Sample records for capes

  1. Cape Verde (United States)


    This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Pancam 'super resolution' mosaic of the approximately 6 m (20 foot) high cliff face of the Cape Verde promontory was taken by the rover from inside Victoria Crater, during the rover's descent into Duck Bay. Super-resolution is an imaging technique which utilizes information from multiple pictures of the same target in order to generate an image with a higher resolution than any of the individual images. Cape Verde is a geologically rich outcrop and is teaching scientists about how rocks at Victoria crater were modified since they were deposited long ago. This image complements super resolution mosaics obtained at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent and is consistent with the hypothesis that Victoria crater is located in the middle of what used to be an ancient sand dune field. Many rover team scientists are hoping to be able to eventually drive the rover closer to these layered rocks in the hopes of measuring their chemistry and mineralogy. This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image mosaic acquired on sols 1342 and 1356 (November 2 and 17, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 64 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  2. Cape fearless. (United States)


    This article describes the Ilita Labantu (IL) group in South Africa, that is working to reduce child abuse and violence against women. The group started in 1989, with the aim of reducing child rape and sexual assaults in five townships in Cape Town. Child rape is perpetuated by myths sustained by witch doctors and indigenous medicine that promote child rape as a cure-all for symptoms ranging from poverty to AIDS. IL has four satellite groups that educate rape and abuse victims and potential victims. It is assumed that girls are potential victims because of their early unawareness that gender is tied to some patterns of behavior. IL trained mass media groups to educate the general public. IL distributes public information materials on how to identify domestic violence and abuse and how to identify potential rapists within households. Materials are distributed to individuals in community programs and in training programs. Child survivors make presentations in playgroups in a nonthreatening way. IL interacts with courts of law, police stations, hospitals, and schools. The group refers 25-35 cases per day. The group is working on setting up private rooms in police stations where rape victims can make confidential complaints without public attention. IL also works to promote the use of alternative strategies for solving family conflicts.

  3. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  4. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA (United States)


    ... the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth of July Fireworks...

  5. 77 FR 29929 - Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA (United States)


    ... section of this notice. Basis and Purpose On July 4, 2012 the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a...-AA00 Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth...

  6. 76 FR 27970 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA. (United States)


    ... Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of Cape Charles City...[deg]01'30'' W (NAD 1983). This safety zone will be established in the vicinity of Cape Charles, VA...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA. AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  7. Cape Kennedy Weather Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  8. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.


    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. The Humansdorp Cape Griffon Site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Figure 1. The cliff north-west of the town of Humansdorp, Eastern Cape, South Africa, where a small group of Cape Griffons Gyps coprotheres roosted, and reportedly bred, until the end of the. 19 th century. The trees seen in the picture are all alien, invasive, black wattles Acacia mearnsii. (Photo: A Boshoff).

  10. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  11. The Capes Current: a summer countercurrent flowing past Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia (United States)

    Pearce, Alan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha


    Although the dominant boundary current off Western Australia is the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, satellite imagery shows that there is a cool equatorward coastal countercurrent running close inshore in the extreme southwest during the summer months. This seasonal current has been named the Capes Current as it appears to be strongest between Cape Leeuwin (34°20'S) and Cape Naturaliste (33°30'S), and it is probably linked with the general northward shelf current which has been observed previously along most of the Western Australian coastline further north. Strong northwards wind stresses between November and March slow the Leeuwin Current (which moves offshore) and drive the Capes Current, and there may be localised upwelling as well (Gersbach et al., Continental Shelf Research, 1998). It has important implications for the salmon fishery as it may affect the migration of adult salmon around Cape Leeuwin at this time of year.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  13. Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis spawn mainly east of Cape Point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In the southern Benguela, successful recruitment of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis is ... Based on the total area of 16–19°C water on the western Agulhas. Bank, Richardson et al. .... in the zone, φ the new value, and β is a relaxation pa-.

  14. Morphological characteristics of Cape sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) are the largest nectarivores in the Western Cape and feed almost exclusively on protea nectar and associated arthropods. Helderberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa, has a large diversity of Protea and supports breeding sugarbirds. As part of a larger study, we captured ...

  15. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) was deployed during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE). AMPR data...

  17. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2” to...

  18. 46 CFR 7.45 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. 7.45 Section 7.45... Atlantic Coast § 7.45 Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to latitude 38°36.5′ N. longitude 75°02.8′ W. (Indian River...

  19. 33 CFR 80.505 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. (United States)


    ... to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the seaward extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to Indian River Inlet South Jetty Light. (b) A line drawn from Ocean City Inlet Light 6, 225° true across... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 1970 ... Child Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town studied and the .... Sex Distribution (Table III) ... family history in children with brain damage is surprisingly high. .... nized that more male infants develop the respiratory.

  1. The Cape doctor 1807-1910: perspectives. (United States)

    Phillips, Howard


    This chapter contrasts the Cape doctor in 1807 and in 1910, and finds that, in a whole variety of ways, the differences between the two were not of degree but of kind. Underlying this sea-change was the germ revolution of the late Victorian era, which transformed the Cape doctor out of all recognition, thereby laying important foundations for the development of the twentieth-century South African doctor.

  2. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States)



    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  3. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet


    Full Text Available This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC, South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC.

  4. 76 FR 22719 - Cape Wind Energy Project (United States)


    ... Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior..., or disapprove a Construction and Operations Plan (COP) for the Cape Wind Energy Project located on..., easements, or rights-of-way for renewable energy projects on the OCS. The Secretary delegated that authority...

  5. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman


    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  6. Some Lexical Aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-. Afrikaans and the Islamic .... That these words continued to be used in Cape Muslim Afrikaans, in both sec- ular and religiOUS ...... In tenns of the Arabie dictionary. (Hans Wehr 1980: 68), ...

  7. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  8. April 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  9. Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Over the past decades, the Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis has ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Data on the thermal structure, copepod biomass and production, and total number of eggs of the Cape anchovy ... To identify factors controlling the area of this water mass, a cluster ...... thesis, University of Cape Town: [vii] + 278 pp. SHANNON ...

  11. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results' (United States)

    Ruskin, Steven William


    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  12. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  13. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  14. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  15. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....

  16. Intraplate seismicity across the Cape Verde swell (United States)

    Vales, Dina; Matias, Luís.; Haberland, Christian; Silveira, Graça.; Weber, Michael; Carrilho, Fernando; Dias, Nuno


    The Cape Verde Archipelago ((15-17°N, 23-26°W) is located within the African plate, about 500km west of Senegal, in the African coast. The islands are located astride the Cape Verde mid-plate topographic swell, one of the largest features of its type in the world's ocean basins. The origin of this Cape Verde swell is still in debate. Previous determinations of the elastic thickness (Te) reveal a normal Te and a modest heat flow anomaly which suggest that the swell cannot be fully explained by uplift due to thermal reheating of the lithosphere by an underlying ‘‘hot spot'' and that other, deep-seated, mantle processes must be involved. The CV-PLUME (An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume) project intends to shape the geometry and deep origin of the Cape Verde mantle plume, via a combined study of seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and geochemical observations. Through this study we intend to characterize the structure beneath the archipelago from the surface down to the deep mantle. The core of this 3-year project was a temporary deployment of 39 Very Broad Band seismometers, across all the inhabited islands, to recorder local and teleseismic earthquakes. These instruments were operational from November 2007 to September 2008. In this work we report on the preliminary results obtained from the CV-PLUME network on the characterization of the local and regional seismicity. To detect the small magnitude seismic events the continuous data stream was screened using spectrograms. This proved to be a very robust technique in the face of the high short-period noise recorded by many of the stations, particularly during day time. The 10 month observation time showed that the background seismic activity in the Archipelago and surrounding area is low, with only a very few events recorded by the complete network. However, two clusters of earthquakes were detected close to the Brava Island, one to the NW and a second one, more active

  17. Great deal achieved at Cape's nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Since the civil engineering contract commenced a great deal has been achieved at Escom's Koeberg nuclear power station north of Cape Town. About 50 percent of the civil work has now been done and the entire project remains on schedule for a January 1982 start-up on nuclear reactor unit number one and a January 1983 start-up on unit two. Final handover is scheduled for January 1984. Completion of the civil works is scheduled for December 1981. The construction of the Koeberg nuclear power station is discussed, as well as the contractors for the civil engineering work

  18. Patterns of plant speciation in the Cape floristic region. (United States)

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Johnson, Steven D


    Plant species have accumulated in the Cape region of southern Africa to a much greater degree than in areas of equivalent size in the rest of the subcontinent. Although this could be a consequence simply of lower extinction rates in the Cape, most researchers have invoked high rates of ecological speciation, driven by unique aspects of the Cape environment, as the primary explanation for this richness. To assess these ideas, we analyzed the frequencies of ecological shifts among 188 sister species pairs obtained from molecular phylogenies of eight Cape clades. Ecological shifts were evident in 80% of sister species pairs, with general habitat, pollinator, and fire-survival strategy shifts being especially frequent. Contrary to an established idea that shifts in soil type are frequently associated with speciation of Cape taxa, these shifts were relatively rare, occurring in just 17% of species pairs. More cases of sister species divergence are accompanied solely by floral than by vegetative diversification, suggesting an important role for pollinator-driven speciation. In an analysis of two large orchid genera that have radiated in both the Cape and the rest of southern Africa, the frequency of ecological shifts (general habitat, soil type, altitude and flowering time), did not differ between sister species pairs in the Cape region and those outside it. Despite suggestions that Cape plants tend to have small range sizes and show fine-scale patterns of speciation, range size did not differ significantly between species in the Cape and those outside it. We conclude that ecological speciation is likely to have been important for radiation of the Cape flora, but there is no evidence as yet for special "Cape" patterns of ecological speciation.

  19. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter


    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (, a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  20. Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on measurements of longshore wind from a 35-year time-series. AS Johnson, G Nelson. Abstract. Cape Columbine is a prominent headland on the south-west coast of Africa at approximately 32°50´S, where there is a substantial upwelling tongue, enhancing the ...

  1. Knowledge and attitudes in the rural Western Cape towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that farm residents in the Western Cape are potentially exposed to pesticides through various environmental routes including water. This emphasises the need to monitor water for pesticides in the Western Cape, but in order to do this, human and laboratory resources and capacities to conduct routine ...

  2. cutaneous manifestatio s of tuberculosis i the wester cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lEA WALKER, M.B., CH.B. (CAPE TOWN). Department of Dermatology, University of Cape Town and Croote Schuur Ho pital. Skin tuberculosis has been chosen as the subject of ... are fairly representative of the total number of skin cases seeking advice. .... results of vitamin D2 in the treatment of lupus."5-7. At -about the ...

  3. Comparison of age determination techniques for known-age Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Known-age teeth were used to validate age determination techniques for the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus ... The reliability with which age can be estimated for the Cape fur seal has also been improved. ... The acid solution, with a volume at least 10 times that of ... old female [0 show (he absence of GLGs in the cemenlUnl.

  4. The Cape commercial linefishery consists of about 2 500 vessels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    assessing the ecosystem effects of fishing and evaluating the benefits of ... Such information would assist in the ... Traditional Cape linefish may be broadly divided into ... gressively farther offshore (and into deeper. Griffiths: ... (Griffiths 1997c); this process controls avail- ... of shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis,.

  5. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  6. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  7. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  8. Aspects of the digestion in the Cape porcupine | van Jaarsveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive capabilities of the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) were studied using captive and field animals. The stomach contents comprised 6,47% of the body mass and had a low pH (2,0).The Cape porcupine also has a long small intestine (670 em). The large stomach and small intestine form a very efficient ...

  9. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  10. The "Cape Times"'s Portrayal of School Violence (United States)

    de Wet, Corene


    This study explores the "Cape Times"'s portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the…

  11. Leptospira interrogans in Rodents from Cape Verde. (United States)

    Plata-Luis, Josué; Foronda, Pilar; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Feliu, Carlos; Alves, Joana; Gil, Horacio; Valladares, Basilio


    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. In most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. This study was carried out in Santiago Island, Cape Verde, in 2012-2013. A total of 62 wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus domesticus) were analyzed. The lipL32 gene, present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp., was amplified by PCR, and 16 samples were positive (25.8%). In both rodent species, Leptospira interrogans was identified. The results show the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the three localities analyzed in Santiago. The presence of L. interrogans demonstrates a serious health risk for the population, since this species has been associated with the most severe form of leptospirosis, the Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage.

  12. Simulation Of Aqua-Ammonia Refrigeration System Using The Cape-Open To Cape-Open COCO Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janavi Gohil


    Full Text Available In this paper we have simulated a flow sheet of aqua ammonia refrigeration system using Cape Open simulator. The main aim of writing this paper is to compare the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation of aqua ammonia refrigeration system and the results obtained from the flow sheet simulation in Cape-Open to Cape-Open COCO simulator. The corresponding COP values obtained from both the sources are calculated and compared. With the error being very minute the calculations using simulator prove to be more efficient and timesaving when compared to the results obtained by calculations done using tedious thermodynamic simulations and constant mass balance for different process conditions.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Barbados/Cape Verde radiosonde data set consists of generally two soundings per day (06Z and 12Z) launched from Barbados, and one sounding per day (12Z)...

  14. Mammals of the Kammanassie Mountains, southern Cape Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regrettable as in the southern Cape, for example, the marked gradients in .... green plant material (leaves) and insects, using a stereo- scopic microscope with ..... cial and logistic support, especially Mr P. Ie Roux, the. Assistant Director, for his ...

  15. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unrest and internal conflict were almost endemic in the Cape Colony's area of interest during ... security and defence policy, the policy of direct control of the adjacent tribal territories as well as ...... latter refused to sign the treasury documents.

  16. Two hake species, deep-water Cape hake Merluccius paradoxus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    paradoxus and shallow-water Cape hake M. capensis, are found along the ... For both species, average length increased with depth. M. paradoxus expanded its ..... Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. In Oceano-.

  17. Hyperglycaemic crisis in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... of admission and mortality rates) for various types of hyperglycaemic crisis. ... to Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, E Cape, from 1 January 2008 to ... N=119), and non-hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (NHDKA, N=97) were ...

  18. Agrichemical safety practices on farms in the western Cape | London ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrichemical safety practices on farms in the western Cape. ... a lesser extent the presence of empty containers, are identified as important problems. ... particularly in the light of statutory requirements for occupational safety and health under ...

  19. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S


    Full Text Available This presentation provides a rationale for off-grid projects, and then briefly discusses renewable energy for rural electrification in the Eastern Cape. The impact of this project, and related research work, is also touched on....

  20. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) mediated decrease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a phytochemically active component obtained from honeybee hive propolis. ... We hypothesize the effect of CAPE on the metastasis of colon cancer cells in ... evaluated also expression of protein and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) ...

  1. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 29, 1984 ... Whitfield & Blaber (1978) investigated the feeding ecology of piscivorous ...... Figure 3 Trophic relationships of carnivores (square blocks) in eastern Cape estuaries. ... Key species in the food chain of group A samples (Figures.

  2. Integrated water resource planning in the city of Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    supply (at a 98% level of assurance) in 1999. Should ... WDM policy. The WDM Policy is based on three broad principles namely that ... and Cape Town Water Services. ... audit of all schools, which includes implementing some immediate.

  3. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract. Objective: ... Keywords: Methamphetamine; Sexual behaviour; HIV; South Africa ... to high school students who had used drugs other than MA in their.

  4. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2016 ... process for supplementary on-site water sources that was introduced by the City of Cape ... research objectives and would include relatively deep garden .... relatively shallow water table provide ideal conditions for small-.

  5. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 5, 1995 ... ... of deliveries, the low- birth-weight rate and the perinatal mortality rate at ... mortality rates were in the northern and eastern Cape. Conclusion. The perinatal ..... World Health Organisation. World Health Statistics Annual. Vol.

  6. Temperature breaks within fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: fruit exports; reefer containers; cold chain; Cape Town Container ... challenges required for maintaining high product quality when exporting large ... perishable products due to the availability of a range of temperature settings.

  7. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    shift in two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities; in particular, ... as the workplace and in the church), with Afrikaans being used almost ... language use, on the one hand, and ongoing psychological, social or cultural processes, ...

  8. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  9. New species of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Cape Verde

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, J.


    Roč. 3926, č. 4 (2015), s. 561-575 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cape Verde * Macaronesia * West Africa Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  10. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC (United States)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro


    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  11. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko


    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  12. Measures to Facilitate Necessity Entrepreneurship : Western Cape South Africa


    Macura, Alexander; Sjölund, John


    Problem- In the townships and rural areas of the Western Cape province of South Africa unemployment can be as high as 60%. For many, starting a business is the only viable option to survive. There are many organizations seeking to help entrepreneurs to successfully start and manage a business, but services are significantly lacking. We therefore wish to determine what business service providers in the Western Cape are doing today to help necessity entrepreneurs succeed, and what can be done b...

  13. A Cretaceous origin for fire adaptations in the Cape flora. (United States)

    He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Manning, John


    Fire has had a profound effect on the evolution of worldwide biotas. The Cape Floristic Region is one of the world's most species-rich regions, yet it is highly prone to recurrent fires and fire-adapted species contribute strongly to the overall flora. It is hypothesized that the current fire regimes in the Cape could be as old as 6-8 million years (My), while indirect evidence indicates that the onset of fire could have reached 18 million years ago (Ma). Here, we trace the origin of fire-dependent traits in two monocot families that are significant elements in the fire-prone Cape flora. Our analysis shows that fire-stimulated flowering originated in the Cape Haemodoraceae 81 Ma, while fire-stimulated germination arose in the African Restionaceae at least 70 Ma, implying that wildfires have been a significant force in the evolution of the Cape flora at least 60 My earlier than previous estimates. Our results provide strong evidence for the presence of fire adaptations in the Cape from the Cretaceous, leading to the extraordinary persistence of a fire-adapted flora in this biodiversity hotspot, and giving support to the hypothesis that Cretaceous fire was a global phenomenon that shaped the evolution of terrestrial floras.

