WorldWideScience

Sample records for capes

  1. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  2. Cape Peirce field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1988 Cape Peirce season ran from June 16th to October 14th with volunteers Donna O'Daniel, Gay Sheffield, and, later in the season, Michelle Bourassa stationed...

  3. Cape Kennedy Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction, wind speed...

  4. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  5. The Cape Mendocino tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Bernard, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    The Cape Mendocino earthquake of April 25, 1992, generated a tsunami recorded by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) sea level gauges in California, Oregon, and Hawaii. The accompanying figure shows the tsunami waveforms acquired at twelve of these stations. the table that follows identifies these stations and gives preliminary estimates of the tsunami travel time from the source region to selected West Coast stations. 

  6. 76 FR 22719 - Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of... Construction and Operations Plan (COP) for the Cape Wind Energy Project located on the Outer Continental Shelf... at http://www.boemre.gov/offshore/RenewableEnergy/CapeWind.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  8. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor centered on position 37 15'46.5'' N/076 01'30'' W (NAD 1983... of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related... the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1, paragraph (34)(g),...

  9. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun' most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The battery was built because of fears of war with Russia and had been armed with two 9- inch Rifled Muzzle Loading guns by 1891. Lion Battery was remodelled in 1911.

  10. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISCIPLINAR B5 DIREITO B5 HISTÓRIA C CIÊNCIA DA COMPUTAÇÃO

  11. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    OpenAIRE

    José Aparecido

    2013-01-01

    Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISC...

  12. Kotzebue and Cape Lisburne, 1985: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report summarizes the activities, results, and conclusions and recommendations of a visit to the Ann Stevens-Cape Lisburne sub-unit of the Alaska Maritime...

  13. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced elevation...

  14. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  15. Sediments of Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts (HOUGH42 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cape Cod Bay, lying on the Massachusetts coast partly enclosed by Cape Cod, is in a glaciated region of low relief. Coarse sediments generally occur in areas exposed...

  16. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); Spearman, C.W. (C Wendy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  17. The Cape element in the Afrotemperate flora: from Cape to Cairo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Chloe; Bytebier, Benny; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Linder, H Peter

    2007-02-22

    The build-up of biodiversity is the result of immigration and in situ speciation. We investigate these two processes for four lineages (Disa, Irideae p.p., the Pentaschistis clade and Restionaceae) that are widespread in the Afrotemperate flora. These four lineages may be representative of the numerous clades which are species rich in the Cape and also occur in the highlands of tropical Africa. It is as yet unclear in which direction the lineages spread. Three hypotheses have been proposed: (i) a tropical origin with a southward migration towards the Cape, (ii) a Cape origin with a northward migration into tropical Africa, and (iii) vicariance. None of these hypotheses has been thoroughly tested. We reconstruct the historical biogeography of the four lineages using likelihood optimization onto molecular phylogenies. We find that tropical taxa are nested within a predominantly Cape clade. There is unidirectional migration from the Cape into the Drakensberg and from there northwards into tropical Africa. The amount of in situ diversification differs between areas and clades. Dating estimates show that the migration into tropical East Africa has occurred in the last 17 Myr, consistent with the Mio-Pliocene formation of the mountains in this area.

  18. The Effect of Local Topographic Unevenness on Contourite Paleo-Deposition Around Marine Capes: A Novel "Geostrophic Cascade" in Cape Suvero and Cape Cilento (Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusti, E.; Chiocci, F. L.; Martorelli, E.; Falcini, F.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the fact that two neighboring headlands in the Italian Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Cape Cilento and Cape Suvero, have rather similar morphology and contouring flows, their contourite drifts were recognized, respectively, upstream the Cape Cilento tip and downstream Cape Suvero tip. Such an intriguing difference is discussed in terms of paleo-sedimentary processes induced by the interaction between large scale marine current turbulence and seafloor morphology around a cape (Martorelli et al., 2010). However Martorelli's et al. model for contourite location - which allows only an upstream contourite location for this kind of capes - fails in trying to explain such a difference. We thus focus on the local effect of a topographic depression, viz. a landslide scar off Cape Suvero, on flows contouring a cape. By applying the classical conservation of marine water potential vorticity we find a steady cyclonic circulation over the scar, that generates a "geostrophic cascade" that affects contourite deposition and stability. All this intuitively reminds the current dynamics around the Galileo's Red Spot in Jupiter's atmosphere. We thus show that the application of the potential vorticity conservation can provide a novel theoretical tool for investigating sedimentary structures and their evolution.

  19. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  20. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  1. Lidar Bathymetry Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  2. Color coded bathmetry map of Cape Canaveral, Florida, derived from boat based sounding data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  3. The transport of atmospheric sulfur over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Samantha L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2013-11-01

    Cape Town, renowned for its natural beauty, is troubled by an unpleasant brown haze pollution, in which atmospheric sulfur plays a major role. This study investigates whether Cape Town is a net producer or recipient of anthropogenic sulfur pollution. In the study, two atmospheric chemistry-transport models (RegCM and WRF) are used to simulate atmospheric flow and chemistry transport over South Africa for two years (2001 and 2002). Both models reproduce the observed seasonal variability in the atmospheric flow and SO2 concentration over Cape Town. The models simulations agree on the seasonal pattern of SO2 over South Africa but disagree on that of SO4. The simulations show that ambient sulfur in Cape Town may be linked with pollutant emissions from the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa's most industrialized region. While part of atmospheric SO2 from the Highveld is transported at 700 hPa level toward the Indian Ocean (confirming previous studies), part is transported at low level from the Highveld toward Cape Town. In April, a band of high concentration SO2 extends between the Highveld and Cape Town, following the south coast. Extreme sulfur pollution events in Cape Town are associated with weak flow convergence or stagnant conditions over the city, both of which encourage the accumulation of pollution. However the study suggests that atmospheric sulfur is being advected from Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town and this may contribute to atmospheric pollution problems in Cape Town.

  4. Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from Cape Town air quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from regional climate model (RegCM4) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events over Cape Town are associated with the low-level (surface-850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclonic flow over South Africa and a low-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclonic flow induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town, while the col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute substantially to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  5. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7 at...

  6. Dengue in Cape Verde: vector control and vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, for the first time in Cape Verde, an outbreak of dengue was reported and over twenty thousand people were infected. Only a few prophylactic measures were taken. The effects of vector control on disease spreading, such as insecticide (larvicide and adulticide) and mechanical control, as well as an hypothetical vaccine, are estimated through simulations with the Cape Verde data.

  7. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595.... The regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  8. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River. Drilling or blasting is expected to occur within the Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River... Lighted Buoy 27 (LL 30550/39945)). (3) Big Island. The work area includes: Part of Keg Island...

  9. The Nainital-Cape Survey-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Santosh; Chowdhury, Sowgata; Chakradhari, N K; Joshi, Y C; van Heerden, P; Medupe, T; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Kuhn, R B

    2016-01-01

    The Nainital-Cape survey is a dedicated ongoing survey programme to search for and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars to understand their internal structure and evolution. The main aims of this survey are to find new pulsating Ap and Am stars in the northern and southern hemisphere and to perform asteroseismic studies of these new pulsators. The survey is conducted using high-speed photometry. The candidate stars were selected on the basis of having Stromgren photometric indices similar to those of known pulsating CP stars. Over the last decade a total of 337 candidate pulsating CP stars were observed for the Nainital-Cape survey, making it one of the longest ground-based surveys for pulsation in CP stars in terms of time span and sample size. The previous papers of this series presented seven new pulsating variables and 229 null results. In this paper we present the light curves, frequency spectra and the various astrophysical parameters of the 108 additional CP stars observed si...

  10. Tropospheric ozone and its regional transport over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzotungicimpaye, Claude-Michel; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Steyn, Douw G.

    2014-04-01

    As part of efforts to understand the sources of air pollution in Cape Town, this study investigates the local variation of tropospheric ozone (O3) and identifies possible advection paths of O3 pollution from a remote source to Cape Town. Measurements of O3 and wind from three sites in the Cape Town area were analyzed to study the local variations of O3. At each site, the diurnal variation of O3 is found to be mainly driven by photochemical production while the seasonal variation of O3 is mostly driven by wind conditions. The highest concentration of O3 is observed at the remote site (Cape Point) while lowest O3 concentration is observed at the sub-urban site (Goodwood), where there are chemical sinks of O3 such as NOx. Atmospheric pollution over southern Africa was simulated to study the regional transport of O3. The simulations show that extreme O3 levels in Cape Town can be caused by air pollution transported from the industrial Highveld of South Africa, in the lower troposphere. Such extreme O3 pollution events over Cape Town are simulated to occur in January (14%), March (44%), April (28%) and September (14%). Lagrangian trajectories suggest four paths by which air parcels can be transported from the industrial Highveld to Cape Town: a north-easterly path which is the most frequent route, a tropical deviation route, a deviation along the south coastline and an oceanic deviation path which is the less frequent route. The major advection paths associated with poor air quality in Cape Town are the north-easterly route and the path along the south coastline of the country. Hence the study suggests that emissions in the industrial Highveld may contribute to O3 concentration in the Cape Town area.

  11. Hydrogeologic framework of western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Stone, Byron D.; Walter, Donald A.; Savoie, Jennifer G.

    1997-01-01

    The aquifer of western Cape Cod consists of several hydrogeologic units composed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay (fig. 1) that were deposited during the late Wisconsinan glaciation of New England. The aquifer is a shallow, unconfined hydrologic system in which ground-water flows radially outward from the apex of the ground-water mound near the center of the peninsula toward the coast (fig.2). The aquifer is the sole source of water supply for the towns of Bourne, Sandwich, Falmouth, and Mashpee, and the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR).Previous geologic studies summarized the characteristics and relative ages of the glacial moraines and meltwater deposits and the relation of these sediments to the extent of the ice-sheet lobes during the last glaciation of southern New England (Oldale and Barlow, 1986; Hartshorn and others, 1991). Hydrogeologic studies in western Cape Cod characterized the shallow regional ground-water-flow system (LeBlanc and others, 1986) and analyzed simulated responses of the aquifer to changes in hydrologic stresses (Guswa and LeBlanc, 1985; Barlow and Hess, 1993; Masterson and Barlow, 1994; and Masterson and others, 1996). Recent concerns about widespread ground-water contamination, especially from sources on the MMR, have resulted in extensive investigations to characterize the local hydrogeology of the aquifer near the MMR (ABB Environmental Services, 1992). Masterson and others (1996) illustrated the strong influence of geology on ground-water flow and the importance of characterizing the hydrogeology to predict the migration of the contaminant plumes beneath the MMR.This report, a product of a cooperative study between the National Guard Bureau and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), characterizes the regional hydrogeology of the western Cape Cod aquifer on the basis of surficial glacial geology previously described by Mather and others (1940) and Oldale and Barlow (1986), and presents a new analysis of the subsurface hydrogeology

  12. Water Institutions and Management in Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Suarez Bosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The water-management model used in Cape Verde for irrigation water is a singular one involving both public and private institutions. The institutional framework adopted since independence (1975 includes influences of both Portuguese colonial occupation and African culture. Water is a common-pool resource, which can take the form of communal, private or state property, or not be subject to any form of ownership. Thus, this case study enables us to compare theories about managing. From a neo-liberal point of view, the common administration of resources of this kind is inefficient, but for one school of the institutional theory, solutions can come “from within”; in other words, from user groups themselves, who can co-operate, once they have defined commitments. Research based on surveys and interviews with private sector administrators leads to the conclusion that user association management is successful, whereas, individual management can lead to squandering.

  13. Phylogeography of Cape Verde Island skinks (Mabuya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R P; Suarez, N M; Smith, A; Pestano, J

    2001-06-01

    The Cape Verde Islands are of volcanic origin with most having appeared between the early Miocene and mid-Pleistocene. They contain six known species of Mabuya skinks. Phylogeographical relationships within and among the relatively widespread taxa M. stangeri, M. spinalis and M. delalandii were inferred, based on approximately 1 kbp of the cytochrome b gene (mitochondrial DNA). Reciprocal monophyly of M. spinalis and M. stangeri was established, which may have arisen from an early Pliocene/late Miocene cladogenetic event. Considerable between-island sequence divergence was detected among M. spinalis, which appears to have colonized the older islands (Sal and Boavista) first. Much lower sequence divergence was found in M. delalandii, indicating a more recent range expansion. Here, evidence points to colonization of the younger islands of Brava and Fogo soon after appearance. There are similarities between some of the described patterns and those seen in lizards from the Canary Islands.

  14. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf south of Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (shatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Cape Romain NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Cape May NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cape May National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  18. Cape May National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cape May NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  19. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  20. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge : Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cape May NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  1. Cape May National Wildlife Refuge Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Station Management Plan for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge provides the Refuge Manager with one to three year guidance for 1) acquiring or otherwise...

  2. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  3. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI ASCII GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  4. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline, and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  5. Common neuromusculoskeletal injuries amongst rock climbers in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Wegner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rock climbing is an extreme sport that is fast gaining interest in the Western Cape. Due to the physical nature of the sport, climbers often suffer neuromusculoskeletal (NMS injuries. Physiotherapists are first-line practitioners who diagnose and treat NMS injuries, but no previous study has been conducted regarding common NMS injuries amongst rock climbers in the Western Cape.Objective: To determine the common NMS injuries amongst rock climbers, and the relationships between independent variables and injury.Method: A Quantitative, cross-sectional, retrospective descriptive study design utilised a self-developed survey based on the literature. This was completed by rock climbers from an indoor climbing gym in Cape Town and two outdoor crags in the Western Cape. Out of the total population of 650 climbers, 247 were conveniently sampled to complete the self-administered survey, making the results generalisable to the climbing population.Results: Finger flexor tendon pulley injuries were the most commonly diagnosed NMS injury. Injury to the fingers, hand and elbow regions were the most common self-reported injury by area. The risk of suffering climbing-related injuries was significantly correlated to gender, setting, grade and type of climbing, but not to frequency of climbing.Conclusion: The results of this study could assist physiotherapists to assess and manage the common NMS injuries that occur in this group of extreme athletes, as well as to raise awareness amongst rock climbers in the Western Cape about potential risk of injury.

  6. Report of findings: Contaminant study of the environment surrounding the Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site (Cape Romanzof) contains many petroleum-related spills and hazardous substances. Therefore, in 1987 and 1988 a field study...

  7. Report of the Cape Breton Public Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, T.

    2002-04-02

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board (CNSOPB) conducted a public review to determine the effects of potential offshore oil and gas exploration and drilling activities in Sydney Bight and the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence regions where Corridor Resources Inc. and Hunt Oil Company of Canada are proposing to conduct seismic surveys. In particular, activities within exploration licences 2364, 2365, and 2368 were reviewed to determine their socio-economic impact, the effects on the ecosystem, and the mitigation of impacts. The Commissioner of this public review was not mandated to advise on whether the exploratory programs should proceed or whether a moratorium should be placed on exploration of the license areas. Recommendations, however, were proposed in several areas. The first phase of the inquiry included a series of public meetings to allow groups and individuals to identify concerns and exchange views about the process. The second phase involved a series of public hearings where interested parties presented submissions. In particular, 130 formal submissions were received from the petroleum industry, commercial fisheries, environmental groups, tourism industry, aboriginal leaders, and other organizations. The report describes in some detail, the companies' proposals regarding seismic surveys and exploratory drilling. The effects that these activities will have on marine mammals and birds as well as their habitat was examined. Both Hunt and Corridor provided their assessment of the potential environmental and socio-economic effects of their seismic activities and both concluded that the seismic activity would have no significant effect on the marine environment and its uses. They also concluded that the socio-economic benefits to Cape Breton would be small. The issues that dominated the proceedings were the protection of the marine environment and the coexistence between the fishing and petroleum industry. The Commissioner suggests there is need for

  8. Long Street: A Map of Post-Apartheid Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Spissu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No map fully coincides with the territory it represents. If the map and territory do not coincide, what can the map capture of the territory? According to Bateson, the answer is its differences. Drawing from Gregory Bateson’s ideas, we can envision an ethnographic representation of the city through which we can represent the urban territory through the different ways its inhabitants perceive it. In this article, I describe the process that led me to build a map of post-apartheid Cape Town from Long Street. I took inspiration from Bateson’s book Naven and compared it with the District Six Museum map in Cape Town with the objective of representing post-apartheid Cape Town through its differences.

  9. STRATEGIC MILITARY COLONISATION: THE CAPE EASTERN FRONTIER 1806–1872

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Oranje

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi met, and in many respects, key decisions taken on this frontier were seminal in the shaping of South Africa. This article seeks to analyse this frontier in a spatial manner, to analyse how British settlement patterns on the ground were influenced by strategy and policy. The time frame of the study reflects the truly imperial colonial era, from the second British occupation of the Cape colony in 1806 until representative self-governance of the Cape colony in 1872.

  10. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged.

  11. 75 FR 10500 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in... review and comment of an EA and Draft FONNSI prepared by MMS for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the...

  12. 75 FR 23798 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in...), announces the availability of an EA and FONNSI for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound... Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the physical, biological,...

  13. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, D.; Belluta, P.; Herman, J.; Hwang, P.; Mukai, R.; Porter, D.; Jones, B.; Wood, E.; Grotzinger, J.; Edgar, L.; Hayes, A.; Hare, T.; Squyres, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe. ??2009 IEEE.

  14. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...... ‘differentiated citizenship’. Such differentiated citizenship is opposed to the universal inclusivity promised by post-apartheid South Africa. By exploring the specific merging of security and development in the Capetonian war on gangs as compared to counterinsurgency and the subsequent reconfiguration...

  15. Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Åkesson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.

  16. Cytoprotective Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) and Catechol Ring-Fluorinated CAPE Derivatives Against Menadione-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    chlorogenic acid , and rosmari- nic acid did not display any cytoprotective effect in this assay at 15 lM (data not shown). Within the same pas- sage of HUVEC...Cytoprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and catechol ring-fluorinated CAPE derivatives against menadione-induced oxidative...accepted 13 March 2006 Available online 31 March 2006 Abstract—Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural polyphenolic compound with many

  17. Health-promoting compounds in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Background

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L., known as Cape Gooseberry (CG) is a source of a variety of compounds with potential health benefits. Therefore, CG has been subject of scientific and commercial interest.

    Scope and approach

    This review paper evaluates changes o

  18. Cape Mendocino, CA Earthquakes, April 25 & 26, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes, magnitudes 6.6 and 6.7 occurred the next morning. The...

  19. A Posteriori Integration of University CAPE Software Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, Gregor; Fillinger, Sandra; Wozny, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    This contribution deals with the mutual integration of existing CAPE software products developed at different universities in Germany, Denmark, and Italy. After the motivation MOSAIC is presented as the bridge building the connection between the modelling tool ICAS-MoT and the numerical processing...

  20. Sediment transport on Cape Sable, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Mark; Boudreau, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The Cape Sable peninsula is located on the southwestern tip of the Florida peninsula within Everglades National Park (ENP). Lake Ingraham, the largest lake within Cape Sable, is now connected to the Gulf of Mexico and western Florida Bay by canals built in the early 1920's. Some of these canals breached a natural marl ridge located to the north of Lake Ingraham. These connections altered the landscape of this area allowing for the transport of sediments to and from Lake Ingraham. Saline intrusion into the formerly fresh interior marsh has impacted the local ecology. Earthen dams installed in the 1950's and 1960's in canals that breached the marl ridge have repeatedly failed. Sheet pile dams installed in the early 1990's subsequently failed resulting in the continued alteration of Lake Ingraham and the interior marsh. The Cape Sable Canals Dam Restoration Project, funded by ENP, proposes to restore the two failed dams in Lake Ingraham. The objective of this study was to collect discharge and water quality data over a series of tidal cycles and flow conditions to establish discharge and sediment surrogate relations prior to initiating the Cape Sable Canals Dam Restoration Project. A dry season synoptic sampling event was performed on April 27-30, 2009.

  1. Coastal upwelling at Cape Frio: Its structure and weakening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Cape Frio at the Angola-Namibia border, is the northern-most coastal upwelling cell of the Benguela Current ( 17S, 11E) and is sensitive to climate variability. This study provides new insights using daily high resolution satellite and ocean-atmosphere reanalysis datasets in the period 1985-2015. The annual cycle of SST follows two months behind the net heat balance and wind stress curl, reaching a minimum in July-September. Ranking the daily SST record, two intense multi-day upwelling events stand out. The more recent case of 26-29 August 2005 is studied, given the greater density and sophistication of satellite data. A coastal wind jet >10 m s-1 develops next to Cape Frio, with sharp edges imposed by a thermal inversion and the mountainous cape. The cold plume wind stress curl and downward heat fluxes. Leeward of Cape Frio, a wind shadow and poleward currents contribute to phytoplankton blooms. Daily time series 1985-2015 reveal warming SST +.035C/yr and diminishing winds -0.025 m s-1/yr. The trend toward cyclonic winds over Angola and the northern Benguela Current reflects a poleward and offshore shift of the main axis of southeasterly winds.

  2. A FURTHER LATIN INSCRIPTION AND AN AMPHORA IN CAPE TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Saddington

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a former volume of this journal I described a Latin inscription in the Cape Town Museum (Akroterion XLVI [2001] 99f..
    On a subsequent visit to the city, I went to the Wine Museum on the Groot Constantia estate.2 I was interested to find two Roman objects there, an inscription and an amphora.

  3. ADMIRAL ELPHINSTONE AND THE CONQUEST AND DEFENCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 1795-96

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thean Potgieter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vice Admiral of the Blue the Honourable Sir George Keith Elphinstone(1746-1823 was appointed as commander of the British force dispatched to capturethe Cape of Good Hope in 1795. As an experienced naval officer and a capablecommander acquainted with the Cape and the Far East, he was the correct choice tocommand the expedition. Due to the strategic location of the Cape of Good Hope –literally halfway on the sea route to the East – it was vital for maritimecommunications, and Britain had to ensure that the Cape did not fall into Frenchhands. To secure a safe base on the sea route to the East, a British expeditionary forcewas sent to the Cape. The British task force arrived in False Bay on 11 June 1795 andwhen negotiations with the Dutch authorities at the Cape failed, a military campaigncommenced that resulted in the capitulation of the Cape on 16 September 1795. InAugust 1796, when a Dutch squadron under the command of Rear Admiral E. Lucasanchored in Saldanha Bay, Elphinstone speedily neutralised the threat, forcing Lucasto surrender. After a very successful service period at the Cape, Elphinstone returnedto Britain on 7 October 1796. He conducted the defence of the Cape with vigour andactively sought out his enemy, confirming British control of the Cape and the virtualimpossibility of taking back the Cape with force of arms.

  4. Cape Town, South Africa, Anaglyph, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear on the left (west) of this anaglyph view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located between Table Bay (upper left) and Table Mountain (just to the south), a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark. Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there (visible in this anaglyph when viewed at full resolution). Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen well inland (upper right) at the Theewaterskloof Dam. False Bay is the large bay to the southeast (lower right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (lower right) of this scene. This anaglyph was created by draping a Landsat visible light image over an SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle

  5. IN and CCN Measurements on RV Polarstern and Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, André; Herenz, Paul; Henning, Silvia; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Two field campaigns, one situated on RV Polarstern (Oct. - Dec. 2015) and one on the Cape Verde islands (Jan. - Feb. 2016) measuring ice nuclei (IN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations as a function of supersaturation and temperature are presented. The Polarstern cruise from Bremerhaven to Cape Town yields a cross section of IN and CCN concentrations from 54°N to 35°S and passes the Cape Verde Islands at 15°N. Measurements were conducted using the commercial CCNC and SPIN instruments from DMT. During both campaigns, a comprehensive set of aerosol characterization data including size distribution, optical properties and chemical information were measured in parallel. The ship based measurements provide a measure of variability in IN/CCN concentration with geographic position. As an example a clear influence on IN and CCN number concentration of the Saharan desert dust outflow between the Canary Islands and Cape Verde or the continental aerosol from Europe and South Africa was observed. The measurements on Cape Verde provide information on the temporal variability at a fixed position varying between clean marine and dust influenced conditions. Both datasets are related to auxiliary data of aerosol size distribution and chemical composition. The datasets are used to distinguish the influence of local sources and background concentration of IN/CCN. By combining of the geographically fix measurements with the geographical cross section, typical ranges of IN and CCN concentration are derived. The datasets will be part of the BACCHUS database thereby providing valuable input for future climate modeling activities.

  6. Neotectonic morphotructures in the junction zone of the Cape Verde Rise and Cape Verde Abyssal Plain, Central Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Kolodyazhny, S. Yu.; Tsukanov, N. V.; Chamov, N. P.; Sokolov, S. Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic profiling carried out with an Edgetech 3300 prophilograph in the junction zone of the Cape Verde Rise, Cape Verde Abyssal Plain, and Grimaldi and Bathymetrists seamounts in the Central Atlantic during Cruise 23 of the R/V Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov allowed us to obtain new data on neotectonic deformations in the ocean and to propose their interpretation. It has been established that neotectonic movements occurred in the discrete manner: blocks of undeformed rocks alternate with linear zones of intense deformation spatially related to paleotransform fracture zones, where anticlines, horsts, diapir-like morphostructures, and grabens were formed. The Cape Verde Ridge is a large horst. Its sedimentary cover is disturbed by thrust (?), reverse, and normal faults, steeply dipping fracture zones, and folds. Three stages of tectonic movements—Oligocene-early Miocene, pre-Quaternary, and Holocene—are recognized. The tectonic deformations occurred largely under near-meridional compression. Extension setting was characteristic of the Cape Verde Ridge and the Carter Rise in the Holocene.

  7. CAPE Analogs Induce Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Harquail, Jason; Lassalle-Claux, Grégoire; Belbraouet, Mehdi; Jean-Francois, Jacques; Touaibia, Mohamed; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2015-07-10

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst women worldwide. As a result, many have turned their attention to new alternative approaches to treat this disease. Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE), a well-known active compound from bee propolis, has been previously identified as a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer molecule. In fact, CAPE is well documented as inducing cell death by inhibiting NFκB and by inducing pro-apoptotic pathways (i.e., p53). With the objective of developing stronger anticancer compounds, we studied 18 recently described CAPE derivatives for their ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Five of the said compounds, including CAPE, were selected and subsequently characterised for their anticancer mechanism of action. We validated that CAPE is a potent inducer of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, some newly synthesized CAPE derivatives also showed greater cell death activity than the lead CAPE structure. Similarly to CAPE, analog compounds elicited p53 activation. Interestingly, one compound in particular, analog 10, induced apoptosis in a p53-mutated cell line. These results suggest that our new CAPE analog compounds may display the capacity to induce breast cancer apoptosis in a p53-dependent and/or independent manner. These CAPE analogs could thus provide new therapeutic approaches for patients with varying genotypic signatures (such as p53 mutations) in a more specific and targeted fashion.

  8. CAPE Analogs Induce Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Pier Beauregard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst women worldwide. As a result, many have turned their attention to new alternative approaches to treat this disease. Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE, a well-known active compound from bee propolis, has been previously identified as a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer molecule. In fact, CAPE is well documented as inducing cell death by inhibiting NFκB and by inducing pro-apoptotic pathways (i.e., p53. With the objective of developing stronger anticancer compounds, we studied 18 recently described CAPE derivatives for their ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Five of the said compounds, including CAPE, were selected and subsequently characterised for their anticancer mechanism of action. We validated that CAPE is a potent inducer of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, some newly synthesized CAPE derivatives also showed greater cell death activity than the lead CAPE structure. Similarly to CAPE, analog compounds elicited p53 activation. Interestingly, one compound in particular, analog 10, induced apoptosis in a p53-mutated cell line. These results suggest that our new CAPE analog compounds may display the capacity to induce breast cancer apoptosis in a p53-dependent and/or independent manner. These CAPE analogs could thus provide new therapeutic approaches for patients with varying genotypic signatures (such as p53 mutations in a more specific and targeted fashion.

  9. COMPARED AESTHETICS FLASHES: READING CAPE-VERDEAN IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caputo Gomes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents, according to the theoretical line of Comparative Aesthetics, a gallery of Cape Verdean's paintings and texts to be read throughout  the relationship between literature and painting, in order to demonstrate how the male and female points of view perceive the images of women and their daily lives. Writers Fátima Bettencourt, Manuel Lopes, Maria Margarida Mascarenhas, Oswaldo Osório, Vasco Martins, Vera Duarte will dialogue among themselves and with the painters of Armando do Rosário, Kiki Lima, Misá, Sandro Brito, Tchalê Figueira and Tony Barbosa, from diverse visions of social situation of the social context of women in Cape Verde, under the inspiration or challenge to the canonical Botticelli Venus.

  10. Importance of implementing program Screening Neonatal Hemoglobinopathies in Cape Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Barbosa Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary blood diseases, the most frequent sickle cell anemia. To date not have curative treatment, unless bone marrow transplant, which has yet been carried out experimentally. The implementation of screening programs of hemoglobinopathies in health services in Cape Verde is shown to be of great relevance and importance to public health, as it will allow early detection and treatment associated with hemoglobinopathies. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000): 87-88

  11. Cape Cod Easterly Shore Beach Erosion Study. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    bacterial slimes. In addition, these structures might provide roosting and nesting sites for certain bird species. Proposed structural and non-structural...Charles E. McClenne, Associate Professor, Colgate University, dated 3 August 1977 Notes from visit to Cape Cod Easterly Shores Beach Erosion Control...ments should be supported by factual information insofar as practicable. Oral statements will be heard but, for accuracy of record, all important facts

  12. Toward better assessment of tornado potential in typhoons: Significance of considering entrainment effects for CAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Kenta; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of typhoons that spawned tornadoes (tornadic typhoons: TTs) in Japan from 1991 to 2013 were investigated by composite analysis using the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis and compared with those of typhoons that did not spawn tornadoes (nontornadic typhoons: NTs). We found that convective available potential energy (CAPE), which considers the effects of entrainment (entraining CAPE: E-CAPE), and storm-relative environmental helicity (SREH) are significantly large in the northeast quadrant of TTs where tornadoes frequently occur and that E-CAPE and SREH in that quadrant for TTs are larger than those for NTs. On the other hand, ordinary CAPE without entrainment does not account for the spatial distribution of tornado occurrences nor does it distinguish TTs from NTs. E-CAPE is sensitive to humidity in the midtroposphere; thus, it is effective for detecting a conditionally unstable layer up to about 550 hPa, which is distinctive of TTs.

  13. Religious and secular Cape Malay Afrikaans: Literary varieties used by Shaykh Hanif Edwards (1906-1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Luffin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the White and Christian-dominated Afrikaans language movements, followed by apartheid, little attention has been paid to an Afrikaans literary variety used among Muslim Cape Coloureds, a group often referred to as ‘Cape Malays’. Descending mainly from Asian slaves brought by the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, Dutch East India Company, and bearing the marks of cohabitation with non-Asian populations at the Cape, the Cape Malays at an early stage developed a distinct religious culture through their adherence to Islam, as well as a distinct Cape Dutch linguistic identity through their connections with the Dutch East Indies and the Islamic world. These cultural idiosyncrasies found expression in a local literature, religious and (more rarely secular, using as a medium a variety of Cape Dutch/Afrikaans written either in the Arabic alphabet or in the Roman alphabet.

  14. Population size, breeding biology and on-land threats of Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) in Fogo Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zango, Laura; Calabuig, Pascual; Stefan, Laura M.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) is currently considered near threatened, but little is known about its population size, breeding biology and on land threats, jeopardizing its management and conservation. To improve this situation, we captured, marked and recaptured (CMR) birds using mist-nets over 10 years; measured and sexed them; monitored up to 14 burrows, deployed GPS devices on breeders and analyzed activity data of geolocators retrieved from breeders in Fogo (Cape Verde). We set cat traps over the colony and investigated their domestic/feral origin by marking domestic cats from a nearby village with transponders, by deploying GPS devices on domestic cats and by performing stable isotope analyses of fur of the trapped and domestic cats. The population of Fogo was estimated to be 293 birds, including immatures (95% CI: 233–254, CMR modelling). Based on geolocator activity data and nest monitoring we determined the breeding phenology of this species and we found biometric differences between sexes. While monitoring breeding performance, we verified a still ongoing cat predation and human harvesting. Overall, data gathered from trapped cats without transponder, cats GPS trips and the distinct isotopic values between domestic and trapped cats suggest cats visiting the colony are of feral origin. GPS tracks from breeders showed birds left and returned to the colony using the sector NE of the islands, where high level of public lights should be avoided specially during the fledging period. Main threats for the Cape Verde petrel in the remaining breeding islands are currently unknown but likely to be similar to Fogo, calling for an urgent assessment of population trends and the control of main threats in all Cape Verde Islands and uplisting its conservation status. PMID:28369105

  15. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf from Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (composite_shatt.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  16. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf with stretched histogram, from Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (composite_shatt_str.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  17. The transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld, a major South African industrial area, may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from the Cape Town air-quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from a regional climate model (RegCM) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric conditions, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events in Cape Town are associated with the lower level (surface - 850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclone over South Africa and a lower-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclone induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town. The col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. the Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  18. 77 FR 65446 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Control Exemption-Cape Rail, Inc. and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... interest in Cape, the parent company of Mass Coastal, from the two existing Cape shareholders, Podgurski... operates a network of about 100 miles of track and trackage rights in southeastern Massachusetts and...

  19. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on...

  20. Evaluating the effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Boekel, van Tiny; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. and has gained commercial and scientific interest for its contents of health-promoting compounds. An integral approach to estimate shelf life of cape gooseberry was conducted taking into account physicochemical, microbiological and n

  1. Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still fa

  2. Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town…

  3. Characteristics of Students Receiving Counselling Services at the University of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisher, Alan J.; De Beer, Jeremy P.; Bokhorst, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document the correlates of receiving counseling services at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Results reveal that non-English speakers, humanities students, undergraduates, first-year students, students who were eligible to receive financial assistance, and students from outside Cape Town were significantly…

  4. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  5. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davis, A.J.; Lavaleye, M.M.S.; Rosso, S.W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M.J.N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off thecoast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmostcold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau inthe NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookoutare occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterisedby oligotrophic

  6. 78 FR 31573 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape Lookout National Seashore AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request...: None. This is a new collection. Title: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape Lookout...

  7. 33 CFR 80.120 - Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. 80.120 Section 80.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.120 Cape Ann, MA...

