su; Xianghui Fu


    Fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1P) is a member of the FXR gene family, which also includes fragile X mental retardation protein and fragile X-related protein 2 (FXR2P). To understand the functions of FXR1P, we screened FXR1P-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. FXR1P was fused to pGBKT7 and used as the bait to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library. This screening revealed 10 FXR1P-interacting proteins including FTH1. FTH1 encodes Homo sapiens ferritin,heavy polypeptide 1. The interaction between FXR1P and FTH1 was confirmed by retesting in yeast using both a β-galactosidase assay and growth studies on selective media. A co-immunoprecipitation assay in mammalian cells further confirmed the FXR1P/FTH1 interaction.Moreover, the results revealed that FTH1 colocalized with FXR1P in the cytoplasm around the nucleus in mammalian cells. The present findings suggest that FXR1P plays an important role in iron metabolism in the brain by interacting with FTH1. This provides clues for elucidating the relationship between FXR1P function and fragile X syndrome.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A prospective study of the fragile X syndrome [fra(X)] was initiated one year ago to refine the estimates of recurrence risks based on the phenotype of the mother and the family history of the syndrome. The basic unit of data consists of the description of the conceptus of women known to carry the f

  14. Molecular Cloning and Preliminary Analysis of a Fragile Site Associated Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze the molecular colning of a fragile site-associated gene. Methods Genomic Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DNA library was constructed using high molecular weight CHO DNA partially digested with MboI restriction enzyme from cultured CHO cells. Screening of genomic DNA library followed the established procedures. Genomic CHO in the positive clones was sequenced. Appropriate primers were designed for the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). The RT-PCR products were cloned into a pCRⅡ TOPO vector and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Antibodies were prepared using synthetic peptides as antigens by immunizing the rabbits. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of the novel gene in different tissues. Results To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the initial events of mdrla amplification, we cloned 1q31 fragile site DNA. Strikingly, we found that this fragile site contained a novel gene which was designated as a fragile site-associated (FSA) gene. FSA encoded an unusually large mRNA of ~16 kb. Full-length human FSA cDNA was cloned. FSA mRNA was expressed in many cultured cells and tissue types. Immunohistochemical analyses also revealed an expression pattern of the encoded proteins in postmitotic, well-differentiated epithelial compartments of many organs, including colon, mammary glands, ovary, prostate, and bladder. Conclusion FSA plays an important role in regulating mammalian epithelial cell growth and differentiation.

  15. Exploring the Origin of Fragile-to-Strong Transition in Some Glass-Forming Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Hu, L. N.


    The slow dynamics of glass-forming liquids is a complex subject of the condensed matter science. But the fragile-to-strong transition, which was observed not long ago [Ito, et al, Nature 1999], makes this subject even more complex since it is extremely challenging to directly probe the structural...

  16. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment (United States)

    Sansone, Stephanie M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.; Hessl, David


    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using…

  17. Insulin Signaling Misregulation underlies Circadian and Cognitive Deficits in a Drosophila Fragile X Model (United States)

    Monyak, Rachel E.; Emerson, Danielle; Schoenfeld, Brian P.; Zheng, Xiangzhong; Chambers, Daniel B.; Rosenfelt, Cory; Langer, Steven; Hinchey, Paul; Choi, Catherine H.; McDonald, Thomas V.; Bolduc, Francois V.; Sehgal, Amita; McBride, Sean M.J.; Jongens, Thomas A.


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an undertreated neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by low IQ and a wide range of other symptoms including disordered sleep and autism. Although FXS is the most prevalent inherited cause of intellectual disability, its mechanistic underpinnings are not well understood. Using Drosophila as a model of FXS, we showed that select expression of dfmr1 in the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) of the brain was sufficient to restore normal circadian behavior and to rescue the memory deficits in the fragile X mutant fly. Examination of the insulin-signaling (IS) pathway revealed elevated levels of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2) in the IPCs and elevated IS in the dfmr1 mutant brain. Consistent with a causal role for elevated IS in dfmr1 mutant phenotypes, expression of dfmr1 specifically in the IPCs reduced IS, and genetic reduction of the insulin pathway also led to amelioration of circadian and memory defects. Furthermore we showed that treatment with the FDA approved drug metformin also rescued memory. Finally, we showed that reduction of IS is required at different time points to rescue circadian behavior and memory. Our results indicate that insulin misregulation underlies the circadian and cognitive phenotypes displayed by the Drosophila fragile X model, and thus reveal a metabolic pathway that can be targeted by new and already approved drugs to treat fragile X patients. PMID:27090306

  18. A Comparison of Pragmatic Language in Boys with Autism and Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly


    Purpose: Impaired pragmatic language (i.e., language use for social interaction) is a hallmark feature of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common known monogenic disorder associated with ASD. However, few cross-population comparisons of ASD and FXS have been conducted, and it is unclear whether pragmatic…

  19. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies (United States)

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.


    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  20. Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings (United States)

    Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Luco, N.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.


    Seismic risk assessment involves the development of fragility functions to express the relationship between ground motion intensity and damage potential. In evaluating the risk associated with the building inventory in a region, it is essential to capture 'actual' characteristics of the buildings and group them so that 'generic building types' can be generated for further analysis of their damage potential. Variations in building characteristics across regions/countries largely influence the resulting fragility functions, such that building models are unsuitable to be adopted for risk assessment in any other region where a different set of building is present. In this paper, for a given building type (represented in terms of height and structural system), typical New Zealand and US building models are considered to illustrate the differences in structural model parameters and their effects on resulting fragility functions for a set of main-shocks and aftershocks. From this study, the general conclusion is that the methodology and assumptions used to derive basic capacity curve parameters have a considerable influence on fragility curves.