  14. Perspectives of wild medicine harvesters from Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Petersen


    Full Text Available Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora species and 18% of South Africa's plant diversity. Cape Town is also inhabited by a rapidly growing culturally and economically diverse citizenry with distinct and potentially conflicting perspectives on access to, and management of, local natural resources. In a qualitative study of 58 locally resident traditional healers of distinct cultural groups, we examined motivations underlying the generally illicit activity of harvesting of wild resources from Cape Town protected areas. Resource harvester motivations primarily link to local economic survival, health care and cultural links to particular resources and practices, 'access for all' outlooks, and wholesale profit-seeking perspectives. We describe these motivations, contrast them with the current formal, legal and institutional perspectives for biodiversity protection in the city, and propose managerial interventions that may improve sustainability of ongoing harvest activities. Significance: The study reveals, for the first time in the Cape Floristic Region, informal economy viewpoints on terrestrial nature and how its direct use has important economic and cultural roles – specifically in wild medicine harvesting and trade. We contrast the formal and informal approaches to nature conservation in the city and propose new considerations for conservation managers.

  15. 75 FR 81637 - Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project (United States)


    ... Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and... Renewable Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') for the Cape Wind Energy Project... requirements of 30 CFR 285.231. The Lease is for the Cape Wind Energy Project (``Project'') which grants Cape...

  16. Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Åkesson


    Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.

  17. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer


    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland. Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  18. Heritage and the Development of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Todeschini


    Full Text Available The jurisdiction of Stellenbosch, located adjacent to, but outside of, the Cape Town metropolitan area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, comprises over one thousand square kilometers of landscapes spanning: spectacular mountain wilderness areas; many productive rural valleys that are an integral part of the celebrated Cape Winelands; and a number of historic, characterful urban centres founded during the 17th century. Overall, this blend of domains attracts increasing numbers of tourists, while the places are also home to a growing population. The pressures for change and growth are significant: so is the need for appropriate policies and plans in the longer-term public interest. The authors report on a three-year project they are conducting for the local authority that focuses on the definition of the natural and cultural heritage and, in principle, on how development should be channelled.

  19. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa. (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M


    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Narrating Muslim women’s identities in Cape Town


    Boswell, R.


    This paper considers the complexity of Muslim women’s identities in the city of Cape Town in 2010. It is argued that emerging super-diversity in the form of African immigration, the commercialisation of Islam and increasing freedoms for women in South Africa impact on women’s engagement with religion and diversifies their identity. The paper also offers glimpses into the diversity of Islam in Cape Town, suggesting that this religion is not monolithic in the city and that it is continuously di...

  1. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; hide


    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  2. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo


    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...... bears resemblances to counterinsurgency strategies — not least in the sense that both are responses to a similar problem of governance. This comparison allows us explore how citizenship is being reconfigured for residents of the townships in ways that resemble what James Holston (2007) calls...

  3. A Posteriori Integration of University CAPE Software Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, Gregor; Fillinger, Sandra; Wozny, Guenter


    This contribution deals with the mutual integration of existing CAPE software products developed at different universities in Germany, Denmark, and Italy. After the motivation MOSAIC is presented as the bridge building the connection between the modelling tool ICAS-MoT and the numerical processin...

  4. Trends in photochemical smog in the Cape Peninsula and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been growing public concern over reports of increasing air pollution in the Cape Peninsula. Attention has been focused on the 'brown haze' and on photochemical smog. Because of deficiencies in the monitoring equipment, information on trends in photochemical smog levels over the past decade is limited.

  5. Reproductive biology of the cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis, was investigated histologically. The study was based on 67 specimens collected over a six-year period. This species is seasonally monoestrous, normally giving birth to twins during November. Spermatogenesis peaks during autumn (March-May) when ...

  6. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence | de Wet | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape ...

  7. Mongrel: Essays. William Dicey. Cape Town: Umuzi, 2016. 220 pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ey has become the literary executor of the work of a sort of doppelgänger: Michael. D'Arcy has unaccountably disappeared. Dicey's discussion of D'Arcy's works, including a voluminous exploration of. Cape Town's central thoroughfare, en- titled Main Road, sounds fascinating. One is sent scampering to Kalahari or Loot for.

  8. Dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Cape fur seals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition of the blubber of five dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and five Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus from the northern Benguela ecosystem (South-East Atlantic) and their main prey was determined. Differences in fatty acid composition of the inner and outer blubber layer of the ...

  9. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima


    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI:

  10. Missed opportunities for immunisation at hospitals in the western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990, measles vaccine coverage in the Cape Province remains low,' and is ... ing 3 of the 6 facilities considered in this study, do nor pro- vide immunisation. Therefore ... the 2 studies were at 'high risk' in view of the risk of con- tracting measles ...

  11. comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... In hosting future events, it is recommended that relevant government departments and stakeholders such as event managers involve and consult local businesses through ...

  12. Some lexical aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans | Davids | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-Afrikaans and the Islamic religious education system at the Cape in this regard. Of particular interest are the changes which occur in the orthoepic nature and syntactical function of inherited and borrowed lexical units, by the affixing of lexical or grammatical morphemes, ...

  13. Underrecognition and undertreatment of asthma in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In view of the high local prevalence of asthma, the extent of recognition and appropriate managementof childhood asthma was studied in a large suburban area of Cape Town. Design. Cross-sectional study based on random community sample of schools. Method. 1955 parents of sub B pupils from 16 schools ...

  14. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Available on website Short communication. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of. Campylobacter spp. from environmental waters. SM Diergaardt, SN Venter*, M Chalmers, J Theron and VS Brözel. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, ...

  15. Diet of Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet composition of Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus was investigated from three breeding colonies in Namibia between January 1994 and April 2002 using scat analysis. Otolith numbers were corrected for those lost during digestion before determining the percentage numerical abundance of prey in each ...

  16. Contributions to the biology of the Cape gurnard, Trigla capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of otoliths of the Cape gurnard,Trigla capensis, has established that the rings are annular. An opaque zone is formed from February to Jury and a hyaline zone during the spawning season from August to March. Females grow faster than males. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation of the females was found to be.

  17. Archive of bathymetry data collected at Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2014 (United States)

    Hansen, Mark E.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.


    Remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of the sea floor, acquired by boat- and aircraft-based survey systems, were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida, for the area at Cape Canaveral.

  18. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this ... Forensic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of National Health, Cape. Town. J. Monis .... Short term « 8 wks). 80. 40.8. 47. 39.2. 33. 43.4. Long tenn (;;. 8 wks). 54 27.6.

  19. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal ...

  20. Bilingualism and language shift in Western Cape communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers a number of pertinent sociolinguistic aspects of a distinct process of language shift recently noted in some historically Afrikaans first language (L1) communities established in the Cape Metropolitan area. Particularly, it considers qualitatively how a number of families made deliberate choices to change ...

  1. An audit of povincial Gastroenterology services in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All hospitals in the Western Cape providing endoscopy were evaluated by means of a hands-on audit, to identify available organisational infrastructure. Data including staffing, details and utilisation of existing equipment, maintenance and disinfection techniques and delays in service provision were collected. Results.

  2. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of HPV found in normal cervical tissue from Cape Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. In the age group 20 - 39 years, 15 of 92 (16%) were ...

  3. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be 13% (25/192) using Southern blot hybridisation. The types of HPV found in normaJ cervical tissue from Cape. Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.

  4. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  5. Moche CAPE Formula: Cost Analysis of Public Education. (United States)

    Moche, Joanne Spiers

    The Moche Cost Analysis of Public Education (CAPE) formula was developed to identify total and per pupil costs of regular elementary education, regular secondary education, elementary special education, and secondary special education. Costs are analyzed across five components: (1) comprehensive costs (including transportation and supplemental…

  6. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882 | Kotze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acceptance of responsible government in 1872 entailed that the Cape Colony had to provide its own security arrangements. The two British regiments that were still deployed at ... The Molteno as well as the Sprigg ministry eventually paid the highest political price for the failure of their respective defence schemes not ...

  7. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients' domicile, how they were referred, types of diagnoses and ... The intention was to offer a more accessible and affordable service to more patients in the Free State and Northern Cape, in accordance with provincial policy.' The Departments of ... The cost would have been higher if consultants had had to stay over.

  8. Prefabricated solution to modular construction in Cape Verde (United States)

    Vieira, Nuno; Amado, Miguel; Pinho, Fernando


    Nowadays, the lack of adequate housing in Cape Verde is a growing problem. The migration of the population living in the countryside to the major cities generates an increase of the diameter of the cities. With the lack of economic power, the migrating families tend to occupy the land with houses which don't present proper conditions to living. Praia is the capital of Cape Verde and so on the biggest city of the country. This fact leads Praia to being the city with major economic power and job offer in all country. Consequently, Praia has developed the biggest slum of the Cape Verde and it is urgent to approach this problem in order to create solutions that reveal capacity to start solving it. Cape Verde's unique dry subtropical climate turns indispensable a careful resolution of the housing, in order to ensure the comfort of the occupants. The modular construction is a solution with potential to approach this problem with a fast and economic response. In order to answer the situation, this article introduces a modular solution in order to reach the needing of thermal comfort to the specific case of Praia.

  9. Patterns and drivers of marine bioinvasions in eight Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, fouling is the dominant vector of marine invasions, being responsible for 48% of the 86 alien introductions that are known. This study aimed to document alien species in fouling assemblages in eight Western Cape harbours and to assess patterns and potential drivers of these invasions. In each harbour, 10 ...

  10. Hypertension care at a Cape Town community health centre | Lunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the demographic profile of hypertensive patients and the quality of care for hypertension at a Cape Town community health centre (CHC). Design. Prospective, descriptive study. Setting and subjects. Medium-sized CHC, attended by 1098 hypertensive patients during a 1-year period from 1 January ...

  11. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies recommended for lowering alcohol-related harm; it has been identified as a suitable ...

  13. Urban Ecology in Cape Town: South African Comparisons and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel S. Cilliers


    Full Text Available Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes a national park. As a result the urban ecological studies were mainly driven by urban nature conservation concerns. In other cities such as Durban, open space planning and environmental management were the major issues which focused ecological studies on urban areas whereas other studies of urban areas in the Eastern Cape and North-West provinces included private and public open spaces and man-made habitats. We reflect on the Cape Town studies in a South African context and highlight conservation of biodiversity, protection of ecosystem services, management of control measures, and the conflict between humans and nature. A brief synthesis has also been given of South African urban ecological research in general.

  14. Role of Stakeholders at Cape Coast PPAG Youth Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated whether the activities or the roles performed by the various stakeholders at the Cape Coast Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) youth centre impacted positively on the youth behaviour and performance at the centre. The sample comprised 22 teachers, 50 parents and 3 social welfare ...

  15. Quality assurance in the foundation phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this study was whether and how provision is made to enhance the quality of education in the Foundation Phase. After a case study investigation into a primary school and its view on quality assurance and interviews with the Department of Education: Eastern Cape province it became apparent that more ...

  16. Aggressive behaviour of an adult male Cape fur seal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a marine predator (the white shark) being threatened by a member of the species on which it preys (a male Cape fur seal). Although these events may be rarely observed or occur infrequently, they may have important implications for the predator and its prey.We suggest that shark mobbing by adult male ...

  17. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability ...

  18. Increase in hospital admissions for acute childhood asthma in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine whether hospital admissions for acute childhood asthma were rising in Cape Town in line with the experience of other countries, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital's records for the period 1978 - 1990 were analysed. These were compared with total admissions for non-surgical causes and lower ...

  19. Factors influencing the breeding success of Cape Gannets Morus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 2002/2003 breeding season at Malgas Island, South Africa, 125 nests of Cape Gannets Morus capensis, of which at least one partner was of known age, were monitored. The age of birds at these nests ranged from five to 22 years. At five nests, the ages of both partners were known; ages were similar for birds ...

  20. Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest | Crowson | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest. John Crowson, Sonja Krüger. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  1. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs) being hosted in South African (SA) training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of. SA registrars (SARs). Methods.

  2. Maternal mortality in the Cape Province, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design. A descriptive study with analytic components. Characteristics of patients who died from the most ... authorities on how to collect data on maternal deaths throughout a whole region. This surveillance may be ... Following the publication of perinatal data from 18 ruraJ. hospitalsT in the Cape Province, the Continuing ...

  3. Cape hake Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    knowledge of the behaviour of Cape hake in general. ... Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, National Marine Information and Research Centre, P.O. Box 912, Swakopmund, Namibia. E-mail: ... (BEI) post-processing system, which allows for better ..... deep water, where hake density is generally low and.

  4. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Town's Central City (see Figures. 1 and 2), located between the city's harbour and the iconic slopes of Table. Mountain, has a vital role to play in transforming the wider metropolitan region into a more inclusive and opportunistic urban area. Stretching from Woodstock and Salt. River into the CBD and out into Green.

  5. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the ...

  6. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar preferences and digestion of sugars in artificial fruit of different sugar types and concentrations were investigated in a South African facultative frugivore, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). We studied sugar preferences, daily food and energy intake, and digestive efficiencies and transit times with birds that were ...

  7. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape | Weyer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Drug resistance is a serious problem in the treatment of tuberculosis and a threat to successful tuberculosis control programmes. Local health workers have expressed concern that the increasing tuberculosis epidemic in the Western Cape is partly attributable to drug resistance. The aim of this study was to ...

  8. Energetic Requirements for Growth and Maintenance of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energetic requirements for growth and maintenance of the Cape gannet (Sula capensis) were studied by hand-rearing captive chicks and keeping juveniles in captivity at constant mass. Daily gain in mass was linear until 60 days of age; after 82 days the chicks lost mass prior to attaining fledging age (97 days).

  9. Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres caught in gin trap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    its right foot fly into its nest situated on a cliff face and containing a large chick. The chain used to tether the trap to the ground could be clearly seen dangling below the flying bird. We have no way of knowing whether the deployment of this trap was accidental or intentional relative to its having caught a Cape Vulture.

  10. Observations on the lambing interval of the cape bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of births from three Cape bushbuck ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from November 1971 to December 1974, indicated that the mean lambing interval of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus in captivity is 249 days and that ewes reach sexual maturity at approximately one year of age.

  11. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. Objective. To evaluate screening ...

  12. Virological studies of water from the Cape Flats reclamation plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4500 m3 of water per day, was constructed at the Cape Flats sewage works and studied over a period of ... In brief, gels were fIxed with methanol 50%, acetic acid 10% for 1 hour, followed by ethanol 10%, acetic acid 0,5% for 1 hour and then ...

  13. Estimating Cape hare occupancy and abundance in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study outlines the importance of integrating spotlighting data and occupancy modelling to estimate the spatial occupancy, abundance and habitat preferences of Cape hares Lepus capensis in southern Tunisia. Exploring the spatial distribution pattern of this species is problematic because of its nocturnal and secretive ...

  14. The Tijaniyya Tariqa in Cape Town | Lliteras | Journal for Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study finds that the spiritual praxis of the Tijaniyya profoundly influences the social behaviour of its followers, as is exemplified by its impact on issues of race relations and identity in South Africa. The findings suggest that the Tijaniyya tariqa in Cape Town offers the unique opportunity to challenge racism and prejudice, ...

  15. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    size, the Northern Cape (NC) Province has the smallest population of the ... whether skin cancer incidence in SA has followed the global trend.[12] ... high risk of mortality.[16] As ... 2012 was conducted using public and private health sector databases. .... majority of KSs occurred in the younger age group 30 - 39 years.

  16. Continuous Flow of Upper Labrador Sea Water around Cape Hatteras. (United States)

    Andres, Magdalena; Muglia, Mike; Bahr, Frank; Bane, John


    Six velocity sections straddling Cape Hatteras show a deep counterflow rounding the Cape wedged beneath the poleward flowing Gulf Stream and the continental slope. This counterflow is likely the upper part of the equatorward-flowing Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Hydrographic data suggest that the equatorward flow sampled by the shipboard 38 kHz ADCP comprises the Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW) layer and top of the Classical Labrador Sea Water (CLSW) layer. Continuous DWBC flow around the Cape implied by the closely-spaced velocity sections here is also corroborated by the trajectory of an Argo float. These findings contrast with previous studies based on floats and tracers in which the lightest DWBC constituents did not follow the boundary to cross under the Gulf Stream at Cape Hatteras but were diverted into the interior as the DWBC encountered the Gulf Stream in the crossover region. Additionally, our six quasi-synoptic velocity sections confirm that the Gulf Stream intensified markedly at that time as it approached the separation point and flowed into deeper waters. Downstream increases were observed not only in the poleward transport across the sections but also in the current's maximum speed.

  17. Distribution of blood lead levels in schoolchildren in selected cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine blood lead levels among children attending schools in selected Cape Peninsula suburbs, and to assess the impact of a reduction in the lead content of petrol. Design. A cross-sectional analytical study of children's blood lead levels and associated risk factors. Setting. Selected inner city, suburban, ...

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersinia enterocolitica, serotype 3, phage type 9a, has been isolated for the first time in the Western Cape. Sera from 59 abattoir workers were investigated for the presence of 0 and H agglutinins. These were present in one sample, suggesting a past infection. Sera from 115 Nama-speaking adults of the Kuboes area ...

  19. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the intimate domains. It appears that Afrikaans remains a strong marker of identity in the two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities, despite English largely being regarded as the language of upward socioeconomic mobility. Keywords: language shift, language maintenance, language attitudes, bilingualism ...

  20. Health-promoting compounds in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny


    Background The fruit of Physalis peruviana L., known as Cape Gooseberry (CG) is a source of a variety of compounds with potential health benefits. Therefore, CG has been subject of scientific and commercial interest. Scope and approach This review paper evaluates changes of such health-promoting

  1. April 1977 The Cape gurnard is a commercially exploited species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape gurnard is a commercially exploited species of which the annual landings between ... fishing operations took place along the eastern Cape coast of South Africa ..... Handbook of computation for biological statistics offish populations.

  2. Cape Verde and Its People: A Short History, Part I [And] Folk Tales of the Cape Verdean People. (United States)

    Almeida, Raymond A.; Nyhan, Patricia

    Two booklets provide an overview of the history and folklore of Cape Verde, a group of islands lying 370 miles off the west coast of Africa. One booklet describes the history of the islands which were probably settled initially by Africans from the west coast of Africa. By the 15th century the islands were colonized by Portuguese and other…

  3. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (United States)


    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  4. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, S.; Fioretti, A.M.; Cavazzini, G.