  8. 46 CFR 7.10 - Eastport, ME to Cape Ann, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eastport, ME to Cape Ann, MA. 7.10 Section 7.10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.10 Eastport, ME to Cape Ann, MA. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost extremity of...

  9. Ophiolitic association of Cape Fiolent area, southwestern Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promyslova, M. Yu.; Demina, L. I.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Gushchin, A. I.; Koronovsky, N. V.; Tsarev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    An ophiolitic association consisting of serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentinite, layered mafic-ultramafic complex, gabbro and gabbrodolerite, fragments of parallel dike complex, pillow lava, black bedded chert, and jasper has been identified for the first time by authors in the Cape Fiolent area. The chemistry of pillow lavas and dolerites, including REE patterns and a wide set of other microelements, indicates suprasubduction nature of the ophiolites and their belonging to a backarc basin that has reached the stage of spreading in its evolution.

  10. Cape queer? A case study of Provincetown, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulik, Karen Christel

    2006-01-01

    Cape Queer is a case study that details how sexuality intersects with race, gender, and class in the development of the gay and lesbian resort community, Provincetown, Massachusetts. It asks scholars to pay closer attention to the ways in which methodologies and practices utilizing LGBT studies and queer theory can combine rather than separate to interrogate LGBT and queer histories, politics and communities. In the process, it assesses how the global mechanics of capitalism led to the local queering and eventually un-queering of a gentrified, white, gay and lesbian enclave.

  11. 75 FR 34152 - Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Minerals Management Service (MMS) Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to Comments From the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation on the Cape Wind Energy... the ROD for the Cape Wind Energy Project (the Project). The ROD for the Project records the...

  12. Mapping folds and fractures in basement and cover rocks using UAV photogrammetry, Cape Liptrap and Cape Paterson, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollgger, Stefan A.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2016-04-01

    Brittle and ductile deformation of alternating layers of Devonian sandstone and mudstone at Cape Liptrap, Victoria, Australia, resulted in upright folds with associated fold accommodation faults and multiple fracture sets. Structures were mapped at the Fold Stack locality at Cape Liptrap using high-resolution aerial photographs acquired by a digital camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Subsequent photogrammetric modelling resulted in georeferenced spatial datasets (point cloud, digital elevation model and orthophotograph) with sub-cm resolution and cm accuracy, which were used to extract brittle and ductile structure orientation data. An extensive dataset of bedding measurements derived from the dense point cloud was used to compute a 3D implicit structural trend model to visualise along-strike changes of Devonian (Tabberabberan) folds at the Fold Stack locality and to estimate bulk shortening strain. This model and newly collected data indicate that first generation shallowly south-southwest plunging upright folds were gently refolded about a steeply plunging/subvertical fold axis during a Devonian low-strain north-south shortening event. This also led to the local tightening of first generation folds and possibly strike-slip movement along regional scale faults. In order to distinguish fractures associated with Devonian compression from those that formed during Cretaceous extension and later inversion, we compared the five fracture sets defined at Cape Liptrap to previously mapped joints and faults within the overlying sedimentary cover rocks of the Cretaceous Strzelecki Group (Gippsland Basin), which crop out nearby. An east-southeast trending fracture set that is not evident in the Strzelecki Group can be linked to the formation of Devonian folds. Additionally, hinge line traces extracted from the Fold Stack dataset are aligned parallel to a dominant fracture set within the overlying cover sediments. This suggests that basement structures (folds

  13. Spiders are Mammals: Direct Instruction in Cape York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dow

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, SRA Direct Instructioni was introduced across the curriculum in two remote Cape York schools, as a key aspect of social and welfare reform. There is national political interest in these reforms, which link welfare policy to State primary school education conceived as basic skills training. Reflecting the political interest, national newspapers ran the story that Direct Instruction had provided almost miraculous results after 17 weeks (Devine 2010a. Alternative approaches to literacy development in Indigenous education did not get the same sort of media attention. Noel Pearson provides the intellectual basis for Cape York social reforms, through his writing, political advocacy and leadership of organisations involved in the reforms. His ultimate goal is successful mainstream education leading to economic integration, where young people are „completely fluent in their own culture and the wider culture‟ (Pearson 2009:57. The question posed by this vision is „What kind of education can produce these flexible, bicultural, working people who keep their traditions alive?‟

  14. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Uimonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public screens, followed by live music performances and narrowcast interaction with the audience. Building on recent research on public screens during global media events, this article addresses the mediated mourning rituals at the Grand Parade in terms of a sacred drama. Focusing on social relationality, the article discusses how digital visuality mediated a sense of global communitas, thus momentarily overcoming historical frictions between the global north and the global south, while expanding the fame of Madiba. Paying attention to the public display of visual memory objects and the emotional agency of images, it argues that digital visuality mediated social frictions between the living and the dead, while recasting a historical subject as a historical object. The article further discusses how digital visuality mediated cultural frictions of apartheid and xenophobia, through the positioning of Mandela in the pantheon of Pan-African icons, thus underlining the African origin of this global icon. The analysis is based on ethnographic observations and experiences in Cape Town.

  15. Facilities at ARIES for the Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Sagar; David L. Mary

    2005-06-01

    A collaborative programme searching for mmag pulsations in chemically peculiar stars in the northern hemisphere was initiated in 1997 between Nainital, India, and Cape Town, South Africa. It was therefore named as the Nainital–Cape Survey programme. The detection limits imposed by the observing conditions (including atmospheric noise and telescope size) at both Manora Peak and Devasthal sites are described. The scintillation noise on the best photometric nights is ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 mmag for these sites. Both places allow one to detect few mmag variation in bright stars ( ≤ 12 mag), and are therefore particularly well-suited for carrying out the proposed surveywork. The main characteristics of the three-channel photometer developed at ARIES for carrying out the observations are also presented. This excellent instrument has been used extensively since 1999 at the f/13 Cassegrain focus of ARIES’ 104 cm telescope. In particular, it allowed the survey to result in the discovery of Scuti like pulsations in four Am stars, in one rapidly oscillating Ap star, and in a number of probable variables so far. The future prospects are then presented, which regard the acquisition of a high speed time series CCD photometer, a project to build a 3-metre class telescope at Devasthal, and collaborative observations with Indian and foreign astronomical sites.

  16. FOGO-2014: Monitoring the Fogo 2014 Eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Faria, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago offshore Western Africa, is a complete stratovolcano system that was created by the Cape Verde hotspot, forming the island of Fogo. The top (Pico do Fogo) reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises ~1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area with approximately 10 kilometres in the north-south direction and 7 kilometres in the east-west direction. Chã das Caldeiras, surrounded towards the West by the ~1000m high Bordeira rampart, has been inhabited since the early 20th Century, because it is one of the most productive agricultural areas in this semi-arid country. Fogo volcano erupted on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC) on a subsidiary vent of the main cone, after 19 years of inactivity. C4G (Collaboratory for Geosciences), a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, immediately offered support to the Cape Verdean authorities, with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network operated in Fogo island by INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institute. This permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, and the data is transmitted in real time to the INMG geophysical laboratory in São Vicente Island, where it is analysed on a routine basis. Pre-eruptive activity started to be detected by the permanent monitoring network on October 2014, with earthquakes occurring at depths larger than 15 km. These events led to a first volcanic warning to the Cape Verdean Civil Protection Agency. On November 22 several volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded at shallow depths, indicating shallow fracturing. On the basis of this activity, INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, ~24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Volcanic tremor and clear tiltmeter signals were recorded about one hour

  17. Tourist Profile and Destination Brand Perception: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourists pay for destination brands. This study checked for the relationships between tourists’ profile and how they perceived the destination brand of Cape Town. A questionnaire survey of 220 tourists visiting Cape Town was done. This study found that repeat visit, age of tourist, length of stay, and tourist origin, have significant influences on how tourists visiting Cape Town perceived the destination. The top three destination attributes of Cape Town (cognitive images, which enhance visitor experience satisfaction are (1 the overall level of service quality at facilities in Cape Town, (2 the city being one of the best places the tourists have visited, and (3 the destination’s good value for money. The top three emotional valuations of destination attributes (affective images which enhance visitor experience satisfaction in Cape Town include (1 memorable visit, (2 valuable visit, and (3 friendly and hospitable population. It is therefore recommended that tourism businesses in Cape Town develop relationship marketing tools to attract and retain its tourists segments of loyal, advanced in age, long-staying and domestic tourists. Results from this research could be compared with related findings in the international arena and have related implications, especially for developing economies

  18. Sensitivity of MJO to the CAPE lapse time in the NCAR CAM3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIU, P.; Wang, B.; Meehl, Gerald, A.

    2007-09-05

    Weak and irregular boreal winter MJO in the NCAR CAM3 corresponds to very low CAPE background, which is caused by easy-to-occur and over-dominant deep convection indicating the deep convective scheme uses either too low CAPE threshold as triggering function or too large consumption rate of CAPE to close the scheme. Raising the CAPE threshold from default 70 J/kg to ten times large only enhances the CAPE background while fails to noticeably improve the wind mean state and the MJO. However, lengthening the CAPE lapse time from one to eight hours significantly improved the background in CAPE and winds, and salient features of the MJO. Variances, dominant periods and zonal wave numbers, power spectra and coherent propagating structure in winds and convection associated with MJO are ameliorated and comparable to the observations. Lengthening the CAPE lapse time to eight hours reduces dramatically the cloud base mass flux, which prevents effectively the deep convection from occurring prematurely. In this case, partitioning of deep to shallow convection in MJO active area is about 5:4.5 compared to over 9:0.5 in the control run. Latent heat is significantly enhanced below 600 hPa over the central Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Such partitioning of deep and shallow convection is argued necessary for simulating realistic MJO features. Although the universal eight hours lies in the upper limit of that required by the quasi-equilibrium theory, a local CAPE lapse time for the parameterized cumulus convection will be more realistic.

  19. Three new species of Tritoniopsis (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the Cape Region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the largely Western Cape genus Tritoniopsis L.Bolus are described, bringing the number of species in the genus to 24.  Tritoniopsis bicolor and  T. flava are newly discovered, narrow endemics of the Bredasdorp Mountains and the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, respectively, in the southwestern Cape. Both of these are areas of high local endemism.  T. toximontana, known since at least 1465 but misunderstood, is restricted to the Gifberg-Matsikamma Mountain complex of northern Western Cape. Notes on the pollination biology of the species are provided.

  20. The role of eclogite in the mantle heterogeneity at Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail Katrine; Holm, Paul Martin; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-01-01

    have been limited. We apply the minor elements in olivine approach (Sobolev et al. in Nature 434:590–597, 2005; Science, doi:10.1126/science.1138113, 2007), to determine and quantify the contributions of peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite melts to the mantle heterogeneity observed at Cape Verde. Cores...... of olivine phenocrysts of the Cape Verde volcanics have low Mn/FeO and low Ni*FeO/MgO that deviate from the negative trend of the global array. The global array is defined by mixing between peridotite and pyroxenite, whereas the Cape Verde volcanics indicate contribution of an additional eclogite source...

  1. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  2. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  3. A Synoptic Snapshot of the East Cape Eddy (ECE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LIU Qinyu

    2005-01-01

    A synoptic snapshot in this study is made for the East Cape Eddy (ECE) based on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) P14C Hydrographic Section and Shipboard ADCP velocity vector data collected in September 1992.The ECE is an anticyclonic eddy, barotropically structured and centered at 33.64°S and 176.21°E, with warm and salinouscored subsurface water. The radius of the eddy is of the order O (110 km) and the maximum circumferential velocity is O(40cms-1); as a result, the relative vorticity is estimated to be O (7 × 10-6s-1). Due to the existence of the ECE, the mixed layer north of New Zealand becomes deeper, reaching a depth of 300 m in the austral winter. The ECE plays an important role in the formation and distribution of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) over a considerable area in the South Pacific.

  4. International interest in space assets under the Cape Town Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametova, Lutfiie

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to outer space is impossible without space equipment. Nowadays space equipment is increasingly being financed by private sector. Private sector financiers, naturally, seek to secure their interest in space equipment. At the same time, increasing international cooperation in space industry leads to some problems of legal character. Thus, space equipment involved in international cooperation programs crosses national borders and is subject to a certain jurisdiction in a given period of time. The problem is that when an interest is created in one jurisdiction, it may not necessarily be recognised in another one. In order to provide a unified approach to interests vested in space equipment an international legal instrument is necessary. The Cape Town Convention represents an international instrument designed to provide a unified approach to interests vested in mobile equipment, including space assets.

  5. HD 12098 and Other Results from Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Girish

    2005-06-01

    Nainital;Cape Survey was started with an aim to search for new rapidly oscillating Ap stars in the northern hemisphere.We discovered one new mono-periodic roAp star HD 12098. The frequency separation of HD 12098 suggests a rotation period of 5.5 days for the star. We summarize here the observations of HD 12098 and briefly discuss the results of the multi-site observation campaign organized to resolve the ambiguity in the determination of the rotation period of HD 12098. Other interesting results like non-oscillating Ap stars discovered and two candidate stars in which roAp periodicity is seen but not confirmed are also discussed.

  6. Control of dengue disease: a case study in Cape Verde

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F M; Zinober, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model for the transmission of dengue disease is presented. It consists of eight mutually-exclusive compartments representing the human and vector dynamics. It also includes a control parameter (adulticide spray) in order to combat the mosquito. The model presents three possible equilibria: two disease-free equilibria (DFE) --- where humans, with or without mosquitoes, live without the disease --- and another endemic equilibrium (EE). In the literature it has been proved that a DFE is locally asymptotically stable, whenever a certain epidemiological threshold, known as the basic reproduction number, is less than one. We show that if a minimum level of insecticide is applied, then it is possible to maintain the basic reproduction number below unity. A case study, using data of the outbreak that occured in 2009 in Cape Verde, is presented.

  7. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  8. An Oscillating Jet in the Cape Cod Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, F. J.; Flierl, G. R.

    2004-05-01

    During the spring months, the Cape Cod Bay is a roaming ground for the North Atlantic right whale, perhaps the most endangered whale species in the world. The whales are observed to travel along the topographic steps that run parallel to the shore, eating plankton patches that form in the coastal water. In this region, off the coast of Provincetown, there is an oscillatory current with the same period as that of the ambient tides. The location of the current and its periodicity suggest that the topography and tides play fundamental roles in generating the jet. This current, depending on its velocity profile, may become unstable and generate vortices. It is likely that the local surface convergences and divergences in the tidal flows and vortices are related to the aggregation of the copepods (Calanus Finmarchicus), which are the right whale's primary food source. Understanding the dynamics of this jet is essential to predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of the codepods, which will in turn help us understand the likely locations and feeding history of the whales. In this talk we discuss results of the first phase of this study, that of the oscillatory jet in the Cape Cod Bay. This jet is rather complicated since it involves complex topography and coastlines, bottom and lateral friction, stratification and numerous other effects. Rather than study this system in fine detail, we investigate an idealized model that captures the essential features. In the context of this model, we first compute possible profiles for the oscillating jet. We then solve the linear stability problem to determine how the growth rates depend on the various parameters. Finally, and most importantly, we study the nonlinear problem to observe the time evolution of the instability process along with its equilibration. This provides some insight into how the instabilities are related to fluid transport across the shelf.

  9. Holocene climate changes in the Cape Hatteras region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, F.; Keigwin, L. D.; Peteet, D. M.; Desprat, S.; Oliveira, D.; Abrantes, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last century many studies have been done in various naturally occurring archives to understand the nature, timing and causes of Holocene natural climate oscillations. Most of the available Holocene climatic reconstructions are however, not based on a direct comparison of terrestrial, marine and ice records making it difficult to obtain an accurate understanding of the interactions of the atmosphere-ocean-land systems and their relationship in global climate variability. Few studies based on direct sea land comparison have been reported for some key areas of the eastern North Atlantic but almost none in the western North Atlantic. Here we present a direct comparison between terrestrial (pollen) and marine (planktonic δ18O) proxies from a well dated (ten AMS 14C dates on planktonic foraminifera and seaweed) slope core (KNR 178-2 JPC 32), retrieved close to Cape Hatteras (35°58.58'N, 74°42.77'W, 1006 m). This study provides information on eastern North America vegetation and on the northwestern Atlantic sea surface response to both Holocene long-term and rapid climate changes. Five intervals, marked mainly by changes in temperate trees are associated with long term climate shifts (12000-9150 ka; 9150-7250 ka; 7250-5350 ka; 5350-2800 ka; 2800-700 ka). Over these intervals, several abrupt cooling events are noted, as well as several indications of shifts in moisture. The comparison of our data with those available and unpublished records from several key sites of the North Atlantic region, gives insights into the nature, timing and causes of Holocene climate oscillations in the North Atlantic region and in particular off Cape Hatteras.

  10. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  11. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  12. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  13. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  14. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  15. Cape May National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. Cape May National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Cape May NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) report presents a model for projecting the effects of sea-level rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Cape...

  18. Evaluation of contaminants in sediments and forage organisms, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), and fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax) were collected from 25 locations in and adjacent to Cape May National Wildlife Refuge...

  19. Common eiders nesting and arctic fox predation at Icy Cape, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the common eiders nesting and arctic fox predation at Icy Cape, Alaska. Study areas, methods, and results are discussed.

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography—Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, Pre- and Post-Hurricane Isabel, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ data for Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements collected post-Hurricane...

  1. Surficial Sediment Distributions off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_SEDDIST.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set shows the distribution of surficial sediments offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data collected...

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography—Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, Pre- and Post-Hurricane Isabel, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ data for Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements collected pre-Hurricane Isabel...

  3. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Cape Cod National Seashore (caco_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Cod National Seashore in...

  4. 2008 USGS South New Jersey County Project Lidar: Cape May County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South New Jersey County Lidar project is to provide LiDAR data for the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJ-DEP) for Cape May, Cumberland, and...

  5. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. Department of the Interior : Final Environmental Statement : FES 75-4 : Proposed Cape Romain Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a final analysis of the environmental impact wilderness designation would pose for the Cape Romain Wilderness Area. Topics covered include where the...

  7. 77 FR 9852 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    .... DATES: This rule is effective March 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Craig Thatcher, Acting... primary authors of this regulation were Craig Thatcher, Acting Chief Ranger, Cape Cod National...

  8. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  9. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  10. Bedrock Data from Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts (WELLSITE shapefile, Geographic, NAD27)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cores collected from recent drilling in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts provide insight into the topography and petrology of the underlying bedrock. Cores from 64...

  11. Partial Report of Findings: No. 1 Cape Newenham Military Cleanup, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data analyzed to date indicate that high PCB concentrations have been detected at the U.S. Air Force's Cape Newenham Air Force Station and pose a threat to Refuge...

  12. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  13. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  14. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  15. Results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska. Objectives of this reports includes determining reproductive success,...

  16. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) evaluationof ecosystem restoration and management options for CapeRomain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) including...

  17. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) dataset for Cape Hatteras National Seashore (caha_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Hatteras National Seashore in North...

  18. Recolonization of walrus: A study conducted at Cape Peirce, Alaska, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1 June 1985 to 1 October 1985 the social behavior and population fluctuation of the walrus herd utilizing the Cape Peirce hauling grounds was observed and...

  19. Groundwater contributing areas for Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver Regions of Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data layer contains groundwater contributing areas for streams, ponds and estuaries in the Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver region. Contributing areas were...

  20. Cape Newenham National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : January 1, to December 31, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cape Newenham NWR (now part of Togiak NWR) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  1. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Cape Romain Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  2. Phylogeography of the Cape velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatopsis capensis) reveals the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic oscillations on Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D E; Daniels, S R

    2012-05-01

    Habitat specialists such as soft-bodied invertebrates characterized by low dispersal capability and sensitivity to dehydration can be employed to examine biome histories. In this study, the Cape velvet worm (Peripatopsis capensis) was used to examine the impacts of climatic oscillations on historical Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa. Divergence time estimates suggest that the P. capensis species complex diverged during the Pliocene epoch. This period was characterized by dramatic climatic and topographical change. Subsequently, forest expansion and contraction cycles led to diversification within P. capensis. Increased levels of genetic differentiation were observed along a west-to-south-easterly trajectory because the south-eastern parts of the Cape Fold Mountain chain harbour larger, more stable fragments of forest patches, have more pronounced habitat heterogeneity and have historically received higher levels of rainfall. These results suggest the presence of three putative species within P. capensis, which are geographically discreet and genetically distinct.

  3. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark

    2015-12-17

    Anyone who spends more than a few days on Cape Cod (the Cape) quickly becomes a coastal geologist, quickly learning the rhythms of daily tides and the seasonal cycles of beaches growing and being swept away by storms; swimmers and surfers track how the breakers appear, and dog-walkers notice the hard-packed sand blanketed overnight by an airy layer that leaves deep labored tracks.

  4. Integrated rapid transport: is the city of Cape Town utilising its full potential? / M. Strydom

    OpenAIRE

    Strydom, Mari

    2010-01-01

    The spatial structure of Cape Town is characterised by segregated low density development patterns and urban sprawling. With a high population growth rate and urbanisation, these patterns are becoming more prominent. Due to the spatial nature of Cape Town, a large proportion of economic activities and employment opportunities are concentrated in patches across the city. In order to combat low-density sprawl and integrate spatially separated areas the key concept ?city densification? and the v...

  5. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Sensitivity Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Bowman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Coastal and Air pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) is a NASA decadal survey mission to be designed to provide surface reflectance at high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions from a geostationary orbit necessary for studying regional-scale air quality issues and their impact on global atmospheric composition processes. GEO-CAPE's Atmospheric Science Questions explore the influence of both gases and particles on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. The objective of the GEO-CAPE Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is to analyze the sensitivity of ozone to the global and regional NOx emissions and improve the science impact of GEO-CAPE with respect to the global air quality. The GEO-CAPE OSSE team at Jet propulsion Laboratory has developed a comprehensive OSSE framework that can perform adjoint-sensitivity analysis for a wide range of observation scenarios and measurement qualities. This report discusses the OSSE framework and presents the sensitivity analysis results obtained from the GEO-CAPE OSSE framework for seven observation scenarios and three instrument systems.

  6. The biomes of the eastern Cape with emphasis on their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Lubke

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The four major phytochoria of southern Africa, the Cape. Tongoland-Pondoland. Karoo-Namib and Afromontane regions, converge in the complex transition zone of the eastern Cape. The area is rich in species and communities with a complex vegetation in which are represented all the major vegetation formations of southern Africa — Cape Fynbos. Cape Transitional Shrublands, Subtropical Thicket. Karoo, Savanna, Afromontane Forest, Grasslands and Littoral Strand Vegetation. Our results support previous findings that, although species-rich and of great diversity, the flora has fewer endemics (205 or 5,6% than the Cape (73% or Karoo-Namib (35%.  The communities with the largest proportion of endemics (30%, and threatened plants (18% are those of the Subtropical Thicket. On the basis of these data and an index of conserv ation status, the Subtropical Thicket was determined to be highest on the priority list for conservation in the eastern Cape. Subtropical Thicket is being cleared at an increasing rate and is most vulnerable due to changing farming practice.

  7. The Cape genus Micranthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, nomenclature and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Micranthus (Pers. Eckl., has traditionally been treated as comprising three species, all with virtually identical, bilaterally symmetric, deep or pale blue to white flowers arranged in crowded, 2-ranked spikes and with divided style branches, but differing in their foliage. Examination of plants in the field and herbarium shows that there are four additional species. M. filifolius Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Caledon District of the southwestern Western Cape, has up to six, filiform leaves, the blades of at least the lowermost terete and cross-shaped in section, and usually pale blue-mauve flowers. M. simplex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from high elevations on Zebrakop, Piketberg, has the smallest flowers in the genus, white but tinged lilac as they age, linear leaves up to 1.5 mm wide, and undivided style branches. M. cruciatus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the northern Cedarberg and Bokkeveld Mtns, has up to four leaves, the lower with linear or terete blades with heavily thickened margins and central vein and relatively large flowers, unusual in having the style dividing at the mouth of the perianth tube into particularly long branches, these deeply divided as is typical of the genus. M. thereianthoides Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Paardeberg south of Malmesbury, is unique in the genus in having flowers with an elongate perianth tube. We also document the occurrence of large populations of putative hybrids at some sites. We provide a complete revision of Micranthus with original observations on leaf anatomy, pollen morphology and reproductive biology and discuss its confused taxonomic and nomenclatural history and that of the three common species of the genus, known for over 150 years. In so doing, we neotypify Gladiolus alopecuroides L. (1756 [= Micranthus alopecuroides (L. Eckl. (1827], type of the genus, and choose lectotypes for M. plantagineus Eckl. var. junceus Baker (1892 and Gladiolus fistulosus Jacq. Now with seven

  8. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.

  9. Lexical borrowing by Khoekhoegowab from Cape Dutch and Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrid Haacke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article instantiates types of lexical borrowing from Afrikaans and Dutch in Namibian Khoekhoegowab (also known as “Nama”/“Damara”, but occasionally also refers to borrowings in the opposite direction. Where evidence allows, loans are traced back beyond Afrikaans to the era of Cape Dutch and contemporary interethnic contacts. Various categories ranging from adoptions to phonologically integrated loans, hybrids and calques are presented and, where possible, historical inferences are offered. The high degree of translational equivalence between Khoekhoe serial verbs and Afrikaans compound verbs leads to the consideration of some grammatical aspects including replication and relexification. Finally, reference is made to a parallel between Afrikaans and “Khoekhoe Afrikaans” syntax pointed out by den Besten (2013: Afrikaans circumlocutions like ek / sy wat Anna is (Khoekhoe: Anna.ta / Anna.s are literal equivalents of the underlying phrasal structures of Khoekhoe surface nouns #stem.pgn# in first, second or third person, as accounted for by the “desentential hypothesis” (Haacke 2006.  

  10. Eye development in the Cape dune mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Natalya V; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-03-01

    Studies on mammalian species with naturally reduced eyes can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying the reduction of the eye structures. Because few naturally microphthalmic animals have been studied and eye reduction must have evolved independently in many of the modern groups, novel evolutionary developmental models for eye research have to be sought. Here, we present a first report on embryonic eye development in the Cape dune mole rat, Bathyergus suillus. The eyes of these animals contain all the internal structures characteristic of the normal eye but exhibit abnormalities in the anterior chamber structures. The lens is small but develops normally and exhibits a normal expression of α- and γ-crystallins. One of the interesting features of these animals is an extremely enlarged and highly pigmented ciliary body. In order to understand the molecular basis of this unusual feature, the expression pattern of an early marker of the ciliary zone, Ptmb4, was investigated in this animal. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization results revealed that Ptmb4 expression was absent from the ciliary body zone of the developing Bathyergus eye.

  11. Final 2014 Remedial Action Report Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    This report was prepared to document remedial action (RA) work performed at the former Project Chariot site located near Cape Thompson, Alaska during 2014. The work was managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Alaska District for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). Due to the short field season and the tight barge schedule, all field work was conducted at the site July 6 through September 12, 2014. Excavation activities occurred between July 16 and August 26, 2014. A temporary field camp was constructed at the site prior to excavation activities to accommodate the workers at the remote, uninhabited location. A total of 785.6 tons of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL)-contaminated soil was excavated from four former drill sites associated with test holes installed circa 1960. Diesel was used in the drilling process during test hole installations and resulted in impacts to surface and subsurface soils at four of the five sites (no contamination was identified at Test Hole Able). Historic information is not definitive as to the usage for Test Hole X-1; it may have actually been a dump site and not a drill site. In addition to the contaminated soil, the steel test hole casings were decommissioned and associated debris was removed as part of the remedial effort.

  12. Poles in the Dutch Cape Colony 1652-1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Poles to the colonisation and development of the Dutch Cape Colony is not commonly known. Yet, Poles have been appearing in this colony since its very inception (1652. During the entire period considered here the presence of Poles was the result of the strong economic ties between Poland and the Netherlands. At the end of this period there was an increase in their share, in connection with the presence of numerous alien military units on the territory of the Colony, because of Poles having served in these units. Numerous newcomers from Poland settled in South Africa for good, established families, and their progeny made up part of the local society. The evidence of this phenomenon is provided by the present-day Afrikaner families of, for instance, Drotsky, Kitshoff, Kolesky, Latsky, Masuriek, Troskie, Zowitsky, and others. A quite superficial estimation implies that the settlers coming from Poland could make up a bit over 1% of the ancestors of the present-day Afrikaners. Poles would also participate in the pioneering undertakings within the far-off fringes of the Colony, including the robbery-and-trade expedition of 1702.

  13. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  14. Modeling the tides of Massachusetts and Cape Cod bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenter, H.L.; Signell, R.P.; Blumberg, A.F.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A time-dependent, three-dimensional numerical modeling study of the tides of Massachusetts and Cape Code Bays, motivated by construction of a new sewage treatment plant and ocean outfall for the city of Boston, has been undertaken by the authors. The numerical model being used is a hybrid version of the Blumberg and Mellor ECOM3D model, modified to include a semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and transport of a non-reactive dissolved constituent. Tides in the bays are dominated by the semi-diurnal frequencies, in particular by the M2 tide, due to the resonance of these frequencies in the Gulf of Maine. The numerical model reproduces, well, measured tidal ellipses in unstratified wintertime conditions. Stratified conditions present more of a problem because tidal-frequency internal wave generation and propagation significantly complicates the structure of the resulting tidal field. Nonetheless, the numerical model reproduces qualitative aspects of the stratified tidal flow that are consistent with observations in the bays.

  15. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  16. A simple index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras was calculated using two parameters: acceptability indices for different grass species, and the aerial cover of the grass species in the habitat. The index was tested by calculating its value for a range of different habitat patches and comparing this with the frequency of use of the patches by zebras. The close relationship between the index and the observed frequency of use verified that the index could be used as a guide to habitat suitability. Two methods were used to determine the frequency of use of the patches: counts of faecal pellet groups and frequency of sightings. Both methods yielded similar results but the pellet group counts were less time- consuming and expensive. It is recommended that the index of habitat suitability be used (i as a parameter for monitoring of long-term changes in habitat suitability in the Mountain Zebra National Park and (ii as a guide for selecting appropriate areas to re- introduce mountain zebras.

  17. Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Mooney

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural conservation and research initiative of Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve was born in a remote part of South America and has rapidly expanded to attain regional, national, and international relevance. The park and the biosphere reserve, led by Ricardo Rozzi and his team, have made significant progress in demonstrating the way academic research supports local cultures, social processes, decision making, and conservation. It is a dynamic hive of investigators, artists, writers, students, volunteers, and friends, all exploring ways to better integrate academia and society. The initiative involves an informal consortium of institutions and organizations; in Chile, these include the University of Magallanes, the Omora Foundation, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, and in the United States, the University of North Texas, the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance, and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. The consortium intends to function as a hub through which other institutions and organizations can be involved in research, education, and biocultural conservation. The park constitutes one of three long-term socio-ecological research sites in Chile of the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity.

  18. Watershed management program on Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vicente L.; Meyer, John

    1993-01-01

    The Watershed Management Program (WMP) was put into operation in early 1985 on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, with the stated purpose, “to develop and protect the soil and water resources of the Program-designated watersheds … to stabilize the natural environment and increase agricultural production potential in the Program area.” The approach to soil and water conservation in the program has been to build erosion and flood control structures (engineering approach) and plant trees (biological approach) to decrease rill and gully erosion, trap sediment behind control structures, provide flood protection, increase infiltration, increase fuelwood and fodder production, and increase water supplies for irrigation. There have been many successes resulting from specific management activities, but flawed approach or implementation in a few key areas has acted to impede the program's complete success, including lack of a scientific basis for evaluating its impact on soil and water conservation; poor design, placement, and maintenance of some major hydraulic structures; inadequate intervention in stabilizing farmlands or education of farmers and landowners in the need for and benefits of agroforestry; and incomplete integration of engineering and biological approaches.

  19. AIDS conspiracy beliefs and unsafe sex in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Eduard; Nattrass, Nicoli

    2012-04-01

    This paper uses multivariate logistic regressions to explore: (1) potential socio-economic, cultural, psychological and political determinants of AIDS conspiracy beliefs among young adults in Cape Town; and (2) whether these beliefs matter for unsafe sex. Membership of a religious organisation reduced the odds of believing AIDS origin conspiracy theories by more than a third, whereas serious psychological distress more than doubled it and belief in witchcraft tripled the odds among Africans. Political factors mattered, but in ways that differed by gender. Tertiary education and relatively high household income reduced the odds of believing AIDS conspiracies for African women (but not men) and trust in President Mbeki's health minister (relative to her successor) increased the odds sevenfold for African men (but not women). Never having heard of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), the pro-science activist group that opposed Mbeki on AIDS, tripled the odds of believing AIDS conspiracies for African women (but not men). Controlling for demographic, attitudinal and relationship variables, the odds of using a condom were halved amongst female African AIDS conspiracy believers, whereas for African men, never having heard of TAC and holding AIDS denialist beliefs were the key determinants of unsafe sex.

  20. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  1. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2015-10-07

    Cape Canaveral, Florida, is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline. The region includes Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, and a large portion of Canaveral National Seashore. The actual promontory of the modern Cape falls within the jurisdictional boundaries of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Erosion hazards result from winter and tropical storms, changes in sand resources, sediment budgets, and sea-level rise. Previous work by the USGS has focused on the vulnerability of the dunes to storms, where updated bathymetry and topography have been used for modeling efforts. Existing research indicates that submerged shoals, ridges, and sandbars affect patterns of wave refraction and height, coastal currents, and control sediment transport. These seabed anomalies indicate the availability and movement of sand within the nearshore environment, which may be directly related to the stability of the Cape Canaveral shoreline. Understanding the complex dynamics of the offshore bathymetry and associated sediment pathways can help identify current and future erosion vulnerabilities due to short-term (for example, hurricane and other extreme storms) and long-term (for example, sea-level rise) hazards.

  2. High-resolution shoreline change measurements (1997-2005) from Corolla to Cape Hatteras, NC (swash_shorelines.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  4. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit: an interdisciplinary study on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) value chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and governa

  5. 33 CFR 334.100 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Atlantic...

  6. 75 FR 65046 - In the Matter of Cape Systems Group, Inc., Caribbean Cigar Company, Casual Male Corp., Cell Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Cape Systems Group, Inc., Caribbean Cigar Company, Casual Male Corp., Cell Power... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cape Systems Group, Inc. because... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cell Power...

  7. An Inquiry into the nature, causes and distribution of wealth in the Cape Colony, 1652-1795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.