    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. 77 FR 9974 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Cape Verde (United States)


    ... Republic of Cape Verde AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance..., and the Republic of Cape Verde. Representatives of the United States Government and the Republic of Cape Verde executed the Compact documents on February 10, 2012. Dated: February 14, 2012. Melvin F...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (United States)


    ... restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area 2,000 feet wide extending from a point on Cape Prince of Wales marked by a triangular cable marker located...

  7. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. ER Hay1, K .... The current water balance (see Fig. 1) and the .... in selected towns in the Eastern and Western Cape. Town .... work in order to reduce the risk of failure in the water supply to the town. .... Asset management, to prolong the life of the infrastructure.

  8. The need for nuclear power at the Cape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myburgh, R.P.A.


    The paper gives an indication of the growth of electrical power usage in the Western Cape. In planning to increase the supply of electricity to the Western Cape several factors had to be taken into account. It appeared that the cost to construct a nuclear power plant and the generation of nuclear power compares well with other methods of power generation. Before the construction of Koeberg was started, extensive investigations were undertaken to find a suitable site. Factors taken into account in the investigation included population density, geology and transport facilities. The safety of nuclear power plants are discussed. Mention is made of safeguards inherent in the design of a nuclear power plant. It appears that the possibility of radioactive effluent reaching the atmosphere as result of an accident or malfunctioning of a nuclear plant is very small as there are various safety systems designed to prevent it. Radioactive waste disposal is also discussed

  9. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape (United States)

    Glass, I. S.


    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  10. Community-based tourism in Cape Verde - a case study


    Tomas Lopez-Guzman; Osvaldo Borges; Ana Maria Castillo-Canalejo


    Community-based tourism is taking its place in the world as an alternative to traditional tourist destinations, especially in developing countries. This form of tourism allows for greater contact with the local community and for the tourist to experience new sensations while enabling the economic and social development of the geographic area. In this paper, the results of fieldwork carried out in the island of Fogo (Cape Verde) are presented, assessing the opinion and perception tourists visi...

  11. Renewable energy projects to electrify rural communities in Cape Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Lega, Bruno Domenech; Ferrenbach, David Vilar; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Moreno, Rafael Pastor; García-Villoria, Alberto


    Highlights: • The design of 2 off-grid electrification projects in Cape Verde is developed. • Configurations with hybrid renewable energy systems and micro-grids are considered. • A detailed micro-scale wind resource assessment is carried out. • An optimization model is used in order to support the design. • The proposed system is economically beneficial in comparison with diesel generation. - Abstract: Even though Cape Verde has high wind and solar energy resources, the conventional strategy for increasing access to electricity in isolated rural areas is by centralized microgrids with diesel generators. In this study, the design of 2 off-grid electrification projects based on hybrid wind–photovoltaic systems in Cape Verde is developed and analyzed. The design considers some significant novelty features in comparison with previous studies. First a detailed wind resource assessment is carried out combining meso-scale wind climate data and a specialized micro-scale wind flow model. Then a mathematical model is used for the design of off-grid projects considering a combination of individual systems and microgrids. In this study, locations far from the demand points are also considered as possible generation points. Various design configurations are analyzed and compared. The proposed configurations exploit the highest wind potential areas and are economically beneficial in comparison with diesel generator systems

  12. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.). (United States)

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C


    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry.

  13. Population size, breeding biology and on-land threats of Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) in Fogo Island, Cape Verde. (United States)

    Militão, Teresa; Dinis, Herculano Andrade; Zango, Laura; Calabuig, Pascual; Stefan, Laura M; González-Solís, Jacob


    Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) is currently considered near threatened, but little is known about its population size, breeding biology and on land threats, jeopardizing its management and conservation. To improve this situation, we captured, marked and recaptured (CMR) birds using mist-nets over 10 years; measured and sexed them; monitored up to 14 burrows, deployed GPS devices on breeders and analyzed activity data of geolocators retrieved from breeders in Fogo (Cape Verde). We set cat traps over the colony and investigated their domestic/feral origin by marking domestic cats from a nearby village with transponders, by deploying GPS devices on domestic cats and by performing stable isotope analyses of fur of the trapped and domestic cats. The population of Fogo was estimated to be 293 birds, including immatures (95% CI: 233-254, CMR modelling). Based on geolocator activity data and nest monitoring we determined the breeding phenology of this species and we found biometric differences between sexes. While monitoring breeding performance, we verified a still ongoing cat predation and human harvesting. Overall, data gathered from trapped cats without transponder, cats GPS trips and the distinct isotopic values between domestic and trapped cats suggest cats visiting the colony are of feral origin. GPS tracks from breeders showed birds left and returned to the colony using the sector NE of the islands, where high level of public lights should be avoided specially during the fledging period. Main threats for the Cape Verde petrel in the remaining breeding islands are currently unknown but likely to be similar to Fogo, calling for an urgent assessment of population trends and the control of main threats in all Cape Verde Islands and uplisting its conservation status.

  14. Population size, breeding biology and on-land threats of Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae in Fogo Island, Cape Verde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Militão

    Full Text Available Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae is currently considered near threatened, but little is known about its population size, breeding biology and on land threats, jeopardizing its management and conservation. To improve this situation, we captured, marked and recaptured (CMR birds using mist-nets over 10 years; measured and sexed them; monitored up to 14 burrows, deployed GPS devices on breeders and analyzed activity data of geolocators retrieved from breeders in Fogo (Cape Verde. We set cat traps over the colony and investigated their domestic/feral origin by marking domestic cats from a nearby village with transponders, by deploying GPS devices on domestic cats and by performing stable isotope analyses of fur of the trapped and domestic cats. The population of Fogo was estimated to be 293 birds, including immatures (95% CI: 233-254, CMR modelling. Based on geolocator activity data and nest monitoring we determined the breeding phenology of this species and we found biometric differences between sexes. While monitoring breeding performance, we verified a still ongoing cat predation and human harvesting. Overall, data gathered from trapped cats without transponder, cats GPS trips and the distinct isotopic values between domestic and trapped cats suggest cats visiting the colony are of feral origin. GPS tracks from breeders showed birds left and returned to the colony using the sector NE of the islands, where high level of public lights should be avoided specially during the fledging period. Main threats for the Cape Verde petrel in the remaining breeding islands are currently unknown but likely to be similar to Fogo, calling for an urgent assessment of population trends and the control of main threats in all Cape Verde Islands and uplisting its conservation status.

  15. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to investigate habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (United States)

    Gray, D.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Estes, S. M.


    As the global urban population rapidly increases, many wild species lose habitat to human development. The Western Cape of South Africa contains one of Earth's 35 biodiversity hotspots, with remarkably high levels of species richness and endemism. Understanding the relationship between anthropogenic changes and key species in this region is crucial for conservation of its threatened ecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect that climate change and urbanization each have on habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture. This research utilized NASA satellite data and crowdsourced species sightings to model past, current, and future habitat suitability for this key species in the Western Cape. Data used from NASA Earth Observations included: Landsat 8- derived Land Cover, Modis Land Surface Temperature, Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and precipitation data which integrated in-situ stations with Infrared data. Species observations were sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility online database. A geospatial modelling framework was used to generate maps of present, past and future suitable habitats for analysis and comparison. Changes in precipitation and temperature may be a factor in the extreme loss of habitat since 1995, and predict even more drastic loss in the future. This research provides insights on anthropogenic effects on a species' range which may be used to inform discussions of conservation as an element of environmentally sustainable development.

  16. Research collaboration 2011-2012: A joint publication highlighting the research partnerships between the CSIR and University of the Western Cape, University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available CSIR’s partnerships with the University of the Western Cape (UWC), University of Cape Town (UCT) and Stellenbosch University (SU) seek to conduct research that improves the quality of the lives of the people of South Africa by responding...

  17. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Bojuwoye


    Full Text Available The study explored Western Cape primary and secondary school learners' experiences regarding the provision and utilization of support services for improving learning. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted and data gathered through focus group interviews involving 90 learners. Results revealed that learners received and utilized various forms of learning support from their schools, teachers, and peers. The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance.

  18. Estuarine and Coastal Wildlife Research at Cape Canaveral (United States)

    Reyier, Eric A.


    Dr. Eric Reyier has been invited to give a 15-minute oral and Powerpoint presentation to the Florida Sport Fishing Association (north Chapter) regarding fisheries research and management in the greater Cape Canaveral region. The focus of the talk will center on the Florida Atlantic Coast Telemetry Array, a multi-agency network of submerged acoustic receivers used to track the movements of economically valuable sportfish, sharks, and sea turtles here at KSC and elsewhere along the US east coast. The talk has been given (in varying forms) several times before and is always a positive story for KSC.

  19. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotich, P.; Kovachevich, M.; Vasich, V.; Ristich, N.


    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 10 9 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 2 35U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 2 38U , (0.2 - 0.3) % of 2 35U , 0.001 % of 2 34U , and only traces of 2 34T h, 2 34P a and 2 31T h. If traces of the isotopes 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 10 6 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 2 38U and its decay products 2 34T h and 2 34P a which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 2 35U and 2 31T h (0.16 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  20. Hydroxyester disaccharides from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana). (United States)

    Mayorga, Humberto; Duque, Carmenza; Knapp, Holger; Winterhalter, Peter


    The 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and the diastereomeric 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosides of (3R) and (3S)-butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, respectively, were isolated by chromatographic methods from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) harvested in Colombia. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The three glycoconjugates can be considered as immediate precursors of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, which are important aroma volatiles found in the fruit.

  1. Toward better assessment of tornado potential in typhoons: Significance of considering entrainment effects for CAPE (United States)

    Sueki, Kenta; Niino, Hiroshi


    The characteristics of typhoons that spawned tornadoes (tornadic typhoons: TTs) in Japan from 1991 to 2013 were investigated by composite analysis using the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis and compared with those of typhoons that did not spawn tornadoes (nontornadic typhoons: NTs). We found that convective available potential energy (CAPE), which considers the effects of entrainment (entraining CAPE: E-CAPE), and storm-relative environmental helicity (SREH) are significantly large in the northeast quadrant of TTs where tornadoes frequently occur and that E-CAPE and SREH in that quadrant for TTs are larger than those for NTs. On the other hand, ordinary CAPE without entrainment does not account for the spatial distribution of tornado occurrences nor does it distinguish TTs from NTs. E-CAPE is sensitive to humidity in the midtroposphere; thus, it is effective for detecting a conditionally unstable layer up to about 550 hPa, which is distinctive of TTs.

  2. Religious and secular Cape Malay Afrikaans: Literary varieties used by Shaykh Hanif Edwards (1906-1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Luffin


    Full Text Available In the context of the White and Christian-dominated Afrikaans language movements, followed by apartheid, little attention has been paid to an Afrikaans literary variety used among Muslim Cape Coloureds, a group often referred to as ‘Cape Malays’. Descending mainly from Asian slaves brought by the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, Dutch East India Company, and bearing the marks of cohabitation with non-Asian populations at the Cape, the Cape Malays at an early stage developed a distinct religious culture through their adherence to Islam, as well as a distinct Cape Dutch linguistic identity through their connections with the Dutch East Indies and the Islamic world. These cultural idiosyncrasies found expression in a local literature, religious and (more rarely secular, using as a medium a variety of Cape Dutch/Afrikaans written either in the Arabic alphabet or in the Roman alphabet.

  3. 78 FR 40669 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable... (United States)


    ... and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable Thoroughwort, Florida Semaphore Cactus, and... thoroughwort), Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus), and Harrisia aboriginum (aboriginal prickly...

  4. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Boehm, P. D.; Hardestine, J. H.; Douglas, G. S.


    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  5. Geotourism, Medical Geology and local development: Cape Verde case study (United States)

    Rocha, F.; Ferreira da Silva, E.


    Geotourism and Geoparks in particular are real opportunities to rural developments promoting the rate decline of unemployment and emigration through engaging the local communities in geopark activities and tourism marketing in the form of adventure tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism and health geotourism. Geotourism is closely linked with Medical Geology. The intake of minerals and chemical elements for food, water, soil (through geophagy) or dust can be accomplished by ingestion, inhalation or dermal absorption. Pelotherapy or “Mudtherapy” is the use of mud/clay for therapeutic applications, internal or external. Cape Verde archipelago is located in Atlantic ocean, 400 km westwards of Senegal coast. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo island huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine. A cooperative program established between Cape Verde University (UCV) and Aveiro University (UA, Portugal) is under way, aiming, on a first stage, to identify Geotouristic potentialities and, on a second stage, to develop products. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo isl. huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine.

  6. Atmospheric aerosol characterisation at Cape Grim and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Garton, D.


    The Australia Global Baseline monitoring station at Cape Grim in north western Tasmania is operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. ANSTO has been sampling, measuring and characterising fine particles of 2.5 μm diameters and less (PM2.5) at Cape Grim since the middle of 1992. Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques [2-41 have been used to identify over 25 different elemental species present in over 500 filters collected to date. The elements measured by PIXE, PIGME, ERDA and RBS include, H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. Of the measured elements not listed the majority occurred at concentrations below 10 ng/m 3 . The average monthly mass variations over the 5 year period from 1992 to 1997 are given. The average non-soil potassium was 92% of the total potassium, showing that the vast majority of fine potassium was associated with smoke from biomass burning. The highest lead value of 542 ng/m 3 occurred on 21 June 1992 and was associated with 337 ng/m 3 of bromine which, after correction for bromine in sea salt (Na was 3 ), was about the correct ratio to be associated with combustion of leaded petrol in motor vehicles

  7. From disasters to decisions: Cape Canaveral Marine Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, K.A.


    Five years ago, in August 1992, a tropical depression off the western coast of Africa formed, intensifying and gathering storm clouds as it began its journey westward. By the time it reached the US mainland, it had become a full-fledged hurricane -- Hurricane Andrew -- that blasted over south Florida and into south-central Louisiana. In Florida City, Fla., things went from bad to worse. One piece of metal debris -- airborne from the hurricane's 145 mile-per-hour winds -- punctured an oil tank, triggering a rapidly spreading oil spill that needed to be contained, and fast. The tank had a mechanism whereby oil was replenished when the container was less than full; so as oil was sucked out by the high winds, more came pouring in. In addition, a berm that would have somewhat contained the spill was stuck in open position. Enter Cape Canaveral Marine Services, Inc., (CCMS, Cape Canaveral, Fla.), an environmental services company well-versed in emergency spill response activities. Within seven weeks, CCMS had cleaned up and mitigated the impacts of the spill. Although the job posed significant challenges, the company was uniquely situated to respond quickly, efficiently, and effectively. After all, it had already been in the business for 20 years

  8. Spiders are Mammals: Direct Instruction in Cape York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dow


    Full Text Available In 2010, SRA Direct Instructioni was introduced across the curriculum in two remote Cape York schools, as a key aspect of social and welfare reform. There is national political interest in these reforms, which link welfare policy to State primary school education conceived as basic skills training. Reflecting the political interest, national newspapers ran the story that Direct Instruction had provided almost miraculous results after 17 weeks (Devine 2010a. Alternative approaches to literacy development in Indigenous education did not get the same sort of media attention. Noel Pearson provides the intellectual basis for Cape York social reforms, through his writing, political advocacy and leadership of organisations involved in the reforms. His ultimate goal is successful mainstream education leading to economic integration, where young people are „completely fluent in their own culture and the wider culture‟ (Pearson 2009:57. The question posed by this vision is „What kind of education can produce these flexible, bicultural, working people who keep their traditions alive?‟

  9. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Uimonen


    Full Text Available The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public screens, followed by live music performances and narrowcast interaction with the audience. Building on recent research on public screens during global media events, this article addresses the mediated mourning rituals at the Grand Parade in terms of a sacred drama. Focusing on social relationality, the article discusses how digital visuality mediated a sense of global communitas, thus momentarily overcoming historical frictions between the global north and the global south, while expanding the fame of Madiba. Paying attention to the public display of visual memory objects and the emotional agency of images, it argues that digital visuality mediated social frictions between the living and the dead, while recasting a historical subject as a historical object. The article further discusses how digital visuality mediated cultural frictions of apartheid and xenophobia, through the positioning of Mandela in the pantheon of Pan-African icons, thus underlining the African origin of this global icon. The analysis is based on ethnographic observations and experiences in Cape Town.

  10. Memories and identities redefinitions around the independence process in Cape Verde. The case of the Argentine-Cape Verdeans from Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Martino


    Full Text Available The article analyzes, from an ethnographic and historical perspective, the relations between memory, identity and Afro-descendant political activism among the Argentine-Cape Verdeans from Buenos Aires. The article highlights the memories and stories of the independence of Cape Verde, and the role played in it by Amílcar Cabral, the main political leader of this process. These narratives, whose specific expression are reflected in the institutional space of the Cape Verdean Society of Dock Sud, are updated from different perspectives and redefine the changing identity borders that allow the delineation of specific forms of political activism in Buenos Aires.

  11. FOGO-2014: Monitoring the Fogo 2014 Eruption, Cape Verde (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Faria, Bruno


    Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago offshore Western Africa, is a complete stratovolcano system that was created by the Cape Verde hotspot, forming the island of Fogo. The top (Pico do Fogo) reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises ~1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area with approximately 10 kilometres in the north-south direction and 7 kilometres in the east-west direction. Chã das Caldeiras, surrounded towards the West by the ~1000m high Bordeira rampart, has been inhabited since the early 20th Century, because it is one of the most productive agricultural areas in this semi-arid country. Fogo volcano erupted on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC) on a subsidiary vent of the main cone, after 19 years of inactivity. C4G (Collaboratory for Geosciences), a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, immediately offered support to the Cape Verdean authorities, with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network operated in Fogo island by INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institute. This permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, and the data is transmitted in real time to the INMG geophysical laboratory in São Vicente Island, where it is analysed on a routine basis. Pre-eruptive activity started to be detected by the permanent monitoring network on October 2014, with earthquakes occurring at depths larger than 15 km. These events led to a first volcanic warning to the Cape Verdean Civil Protection Agency. On November 22 several volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded at shallow depths, indicating shallow fracturing. On the basis of this activity, INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, ~24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Volcanic tremor and clear tiltmeter signals were recorded about one hour

  12. Stable carbon isotopic assessment of prehistoric diets in the south-western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealy, J C


    This thesis consists of a stable carbon isotopic assessment of the diets of the Holocene human inhabitants of the south-western Cape, South-Africa. Samples of the foods these people ate were collected from each of the four major physiographic zones in the area, and their /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios measured. A total of more than 200 such analyses enabled the estimation of the average delta /sup 13/C values of prehistoric human diets in each zone. This information is used to interpret delta /sup 13/C measurements on a series of archaeological human skeletons. The results are consistent with a model of prehistoric subsistence behaviour in which people living at the coast made intensive use of marine food resources throughout the Holocene, consuming such a large proportion of these foods that they must have spent much, if not all of their time at the coast. Inland skeletons reflect an almost entirely terrestrial diet. These results contradict hypotheses about seasonal population movements between the coast and the interior generated from excavated archaeological material. Considerable changes in many of our current views of the Late Stone Age of the south-western Cape will have to be made in order to accommodate these data.