    2012-01-01

    Three important questions about the Dutch Cape Colony are investigated in this dissertation: 1) how affluent were Cape settlers, 2) what were the causes of such wealth, and 3) how was the wealth distributed? Using a variety of statistical sources, most notably the detailed probate inventories and au

  8. Unpacking the geography of tourism innovation in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booyens Irma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the geography of tourism innovation in the Western Cape, South Africa. In particular, innovations by tourism firms are mapped and local tourism innovation networks are analysed. Networking behaviour is examined since it is regarded as indispensable for accessing knowledge and learning for innovation purposes. The analysis draws on a broader investigation of tourism innovation and networking within the Western Cape province. It is revealed that the main tourist regions in the Western Cape are also the most innovative. Whilst external networking relations are observed to be highly significant for tourism innovation, local embeddedness remains critical for stimulating path creation and exploiting local core competencies for the competitiveness and survival of tourism firms and destinations.

  9. The influence of older classmates on adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, David; Marteleto, Letícia J; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the influence of exposure to older within-grade peers on sexual behavior among students in urban South Africa. Data are drawn from the Cape Area Panel Study, a longitudinal survey of young people conducted in metropolitan Cape Town from 2002 to 2006. The combination of early sexual debut, high rates of school enrollment into the late teens, and grade repetition create an environment in which young people who progress through school ahead of many in their cohort interact with classmates who may be several years older. We construct a measure of cumulative exposure to classmates who are at least two years older and show that such exposure is statistically significantly associated with early sexual initiation among adolescent girls. This exposure also increases the age difference between these girls and their first sexual partner, and helps explain a significant proportion of the earlier sexual debut of African girls, compared with colored and white girls in Cape Town.

  10. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo.

  11. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Paul Basin, Island of Santo Antao, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  12. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Faja Basin, Island of Sao Nicolau, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, L. Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  13. Groundwater Resources of Mosteiros Basin, Island of Fogo, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, L. Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  14. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vistta, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin

    2009-01-01

    Boa Vista, the easternmost island in the Cape Verde archipelago, consists of volcanic products, minor intrusions and a thin partial sedimentary cover. The first 15 age results from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis of groundmass separates from volcanic and plutonic rocks from Boa Vista...... lavas. The second stage, consisting of evolved lavas of phonolitic-trachytic compositions and nepheline syenites, makes up large central parts of the island. The large volume of evolved rocks and the extended eruption period of several Ma make stage 2 in Boa Vista unique to Cape Verde. Mainly basanites...... and with activity partly overlapping in time. The volcanic evolution of Boa Vista constrains the initiation of volcanic activity in the Cape Verde archipelago to the eastern islands. Major and trace element geochemistry of 160 volcanic and plutonic rocks representing the entire exposed chronological sequence on Boa...

  15. Environmental Restoration of Diesel-Range Organics from Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Hutton, Rick [Navarro Research & Engineering; Miller, Judy [Navarro Research & Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than 40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site (Figure 1) was cancelled because of strong public opposition [1]. No nuclear explosions were ever conducted at the site.

  16. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE): correlation of structure and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçer, Hülya; Gülçin, Ilhami

    2011-12-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a plant polyphenolic concentrated in honeybee propolis, has been found to be biologically active in a variety of pathways. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of CAPE using different methods such as total antioxidant activity by the thiocyanate method, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radicals, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities, reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. CAPE showed 97.9% inhibition on lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, α-tocopherol and trolox indicated an inhibition of 87.3, 97.6, 75.3 and 90.3% on peroxidation in the same system, respectively.

  17. Abortion care training framework for nurses within the context of higher education in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, I; Bitzer, E M; Boshoff, E L D; Steyn, D W

    2009-09-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rate due to illegal abortions in South Africa necessitated the implementation of abortion legislation in February 1997. Abortion legislation stipulates that registered nurses who had undergone the proposed abortion care training--certified nurses--may carry out abortions within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Currently it seems that an inadequate number of nurses are being trained in the Western Cape to provide pregnant women with counselling, to perform abortions and/or refer problem cases. No real attempts have since been made by higher education institutions in the Western Cape to offer abortion care training for nurses. This case study explores the situation of certified nurses and the context in which they provide abortion care in different regions of the Western Cape. The sampling included a random, stratified (non-proportional) number of designated state health care facilities in the Western Cape, a non-probability purposive sampling of nurses who provided abortion care, a non-probability convenience sample of women who had received abortion care, and a non-probability purposive sampling of final-year pre-registration nursing students. Data was generated by means of questionnaires, a checklist and semi-structured interviews. The main findings of this study indicate that the necessary infrastructure required for legal abortion is in place. However, the ongoing shortage of trained health care practitioners hampers abortion care services. Deficiencies were identified in the existing provincial protocol as some of the guidelines were either not in use or had become obsolete. Certified midwives who had been trained by the regional offices of the Department of Health: Western Cape were skilled in carrying out the abortion procedure, but other aspects of abortion care mainly carried out by other categories of nurses required more attention. This article suggests a training framework that should provide focus for the development of

  18. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  19. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots.

  20. Adaptive significance of the formation of multi-species fish spawning aggregations near submerged capes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Karnauskas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many fishes are known to spawn at distinct geomorphological features such as submerged capes or "promontories," and the widespread use of these sites for spawning must imply some evolutionary advantage. Spawning at these capes is thought to result in rapid offshore transport of eggs, thereby reducing predation levels and facilitating dispersal to areas of suitable habitat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this "off-reef transport" hypothesis, we use a hydrodynamic model and explore the effects of topography on currents at submerged capes where spawning occurs and at similar capes where spawning does not occur, along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. All capes modeled in this study produced eddy-shedding regimes, but specific eddy attributes differed between spawning and non-spawning sites. Eddies at spawning sites were significantly stronger than those at non-spawning sites, and upwelling and fronts were the products of the eddy formation process. Frontal zones, present particularly at the edges of eddies near the shelf, may serve to retain larvae and nutrients. Spawning site eddies were also more predictable in terms of diameter and longevity. Passive particles released at spawning and control sites were dispersed from the release site at similar rates, but particles from spawning sites were more highly aggregated in their distributions than those from control sites, and remained closer to shore at all times. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings contradict previous hypotheses that cape spawning leads to high egg dispersion due to offshore transport, and that they are attractive for spawning due to high, variable currents. Rather, we show that current regimes at spawning sites are more predictable, concentrate the eggs, and keep larvae closer to shore. These attributes would confer evolutionary advantages by maintaining relatively similar recruitment patterns year after year.

  1. Water Resources Investigation. Cape Girardeau - Jackson Metropolitan Area, Missouri. Volume 2. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    TABLE A-3a LOG-LOG TRANSFORMATION OF A POLY-CURVE FIT 2" (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Cape Girardeau Cape Girardeau Year County City Jackson RSA ± ’ Hinterland...2030 92,700 72,600 15,700 1,800 2,600 1/ RSA : Remaining Study Area 2/ Hinterland: Remaining County Area 3/ Columns 2, 3, and 4 from the Study Area...4) football /soccer -33 fields; (5) baseball/softball - nine fields; (6) basketball - seventeen courts; sixteen swimming pools; (8) tent camping - 84

  2. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini, a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., T. batelkai sp. n., T. schwarzi sp. n., and T. aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  3. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkaisp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species - Thyreus denoliisp. n., Thyreus batelkaisp. n., Thyreus schwarzisp. n., and Thyreus aistleitnerisp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  4. Predation on bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis by Cape hunting dogs Lycaon pictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.A. Rasmussen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The predatory habits of the Cape hunting dog Lycaon pictus have been well documented, and have been found to include almost exclusively mammalian herbivores (Childes 1988. The prey species chosen varies from area to area according to availability, with wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and Thompson's gazelle, Gazella thomsonii being recorded as preferred prey in East Africa (Malcolm & Van Lawick 1975, whereas impala Aepyceros melampus, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros and duiker Sylvicapra grimmia are predominantly selected in southern Africa (Fuller & Kat 1990. This paper documents a case of a pack of Cape hunting dogs preying specifically on bat-eared foxes.

  5. North west cape-induced electron precipitation and theoretical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-xia; Li, Xin-qiao; Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Lun-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Enhancement of the electron fluxes in the inner radiation belt, which is induced by the powerful North West Cape (NWC) very-low-frequency (VLF) transmitter, have been observed and analyzed by several research groups. However, all of the previous publications have focused on NWC-induced > 100-keV electrons only, based on observations from the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) satellites. Here, we present flux enhancements with 30-100-keV electrons related to NWC transmitter for the first time, which were observed by the GOES satellite at night. Similar to the 100-300-keV precipitated-electron behavior, the low energy 30-100-keV electron precipitation is primarily located east of the transmitter. However, the latter does not drift eastward to the same extent as the former, possibly because of the lower electron velocity. The 30-100-keV electrons are distributed in the L = 1.8-2.1 L-shell range, in contrast to the 100-300-keV electrons which are at L = 1.67-1.9. This is consistent with the perspective that the energy of the VLF-wave-induced electron flux enhancement decreases with higher L-shell values. We expand upon the rationality of the simultaneous enhancement of the 30-100- and 100-300-keV electron fluxes through comparison with the cyclotron resonance theory for the quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. In addition, we interpret the asymmetry characteristics of NWC electric power distribution in north and south hemisphere by ray tracing model. Finally, we present considerable discussion and show that good agreement exists between the observation of satellites and theory. Supported by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite Mission Ground-Based Verification Project of the Administration of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense and Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization Project (APSCO-SP/PM-EARTHQUAKE).

  6. Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    We shall report on the ILEWG charter, goals and activities, on ICEUM "lunar declarations" and follow-up activities, with focus on societal questions, and the Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008. ILEWG charter: ILEWG , the International Lunar Exploration Working Group is a public forum created in 1994, sponsored by the world's space agencies to support "international cooperation towards a world strategy for the exploration and utilization of the Moon - our natural satellite". The charter of ILEWG is: - To develop an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon - To establish a forum and mechanisms for the communication and coordination of activities - To implement international coordination and cooperation - In order to facilitate communication among all interested parties ILEWG agrees to establish an electronic communication network for exchange of science, technology and programmatic information related to lunar activities ILEWG meets regularly, at least, once a year, and leads the organization of an International Conference in order to discuss the state of lunar exploration. Formal reports are given at COSPAR meetings and to space agencies. ILEWG is sponsored by the world's space agencies and is intended to serve three relevant groups: - actual members of the ILEWG, ie delegates and repre-sentatives of the participating Space Agencies and organizations - allowing them to discuss and possibly harmonize their draft concepts and plans - team members of the relevant space projects - allowing them to coordinate their internal work according to the guidelines provided by the Charter of the ILEWG - members of the general public and of the Lunar Explorer's Society who are interested and wish to be informed on the progress of the Moon projects and possibly contribute their own ideas ILEWG activities and working groups: ILEWG task groups include science, technology, human aspects, socio-economics, young explorers and outreach, programmatics, roadmaps and

  7. Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape Takes on the "New Callousness."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape, located in the middle of the city's Central Library. This technically sophisticated library space, opened after the 1992 L.A. riots, provides custom furnishings, postmodernist architecture, and equipment and materials specifically catered to the local teens, amid the culture of "anti-youth"…

  8. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Instrument Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Hartman, Kathy R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultimate objective of the GEO-CAPE 2014 study: Quantify the cost impact of very specific changes in instrument performance! The customer has defined 4 instrument types they are notionally interested in:! FR: Filter Radiometer! WAS: Wide Angle Spectrometer! MSS: Multi Slit Spectrometer! SSS: Single Slit Spectrometer.

  9. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic brassicaceae genera in the cape flora of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mummenhoff, K.; Al-Shehbaz, I.A.; Bakker, F.T.; Linder, H.P.; Mühlhausen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Heliophila (ca. 73 spp.), the ditypic Cycloptychis and Thlaspeocarpa, and the monotypic Schlechteria, Silicularia, Brachycarpaea, and Chamira are endemic to the Cape region of South Africa, where they are the dominant genera of Brassicaceae. They may be regarded as the most diversified Brassicaceae

  10. Defying Monolingual Education: Alternative Bilingual Discourse Practices in Selected Coloured Schools in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how bilingual learners and teachers challenge the monolingual discourses prescribed in language education policy and models in pursuit of voice and agency in classroom interaction. Through an examination of observation, interview and classroom interaction data in selected coloured primary and secondary schools in Cape Town, the…

  11. Neohyssura atlantica n.sp. from the Cape Verde Islands (Crustacea: Isopoda: Anthuridea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wägele, Johann Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    A fourth species of Neohyssura is described from a beach of a lagoon of Ilha do Sal (Cape Verde Islands). The species is blind and can easily be recognized by the oval, spinose outline of the telson and the spines on the uropodal endopod.

  12. Silene dewinteri, a new species of the Caryopliyllaceae from the south-western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Bocquet

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Silene,  S. dewinteri Bocquet, is described from the sand-dunes of the coastal region of the south-western Cape. The species is closely related to S. crassifolia L. and S. clandestina Jacq.  

  13. 78 FR 19217 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... because they will be moving at relatively slow speeds (3 knots) during seismic acquisition and there is... phase of a larger Cape Wind energy project, which involves the installation of 130 wind turbine... activities are necessary prior to construction of the wind turbine array and are scheduled to begin in...

  14. 76 FR 80891 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... wind turbine generators as part of a long-term Cape Wind energy project. Acoustic stimuli (i.e... moving at relatively slow speeds (3 knots) during seismic acquisition and there is not a high density of... turbine generators--an area about 8.4 km (5.2 mi) from Point Gammon, 17.7 km (11 mi) from Nantucket...

  15. The Tangled Web: Investigating Academics' Views of Plagiarism at the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Karin; Brown, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problematic question of student plagiarism, its causes and manifestations, and how it is addressed in academic environments. A literature survey was conducted to establish how higher education institutions approach these issues, and a twofold investigation was conducted at the University of Cape Town. Data was gathered…

  16. Horizontal Gaze Palsy and Progressive Scoliosis With ROBO 3 Mutations in Patients From Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Marques, Nadine B P S; Barros, Sandra R; Miranda, Ana F; Nobre Cardoso, João; Parreira, Sónia; Fonseca, Teresa; Donaire, Nelvia M; Campos, Nuno

    2016-10-03

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare and autosomal recessive syndrome. We describe 2 cases of HGPPS which are the first documented in patients of African ancestry from an isolated population in Cape Verde. They demonstrated typical findings on neuro-ophthalmic examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging. One patient had novel heterozymous mutations of the ROB0 3 gene.

  17. 75 FR 81637 - Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy... Availability (``NOA'') of a Commercial Lease of Submerged Lands for Renewable Energy Development on the Outer... (``Rule''), BOEMRE has issued a Commercial Lease (``Lease'') for an area of approximately 46 square...

  18. Introductory Astronomy Course at the University of Cape Town: Probing Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…

  19. The reaction of the Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus Zebra Zebra to certain chemical immobilisation drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Young

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available he physiological reactions evoked by M@99 and Aza- perone in the Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra Zebra are discussed. Notes on clinical as well as physiological parameters are presented and it is concluded that these drugs can be used effectively in the capture of individuals of this rare mammal.

  20. The Effects of Community Violence on Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to community violence (neighborhood, school, police, and gang violence) and psychological distress in a sample of children living in the Cape Town, South Africa area. Another objective was to identify variables that moderate and mediate the…

  1. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  2. A Principal's Perspective of School Integration: The First School To Integrate in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Presents the historical context of Cape Town, South Africa, and its struggles against apartheid and apartheid education. It offers a case study of Allen Powell, a white teacher and administrator who worked to integrate Plumstead High School, an act that defied South African commonplace and the views of most white South Africans. Analyzes Powell's…

  3. Disrespecting Teacher: The Decline in Social Standing of Teachers in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the declining levels of respect for teachers in two communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Education has been identified as a key area of reform and redress, but a critical skills shortage and under-resourced schools are hindering progress. Data from current and former teachers illustrate how the social and institutional…

  4. Child Abuse Services at a Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Andrew C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    All child abuse-related patients (n=503) seen at 1 Cape Town (South Africa) hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. Abuse was confirmed in 389 cases (160 physical abuse and 229 sexual abuse). Most (81 percent) of the young children were seen by residents with minimal pediatric training. Lack of staff speaking Xhosa (spoken by 134 of the…

  5. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  6. 33 CFR 80.727 - Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL. 80.727 Section 80.727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., FL to Miami Beach, FL. (a) A line drawn across the seaward extremity of the Port Canaveral...

  7. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Cape Verde Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tutu, Osei Agyeman

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Cape Verde has made significant strides in the implementation of ICTs in education. The drawback o...

  8. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  9. Individual variation in parental provisioning behaviour predicts survival of Cape Gannet chicks under poor conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullers Ralf H.E., [No Value; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2009-01-01

    Cape Gannets Morus capensis are declining in numbers in all breeding colonies at the southern African west coast, potentially caused by deteriorating food availability. The behavioural responses of individuals to changing conditions can provide insights into the mechanisms that drive population dyna

  10. Parental provisioning behaviour predicts survival of Cape Gannet chicks under poor conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2009-01-01

    Cape Gannets Morus capensis are declining in numbers in all breeding colonies at the southern African west coast, potentially caused by deteriorating food availability. The behavioural responses of individuals to changing conditions can provide insights into the mechanisms that drive population dyna

  11. Tetrapocillon atlanticus n.sp. (Porifera, Poecilosclerida) from the Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1988-01-01

    A representative of the rare genus Tetrapocillon Brondsted (1924) was found for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean, dredged at 70 m depth during the recent CANCAP VII Expedition to the Cape Verde Islands. The single specimen differed from the previously known Indo-Pacific specimens of the genus (

  12. The MobiSan approach: informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naranjo, A.; Castellano, D.; Kraaijvanger, H.; Meulman, B.; Mels, A.R.; Zeeman, G.

    2010-01-01

    Pook se Bos informal settlement and the Cape Town Water & Sanitation Services Department are partnering on an urban sanitation project with a Dutch Consortium consisting of Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF), Landustrie Sneek and Vitens-Evides International. The aim of the project is to impro

  13. Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

    2010-01-01

    Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

  14. Establishing Validity of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraick, Richard I.; Kempster, Gail B.; Connor, Nadine P.; Thibeault, Susan; Klaben, Bernice K.; Bursac, Zoran; Thrush, Carol R.; Glaze, Leslie E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) was developed to provide a protocol and form for clinicians to use when assessing the voice quality of adults with voice disorders (Kempster, Gerratt, Verdolini Abbott, Barkmeier-Kramer, & Hillman, 2009). This study examined the reliability and the empirical validity of the…

  15. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Cape San Blas, FL. (a) A south-north line drawn from the Econfina River Light to the opposite shore. (b) A line drawn from Gamble Point Light to the southernmost extremity of Cabell Point. (c) A line drawn from St. Mark's Range Rear Light to St. Mark's Channel Light 11; thence to the...

  16. 33 CFR 80.115 - Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA. 80.115 Section 80.115 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., MA. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on...

  17. Marine interstitial Amphipoda and Isopoda (Crustacea) from Santiago, Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vonk, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Three species of Amphipoda are recorded from interstices of a marine beach on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago: Cabogidiella littoralis n. gen., n. sp. (Bogidiellidae), Psammogammarus spinosus n. sp. (Melitidae), and Idunella sketi Karaman, 1980 (Liljeborgiidae). The latter, widely dis

  18. Crystal structure of the capsular polysaccharide synthesizing protein CapE of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyafusa, Takamitsu; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tanner, Martin E; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2013-06-11

    Enzymes synthesizing the bacterial CP (capsular polysaccharide) are attractive antimicrobial targets. However, we lack critical information about the structure and mechanism of many of them. In an effort to reduce that gap, we have determined three different crystal structures of the enzyme CapE of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The structure reveals that CapE is a member of the SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) super-family of proteins. CapE assembles in a hexameric complex stabilized by three major contact surfaces between protein subunits. Turnover of substrate and/or coenzyme induces major conformational changes at the contact interface between protein subunits, and a displacement of the substrate-binding domain with respect to the Rossmann domain. A novel dynamic element that we called the latch is essential for remodelling of the protein-protein interface. Structural and primary sequence alignment identifies a group of SDR proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis that share the two salient features of CapE: the mobile loop (latch) and a distinctive catalytic site (MxxxK). The relevance of these structural elements was evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis.

  19. Access to Maternal Health Care Services in the Cape Coast Metropolitan Area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Adei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality can be prevented if mothers had routine obstetric care and access to emergency obstetric services. However, in accessing healthcare most expecting mothers will have to struggle with distance and financial problems. The study sought to; assess the barriers that discourage women from accessing antenatal, delivery and postnatal services in the Cape coast Metropolis and give recommendations to inform policy. Questionnaire was administered to 150 pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year from ten communities in the Cape Coast Metropolis. An institutional questionnaire was administered at the University of Cape Coast Hospital which provides health care services to the communities. The study revealed that challenges such as money (16.7%, distance (15.4%, and the behaviour of health personnel (20% were the dominant barriers to accessing antenatal, delivery and post natal services in the Cape Cost Metropolis. These barriers lead to the inability of 14% of pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year to adhere to the minimum antenatal visitation number of 5 recommended by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Again 15.3% of these respondents were delivered by Traditional Birth Attendants and family members, whiles 5.8% were unable to adhere to the minimum postnatal visitation of two times. NGO’s and government organizations for women should organize training programmes aimed at improving the livelihood or employment for women in these communities.

  20. Language Policy as a Sociocultural Tool: Insights from the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This theoretically oriented article draws on the author's previous research, which examined language policy and planning (LPP) of the University of Cape Town within the context of post-apartheid transformation driven by need to redress inequalities of the past, and demands of globalization. Drawing on critical linguistics, but indicating…

  1. 77 FR 37324 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear River; Wilmington, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear... will be performed on the river during the filming of this motion picture. DATES: This rule is effective... performed during the filming of a major motion picture. The filming will involve fast-paced,...

  2. Cape Town, South Africa, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear in the foreground of this perspective view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located at Table Bay (at the lower left), adjacent to Table Mountain, a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark. Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there. Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen here far inland (mid-distance left) at the Theewaterskloof Dam. False Bay is the large bay to the south (right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (upper right) of this scene. This Landsat and SRTM perspective view uses a 2-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The back edges of the data sets form a false horizon and a false sky was added. Colors of the scene were enhanced by image processing but are the natural color band combination from the Landsat satellite. Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  3. Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2014-05-01

    Reliable dating is crucial for resolving the nature and timing of cold events in southern Africa and the associated cold climate landforms produced. Evidence for glaciation has been proposed for the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, based on the identification of moraines that were presumed to be of last glacial maximum age. Temperature depressions of 10-17°C have been proposed for this region, based on the presence of these moraines (Lewis and Illgner, 2001) and the identification of a relict rock glacier. Such large temperature depressions are, however, unsupported by other palaeoclimatic proxies in southern Africa. Debate regarding the occurrence of glaciation in southern Africa has been ongoing for several decades. There is good evidence for small-scale glaciation during the last glacial cycle in Lesotho, at elevations exceeding 3000 m a.s.l., but these sites are more than 1000 m higher in elevation than those identified in the Eastern Cape, and suggest a temperature depression of only ~6°C and a change to a winter dominated precipitation regime during the last glacial cycle. This paper presents preliminary cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for the Eastern Cape 'moraines' and a periglacial blockstream in this region. We discuss potential alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and suggest that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glacial period. However, there is widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of ~1700 m a.s.l., as illustrated by extensive blockstreams, stone garlands and solifluction deposits. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was much colder (~6ºC) during the last glacial cycle, in keeping with other proxy records, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers at low elevations. References Lewis C. A., Illgner, P. M., 2001. Late Quaternary glaciation in Southern Africa: moraine ridges and glacial deposits at Mount Enterprise in the Drakensberg of the

  4. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  5. Melt segregation in the Muroto Gabbroic Intrusion, Cape Muroto - Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floess, David; Caricchi, Luca; Wallis, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Melt segregation is a crucial process in igneous petrology and is commonly used to explain characteristic geochemical trends of magmatic rocks (e.g. Brophy 1991), as well as the accumulation of large amounts of eruptible magma (e.g. Bachmann & Bergantz, 2008). In order to gain further insight into the physical processes behind melt segregation we investigated a small-scale, natural setting. The Miocene Muroto Gabbroic Intrusion (MGI) is a 230m thick, layered sill located at Cape Muroto (Shikoku Island - Japan; Yoshizawa, 1953). It was rotated into a near-vertical (~70°) orientation after horizontal emplacement, allowing for easy sampling of the entire sill from bottom to top. We collected ~70 oriented samples for petrographic and geochemical analysis, as well as for structural analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS). A well-defined horizon (zone I) between 50 and 125m from the bottom shows spectacular evidence for the segregation of felsic melts from the mafic mush (Hoshide et al. 2006). Individual, cm- to m-sized, anorthositic melt lenses mainly consist of plagioclase laths with minor cpx. Small diapirs emanate from the melt lenses and clearly indicate the paleo-upward direction of the sill. Zone I is overlaid by a coarse-grained gabbro (zone II) with cm-sized crystals of plag+cpx and no anorthositic segregations can be found. The MGI grades into fine-grained dolerite towards the top and bottom margins of the sill. We modeled the phase relations of a representative MGI gabbro composition (chilled margin) upon cooling using MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012). Extracted physical parameters (i.e. melt and solid densities, melt viscosity) were used as a proxy for melt mobility (Sakamaki et al. 2013). The temporal and spatial evolution of melt mobility within the sill was investigated using the temperature-time curve obtained through a thermal model for the MGI. We observed several peaks for the melt mobility, implying zones of melt drainage (when mobility

  6. In vivo and in vitro antıneoplastic actions of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE): therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Ozturk, Gulfer; Ginis, Zeynep; Armutcu, Ferah; Yigitoglu, M Ramazan; Akyol, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Cancer prevention and treatment strategies have attracted increasing interest. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis extract, specifically inhibits NF-κB at μM concentrations and shows ability to stop 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Previous studies have demonstrated that CAPE exhibits antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and, most improtantly, antineoplastic properties. The primary goal of the present review is to summarize and critically evaluate the current knowledge regarding the anticancer effect of CAPE in different cancer types.

  7. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  8. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 100 meters along the Cape Cod National Seashore Resistivity Survey tracklines, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  9. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Cape Romain NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  10. Sedimentary Environments of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_ENVIRON.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the sedimentary environments for the sea floor offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data...

  11. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  12. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 100 meters along the Cape Cod National Seashore Resistivity Survey tracklines, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  13. HATTERAS_BASELINE: Offshore baseline for Hatteras Island from Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  14. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  15. Population and productivity studies of black-legged kittiwakes, common murres, and pelagic cormorants at Cape Peirce, Alaska, summer 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cape Peirce, Alaska, was the site of a nesting seabird study from June 16 to August 20, 1988. Three species of nesting seabirds (Black-legged Kittiwakes, Common...

  16. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore in North Carolina, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from...

  17. The potential usage of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against chemotherapy-induced and radiotherapy-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Ginis, Zeynep; Armutcu, Ferah; Ozturk, Gulfer; Yigitoglu, M Ramazan; Akyol, Omer

    2012-07-01

    Protection of the patients against the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens has attracted increasing interest of clinicians and practitioners. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which is extracted from the propolis of honeybee hives as an active component, specifically inhibits nuclear factor κB at micromolar concentrations and show ability to stop 5-lipoxygenase-catalysed oxygenation of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. CAPE has antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antineoplastic properties. The purpose of this review is to summarize in vivo and in vitro usage of CAPE to prevent the chemotherapy-induced and radiotherapy-induced damages and side effects in experimental animals and to develop a new approach for the potential usage of CAPE in clinical trial as a protective agent during chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens.

  18. 75 FR 76453 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind, and the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities; Notice of...

  19. 2009 USGS/NPS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Cape Hatteras National Seashore - Post-Nor'easter Ida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a bare-earth data lidar data set that was collected on November 27, 29 and December 1, 2009 along the shoreline of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore in...

  20. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the National Park Service Southeast Coast Network's Cape Hatteras National Seashore in North Carolina, post-Nor'Ida...

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT PROCESS SIMULATOR USING MICROSOFT'S VISUAL STUDIO.NET AND THE .NET FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing a ComputerAided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishingindustry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes thatare less polluting to the environment. Metal finish...

  3. Oregon Islands, Three Arch Rocks, and Cape Meares National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Oregon Islands, Three Arch Rocks, and Cape Meares NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan...

  4. Abortion care training framework for nurses within the context of higher education in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The high morbidity and mortality rate due to illegal abortions in South Africa necessitated the implementation of abortion legislation in February 1997. Abortion legislation stipulates that registered nurses who had undergone the proposed abortion care training — certified nurses — may carry out abortions within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Currently it seems that an inadequate number of nurses are being trained in the Western Cape to provide pregnant women with counselling, to perform abortions and/or refer problem cases. No real attempts have since been made by higher education institutions in the Western Cape to offer abortion care training for nurses. This case study explores the situation of certified nurses and the context in which they provide abortion care in different regions of the Western Cape. The sampling included a random, stratified (non-proportional number of designated state health care facilities in the Western Cape, a non-probability purposive sampling of nurses who provided abortion care, a non-probability convenience sample of women who had received abortion care, and a non-probability purposive sampling of final-year pre-registration nursing students. Data was generated by means of questionnaires, a checklist and semi-structured interviews. The main findings of this study indicate that the necessary infrastructure required for legal abortion is in place. However, the ongoing shortage of trained health care practitioners hampers abortion care services. Deficiencies were identified in the existing provincial protocol as some of the guidelines were either not in use or had become obsolete. Certified midwives who had been trained by the regional offices of the Department of Health: Western Cape were skilled in carrying out the abortion procedure, but other aspects of abortion care mainly carried out by other categories of nurses required more attention. This article suggests a training framework that should provide

  5. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services in the Eastern Cape / René Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, René

    2002-01-01

    The suicide rate in the South African Police Services is relatively high compared with other suicide statistics. The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between coping, stress and suicide ideation within the SAPS in the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 307 uniformed police members from the job level of constable to that of senior superintendent in the Eastern Cape. The COPE Questionnaire, Police Stres...

  6. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  7. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children.

  8. Health activism in Cape Town: a case study of the Health Workers Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, W; Claassen, J W B; Le Grange, C A; Hussey, G D

    2012-03-02

    The Health Workers Society (HWS), founded in 1980, was one of several progressive health organisations that fought for a democratic health system in South Africa. We document the sociopolitical context within which it operated and some of its achievements. HWS, many of whose members were staff and students of the University of Cape Town (UCT), provided a forum for debate on health-related issues, politics and society, and worked closely with other organisations to oppose the apartheid state's health policies and practices. They assisted with the formation of the first dedicated trade union for all healthcare workers and were one of the first to pioneer the primary healthcare approach in an informal settlement in Cape Town.

  9. Attitudes toward couples-based HIV counseling and testing among MSM in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick; McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Jobson, Geoff; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2013-05-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) allows couples to receive their HIV test results together and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing HIV transmission, increasing and sustaining condom use, and reducing sexual risk-taking among at-risk heterosexual couples. However, the acceptability of CVCT among MSM has yet to be evaluated in an African setting. The results from seven focus group discussions and 29 in-depth interviews conducted in Cape Town, South Africa exhibit overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT. Participants were attracted to the counseling components of the service, stating that these would allow for the couple to increase their commitment and to explore methods of how to effectively reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV in the presence of a trained counselor. These results suggest CVCT would be highly welcomed and could work to fill the significant lack of services available and accessible to MSM couples in Cape Town.

  10. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  11. First report of Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Joana; Pina, Adilson de; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima

    2015-01-01

    During an entomological survey in Santiago Island, Cape Verde Islands, in November-December 2011 in order to study the bio-ecology and susceptibility to insecticides of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 was found to be present in the Santa Cruz District. Both adult and immature specimens were collected and a description of both is given. Further confirmation of the taxonomic identity of the specimens was obtained from studying the male genitalia. This is t...

  12. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  13. An evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ community placements in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia S. Naidu; Virginia Zweigenthal; James Irlam; Leslie London; Johannah Keikelame

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT) work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training.Objectives: This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders.Methods: A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 20...

  14. Fog and Tidal Current Connection at Cape Cod Canal-Early Recognition and Recent Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Alfred H.

    1982-02-01

    Notes by Gardner Emmons about the initiation of low advective fogs on Cape Cod are presented. Subsequent measurements made in these fogs confirm his suggestion that mixing and temperature changes associated with tidal currents account for the fog. Puzzling temperature measurements that are at apparent variance with the mixing theory of fog formation are presented. It is proposed that these temperature discrepancies are due to the effects of water vapor condensation on the sea water surface.

  15. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Dia Ibrahima; Diagne Cheikh; Ba Yamar; Diallo Diawo; Konate Lassana; Diallo Mawlouth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to mon...

  16. Substance Use and Psychosocial Predictors of High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisher, Alan J.; Townsend, Loraine; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl F.; King, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs predicts dropout among secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa. A self-report instrument was administered to 1,470 Grade 8 students. The proportion of students that dropped out of school between the onset of the study and 4 years later was 54.9%.…

  17. Changing tune in Woodstock: Creative industries and local urban development in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, a plethora of works has been published on the making of the ‘creative city’ and the urban impact of the creative economy. So far, however, limited recognition has been given to how the development of cultural industries and the creative economy as a whole influences urban transformation in the rapidly urbanising Global South, especially in Africa. In Cape Town, a steadily growing number of creative industries and ‘culturepreneurs’ (Lange 2005) are ca...

  18. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael H.; Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI exper...

  19. EAARL coastal topography—Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, pre- and post-Hurricane Isabel, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Xan; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Nagle, David B.

    2017-01-01

    These XYZ datasets provide lidar-derived bare-earth topography for Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Elevation measurements were acquired pre-Hurricane Isabel on September 16 and post-Hurricane Isabel on September 21, 2003 by the first-generation Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).The authors acknowledge Jamie Cormier, Amar Nayegandhi, and Wayne Wright for lidar acquisition and processing.

  20. IPOD-USGS multichannel seismic reflection profile from Cape Hatteras to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Markl, Rudi G.

    1977-01-01

    A 3,400-km-long multichannel seismic-reflection profile from Cape Hatteras to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was acquired commercially under contract to the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Geological Survey. These data show evidence for massive erosion of the continental slope, diapirs at the base of the continental slope, and mantle reflections beneath the Hatteras Abyssal Plain.

  1. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  2. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Ibrahima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3 epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal

  3. The Cape Town science centre : a comprehensive business plan / Christian Rudolph Faure

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Christian Rudolph

    1999-01-01

    This business plan describes the activities and projected financial operation of the Futropolis, a new science and technology centre to be located at Century City, Cape Town. The Futropolis is the first of a network of science and technology centres that will be established by MTN in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa with the aim of increasing the techno-literacy of all South Africans. The Directors and Financial Managers of science centres and theme parks throughout the ...

  4. The Nainital–Cape Survey: A Search for Variability in Ap and Am Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Joshi

    2005-06-01

    The ``Nainital–Cape Survey” program for searching photometric variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars was initiated in 1997 at ARIES, Nainital. We present here the results obtained to date. The Am stars HD 98851, HD 102480, HD 13079 and HD 113878 were discovered to exhibit Scuti type variability. Photometric variability was also discovered in HD 13038, for which the type of peculiarity and variability is not fully explained. The null results of this survey are also presented and discussed.

  5. Improving Access to Pediatric Cardiology in Cape Verde via a Collaborative International Telemedicine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Correia, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of international telemedicine services in supporting the evacuation procedures from Cape Verde to Portugal, enabling better quality and cost reductions in the management of the global health system. The Cape Verde, as other African countries, health system lacks many medical specialists, like pediatric cardiologists, neurosurgery, etc. In this study, tele-cardiology shows good results as diagnostic support to the evacuation decision. Telemedicine services show benefits while monitoring patients in post-evacuation, helping to address the lack of responsive care in some specialties whose actual use will help save resources both in provision and in management of the evacuation procedures. Additionally, with tele-cardiology collaborative service many evacuations can be avoided whereas many cases will be treated and followed locally in Cape Verde with remote technical support from Portugal. This international telemedicine service enabled more efficient evacuations, by reducing expenses in travel and housing, and therefore contributed to the health system's improvement. This study provides some evidence of how important telemedicine really is to cope with both the geography and the shortage of physicians.

  6. Psychosocial concomitants of loneliness among students of Cape Verde and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F; Barros, J

    2000-09-01

    This research is an examination of the relationship between loneliness and a number of psychosocial variables (e.g., affective state, cultural issues, gender, age) among adolescents and young adults from Cape Verde and Portugal. Two studies are presented. The participants in the first study were 285 adolescents from Cape Verde and 202 from Portugal, and in the second study there were 134 college students from Cape Verde and 112 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all the participants in both studies: The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), the Social Anxiety subscale (A. Fenigstein, M. Scheier, & A. Buss, 1975), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). No ethnic or gender differences were found for loneliness between the two groups. For both groups, the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life. However, as expected, the adolescent group recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the college students.

  7. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison

    2016-04-15

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning.

  8. Gaseous elemental mercury depletion events observed at Cape Point during 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-G. Brunke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury in the marine boundary layer has been measured with a 15 min temporal resolution at the Global Atmosphere Watch station Cape Point since March 2007. The most prominent features of the data until July 2008 are the frequent occurrences of pollution (PEs and depletion events (DEs. Both types of events originate mostly within a short transport distance (up to about 100 km, which are embedded in air masses ranging from marine background to continental. The Hg/CO emission ratios observed during the PEs are within the range reported for biomass burning and industrial/urban emissions. The depletion of gaseous mercury during the DEs is in many cases almost complete and suggests an atmospheric residence time of elemental mercury as short as a few dozens of hours, which is in contrast to the commonly used estimate of approximately 1 year. The DEs observed at Cape Point are not accompanied by simultaneous depletion of ozone which distinguishes them from the halogen driven atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs observed in Polar Regions. Nonetheless, DEs similar to those observed at Cape Point have also been observed at other places in the marine boundary layer. Additional measurements of mercury speciation and of possible mercury oxidants are hence called for to reveal the chemical mechanism of the newly observed DEs and to assess its importance on larger scales.

  9. Influence of Electromagnetic Fields on Bone Fracture in Rats: Role of CAPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EKREM CICEK; OSMAN GOKALP; REMZI VAROL; GOKHAN CESUR

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of radiation emitted by mobile phones on bone strength and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the changes induced by radiation. Methods Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Rats in the control group (first group) were left within the experimental setup for 30 min/day for 28 days without radiation exposure. Nine hundred MHz radiation group was broke down into 2 subgroups (group 1/2). Both subgroups were exposed to radiation for 28 days (30 min/day). The next group was also divided into 2 subgroups (group 3/4). Each was exposed to 1800 MHz of radiation for 28 days (30 min/day). The third and fifth groups were also treated with CAPE for 28 days. Treatment groups received ip caffeic acid phenethyl ester (10 μmol/kg per day) before radiation session. Bone fracture was analyzed. Results Breaking force, bending strength, and total fracture energy decreased in the irradiated groups but increased in the treatment groups. Conclusion Radiation and CAPE can significantly improve bone.

  10. Performing rap ciphas in late-modern Cape Town: extreme locality and multilingual citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Quentin E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of hip-hop in Cape Town, and indeed South Africa, has traditionally focused on the narratives and poetics of resistance, race and counter-hegemonic agency in the context of apartheid and the early days of post-apartheid. Despite this attention, hip-hop cipha performances remain relatively under-researched. The aim of this paper is to suggest that cipha performances display linguistic and discursive features that not only are of particular interest to rap music and hip-hop on the Cape Flats of Cape Town specifically, but that also engage core issues around multilingualism, agency and voice more generally. It demonstrates how in the process of entextualization a sense of locality, extreme locality, emerges in cipha performances by means of verbal cueing, representing place, expressing disrespect (dissing, and the (deictic reference to local coordinates that is achieved by transposing or recontextualizing transidiomatic phrases, and by incorporating local proxemics and audience reactions through commentary and response. It concludes by suggestingthat competition around acceptable linguistic forms and framings (metalinguistic disputes of extreme locality comprise the very micro-processes behind the formation of new registers. At the same time, these registers create the semiotic space for the exercise of agency and voice through multilingual practices, that is, multilingual citizenship.

  11. Vegetative morphology and interfire survival strategies in the Cape Fynbos grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is a wide range of structural variation in the habit of the Arundineae and Ehrharteae of the fynbos of the Cape Floristic Region (Cape Province, South Africa. Structural differences in the bases of the fynbos grasses have been classified into four groups: swollen, knotty tillering, weak and annual. Variation in the position of the innovation buds occurs with one group having basal perennating buds, implying that all the culm material is annual, while the second group has cauline innovation buds, leading to the development of a divaricate perennial herb. The recognition of caducous, mesic (orthophyllous and sclerophyllous leaf blades is also possible, based on leaf morphology and anatomy. These variations in growth forms allow the classification of the Cape grasses into five guilds adapted for survival in the dense fynbos vegetation that develops between the well-spaced fires in these heathlands. The following guilds have been recognized: competition avoiders that grow on rock ledges and outcrops where competition from shrubby vegetation is reduced; reseeders, that survive the protracted interfire period as seed; geophytes, that survive this period as underground organs; coppicers, that survive as small plants; and competitors, that grow tall by means of cauline innovation buds, and so are able to compete with the shrubby heath vegetation.

  12. Acoustic Telemetry, Cape Hatteras, and ocean Migratory Corridors: Defining Critical Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Rulifson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available North Carolina continental shelf waters are being targeted for development for wind farms and for oil and gas exploration. The main site for the latter is only 38 miles from Cape Hatteras, a major topographic feature that changes the dynamics of near-shore large ocean currents including the Labrador Current and Gulf Stream. The Cape constricts shelf habitat and restricts the migratory corridors of highly migratory species. The Hatteras Acoustic Array just south of the Cape indicates that this area is heavily used by species of concern year-around. Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhynchus migrate southward through Hatteras Bight in the fall and northward in the spring; some remain in the area throughout the winter months. Sandbar Sharks, Sand Tiger Sharks, and some Atlantic Sturgeon seem to migrate to Hatteras Bight and remain in the area throughout the winter, while other Atlantic sturgeon and White Sharks tend to migrate through Hatteras Bight on the way to other overwintering grounds. The period November through April seems to be the most critical period for these four species. Agencies need to expand the area of focus for these studies, as well as gather new information about resident species and marine mammals, before science-based environmental assessment can be made.

  13. Impact of Sahara dust transport on Cape Verde atmospheric element particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, M; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Pio, C A; Nunes, T; Cardoso, J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct an elemental characterization of airborne particles sampled in Cape Verde and (2) assess the influence of Sahara desert on local suspended particles. Particulate matter (PM(10)) was collected in Praia city (14°94'N; 23°49'W) with a low-volume sampler in order to characterize its chemical composition by k0-INAA. The filter samples were first weighed and subsequently irradiated at the Portuguese Research Reactor. Results showed that PM(10) concentrations in Cape Verde markedly exceeded the health-based air quality standards defined by the European Union (EU), World Health Organization (WHO), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in part due to the influence of Sahara dust transport. The PM(10) composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (K, Sm, Co, Fe, Sc, Rb, Cr, Ce, and Ba) and sea (Na), and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Zn, and Sb). In addition, the high concentrations of PM measured in Cape Verde suggest that health of the population may be less affected compared with other sites where PM(10) concentrations are lower but more enriched with toxic elements.

  14. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Judith Howlett; Majid Al Qassimi; Arshad Toosy; Joerg Kinne; Vincent Obanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.

  15. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades.

  16. The UNESCO biosphere reserve concept as a tool for urban sustainability: the CUBES Cape Town case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanvliet, R; Jackson, J; Davis, G; De Swardt, C; Mokhoele, J; Thom, Q; Lane, B D

    2004-06-01

    The Cape Town Case Study (CTCS) was a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated by CUBES, a knowledge networking initiative of UNESCO's Ecological Sciences Division and the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Cape Town was selected as a CUBES site on the basis of its high biological and cultural significance, together with its demonstrated leadership in promoting urban sustainability. The CTCS was conducted by the Cape Town Urban Biosphere Group, a cross-disciplinary group of specialists drawn from national, provincial, municipal, and civil society institutions, mandated to examine the potential value of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve concept as a tool for environmental management, social inclusion, and poverty alleviation in Cape Town. This article provides a contextualization of the CTCS and its collaborative process. It also reviews the biosphere reserve concept relative to urban sustainability objectives and proposes a more functional application of that concept in an urban context. A detailed analysis of key initiatives at the interface of conservation and poverty alleviation is provided in table format. Drawing on an examination of successful sustainability initiatives in Cape Town, specific recommendations are made for future application of the biosphere reserve concept in an urban context, as well as a model by which urban areas might affiliate with the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and criteria for such affiliation.

  17. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, NC (composite_nhatt.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. 0.5 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor off of northern Cape Hatteras National Seashore, NC (mosaic8.jpg, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf with stretched histogram, from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, NC (composite_nhatt_str.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Isopach grid of the modern marine sand above the top of Pleistocene surface along the inner shelf from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina (modsand, ESRI binary grid, 100 m cellsize, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Isopach grid of the Quaternary sediment thickness, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q0thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of single beam and swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf north of Cape Hatteras, NC to Virginia border (nhatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Sargasso Sea from CAPE HENLOPEN and other platforms from 21 January 1988 to 10 December 1988 (NODC Accession 0000407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Sargasso sea from CAPE HENLOPEN, CAPE HATTERAS, and WEATHERBIRD from 21 January 1988 to 10...

  4. Consistent phenological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot: the Cape flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quint Marcus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best documented survival responses of organisms to past climate change on short (glacial-interglacial timescales are distributional shifts. Despite ample evidence on such timescales for local adaptations of populations at specific sites, the long-term impacts of such changes on evolutionary significant units in response to past climatic change have been little documented. Here we use phylogenies to reconstruct changes in distribution and flowering ecology of the Cape flora - South Africa's biodiversity hotspot - through a period of past (Neogene and Quaternary changes in the seasonality of rainfall over a timescale of several million years. Results Forty-three distributional and phenological shifts consistent with past climatic change occur across the flora, and a comparable number of clades underwent adaptive changes in their flowering phenology (9 clades; half of the clades investigated as underwent distributional shifts (12 clades; two thirds of the clades investigated. Of extant Cape angiosperm species, 14-41% have been contributed by lineages that show distributional shifts consistent with past climate change, yet a similar proportion (14-55% arose from lineages that shifted flowering phenology. Conclusions Adaptive changes in ecology at the scale we uncover in the Cape and consistent with past climatic change have not been documented for other floras. Shifts in climate tolerance appear to have been more important in this flora than is currently appreciated, and lineages that underwent such shifts went on to contribute a high proportion of the flora's extant species diversity. That shifts in phenology, on an evolutionary timescale and on such a scale, have not yet been detected for other floras is likely a result of the method used; shifts in flowering phenology cannot be detected in the fossil record.

  5. Local and regional scale genetic variation in the Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jacobus H; Bennett, Nigel C; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variation is determined through the interaction of life history, morphology and habitat specificity of a species in conjunction with landscape structure. While numerous studies have investigated this interplay of factors in species inhabiting aquatic, riverine, terrestrial, arboreal and saxicolous systems, the fossorial system has remained largely unexplored. In this study we attempt to elucidate the impacts of a subterranean lifestyle coupled with a heterogeneous landscape on genetic partitioning by using a subterranean mammal species, the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus), as our model. Bathyergus suillus is one of a few mammal species endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of the Western Cape of South Africa. Its distribution is fragmented by rivers and mountains; both geographic phenomena that may act as geographical barriers to gene-flow. Using two mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b and control region) as well as nine microsatellite loci, we determined the phylogeographic structure and gene-flow patterns at two different spatial scales (local and regional). Furthermore, we investigated genetic differentiation between populations and applied Bayesian clustering and assignment approaches to our data. Nearly every population formed a genetically unique entity with significant genetic structure evident across geographic barriers such as rivers (Berg, Verlorenvlei, Breede and Gourits Rivers), mountains (Piketberg and Hottentots Holland Mountains) and with geographic distance at both spatial scales. Surprisingly, B. suillus was found to be paraphyletic with respect to its sister species, B. janetta-a result largely overlooked by previous studies on these taxa. A systematic revision of the genus Bathyergus is therefore necessary. This study provides a valuable insight into how the biology, life-history and habitat specificity of animals inhabiting a fossorial system may act in concert with the structure of the surrounding

  6. Changing tune in Woodstock: Creative industries and local urban development in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, a plethora of works has been published on the making of the ‘creative city’ and the urban impact of the creative economy. So far, however, limited recognition has been given to how the development of cultural industries and the creative economy as a whole influences urban transformation in the rapidly urbanising Global South, especially in Africa. In Cape Town, a steadily growing number of creative industries and ‘culturepreneurs’ (Lange 2005 are carving out new spaces from the city’s highly contested urban setting. Over the past five years, the mixed-use, inner-city fringe area of Woodstock has seen the incessant arrival of creatives from various sectors. Travelling alongside is a property sector geared towards catering specifically for the creative industries’ spatial demands by turning old industrial structures – the remains of Woodstock’s former capacity as national hub for clothing, food processing and other light manufacturing – into creative centres hosting international film studios, leading galleries and designer ‘theatre retail spaces’. After setting the stage through a comprehensive introduction to the rise of the creative economy in South Africa and Cape Town, this article tunes into the current local development of Woodstock, based on extensive field research in the area. It traces ways and forms of conflict but also new social interfaces between the new creative tenants and the old established community, on the one hand pointing to problematic issues like lingering gentrification, sociospatial polarisation and lopsided cultural representation while also trying to flesh out some of the opportunities for finding the right frequency of engagement between creative industries and spaces of vernacular creativity within Cape Town’s post-apartheid urban realm. Keywords: Creative economy, creative city, Global South, urban regeneration, gentrification, vernacular

  7. Health research in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Lessons and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health research can play a critical role in strengthening health systems.However, little monitoring of health research is conducted in African countries to identify whether research contributes to addressing local health priorities.Aim/Setting: To review the profile of research on the health service platform in the Western Cape province of South Africa which was approved by the health authorities over the period January 2011 to December 2012.Methods: Databases held by both the Provincial and City of Cape Town health departments were reviewed. Descriptions of research institution, location of research, topic and funding size and source were analysed.Results: Of the health research approved in the province, 56% of projects were located on the District Health Services platform and 70% were based in the Cape Metropolitan area. For projects reporting budgetary information, the total funding was US $29.2 million. The primary focus of research was on HIV and tuberculosis (TB, whilst relatively few studies addressed nutrition, mental health or injury and there was little health systems research. Research funding was dominated by very large grants from foreign funders for HIV and/or TB research. South African government sources comprised less than 8% of all health research funding.Conclusion: There is a partial mismatch of donor funding to local health priorities. Greater focus on neglected areas such as mental health, trauma, nutrition and non-communicable disease, as well as greater investment in health systems research, is needed. Unless governments increase funding for research and a culture of research translation is achieved, health research will have limited impact on both local and national priorities.

  8. Characterization of W-Beijing isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Crystal A; Streicher, Elizma M; Warren, Robin M; Victor, Thomas C; Orme, Ian M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this simple study was to characterize a panel of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from the Western Cape region of South Africa where new clinical vaccine trials are beginning, in the low dose aerosol guinea pig infection model. Most of the strains tested grew well in the lungs and other organs of these animals, and in most cases gave rise to moderate to very severe lung damage. We further observed that the current BCG vaccine was highly protective against two randomly selected strains, giving rise to significantly prolonged survival.

  9. Characterization of W-Beijing isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Western Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Crystal A.; Streicher, Elizma M.; Warren, Robin M.; Victor, Thomas C.; Orme, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this simple study was to characterize a panel of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from the Western Cape region of South Africa where new clinical vaccine trials are beginning, in the low dose aerosol guinea pig infection model. Most of the strains tested grew well in the lungs and other organs of these animals, and in most cases gave rise to moderate to very severe lung damage. We further observed that the current BCG vaccine was highly protective against two randomly selected strains, giving rise to significantly prolonged survival. PMID:24144471

  10. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  11. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K

    2015-05-25

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations' to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula.

  12. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...

  13. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    A receptor modelling study was performed to identify source categories and their contributions to the PM10 total mass at the Cape Verde archipelago. Trajectory statistical methods were also used to characterize the main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of air masses and to geographically identify the main potential source areas of each PM10 source category. Our findings point out that the variability of the PM10 levels at Cape Verde was prompted by the advections of African mineral dust. The mineral dust load was mainly composed by clay-silicates mineral derived elements (22% of the PM10 total mass on average) with lower amounts of carbonates (9%). A clear northward gradient was observed in carbonates concentration that illustrates the differences in the composition according to the source regions of mineral dust. Mineral dust was frequently linked to industrial emissions from crude oil refineries, fertilizer industries as well as oil and coal power plants, located in the northern and north-western coast of the African continent (29%). Sea salt was also registered in the PM10 mass during most part of the sampling period, with a lower impact in the PM10 levels than the mineral dust one (26%). Combustion aerosols (6%) reached the highest mean values in summer as a consequence of the emissions from local-regional sources. Biomass burning aerosols produced from October to November in sub-sahelian latitudes, had a clear influence in the content of elemental carbon (EC) recorded at Cape Verde but a small impact in the PM10 total mass levels. A minor contribution to the PM10 mass has been associated to secondary inorganic compounds-SIC. Namely, ammonium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 1-5%) and calcium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 2-3%). The main origin of SIC 1 was attributed to emissions of SO2 and NOx from industrial sources located in the northern and north-western African coast and from wildfires produced in the continent. SIC 2 had a clear regional origin

  14. Biochemical mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) selective toxicity towards melanoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kudugunti, Shashi K.; Vad, Nikhil M.; Whiteside, Amanda J.; Naik, Bhakti U.; Yusuf, Mohd. A.; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S.; Moridani, Majid Y.

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the in-vitro biochemical mechanism of caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) toxicity and eight hydroxycinnamic/caffeic acid derivatives in-vitro, using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular target in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. Enzymatic reaction models using tyrosinase/O2 and HRP/H2O2 were used to delineate the role of one- and two-electron oxidation. Ascorbic acid (AA), NADH and GSH depletion were used as markers of quinone formation and oxidative stress ...

  15. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation

  16. The Saluting Battery at the Castle of Good Hope Cape Town 1910-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the guns of the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town never fired a shot in anger, they often fired salutes in honour of Royalty (the King's Birthday, visiting heads of state and warships, Union Day (a salute of 19 guns in 1931 and on other appropriate occasions. The subject of this article is the Saluting Battery on Katzenellenbogen Bastion at the Castle which was operational from about 1910 until about 1942. In 1912 the Castle was the only authorized saluting station in the Union of South Africa. The battery was manned by personnel of the Royal Garrison Artillery until it was taken over by South Africa in 1921.

  17. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  18. New species and new records of Pterosthetops: eumadicolous water beetles of the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2014-06-05

    Pterosthetops is one of a number of hydraenid genera endemic to the Cape of South Africa, whose minute moss beetle fauna is amongst the most diverse on earth. Here seven species are described as new: Pterosthetops baini sp. nov., Pterosthetops coriaceus sp. nov., Pterosthetops indwei sp. nov., Ptersothetops pulcherrimus sp. nov., Pterosthetops swartbergensis sp. nov., Pterosthetops tuberculatus sp. nov. and Pterosthetops uitkyki sp. nov., all from mountains in the Western Cape region. New collection records are also provided for all five previously described members of the genus, together with a revised key. Pterosthetops appear to be specialist inhabitants of seepages over rock faces (hygropetric/madicolous habitats), rarely being found outside such situations.

  19. Comparative analysis of the protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on pulmonary contusion lung oxidative stress and serum copper and zinc levels in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırmalı, Mehmet; Solak, Okan; Tezel, Cagatay; Sırmalı, Rana; Ginis, Zeynep; Atik, Dilek; Agackıran, Yetkin; Koylu, Halis; Delibas, Namık

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in the lungs by biochemical and histopathological analyses in an experimental isolated lung contusion model. Eighty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The animals were divided randomly into four groups: group 1 (n = 9) was defined as without contusion and without CAPE injection. Group 2 (n = 9) was defined as CAPE 10 μmol/kg injection without lung contusion. Group 3 (n = 36) was defined as contusion without CAPE-administrated group which consisted of four subgroups that were created according to analysis between days 0, 1, 2, and 3. Group 4 (n = 27) was defined as CAPE 10 μmol/kg administrated after contusion group divided into three subgroups according to analysis on days 1, 2, and 3. CAPE 10 μmol/kg was injected intraperitoneally 30 min after trauma and on days 1 and 2. Blood samples were obtained to measure catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and for blood gas analysis. Trace elements such as zinc and copper were measured in serum. The lung tissue was also removed for histopathological examination. Isolated lung contusion increased serum and tissue SOD and CAT activities and MDA levels (p  0.05). CAPE also had a significant beneficial effect on blood gases (p  0.05). CAPE appears to be effective in protecting against severe oxidative stress and tissue damage caused by pulmonary contusion in an experimental setting. Therefore, we conclude that administration of CAPE may be used for a variety of conditions associated with pulmonary contusion. Clinical use of CAPE may have the advantage of prevention of pulmonary contusion.

  20. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) Filter Radiometer (FR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Carl; Chu, Martha; Wilson, Mark; Clark, Mike; Nanan, Bobby; Matson, Liz; McBirney, Dick; Smith, Jay; Earle, Paul; Choi, Mike; Stoneking, Eric; Luu, Kequan; Swinski, J. P.; Secunda, Mark; Brall, Aron; Verma, Sanjay; Hartman, Kathy R.

    2014-01-01

    The GeoCAPE Filter Radiometer (FR) Study is a different instrument type than all of the previous IDL GeoCape studies. The customer primary goals are to keep mass, volume and cost to a minimum while meeting the science objectives and maximizing flight opportunities by fitting on the largest number of GEO accommodations possible. Minimize total mission costs by riding on a commercial GEO satellite. For this instrument type, the coverage rate, km 2 min, was significantly increased while reducing the nadir ground sample size to 250m. This was accomplished by analyzing a large 2d area for each integration period. The field of view will be imaged on a 4k x 4k detector array of 15 micrometer pixels. Each ground pixel is spread over 2 x 2 detector pixels so the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) is 2048 X 2048 ground pixels. The baseline is, for each field of view 50 sequential snapshot images are taken, each with a different filter, before indexing the scan mirror to the next IFOV. A delta would be to add additional filters.

  1. Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, T. H.; Chapman, M.; Guillemette, T.; Margulis, L.

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes from microbial mats and anaerobic mud samples collected in salt marshes were studied by light microscopy, whole mount and thin section transmission electron microscopy. Enriched in cellobiose-rifampin medium, selective for Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, seven distinguishable spirochete morphotypes were observed. Their diameters ranged from 0.17 micron to > 0.45 micron. Six of these morphotypes came from southwest Cape Cod, Massachusetts: five from Microcoleus-dominated mat samples collected at Sippewissett salt marsh and one from anoxic mud collected at School Street salt marsh (on the east side of Eel Pond). The seventh morphotype was enriched from anoxic mud sampled from the north central Cape Cod, at the Sandy Neck salt marsh. Five of these morphotypes are similar or identical to previously described spirochetes (Leptospira, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi and Treponema), whereas the other two have unique features that suggest they have not been previously described. One of the morphotypes resembles Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi (the largest free-living spirochete described), in its large variable diameter (0.4-3.0 microns), cytoplasmic granules, and spherical (round) bodies with composite structure. This resemblance permits its tentative identification as a Sippewissett strain of Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Microbial mats samples collected in sterile Petri dishes and stored dry for more than four years yielded many organisms upon rewetting, including small unidentified spirochetes in at least 4 out of 100 enrichments.

  2. Investigating 19th and early 20th century Earthquakes in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Strasser, Fleur O.; Flint, Nicolette S.

    2014-05-01

    The seismicity for the years between 1820 and 1936 of Grahamstown, a settlement located in the heart of the current Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is investigated with recourse to contemporaneous documentary sources. This investigation led to the development of a seismic history incorporating consideration of the broader geo-political context of the Eastern Cape colonial territory at that time. Individual studies of five regional events, ranging from Mw 6 to 4, that were felt in Grahamstown during that period are presented. An additional earthquake that was not felt at Grahamstown was included to present the exhaustive approach adopted in the study of the seismicity of the area. Each earthquake study includes the development of a full set of intensity data points (IDPs), which are used to determine reappraised epicentral locations and magnitudes, some of which differ significantly from previously listed parameters. The results thus obtained highlight the value of seeking out additional contemporary sources from a variety of sources in different languages when revisiting the source parameters of earthquakes for which no or only very limited instrumental information is available.

  3. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Troskie

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practice. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practice in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients’ treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students’ training programme.

  4. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troskie, R; Guwa, S N; Booyens, S W

    1998-12-01

    The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practica. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practica in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients' treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students' training programme.

  5. Healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Riley

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the health needs and experiences of South African lesbian and bisexual women is imperative for implementing effective and inclusive public health strategies. Such understanding, however, is limited due to the exclusion of these women from most existing research on healthcare access in the region. This paper bridges that gap by investigating the healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town. Data were gathered from 22 interviews with self-identified lesbian and bisexual community members and university students in the Cape Town area. Interviews explored obstacles women face in accessing affirming services, different experiences with public and private healthcare, fear of stigma/discrimination, availability of relevant sexual health information and suggestions to improve existing programmes. Findings suggest that South African lesbians and bisexual women may have a range of both positive and negative experiences in public and private health services, that they use protective strategies when 'coming out' and that they find that sexual health information pertinent to them is largely unavailable. These discussions contribute to a more inclusive understanding of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare and other services and help to inform providers, thereby enabling them to deliver more meaningful care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in South Africa.

  6. Experiences of violence and association with decreased drug abstinence among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women's HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women's drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting.

  7. Quality Assessment of Artemether-Lumefantrine Samples and Artemether Injections Sold in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Prah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most prescribers and patients in Ghana now opt for the relatively expensive artemether/lumefantrine rather than artesunate-amodiaquine due to undesirable side effects in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The study sought to determine the existence of substandard and/or counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine tablets and suspension as well as artemether injection on the market in Cape Coast. Six brands of artemether-lumefantrine tablets, two brands of artemether-lumefantrine suspensions, and two brands of artemether injections were purchased from pharmacies in Cape Coast for the study. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated. The samples were then analyzed for the content of active ingredients using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a variable wavelength detector. None of the samples was found to be counterfeit. However, the artemether content of the samples was variable (93.22%−104.70% of stated content by manufacturer. The lumefantrine content of the artemether/lumefantrine samples was also variable (98.70%–111.87%. Seven of the artemether-lumefantrine brands passed whilst one failed the International Pharmacopoeia content requirements. All brands of artemether injections sampled met the International Pharmacopoeia content requirement. The presence of a substandard artemether-lumefantrine suspension in the market should alert regulatory bodies to be more vigilant and totally flush out counterfeit and substandard drugs from the Ghanaian market.

  8. Caching in the presence of competitors: Are Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) sensitive to audience attentiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jamie; Manser, Marta B

    2016-01-01

    When social animals cache food close to their burrow, the potential for an audience member to observe the event is significantly increased. As a consequence, in order to reduce theft it may be advantageous for animals to be sensitive to certain audience cues, such as whether they are attentive or not to the cache event. In this study, observations were made on three groups of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in their natural habitat when they cached provisioned food items. When individuals cached within 10 m of conspecifics, we recorded the attentiveness (i.e. whether any audience members were orientated towards the cacher, had direct line of site and were not engaged in other activities) and identity of audience members. Overall, there was a preference to cache when audience members were inattentive rather than attentive. Additionally, we found rank effects related to cache avoidance whereby high-ranked individuals showed less avoidance to cache when audience members were attentive compared to medium- and low-ranked individuals. We suggest this audience sensitivity may have evolved in response to the difference in competitive ability amongst the ranks in how successful individuals are at winning foraging competitions. This study demonstrates that Cape ground squirrels have the ability to not only monitor the presence or absence of conspecifics but also discriminate individuals on the basis of their attentive state.

  9. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at a tertiary children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reené Naidoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in paediatric patients with bloodstream infections. The epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia, however, has not been well documented in children in South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, to investigate the epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia from 2007-2011. The incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, management and outcomes of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA bacteraemia were compared. RESULTS: Over the five year study period, 365 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia were identified. The annual incidence was 3.28 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. MRSA was responsible for 26% of S. aureus bacteraemia and 72% of nosocomial infections. Only six possible cases of community-acquired MRSA infections were described. MSSA bacteraemia was more likely to present as pulmonary and bone or joint infections, while bacteraemia without a source was the most common presentation with MRSA.  Infants, children with malnutrition, and residents of long-term care facilities were at highest risk for MRSA bacteraemia. The overall case fatality rate for S. aureus bacteraemia was 8.8% over five years, with MRSA being the only significant risk factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia and MRSA bacteraemia in children has remained stable over the past five years. MRSA is a predominantly nosocomial pathogen in children with S. aureus bacteraemia in Cape Town, South Africa.

  10. Occupied Cape Judges and Colonial Knowledge of Crime, Criminals, and Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pavlich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article returns to a colonial discourse on crime, criminals, and punishment that the court of justice enunciated and followed during an 8-year British occupation of the Cape of Good Hope in the latter part of 1795. Tapping unusually frank juridical discussions on criminality and punishment in the context of sovereignty politics, it examines three key matters. Commencing with a description of the Cape colony’s inquisitorial criminal procedures, the analysis—following Foucault (2000—conceives of these as powers (political techniques through which the British claimed an exclusive capacity to enunciate legal “truths” about specific criminal events. Second, it analyzes a unique correspondence between the British military commander and the court of justice members together with two illustrative criminal cases of the day. These provide a sense of the judge’s knowledge of crime and criminal punishment in a social context that imagined itself through social differentiation and hierarchy. Third, it reads these colonial power-knowledge formations as generating three congruent political logics that in hybrid combinations have nurtured segmented, racially orientated, and group-based criminal justice arenas. This discussion alludes to the pivotal role colonial discourses of criminal law have played in generating a politics that shaped the criminal justice arenas of subsequent social forms. New, and differently combined, political logics of sovereignty, discipline, and biopolitics have left a decided legacy to which post-colonial arenas continue to respond.

  11. Late Quaternary dietary shifts of the Cape grysbok ( Raphicerus melanotis) in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler

    2011-01-01

    The Cape grysbok is endemic to southern Africa's Cape Floral Region where it selectively browses various species of dicotyledonous vegetation. Fossil evidence indicates that the grysbok persisted under glacial and interglacial conditions throughout the late Quaternary and inhabited a range of environments. This study employs mesowear analysis to reconstruct grysbok diets over time and in response to changing environments at Nelson Bay Cave, Die Kelders Cave 1, Klasies River Mouth, and Swartklip 1. Results indicate that the amount of grasses (monocots) versus leafy vegetation (dicots) included in the diet fluctuated over time and largely in agreement with changes in faunal community structure. The case for dietary flexibility is particularly clear at Nelson Bay Cave, where there is a significant trend from mixed feeding towards increased browsing from the late Pleistocene (~ 18,500 14C yr BP) through the Holocene. Dietary shifts at Nelson Bay Cave are consistent with the hypothesis that declining grassland productivity is responsible for the terminal Pleistocene extinction of several large ungulates in southern Africa. Furthermore, the short-term dietary shifts demonstrated here (100s to 1000s of years) provide an important caution against relying on taxonomic uniformitarianism when reconstructing the dietary preferences of fossil ungulates, both extant and extinct.

  12. Geographical distribution of present-day Cape taxa and their phytogeographical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Flora, one of the six floral kingdoms recognized by phytogeographers, is remarkable for its species richness and high degree of endemism, but no overall statistics are as yet available. Several long-term projects have recently been started to enumerate all the species and to record their distribution patterns. The latter aspect has been completed for 1 936 species from the three most characteristic families, i.e. Restionaceae. Ericaceae and Proteaceae, the endemic families and some of the largest genera, i. e. Aspalathus and Muraltia. Computer analysis of the distribution patterns is being undertaken and the species concentrations and centres of endemism are being calculated. The concentration of species in the mountains of the south-western Cape is confirmed and the grid square 3418 BB is found to be the richest. For the groups dealt with, the degree of endemism was found to be as high as 98%. The phytogeographical centres so far outlined agree with those of Weimarck.