  13. Quantifying morphological changes of cape-related shoals (United States)

    Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Adams, P. N.; Parra, S. M.; Valle-Levinson, A.


    The rising demand for marine resources has motivated the study of inner shelf transport processes, especially in locations with highly-developed coastlines, endangered-species habitats, and valuable economic resources. These characteristics are found at Cape Canaveral shoals, on the Florida Atlantic coast, where transport dynamics and morphological evolution are not well understood. To study morphological changes at these shoals, two sets of paired upward- and downward-pointing acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were deployed in winter 2015-2016. One set was deployed at the inner swale of Shoal E, 20 km southeast of the cape tip in 13 m depth, while the other set was located at the edge of Southeast shoal in 5 m deep. Upward-pointing velocity profiles and suspended particle concentrations were implemented in the Exner equation to quantify instantaneous rates of change in bed elevation. This computation includes changes in sediment concentration and the advection of suspended particles, but does not account for spatial gradients in bed-load fluxes and water velocities. The results of the computation were then compared to bed change rates measured directly by the downward-pointing ADCPs. At the easternmost ridge, quantified bed elevation change rates ranged from -7×10-7 to 4×10-7 m/s, and those at the inner swale ranged from -4×10-7 to 8×10-7 m/s. These values were two orders of magnitude smaller than rates measured by downward-pointing ADCPs. Moreover, the cumulative changes were two orders of magnitude larger at the ridge (-0.33 m, downward, and -0.13, m upward) than at the inner swale (cf. -6×10-3 m, downward, and 3×10-3 m, upward). These values suggest that bedform migration may be occurring at the ridge, that suspended sediments account for up to 30% of total bed changes, and that gradients in bed-load fluxes exert control on morphological change over the shoals. Despite uncertainties related to the ADCP-derived sediment concentrations, these

  14. Cell killing and radiosensitization by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Miao-Fen; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Chun-Te; King, P.C.


    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a biologically active ingredient of honeybee propoplis. The cytotoxicity and radiation sensitization effects of CAPE were evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and normal lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. A549 cells treated with 6 μg/ml CAPE showed marked growth inhibition (60%) at 48 hr after treatments. During the same time, the number of viable cells decreased to 46% of the control value. In contrast, WI-38 cells showed 20% growth inhibition with no change in the number of viable cells under the same treatment conditions. At 72 hr after CAPE treatment (6 μg/ml), the percentage of apoptotic cells in A549 cultures increased significantly to 67% and an S/G2 arrest was also detected in the culture. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the level of intracellular glutathione and hydrogen peroxide contents within one hr after CAPE treatment, and the expression of cyclin B 1 was reduced 6 hr after treatment. The radiation sensitization effect of CAPE on A549 cells was determined from the clonogenic survival curves, and the results showed a small but significant difference in radiation survival between cells treated with or without CAPE. Taken together, our results suggest that the effects of CAPE on differential cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and radiosensitization are associated with glutathione depletion that occurred shortly after treatments. (author)

  15. Polytocy in the Cape serotine bat Eptesicus capensis (A. Smith 1829 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polytocy is described in the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis,and discussed in relation to the occurrence of multiple births in other microchiropteran bat species in the southern African subregion. Although twins appear to be characteristic of the Cape serotine bat, triplets and even the occasional quadruplets occur.

  16. 75 FR 10500 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA (United States)


    ... Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS... MMS for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts. On January 16, 2009... facility on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts. Following the adoption of the Energy Policy...

  17. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  18. Perceptions of the role of the clinical nurse practitioner in the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken in community health centres (CHC) in the Cape Metropolitan area. Method: A situational analysis was conducted of all 41 CHCs in the Cape Metropolitan area. Three focus group interviews were then undertaken with CNPs, doctors and managers to determine the factors influencing the effective ...

  19. The impacts of regulation on business in the Waste Sector: Evidence from the Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH


    Full Text Available . In this regard, the Western Cape Department of Economic Development and Tourism commissioned a project to do a regulatory impact assessment for the waste economy in the Western Cape. The findings of this research suggest that a number of the legislative barriers...

  20. 33 CFR 80.501 - Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 80.501 Section 80.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.501 Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ...

  1. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette


    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  2. The Cape Verde Islands are home to a small and genetically distinct humpback whale breeding population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bérubé, Martine; Ryan, Conor; Berrow, Simon D.; Suarez, Pedro Lopez; Monteiro, Vanda; Wenzel, Frederick; Robbins, Jooke; Mattila, David; Vikingsson, G.A.; Øien, Nils; Palsboll, Per


    The Cape Verde Islands appear to be winter breeding ground of the smallest humpback whale population yet known. However, it is unclear whether the humpback whales at the Cape Verde Islands interbreed with those in the West Indies. Here we present the results of the genetic analysis of 50 humpback

  3. Cape Verde. A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project. (United States)

    Sevigny, Joseph A.

    This report provides information on the education system of Cape Verde, and is designed to assist college admissions officers and registrars in the United States with the admission and placement of students from that country. The report contains general information on the geography, history, and people of Cape Verde, as well as more specific…

  4. Salinity of irrigation water in the Philippi farming area of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity of irrigation water in the Philippi farming area of the Cape Flats, Cape Town, ... Isotope analysis was done for the summer samples so as to assess effects of ... It is concluded that the accumulation of salts in groundwater and soil in the ...

  5. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  6. A Controversial Reform in Indigenous Education: The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (United States)

    McCollow, John


    This article examines a controversial initiative in Indigenous education: the establishment of the Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA). The article provides a brief description of the Academy's three campuses and their communities and considers: the circumstances of its creation, including the role of Noel Pearson and Cape York…

  7. 77 FR 59970 - Notice of November 14, 2012, Meeting for Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission (United States)


    ... change Herring Cove Beach/revetment Climate Friendly Parks 6. Old Business National Seashore Law Enforcement Policies 7. New Business 8. Date and agenda for next meeting 9. Public comment and 10. Adjournment... Meeting of the Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Cape Cod...

  8. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. ... Strandveld; but 38 % of all nests recorded in the South-western Cape are in Acacia. S. senegalensis is .... of mixed exotic trees, often including some Acacia but also Eucalyptus, Pinus, Quercus,. Populus and other ...

  9. rural grade 2 western Cape disorders in in the and hearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 19, 1991 ... Departments of Otolaryngology and Paediatrics and Child. Health, University of Cape Town, and Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town. C. A. J. PRESCOTT, F.R.CS. M. A. KIBEL, F.R.CP., D.CH. Accepted 21 Mar 1990. ear disease in the population. This statement can be justified.

  10. Evidence for radiations of cheilanthoid ferns in the Greater Cape Floristic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Rohwer, Jens G.; Russell, Stephen J.


    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) of southern Africa is characterised by large, endemic radiations of flowering plants, the so-called ‘Cape Clades’, but it is unknown whether such radiations are also found in non-angiosperms. We hypothesise that GCFR-endemic lineages exist in the xeric...

  11. Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5. Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Isopoda and. Decapoda. B. Kensley and C.D. Buxton. Port Elizabeth Museum, Port Elizabeth. Forty-six species of Crustacea from the shallow marine waters of the southern Cape coast are listed. Five new records for the area.

  12. 33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (United States)


    ... Cape Fear River to the stern of the Battleship USS NORTH CAROLINA. (b) Definitions. The designated..., Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.515 Section 165.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Location. The following area is...

  13. The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 25, 1988 ... The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the ... relation to previous studies of intertidal pools in the eastern and western Cape, ... transient species, particularly two species in the family ..... schooling species (27%) made up the balance. ..... consistent with other work that has shown greater.

  14. Managing the Risk of Flooding and Sea-level Rise in Cape Town ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Studies. Managing disasters in the context of climate change : towards sustainable urban flood management in Cape Town ... Moving through the city : gender and floods at play; a case study in Sweet Home Farm informal settlement, Cape Town ... public health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.

  15. Streptococcus phocae infections associated with starvation in Cape fur seals : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Henton


    Full Text Available Mortalities and abortions associated with starvation occurred at Cape Cross, Namibia, in Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus. Affected seals showed lethargy and emaciation, and the most common pathological signs were those of a respiratory infection, both in adults and offspring. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from adult seals, a cub and aborted foetuses.

  16. Reconstruction of major maternal and paternal lineages of the Cape Muslim population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafieka Isaacs


    Full Text Available The earliest Cape Muslims were brought to the Cape (Cape Town -South Africa from Africa and Asia from 1652 to 1834. They were part of an involuntary migration of slaves, political prisoners and convicts, and they contributed to the ethnic diversity of the present Cape Muslim population of South Africa. The history of the Cape Muslims has been well documented and researched however no in-depth genetic studies have been undertaken. The aim of the present study was to determine the respective African, Asian and European contributions to the mtDNA (maternal and Y-chromosomal (paternal gene pool of the Cape Muslim population, by analyzing DNA samples of 100 unrelated Muslim males born in the Cape Metropolitan area. A panel of six mtDNA and eight Y-chromosome SNP markers were screened using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP. Overall admixture estimates for the maternal line indicated Asian (0.4168 and African mtDNA (0.4005 as the main contributors. The admixture estimates for the paternal line, however, showed a predominance of the Asian contribution (0.7852. The findings are in accordance with historical data on the origins of the early Cape Muslims.

  17. 78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States (United States)


    ... (Physalis peruviana) from Colombia is authorized for importation into the United States if the commodity is... added to read as follows: Sec. 319.56-60 Cape gooseberry from Colombia. Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) may be imported into the United States from Colombia in accordance with the conditions described...

  18. Evaluating the effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Boekel, van Tiny; Verkerk, Ruud


    Cape gooseberry is the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. and has gained commercial and scientific interest for its contents of health-promoting compounds. An integral approach to estimate shelf life of cape gooseberry was conducted taking into account physicochemical, microbiological and

  19. Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still

  20. Workload and casemix in Cape Town emergency departments. (United States)

    Wallis, Lee A; Twomey, Michele


    Little is known about the nature of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in South Africa. This study aimed to provide evidence on ED usage in Cape Town by studying patients at four community health centre (CHC) EDs, with details of the severity of their presentation and their disposal. A total of 16,392 patients presented in this 8-week prospective observational study, and 15,681 were included in the descriptive data analysis. One-quarter were children. There were clear and predictable peaks in attendance after 1600 hr and at weekends, with a steady stream of patients presenting overnight. Case severity was evenly distributed between emergency, urgent and routine care. Nearly 10% of patients were referred on to a higher level of care. The data from this study present a model for staffing and resource allocation. It has implications for the provision of emergency care in CHC EDs.

  1. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn. (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert


    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  2. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.


    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  3. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt


    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  4. 75 FR 34152 - Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to... (United States)


    ... Preservation on the Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... announcing the availability of the ROD for the Cape Wind Energy Project (the Project). The ROD for the...), implementing the provisions of NHPA (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Cape Wind Energy...

  5. Tourist Profile and Destination Brand Perception: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji


    Full Text Available Tourists pay for destination brands. This study checked for the relationships between tourists’ profile and how they perceived the destination brand of Cape Town. A questionnaire survey of 220 tourists visiting Cape Town was done. This study found that repeat visit, age of tourist, length of stay, and tourist origin, have significant influences on how tourists visiting Cape Town perceived the destination. The top three destination attributes of Cape Town (cognitive images, which enhance visitor experience satisfaction are (1 the overall level of service quality at facilities in Cape Town, (2 the city being one of the best places the tourists have visited, and (3 the destination’s good value for money. The top three emotional valuations of destination attributes (affective images which enhance visitor experience satisfaction in Cape Town include (1 memorable visit, (2 valuable visit, and (3 friendly and hospitable population. It is therefore recommended that tourism businesses in Cape Town develop relationship marketing tools to attract and retain its tourists segments of loyal, advanced in age, long-staying and domestic tourists. Results from this research could be compared with related findings in the international arena and have related implications, especially for developing economies

  6. Radiation sensitization by CAPE on human HeLa cells of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiang; Cao Jianping; Fan Saijun; Zun Wei; Huang Xiaofei; Liu Yang; Chen Xialin; Gong Xiaomei; Peng Xiaomei; Zeng Jing


    Objective: To study the radiosensitizing effect of caffic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Methods: MTT assay was used to measure the relation between the inhibition effect and CAPE concentrations by CAPE with different concentrations on HeLa cells for 24 hours. HeLa cells were divided into the control and experimental groups, both of which were given 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy of 60Co γ-irradiation, respectively. The cell clones were counted. Meanwhile HeLa cells were divided into the control, CAPE, irradiation and combination groups. Flow cytometric analysis was adopted to detect the changes of cell cycle distribution induced by CAPE. Results: The inhibition rate of CAPE acting on Hela cells increased with concentrations (F=126. 49 ∼ 3654.88, P 0 ) (1.45 and 1.82 Gy) and the quasi-threshold dose (D q ) (1.89 and 3.21 Gy) of HeLa cells in experimental group decreased comparing with control group, SER was 1.26. Compared with the sole irradiation group, cells in G 2 /M phase of the CAPE group and the sole irradiation group increased (P 2 /M arrest and may be related to the inhibition of the sub-lethal damage repair. (authors)

  7. A review of Khoi-San and Cape Dutch medical ethnobotany. (United States)

    van Wyk, B-E


    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL CONTEXT: Cape herbal medicine as a distinct and unique healing system is conceptualized for the first time, together with a first compilation of the authentic materia medica of the system. The early literature on Khoikhoi (Hottentot), San (Bushman) and Cape Dutch medicinal plants and medical practices is reviewed, with a focus on the Cape Floristic Region (from Namaqualand to the Eastern Cape). To avoid recent additions and modern cultural influences in the results, the date of publication of the last volume of Marloth's Flora of South Africa (1932) was chosen as a cut-off date. The recorded Cape materia medica (up to 1932) is briefly summarized, giving the scientific names, vernacular names (in Afrikaans or Khoi-San/Nama) and main uses. It comprises about 170 items and includes mainly indigenous and endemic plant species, some exotic (garden) plants, and a few other items (fungi, seaweeds, lichens, hyraceum and natural potassium nitrate). Most of the plants (and hyraceum) are still widely used today, especially in rural areas. The combination of unique cultural practices and a diverse, highly endemic flora has led to the development of a distinct herbal healing system, here called Cape herbal medicine, but hitherto rather vaguely and inaccurately referred to as Khoi-San medicine, Cape Dutch medicine or boererate (farm remedies). The data allows for a more informed consideration of indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights associated with particular plants (e.g. Hoodia and Pelargonium). It also offers opportunities for linking modern ethnobotanical field studies with historical data.

  8. Lexical borrowing by Khoekhoegowab from Cape Dutch and Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrid Haacke


    Full Text Available The present article instantiates types of lexical borrowing from Afrikaans and Dutch in Namibian Khoekhoegowab (also known as “Nama”/“Damara”, but occasionally also refers to borrowings in the opposite direction. Where evidence allows, loans are traced back beyond Afrikaans to the era of Cape Dutch and contemporary interethnic contacts. Various categories ranging from adoptions to phonologically integrated loans, hybrids and calques are presented and, where possible, historical inferences are offered. The high degree of translational equivalence between Khoekhoe serial verbs and Afrikaans compound verbs leads to the consideration of some grammatical aspects including replication and relexification. Finally, reference is made to a parallel between Afrikaans and “Khoekhoe Afrikaans” syntax pointed out by den Besten (2013: Afrikaans circumlocutions like ek / sy wat Anna is (Khoekhoe: Anna.ta / Anna.s are literal equivalents of the underlying phrasal structures of Khoekhoe surface nouns #stem.pgn# in first, second or third person, as accounted for by the “desentential hypothesis” (Haacke 2006.  

  9. Monsoon signatures in trace gas records from Cape Rama, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.; Jani, R.A.; Borole, D.V.; Francey, R.J.; Allison, C.E.; Masarie, K.A.


    Concentrations of trace gases CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, N 2 O and H 2 , and the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO 2 have been measured in air samples collected from Cape Rama, a coastal station on the west coast of India, since 1993. The data show clear signatures of continental and oceanic air mass resulting in complex seasonal variation of trace gas characteristics. The regional atmospheric circulation in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea undergoes biannual reversal in low-level winds associated with the yearly migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). From June to September, the wind is from the equatorial Indian Ocean to the Indian subcontinent (southwest monsoon) and brings in pristine marine air. From December to February, dry continental winds blow from the northeast and transport continental emissions to the ocean (northeast monsoon). Detailed transport and chemical modelling will be necessary to interpret these records, however the potential to identify and constrain the regional trace gas emissions appears to be high. (author)

  10. Levels of violence among nurses in Cape Town public hospitals. (United States)

    Khalil, Doris


    The paper presents findings from a study examining violence in nursing. A combined ethno-phenomenology was identified as the most appropriate approach. Ethnography is to understand the culture of nursing that permits violence to occur within the profession. Phenomenology is to explore and capture nurse-on-nurse experiences of violence. The population is all nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council. The research participants are nurses employed in eight public hospitals in Cape Town during 2005. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION: The first stage of data collection was the distributions of confidential questionnaires to nurses employed in eight hospitals and willing to participate in the study. Responses to close-ended questions were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Responses to open-ended questions were grouped per question. The qualitative data were then compared for similarities and differences in information provided. Six levels of violence exist among nurses. The highest forms of violence among nurses occurred at the psychological level, with the least at the physical level of interaction. The other four levels of violence among nurses were vertical, horizontal, covert, and overt. All categories of nurses in the study had resorted to one or more levels of violence against other nurses during their nursing career. Professional nurses and senior nurse managers were identified as the main category of nurses that frequently resort to mistreating other nurses. However, auxiliary nurses were identified as the main perpetrators of physical violence against other nurses.

  11. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.


    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  12. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.


    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  13. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.


    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  14. Dating the magmatism of Maio, Cape Verde Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J G [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). School of Physics; Le Bas, M J [Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Geology; Furnes, H [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Geologisk Inst.


    Conventional K-Ar and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar studies of Mesozoic ocean floor basalts and Tertiary plutonic and volcanic rocks from Maio, Cape Verde Islands, have been determined to elucidate the magmatic evolution of this ocean island. Pillow lavas of the Basement Complex yield a minimum age of 113 +- 8 Ma though thermal overprinting of their formation age by the younger Central Intrusive Complex (CIC) and subsequent sheet intrusions is in some cases almost total. Activity in the CIC began before 20 Ma and plutons continued to develop until about 8 Ma, the youngest ages possibly indicating a cooling history of more than 2 Ma for these bodies relative to their volcanic counterparts. Sheet intrusion occurred throughout the period 20 to 9 Ma though the peak of this activity probably occurred 11 Ma ago. Field relations allow the time of thrusting(s) on the Monte Branco Thrust to be bracketed between 9 and 7 Ma. Volcanic activity began in the Tertiary, probably before 12 Ma, and culminated in the development of a stratovolcano at 7 Ma.

  15. Final 2014 Remedial Action Report Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    This report was prepared to document remedial action (RA) work performed at the former Project Chariot site located near Cape Thompson, Alaska during 2014. The work was managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Alaska District for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). Due to the short field season and the tight barge schedule, all field work was conducted at the site July 6 through September 12, 2014. Excavation activities occurred between July 16 and August 26, 2014. A temporary field camp was constructed at the site prior to excavation activities to accommodate the workers at the remote, uninhabited location. A total of 785.6 tons of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL)-contaminated soil was excavated from four former drill sites associated with test holes installed circa 1960. Diesel was used in the drilling process during test hole installations and resulted in impacts to surface and subsurface soils at four of the five sites (no contamination was identified at Test Hole Able). Historic information is not definitive as to the usage for Test Hole X-1; it may have actually been a dump site and not a drill site. In addition to the contaminated soil, the steel test hole casings were decommissioned and associated debris was removed as part of the remedial effort.

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of the Eastern Cape School Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ncanywa


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the trends of education indicators that affect efficiency at schools in the Eastern Cape in the period 2009 to 2013. The focus is on the state of public ordinary schools which include primary and secondary schools from grade one to grade twelve. The province is regarded as a poor province as it constituted 95% of quintile one to three schools which are declared as ‘no fee schools’. There had been decline in learner performance as learners’ progress to higher grades and a drastic decline in important subjects such as Mathematics.  province had a significant number of educators with 16 years’ experience and an average of 45% under-qualified educators in 2013. There were variations in educator learner ratios per district with larger ratios found in the former Transkei. The province progressed well in learner transport, learner teacher support material and school nutrition programmes. There was no virtual change in infrastructural developments. Education in schools should be provided in a manner that ensures learners can realise their potential and aspirations, in schools that facilitate learning and reduce societal disparities.

  17. Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene C. Hargrove


    Full Text Available The biocultural conservation and research initiative of Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve was born in a remote part of South America and has rapidly expanded to attain regional, national, and international relevance. The park and the biosphere reserve, led by Ricardo Rozzi and his team, have made significant progress in demonstrating the way academic research supports local cultures, social processes, decision making, and conservation. It is a dynamic hive of investigators, artists, writers, students, volunteers, and friends, all exploring ways to better integrate academia and society. The initiative involves an informal consortium of institutions and organizations; in Chile, these include the University of Magallanes, the Omora Foundation, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, and in the United States, the University of North Texas, the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance, and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. The consortium intends to function as a hub through which other institutions and organizations can be involved in research, education, and biocultural conservation. The park constitutes one of three long-term socio-ecological research sites in Chile of the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity.

  18. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete


    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  19. Ethical business practices in the Eastern Cape automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Lloyd


    Full Text Available High profile scandals have brought about a renewed interest in business ethics and, in particular, inunderstanding the factors that promote ethical behaviour. Business ethics is about identifying andimplementing values, rules and standards of conduct for guiding morally right behaviour in an organisation’sinteraction with its stakeholders. Against this background a quantitative analysis of the ethical practices of46 companies operating in the Eastern Cape automotive industry was conducted to determine the extent towhich ethics-related interventions contributed to establishing and maintaining an ethical organisationalenvironment. A structured online questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data collected wassubjected to extensive statistical analyses, including Cronbach Alpha coefficients and item total correlations,and various descriptive statistics were included as a quantitative summary of the data. A constant referencevalue for the study was also calculated to allow inferences regarding the significance of the tested variablesto the study. The results revealed that the organisations in the sample are highly ethical due to the presenceof ethics-related interventions, including a code of ethics, committed leadership, adherence to internal andexternal governance requirements, compliance with legislation and encouragement and disclosure ofunethical behaviour. In light of the high number of ethical scandals internationally, this study will add to theempirical body of business ethics research, as it provides organisations with a framework to establish andmaintain an ethical business environment.

  20. The Cape Ghir filament system in August 2009 (NW Africa) (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Troupin, Charles; Barreiro-González, Beatriz; Desmond Barton, Eric; Orbi, Abdellatif; Arístegui, Javier


    In the framework of the Canaries-Iberian marine ecosystem Exchanges (CAIBEX) experiment, an interdisciplinary high-resolution survey was conducted in the NW African region of Cape Ghir (30°38'N) during August 2009. The anatomy of a major filament is investigated on scales down to the submesoscale using in situ and remotely sensed data. The filament may be viewed as a system composed of three intimately connected structures: a small, shallow, and cold filament embedded within a larger, deeper, and cool filament and an intrathermocline anticyclonic eddy (ITE). The cold filament, which stretches 110 km offshore, is a shallow feature 60 m deep and 25 km wide, identified by minimal surface temperatures and rich in chlorophyll a. This structure comprises two asymmetrical submesoscale (˜18 km) fronts with jets flowing in opposite directions. The cold filament is embedded near the equatorward boundary of a much broader region of approximately 120 km width and 150 m depth that forms the cool filament and stretches at least 200 km offshore. This cool region, partly resulting from the influence of cold filament, is limited by two asymmetrical mesoscale (˜50 km) frontal boundaries. At the ITE, located north of the cold filament, we observe evidence of downwelling as indicated by a relatively high concentration of particles extending from the surface to more than 200 m depth. We hypothesize that this ITE may act as a sink of carbon and thus the filament system may serve dual roles of offshore carbon export and carbon sink.

  1. Risk-taking behaviour ofCape Peninsula high-school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviour alDong high-school students in the. Cape Peninsula ... Knonenbelt - personal communication). South Africa has ..... vision and film violence increases physical aggression ... violence in the media; revising firearm legislation and.

  2. Desmodium: A low-cost pasture for the eastern Cape coastal region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Animal production; Beef production; botany; Desmodium intortum; dryland; east london; Eastern Cape; economic evaluation; fertilizer; grasses; gross margin; Growth requirements; livestock; Management; maximum production; pasture; Pastures; Production costs; south africa; star grass; stocking rate; stocking ...

  3. Training Effectiveness Assessment of Red Cape: Crisis Action Planning and Execution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Peter S; Shadrick, Scott B; Beaubien, Jeff; Crabb, Brian T


    The crisis response training program Red Cape: Crisis Action Planning and Execution uses theme-based training and multimedia scenarios to instill expert thinking patterns in crisis response personnel...

  4. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students ... Cluster sampling techniques produced a sam- ple of 7 340 ... Over the past 30 or 40 years increasing percent- ages of ..... many adolescents, caution should be exercised when.

  5. Cape Point GAW Station Rn-222 detector: factors affecting sensitivity and accuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brunke, EG


    Full Text Available Specific factors of a baseline Rn-222 detector installed at Cape Point, South Africa, were studied with the aim of improving its performance. Direct sunlight caused air turbulence within the instrument, resulting in 13.6% variability...

  6. Aligning the diverse: the development of a biodiversity conservation strategy for the Cape Floristic Region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lochner, Paul A


    Full Text Available case study area, integrating the strategy with existing initiatives, prioritizing actions for implementation, and promoting early implementation of projects consistent with the general strategic direction. There are initial indications that the CAPE...

  7. The role of eclogite in the mantle heterogeneity at Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail Katrine; Holm, Paul Martin; Troll, Valentin R.


    The Cape Verde hotspot, like many other Ocean Island Basalt provinces, demonstrates isotopic heterogeneity on a 100–200 km scale. The heterogeneity is represented by the appearance of an EM1-like component at several of the southern islands and with a HIMU-like component present throughout...... have been limited. We apply the minor elements in olivine approach (Sobolev et al. in Nature 434:590–597, 2005; Science, doi:10.1126/science.1138113, 2007), to determine and quantify the contributions of peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite melts to the mantle heterogeneity observed at Cape Verde. Cores...... of olivine phenocrysts of the Cape Verde volcanics have low Mn/FeO and low Ni*FeO/MgO that deviate from the negative trend of the global array. The global array is defined by mixing between peridotite and pyroxenite, whereas the Cape Verde volcanics indicate contribution of an additional eclogite source...

  8. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1


    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.


    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  9. o. Setting. On Reconstructing Variation in Cape Dutch (1710-1840 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    European languages in an extraterritorial ... extraterritorial varieties of language that developed from contact of diverse metropolitan dialects (and ..... The Netherlandic perfect auxiliary system remains largely intact in mesolectal Cape Dutch, although.

  10. A review of the taxonomic status and biology of the Cape Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the taxonomic status and biology of the Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus , with reference to the Brown-necked Parrot P. fuscicollis fuscicollis and the Grey-headed Parrot P. f. suahelicus.

  11. Colonel John Graham of Fintry and the Fourth Cape Eastern Frontier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graham's grand strategy to clear the eastern frontier of Xhosa invaders was carefully planned. He warned Major ..... This created a market for local ... interests surpassed the 'luxury' of military and security needs, regulated from Cape Town and.

  12. Why does tropical convective available potential energy (CAPE) increase with warming? (United States)

    Seeley, Jacob T.; Romps, David M.


    Recent work has produced a theory for tropical convective available potential energy (CAPE) that highlights the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling of the atmosphere's saturation deficit as a driver of increases in CAPE with warming. Here we test this so-called "zero-buoyancy" theory for CAPE by modulating the saturation deficit of cloud-resolving simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in two ways: changing the sea surface temperature (SST) and changing the environmental relative humidity (RH). For earthlike and warmer SSTs, undilute parcel buoyancy in the lower troposphere is insensitive to increasing SST because of a countervailing CC scaling that balances the increase in the saturation deficit; however, buoyancy increases dramatically with SST in the upper troposphere. Conversely, in the RH experiment, undilute buoyancy throughout the troposphere increases monotonically with decreasing RH. We show that the zero-buoyancy theory successfully predicts these contrasting behaviors, building confidence that it describes the fundamental physics of CAPE and its response to warming.

  13. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South Africa): Past, present and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH


    Full Text Available The primary aquifer at Atlantis (Western Cape, South Africa) is ideally suited for water supply and the indirect recycling of urban stormwater runoff and treated domestic wastewater for potable purposes. The relatively thin, sloping aquifer requires...

  14. 76 FR 56735 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution... (United States)


    ... sound propagation. Cape Wind Associates would use a boomer to obtain deeper resolution of geologic layering that cannot be imaged by the chirp. An Applied Acoustics 200, 300, or similar model would be used...

  15. A hard-knock life: the foraging ecology of Cape cormorants amidst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hard-knock life: the foraging ecology of Cape cormorants amidst shifting prey resources and industrial fishing pressure. MH Hamann, D Grémillet, PG Ryan, F Bonadonna, CD van der Lingen, L Pichegru ...

  16. Catalogue of the living Bivalvia of the eastern Pacific Ocean: Bering Strait to Cape Horn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernard, F. R


    ...) to Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego (60 deg S). 1308 species from the high intertidal zone to deep waters extending approximately two thousand kilometers offshore are included, representing the total described fauna...

  17. Characterization of the genome of a novel ilarvirus naturally infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana). (United States)

    Gallo-García, Yuliana M; Jaramillo-Mesa, Helena; Toro-Fernández, Luisa F; Marín-Montoya, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Pablo A


    As part of an initiative to characterize viruses infecting Cape gooseberry in the province of Antioquia (Colombia), we report the genome sequence of a new member of the genus Ilarvirus (family Bromoviridae). This virus was identified in a Cape gooseberry plot in the municipality of Marinilla in a mixed infection with potato virus Y (PVY) as part of high-throughput sequencing initiative. Results were confirmed by nested RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Cape gooseberry ilarvirus is a new member of subgroup 1 and it is most closely related to ageratum latent virus (AgLV). The name "Cape gooseberry ilarvirus 1" (CGIV-1) is proposed for this new ilarvirus.

  18. Anatomic Aspects of Formation and Growth of the Cape Gooseberry Fruit Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Mazorra


    confirmed that anatomically the Cape gooseberry fruits, ecotipo Colombia, and ruderal type are similar, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable anatomical changes that explain the greater size of the fruits of ecotipo Colombia.

  19. Differences in CAPE between wet and dry spells of the monsoon over the southeastern peninsular India (United States)

    Mohan, T. S.; Rao, T. N.; Rajeevan, M.


    In the present research we explored the variability of convective available potential energy (CAPE) during wet and dry spells over southeast India. Comparison between India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations and reanalysis products (NCEP, ERA-interim, and MERRA) reconfirms that gridded data sets can be utilized to fill the void of observations. Later, GPS radiosonde measurements made at Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E) Andre analysis output are utilized to address key scientific issues related to CAPE over the southeastern peninsular region. They are: (1) How does CAPE vary between different spells of the Indian summer monsoon (i.e., from wet to dry spell)? (2) Does differences in CAPE and in the vertical structure of buoyancy between spells are localized features over Gadanki or observed all over southeastern peninsular region? (3) What physical/dynamical processes are responsible for the differences in CAPE between spells and how do they affect the convection growth in dry spell? Interestingly, CAPE is higher in wet spell than in dry spell, in contrast to the observations made elsewhere over land and warm oceans. Similar feature (high CAPE in wet spell) is observed at all grid points in the southeastern peninsular India. Furthermore, vertical buoyancy profiles show only one peak in the middle-upper troposphere in wet spell, while two peaks are observed in most of the profiles (66%) in dry spell over the entire study region in all the reanalysis products. Plausible mechanisms are discussed for the observed CAPE differences. They are, among others, timing of sounding with reference to rain occurrence, rapid buildup of surface instabilities, moistening of lower troposphere by evaporation of the surface moisture in wet spell, enhanced low-level moisture convergence, evaporation of rain in relatively warm and dry atmosphere, and reduction of positive buoyancy in dry spell. The omnipresence of stable layers and strong and deep shear in the presence of weak updrafts

  20. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer (United States)

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark


    Anyone who spends more than a few days on Cape Cod (the Cape) quickly becomes a coastal geologist, quickly learning the rhythms of daily tides and the seasonal cycles of beaches growing and being swept away by storms; swimmers and surfers track how the breakers appear, and dog-walkers notice the hard-packed sand blanketed overnight by an airy layer that leaves deep labored tracks.

  1. Motivations of backpackers in the Cape Coast-Elmina Conurbation, Ghana


    Frederick Dayour


    Research has shown that the backpacker market is one of the tourism markets that economically benefit local communities than the conventional market or mass tourists. The purpose of the study was to examine the motivations of backpackers in the Cape Coast-Elmina conurbation, Ghana. Questionnaire was used to collect data from 184 backpackers in Cape Coast and Elmina. Factor Analysis and some descriptive statistical analysis were employed in presenting the report. The st...

  2. Static and dynamic optimization of CAPE problems using a Model Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper presents a new computer aided tool for setting up and solving CAPE related static and dynamic optimisation problems. The Model Testbed (MOT) offers an integrated environment for setting up and solving a very large range of CAPE problems, including complex optimisation problems...... and dynamic optimisation, and how interfacing of solvers and seamless information flow can lead to more efficient solution of process design problems....

  3. A taxonomic revision of Maurocenia (Celastraceae, a Western Cape monotypic endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Archer


    Full Text Available A taxonomic account is given of the monotypic genus Maurocenia Mill. Maurocenia frangula Mill, has a restricted range and is endemic to the Cape Peninsula and the West Coast National Park. Western Cape. Maurocenia frangularia (L.Mill., the species name and author citation widely used in the past, is incorrect. It is characterized by. among others, pendulous ovules and gynodioecy, rare states in the Celastraceae. Maurocenia is apparently most closely related to the southern African genus Lauridia Eckl. & Zeyh.

  4. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic


    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.


    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) common in many marine environments. In this study, the diversity of zoanthids in the Cape Verde Islands is specifically examined for the first time. Field images and sampling are combined with...

  5. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Sensitivity Analysis Experiment (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Bowman, Kevin


    Geostationary Coastal and Air pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) is a NASA decadal survey mission to be designed to provide surface reflectance at high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions from a geostationary orbit necessary for studying regional-scale air quality issues and their impact on global atmospheric composition processes. GEO-CAPE's Atmospheric Science Questions explore the influence of both gases and particles on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. The objective of the GEO-CAPE Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is to analyze the sensitivity of ozone to the global and regional NOx emissions and improve the science impact of GEO-CAPE with respect to the global air quality. The GEO-CAPE OSSE team at Jet propulsion Laboratory has developed a comprehensive OSSE framework that can perform adjoint-sensitivity analysis for a wide range of observation scenarios and measurement qualities. This report discusses the OSSE framework and presents the sensitivity analysis results obtained from the GEO-CAPE OSSE framework for seven observation scenarios and three instrument systems.

  6. Clausius-Clapeyron Scaling of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in Cloud-Resolving Simulations (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Romps, D. M.