  13. Trend and seasonal variation of atmospheric mercury concentrations at the Cape Point GAW observatory, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunke E.-G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM has been measured at the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station at Cape Point, South Africa since September 1995. Two techniques were used: a low resolution manual technique till the end of 2004 and a high resolution automated technique since March 2007. The GEM measurements at Cape Point constitute only one component of the GAW monitoring program consisting of continuous measurements of CO, CH4, CO2, O3, N2O, and since March 1999 also of 222Rn. The seasonality and trend of GEM concentrations from the low resolution data was analyzed by Slemr et al. (2008 and the trend of the combined low and high resolution data until the end of 2009 by Slemr et al. (2011. In this paper we will present an updated analysis of the trend and seasonality of GEM data until the end of 2011 and compare these to measurements made at Troll, a Norwegian research station in Antarctica (Pfaffhuber et al., 2012.

  14. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Skinner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  15. Evaluating water management scenarios to support habitat management for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; McKelvy, Mark

    2016-06-22

    The endangered Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) is endemic to south Florida and a key indicator species of marl prairie, a highly diverse freshwater community in the Florida Everglades. Maintenance and creation of suitable habitat is seen as the most important pathway to the persistence of the six existing sparrow subpopulations; however, major uncertainties remain in how to increase suitable habitat within and surrounding these subpopulations, which are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity. Currently, consistently suitable conditions for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow are only present in two of these subpopulations (B and E). The water management scenarios evaluated herein were intended to lower water levels and improve habitat conditions in subpopulation A and D, raise water levels to improve habitat conditions in subpopulations C and F, and minimize impacts to subpopulations B and E. Our objective in this analysis was to compare these scenarios utilizing a set of metrics (short- to long-time scales) that relate habitat suitability to hydrologic conditions. Although hydrologic outputs are similar across scenarios in subpopulation A, scenario R2H reaches the hydroperiod and depth suitability targets more than the other scenarios relative to ECB, while minimizing negative consequences to subpopulation E. However, although R2H hydroperiods are longer than those for ECB during the wet season in subpopulations C and F, depths during the breeding season are predicted to decrease in suitability (less than -50 cm) relative to existing conditions.

  16. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yaguang; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-06-01

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this region. The succession was most obviously marked by a sand layer lasting from 1400 to 1900 AD in one of the analyzed profiles. Multiple physical/chemical parameters indicated this sand layer was not formed in a lacustrine environment, but was marine-derived. Both isostatic subsidence and frequent storms under the colder climatic condition of the Little Ice Age were presumed to have caused the abandonment of the colonies, and we believe the penguins migrated from the coastal area of mid Cape Bird northward and to higher ground as recorded in the other sediment profiles. This migration was an ecological response to global climate change and possible subsequent geological effects in Antarctica.

  17. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  18. Places for all? Cape Town’s public library services to gays and lesbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Hart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on an investigation of the provision of gay and lesbian literature and of information services to gays and lesbians in Cape Town’s public libraries. Although by definition public libraries serve all members of a community, the international literature suggests that they neglect the reading and information needs and interests of gays and lesbians. The progressive South African Constitution views the rights of gays and lesbians as human rights; yet homophobia is prevalent. Using a questionnaire, the study explored attitudes and practices of 69 senior librarians, responsible for collection development, across all six of Cape Town’s library districts. The situation was found to be “spotty” with only 26 respondents believing that their library service is meeting the needs of gays and lesbians. The survey found contradictions between stated beliefs and behaviours. Thus, although most agree that LGBT rights to information and equal services are human rights, only 55% consider LGBT people in their selection procedures and very little material is acquired. Information services are thin with, for example, only 10% of the libraries in the survey providing LGBT related information in their community information files.

  19. Health risk behaviours of stroke patients in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biggs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Launch Complex 17 of the Cape Canaveral Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.; Flint, Gregory Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

    2013-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermophysical properties of concrete is considered extremely important for meaningful models to be developed of scenarios wherein the concrete is rapidly heated. Test of solid propellant burns on samples of concrete from Launch Complex 17 of the Cape Canaveral show spallation and fragmentation. In response to the need for accurate modeling scenarios of these observations, an experimental program to determine the permeability and thermal properties of the concrete was developed. Room temperature gas permeability measurements of Launch Complex 17 of the Cape Canaveral concrete dried at 50°C yield permeability estimates of 0.07mD (mean), and thermal properties (thermal conductivity, diffusivity, and specific heat) were found to vary with temperatures from room temperature to 300°C. Thermal conductivity ranges from 1.7-1.9 W/mK at 50°C to 1.0-1.15 W/mK at 300°C, thermal diffusivity ranges from 0.75-0.96 mm2/s at 50°C to 0.44-0.58 mm2/s at 300°C, and specific heat ranges from 1.76-2.32 /m3K to 2.00-2.50 /m3K at 300°C.

  1. Assessing the need for hospital admission by the Cape Triage discriminator presentations and the simple clinical score.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Emmanuel, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    There is uncertainty about how to assess unselected acutely ill medical patients at the time of their admission to hospital. This study examined the use of the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the medically relevant Cape Triage discriminator clinical presentations to determine the need for admission to an acute medical unit.

  2. Advance relief under the Cape Town Convention and its Aircraft Protocol: Aa comment on Gilles Cuniberti's interpretative proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneziano, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the inaugural issue of this journal Gilles Cuniberti addressed the question of the nature of the relief pending final determination under the Cape Town Convention. One of his contentions is that the Convention leaves open the question of the nature of the relief provided in Article 13, which has

  3. Effect of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-López, Helber E; Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Herrera, Aníbal O

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits are highly perishable berries that exhibit a climacteric respiratory behavior. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene and the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (ecotype Colombia). Fruits were treated with ethylene, in an ethephon application (1000 µL L(-1)), and pretreated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1 µL L(-1)), 1-methylcyclopropene+ethylene, and results compared with a control without application. Subsequently, the fruits were maintained at room temperature (20 ℃, 75% RH) for up to 11 days. The pretreatment of the cape gooseberry fruits with 1-methylcyclopropene delayed most of the ripening-associated parameters, with a reduction in the respiration rate and ethylene production, skin color development, total soluble solids, total carotenoid content, loss of firmness, loss of total titratable acidity and emission of volatile compounds such as ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl decanoate, and hexyl decanoate. Conversely, application of ethephon accelerated most of these physiological changes and also overcame most of the effects prevented by the ethylene action inhibitor. Altogether, the results supported the idea of a climacteric-like behavior for cape gooseberry fruits and pointing out that the pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene may be a promising and efficient postharvest treatment to delay maturity and extend the postharvest period.

  4. Ambiguities of resistance and collaboration on the Eastern Cape frontier : the Kat River settlement 1829-1856

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, R.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter unravels the complexities of resistance to, and collaboration with, the British colonizers of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, by the inhabitants of the Upper Kat River Valley. Since the Khoikhoi landholders of the valley had received their land as a result of British action against the

  5. From Digital Divide to Digital Equity: Learners' ICT Competence in Four Primary Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…

  6. 77 FR 3123 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore-Off-Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... tourism play an important role in the economy of the Seashore. Protection of this environment would be.../ environmental impact statement (plan/EIS) and a final special regulation. The Cape Hatteras National Seashore ORV Management Plan/ Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was released to the public on March...

  7. A Comparison of the Effects of Witnessing Community Violence and Direct Victimization among Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of children from the Cape Town area in South Africa. The study compares the effects of witnessing school or neighborhood violence compared with being victimized in each context on psychological distress. The findings suggest that in the context of the school, victimization has a somewhat stronger effect on distress…

  8. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  9. "Learning Service" in International Contexts: Partnership-Based Service-Learning and Research in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Janice; Stanton, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore an approach to developing and implementing service-learning and community-based research in a study-abroad program in Cape Town, South Africa. Drawing on a notion of partnerships reflecting the values of accompaniment and transparency, and influenced by the importance of learning service, we outline an intentional, engaged…

  10. The "Affective Place-Making" Practices of Girls at a High School in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinquest, Elzahn; Fataar, Aslam

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the "affective place-making" practices of girls at a private high school on the outskirts of Cape Town. The article responds to the question: How do high school girls' affects and social bodies contribute to their place-making practices and to the type of place they make of their school? Our focus is on…

  11. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are Important Drinking Water Contaminants in the Cape Fear River Watershed of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (C...

  12. The Role of Listener Experience on Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) Ratings of Postthyroidectomy Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Leah B.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Henry, Leonard R.; Coppit, George L.; Howard, Robin S.; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether experienced and inexperienced listeners rate postthyroidectomy voice samples similarly using the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V). Method: Prospective observational study of voice quality ratings of randomized and blinded voice samples was performed. Twenty-one postthyroidectomy patients'…

  13. Structure and history of submarine slope failures at the Cape Fear submarine landslide, U.S. Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N. C.; Chaytor, J. D.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Flores, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    New multi-channel seismic (MCS), chirp sub-bottom, and multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data image the Late Pleistocene-Holocene age Cape Fear submarine landslide (CFS) along its complete ~375 km length, from the multiple headwalls at ~2500 m water depth on the slope to the lobate, low-relief toe at ~5400 m water depth. A surficial chaotic mass transport deposit (MTD) filling the failure scar exceeds 100 m in thickness over large sections of the deposit, thinning towards the margins of the slide. Below 5000 m, the CFS truncates the surficial MTD of the Cape Lookout Landslide in several places, indicating that it post-dates the Cape Lookout Landslide. At depth, the MCS data image the edge of the Cape Fear salt diapir and a seismically transparent region that may be associated with fluid flow focused along the edge of the diapir. This potential fluid pathway sits directly beneath the headwalls of the CFS, supporting the hypothesis that the salt diapir is responsible for the failure, either through deformation of sediments during salt emplacement or by focusing of fluids, or both. The MCS data also image several earlier MTDs. These deposits are confined to sediments younger than the early Cenozoic, consistent with interpretations of major canyon cutting in the Eocene and initiation of intense deep and erosive currents in the Late Paleogene. These processes can over-steepen and redistribute slope sediments, enhancing conditions for slope failures and salt diapirism.

  14. Diversity and Contested Social Identities in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Peck, Amiena

    2016-01-01

    We draw on Rampton's "Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents" (2014. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge) notion of "crossing" to explore contestations in ethnolinguistic, cultural and racial affiliations at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), a university built for "Coloureds" in apartheid South Africa, but…

  15. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a

  16. Gulf Stream marine hydrokinetic energy resource characterization off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, M.; He, R.; Lowcher, C.; Bane, J.; Gong, Y.; Taylor, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf Stream off North Carolina has current velocities that approach 3 m/s and an average volume transport of 90 Sv (1 Sv= 106 m3/s) off of Cape Hatteras, making it the most abundant MHK (Marine Hydrokinetic Energy) resource for the state. Resource availability at a specific location depends primarily on the variability in Gulf Stream position, which is least offshore of Cape Hatteras after the stream exits the Florida Straits. Proximity to land and high current velocities in relatively shallow waters on the shelf slope make this an optimal location to quantify the MHK energy resource for NC. 3.5 years of current measurements beginning in August of 2013 from a moored 150 kHz ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at an optimal location for energy extraction quantify the available energy resource and its variability, and establish the skill of a Mid-Atlantic Bight and South Atlantic Bight Regional Ocean Model in predicting the MHK energy resource. The model agrees well with long-term observed current averages and with weekly to monthly fluctuations in the current speeds. Model and observations over the first 9 months of the ADCP deployment period both averaged 1.15 m/s thirty meters below the surface. The model under estimates observed current speeds for the higher frequency current fluctuations of days to weeks. Comparisons between the model and ADCP observed currents, and velocity derived power density over the entire 3.5 years of observations demonstrate the significant inter-annual variability in power density. Shipboard 300 kHz ADCP cross-stream transects and hourly surface currents measurements off Cape Hatteras from a network of land based HF (high frequency) radars further quantify available MHK energy and assess model skill. Cross-stream transects were made with a vessel-mounted 300 kHz ADCP on a line from the 100-1000m isobaths, and measured currents in the top 100m. These measurements demonstrate the variability in the resource with water depth, and

  17. Multi-disciplinary Monitoring of the 2014 Eruption of Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Faria, B. V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago (offshore Western Africa), is a complete stratovolcano system. It is the most recent expression of the Cape Verde hotspot, that has formed the archipelago. The summit reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises 1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area. The last eruption of Fogo started on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC), after 19 years of inactivity. C4G, a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, collaborated immediately with INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institut with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network in operation on Fogo island. The INMG permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, with real-time data transmitted. On the basis of increased pre-event activity (which started in October 2014), INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, about 24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Although the eruption caused no casualties or personal injuries due to the warnings issued, the lava expelled by the eruption (which last until the end of January) destroyed the two main villages in the caldera (~1000 inhabitants) and covered vast areas of agricultural land, causing very large economic losses and an uncertain future of the local populations. The C4G team installed a network of seven GNSS receivers and nine seismometers, distributed by the entire island. The data collection started on 28th November 2014, and continued until the end of January 2015. The mission also included a new detailed gravimetric survey of the island, the acquisition of geological samples, and the analysis of the air quality during the eruption. We present here a detailed description of the monitoring efforts carried out during the eruption as well as initial results of the analysis of the

  18. Frequency and Distribution of Tuberculosis Resistance-Associated Mutations between Mumbai, Moldova, and Eastern Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georghiou, S B; Seifert, M; Catanzaro, D; Garfein, R S; Valafar, F; Crudu, V; Rodrigues, C; Victor, T C; Catanzaro, A; Rodwell, T C

    2016-07-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays, with their ability to rapidly detect resistance-associated mutations in bacterial genes, are promising technologies to control the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Sequencing assays provide detailed information for specific gene regions and can help diagnostic assay developers prioritize mutations for inclusion in their assays. We performed pyrosequencing of seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene regions (katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, gyrA, rrs, and eis) for 1,128 clinical specimens from India, Moldova, and South Africa. We determined the frequencies of each mutation among drug-resistant and -susceptible specimens based on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results and examined mutation distributions by country. The most common mutation among isoniazid-resistant (INH(r)) specimens was the katG 315ACC mutation (87%). However, in the Eastern Cape, INH(r) specimens had a lower frequency of katG mutations (44%) and higher frequencies of inhA (47%) and ahpC (10%) promoter mutations. The most common mutation among rifampin-resistant (RIF(r)) specimens was the rpoB 531TTG mutation (80%). The mutation was common in RIF(r) specimens in Mumbai (83%) and Moldova (84%) but not the Eastern Cape (17%), where the 516GTC mutation appeared more frequently (57%). The most common mutation among fluoroquinolone-resistant specimens was the gyrA 94GGC mutation (44%). The rrs 1401G mutation was found in 84%, 84%, and 50% of amikacin-resistant, capreomycin-resistant, and kanamycin (KAN)-resistant (KAN(r)) specimens, respectively. The eis promoter mutation -12T was found in 26% of KAN(r) and 4% of KAN-susceptible (KAN(s)) specimens. Inclusion of the ahpC and eis promoter gene regions was critical for optimal test sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance in the Eastern Cape and KAN resistance in Moldova. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02170441.).

  19. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    high-fidelity kinetics simulation, while maintaining the spatial information derived from the geometrically faithful CFD model. The reduced-order models are generated in such a way that they can be easily imported into a process flowsheet simulator, using the CAPE-OPEN architecture for unit operations. The ENERGICO/CHEMKIN-PRO software produces an ERN-definition file that is read by a dynamically linked library (DLL) that can be easily linked to any CAPE-OPEN compliant software. The plug-in unitoperation module has been successfully demonstrated for complex ERNs of coal gasifiers, using both Aspen Plus and COFE process flowsheet simulators through this published CAPE-OPEN interface.

  20. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  1. Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarros, Philippe S.; Grémillet, David; Demarcq, Hervé; Moseley, Christina; Pichegru, Lorien; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Stenseth, Nils C.; Machu, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.

  2. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) from a topical mucoadhesive gel containing propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschel, G C; Maffei, P; Sforzini, A; Lombardi Borgia, S; Yasin, A; Ronchi, C

    2002-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that propolis has on the oral cavity appreciable antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions, as well as anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and cytostatic properties. In light of these studies, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful as a possible application in the stomatological field. To do so, a mucoadhesive topical gel was prepared to apply to the buccal mucosa. The gel was formulated in such a way as to improve the solubility of the propolis, conducting to an increase of the flux. The mucosal permeation of CAPE from the formulation was evaluated using Franz cells, with porcine buccal mucosa as septum between the formulation (donor compartment) and the receptor phase chamber. The diffusion through the membrane was determined by evaluating the amount of CAPE present in the receiving solution, the flux and the permeation coefficient (at the steady state) in the different formulations at set intervals. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were done by HPLC analysis. From the results, CAPE allowed a high permeability coefficient in comparison to the coefficient of other molecules, as expected from its physical-chemical structure. Moreover, the developed gel improved the CAPE flux approximately 35 times more with respect to an ethanol solution formulated at the same gel concentration. The developed gel was also tested in order to evaluate the mucoadhesive behaviour and comfort in vivo on 10 volunteers in a period of 8 h. The in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive gel revealed adequate comfort and non-irritancy during the period of study and it was well accepted by the volunteers.

  3. The introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: probing student perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and post-tests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students' worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in future be used to identify students requiring spec...

  4. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD and Vanuatu Tall (VTT, have shown high resistance to the disease, and their hybrid (SGD × VTT is under observation to determine its performance. A programme to rehabilitate the CSPWD-devastated areas was started in 1999. Emerging results indicate that the MYD × VTT hybrid being used for the programme, succumbs to the disease under intense disease pressure. A redirection of the rehabilitation programme and the screening of more varieties are recommended.

  5. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Carl; Chu, Martha; Mannino, Antonio; Marx, Catherine Trout; Bowers, Gregory A.; Bolognese, Jeffrey A.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; McBirney, Thomas R.; Earle, Cleland P.; Choi, Michael K.; Stoneking, Eric; Luu, Kequan; Monosmith, William B.; Secunda, Mark S.; Brall, Aron; Samuels, Cabin

    2014-01-01

    The GeoCAPE Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS) Study was a revisit of the COEDI Study from 2012. The customer primary goals were to keep mass, volume and cost to a minimum while meeting the science objectives and maximizing flight opportunities by fitting on the largest number of GEO accommodations possible. Riding on a commercial GEO satellite minimizes total mission costs. For this study, it is desired to increase the coverage rate,km2min, while maintaining ground sample size, 375m, and spectral resolution, 0.4-0.5nm native resolution. To be able to do this, the IFOV was significantly increased, hence the wide angle moniker. The field of view for COEDI was +0.6 degrees or (2048) 375m ground pixels. The WAS Threshold (the IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees.

  6. Poverty and psychological health among AIDS-orphaned children in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2009-06-01

    This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships.

  7. A phytosociological study of Signal Hill, Cape Town, utilizing both perennial and ephemeral species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Joubert

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological study based on the collection of vegetation and environmental data from 53 randomly stratified sample plots on Signal Hill, Cape Town, was carried out over an area of 124 ha. The survey extended over 12 months to ensure the inclusion of as many plant species as possible, and a list of the vascular plant species was compiled. A total of 81 families, 255 genera and 460 species was identified. The phytosociological method revealed that only one major plant community occurs in the study area and two subcommunities, with a total of five variants correlated mostly with aspect and historic land use, were identified. The perennially and seasonally identifiable species were analysed separately to determine their relative contribution to the phytosociological classification. The two data sets gave similar classifications. A vegetation map as well as a soil map was compiled.

  8. Large-scale penetration of Gulf Stream water onto the continental shelf north of Cape Hatteras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawarkiewicz, Glen; Church, Thomas M.; Luther, George W., III; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Caruso, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The presence of Gulf Stream water on the continental shelf as much as 60 km north of Cape Hatteras was observed during a hydrographic cruise in the summer of 1990. Gulf Stream water was concentrated at mid-depth between 10 and 30 m and penetrated the shelfbreak front which normally separates the shelf water from slope water and Gulf Stream water. Velocities of Gulf Stream water in the upper 110 m of the water column along the 1000 m isobath indicated a flow of 18 to 25 cm/s directed towards the northwest. Gulf Stream water on the shelf is considered to be associated with low values of fluorescence, transmissivity, and nutrient concentrations relative to adjacent shelf water.

  9. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  10. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E; Doherty, Irene A; Kline, Tracy L; Key, Mary E; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group.

  11. The Cape Mendocino, California, earthquakes of April 1992: Subduction at the triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.; Beroza, G.; Carver, G.; Dengler, L.; Eaton, J.; Gee, L.; Gonzalez, F.; Jayko, A.; Li, W.H.; Lisowski, M.; Magee, M.; Marshall, G.; Murray, M.; McPherson, R.; Romanowicz, B.; Satake, K.; Simpson, R.; Somerville, P.; Stein, R.; Valentine, D.

    1993-01-01

    The 25 April 1992 magnitude 7.1 Cape Mendocino thrust earthquake demonstrated that the North America-Gorda plate boundary is seismogenic and illustrated hazards that could result from much larger earthquakes forecast for the Cascadia region. The shock occurred just north of the Mendocino Triple Junction and caused strong ground motion and moderate damage in the immediate area. Rupture initiated onshore at a depth of 10.5 kilometers and propagated up-dip and seaward. Slip on steep faults in the Gorda plate generated two magnitude 6.6 aftershocks on 26 April. The main shock did not produce surface rupture on land but caused coastal uplift and a tsunami. The emerging picture of seismicity and faulting at the triple junction suggests that the region is likely to continue experiencing significant seismicity.

  12. Introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: Probing student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-12-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and posttests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students' worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in the future be used to identify students requiring special teaching intervention.

  13. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Louise; de Pina-Araujo I, Isabel; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution. PMID:27653363

  14. Coastal geomorphic evolution at the Denglou Cape,the Leizhou Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽荣; 赵焕庭; 宋朝景; 袁家义; 于红兵

    2002-01-01

    The Denglou Cape, southwest of the Leizhou Peninsula, is the most typical tropical coast in the continent of China. The coastal geomorphic development basics of the geology and Quaternary environment change are discussed. Aerial photograph interpretation with fieldwork is applied to draw the outlines of geomorphic types. Based on the investigative data, the exogenic forces and marine organism conditions concerning tropical coast development in the area are expounded, and coastal dynano-deposition geomorphic bodies are analysed, mainly with sea cliff-abrasion platform, barrier-lagoon system,modern beach, coral reef and mangrove tidal flat, and the general process of coastal evolution at this area, as well as coastline changes since middle Holocene transgression.

  15. Trend of atmospheric mercury concentrations at Cape Point for 1995-2004 and since 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynwill G.; Labuschagne, Casper; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Slemr, Franz

    2017-02-01

    Long-term measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations at Cape Point, South Africa, reveal a downward trend between September 1995 and December 2005 and an upward one from March 2007 until June 2015, implying a change in trend sign between 2004 and 2007. The trend change is qualitatively consistent with the trend changes in GEM concentrations observed at Mace Head, Ireland, and in mercury wet deposition over North America, suggesting a change in worldwide mercury emissions. Seasonally resolved trends suggest a modulation of the overall trend by regional processes. The trends in absolute terms (downward in 1995-2004 and upward in 2007-2015) are highest in austral spring (SON), coinciding with the peak in emissions from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa. The influence of trends in biomass burning is further supported by a biennial variation in GEM concentration found here and an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signature in GEM concentrations reported recently.

  16. Evidence for radiations of cheilanthoid ferns in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Rohwer, Jens G.; Russell, Stephen J.;

    2011-01-01

    adapted cheilanthoid ferns. To test this hypothesis with special emphasis on the alternative hypothesis of frequent colonization, the phylogenetic relations, divergence times, and ancestral areas of the cheilanthoid ferns of the GCFR and adjacent regions are investigated. The dataset includes 22...... cheilanthoid fern species occurring in the GCFR. With two exceptions, all GCFR-endemics are part of two clades that diversified in the Afro-Madagascan region. The GCFR-endemics are further concentrated in three high-endemism subclades that did not originate simultaneously, but within the timeframe...... of angiosperm Cape Clades diversification. According to ancestral area reconstructions the ancestors of the two larger Afro-Madagascan clades were likely GCFR-endemic, and a substantial part of the diversification history of these clades took place in the GCFR. The high diversity of cheilanthoids in the GCFR...

  17. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  18. Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease of coconut in Ghana: surveillance and management of disease spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkansah-Poku Joe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, a lethal-yellowing type disease of coconut has been in Ghana since 1932. Aerial and/or ground surveys were undertaken to assess the current status of the disease spread. The survey showed that the spread of the disease for the past 5 years has mainly been the expansion of existing foci. However, new outbreaks were identified at Glidzi in the Volta, Bawjiase and Efutu Breman in Central regions. After the resurgence in the Volta region in 1995, the Woe-Tegbi-Dzelukope corridor has remained endemic, but less aggressive. Pockets of healthy groves remain along all the coastline and inland of known disease zones. Eradication of diseased palms at Ampain focus lying just about 60 km to the Ivorian border, and disease situations on new replanting with MYD × VTT hybrid are discussed.

  19. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  20. Quaternary shorelines of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. (SE Peloponnese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Tsivgoulis, Nikolaos; Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Valkanou, Kanella

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to provide information about the landscape evolution of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. during the Quaternary. In order to investigate the geomorphic evolution of the study area the uplifted coastal landforms, such as shore platforms, notches and remnants of marine terraces, were studied in detail through extensive field-work using topographic diagrams at a scale of 1:5,000, obtained from the Hellenic Military Geographical Service. Additionally, a spatial database was constructed derived from analogue topographic maps at various scales (1:50,000 and 1:5,000), geological maps (1:50,000 maps of IGME), aerial photographs and Google earth images using GIS techniques. The study area is located in SE Peloponnese in a particularly tectonically active area. Geodynamic processes in the region, which is part of the Hellenic island arc, are related to the active subduction of the African lithosphere beneath the Eurasian plate. The Paleozoic basement of the study area consists of geological formations of the geotectonic units of Arna, Tripolis, and Pindus. The Alpine basement is overlain by extensive outcrops of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits. Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene formations are composed of marine - lacustrine deposits which are mainly pelites, sandstones, conglomerates, calcarenites and carbonate rocks with red algae whereas Pleistocene formations consist of fluvioterrential deposits (clay, sands, loams and angular rock fragments). The Holocene deposits consist of talus cones, scree, and unconsolidated alluvial deposit, eluvial mantle materials and coastal sand dunes along the N, NE and S shoreline of Elafonissos Isl. as well as at Cape Punta. The general trend of the faults in the study area is mainly NW-SE with some secondary ones having NE-SW direction. Along the coast between Cape Koulendi and Cape Maleas, uplifted geomorphological features were mapped, including marine terraces, shore platforms and

  1. Making unhealthy places: The built environment and non-communicable diseases in Khayelitsha, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Warren; de Lannoy, Ariane; Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V; Levitt, Naomi; Watson, Vanessa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we examine how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs in Khayelitsha (a predominantly low income area in Cape Town, South Africa) through their shaping of the built environment. The paper draws on literature reviews and ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Khayelitsha. The three main pathways through which the built environment of the area impacts on NCDs are through a complex food environment in which it is difficult to achieve food security, an environment that is not conducive to safe physical activity, and high levels of depression and stress (linked to, amongst other factors, poverty, crime and fear of crime). All of these factors are at least partially linked to the isolated, segregated and monofunctional nature of Khayelitsha. The paper highlights that in order to effectively address urban health challenges, we need to understand how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs through the way they shape built environments.

  2. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.T. Paley

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact that elephants represent 78 of the herbivore biomass in the park, it appears likely that elephant feeding restricts the availability of forage for other browsers. Due to the limited time frame of this study, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive record of the elephant diet for all seasons of the year.

  3. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  4. The volcanic and geochemical development of São Nicolau, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprat, Helene Inga; Holm, Paul Martin; Sherson, Jacob Friis;

    2007-01-01

    We present 34 new age results from 40 Ar/39 Ar incremental heating analyses of groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from São Nicolau, Cape Verde. Combining the age results with field observations, we show that the volcanic activity that formed the island occurred in four separate stages: 1: >6...... of 207 volcanic rocks representing all volcanic activity stages is presented. The rocks are alkaline and mostly primitive (MgO >8 wt.%) basic to ultrabasic ranging from nephelinites through basanites to picrobasalts. Evolved rocks range to phonolites. During all four volcanic stages predominantly high Mg...... assumed. With more ages of only around 50 ka the youngest volcanic rocks found on the island indicate that stage 4 may still be active. The cyclieity of São Nico volcanism suggests that mantle plume material arrived under São Nicolau in batches separated by nonfertile material....

  5. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony; Cotterill, Fenton P D

    2015-01-01

    In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma) saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  6. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hoffmann

    Full Text Available In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  7. Dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo, Isaac M; Dagbanu, Emmanuel A; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2014-06-01

    In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. The study is based on analyses of data from a school-based health education programme targeting sexual and reproductive health issues.The study involved 3,655 school-going adolescents aged between 12 and 17 in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire composed of 153 items on sexual and reproductive health, dating violence as well as sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicated that males showed a higher percentage of both dating violence victimization and perpetration, as compared to females. It was also found that adolescents from lower socio-economic backgrounds were more likely to be the victims of dating violence as compared to those from a higher socio-economic background. Female learners showed higher levels of self-efficacy for delayed sex than their male counterparts. Although the result revealed that there was a significant association between self-efficacy for delayed sex and socio-economic status, this link decreased with age. It is concluded that educational programmes aimed solely at improving self-efficacy for delayed sex is insufficient. Such programmes must also aim at preventing dating violence and equipping adolescents with the skills to negotiate their way out of dating violence.

  8. Mortality trends of stranded marine mammals on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts, USA, 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolni, Andrea L; Pugliares, Katie R; Sharp, Sarah M; Patchett, Kristen; Harry, Charles T; LaRocque, Jane M; Touhey, Kathleen M; Moore, Michael

    2010-01-25

    To understand the cause of death of 405 marine mammals stranded on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts between 2000 and 2006, a system for coding final diagnosis was developed and categorized as (1) disease, (2) human interaction, (3) mass-stranded with no significant findings, (4) single-stranded with no significant findings, (5) rock and/or sand ingestion, (6) predatory attack, (7) failure to thrive or dependent calf or pup, or (8) other. The cause of death for 91 animals could not be determined. For the 314 animals that could be assigned a cause of death, gross and histological pathology results and ancillary testing indicated that disease was the leading cause of mortality in the region, affecting 116/314 (37%) of cases. Human interaction, including harassment, entanglement, and vessel collision, fatally affected 31/314 (10%) of all animals. Human interaction accounted for 13/29 (45%) of all determined gray seal Halichoerus grypus mortalities. Mass strandings were most likely to occur in northeastern Cape Cod Bay; 97/106 (92%) of mass stranded animals necropsied presented with no significant pathological findings. Mass strandings were the leading cause of death in 3 of the 4 small cetacean species: 46/67 (69%) of Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, 15/21 (71%) of long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, and 33/54 (61%) of short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis. These baseline data are critical for understanding marine mammal population health and mortality trends, which in turn have significant conservation and management implications. They not only afford a better retrospective analysis of strandings, but ultimately have application for improving current and future response to live animal stranding.

  9. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  10. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  11. Tracking effusive eruptions in near real-time: 2014 Fogo (Cape Verde) eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Marco; Coppola, Diego; Cigolini, Corrado; Faria, Bruno; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    The Fogo volcano (Cape Verde), after almost 20 years of inactivity, entered in a new effusive phase on November 23, 2014. The eruption occurred on the Fogo's Pico cone inside the Cha Caldera where the lava flow caused the evacuation of the Bangaeira and Portela inhabitants. To track the thermal evolution of this eruption, we extended the near-real time processing of the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) algorithm to Fogo island. MIROVA is a hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data that provide thermal maps (1 km resolution) and radiant flux estimates, in near real time (1-4 hours from satellite overpass). Thermal output retrieved by MIROVA can be converted into time-average lava discharge rates allowing the identification of ongoing effusive trends. During the first 45 days of activity the eruption shows a waxing-waning trend typical of pressurized closed systems. Preliminary results indicate that MIROVA is particularly efficient to provide near real-time data that are critical for better assessing volcanic risk, and to help the decision-makers during volcanic crisis. Data requested by the UNDAC (United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination) team operating in Cape Verde, through the Emergency Response Coordination Center (ERCC) of the European Mechanism of Civil Protection, were provided in near real-time via web to the National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics and to National Civil Protection. Once compared to seismological data, information provided by MIROVA have been successfully used during the volcanic crisis.

  12. An Ecological View of the History of the City of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O'Farrell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid global urbanization and the knowledge that ecological systems underpin the future sustainability and resilience of our cities, make an understanding of urban ecology critical. The way humans engage with ecological processes within cities is highly complex, and both from a social and ecological perspective these engagements cannot be interpreted meaningfully on the basis of a single timeframe. Historical analyses offer useful insights into the nature of social-ecological interactions under diverse conditions, enabling improved decision-making into the future. We present an historical review of the evolving relationship between the urban settlement of Cape Town and the ecological processes inherent to its natural surroundings. Since its establishment, the people of Cape Town have been acutely aware of, and exploited, the natural resources presented by Table Mountain and its surrounding wilderness area. An examination of this pattern of engagement, explored through an ecological process lens, in particular drawing on the terminology provided by the ecosystem services framework, reflects a journey of the changing needs and demands of a growing urban settlement. Ecological processes, and their ensuing flow of ecosystem services, have been exploited, overexploited, interrupted, reestablished, conserved, and variably valued through time. Processes of significance, for example water provision, soil erosion, the provision of wood and natural materials, and the role of fire, are presented. This historical analysis documents the progression from a wilderness to a tamed and largely benign urban environment. Evident is the variable valuing of ecosystem service attributes through time and by different people, at the same time, dependent on their immediate needs.

  13. Psicologia positiva e bem-estar docente: Estado de Conhecimento (CAPES, 2011-2012 = Positive psychology teacher and welfare State of Knowledge ( CAPES, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm, Jordana Wruck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available São variadas as situações que afetam docentes em aspectos pessoais e profissionais, causando o denominado mal-estar docente, levando até a um estado de estresse ou mesmo esgotamento, destacando-se, entre eles: indisciplina discente, falta de qualificação, remuneração, gestão de tempo, tempo de preparo de atividades, entre outros. Como contraponto pode-se trabalhar em direção ao bem-estar docente, levando-se em conta propostas da Psicologia da Saúde e da Psicologia Positiva, antecipando-se ao mal-estar com medidas preventivas. O estudo levou em conta material bibliográfico (Teses e Dissertações disponibilizado em forma digital no Banco de Teses da CAPES, com o que pode-se construir um referencial que aborda aspectos referentes à Psicologia Positiva e ao bem-estar docente, bem como a relação entre ambos. Vale destacar que se trata de um estado de conhecimento sobre a temática, com base nos dois anos disponibilizados no referido banco. Após essa busca, foi realizada leitura flutuante dos textos selecionados. Como comentários finais destacam-se bons resultados com a aplicação mormente quando se atua de modo preventivo, sendo que Psicologia da Saúde e Psicologia Positiva conectam-se bem à Educação, tanto para docentes como para discentes

  14. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 500 meters along the Cape Cod National Seashore Resistivity Survey Tracklines, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  15. HATTERAS_TRANSECTS: Hatteras Island shoreline transects and shoreline change rate calculations: Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  16. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 500 meters along the Cape Cod National Seashore Resistivity Survey Tracklines, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under...

  17. Species composition and seasonal numbers of shorebirds at Pea Island, Mattamuskeet, Back Bay, Cape Romain, and Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife inventory data were used to determined species composition and seasonal shorebird numbers at Back Bay, Pea Island, Mattamuskeet, Cape Romain and Merritt...

  18. Public Hearing & Comment Period Document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of public hearing & comment period document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  19. Digitized Shoreline from Approximately 1950, 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains the digitized shorelines for Cape Krusenstern from approximately 1950, 1980, and 2003 as feature classes. Each feature class contains...

  20. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  1. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Cape Krusenstern. These shoreline...

  2. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from CAPE HATTERAS From North American Coastline-South from 19860606 to 19860610 (NODC Accession 8700177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These entries contain chlorophyll and phaeophytin data collected in June 1986 in the North West Atlantic aboard the CAPE HATTERAS on the Hyalinus cruise. The data...

  3. The process of enchancing a geriatric module in undergraduate physiotherapy education in South Africa - perceived attituteds towards ageing among community-dwelling elderly persons in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amosun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The framwork of Bloom's taxonomy was utilised in reviewing the educational outcomes of the geriatric module in undergraduate physiotherapy edication at the University of Cape Town.

  4. How much stress is needed to increase vulnerability to psychosis? A community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPE) evaluation 10 months after an earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; di Tommaso, Silvia; Stratta, Paolo; Riccardi, Ilaria; Daneluzzo, Enrico

    2012-04-01

    Since severe stress can induce mental disorder symptoms that interact with vulnerability factors, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) was evaluated in a population of 419 young adults who survived an earthquake; results were compared to a database of 1,057 'non-exposed' subjects. Unexpectedly, earthquake survivors showed lower CAPE scores for 'small' to 'medium' effect size. Post-trauma positive changes or re-appraisal for successful adaptation may explain these findings.

  5. Comparison and validation of full-scale data from wind measurements in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andries C.; Goliger, Adam M.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the wind climate of Cape Town and its surroundings can be shown by the measurements of specific wind phenomena by weather stations around Table Mountain. It is shown that there are substantial differences between wind speed characteristics affecting various parts of the city....... These differences between the wind at the different locations are further complicated by the main strong wind mechanisms prevailing in the region, i.e. north-westerly winds from passing extratropical cyclones, mainly in the austral winter, and south-easterlies from ridging high-pressure systems, mainly...... in the summer months. This initial investigation is the precursor of a broader study involving wind tunnel modelling, wind measurements and climate modelling, to provide a comprehensive analysis of the spatial variability of strong winds in the Cape Peninsula....

  6. Unaccompanied and Separated Foreign Children in the Care System in the Western Cape – A Socio-Legal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the findings of a study of foreign children accommodated in the care system in the Western Cape, based on fieldwork conducted in child and youth care centres. The objectives of the study were firstly to map and quantify the number and demographics of foreign children placed in all CYCCs across the Western Cape. Secondly, the study aimed to analyse the reasons for children's migration and the circumstances around their placement in residential care institutions in order to establish whether family reunification was possible or desirable. Thirdly, the study explores the sufficiency of efforts made to trace and reunify the children with their families, whether in South Africa or across borders, as the institutional placement of children should not only be a last resort but it should preferably be temporary whilst family-based solutions are sought. Lastly, the documentation status of the children in the study was examined. Recommendations emanating from the research conclude the study.

  7. Tick communities at the expanding wildlife / cattle interface in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for Corridor disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Smith

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corridor disease, transmitted by the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is one of Africa's most pathogenic tick-borne diseases for cattle. With a focus on this species, we investigated the community parameters (richness, diversity and abundance of ticks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and how this may be linked to the increasing wildlife / cattle interface in the region. There were significantly more ticks of a greater diversity and richness at sites positioned at the wildlife / cattle interface ('treatment sites' compared to sites where wildlife was absent (controls. Significantly, R. appendiculatus was only found at the treatment sites. Therefore, it is believed that the wildlife / cattle interface may be playing a crucial role in increasing the occurrence, abundance and distribution of R. appendiculatus in the Eastern Cape. The implications of a Corridor disease outbreak in the region are discussed.

  8. Patient transport from rural to tertiary healthcare centres in the Western Cape: Is there room for improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Slabbert

    2011-03-01

    Discussion: The Western Cape EMS system is transferring significant numbers of seriously injured and ill patients, the largest group being young males following trauma. Focussed training, outreach and telemedicine services may help to improve the outcome for these patients. Appropriate protocols for the use of rotor and fixed wing resources are required, to help ensure patient outcome and make the best use of limited resources.

  9. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4...

  10. Experimental Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Roofing Systems. III. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and Naval Facility, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    other sources of energy loss must be investigated. The units had jalousie windows that permitted a moderate degree of air infiltration and resultant...units with jalousie windows, optimum energy conservation is obtained with 1-1/2 to 3 inches of foam. Naval Facility, Cape Hatteras, N.C. 1. A 25- to...replacing jalousie windows with a closed window. Two to 3 inches of foam should be used to provide maximum energy conservation in semitropical

  11. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise CD168, 02 Feb - 16 Feb 2005. Submarine landslides around the Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Catastrophic large-scale landslides are a fundamental process in the formation of many oceanic islands. The main aim of cruise CD168 was to carry out a reconnaissance survey of the influence of landsliding on the Cape Verde islands, in the eastern central Atlantic, and to compare this with the known effects of landsliding on the Canary Islands. The data collected during RRS Charles Darwin Cruise, when combined with synthetic aperture radar imagery of the subaerial islands, show clear evidence...

  12. Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2014-11-26

    Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region.

  13. Assessment of primary production and optical variability in shelf and slope waters near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redalje, Donald G.; Lohrenz, Stevern E.

    2001-02-12

    In this project we determined primary production and optical variability in the shelf and slope waters off of Cape Hatteras, N.C. These processes were addressed in conjunction with other Ocean Margins Program investigators, during the Spring Transition period and during Summer. We found that there were significant differences in measured parameters between Spring and Summer, enabling us to develop seasonally specific carbon production and ecosystem models as well as seasonal and regional algorithm improvements for use in remote sensing applications.

  14. Shale Gas characteristics of Permian black shales (Ecca group, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geel, Claire; Booth, Peter; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    This study involves a comprehensive and detailed lithological, sedimentalogical, structural and geochemical description of the lower Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Ecca group hosts a ~ 245 million year old organic-rich black shale, which has recently been the focus of interest of petroleum companies worldwide. The shale was deposited under anoxic conditions in a setting which formed as a consequence of retro-arc foreland basin development related to the Cape Fold Belt. This sedimentary/tectonic environment provided the conditions for deeply buried black shales to reach maturity levels for development in the gas window. The investigation site is called the Greystone Area and is situated north of Wolwefontein en route to Jansenville. The area has outcrops of the Dwyka, the Ecca and the lower Beaufort Groups. The outcrops were mapped extensively and the data was used in conjunction with GIS software to produce a detailed geological map. North-south cross sections were drawn to give indication of bed thicknesses and formation depths. Using the field work, data two boreholes were accurately sited on the northern limb of a shallow easterly plunging syncline. The first borehole reached 100m and the second was drilled to 292m depth (100m percussion and 192m core). The second borehole was drilled 200m south of the first, to penetrate the formations at a greater depth and to avoid surface weathering. Fresh core from the upper Dwyka Group, the Prince Albert Formation, the Whitehill Formation, Collingham Formation and part of the Ripon Formation were successfully extracted and a detailed stratigraphic log has been drawn up. The core was sampled during extraction and the samples were immediately sent to the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany, for geochemical analyses. As suspected the black shales of the the Whitehill Formation are high in organic carbon and have an average TOC value of 4.5%, whereas the Prince Albert and Collingham Formation are below 1%. Tmax values

  15. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and estradiol (E2; height, weight and body mass index (BMI; sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history. The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2 and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were <25th & 50th percentile references at Tanner Stages 1–3. Controlling for confounders, serum FSH and LH increased (p < 0.05 from Tanner Stage 1 to 4 (by 4.1 and 3 mL respectively, and serum testosterone and estradiol increased after Tanner Stage 2 (by 12.7 nmol/L and 59.5 pmol/L respectively. These results indicate some delays in pubertal development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended.

  16. Firewalls in bee nests—survival value of propolis walls of wild Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Geoff; Tautz, Jürgen; Sternberg, Karin; Cullinan, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The Cape bee is endemic to the winter rainfall region of South Africa where fires are an integral part of the ecology of the fynbos (heathland) vegetation. Of the 37 wild nests in pristine Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos in the Cape Point section of Table Mountain National Park that have been analyzed so far, only 22 could be accessed sufficiently to determine the existence of a propolis wall of which 68% had propolis walls which entirely enclosed their openings. The analysis of the 37 wild nests revealed that 78% occurred under boulders or in clefts within rocks, 11% in the ground, 8% in tree cavities, and 3% within shrubs. The analysis of 17 of these nests following a fire within the park revealed that the propolis walls materially protected the nests and retarded the fire with all the colonies surviving. The bees responded to the smoke by imbibing honey and retreating to the furthest recess of their nest cavity. The bees were required to utilize this honey for about 3 weeks after which fire-loving plants appeared and began flowering. Considerable resources were utilized in the construction of the propolis walls, which ranged in thickness from 1.5 to 40 mm (mean 5 mm). Its physical environment determines the nesting behavior of the Cape bee. The prolific use of propolis serves to insulate the nest from extremes of temperature and humidity, restricts entry, camouflages the nest, and acts as an effective fire barrier protecting nests established mostly under rocks in vegetation subjected to periodic fires.

  17. An Africanised Study of Astronomical History in the Northern Cape South Africa, for Purposes of Secondary and Higher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, K. J.; Hoffman, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    Dr M.J. Hoffman, Head of the Department Physics, University of the Free State (UFS), presented a paper at the Duineveld Secondary School in Upington, to enhance the idea of a natural observatory centre in the Northern Cape. Quite aptly, the National Institute for Higher Education: Northern Cape (NIHE) also invited a renowned African astronomer, Dr T Medupe, to address their graduation ceremony in 2005. However, Dr Albert Strydom, Programme Head of Tourism Management at the Central University for Technology, Free State (CUT), is very much aware of the delicate nature of this type of high scientific profile in Tourism Management. It is foreseen by Dr Kallie de Beer, Director of Distance Education, that teaching and learning in this field will predominantly be conducted via Open and Distance e-Learning (ODeL). Consequently, it is also important to understand the philosophy of ODeL within global and Africanized perspectives. Astronomy, in this case, offers excellent examples of Africanised science in practice to add scientific value to tourist packages in the Northern Cape. (www.saao.ac.za/assa/aahs).

  18. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  19. Collaboration or renunciation? The role of traditional medicine in mental health care in Rwanda and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena M; Krantz, Gunilla; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2016-10-07

    Traditional medicine (TM) and biomedicine represent parallel health systems in many developing countries; the latter dominating in public policies, while the former still retain considerable influence among the general public. This study investigates how mental health care professionals responsible for mental health care implementation comprehend and relate to the intersection between TM and biomedicine in the cases of Rwanda and the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The material is based on semi-structured interviews with mental health care stakeholders in Eastern Cape, South Africa and Rwanda. The findings confirm an impact of TM in the treatment of mental health issues in Rwanda and South Africa due to TM being more accessible than biomedical medicine, widespread traditional perceptions of mental illness in society, and the lack of knowledge of biomedical treatments. Furthermore, the respondents identified three strategies to manage the impact of TM; improved accessibility of biomedical facilities, outreach education about mental illness, and, in the Eastern Cape case, collaboration between traditional healers and biomedicine. The study points to the necessity to take TM into consideration as an important component of health systems and policies in the Global south.

  20. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2016-11-29

    Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2); height, weight and body mass index (BMI); sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages) and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history). The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2) and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended.

  1. Environmental factors controlling the seasonal variability in particle size distribution of modern Saharan dust deposited off Cape Blanc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Carmen A.; van der Does, Michèlle; Merkel, Ute; Iversen, Morten H.; Fischer, Gerhard; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.

    2016-09-01

    The particle sizes of Saharan dust in marine sediment core records have been used frequently as a proxy for trade-wind speed. However, there are still large uncertainties with respect to the seasonality of the particle sizes of deposited Saharan dust off northwestern Africa and the factors influencing this seasonality. We investigated a three-year time-series of grain-size data from two sediment-trap moorings off Cape Blanc, Mauritania and compared them to observed wind-speed and precipitation as well as satellite images. Our results indicate a clear seasonality in the grain-size distributions: during summer the modal grain sizes were generally larger and the sorting was generally less pronounced compared to the winter season. Gravitational settling was the major deposition process during winter. We conclude that the following two mechanisms control the modal grain size of the collected dust during summer: (1) wet deposition causes increased deposition fluxes resulting in coarser modal grain sizes and (2) the development of cold fronts favors the emission and transport of coarse particles off Cape Blanc. Individual dust-storm events throughout the year could be recognized in the traps as anomalously coarse-grained samples. During winter and spring, intense cyclonic dust-storm events in the dust-source region explained the enhanced emission and transport of a larger component of coarse particles off Cape Blanc. The outcome of our study provides important implications for climate modellers and paleo-climatologists.

  2. Provincial logistics costs in South Africa’s Western Cape province: Microcosm of national freight logistics challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics costs are most commonly measured on a national level. An understanding of the provincial logistics landscape can add significant value both to provincial and national policy interventions; such measurements are however scarce. South Africa’s national freight logistics survey points to significant challenges in the structure of the freight transport market, most importantly the dominance of road freight transport on dense, longdistance corridors. The Cape Town-Gauteng corridor is the main economic artery linking the Western Cape province to the rest of the country.Objectives: The provincial government commissioned this research to develop an understanding of the province’s contribution to the national logistics challenges in order to alleviate both provincial and national logistics challenges.Results: The research results provide a distinct description of the key action required – to provide an intermodal solution for the dense flows of fast-moving consumer goods on the Cape Town-Gauteng corridor in order to reduce the significant transport and externality costs related to these flows and reduce exposure to exogenous cost drivers.Conclusion: Collaborative research between government and private industry into appropriate intermodal technologies must be prioritised within the ambit of South Africa’s socioeconomic environment. This shift can be further supported through the internalisation of road transport externalities to enable a total cost decision between modes, as well as through appropriate regulation of the freight transport industry.

  3. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28.

  4. Cape Verde: Marketing Good Governance Kap Verde: Die Vermarktung von Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Baker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a lack of natural resources Cape Verde has made good governance one of its most marketable products. Running parallel to the institutionalisation of democratic politics there has been an overhaul and growing sophistication in public administration, though certain weaknesses persist. This report argues that it is reform and improvement in this area in particular that has enabled this small island state to punch above its weight and achieve remarkable social, economic and political results. But will the successful formula of the past decade prove sufficient for the future? Poverty and unemployment have by no means been conquered. Much of the economic growth has been based in the tourist sector and the government is well aware of the dangers of over-reliance on a single industry. Cape Verde’s midway location between South America and Europe and its increasing international transport connections will continue to offer advantages to drug traffickers. The next few years of the world financial crisis will show whether marketing good governance is enough and whether this is the model for small resource developing states. Der Inselstaat Kap Verde hat seine Anstrengungen zu guter Regierungsführung (Good Governance erfolgreich demonstriert. Parallel zur Institutionalisierung demokratischer Regierungsstrukturen wurde die Verwaltung reformiert und modernisiert, wenn auch immer noch Problembereiche erkennbar sind. Der Autor sieht insbesondere in den politischen und administrativen Reformen den Hintergrund für die erfolgreiche soziale, wirtschaftliche und politische Entwicklung dieser kleinen Inselrepublik. Aber wird dieses Rezept, das im vergangenen Jahrzehnt seine Wirksamkeit beweisen konnte, auch in Zukunft ausreichend sein? Armut und Unterbeschäftigung sind keineswegs besiegt. Ein Großteil des Wirtschaftswachstums basiert auf dem Tourismussektor; die Regierung ist sich der Gefahr wohl bewusst, die in zu großer Abhängigkeit von einem

  5. Coital frequency and condom use in monogamous and concurrent sexual relationships in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Delva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results: The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3, and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively. Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions: We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent

  6. Nitrogen deposition in a southern hemisphere biodiversity hotspot within and surrounding Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Hall, S.; February, E.; West, A. G.; Allsopp, N.; Bond, W.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions have increased dramatically since the agricultural and industrial revolutions leading to N deposition in the northern hemisphere that is estimated to be an order of magnitude greater than preindustrial fluxes. N deposition rates of 5-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in Europe and N. America decrease plant species diversity, increase invasive species, and lead to eutrophication of surface waters. The southern hemisphere is home to over 50% of the world's biodiversity hotspots, including the 90,000 km2 Cape Floristic Region which houses 9,030 vascular plant species, 69% of which are endemic. However, to date, N deposition rates in the southern hemisphere are highly uncertain, with global models of N deposition based upon sparse datasets at best. Many terrestrial systems, such as fynbos shrublands, are adapted to low N availability and exhibit high species diversity and endemism, rendering them susceptible to ecological changes from N deposition. In this research, we quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of wet and dry N deposition across 30 protected fynbos ecosystems within the urban airshed of Cape Town, South Africa. We predicted that 1) total inorganic N deposition varies predictably along the urban-rural gradient (highest near the city centre), 2) N deposition varies seasonally, with higher fluxes in the winter months when atmospheric stability causes a build-up of N gases in and around the city, and 3) total inorganic N deposition will exceed the critical load of 10-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for Mediterranean shrublands, past which negative ecosystem effects have been shown to occur. Estimates of N deposition based on NO2 concentrations within the city suggest that total N deposition ranges from 8-13 kg N ha-1 yr-1 . However, we show that N deposition measured by ion-exchange resin collectors is far less than expected, averaging less than 2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.5 - 5.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 ), and is is dominated by NO3-, suggesting

  7. An Antarctic hot spot for fungi at Shackleton's historic hut on Cape Royds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Robert A; Held, Benjamin W; Arenz, Brett E; Jurgens, Joel A; Baltes, Nicolas J; Duncan, Shona M; Farrell, Roberta L

    2010-07-01

    The historic expedition huts located in the Ross Sea Region of the Antarctic and the thousands of artifacts left behind by the early explorers represent important cultural heritage from the "Heroic Era" of Polar exploration. The hut at Cape Royds built by Ernest Shackleton and members of the 1907-1908 British Antarctic Expedition has survived the extreme Antarctic environment for over 100 years, but recent studies have shown many forms of deterioration are causing serious problems, and microbial degradation is evident in the historic wood. Conservation work to reduce moisture at the hut required removal of fodder, wood, and many different types of organic materials from the stables area on the north side of the structure allowing large numbers of samples to be obtained for these investigations. In addition, wood from historic food storage boxes exposed in a ravine adjacent to the hut were also sampled. Fungi were cultured on several different media, and pure cultures were obtained and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. From the 69 cultures of filamentous fungi obtained, the most predominant genera were Cadophora (44%) followed by Thielavia (17%) and Geomyces (15%). Other fungi found included Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and isolates identified as being in Pezizomycotina, Onygenales, Nectriaceae, and others. No filamentous basidiomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses of the Cadophora species showed great species diversity present revealing Cadophora malorum, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Cadophora fastigiata, as well as Cadophora sp. 4E71-1, a C. malorum-like species, and Cadophora sp. 7R16-1, a C. fastigiata-like species. Scanning electron microscopy showed extensive decay was present in the wood samples with type 1 and type 2 forms of soft rot evident in pine and birch wood, respectively. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts are of great concern, and this investigation provides insight into the

  8. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  9. The Palaeodiet of the Pericue Indians of the Cape Region of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N.; Gonzalez, S.; Huddart, D.; Rosales-Lopez, A.; Lamb, A.

    2008-05-01

    The archaeology of the Pericue Indians inhabiting the Cape region of Baja California has long been an area of interest. The dolichocranic traits exhibited by this population have lead to suggestions that these people were a relic population of an early coastal migration into North America. The antiquity of directly dated Pericue human remains only reaches 3,000 B.P. with occupation sites dating back to 9,000 B.P. The site of Babisuri cave in Isla Espiritu Santo may demonstrate a very early human presence in Baja California Sur between 36,000 to 45,000 B.P. although the exact nature of this evidence is unclear. Increasing tourist development within this region threatens many archaeological sites particularly coastal shell middens and rock shelters. Current rescue excavations are yielding important information regarding many aspects of the culture of the Pericue Indians. Geochemical evidence of diet {d13C and d15N} taken from Pericue bone samples, modern and archaeological animals and modern plants is helping us to understand the complicated subsistence strategies of this group. Initial results highlight a complicated and diverse diet including marine and terrestrial resources, most likely exploited seasonally. Similarities between the diet of the Pericue and other nearby coastal Indian groups are clear and will be discussed. Pericue Indian material culture, combined with the exploitation of marine mammals and the construction of enormous shell mounds display parallels with other central and North American groups. The exploitation of marine mammals and the associated stone tools display striking similarities to the Chumash people of the Channel Islands of Coastal Southern California. Some of these cultural similarities will be highlighted in this presentation. Current genetic work is attempting to discover the nature of the similarities between the Chumash and Pericue groups as some cultural elements of each group have parallels with the other. Initial genetic

  10. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  11. Electrical Imaging of Tracer Migration at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K.; Binley, A. M.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Accurately characterizing flow and solute transport in groundwater systems is a critical problem in hydrology. Given the large volume of data required to develop an accurate model of subsurface flow, and the cost of direct sampling, the use of geophysical methods can contribute significantly to information about the subsurface. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is examined as a method to provide spatially continuous information about aquifer properties. The primary goal of this study is to use ERT to map subsurface flow paths in detail. High-resolution images of the movement of a tracer in two- and three-dimensions help delineate aquifer heterogeneity. Field data were acquired at the U.S. Geological Survey research site at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod during the summer of 2002. ERT was used to track the flow and transport of an electrically conductive sodium chloride tracer introduced over 9 hours during a two-well tracer test. Three hundred and fifty 2-D data sets were collected between four corner-point wells for 20 days following the injection, combining to form approximately sixty 3-D data sets. Concentrations were measured at a multilevel sampler centrally located within the ERT array and at the production well. The tomograms indicate the movement of the saline tracer that correspond well with measured concentration data, and the resistivity inversions serve as an appropriate surrogate for concentration measurements that are otherwise impossible to obtain. Under reasonable assumptions, groundwater velocity estimates and hydraulic conductivity can be obtained by tracking the tracer.

  12. Teaching health promotion: experiences from the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Struters

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and assesses the University of theWestern Cape’s (UWC second year Community and Health Science students’experience in their interdisciplinary, community based health promotion module. Health promotion is a rapidly growing discipline for health professionals internationally. The World Health Organisation (WHO has described health promoting schools as effective settings for the promotion of the health of learners, teachers, parents and the broader community. The health promotion module at UWC introduces the university students to the practical development of health promoting schools. The aim of this study was to assess undergraduate students’ attitudes to and impressions of their learning experience during the health promotion module. These interventions included addressing teenage pregnancy; addressing drug abuse including smoking; addressing poor personal hygiene; and addressing the poor classroom environment. Small interdisciplinary teams of students worked with school  learners at a high school in a poorly resourced area in Cape Town, where they planned, implemented and evaluated small scale interventions. Students indicated they had learnt far more from the interdisciplinary, experiential learningthan from classroom based learning or textbooks located within their own discipline. The results suggest that health promotion is an ideal subject for physiotherapy students to study collaboratively with the other health disciplines. One group of students wrote: “We have learnt much more than any textbook or lecturer could ever teach us.”

  13. EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: PESQUISA BIBLIOGRÁFICA UTILIZANDO PORTAL CAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Pinheiro Beserra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La salud ambiental es un asunto importante que debe ser discutido, ya que se relaciona con el bienestar humano. El objetivo fue investigar la temática sobre salud ambiental en las disertaciones y tesis brasileñas. Se trata de una investigación bibliOgráfica realizada con ayuda de los resúmenes disponibles en la base de datos portal capes tesis, que utilizó como asunto para la búsqueda: Educación Ambiental, medio ambiente y residuos sólidos, en la cual se encontró un total de 60 producciones entre el período de 1999 a 2006. Se constató que hubo un crecimiento del número de producciones sobre esa temática, siendo el área de Ciencias Exactas y de la Tierra la más sensibilizada por el tema; sin embargo, los estudios fueron realizados en mayor cantidad en el máster, con la intención de conocer/diagnosticar la realidad. En relación a la implementación educativa, se observaron pocos estudios con ese objetivo. Se concluye, consecuentemente, que hay necesidad de elaborar investigaciones que conciban a la educación ambiental como foco de intervención.

  14. An investigation into diabetic patients knowledge of diabetes and its ocular complications in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Clarke-Farr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study which evaluated the knowledge of a sample of diabetic patients about their disease and its ocular complications. A comprehensive questionnaire was provided to diabetic patients in the Cape Town metropolitan district and its surrounds. Specifically, the questionnaire aimed to determine the patient’s knowledge of diabetes, their knowledge of the ocular complications of diabetes, the options for its management and treatment as well as a section considering other general information relating to diabetes and its ocular complications. Their subject knowledge about diabetes and its ocular complications was relatively limited as only 42% of respondents knew about the existence of two types of diabetes. Twenty nine percent of respondents believed that diabetes would not affect their eyes. Although 76% of the patients felt it very important to measure their blood sugar and 80% rated blood sugar control as very important, only 37% of the respondents measured their blood sugar on a daily basis. A particular concern was that although 96% of the respondents felt that it was important to have their eyes checked regularly, only 30% of the respondents stated that they had actually had their eyes checked every year. The results of this investigation support the need for diabetic patients to receive better patient education about diabetes and its ocular complications. Furthermore, attention needs to be paid to expanding patient access to diabetic screenings and ocular examinations in order to manage this condition effectively.

  15. Fighting Back Against Childhood Obesity Through the Cape May County Children’s Health Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilou Rochford

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a fast-growing health issue affecting children and adolescents across the nation. Rutgers Cooperative Extension (RCE, along with agency and community partners, implemented a collaborative solution aimed at raising awareness, providing education, and effecting workable strategies for preventing obesity in children and families in the Cape May County, New Jersey, community. Because we regularly work with children and families, we knew that our clientele mirrored the national statistics on obesity, which state that 13% of children aged six to 11 years and 14% of adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the United States are overweight (1. These numbers represent a nearly three-fold increase for adolescents in the past two decades, the effects of which can be devastating both physically and emotionally. Adult health issues, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes, have increased dramatically in children (2. Further troubling statistics show that overweight adolescents have a 70% chance of becoming overweight or obese adults, the likelihood of which increases to 80% if at least one parent is overweight or obese (2. Overweight children suffer emotionally, too, facing social discrimination, poor self-esteem, and depression (3.

  16. Search for alternate hosts of the coconut Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankey Egya Ndede

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lethal Yellowing disease locally called Cape Saint Paul wilt disease (CSPWD is the bane of the coconut industry in Ghana and is caused by a phytoplasma. In Ghana, there are areas where the disease has re-infected re-plantings long after decimating all the palms in the area. This brings to the fore the possibility of alternate hosts in the spread of the disease because the pathogen is an obligate parasite. In this work, a number of plants were screened for their host status to the CSPWD pathogen. The presence of phytoplasmas in these plants was tested by polymerase chain reaction analysis using universal phytoplasma primers P1/P7 and CSPWD-specific primers G813/GAKSR. Although Desmodium adscendens tested positive to the CSPWD-specific primers, cloning and sequencing did not confirm it as an alternate host. The identification of alternate hosts will help us to evolve sound control strategies against the spread of the disease.

  17. The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriëtte STEENKAMP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X based in Cape Town. Empirical research was deployed, making use of a mixed methods approach to obtain both quantitative data and qualitative data from respondents. Stemming from the findings it was found that load shedding did have an adverse influence on the productivity of staff in Hotel X, despite the fact that affordable measures were put in place to mitigate the disruptions caused by load shedding. Moreover, the latter dispensation was found to have an inadvertently adverse influence on the overall sustainability of Hotel X on the long run.

  18. HIV Risk Behavior Among Methamphetamine Users Entering Substance Abuse Treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.

  19. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Giorgio, Maggie; Zembe, Yanga; Cheyip, Mireille; Mathews, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among foreign migrants in South Africa has not been explored. This paper describes the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, reports HIV prevalence, and describes key characteristics among them. We conducted a biological and behavioural surveillance survey using RDS. After written informed consent, participants completed an audio computer assisted self-interview and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. HIV prevalence was estimated to be 7 % (CI 4.9-9.5) among 935 women. HIV sero-positivity was associated with older age (p = 0.001), country of origin (p South Africa for 3-5 years (p = 0.023), sexual debut at ≥15 years (p = 0.047), and having used a condom at last sex with a main partner (p = 0.007). Few women reported early sexual debut, or multiple sexual partners. RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant women.

  20. New constraints on historical dipole field decay: Four centuries of archaeointensity from Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, V. J.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current global geomagnetic field models suffer from strong bias towards Northern Hemisphere data. Absolute intensity measurements from the Southern Hemisphere are key to understanding the evolution of the field over the historical era, especially recent strengthening of non-dipole contributions, and the appearance of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). I present the first archaeointensity data for locally-fired historical bricks from several well-dated sites (1660-2009 AD) in Cape Town, South Africa. These data constitute the first archaeomagnetic intensity variation curve for southern Africa for the past few centuries. The ages of the sites are tightly constrained by historical and archaeological considerations. Archaeointensity data obtained by the Thellier and Thellier method (modified by Coe), are corrected for both TRM anisotropy and cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition. Analysis of magnetic mineralogy was performed to aid selection of fragments. Reliable archaeointensity determinations were obtained for 48 of 80 specimens, and 45 were retained in the final analysis. Intensity results vary from 24.3 ± 0.6 μT (modern brick) to 40.7 ± 0.8 μT (1660 AD), corresponding to Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADMs) between 6.1 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 נ1022 Am2. Results are generally not in agreement with current field models, but are coherent with other archaeomagnetic datasets from the Southern Hemisphere. The possible reasons for this are discussed, as well as implications for the historical evolution of the field.

  1. Perceived vulnerability and HIV testing among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-06-01

    The importance of perceived vulnerability to risk-reducing behaviors, including HIV testing, is fairly established, especially among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, the majority of studies that examined this important relationship used cross-sectional data that inherently assume that perceived vulnerability does not change. While these studies have been useful, the assumption of perceived vulnerability as time invariant is a major flaw and has largely limited the practical usefulness of this variable in AIDS prevention and programing. Using longitudinal data and applying random-effects logit models, this study makes a major contribution to scholarship by examining if changes in perceived vulnerability associate with a change to test for HIV among 857 young people in Cape Town, South Africa. Results show that female youth who changed their risk perceptions were more likely to also change to test for HIV, but the effects were completely attenuated after controlling for theoretically relevant variables. No significant relationships were observed for males. Also, females who were virgins at wave 2 but had sex between waves were significantly more likely to have changed to test for HIV. Of most importance was that sexual behavior eliminated the effects of change in risk perceptions suggesting that a change in perception may have occurred as a result of changes in sexual behavior. AIDS prevention programs must pay particular attention to helping youth become aware of their vulnerability to HIV risks, especially as these have implications for risk-reducing behaviors, especially for females who are burdened.

  2. HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Male Foreign Migrants in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Margaret; Townsend, Loraine; Zembe, Yanga; Cheyip, Mireille; Guttmacher, Sally; Carter, Rebecca; Mathews, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    While migration has been shown to be a risk factor for HIV, variation in HIV prevalence by subgroups of migrants needs further exploration. This paper documents the HIV prevalence and key characteristics among male foreign migrants in Cape Town, South Africa and the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit this population. Participants in this cross-sectional study completed a behavioral risk-factor questionnaire and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated to be 8.7 % (CI 5.4-11.8) but varied dramatically by country of origin. After adjusting for country of origin, HIV sero-positivity was positively associated with older age (p = 0.001), completing high school (p = 0.025), not having enough money for food (p = 0.036), alcohol use (p = 0.049), and engaging in transactional sex (p = 0.022). RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant men. A better understanding of the timing of HIV acquisition is needed to design targeted interventions for migrant men.

  3. Serum and Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri

    2016-04-28

    Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment. The treating veterinarian needs to make an informed decision on the cause of illness or poisoning prior to treatment. We established the reference interval for serum and plasma cholinesterase activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture ( Gyps coprotheres ) as 591.58-1,528.26 U/L, providing a clinical assay for determining potential exposure to cholinesterase-depressing pesticides. Both manual and automated samplers were used with the butyrylthiocholine method. Species reference intervals for both serum and plasma cholinesterase showed good correlation and manual and automated measurements yielded similar results.