    Recent work by Singh and O'Gorman has produced a theory for convective available potential energy (CAPE) in radiative-convective equilibrium. In this model, the atmosphere deviates from a moist adiabat—and, therefore, has positive CAPE—because entrainment causes evaporative cooling in cloud updrafts, thereby steepening their lapse rate. This has led to the proposal that CAPE increases with global warming because the strength of evaporative cooling scales according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. However, CAPE could also change due to changes in cloud buoyancy and changes in the entrainment rate, both of which could vary with global warming. To test the relative importance of changes in CAPE due to CC scaling of evaporative cooling, changes in cloud buoyancy, and changes in the entrainment rate, we subject a cloud-resolving model to a suite of natural (and unnatural) forcings. We find that CAPE changes are primarily driven by changes in the strength of evaporative cooling; the effect of changes in the entrainment rate and cloud buoyancy are comparatively small. This builds support for CC scaling of CAPE.

  7. Youth ministry as an agency of youth development for the vulnerable youth of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Aziz


    Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.

  8. The biomes of the eastern Cape with emphasis on their conservation

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    R. A. Lubke


    Full Text Available The four major phytochoria of southern Africa, the Cape. Tongoland-Pondoland. Karoo-Namib and Afromontane regions, converge in the complex transition zone of the eastern Cape. The area is rich in species and communities with a complex vegetation in which are represented all the major vegetation formations of southern Africa — Cape Fynbos. Cape Transitional Shrublands, Subtropical Thicket. Karoo, Savanna, Afromontane Forest, Grasslands and Littoral Strand Vegetation. Our results support previous findings that, although species-rich and of great diversity, the flora has fewer endemics (205 or 5,6% than the Cape (73% or Karoo-Namib (35%.  The communities with the largest proportion of endemics (30%, and threatened plants (18% are those of the Subtropical Thicket. On the basis of these data and an index of conserv ation status, the Subtropical Thicket was determined to be highest on the priority list for conservation in the eastern Cape. Subtropical Thicket is being cleared at an increasing rate and is most vulnerable due to changing farming practice.

  9. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

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    Gerrit J. Louw


    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  10. Mercury Cycling in Salt Marsh Pond Ecosystems: Cape Cod, MA (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; Swarr, G.; Vadman, K. J.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.


    We are measuring total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+ or MMHg) in pore water, surface water, and sediment cores from two salt marsh pond systems on the south shore of Cape Cod, MA to characterize the distribution of mercury species and to identify features that influence mercury speciation and transport. Sage Lot Pond is relatively undisturbed and has low nitrogen loading (12 kg ha-1 y-1). It is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. In contrast, Great Pond is highly impacted. Nitrogen loading to the site is elevated (600 kg ha-1 y-1) and the marsh is adjacent to a large residential area. In both systems, a 1 to 2 m organic-rich peat layer overlies the permeable sand aquifer. Groundwater in this region is typically oxic, where pore water within salt marsh peat is suboxic to anoxic. We hypothesize that redox gradients at the transition from the root zone to peat and at the peat-sand interface may provide habitat for MMHg-producing anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results from a 2-m nearshore depth profile at Sage Lot Pond indicate HgT in groundwater within the sand aquifer occurred primarily in the > 0.2 μm fraction, with unfiltered concentrations exceeding 100 pM. Filtered (fraction of filtered HgT in peat pore water. Although MMHg in both groundwater and pore water remained around 1 pM throughout our depth profile, we observed an increase in sediment MMHg (0.3 to 1.6 μg/kg) at the peat-sand interface. MMHg comprised ~50% of the HgT concentration in pore water suggesting mercury in the salt marsh peat is biologically available.

  11. An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine. (United States)

    Aston Philander, Lisa


    This descriptive ethnobiological research is the first documentation of the materials utilized in the pharmacopeia of a novel group of herbalists, Rasta bush doctors, found in the botanically diverse Western Cape of South Africa. This article suggests that medicinal plants used by bush doctors unite the disparate ethnomedicines found in South Africa. Ethnospecies name and parts used were recorded during detailed inventories of 39 bush doctors. Collection of voucher specimens for botanical identification occurred in 15 locations. Herbal remedies were classified into use categories and were compared to historical ethnobotanical literature to ascertain previous cultural affiliations. There were 205 ethnospecies found in the Rastafari ethnobiology, 181 were used medicinally. Ethnospecies belong to 71 plant families and 71% belonged to six plant families: Rutaceae (13), Asteraceae (13), Apiaceae (9), Lamiaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), and Euphorbiaceae (7). The majority of remedies (49%) were foliage. Medicinal plants treated over 30 ailments including: gastrointestinal symptoms (11%), urogential complaints (11%), skin ailments (9%), and cardiovascular diseases (8%). Bush doctors appropriated remedies traditionally important to Zulu, KhoiSan, European and Xhosa healing traditions. Novel plants and plant utilization were noted for 22 plant species. Use of previously undocumented plant materials as medicinals denote distinct local knowledge including novel Rastafarian utilization of herbs for spiritual and ritual purposes. The range of the largely herbaceous pharmacopeia is narrow compared to the region's highly biodiverse materials and historical records of medicinal use. Bush doctors' experimentation with known herbal remedies illustrates a striking level of cross-cultural adaptation. This syncretic pharmacopeia reflects the cultural diversity of Southern Africa, drawing upon recent invasive species, European influence and traditional herbs used by the KhoiSan, Zulu and Xhosa

  12. North west cape-induced electron precipitation and theoretical simulation (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-xia; Li, Xin-qiao; Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Lun-Jin


    Enhancement of the electron fluxes in the inner radiation belt, which is induced by the powerful North West Cape (NWC) very-low-frequency (VLF) transmitter, have been observed and analyzed by several research groups. However, all of the previous publications have focused on NWC-induced > 100-keV electrons only, based on observations from the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) satellites. Here, we present flux enhancements with 30-100-keV electrons related to NWC transmitter for the first time, which were observed by the GOES satellite at night. Similar to the 100-300-keV precipitated-electron behavior, the low energy 30-100-keV electron precipitation is primarily located east of the transmitter. However, the latter does not drift eastward to the same extent as the former, possibly because of the lower electron velocity. The 30-100-keV electrons are distributed in the L = 1.8-2.1 L-shell range, in contrast to the 100-300-keV electrons which are at L = 1.67-1.9. This is consistent with the perspective that the energy of the VLF-wave-induced electron flux enhancement decreases with higher L-shell values. We expand upon the rationality of the simultaneous enhancement of the 30-100- and 100-300-keV electron fluxes through comparison with the cyclotron resonance theory for the quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. In addition, we interpret the asymmetry characteristics of NWC electric power distribution in north and south hemisphere by ray tracing model. Finally, we present considerable discussion and show that good agreement exists between the observation of satellites and theory. Supported by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite Mission Ground-Based Verification Project of the Administration of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense and Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization Project (APSCO-SP/PM-EARTHQUAKE).

  13. Ancient mortars from Cape Verde: mineralogical and physical characterization (United States)

    Rocha, Fernando; Costa, Cristiana; Velosa, Ana; Quintela, Ana; Terroso, Denise; Marques, Vera


    Times and locations of different building constructions means different knowledge, habits, different construction methods and materials. The study and safeguarding of the architectural heritage takes nowadays a progressive importance as a vehicle for transmission of cultures and history of nations. The coatings are of great importance in the durability of a building due to the protective role of the masonry. The compatibility between the materials with which they are executed (masonry, mortar and grout settlement) promotes the proper functioning of the wall and a consequent increase in durability. Therefore, it becomes important to study and characterize the mortar coating of buildings to know its characteristics and to use compatible materials in the rehabilitation and maintenance of buildings. This study aims to characterize the chemical, physical, mechanical and mineralogical mortar samples collected in buildings in three islands of Cape Verde, for the conservation, rehabilitation and preservation of them. The collected samples belong to buildings constructed in the end of XIX century and in the beginning of XX century. In order to characterize the mortar samples some tests was made, such as X-Ray Diffraction, X- Ray Fluorescence, acid attack and mechanical strength. The samples were divided into three groups depending on origin; so we have a first group collected on the island of Santiago, the second on the island of Saint Vincent and the third on the island of Santo Antao. The samples are all carbonated, but Santiago samples have a lower carbonates content. In terms of insoluble residue (from the acid attack) it was concluded that the samples have similar value ranging from 9 to 26%. The compressive strength of the mortars have a range between 1.36 and 4.55 MPa, which is related to the presence of more binder in samples with higher resistance. The chemical and mineralogical analyzes showed that these consist of lime mortars (binder), natural pozzolan and

  14. Is a changing climate affecting the tropical cyclone behavior of Cape Verde? (United States)

    Emmenegger, T. W.; Mann, M. E.; Evans, J. L.


    An existing dataset of synthetic tropical cyclone (TC) tracks derived from climate change simulations were used to explore TC variability within a 250 km radius of the Cape Verde Islands (16.5388N, 23.0418W). The synthetic sets were examined according to genesis point location, track projection, intensity, frequency, and seasonality within the observational era (1851 AD to present). These factors of TC variability have been shown to be strongly related to climate oscillations, thus the historical era was grouped by the increasing and decreasing regimes of sea surface temperature (SST) in the main development region (MDR) of the Atlantic Ocean. Numerous studies have examined Atlantic Basin activity throughout this era; the goal of this study is to investigate possible variations in TC behavior around Cape Verde, ultimately determining whether Cape Verde experiences similar fluctuations in activity as observed basin-wide. We find that several facets of TC variability such as intensity, seasonality, and genesis point location around Cape Verde are not significantly different to that of the entire basin, thus forecasts of the entire basin in these respects may also apply to our site. A long-term trend of increasing TC frequency can be identified basin-wide within the observed set, yet activity around Cape Verde does not display this same behavior observably or in any synthetic set. A relationship between the location of genesis points and the regimes of SST fluctuation is shown to be existent. We find both more observed and synthetic genesis points within the vicinity of Cape Verde during cool periods, and an eastward and equatorward shift in cyclogenesis is evident during warm regimes. This southeastern shift in genesis points attributes to the increased intensities of TCs seen during periods of warmer SST. Years of increased SST are additionally linked to an earlier seasonality in Cape Verde.

  15. Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008 (United States)

    Foing, B. H.


    We shall report on the ILEWG charter, goals and activities, on ICEUM "lunar declarations" and follow-up activities, with focus on societal questions, and the Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008. ILEWG charter: ILEWG , the International Lunar Exploration Working Group is a public forum created in 1994, sponsored by the world's space agencies to support "international cooperation towards a world strategy for the exploration and utilization of the Moon - our natural satellite". The charter of ILEWG is: - To develop an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon - To establish a forum and mechanisms for the communication and coordination of activities - To implement international coordination and cooperation - In order to facilitate communication among all interested parties ILEWG agrees to establish an electronic communication network for exchange of science, technology and programmatic information related to lunar activities ILEWG meets regularly, at least, once a year, and leads the organization of an International Conference in order to discuss the state of lunar exploration. Formal reports are given at COSPAR meetings and to space agencies. ILEWG is sponsored by the world's space agencies and is intended to serve three relevant groups: - actual members of the ILEWG, ie delegates and repre-sentatives of the participating Space Agencies and organizations - allowing them to discuss and possibly harmonize their draft concepts and plans - team members of the relevant space projects - allowing them to coordinate their internal work according to the guidelines provided by the Charter of the ILEWG - members of the general public and of the Lunar Explorer's Society who are interested and wish to be informed on the progress of the Moon projects and possibly contribute their own ideas ILEWG activities and working groups: ILEWG task groups include science, technology, human aspects, socio-economics, young explorers and outreach, programmatics, roadmaps and

  16. The continental slope current system between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands

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    Jesús Peña-Izquierdo


    Full Text Available We use hydrographic, velocity and drifter data from a cruise carried out in November 2008 to describe the continental slope current system in the upper thermocline (down to 600 m between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands. The major feature in the region is the Cape Verde Frontal Zone (CVFZ, separating waters from tropical (southern and subtropical (northern origin. The CVFZ is found to intersect the slope north of Cape Blanc, between 22°N and 23°N, but we find that southern waters are predominant over the slope as far north as 24°N. South of Cape Blanc (21.25°N the Poleward Undercurrent (PUC is a prominent northward jet (50 km wide, reaching down to 300 m and indistinguishable from the surface Mauritanian Current. North of Cape Blanc the upwelling front is found far offshore, opening a near-slope northward path to the PUC. Nevertheless, the northward PUC transport decreases from 2.8 Sv at 18°N to 1.7 Sv at 24°N, with about 1 Sv recirculating ofshore just south of Cape Blanc, in agreement with the trajectory of subsurface drifters. South of the CVFZ there is an abrupt thermohaline transition at σϴ=26.85 kg m–3, which indicates the lower limit of the relatively pure (low salt and high oxygen content South Atlantic Central Water (SACW variety that coexists with the dominant locally-diluted (salinity increases through mixing with North Atlantic Central Water but oxygen diminishes because of enhanced remineralization Cape Verde (SACWcv variety. At 16°N about 70% of the PUC transport corresponds to the SACW variety but but this is transformed into 40% SACWcv at 24°N. However, between Cape Verde and Cape Blanc and in the 26.85 < σϴ < 27.1 layer, we measure up to 0.8 Sv of SACWcv being transported south. The results strongly endorse the idea that the slope current system plays a major role in tropical-subtropical water-mass exchange.

  17. Association analysis for disease resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L). (United States)

    Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Mueller, Lukas A; Barrero, Luz Stella


    Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most important disease in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. The development of resistant cultivars is considered one of the most cost-effective means to reduce the impact of this disease. In order to do so, it is necessary to provide breeders with molecular markers and promising germplasm for introgression of different resistance loci as part of breeding schemes. Here we described an association mapping study in cape gooseberry with the goal to: (i) select promising materials for use in plant breeding and (ii) identify SNPs associated with the cape gooseberry resistance response to the F. oxysporum pathogen under greenhouse conditions, as potential markers for cape gooseberry breeding. We found a total of 21 accessions with different resistance responses within a diversity panel of 100 cape gooseberry accessions. A total of 60,663 SNPs were also identified within the same panel by means of GBS (Genotyping By Sequencing). Model-based population structure and neighbor-joining analyses showed three populations comprising the cape gooseberry panel. After correction for population structure and kinship, we identified SNPs markers associated with the resistance response against F. oxysporum. The identification of markers was based on common tags using the reference genomes of tomato and potato as well as the root/stem transcriptome of cape gooseberry. By comparing their location with the tomato genome, 16 SNPs were found in genes involved in defense/resistance response to pathogens, likewise when compared with the genome of potato, 12 markers were related. The work presented herein provides the first association mapping study in cape gooseberry showing both the identification of promising accessions with resistance response phenotypes and the identification of a set of SNP markers mapped to defense/resistance response genes of reference genomes. Thus, the work also provides new knowledge on candidate

  18. Water Resources Investigation. Cape Girardeau - Jackson Metropolitan Area, Missouri. Volume 4. Appendix C. Public Views and Responses. (United States)


    and Corps of Engineers response. C-21 APPUWIX C C-3 Letter Pg m. Cape Girardeau Chamber of Commerce , 27 December 1983. C-24 n. U.S. Department of the...of erosion. Sincerely, Jack F. Rasmussen, P.E. Chief, Planning D ivision APPENDIX C C-23 Cape Girardeau Chamber of Commerce EXECUTIVE OFFICE December...Girardeau Chamber of Commerce has received and studied the Water Resources and Investigation, Cape Girardeau - Jackson area dated December, 1983 and we

  19. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent. (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R


    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.


    Cape Canaveral, Florida, is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline. The region includes Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, and a large portion of Canaveral National Seashore. The actual promontory of the modern Cape falls within the jurisdictional boundaries of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Erosion hazards result from winter and tropical storms, changes in sand resources, sediment budgets, and sea-level rise. Previous work by the USGS has focused on the vulnerability of the dunes to storms, where updated bathymetry and topography have been used for modeling efforts. Existing research indicates that submerged shoals, ridges, and sandbars affect patterns of wave refraction and height, coastal currents, and control sediment transport. These seabed anomalies indicate the availability and movement of sand within the nearshore environment, which may be directly related to the stability of the Cape Canaveral shoreline. Understanding the complex dynamics of the offshore bathymetry and associated sediment pathways can help identify current and future erosion vulnerabilities due to short-term (for example, hurricane and other extreme storms) and long-term (for example, sea-level rise) hazards.

  1. Groundwater resources of Mosteiros basin, island of Fogo, Cape Verde, West Africa (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  2. Environmental Restoration of Diesel-Range Organics from Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Hutton, Rick [Navarro Research & Engineering; Miller, Judy [Navarro Research & Engineering


    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than 40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site (Figure 1) was cancelled because of strong public opposition [1]. No nuclear explosions were ever conducted at the site.

  3. The health benefits of attaining and strengthening air quality standards in Cape Town

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    Samantha Keen


    Full Text Available The link between pollution and poor health and mortality has been established globally. Developing countries carry most of the burden of ill health from air pollution, and urban centres like the City of Cape Town even more so. Effective air quality management to protect human health relies on the attainment of air quality standards. This study uses the Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP along with a locally derived exposure-response function and air quality monitor data to investigate whether the consistent attainment of current or more stringent air quality standards would avoid loss of life. The results show that attaining the PM10 24-hour mean South Africa National Standard limit and the PM10 and SO2 24-hour mean World Health Organisation guidelines in Cape Town reduces levels of pollutants and does reduce excess risk of mortality in Cape Town.

  4. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation. (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y


    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air at Cape Verde. (United States)

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Halse, Anne Karine; Schlabach, Martin; Bäcklund, Are; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut


    Ambient air is a core medium for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention and is used in studies of global transports of POPs and their atmospheric sources and source regions. Still, data based on active air sampling remain scarce in many regions. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) monitor concentrations of selected POPs in air outside West Africa, and (ii) to evaluate potential atmospheric processes and source regions affecting measured concentrations. For this purpose, an active high-volume air sampler was installed on the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory at Cape Verde outside the coast of West Africa. Sampling commenced in May 2012 and 43 samples (24h sampling) were collected until June 2013. The samples were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordanes. The concentrations of these POPs at Cape Verde were generally low and comparable to remote sites in the Arctic for several compounds. Seasonal trends varied between compounds and concentrations exhibited strong temperature dependence for chlordanes. Our results indicate net volatilization from the Atlantic Ocean north of Cape Verde as sources of these POPs. Air mass back trajectories demonstrated that air masses measured at Cape Verde were generally transported from the Atlantic Ocean or the North African continent. Overall, the low concentrations in air at Cape Verde were likely explained by absence of major emissions in areas from which the air masses originated combined with depletion during long-range atmospheric transport due to enhanced degradation under tropical conditions (high temperatures and concentrations of hydroxyl radicals). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale

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    Howard Peters


    Full Text Available Cape Verde in the Eastern Atlantic is typical of many island groups in supporting a wealth of endemic species both terrestrial and marine. Marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus, commonly known as cone snails, occur in coastal tropical waters throughout the globe, but in Cape Verde their endemism reaches its apogee with 53 out of 56 species occurring nowhere else, the majority of which are restricted to single islands and frequently to single bays. However, Cape Verde is rapidly moving to a tourism-based economy with a projected boom in infrastructure development often coincidental with the shallow-water habitat of many range-restricted Conus. The conservation assessment of Conus to standards of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, found that 45.3% of 53 species assessed from Cape Verde are threatened or near-threatened with extinction compared to 7.4% of 579 species in the rest of the world. The only three Conus species globally assessed as Critically Endangered and on the cusp of extinction are all endemic to Cape Verde. Our analysis of Conus species distribution, together with spatial data of coastal protected areas and tourism development zones, identify important areas for future research and new marine protection. Our findings show that endemism with its associated risks for Conus in Cape Verde has worldwide parallels with many non-marine taxa, while our proposed strategy for Conus conservation extends beyond the confines of the country and this taxonomic group.

  7. Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde for yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses. (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella


    At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.

  8. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae). (United States)

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S


    The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkaisp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species - Thyreus denoliisp. n., Thyreus batelkaisp. n., Thyreus schwarzisp. n., and Thyreus aistleitnerisp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  9. Morphological modelling of the response to a shipwreck - A case study at Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Fredsoe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf


    A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport with a sim......A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport...

  10. Water supply: reshaper of Cape Town's local government a century ago

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K


    Full Text Available to go a distance of up to 50 miles from Cape Town." (Ibid) The cost would amount to about 1 500 000 pounds (Parker, 1911). During 1904, J Cook (City Engineer of Cape Town) together with R H Charters and R W Menmuir (Town Engineer of Woodstock.... In Woodstock and Maitland moreover, there being no system of surface drainage, slop water was allowed to pass into the street gutter or on to adjacent land, and ultimately to find its way into neighbouring streams - in the other suburbs, the 'very dirty slop...

  11. Implementation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm in Cape-Open Based Process Simulators (United States)

    The Sustainable Technology Division has recently completed an implementation of the U.S. EPA's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm that can be directly accessed from a Cape-Open compliant process modeling environment. The WAR Algorithm add-in can be used in AmsterChem's COFE (Cape-Op...

  12. An Inquiry into the nature, causes and distribution of wealth in the Cape Colony, 1652-1795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.


    Three important questions about the Dutch Cape Colony are investigated in this dissertation: 1) how affluent were Cape settlers, 2) what were the causes of such wealth, and 3) how was the wealth distributed? Using a variety of statistical sources, most notably the detailed probate inventories and

  13. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (United States)


    ... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  14. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH


    Full Text Available and Comic/i for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (Received: 5.2. 1970) The Gordon?s Bay region occupies the north western corner of False Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point...

  15. 76 FR 49726 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit... (United States)


    ... Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.), with husks, to be imported from Chile into the... with the importation into the continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on this analysis, we concluded that the application of one or...

  16. Expectations of urban residents in the Western Cape on the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, those residing in the city of Cape Town and those who declare themselves supporters of football, show a high level of optimism about the potential economic growth as a result of the tournament. However, the residents outside the metropolitan core are less convinced that the World Cup will benefi t them directly ...

  17. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of a wide range of risk-taking behaviour among high-school students in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, was investigated. In this article, the results for alcohol use are presented. Cluster sampling techniques produced a sample of 7 340 students from 16 schools in the three major education departments.

  18. 75 FR 22838 - Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, Charleston County, SC (United States)


    ... the Service's Internet site: /. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms... occur based on available staffing, additional volunteers, and academic research. Wildlife-dependent.... ADDRESSES: Send comments, questions, and requests for information to: Ms. Raye Nilus, Project Leader, Cape...

  19. Stress and Coping Strategies among Distance Education Students at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana (United States)

    Kwaah, Christopher Yaw; Essilfie, Gabriel


    This study was designed to identify the causes of stress and coping strategies adopted among distance education students at the College of Distance Education in the University of Cape Coast. A total of 332 diploma and post-diploma final year students in 2014/2015 academic year were selected from two study centers using random sampling procedure to…

  20. Action needed to help Cape Town adapt to climate change | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jun 9, 2016 ... The impacts of climate change on the city of Cape Town, South Africa, are outlined in a new book, Climate Change at the City Scale. IDRC-supported researchers Anton Cartwright, Susan Parnell, Gregg Oelofse, and Sarah Ward argue that local governments and scientists need to work together to take ...

  1. Reproduction of the caracal Felis caraca] from the Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 31, 1986 ... In spite of such predator control pro- grammes, the species remains common in the Cape Pro- vince (Stuart 1981, in press). Existing data on the reproduction of the caracal, which are based on a limited number of field obser- vations and observations of captive (zoo) animals, indi- cate that reproduction can ...

  2. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of a wide range of risk-taking behaviour among high-school students in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, was investigated. In this article, the results for cigarette smoking are presented. Cluster sam.pling techniques produced a sample of 7 340 students from 16 schools in the three major education ...

  3. Origins of Medicine and Pharmacy at the Cape of Good Hope | Price ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In its formative days the Cape was dependent upon 'ignorant and unskilled' barbers for medical attention. Efforts by the Government to regularise the profession met with little success; physicians and surgeons kept pharmacies and 'pharmacists' visited patients in their homes. Medical chaos ruled for many years. S. Afr. Med.

  4. Bridge management system for the Western Cape provincial government, South Africa: implementation and utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nell, AJ


    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation and utilization of the bridge management system (BMS) of the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape Provincial Government. The implementation of the BMS as well as the visual assessment...

  5. 76 FR 15888 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore (United States)


    ... flora and fauna, the physiographic conditions and the historic sites and structures be permanently... wild cranberry bogs provide a glimpse into Cape Cod's past and continuing life ways. The Seashore... Military Reservation, have their own special regulations that have different dates than the standard dates...

  6. Just in time...: assessing Cape Kaloyeros on Zakynthos before it is gone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stein, I.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.


    Past and recent archaeological investigations on and around the cape of Vasilikos-Kaloyeros on Zakynthos have revealed an important multi-period archaeological site. This article is the result of a study aiming to arrive at a better understanding of the nature and significance of the archaeological

  7. Language Policy as a Sociocultural Tool: Insights from the University of Cape Town (United States)

    Karjalainen, Magda


    This theoretically oriented article draws on the author's previous research, which examined language policy and planning (LPP) of the University of Cape Town within the context of post-apartheid transformation driven by need to redress inequalities of the past, and demands of globalization. Drawing on critical linguistics, but indicating…

  8. Escapement of Cape hakes under the fishing line of the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish whether Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus escape under the fishing line and to identify any species or length dependence of escape rates. Experiments were carried out in Namibian waters during two cruises in October 2002 and October 2003. A collection bag ...

  9. Development of a virtual wave buoy system for the Port of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, Marius


    Full Text Available The Port of Cape Town is located in Table Bay on the south-west coast of South Africa. Since the port experiences advese weather conditions, especially during the winter period, the monitoring of marine weather and wave conditions forms an integral...

  10. “All Like and Yet Unlike the Old Country:” Kipling in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Woolsack was commissioned by Cecil John Rhodes, mining magnate, sometime Cape prime minister and fervent builder of the British Empire. Designed by Rhodes's protégé, the architect Herbert Baker, this sunny atrium protected from the winds that buffet Devil's Peak was first occupied by that empire's most famous ...

  11. Perceptions of staff at Eastern Cape Technikon on the value and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to determine the perceptions of staff at Eastern Cape Technikon on the value and effectiveness of linkage partnerships. Academic staff indicated that the main reason for their involvement in these projects is capacity building. Apart from the development of skills and competencies they also rate ...

  12. The Nainital–Cape Survey: A Search for Variability in Ap and Am ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The “Nainital–Cape Survey” program for searching photo- metric variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars was initiated in 1997 at ARIES, Nainital. We present here the results obtained to date. The Am stars HD 98851, HD 102480, HD 13079 and HD 113878 were discovered to exhibit δ Scuti type variability.

  13. The diets of littoral fish from the Cape Peninsula | Bennett | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertidal fish communities in the south·western Cape have a high density and biomass, implying that the fish are important consumers in the ntertidal zone. Stomach content analyses of 20 species were undertaken to ascertain which food resources are most heavily exploited and the extent to which the co-existing fish ...

  14. Cape Verde Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes : Accounting and Auditing


    World Bank


    This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing financial reporting infrastructure that underpins financial accounting and auditing practices in Cape Verde. The assessment focuses on six pillars of financial reporting infrastructure: statutory framework, professional education and training, accountancy profe...

  15. The browse value of the Eastern Cape valley bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld in terms of crude protein, digestible dry matter, digestible energy and metabolic energy, as selected by oesophageal fistulated Boer- and Angora goats was determined. Results show that the Valley Bushveld maintains a high feed value throughout the year. The high ...

  16. 75 FR 23798 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound... (United States)


    ... Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, Offshore Massachusetts AGENCY: Minerals Management... Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound, offshore Massachusetts. On January 16, 2009, the MMS... construct a wind power facility on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound, offshore Massachusetts. Following the...

  17. Cervical HPV natural history among young Western Cape, South African women: The randomized control EVRI Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Torres, B. Nelson; Botha, Matthys H.; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Glashoff, Richard H.; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Laan, Louvina E.; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R.


    The objective of this analysis was to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) infection persistence and incidence 7-months post-enrollment by HPV vaccine study arm (vaccine or placebo). HIV-negative, sexually active women aged 16-24 years in the Western Cape, South Africa, were enrolled in the EVRI Trial

  18. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa (United States)

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.


    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  19. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa). (United States)

    Leman, Johan, Ed.


    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)


    The CAPE-OPEN standard interfaces have been designed to permit flexibility and modularization of process simulation environments (PMEs) in order to use process modeling components such as unit operation or thermodynamic property models across a range of tolls employed in the life...

  1. An analysis of bones and other materials collected by Cape Vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared bones and non-faunal items collected by Cape Vultures at the Blouberg and Kransberg colonies. Bones from the base of the nesting cliffs were on average longer than those from the crops and stomachs of birds. Bones from the Blouberg cliff base were on average shorter than those from the Kransberg.

  2. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.


    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  3. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia (United States)

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed


    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  4. Environmental Education Evaluation at the School: An Example in Sao Nicolau Island, Cape Verde (United States)

    Graziani, Pietro; Cabral, Daniel; Santana, Nelson


    Monte Gordo Natural Park (MGNP) is part of the Cape Verde (CV) Protected Areas National Network. In order to create an effective Environmental Education (EE) curriculum, it is crucial to first identify the level of environmental knowledge of both teachers and students. In 2007 we implemented a set of four surveys to students and educators and…

  5. Impacts of the Conservation Education Program in Serra Malagueta Natural Park, Cape Verde (United States)

    Burnett, Edmund; Sills, Erin; Peterson, M. Nils; DePerno, Christopher


    Environmental and conservation education programs are commonly offered in the rapidly expanding network of protected areas in developing countries. There have been few evaluations of these programs and their impacts on participants. At Serra Malagueta Natural Park in Cape Verde, we assessed changes in environmental knowledge, opinions, and…

  6. The volcanic and geochemical development of São Nicolau, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprat, Helene Inga; Holm, Paul Martin; Sherson, Jacob Friis


    We present 34 new age results from 40 Ar/39 Ar incremental heating analyses of groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from São Nicolau, Cape Verde. Combining the age results with field observations, we show that the volcanic activity that formed the island occurred in four separate stages: 1: >6...

  7. Introductory Astronomy Course at the University of Cape Town: Probing Student Perspectives (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise


    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…

  8. Maintaining cold chain integrity: Temperature breaks within fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town Container Terminal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goedhals-Gerber, LL


    Full Text Available credibility, and fi nancial losses. Seventy percent (70%) of South African fruit exports are shipped through the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT). This in-depth case study provides a better understanding of the signifi cant challenges within the CTCT...

  9. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students was investigated. Suicidal behaviour, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, road-related behaviour, violent behaviour and sexual behaviour were included. This article, the first in a series, describes the rationale and methodology of the ...

  10. The Chinese in the early Cape Colony: a signifi cant cultural minority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese South Africans form one of the smallest culturally identifi able communities in South African society. Despite their demographic insignifi cance, and contrary to popular belief, they have been an integral part of this country's multicultural identity since the inception of European hegemony in the Cape in the latter half ...

  11. Cape Verdean Immigrants' Career Development and School Engagement: Perceived Discrimination as a Moderator (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Blustein, David L.


    This study examined the contribution of perceptions of discrimination, career planning, and vocational identity to the school engagement experiences of first- and second-generation immigrants among a sample of 125 Cape Verdean high school students. Perceived ethnic discrimination was found to moderate the association between both vocational…

  12. Irony and joking in ethnographic fieldwork: Reflections from Santo Antão Island (Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Giuffrè


    Full Text Available In this essay I address the crucial role of irony and joking in anthropology with a focus on the ethnographic relationship. My starting point is field research carried out from 2001 to 2004 on Santo Antão island (Cape Verde, specifically Ponta do Sol. In Cape Verdean practice, jokes and irony represent customary communicational modes and important tools for building relationships: the ultimate means of achieving “cultural intimacy”, they are used almost as rites of initiation to bring newcomers into the community and at the same time to manage ambiguities. Indeed, it was precisely through irony that my interlocutors were able to perfectly capture my ambiguous insider/outsider position. In this specific ethnographic context, the ironic relationship is understood as both a key communication tool in the ethnographic encounter and an unusual rite of passage: although strangers/anthropologists can only be accepted if they become Cape Verdean to some degree, in reality they are never really able to complete this passage. The essay briefly reviews irony and joking in anthropology and focuses on aspects of ironic interactions in Cape Verde that are linked to intercultural relations in the ethnographic context as a site of uncertain communication. I stress how, especially in intercultural contexts, the ambiguity of irony represents not a barrier to communication but rather a key element of understanding between anthropologists and informants as well as a significant heuristic device.

  13. Turning strategy into action: implementing a conservation action plan in the Cape Floristic Region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gelderblom, CM


    Full Text Available for conservation. These pressures are predicted to intensify, as the region acts as a magnet for settlement and development. This paper thus describes the development of a conservation action plan for the region, arising from the Cape Action Plan...

  14. Short Note Is the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens or Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent scientific literature employs three binomial names for the southern African endemic bird known as the Cape White-eye: Zosterops capensis, Z. pallidus and Z. virens. This unacceptable inconsistency reflects the contention regarding white-eye systematics. Recent molecular work by Oatley and colleagues led to ...

  15. Managing the Risk of Flooding and Sea-level Rise in Cape Town ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Cape Town is facing the dual challenge of redressing the legacy apartheid (inequality and spatial segregation) and responding to climate change. Over the past two decades, the rate of residential and commercial development in the city almost doubled. Much of the expansion took place along the coastline and ...

  16. Perceived HIV and Aids impasse in the eastern cape province and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on perceived HIV and AIDS impasse in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim is to explore perceptions of those students already known to be living with HIV and Aids. There are a myriad of risky behaviours observed amongst them that continue to persist unabated despite several ...

  17. Rural development and the role of game farming in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasmans, Thijs; Hebinck, Paul


    The analysis of game farming is set in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Game farming reorders the use, meaning and value of land and animal species. However, what it means for rural development processes in the immediate region and beyond is not well accounted for. We perceive game farming as an

  18. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M


    Full Text Available . This research attempts to address this research gap by focusing on the spatio-temporal aspects of non-metropolitan gated residential security estates in the Western Cape Province. It was found that most non-metropolitan gated residential security estates were...

  19. How do we know how much groundwater is stored in south-western Cape mountains?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ


    Full Text Available Isotopes of water (D, O-18) in rain and streams were used to obtain an estimate of the amount of ground water in the south-western Cape Mountains. It was assumed that the groundwater reservoir is well-mixed and that the water isotope signals...

  20. Sanitation services for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Castellano, D.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Veenstra, S.; Dijkstra, I.; Meulman, B.; Singels, A.; Wilsenach, J.A.


    Sanitation coverage in the informal settlements of Cape Town is severely lagging behind. A recent inventory showed that the main barriers to the implementation of proper sanitation systems are unsuitability of the location of many settlements (more than 40% of the sites are located on private land,

  1. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  2. Risk-taking behaviour ofCape Peninsula high-school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviour aD10ng high-school students in the. Cape Peninsula ... During the previous year, 8,5% of the students had been involved in a ... mental and social factors associated with this life phase. These include ..... responsibility. An example of ... Hurrelmann K. Health promotion for adolescems: preventive and corrective ...

  3. Fungal Radiation in the Cape Floristic Region: an analysis based on Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets, F.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Dreyer, L.L.


    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) displays high levels of plant diversity and endemism, and has received focused botanical systematic attention. In contrast, fungal diversity patterns and co-evolutionary processes in this region have barely been investigated. Here we reconstruct molecular phylogenies

  4. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Instrument Performance Study (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Hartman, Kathy R.


    The Ultimate objective of the GEO-CAPE 2014 study: Quantify the cost impact of very specific changes in instrument performance! The customer has defined 4 instrument types they are notionally interested in:! FR: Filter Radiometer! WAS: Wide Angle Spectrometer! MSS: Multi Slit Spectrometer! SSS: Single Slit Spectrometer.

  5. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*


    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  6. The Tangled Web: Investigating Academics' Views of Plagiarism at the University of Cape Town (United States)

    de Jager, Karin; Brown, Cheryl


    This article considers the problematic question of student plagiarism, its causes and manifestations, and how it is addressed in academic environments. A literature survey was conducted to establish how higher education institutions approach these issues, and a twofold investigation was conducted at the University of Cape Town. Data was gathered…

  7. Application of a structured decision making process for nitrogen pollution management on Cape Cod (United States)

    Significant release of reactive nitrogen into coastal water bodies has resulted in declining water quality in Southern New England. The Three Bays Preservation Association, in collaboration with the Cape Cod Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and local water resou...