  4. Microhabitat characteristics of Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus, nests at Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We examined microsite characteristics at 21 Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) nests and land cover types in which they occurred in Wapusk National Park, Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nests were located in four of six physiographic-vegetation land-cover types. Regardless of land-cover type, all but one nest was built on a pressure ridge or mound. Nests were built midway between the bottom and top of ridges or mounds with steeper slopes than was randomly available. Longspur nests had a distinctive southwest orientation (P < 0.001). Longspurs selected nest sites that consisted of comparatively greater amounts of shrub species and lesser amounts of moss than were randomly available. Nests were generally well concealed by vegetation (mean = 67.0%) and concealment was negatively associated with amount of graminoid species at the nest (P = 0.0005). Our nesting habitat data may facilitate a better understanding of breeding Lapland Longspur habitat requirements, and potential impacts of habitat degradation by increasing Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) populations in the study area.

  5. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women.

  7. Motor development in children living within resource poor areas of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jelsma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1986, Irwin-Carruthers tested 681 BlackAfrican babies from the Western Cape and concluded that the South African sample was in advance of the Denver sample both in fine and gross motor behaviour. This study was to determine whether the motor development of isiXhosa speaking children from the same area was still advanced compared to their North American counterparts.Method: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were administered to 86 children attending well baby clinics, between the ages of 1-36 months.Results: The mean motor developmental quotient was 92 (SD=15. Twenty eight percent of the sample was either significantly or mildly delayed. No socio-economic or maternal characteristics were associated with this score.Conclusion: The reasons for the decrease in performance are not clear. The socio-economic situation of the mothers was poor and there were a large number of single mothers whose sole source of income was government child support grants.  It is likely that the cause of the decrease is multi-factorial. The mothers are clearly in need of emotional and financial support. It is suggested that the introduction of stimulation programmes might be useful inreducing the long term impact of this delayed development.

  8. The application of autonomous underwater vehicles for interdisciplinary measurements in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuri; Dickey, Tommy; Bellingham, James; Manov, Derek; Streitlien, Knut

    2002-10-01

    An ODYSSEY autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was deployed in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays in September 1998 to collect chlorophyll fluorescence, optical backscattering (880 nm), and physical data. It sampled the region mainly in a sawtooth pattern with horizontal resolution between ˜120 m at the middle of the water column and with vertical resolution of 0.1 m. The data were used to quantify various features in both physical and bio-optical properties in the Bays. In particular, an upwelling front with enhanced chlorophyll fluorescence was found off the coast of Race Point. Chlorophyll patches with along-track spatial scales less than 3.6 km were found southeast of Plymouth and southwest of Race Point. Southeast of Plymouth, strong sediment re-suspension was also evident. In the early fall, the water column was characterized by three layers: warm and fresh surface water; cold and salty bottom water; and a transition (pycnocline) layer with sharp vertical temperature and salinity gradients. A relatively thin chlorophyll maximum layer was evident in the strong pycnocline. This work represents one of the first successful applications of AUVs for interdisciplinary coastal research. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality, concurrent measurements of physical and bio-optical properties in a very effective manner. Some future uses of AUVs are suggested.

  9. Impact of the Extreme Warming of 2012 on Shelfbreak Frontal Structure North of Cape Hatteras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawarkiewickz, G.

    2014-12-01

    Continental shelf circulation north of Cape Hatteras is complex, with southward flowing Middle Atlantic Bight shelf water intersecting the Gulf Stream and subducting offshore into the Gulf Stream. In May, 2012, a cruise was conducted in order to study the shelf circulation and acoustic propagation through fish schools in the area. An important aspect of the study was to use Autonomous Underwater Vehicles to map fish schools with a sidescan sonar. High-resolution hydrographic surveys to map the continental shelf water masses and shelfbreak frontal structure were sampled to relate oceanographic conditions to the fish school distributions. The cold pool water mass over the continental shelf in May 2012 was extremely warm, with temperature anomalies of up to 5 Degrees C relative to observations from the same area in May, 1996. The normal cross-shelf temperature gradients within the shelfbreak front were not present because of the warming. As a result, the shelf density field was much more buoyant than usual, which led to an accelerated shelfbreak jet. Moored velocity measurements at the 60 m isobath recorded alongshelf flow of as much as 0.6 m/s. The anticipated fish species were not observed over the continental shelf. Some comments on the forcing leading to the large scale warming will be presented, along with a brief discussion of the impact of the warming on the marine ecosystem in the northeast U.S.

  10. Use of CAPE-OPEN Standard in US-UK Collaboration on Virtual Plant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-11-01

    Under the auspices of a US-UK Memorandum of Understanding and Implementing Agreement for fossil energy R&D (http://us-uk.fossil.energy.gov/), the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) have recently completed a three-year collaboration on virtual plant modeling and simulation technology for advanced fossil-energy power generation systems. The R&D collaboration was aimed at taking full advantage of the synergies between NETL’s ongoing Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) project and the UK’s three-year Virtual Plant Demonstration Model (VPDM) project. The key objective of this collaboration has been the development of compatible, open standards-based US and UK technology for process/equipment co-simulation. To achieve plug-and-play model interoperability, the collaboration leveraged the process-industry CAPE-OPEN (CO) software standard which is managed and disseminated by the CO Laboratories Network (www.colan.org).

  11. CAPE-OPEN Integration for Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This paper highlights the use of the CAPE-OPEN (CO) standard interfaces in the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The APECS system uses the CO unit operation, thermodynamic, and reaction interfaces to provide its plug-and-play co-simulation capabilities, including the integration of process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. APECS also relies heavily on the use of a CO COM/CORBA bridge for running process/CFD co-simulations on multiple operating systems. For process optimization in the face of multiple and some time conflicting objectives, APECS offers stochastic modeling and multi-objective optimization capabilities developed to comply with the CO software standard. At NETL, system analysts are applying APECS to a wide variety of advanced power generation systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant.

  12. Teaching of writing in two rural multigrade classes in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernita Blease

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research project was to understand how Cambourne’s theory of social constructivism, particularly his four instructional principles, was applied to the teaching of writing in two rural multigrade Foundation Phase classrooms in the Western Cape. Multigrade schools account for 30% of all primary schools in South Africa, but in most cases teachers are not able to provide quality education to learners. Writing in rural multigrade Foundation Phase schools is a largely neglected area for teacher development and research. Even those teaching multigrade classes are not sure how to approach it. The national curriculum, as well as our South African constitution, encourages teachers to inspire children with values based on respect, democracy, equality, human dignity and social justice. However, the two rural multigrade classes in this research project faced many challenges that hindered their ability to reach these goals. The main theoretical framework underpinning this study was based on Cambourne’s social constructivist theory, particularly his instructional principles including explicit, systematic, mindful and contextual teaching principles. This research was a qualitative study embedded within an interpretive case study. Two Foundation Phase teachers working in multigrade classrooms were purposively selected for this research. In conclusion, there is evidence that these two teachers used some of Cambourne’s instructional principles, in varying degrees, when teaching writing in their multigrade classes.[PDF to follow

  13. Behaviour-Related Scalar Habitat Use by Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bennitt

    Full Text Available Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting data into resting, grazing, walking and relocating behaviours. Distance to water and six vegetation characteristic variables were recorded in sites used for each behaviour, except for relocating, which occurred too infrequently. We used multilevel binomial and multinomial logistic regressions to identify variables that characterised seasonally-preferred macrohabitats and microhabitats used for different behaviours. Our results showed that macrohabitat use was linked to behaviour, although this was least apparent during the rainy season, when resources were most abundant. Behaviour-related microhabitat use was less significant, but variation in forage characteristics could predict some behaviour within all macrohabitats. The variables predicting behaviour were not consistent, but resting and grazing sites were more readily identifiable than walking sites. These results highlight the significance of resting, as well as foraging, site availability in buffalo spatial processes. Our results emphasise the importance of considering several behaviours and scales in studies of habitat use to understand the links between environmental resources and animal behavioural and spatial ecology.

  14. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  15. Hepatitis C virus antibodies in patients with liver disease. The western Cape experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, S C; du Toit, J M; Brice, E A; Bird, A R; Brink, N S

    1991-09-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a recently characterised non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) agent, which appears to be important in both parenteral and sporadic NANBH. HCV infection has been associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatoma. Groups of patients in the western Cape with chronic liver disease and hepatoma were screened for antibodies to HCV and the results were confirmed by standard neutralisation tests. Three of 19 patients with cirrhosis secondary to alcohol abuse or classic auto-immune chronic active hepatitis were considered to have antibodies to HCV at initial screening. All of these were false-positive results. Five of 20 patients with presumptive chronic NANBH were considered possibly to have antibodies to HCV. Only 1 patient with post-transfusional NANBH was confirmed to have specific HCV antibodies. Two of 30 patients with hepatoma had specific anti-HCV antibodies in contrast to 11 others with serum HBsAg positivity. One hundred blood transfusion donors and 25 antenatal patients were tested concurrently and shown to be negative for anti-HCV. Specific antibodies to HCV were present in very few patients with cirrhosis, presumptive NANBH and hepatoma tested in this local survey. False-positive reactions appeared to occur at a higher rate than true-positive results.

  16. Characterizing Degradation Gradients through Land Cover Change Analysis in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahn Münch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change analysis was performed for three catchments in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa, for two time steps (2000 and 2014, to characterize landscape conversion trajectories for sustained landscape health. Land cover maps were derived: (1 from existing data (2000; and (2 through object-based image analysis (2014 of Landsat 8 imagery. Land cover change analysis was facilitated using land cover labels developed to identify landscape change trajectories. Land cover labels assigned to each intersection of the land cover maps at the two time steps provide a thematic representation of the spatial distribution of change. While land use patterns are characterized by high persistence (77%, the expansion of urban areas and agriculture has occurred predominantly at the expense of grassland. The persistence and intensification of natural or invaded wooded areas were identified as a degradation gradient within the landscape, which amounted to almost 10% of the study area. The challenge remains to determine significant signals in the landscape that are not artefacts of error in the underlying input data or scale of analysis. Systematic change analysis and accurate uncertainty reporting can potentially address these issues to produce authentic output for further modelling.

  17. Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozonoff David

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.

  18. The Nainital-Cape Survey-III : A Search for Pulsational Variability in Chemically Peculiar Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Chakradhari, N K; Tiwari, S K; Billaud, C

    2009-01-01

    The Nainital-Cape survey is a dedicated research programme to search and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar stars in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the survey is to search such chemically peculiar stars which are pulsationally unstable. The observations of the sample stars were carried out in high-speed photometric mode using a three-channel fast photometer attached to the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope at ARIES. The new photometric observations confirmed that the pulsational period of star HD25515 is 2.78-hrs. The repeated time-series observations of HD113878 and HD118660 revealed that previously known frequencies are indeed present in the new data sets. We have estimated the distances, absolute magnitudes, effective temperatures and luminosities of these stars. Their positions in the H-R diagram indicate that HD25515 and HD118660 lie near the main-sequence while HD113878 is an evolved star. We also present a catalogue of 61 stars classified as null results, along with the corresponding...

  19. The rehabilitation of stroke patients at community health centres in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhoda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure and process of rehabilitation of stroke patientsaffects the outcomes of the patients. The aim of this study was to determine thestructure and process of rehabilitation of stroke patients at Community HealthCentres  (CHCs in the Western Cape, South A frica. A  quantitative descriptive study was conducted. Questionnaires and archived records were used to collect the data. The study sample used to collect information related to the structure consisted of therapists (16 employed at the centres; while the study sample used to collect information related to the process consisted of 100 first time stroke patients. Descriptive statistics were conducted using Excel and SPSS. The results of the study revealed that there is a lack of occupational and speech therapy services at the centres forming partof the study sample. At centres where these services are provided the frequency and intensity with which the services are received by the patients is extremely low. Further research is needed to determine if the decreased intensity is onlyas a result of decreased availability of services or if inability of stroke clients to access the services also plays a role.

  20. Analysis of Shoreline Change along Cape Coast-Sekondi Coast, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Yaw Dadson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important factors constantly impinging on the net movement of shorelines are erosion and accretion. This study analyzed the role of erosion and accretion in shoreline changes along the coast between Cape Coast and Sekondi in the central and western regions of Ghana, respectively. Aerial photographs, satellite images, and topographical maps were used. In addition, field survey using Global Positioning System (GPS was conducted at selected locations due to the unavailability of satellite image for 2013. Shoreline change analysis was conducted using Digital Shoreline Analysis Systems based on End Point Rate formula. In addition, community interactions were also conducted to get first-hand information from the local inhabitants. The study finds that the shoreline under study has been fluctuating. The sea advanced inland between 1972 and 2005, which is attributed mainly to intense erosion. The study further reveals that, in the past five years, the shoreline had been retreating mainly due to increased accretion. It is recommended that the shoreline under study should be monitored regularly to keep abreast with net movements that will occur in either the short term or the long term so as to factor the net effect into the management of the coastal zone.

  1. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  2. Identification of alkylphenols and other estrogenic compounds in wastewater, septage, and groundwater on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Melly, Steven J.; Geno, Paul W.; Sun, Gang; Brody , Julia G.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to characterize the impacts to Cape Cod drinking water supplies from on-site wastewater disposal, we developed two analytical methods using HPLC and GC/MS for a range of compounds identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the nonionic surfactants alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) and their degradation products. We analyzed samples for nonylphenol, octylphenol, and their ethoxylates up to the hexaethoxylate using an HPLC method, with detection limits ranging from 2 to 6 μg/L. A set of phenolic compounds including bisphenol A and nonylphenol were derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS with detection limits from 0.001 to 0.02 μg/L. Total APEOs in untreated wastewater and septage samples ranged from 1350 to 11 000 μg/L by the HPLC method. Nonylphenol was detected in all septage samples at concentrations above 1000 μg/L. Phenylphenol and bisphenol A were detected in septage and wastewater at about 1 μg/L. In groundwater downgradient of an infiltration bed for secondary treated effluent, nonyl/octylphenol and ethoxylates were present at about 30 μg/L. Bisphenol A, nonylphenol monoethoxycarboxylate, and nonyl/octylphenol tetraethoxylate were detected in some drinking water wells at concentrations ranging from below the quantitation limit to 32.9 μg/L. Results suggest that septic systems may be a significant source of APEOs to groundwater.

  3. Episodic swell growth inferred from variable uplift of the Cape Verde hotspot islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Cosca, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Schmidt, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    On the Beagle voyage, Charles Darwin first noted the creation and subsidence of ocean islands, establishing in geology's infancy that island freeboard changes with time. Hotspot ocean islands have an obvious mechanism for freeboard change through the growth of the bathymetric anomaly, or swell, on which the islands rest. Models for swell development indicate that flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions, as well as spreading of melt residue from the hotspot, can all contribute to island uplift. Here we test various models for swell development using the uplift histories for the islands of the Cape Verde hotspot, derived from isotopic dating of marine terraces and subaerial to submarine lava-flow morphologies. The island uplift histories, in conjunction with inter-island spacing, uplift rate and timing differences, rule out flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions. We also find that uplift cannot be reconciled with models that advocate the spreading of melt residue in swell development unless swell growth is episodic. Instead, we infer from the uplift histories that two processes have acted to raise the islands during the past 6 Myr. During an initial phase, mantle processes acted to build the swell. Subsequently, magmatic intrusions at the island edifice caused 350 m of local uplift at the scale of individual islands. Finally, swell-wide uplift contributed a further 100 m of surface rise.

  4. Patient satisfaction with a pilot chronic pain management programme in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goals of a chronic pain management clinic includeincreasing patient knowledge about pain, developing pain management skillsand increasing patients’ confidence in their pain management abilities.A  Chronic Pain Management Programme (CPMP based on evidence basedguidelines was developed at a chronic pain management clinic to facilitatepatient discharge to a primary healthcare level. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore patient satisfaction with, acceptability of and the perceived success which could be due to the CPMP developed at the Chronic Pain Management Clinic of Groote Schuur Hospital,Cape Town.Methods: Patients (n=14 were referred to the pilot study from the Chronic Pain Management Clinic. A s a pilot, four courses were run over a period ofone year. In order to reach the research aim, an eleven-question, structuredopen-ended interview was conducted with all participants. Results: Fourteen patients enrolled in the CPMP. Responses were favourable with participants emphasising the roleof increased knowledge about pain, the role of exercise and of stress management techniques. Participants also recog-nised a positive change in behaviours and attitudes following participation in the CPMP.Conclusions: Findings suggest that participants found the format of the course acceptable as regards course content,structure and delivery. Participant responses suggest that the course was acceptable and perceived as useful. However,future courses would benefit from refresher courses or structured support groups.

  5. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  6. Two new species of Asteraceae from Northern and Western Cape, South Africa and a new synonym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We recognize two new species of Asteraceae from the winter rainfall belt of South Africa and reduce a third to synonomy.  Senecio speciosissimus sp. nov. has been confused with  S. coleophyllus Turcz. in the past but is distinguished by its taller stature, larger and more finely serrated leaves, and congested synflorescences containing (6-l 5-40 flowerheads. The two species are also geographically separated:  S. speciosissimus occurs in the Hottentots Holland and Franschhoek Mountains of the southwestern Cape, whereas S.  coleophyllus is endemic to the Riviersonderend Mountains.  Chrysocoma hantamensis sp. nov. is a distinctive new species endemic to the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Plateaus. It is distinguished by its resprouting habit. 3-5-fid leaves and large capitula, 12-15 mm in diameter, with lanceolate. 3-veined involucral bracts, the largest 9 - 1 0 x 2 mm. Investigation of the variation in leaf morphology of the two radiate species of Oncosiphon, O. africanum (PJ.Bergius Kallersjo and  O. glabratum (Thunb. Kallersjo. reveals that only one species can be maintained, and O. glabratum is accordingly reduced to synonomy in O. africanum.

  7. Developmental plasticity in Protea as an evolutionary response to environmental clines in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Carlson

    Full Text Available Local adaptation along steep environmental gradients likely contributes to plant diversity in the Cape Region of South Africa, yet existing analyses of trait divergence are limited to static measurements of functional traits rather than trajectories of individual development. We explore whether five taxa of evergreen shrubs (Protea section Exsertae differ in their developmental trajectories and capacity for plasticity using two environmentally-distinct common gardens in South Africa. We measured seedlings in the summer-dry season and winter-wet season of each of two consecutive years to characterize ontogeny and plasticity within years, as same-age leaf cohorts mature, and between years, i.e., from leaf one cohort to the next. We compared patterns of development between gardens to assess whether trait trajectories are programmed versus plastic and examined whether developmental differences covaried with characteristics of a seedling's home environment. We detected plasticity in developmental trajectories for leaf area, stomatal size, stomatal pore index, and to a limited extent specific leaf area, but not for stomatal density. We showed that the species growing in the harshest environments exhibits both the smallest increase in leaf area between years and the least change in SLA and photosynthetic rates as leaves age within years. These results show that within this clade, species have diverged in developmental trajectories and plasticity as well as in mean trait values. Some of these differences may be associated with adaptation to cold and drought stress within an environmentally-complex region.

  8. Enabling disability inclusive practices within the University of Cape Town curriculum: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioma Ohajunwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disability inclusion in the curricula of higher education institutions contributes to socially responsive graduates with a capacity to address the cross-cutting issue of disability in development. This article discusses a study conducted at the University of Cape Town (UCT, South Africa, to explore disability inclusion. Methodology: An instrumental case study approach was adopted and a thematic analysis of data was done. Findings: Academic staff found a variety of ways to include disability, such as discussions in class, practice and service learning, but mainly as part of disciplinary requirements. Including disability as an issue of social justice stems mostly from the personal interest of staff, and is done in an ad hoc manner. Conclusion: Disability should be valued, and integrated into the curriculum in a structured manner as a perspective on diversity with which to interrogate our beliefs about ourselves and society. Theorising on disability is needed, as well as the unique perspectives that emerge across interdisciplinary boundaries, especially within the African context.

  9. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  10. The psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cluver Lucie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2 million children are parentally bereaved by AIDS in South Africa. Little is known about mental health outcomes for this group. Methods This study aimed to investigate mental health outcomes for urban children living in deprived settlements in Cape Town. 30 orphaned children and 30 matched controls were compared using standardised questionnaires (SDQ on emotional and behavioural problems, peer and attention difficulties, and prosocial behaviour. The orphan group completed a modified version of a standardised questionnaire (IES-8, measuring Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Group differences were tested using t-tests and Pearson's chi-square. Results Both groups scored highly for peer problems, emotional problems and total scores. However, orphans were more likely to view themselves as having no good friends (p = .002, to have marked concentration difficulties (p = .03, and to report frequent somatic symptoms (p = .05, but were less likely to display anger through loss of temper (p = .03. Orphans were more likely to have constant nightmares (p = .01, and 73% scored above the cut-off for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Conclusion Findings suggest important areas for larger-scale research for parentally-bereaved children.

  11. Karoo-fynbos biomass along an elevational gradient in the western Cape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rutherford

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available A short characterization of the vegetational gradient from two basic physiognomic forms of fynbos, through Renosterbosveld to arid Karoo vegetation of the south-western Cape, is given with reference to possible vegetational analogues within similar gradients in winter-rainfall areas elsewhere. Description is limited to some aspects affecting biomass and its measurement, as well as to consideration of community stability needed for valid comparison of community biomass. Live individuals, including single dominant species, all other shrubs, graminoids and other herbaceous species as well as dead individuals were harvested separately in each major community type within an elevational gradient corresponding to the vegetational gradient described. Greatest biomass (14311 kg ha-1 was found in a summit restionaceous community, while lowest biomass (7564 kg ha-1 was found in a low-lying succulent Karoo community. There was an inverse relationship between elevation and percentage dead material mass and a strongly positive relationship between elevation and percentage biomass of the graminoid group. Total biomass values appear to be in keeping with available data for analogue communities in different Mediterranean climate areas, although distinct differences sometimes occur in the relative biomass contributions of component groups.

  12. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. CV-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of CV-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more

  13. Propolis and its Active Component, Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), Modulate Breast Cancer Therapeutic Targets via an Epigenetically Mediated Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omene, Coral; Kalac, Matko; Wu, Jing; Marchi, Enrica; Frenkel, Krystyna; O'Connor, Owen A

    2013-10-21

    Alternative remedies for cancer treatment is a multi-billion dollar industry. In particular, breast cancer (BC) patients use alternative and natural remedies more frequently than patients with other malignancies. Propolis is an example of a honeybee-produced naturopathic formulation, contents of which differ by geographic location. It is readily available, affordable, and in use safely since ancient times globally. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a major active component in propolis and is thought to be responsible for its varied properties, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. CAPE is effective in many models of human cancer, including BC as we have previously shown. CAPE affects genes associated with tumor cell growth and survival, angiogenesis and chemoresistance. We demonstrate that these are related in part to CAPE's role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, a class of drugs designated as epigenetic agents that modulate the activities of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. CAPE and propolis, cause an accumulation of acetylated histone proteins in MCF-7 (ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-/PR-/Her2-) cells with associated decreases in ER and PR in MCF-7 cells, and upregulation of ER and decrease in EGFR in MDA-231 cells. In addition, these products reduced activated phosphorylated Her2 protein in SKBR3 (Her2 +) cells. Interestingly, propolis, when normalized for CAPE content, appears to be more potent than CAPE alone similarly to the greater effects of complete foods than isolated components. These data provide a potential mechanistic basis for one of the oldest naturopathic agents used in medicine and cancer treatment.

  14. Ameliorating Role of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE Against Methotrexate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Sciatic Nerve, Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Tissues of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Uzar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX-associated neurotoxicity is an important clinical problem in cancer patients, but the mechanisms of MTX-induced neurotoxicity are not yet known exactly. The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the possible role of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced neurotoxicity and (2 to determine whether there is a putative protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on MTX-induced neurotoxicity in the spinal cord, brainstem and sciatic nerve of rats. METHODS: A total of 19 adult Wistar male rats were divided into three experimental groups. Group I, control group; Group II, MTX-treated group; and Group III, MTX + CAPE-treated group. MTX was administered to the MTX and MTX + CAPE groups intraperitoneally (IP with a single dose of 20 mg/kg on the second day of the experiment. CAPE was administered to the MTX + CAPE group IP with a dose of 10 μmol/kg for 7 days. RESULTS: In the sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissue, CAT and GSH-Px activities were increased in the MTX group in comparison with the control group. CAPE treatment with MTX significantly decreased CAT and GSH-Px activities in the neuronal tissues of rats in comparison with the MTX group. In the spinal cord and brainstem tissues, SOD activity in the MTX group was decreased in comparison with the control group, but in the sciatic nerve, there was no significant difference. In the spinal cord and brainstem of rats, SOD activity was increased in the CAPE + MTX group when compared with the MTX group. The level of MDA was higher in the MTX group than in the control group. CAPE administration with MTX injection caused a significant decrease in MDA level when compared with the MTX group. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that MTX increases oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve, spinal cord and brainstem of rats and that CAPE has a preventive effect on the

  15. O conselho técnico-científico da educação básica da capes e a formação docente Capes' basic education council and teachers education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Scheibe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto é analisado o papel do Conselho Técnico Científico da Educação Básica da Capes, no contexto das políticas de formação dos profissionais para o magistério da educação básica. Este conselho tem a função de subsidiar as Diretorias da Educação Básica da Capes na formulação de políticas e no desenvolvimento de atividades de suporte à formação de profissionais de magistério. Instalado em 2008, sua principal contribuição foi definir uma Política Nacional de Formação de Profissionais da Educação Básica, que resultou na publicação do Decreto n. 6.755/2009, com diretrizes e indicações estratégicas para esta formação. Na sequência desta definição, a falta de sistematização das atribuições do conselho prejudicou o acompanhamento das políticas e a sua efetiva possibilidade de contribuir para o delineamento das ações necessárias para sua execução, razão pela qual se torna necessária a revisão na gestão do seu funcionamento, decisivo para auxiliar a Capes a diminuir a distância entre o fomento à pesquisa e pós-graduação e o fomento aos programas de formação inicial e continuada de professores para a educação básica.This paper analyzes the role of the National Scientific and Technical Council for Basic Education of CAPES in the context of policies for teacher education and accreditation for elementary and high school education. The role of this council is to support CAPES' Basic Education Directories in the formulation of policies and development of activities to support teachers' formation. Installed in 2008, its main contribution was to define a National Education Policy for Basic Education Professionals, which led to the publication of Decree 6.755/2009, with guidelines and strategic indications for teacher formation. Following the definition of this decree, the lack of systematization of the attributions of the council hampered its ability to monitor policies and allow it to

  16. Structure grid of the depth to the Pleistocene surface (Q30), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q30depth, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  17. Structure grid of the depth to the Pliocene surface (Q0), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q0depth,ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. Grid of the thickness of sediment above the Pleistocene surface Q50, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q50thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. Structure grid of the depth to the top of Pleistocene (Q99), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q99depth, ESRI binary grid, 400 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Grid of the thickness of sediment above the Pleistocene surface Q30, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q30thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Structure grid of the depth to the Pleistocene surface (Q50), inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q50depth, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. Demand Constraints and New Demands: Regulations, Markets and Institutions Efficiency (A Case Study for Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency is a key issue in economic research and for policy design, and certainly for food security challenges. In the food system dynamics the understanding of changes and trends is crucial to improve our capacity to deal with the objectives of sustainable development and quality of life. Food system efficiency evaluation is necessary with regard to production and consumption efficiencies as well as market and governance dilemmas. Regulations and institutional efficiency are crucial aspects that are frequently forgotten, and efforts should be made to improve the capacity to deal with those methodological needs. In many situations, in the real world, data and measurements are difficult or even impossible to get in numeric or quantitative terms. Frequently, a qualitative evaluation is the only way to proceed, but measurements and numeric references are still important, mainly when changes over time are central to the research. The actual paper follows a structural food system model (WFSE – World Food Security Equation and a general equilibrium approach (ICI model – induced changes and innovation model to show in a country case study (Cape Verde the important role of markets and institutions as compared to regulation practices directed to improve economic efficiency subject to demand behavior. Cape Verde is a very challenging country with regard to the food security status (where natural resources are very poor for agricultural production but with great success in global and macro terms in the last 10 years. The main problems nowadays are clearly at local level. The present research tries to highlight the global achievements and explore local assessment efforts on food consumption conditions. A specific region is studied, in the island of Santo Antão, one of the most important production regions. Three different production systems were compared mainly with regard to their respective influence on consumption habits, incomes and

  3. Paleomagnetic Progress in Peri-Gondwanan Terranes of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A. M.; Thompson, M. D.; Barr, S. M.; White, C. E.

    2009-05-01

    Paleopoles from primary Ediacaran magnetization directions established the Gondwanan origin of northern Appalachian Avalonian terranes, but magnetic overprints in the same rocks also provide useful tectonic information. Thus, in the Southeastern New England Avalon Zone, virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) calculated from magnetic B and C components in both 595 Ma Lynn-Mattapan volcanic rocks and 490-488 Ma Nahant Gabbro track mid- and late Paleozoic segments of the North American apparent polar wander path (APWP), suggesting the influence of Acadian and Neo-Acadian accretionary events. We report here on multi- vectorial magnetizations in pilot samples from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia where the Bras d'Or and Mira terranes represent both Ganderian and Avalonian elements transferred from Gondwana. Overprint relationships in these terranes may constrain their amalgamation with each other as well their docking with Laurentia. As in southeastern New England, secondary remanences can be identified in Cape Breton Island as consistent magnetization directions in rocks of differing ages. The S- to SSE-trending and gently downward pointing direction reported in 1985 by Johnson and Van der Voo in Middle Cambrian sedimentary rocks of the Bourinot Group (Bras d'Or terrane), for example, is also present in the 563 Ma Main à Dieu Formation and in 620 Ma Chisholm Brook Granite and East Bay Hill rhyolite (Mira terrane). This magnetization represents the C component already found around Boston, MA. The resulting VGPs in both areas occupy positions on the North American APWP consistent with a Neo-Acadian overprint, possibly related to the docking of the Meguma terrane against previously accreted Avalonia. Other overprint directions encountered in this investigation give rise to VGPs that do not coincide with the North American APWP, hence appear to reflect tectonic events independent of Laurentia. One such cluster comprising both Mira and Bras d'Or VGPs includes the paleopole also

  4. Future Water-Supply Scenarios, Cape May County, New Jersey, 2003-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.; Pope, Daryll A.; Rice, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Stewards of the water supply in New Jersey are interested in developing a plan to supply potable and non-potable water to residents and businesses of Cape May County until at least 2050. The ideal plan would meet projected demands and minimize adverse effects on currently used sources of potable, non-potable, and ecological water supplies. This report documents past and projected potable, non-potable, and ecological water-supply demands. Past and ongoing adverse effects to production and domestic wells caused by withdrawals include saltwater intrusion and water-level declines in the freshwater aquifers. Adverse effects on the ecological water supplies caused by groundwater withdrawals include premature drying of seasonal wetlands, delayed recovery of water levels in the water-table aquifer, and reduced streamflow. To predict the effects of future actions on the water supplies, three baseline and six future scenarios were created and simulated. Baseline Scenarios 1, 2, and 3 represent withdrawals using existing wells projected until 2050. Baseline Scenario 1 represents average 1998-2003 withdrawals, and Scenario 2 represents New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) full allocation withdrawals. These withdrawals do not meet projected future water demands. Baseline Scenario 3 represents the estimated full build-out water demands. Results of simulations of the three baseline scenarios indicate that saltwater would intrude into the Cohansey aquifer as much as 7,100 feet (ft) to adversely affect production wells used by Lower Township and the Wildwoods, as well as some other near-shore domestic wells; water-level altitudes in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand would decline to -156 ft; base flow in streams would be depleted by 0 to 26 percent; and water levels in the water-table aquifer would decline as much as 0.7ft. [Specific water-level altitudes, land-surface altitudes, and present sea level when used in this report are referenced to the North American

  5. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Peer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs being hosted in South African (SA training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of SA registrars (SARs. Methods. SNRs and SARs completed an online survey in 2012. Results. Seventy-three registrars responded; 42 were SARs and 31 were SNRs. Of the SNRs 47.8% were self-funded, 17.4% were funded through private organisations, and 34.8% were funded by governments. Average annual income was ZAR102 349 (range ZAR680 - 460 000. Funding was considered insufficient by 61.0%. Eighty-seven percent intended to return to their home countries. Personal sacrifices were deemed worthwhile from academic (81.8% and social (54.5% perspectives, but not financially (33.3%. Only a small majority were satisfied with the orientation provided and with assimilation into their departments. Almost half experienced challenges relating to cultural and social integration. Almost all SARs supported having SNRs. SNRs reported xenophobia from patients (23.8% and colleagues (47.8%, and felt disadvantaged in terms of learning opportunities, academic support and on-call allocations. Conclusions. SNRs are fee-paying students and should enjoy academic and teaching support equal to that received by SARs. Both the university and the teaching hospitals must take steps to improve the integration of SNRs and ensure that they receive equal access to academic support and clinical teaching, and also need to take an interest in their financial wellbeing. Of particular concern are perceptions of xenophobia from SA medical colleagues.

  6. Patients’ perceptions of the triage system in a primary healthcare facility, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeloye A. Adeniji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In public healthcare facilities, where the patient numbers and the available resources are often disproportionate, triage is used to prioritise when patients are seen. Patients may not understand the triage process and have strong views on how to improve their experience.Aim: This study explored the views of patients who had undergone triage in the emergency centre of a primary care facility. Setting: Gugulethu Community Health Centre, Cape Town.Methods: A purposive sample consisted of five women (one coded green, three orange, one yellow and four men (one coded green and three yellow. A semi-structured qualitative interview was conducted in either Xhosa or English and the transcripts analysed using the framework method.Results: All of the respondents complained of a lack of information and poor understanding of the triage process. Those coded green experienced the process as biased and unfair and reported that the triage nurse was rude and unprofessional. By contrast, those coded yellow or orange found the triage nurse to be helpful and professional. Most patients turned to support staff (e.g. security staff or cleaners for assistance in dealing with the triage system. Most patients waited longer than the guidelines recommend and the green-coded patients complained about this issue.Conclusion: Patients did not have a good experience of the triage system. Managers of the triage system need to design better strategies to improve patient acceptance and share information. The important role of support staff needs to be recognised and strengthened.Keywords: emergency care; primary care; triage; patient satisfaction

  7. An evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ community placements in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Naidu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training.Objectives: This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders.Methods: A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 2006, 2008 and 2009. Two students and a stakeholder involved with each project were sampled. A standardised survey was emailed to students and in-depth interviews were held with stakeholders.Results: Fifty two per cent of 64 students and 57% of 25 stakeholders responded. Most students felt that the placements enhanced their academic experience and confidence in research skills, and were an effective form of learning. Perceived challenges included time constraints and, for a minority, inadequately prepared settings and stakeholders. Stakeholders felt that the placements empowered the communities and prepared students for the realities of working as a medical professional. They viewed students as a valuable resource and believed that student projects addressed important community myths and health problems. Recommendations from students and stakeholders included more time for the Public Health block, followup interventions for greater continuity, and better alignment of projects with stakeholder programmes.Conclusion: The evaluation reveals both the importance and challenges of community placements and identifies areas of improvement. Despite the limited duration of the placements, they offered valuable community-based learning experiences for the students and worthwhile benefits for the communities.

  8. An evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ community placements in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Naidu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training.Objectives: This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders.Methods: A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 2006, 2008 and 2009. Two students and a stakeholder involved with each project were sampled. A standardised survey was emailed to students and in-depth interviews were held with stakeholders.Results: Fifty two per cent of 64 students and 57% of 25 stakeholders responded. Most students felt that the placements enhanced their academic experience and confidence in research skills, and were an effective form of learning. Perceived challenges included time constraints and, for a minority, inadequately prepared settings and stakeholders. Stakeholders felt that the placements empowered the communities and prepared students for the realities of working as a medical professional. They viewed students as a valuable resource and believed that student projects addressed important community myths and health problems. Recommendations from students and stakeholders included more time for the Public Health block, followup interventions for greater continuity, and better alignment of projects with stakeholder programmes.Conclusion: The evaluation reveals both the importance and challenges of community placements and identifies areas of improvement. Despite the limited duration of the placements, they offered valuable community-based learning experiences for the students and worthwhile benefits for the communities.

  9. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaswana-Mafuya Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART. The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. Methods In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Results Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66% classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Conclusion Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  10. Fish communities of the Wilderness Lakes System in the southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis A. Olds

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wilderness Lakes System, a temporarily open and closed estuary with three associated lakes situated in the southern Cape region of South Africa, was sampled using a range of sampling gears to assess the fish community. A total of 25 species were sampled throughout the system, with the highest diversity in the Touw Estuary (23 species and the lowest in Langvlei (11 species. Estuary-associated marine species (13 species dominated species richness with smaller proportions of estuarine resident (7 species, freshwater (3 species and catadromous species (2 species. Estuarine resident species dominated the catch numerically. The size–class distribution of euryhaline marine species indicated that upon entering the Touw Estuary as juveniles, the fish move up the system towards Rondevlei where they appear to remain. Three freshwater species were recorded in the system, all of which are alien to the Wilderness Lakes System. Decreasing salinity in the upper lakes appears to be a driving factor in the distribution and increasing abundance of the freshwater fishes. Sampling followed a drought, with the system experiencing substantially increased levels of mouth closure compared to a similar study conducted in the 1980s. The timing of mouth opening and the degree of connectivity between the lakes influence the nursery function of the system as a whole. Management actions need to focus on improving ecological functioning of this system, in particular how mouth opening is managed, to facilitate nursery function and limit the establishment of invasive species.Conservation implications: Key management actions are required to improve fish recruitment potential into and within the system. These include maintenance of adequate marine inflow through adherence to artificial mouth breaching protocols and improving connectivity between the lakes through sediment removal from localised deposition points within the connecting channels.

  11. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings.

  12. Attitudes, knowledge and treatment of low back pain amongst nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the high-risk professions for the development of musculoskeletal problems is nursing. Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group.Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP amongst nursing staff in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, Eastern Cape.Methods: The study population consisted of all qualified nurses employed at the hospital. A cross-sectional survey with a purposive convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire was designed using literature from established sources. The questionnaire was distributed manually and data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO4.Results: The study found that the majority of the participants experienced LBP on a regular basis. The participants could identify the most important physical risk factors associated with the development of LBP, but neglected the psychological risk factors. Action taken after the development of LBP included professional consultations as well as medication and bed rest.The participants identified the different components of a preventative exercise programme but only focused on the physical and not psychological components associated with LBP.Conclusions: LBP is a serious problem amongst the nurses at the hospital, but no proactiveapproach is taken in order to address this problem. Policy guidelines and a comprehensive prevention and treatment programme need to be designed and implemented to address this issue.

  13. Evidence for a Mega-Tsunami Generated by Giant Flank Collapse of Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, R. S.; Madeira, J.; Helffrich, G. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Winckler, G.; Quartau, R.; Adena, K.

    2013-12-01

    Mega-tsunamis generated by ocean island flank collapses are expected to be some of the most hazardous forces of nature, yet evidence for their near-source effects and inferred high run-ups so far is scarce or hotly debated. A newly discovered deposit on the northern coast of Santiago Island (Cape Verde), however, documents the magnitude and run-up height associated with this kind of event. Additionally to chaotic conglomerates distributed from sea-level up to 100 m elevation standing on slopes as steep as 20°, the deposit comprises a number of scattered megaclasts of submarine lava flows, limestone and tuff. The megaclasts are presently located over a higher substructural slope built on younger subaerial lava flows and at elevations ranging 160-220 m a.s.l. All megaclasts correspond to lithologies that crop out exclusively in nearby cliff faces. The origin of this deposit is consequently attributed to an exceptional wave that plucked blocks from the cliff face, transported them inland and deposited them over the higher slopes of the volcanic edifice. The distribution of the megaclasts, together with the local geomorphology, is in agreement with a tsunami that approached the island edifice from the west and was refracted along its northern flank, flooding a series of northwest-oriented valleys. This suggests that the well-known flank collapse of Fogo volcano, located 55 km west of Santiago, is the most likely source, a hypothesis being tested with surface exposure dating. The inferred run-up exceeded 200 m and is consistent with numerical simulations by Paris et al. 2011, implying that the present Fogo island morphology probably developed by at least one giant flank collapse with devastating near-source effects.

  14. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080–2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  15. Investigating volcanic hazard in Cape Verde Islands through geophysical monitoring: network description and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, B.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

    2014-02-01

    We describe a new geophysical network deployed in the Cape Verde Archipelago for the assessment and monitoring of volcanic hazards as well as the first results from the network. Across the archipelago, the ages of volcanic activity range from ca. 20 Ma to present. In general, older islands are in the east and younger ones are in the west, but there is no clear age progression of eruptive activity as widely separated islands have erupted contemporaneously on geological timescales. The overall magmatic rate is low, and there are indications that eruptive activity is episodic, with intervals between episodes of intense activity ranging from 1 to 4 Ma. Although only Fogo Island has experienced eruptions (mainly effusive) in the historic period (last 550 yr), Brava and Santo Antão have experienced numerous geologically recent eruptions, including violent explosive eruptions, and show felt seismic activity and geothermal activity. Evidence for recent volcanism in the other islands is more limited and the emphasis has therefore been on monitoring of the three critical islands of Fogo, Brava and Santo Antão, where volcanic hazard levels are highest. Geophysical monitoring of all three islands is now in operation. The first results show that on Fogo, the seismic activity is dominated by hydrothermal events and volcano-tectonic events that may be related to settling of the edifice after the 1995 eruption; in Brava by volcano-tectonic events (mostly offshore), and in Santo Antão by volcano-tectonic events, medium-frequency events and harmonic tremor. Both in Brava and in Santo Antão, the recorded seismicity indicates that relatively shallow magmatic systems are present and causing deformation of the edifices that may include episodes of dike intrusion.

  16. Prevalence of lung lesions in slaughtered cattle in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael F. Jaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Information obtained from abattoirs on the causes of lung condemnation is important in preventing the spread of zoonotic diseases and for promoting food security. In this study, we assessed the causes of lung condemnation in cattle at three abattoirs represented as ANA, QTA and EBA to evaluate the financial losses associated with lung condemnation. A retrospective study (n = 51 302 involving the use of abattoir slaughter records of 2010–2012 and an active abattoir survey (n = 1374 was conducted from July to December 2013. The retrospective study revealed the main causes of lung condemnation as pneumonia (1.09%, 2.21% and 0.77%, emphysema (1.12%, 1.14% and 1.1.6% and abscessation (0.71%, 1.06% and 0.77%, from ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. The combined monetary loss because of lung condemnation during the period 2010 to 2012 was estimated as ZAR 85 158 (USD 7939 for the abattoirs surveyed. Conversely, during the active abattoir survey, agonal emphysema (15%, 15% and 23% and improper eviscerations with faecal contamination (10%, 38% and 42% were the major factors that led to lung condemnation at ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. Other causes of lung condemnations were haemorrhage (10% for QTA and pleurisy (12% for EBA. The weight loss of lungs during the active abattoir survey was 6450 kg, while the associated monetary loss was estimated as ZAR 29 025 (USD 2706. This study identified major causes of lung condemnation as pleuritis, improper evisceration, pneumonia, abscesses, haemorrhages and lung worms and their associated monetary losses. The results of this study may be useful as baseline data for future comparison in similar surveys, for tracking of some zoonotic diseases affecting lungs and for further research in the Eastern Cape Province or other provinces of South Africa.

  17. Optical and microphysical properties of smoke over Cape Verde inferred from multiwavelength lidar measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesche, Matthias (Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (IfT), Leipzig (Germany); Dept. of Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: matthias.tesche@itm.su.se; Muller, Detlef (Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (IfT), Leipzig (Germany); Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory, Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)); Gross, Silke (Meteorological Inst., Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich (Germany); Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany)); Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich (Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (IfT), Leipzig (Germany)); Freudenthaler, Volker (Meteorological Inst., Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich (Germany)); Weinzierl, Bernadett; Veira, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas (Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany))

    2011-09-15

    Lidar measurements of mixed dust/smoke plumes over the tropical Atlantic ocean were carried out during the winter campaign of SAMUM-2 at Cape Verde. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and Aangstroem exponents related to pure biomass-burning aerosol from southern West Africa were extracted from these observations. Furthermore, these findings were used as input for an inversion algorithm to retrieve microphysical properties of pure smoke. Seven measurement days were found suitable for the procedure of aerosol-type separation and successive inversion of optical data that describe biomass-burning smoke. We inferred high smoke lidar ratios of 87 +-17 sr at 355 nm and 79 +- 17 sr at 532 nm. Smoke lidar ratios and Aangstroem exponents are higher compared to the ones for the dust/smoke mixture. These numbers indicate higher absorption and smaller sizes for pure smoke particles compared to the dust/smoke mixture. Inversion of the smoke data set results in mean effective radii of 0.22 +- 0.08 mum with individual results varying between 0.10 and 0.36 mum. The single-scattering albedo for pure biomass-burning smoke was found to vary between 0.63 and 0.89 with a very low mean value of 0.75 +- 0.07. This is in good agreement with findings of airborne in situ measurements which showed values of 0.77 +- 0.03. Effective radii from the inversion were similar to the ones found for the fine mode of the in situ size distributions

  18. Nutritional anaemia in 11-year-old schoolchildren in the western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparelli, R D; van der Westhuyzen, J; Steyn, N P; Baynes, R D; MacFarlane, B J; Green, A; Bothwell, T H

    1988-04-16

    A nutritional anaemia survey was carried out on 610 11-year-old coloured, black and white schoolchildren in urban and rural communities in the western Cape. The mean (+/- 1 SD) haemoglobin concentration was 13.0 +/- 1.2 g/dl. The coloured and black subgroups considered together had a significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentration than the white subgroup (12.8 +/- 1.2 g/dl v. 13.4 +/- 1.0 g/dl) (F = 37.47; P less than 0.0001). The urban population as a whole had a significantly lower geometric mean (1 SD range) serum ferritin concentration than the rural population (25.6 (13.5-48.6) micrograms/l v. 34.1 (21.3-54.6) micrograms/l) (F = 42.94; P less than 0.0001). The lowest geometric mean serum ferritin values were found in the urban coloured (23.1 (11.5-46.4) micrograms/l) and urban black schoolchildren (23.7 (13.2-42.6) micrograms/l), with figures of less than 12 micrograms/l in 11.7% and 12.5% respectively. Although 28% of the children had red cell folate values below the recommended lower limit of normal (175 ng/ml), probability plot analysis of the data suggested that folate deficiency was not a major problem in the study population. The calculated daily iron and folate intakes were below the age-related recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in all the subgroups, yet anaemia was relatively uncommon. These findings suggest that the RDA values are too high. Overall the prevalence of nutritional anaemia was low and only the urban coloured subgroup showed significant second populations with low haemoglobin and serum ferritin measurements.

  19. MACCSAND (Pty Ltd v CITY OF CAPE TOWN 2012 (4 SA 181 (CC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nic Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Court in Maccsand (Pty Ltd v City of Cape Town (CCT 103/11 2012 ZACC 7 decided that the granting of mining rights or mining permits by the Minister of Mineral Resources in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 does not obviate the obligation on an applicant to obtain authorisations in terms of other legislation that deals with functional domains other than minerals, mining and prospecting. This applies to all other legislation, irrespective of whether the responsible administrator of such other legislation is in the national, provincial or local sphere of government. The effect of the decision is that planning and other authorities which derive their statutory mandate and powers from other legislation retain all their powers as regards planning and rezoning, for instance. In addition, the Minister of Mineral Resources cannot make a decision on behalf of, or for, such functionaries. The judgement also clarified the question of whether or not a national Act can supersede provincial legislation dealing with a distinctly different functional domain. In principle, the decision also indicates that the fact that a range of authorisations are required in terms of separate statutory instruments (each with its own functional domain and administered by its own functionary does not necessarily amount to conflicts between these instruments. An owner of land may now insist that his land may not be used for mining purposes if it is not zoned for such purposes. It is submitted that, in order to provide certainty to land owners, developers and government functionaries, and to promote investor confidence (especially in the mining sector, an intergovernmental system for the consideration of applications by the functionaries responsible for the separate statutory instruments needs to be developed as a high priority.

  20. The academic transitional experiences of masters’ students at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Hoffman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transition has been a major focus of educational institutions. However, most of the research into student transition focuses on the challenges related the transition from high school to university. Not much emphasis has been placed on the transition from undergraduate topostgraduate studies, despite the steadily increasing postgraduate enrolment rates in higher education institutions. The discrepancy between the enrolment and completion rates is an indication that postgraduate students are facing transitional challenges when engaging with postgraduate studies. The aim of this research study was to describe the academic transitional experiences of masters’ students in the Faculty of Community Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape. The objectives were to determine the academic preparedness of postgraduate students, to explore their primary motivations for pursuing postgraduate studies, and to assess their utilisation of the available support services at UWC.A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with masters’ students during 2009, using convenience sampling. Data was statistically analysed using the SPSS to provide descriptive statistics. The majority of the sample indicated a lack of academic preparedness, even though most of them had a bachelor’s degree. The primary reasons listed as motivation for master’s study were to improve knowledge and reaching self-actualisation. The majority is still eager to complete their studies. Most support systems were utilised and students rated these services as a positive experience that facilitates smooth academic transition. However, concerns are that not many students utilised the academic writing centre and those who did, rated the overall service as average. One of the main recommendations was that a research culture needs to be established at undergraduate level, as this would give students greater exposure to

  1. The academic transitional experiences of masters' students at the University of the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeffrey C; Julie, Hester

    2012-08-24

    Transition has been a major focus of educational institutions. However, most of the research into student transition focuses on the challenges related the transition from high school to university. Not much emphasis has been placed on the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate studies, despite the steadily increasing postgraduate enrolment rates in higher education institutions. The discrepancy between the enrolment and completion rates is an indication that postgraduate students are facing transitional challenges when engaging with postgraduate studies. The aim of this research study was to describe the academic transitional experiences of masters' students in the Faculty of Community Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape. The objectives were to determine the academic preparedness of postgraduate students, to explore their primary motivations for pursuing postgraduate studies, and to assess their utilisation of the available support services at UWC. A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with masters' students during 2009, using convenience sampling. Data was statistically analysed using the SPSS to provide descriptive statistics. The majority of the sample indicated a lack of academic preparedness, even though most of them had a bachelor's degree. The primary reasons listed as motivation for master's study were to improve knowledge and reaching self-actualisation. The majority is still eager to complete their studies. Most support systems were utilised and students rated these services as a positive experience that facilitates smooth academic transition. However, concerns are that not many students utilised the academic writing centre and those who did, rated the overall service as average. One of the main recommendations was that a research culture needs to be established.

  2. The academic transitional experiences of masters’ students at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Hoffman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition has been a major focus of educational institutions. However, most of the research into student transition focuses on the challenges related the transition from high school to university. Not much emphasis has been placed on the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate studies, despite the steadily increasing postgraduate enrolment rates in higher education institutions. The discrepancy between the enrolment and completion rates is an indication that postgraduate students are facing transitional challenges when engaging with postgraduate studies. The aim of this research study was to describe the academic transitional experiences of masters’ students in the Faculty of Community Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape. The objectives were to determine the academic preparedness of postgraduate students, to explore their primary motivations for pursuing postgraduate studies, and to assess their utilisation of the available support services at UWC.A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with masters’ students during 2009, using convenience sampling. Data was statistically analysed using the SPSS to provide descriptive statistics.The majority of the sample indicated a lack of academic preparedness, even though most of them had a bachelor’s degree. The primary reasons listed as motivation for master’s study were to improve knowledge and reaching self-actualisation. The majority is still eager to complete their studies. Most support systems were utilised and students rated these services as a positive experience that facilitates smooth academic transition. However, concerns are that not many students utilised the academic writing centre and those who did, rated the overall service as average. One of the main recommendations was that a research culture needs to be established

  3. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0 to 30 pg m−3 for MA, 130 to 360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5 to 110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2 to 520 pg m−3 for MA, 100 to 1400 pg m−3 for DMA, 90 to 760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicates that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2 to 2.5%C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the organic nitrogen in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the total detected nitrogen content in submicron particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N to 1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  4. Children with Speech Difficulties: A survey of clinical practice in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study by Joffe and Pring (2008 which investigated assessment and therapy methods used by Speech Language Therapists (SLTs in the United Kingdom for children with phonological difficulties. Joffe and Pring reported SLTs’ most favoured assessments and therapy approaches in that context. Children with speech difficulties are likely to form a considerable part of SLT caseloads in South Africa, but the choice of assessments may not be so clearcut given the linguistic diversity of the region and the fact that few assessments have been developed specifically for the SA population. Linked to difficulties with assessment, selection of intervention approaches may also pose challenges. This study aimed to investigate the methods of assessment and intervention used by SLTs in the Western Cape when working with children with speech difficulties. A questionnaire was sent to SLTs working with pre and/ or primary school- aged children. Twenty-nine clinicians of varying experience responded. The majority of SLTs (89% use informal assessment tools in combination with formal assessment. When using formal assessments, more than 50% of SLTs make modifications to better suit the population. Participants use a variety of intervention approaches, often in combination, and based on a child’s individual profile of difficulties and available resources. Forty-six percent of SLTs felt unsure about the selection of assessments and intervention for bi/multilingual children with speech difficulties. SLTs suggested that guidelines about accepted / typical speech development in the region would be helpful for their clinical practice. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed together with some suggestions for developing knowledge of children’s speech difficulties in the South African context.

  5. A benthic carbon budget for the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, N.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.J.; Blair, N.E.; DeMaster, D.J.; Jahnke, R.A.; Martens, C.S.

    1999-01-31

    The continental slope off Cape Hatteras, N.C. from approximately 36{degree} 00 minutes N to 35{degree} 20 minutes N is a region of relatively rapid sediment accumulation, organic matter deposition and subsequent remineralization. The measured fluxes are the highest reported for the slope off the eastern US Sediment accumulation rates range from 40 to 140 cm ky{sup -1}. Organic carbon deposition rates range from 3.5 to 7.4 moles C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. The areal coverage of this ''depocenter'' is probably controlled by interactions between physical oceanographic processes and the rugged topography of the seafloor. The organic matter deposited on the seafloor is primarily marine in origin and a mix of old and fresh particles. 73-93% of the depositing detritus is rapidly oxidized near the sediment/water interface. The controls on subsurface remineralization appear to be a complex function of the relative amount of metabolizable carbon delivered to the seabed both now and in the distant past (>=500ybp) and the extent of seabed irrigation. The age of DIC and CH{sub 4} produced within the seabed indicates that relatively young, reactive carbon is advected below the sediment surface and fuels subsurface remineralization. The stable isotopic composition of DIC produced within the seabed indicates the selective degradation of {sup 13}C-enriched fractions of the organic matter. The metabolizable fraction has a carbon isotopic signature of approx. -18{per_thousand};, while the organic matter that survives degradation and is buried has a d{sup 13}C closer to -20{per_thousand}.

  6. Estudio de usabilidad del Portal de Periódicos de CAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira da Costa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El estudio analiza la usabilidad del Portal de Periódicos de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento de Personal de Nivel Superior (CAPES en base a los parámetros de usabilidad desarrollados por el estudioso Jakob Nielsen y bajo la perspectiva de un estudio de usuario, haciendo una vinculación inevitable de la información con los ámbitos de la tecnología y la Ciencia de la Información. Método. Este es un estudio de naturaleza descriptiva, usa un abordaje cualitativo con aporte cuantitativo. Tiene como sujetos de investigación los docentes permanentes vinculados a los Programas de Postgrado del Centro de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Federal de Paraíba. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de investigación bibliográfica y documental, además de un cuestionario y entrevista. Para el análisis de datos, se utilizó el análisis descriptivo por categorías. Como resultados se evidenció la calidad de uso del Portal. Resultados. Corrobora que la mayoría de los atributos de usabilidad del Portal está calificada en niveles por encima de la media, con excepción del atributo Baja tasa de errores, que presentó media regular.Conclusiones. El presente estudio de usabilidad del Portal ha constituido un importante instrumento de evaluación institucional de uso de este sistema de información.

  7. Virgilia divaricata may facilitate forest expansion in the afrotemperate forests of the southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corli Coetsee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Virgilia divaricata is a fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree species often found on the margins of forest in the southern Cape of South Africa and is particularly abundant after fire. However, V. divaricatamay invade fynbos even in the absence of fire and it has been described as a forest precursor. We investigated whether V. divaricata enriches soil fertility after its invasion into fynbos areas adjacent to forests. We measured soil organic carbon and soil nutrients at four sites. At each site, three vegetation types (forest, V. divaricata and fynbos were examined on the same soil type and at the same elevation. Our results showed that, on average, soils taken from V. divaricata stands had higher nitrogen and phosphorus values than the adjacent fynbos soils, with either lower or similar values to the adjacent forest soils. Higher soil fertility under V. divaricata, together with their shading effect, may create conditions favourable for shade-loving forest species dependent on an efficient nutrient cycle in the topsoil layers, and less favourable for shade-hating fynbos species, which are generally adapted to low soil fertility. We suggest that the restoration of the nutrient cycle found in association with forest may be accelerated under V. divaricata compared with other forest precursor species, which has important consequences for the use of V. divaricata in ecosystem restoration.Conservation implications: Alien plantations in the Outeniqua Mountains are being phased out and the areas are being incorporated into the Garden Route National Park. Fynbos areas are increasingly being invaded by forest and thicket species owing to fire suppression in lower-lying areas. An improved understanding of the fynbos–forest boundary dynamics will aid in efficient management and restoration of these ecosystems.

  8. Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2012-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the α = 0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p = 0.003), breed (p = 0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.35) (p = 0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065

  9. A Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Landmarks along Cape Hatteras National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cape Hatteras National Seashore is located along the Outer Banks, a narrow string of barrier islands in eastern North Carolina. The seashore was established to preserve cultural and natural resources of national significance, yet these islands have shoreline rates of change that are predominately erosional, frequently experience storm surge inundation driven by tropical and extra-tropical storm events, and are highly vulnerable to sea level rise. The National Park Service staff are concerned about the vulnerability of historic structures located within the park, and recognized the utility of a coastal hazard risk assessment to assist park managers with long-term planning. They formed a cooperative agreement with researchers at East Carolina University to conduct the assessment, which primarily used GIS to evaluate the susceptibility of 27 historical structures to coastal erosion, storm surge, and sea-level rise. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System was used to calculate a linear regression rate of shoreline movement based on historical shorelines. Those rates were used to simulate the future position of the shoreline along transects. The SLOSH model output was down scaled to a DEM generated from the 2014 NC QL2 LiDAR collection to determine the extent and depth of inundation that would occur from storm events. Sea level rise was modeled for various scenarios referenced to existing MHHW, and also added to each SLOSH model output to determine the effect of a storm event under those sea level rise scenarios. Risk maps were developed to include not only areal coverage for existing structures and districts, but also identify potential areas of relocation or retreat in the long-term. In addition to evaluating vulnerability, timelines for potential impacts provided scenarios for National Park Service staff to research adaption and mitigation strategies.

  10. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Sengwana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management

  11. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet L. van den Berg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers need to be equipped to deal with the increasing obesity and obesity-related morbidity occurring in developing countries.Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured intervieweradministered questionnaires.Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives.Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  12. Energetic costs of parasitism in the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, M; Waterman, J.M; Hillegass, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2007-01-01

    Parasites have been suggested to influence many aspects of host behaviour. Some of these effects may be mediated via their impact on host energy budgets. This impact may include effects on both energy intake and absorption as well as components of expenditure, including resting metabolic rate (RMR) and activity (e.g. grooming). Despite their potential importance, the energy costs of parasitism have seldom been directly quantified in a field setting. Here we pharmacologically treated female Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) with anti-parasite drugs and measured the change in body composition, the daily energy expenditure (DEE) using doubly labelled water, the RMR by respirometry and the proportions of time spent looking for food, feeding, moving and grooming. Post-treatment animals gained an average 19 g of fat or approximately 25 kJ d−1. DEE averaged 382 kJ d−1 prior to and 375 kJ d−1 post treatment (p>0.05). RMR averaged 174 kJ d−1 prior to and 217 kJ d−1 post treatment (p<0.009). Post-treatment animals spent less time looking for food and grooming, but more time on feeding. A primary impact of infection by parasites could be suppression of feeding behaviour and, hence, total available energy resources. The significant elevation of RMR after treatment was unexpected. One explanation might be that parasites produce metabolic by-products that suppress RMR. Overall, these findings suggest that impacts of parasites on host energy budgets are complex and are not easily explained by simple effects such as stimulation of a costly immune response. There is currently no broadly generalizable framework available for predicting the energetic consequences of parasitic infection. PMID:17613450

  13. Complex anthropogenic sources of platinum group elements in aerosols on Cape Cod, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas

    2013-09-17

    Platinum group elements (PGE) of anthropogenic origin have been reported in rainwater, snow, roadside soil and vegetation, industrial waste, and urban airborne particles around the world. As recent studies have shown that PGE are bioavailable in the environment and pose health risks at chronic levels, the extent of PGE pollution is of global concern. In this study, we report PGE concentrations and osmium isotope ((187)Os/(188)Os) ratios of airborne particles (particulate matter, PM10) collected in Woods Hole, a small coastal village on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. The sampling site is more than 100 km away from the nearest urban centers (Boston, Providence) and has no large industrial emission center within a 30 km radius. The study reveals that, although PGE concentrations in rural airborne particulate matter are orders of magnitude lower than in urban aerosols, 69% of the total osmium is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic PGE signatures in airborne particles are thus not restricted to large cities with high traffic flows and substantial industries; they can also be found in rural environments. We further conclude that the combination of Pt/Rh concentration ratios and (187)Os/(188)Os composition can be used to trace PGE sources. The Pt/Rh and (187)Os/(188)Os composition of Woods Hole aerosols indicate that the anthropogenic PGE fraction is primarily sourced from ore smelting processes, with possible minor contributions from fossil fuel burning and automobile catalyst-derived materials. Our results further substantiate the use of (187)Os/(188)Os in source apportionment studies on continental scales.

  14. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C.; Iinuma, Y.; Karstensen, J.; van Pinxteren, D.; Lehmann, S.; Gnauk, T.; Herrmann, H.

    2009-12-01

    Monomethylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA) and diethylamine (DEA) were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0-30 pg m-3 for MA, 130-360 pg m-3 for DMA and 5-110 pg m-3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2-520 pg m-3 for MA, 100-1400 pg m-3 for DMA and 90-760 pg m-3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14-0.42 μm) indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC) content ranged from 0.2-2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N-1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines). This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  15. Revisiting the cape cod bacteria injection experiment using a stochastic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R.M.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Bromide and resting-cell bacteria tracer tests conducted in a sandy aquifer at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod site in 1987 were reinterpreted using a three-dimensional stochastic approach. Bacteria transport was coupled to colloid filtration theory through functional dependence of local-scale colloid transport parameters upon hydraulic conductivity and seepage velocity in a stochastic advection - dispersion/attachment - detachment model. Geostatistical information on the hydraulic conductivity (K) field that was unavailable at the time of the original test was utilized as input. Using geostatistical parameters, a groundwater flow and particle-tracking model of conservative solute transport was calibrated to the bromide-tracer breakthrough data. An optimization routine was employed over 100 realizations to adjust the mean and variance ofthe natural-logarithm of hydraulic conductivity (InK) field to achieve best fit of a simulated, average bromide breakthrough curve. A stochastic particle-tracking model for the bacteria was run without adjustments to the local-scale colloid transport parameters. Good predictions of mean bacteria breakthrough were achieved using several approaches for modeling components of the system. Simulations incorporating the recent Tufenkji and Elimelech (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 529-536) correlation equation for estimating single collector efficiency were compared to those using the older Rajagopalan and Tien (AIChE J. 1976, 22, 523-533) model. Both appeared to work equally well at predicting mean bacteria breakthrough using a constant mean bacteria diameter for this set of field conditions. Simulations using a distribution of bacterial cell diameters available from original field notes yielded a slight improvement in the model and data agreement compared to simulations using an average bacterial diameter. The stochastic approach based on estimates of local-scale parameters for the bacteria-transport process reasonably captured

  16. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  17. Mechanism of 2003, 2007 and 2009 earthquakes (S. Vicente Cape) and implications for the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, E.; Pro, C.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Udias, A.

    2012-04-01

    The San Vicente Cape region (SW Iberia) is of great seismological interest due to its tectonic complexity and for the occurrence of the 1755 Lisbon mega-earthquake. A structure capable of generating such large earthquake has not been convincingly found but authors agree with the possible occurrence in the future of a similar earthquake offshore of San Vicente Cape. We have studied the mechanism of three earthquakes in this area: 29 July 2003 (Mw = 5.3), 12 February 2007 (Mw = 6.1) and 17 December 2009 (Mw = 5.5) which throw light on the dynamics of the region. These earthquakes are the largest occurred in the last 40 years at the western of San Vicente Cape. From inversion of body waves and kinematic slip distribution, we have obtained that the three shocks have similar characteristics (dimensions, maximum slip, stress drop, source time function, focal depth and rupture velocity), but we can observe differences on geometry of the rupture that reflect the great seismotectonics complexity of the zone. The 2003 and 2007 focal mechanisms are similar, corresponding to thrusting motion but the 2009 earthquake has dip-slip motion on a vertical plane. The ruptures planes for the three shocks, deduced from the slip distribution, show ruptures on NE-SW planes, with the released energy propagating to NE direction, compatible with the regional horizontal compression in the NW-SE direction produced by the convergence between the Eurasian and African plates. This direction of faulting may be applied to the generation of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, in terms of a complex rupture along NE-SW trending thrust faults at the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Scarp and the Marques de Pombal Fault, with rupture propagating in NE direction toward the coast of Portugal and which may explain the large damage at Lisbon city.

  18. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.; Phalen, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  19. Soil and water conservation strategies and impact on sustainable livelihood in Cape Verde - Case study of Ribeira Seca watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, I.; Ferreira, A. D.; Tavares, J.; Querido, A. L. E.; Reis, A. E. A.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; Varela, A.

    2012-04-01

    Cape Verde, located off the coast of Senegal in western Africa, is a volcanic archipelago where a combination of human, climatic, geomorphologic and pedologic factors has led to extensive degradation of the soils. Like other Sahelian countries, Cape Verde has suffered the effects of desertification through the years, threatening the livelihood of the islands population and its fragile environment. In fact, the steep slopes in the ore agricultural islands, together with semi-arid and arid environments, characterized by an irregular and poorly distributed rainy season, with high intensity rainfall events, make dryland production a challenge. To survive in these fragile conditions, the stabilization of the farming systems and the maintenance of sustainable yields have become absolute priorities, making the islands an erosion control laboratory. Soil and water conservation strategies have been a centerpiece of the government's agricultural policies for the last half century. Aiming to maintain the soil in place and the water inside the soil, the successive governments of Cape Verde have implemented a number of soil and water conservation techniques, the most common ones being terraces, half moons, live barriers, contour rock walls, contour furrows and microcatchments, check dams and reforestation with drought resistant species. The soil and water conservation techniques implemented have contributed to the improvement of the economical and environmental conditions of the treated landscape, making crop production possible, consequently, improving the livelihood of the people living on the islands. In this paper, we survey the existing soil and water conservation techniques, analyze their impact on the livelihood condition of the population through a thorough literature review and field monitoring using a semi-quantitative methodology and evaluate their effectiveness and impact on crop yield in the Ribeira Seca watershed. A brief discussion is given on the cost and

  20. Wind drives nocturnal, but not diurnal, transpiration in Leucospermum conocarpodendron trees: implications for stilling on the Cape Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpul, Rebecca H; West, Adam G

    2016-08-01

    Surface winds have declined in many regions of the world over the past few decades. These trends are referred to as global stilling and have recently been observed in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The potential consequences of such changes on ecosystem function and productivity are a particular concern for the highly diverse and endemic local flora, largely associated with the fynbos biome. Yet, few studies have directly examined the impact of wind in the region. In this study, we explored the importance of wind and other drivers of plant transpiration (E) in a stand of Leucospermum conocarpodendron (L.) Buek trees on the Cape Peninsula. Wind speeds can be high in the Cape and could play an important role in influencing the rate of E Overall, the influence of wind appeared to be significantly greater at night than during the day. While daytime E responded most strongly to changes in solar radiation (R(2) = 0.79) and vapour pressure deficit (R(2) = 0.57-0.67), night-time E (En) was primarily driven by wind speed (R(2) = 0.30-0.59). These findings have important implications for stilling and other aspects of climate change. Since En was found to be a regular and significant (P < 0.00) component of total daily E (10-27%), plants may conserve water should stilling continue. Still, the extent of this could be offset by strong daytime drivers. As such, plant water consumption will most likely increase in response to a warmer and drier climate. Changes in other biophysical variables are, however, clearly important to consider in the current debate on the impact of climate change.