  8. Mental illness in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attending routine HIV follow-up care in Cape Town had mental disorders, including ... e.g. alcohol abuse is associated with depression and anxiety disorders and is also a risk factor for .... Poorly trained nursing staff. Lack of appropriate ...

  9. Mapping the N-Year design rainfall - A case study for the Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S


    Full Text Available Africa. The point process approach to extreme value theory is employed to quantify the 50-year winter rainfall return level estimate from daily rainfall data from fifteen stations in the Western Cape. Ordinary kriging is used to estimate the 50-year...

  10. Spawning strategies and transport of early stages of the two Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and short-term variability of environmental parameters influence the spawning strategies of fish species. In this study, the spawning strategies and the transport of early stages of the two Cape hake species off South Africa were investigated. Distribution of eggs and larvae of Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis ...

  11. The profile of disability grant applicants in Bishop Lavis, Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disability grants in South Africa increased from 600 000 in 2000 to almost 1.3 million in 2004. This rise can be attributed to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, South Africa's high rate of unemployment and possibly an increased awareness of constitutional rights. The Western Cape, which has a disability prevalence of ...

  12. Fungal radiation in the Cape Floristic Region: an analysis based on Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets, F.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Dreyer, L.L.


    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) displays high levels of plant diversity and endemism, and has received focused botanical systematic attention. In contrast, fungal diversity patterns and co-evolutionary processes in this region have barely been investigated. Here we reconstruct molecular phylogenies

  13. 77 FR 37324 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear River; Wilmington, NC (United States)


    ... vessels from a portion of the Cape Fear River due to the filming of a movie involving high speed boat..., given the high risks of injury and damage that will be created during the filming of the movie, a delay... Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of Executive Order...

  14. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vistta, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin


    Boa Vista, the easternmost island in the Cape Verde archipelago, consists of volcanic products, minor intrusions and a thin partial sedimentary cover. The first 15 age results from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis of groundmass separates from volcanic and plutonic rocks from Boa Vista are p...

  15. No decrease in annual risk of tuberculosis infection in endemic area in Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kritzinger, Fiona E.; den Boon, Saskia; Verver, Suzanne; Enarson, Donald A.; Lombard, Carl J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Gie, Robert P.; Beyers, Nulda


    To estimate the change in annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) in two neighbouring urban communities of Cape Town, South Africa with an HIV prevalence of approximately 2%, and to compare ARTI with notification rates and treatment outcomes in the tuberculosis (TB) programme. In 1998-1999 and

  16. Ozone and radon at Cape Grim: A study of their interdependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorowski, W.; Galbally, I.E.; Meyer, C.P.


    A discussion of the ozone and radon variations at Cape Grim, Tasmania, and their interdependence is presented. The use of radon concentration as a criterion for baseline conditions ( - 3) results in a baseline data set that has a smaller range of concentrations within each month than that obtained using wind speed and direction as baseline criteria. The passage of cold fronts at Cape Grim is associated with a change in air flow from the continent to the Southern Ocean. Comparison of radon, wind direction and ozone during these events indicates that continental air continues arriving at Cape Grim for several hours after passage of the front and the establishment of the air flow from the baseline sector. This confirms that use of the speed and direction is not necessarily a good method of defining baseline conditions for ozone. When air comes to Cape Grim form over the Tasmanian land surface during those times of the year when (due to solar radiation and temperature) the probability of ozone production is low, the ozone and radon concentrations observed are negatively correlated. A simple model of ozone destruction at the Earth's surface and radon emission from the surface quantitatively describes these observations. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 6 refs

  17. A review of Intra-uterine foetal deaths at the Cape Coast Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 10, 2010 ... Study design: This is a retrospective review of delivery suite records from Jan 1 2013 to Dec 31 2014. Methods: Study was undertaken at the Cape Coast .... popular tourist destination. The indigenous people are .... Skilled attendants at delivery, a key health sector indicator in Ghana, can reduce fresh still-.

  18. ‘Irrigation by night’ in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der Bram; Hebinck, P.G.M.


    This paper addresses water-related issues in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Irrigation development and providing water for human consumption have been key factors in the country’s rural development planning, notably during the post-apartheid era when the Reconstruction and Development Programme

  19. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ


    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes...

  20. Polytocy in the Cape serotine bat Eptesicus capensis (A. Smith 1829 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 28, 1989 ... cover would not be a reliable measure of availability as flowers represent a small proportion of the plant canopy and are also only temporarily present. From these observations it may be concluded that. Cape hares are not obligate grazers but are capable of utilizing browse, a strategy which allows this ...

  1. Do inter-colony differences in Cape fur seal foraging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated how such environmental variability may impact foraging behaviour of the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, using satellite telemetry on animals in northern, central and southern Namibia. We expected that seal foraging behaviour would reflect a gradient of deteriorating feeding conditions from ...

  2. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of a wide range of risk-taking behaviour among high-school students in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, was investigated. In this article, the results for drug use are presented. Cluster sampling techniques produced a sample of 7 340 students from 16 schools in the three major education departments.

  3. 77 FR 46113 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Cape Lookout National Park Visitor and... (United States)


    ... data about visitors that can be used to prepare resource management planning documents. Lessons learned... Information Collection; Comment Request; Cape Lookout National Park Visitor and Community Survey AGENCY...) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the Information Collection (IC) described...

  4. The history and epidemiology of Cape St Paul wilt disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the spread of the Cape St. Paul Wilt (lethal yellowing) disease of coconut in Ghana is presented. Epidemiological studies showed that the disease starts slowly, then progresses (accelerate) rapidly before levelling off. In a farm, the disease first appears randomly on single trees, foci then develop around these ...

  5. Syntaxonomy and zonation patterns in coastal salt marshes of the Uilkraals Estuary, Western Cape (South Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucina, L.; Janssen, J.A.M.; O'Callaghan, M.


    Vegetation on salt marshes of the Uilkraals Estuary (near Gansbaai, Western Cape, South Africa) is described and classified into 11 associations and/or rank-less plant communities (further subdivided into a number of sub-units). These communities were grouped into 6 high-rank syntaxa (alliances and

  6. The Mediation of Representative Council of Learners Policy in Western Cape Schools--1997 to 2003 (United States)

    Carr, Ivan; Williams, Clarence


    We investigated how education policy was mediated at a representative number of Western Cape schools, from 1997 to 2003, using the structure, symbolic, human resource and political frames of Bolman and Deal (1997) as the basis of the investigation. The investigation produced diverse research findings. At the one end there were a majority of…

  7. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  8. Survival of children in Cape Town known to be vertically infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected with HIV-1. G D Hussey, R M Reijnhart, A M Sebens,. J Burgess, S Schaaf, S Potgieter. Objective. To determine the survival patterns of children in. Cape Town known ... age and clinical manifestations was determined by calculation of odds .... dermatological problems (45%) and oral thrush (34%). Tuberculosis was ...

  9. 75 FR 69123 - Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, Charleston County, SC; Final Comprehensive Conservation... (United States)


    ... conserving the Bulls Island and Cape Island forests and associated diverse plant communities. Currently, the... waters: ``For use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds..., secretive marsh birds, and plants. Monitoring efforts will be increased with the assistance of additional...

  10. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.


    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia:

  11. Analysis of Early Childhood Development (ECD) facilities within the city of Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, H


    Full Text Available of the current situation of accessibility of ECD facilities in Cape Town in respect of both location and size. This was followed by modelling of the optimal location of a select number of new ECD Centre’s of Excellence facilities to meet the backlog in current...

  12. Homework Policy Review: A Case Study of A Public School in the Western Cape Province (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verbra


    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive or negative effect on…

  13. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape Peninsula high-school students. Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of a wide range of risk-taking behaviour among high-school students in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, was investigated. In this article, the findings for road-related behaviour are presented. Cluster sampling techniques produced a sample of 7 340 students from 16 schools in the three major education ...

  14. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M


    Full Text Available -metropolitan locale and the topic is also unexplored in the South African context. This research attempts to address this research gap by investigating the locations of gated developments in non-metropolitan towns of varying sizes in the Western Cape...

  15. Using Teacher Stories to Reveal Quality Educational Practice: An Eastern Cape Experience (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Chartres, Mike; Kenyon, Alan


    The University of Fort Hare Distance Education Project set out to improve qualifications of primary teachers in rural and township schools in the Eastern Cape of the Republic of South Africa. At the culmination of an 11-year AUSAid collaboration between the University of Fort Hare and University of South Australia a research project to reveal…

  16. Thermal stability of phytochemicals, HMF and antioxidant activity in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny; Dekker, Matthijs


    Cape gooseberry is a fruit recognised for having relevant contents of health-promoting compounds. Changes in the content of phytochemicals (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, catechin and epicatechin), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and antioxidant activity of this fruit were studied at various temperatures

  17. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde. (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina


    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  18. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the main...

  19. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013) (United States)

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek


    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  20. CAPE suppresses migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells via activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling. (United States)

    Tseng, Jen-Chih; Lin, Ching-Yu; Su, Liang-Chen; Fu, Hsiao-Hui; Yang, Shiaw-Der; Chuu, Chih-Pin


    Prostate cancer (PCa) was the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. More than 80% of patients died from PCa developed bone metastases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a main bioactive component of honeybee hive propolis. Transwell and wound healing assays demonstrated that CAPE treatment suppressed the migration and invasion of PC-3 and DU-145 PCa cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blotting indicated that CAPE treatment reduced the abundance and activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2. Analysis using Micro-Western Array (MWA), a high-throughput antibody-based proteomics platform with 264 antibodies detecting signaling proteins involved in important pathways indicated that CAPE treatment induced receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) in non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway but suppressed abundance of β-catenin, NF-κB activity, PI3K-Akt signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression or knockdown of ROR2 suppressed or enhanced cell migration of PC-3 cells, respectively. TCF-LEF promoter binding assay revealed that CAPE treatment reduced canonical Wnt signaling. Intraperitoneal injection of CAPE reduced the metastasis of PC-3 xenografts in tail vein injection nude mice model. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that CAPE treatment increased abundance of ROR2 and Wnt5a but decreased protein expression of Ki67, Frizzle 4, NF-κB p65, MMP-9, Snail, β-catenin, and phosphorylation of IκBα. Clinical evidences suggested that genes affected by CAPE treatment (CTNNB1, RELA, FZD5, DVL3, MAPK9, SNAl1, ROR2, SMAD4, NFKBIA, DUSP6, and PLCB3) correlate with the aggressiveness of PCa. Our study suggested that CAPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for patients with advanced PCa.

  1. Can Cape Town's unique biodiversity be saved? Balancing conservation imperatives and development needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Holmes


    Full Text Available Cape Town is an urban hotspot within the Cape Floristic Region global biodiversity hotspot. This city of 2,460 km² encompasses four local centers of fynbos plant endemism, 19 national terrestrial vegetation types (six endemic to the city, wetland and coastal ecosystems, and 190 endemic plant species. Biodiversity in the lowlands is under threat of extinction as a result of habitat loss to agriculture, urban development, mining, and degradation by invasive alien plants. Cape Town's population is 3.7 million, increasing by an estimated 55,000 people/yr, which puts pressure on biodiversity remnants for development. South Africa is a signatory to international instruments to reduce biodiversity loss and has a good legislative and policy framework to conserve biodiversity, yet implementation actions are slow, with limited national and provincial support to conserve Cape Town's unique and irreplaceable biodiversity. The lack-of-action problem is two-fold: national government is slow to implement the policies developed to realize the international instruments it has signed, with conservation initiatives inadequately funded; and local governments are not yet recognized as important implementation partners. A further problem is created by conflicting policies such as the national housing policy that contributes to urban sprawl and loss of critical biodiversity areas. The City's Biodiversity Management Branch, with partners, is making some headway at implementation, but stronger political commitment is needed at all levels of government. Our objective is to improve the status and management of biodiversity in existing conservation areas through the statutory proclamation process and management effectiveness monitoring, respectively, and to secure priority areas of the BioNet, Cape Town's systematic biodiversity plan. The most important tools for the latter are incorporating the BioNet plan into City spatial plans; communication, education, and public

  2. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum). (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S


    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  3. Checklists of Crustacea Decapoda from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, with an assessment of Macaronesian and Cape Verde biogeographic marine ecoregions. (United States)

    GonzÁlez, JosÉ A


    The complete list of Canarian marine decapods (last update by González Quiles 2003, popular book) currently comprises 374 species/subspecies, grouped in 198 genera and 82 families; whereas the Cape Verdean marine decapods (now fully listed for the first time) are represented by 343 species/subspecies with 201 genera and 80 families. Due to changing environmental conditions, in the last decades many subtropical/tropical taxa have reached the coasts of the Canary Islands. Comparing the carcinofaunal composition and their biogeographic components between the Canary and Cape Verde archipelagos would aid in: validating the appropriateness in separating both archipelagos into different ecoregions (Spalding et al. 2007), and understanding faunal movements between areas of benthic habitat. The consistency of both ecoregions is here compared and validated by assembling their decapod crustacean checklists, analysing their taxa composition, gathering their bathymetric data, and comparing their biogeographic patterns. Four main evidences (i.e. different taxa; divergent taxa composition; different composition of biogeographic patterns; different endemicity rates) support that separation, especially in coastal benthic decapods; and these parametres combined would be used as a valuable tool at comparing biotas from oceanic archipelagos. To understand/predict south-north faunal movements in a scenario of regional tropicalization, special attention is paid to species having at the Canaries their southernmost occurrence, and also to tropical African warm-affinity species.

  4. Barrier spit recovery following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at Pakarang Cape, southwest Thailand (United States)

    Koiwa, Naoto; Takahashi, Mio; Sugisawa, Shuhei; Ito, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Hide-aki; Tanavud, Charlchai; Goto, Kazuhisa


    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had notable impacts on coastal landforms. Temporal change in topography by coastal erosion and subsequent formation of a new barrier spit on the nearshore of Pakrang Cape, southeastern Thailand, had been monitored for 10 years since 2005 based on field measurement using satellite images, high-resolution differential GPS, and/or handy GPS. Monitored topography data show that a barrier island was formed offshore from the cape several months after the tsunami event through progradation of multiple elongated gravelly beach ridges and washover fan composed of coral gravels. Subsequently, the barrier spit expanded to the open sea. The progradation and expansion were supported by supply of a large amount of coral debris produced by the tsunami waves. These observations provide useful data to elucidate processes of change in coastal landforms after a tsunami event. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami played an important role in barrier spit evolution over a period of at least a decade.

  5. Proximate content and lipid profile of seeds from Rapanea melanophloeos (The Cape Beech) tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotier, N.; Chivandi, E.; Lembede, B.W.; Ibrahim, K.G.; Nyakudya, T.T.


    Rapanea melanophloeos(Cape beech)is a fruit-bearing tree indigenous to Southern Africa which produces edible fruit. Seed samples obtained from ripe fruit of the Cape beech trees had their proximate analysis and lipid profiling done. The dry matter and ash contributed 91.29 +- 0.00 %, 1.50 +- 0.01 % of the mass of the seed. Whilst the other proximate analytes namely crude fibre, crude protein and ether extract made up 5.71 +- 0.43 %, 10.50 +- 0.49 % and 4.75 +- 0.09 percentage of the mass of the seeds respectively. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil revealed Linoleic acid (50.43 +- 0.38 %) to be the most dominant. R. melanophloeos seeds are not a viable source of nutrients. (author)

  6. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  7. An 40 Ar- 39 Ar study of the Cape Verde hot spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Grandvuinet, Tanja; Wilson, James Richard


    The 40Ar-39Ar analyses of 28 groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from the islands of Santiago, Sal, and São Vicente, Cape Verde archipelago, are presented. The new age data record the volcanic evolution for Santiago from 4.6 to 0.7 Ma, for Sal from around 15 to 1.1 Ma, and for São Vicente from...... Cretaceous age for limestones deposited on the seafloor and later uplifted. The Cape Verde Rise is indicated to have fully formed in the early Miocene around 22 Ma, accompanied by the initial alkaline volcanism. Considerable volcanism on Sal, Boa Vista, and Maio took place in the Miocene and Pliocene...

  8. Can propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE be promising agents against cyclophosphamide toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeyya Akyol


    Full Text Available Propolis is a mixture having hundreds of polyphenols including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE. They have been using in several medical conditions/diseases in both in vitro and in vivo experimental setup. Cyclophosphamide has been used to treat a broad of malignancies including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgking’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Ewing’s sarcoma, breast cancer, testicular cancer, etc. It may cause several side effects after treatment. In this mini review, the protective effects of propolis and CAPE were compared each other in terms of effectiveness against cyclophosphamide-induced injuries. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 105-107

  9. Gangsterism on the Cape Flats: A challenge to ‘engage the powers’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Bowers Du Toit


    Full Text Available One of the most pressing issues in the urban ghettos of the Cape Flats is that of gangsterism and the discourse of power and powerlessness that is its lifeblood. Media coverage over the past two years was littered with news on gangsterism as the City of Cape Town struggles to contain what some labelled a pandemic. It is a pandemic that is closely tied to a deprivation trap of poverty, marginalisation, isolation, unemployment and, ultimately, powerlessness. The latter concept of powerlessness and its interplay with these factors constituted the main thrust of this article as it explores the concept of power (and powerlessness as deeply relational with the economic, psycho-social and spiritual dimensions. It is proposed that Kingdom power challenges the status quo within such contexts and offers the church an alternative framework within which to engage prophetically.

  10. Health activism in Cape Town: a case study of the Health Workers Society. (United States)

    Pick, W; Claassen, J W B; Le Grange, C A; Hussey, G D


    The Health Workers Society (HWS), founded in 1980, was one of several progressive health organisations that fought for a democratic health system in South Africa. We document the sociopolitical context within which it operated and some of its achievements. HWS, many of whose members were staff and students of the University of Cape Town (UCT), provided a forum for debate on health-related issues, politics and society, and worked closely with other organisations to oppose the apartheid state's health policies and practices. They assisted with the formation of the first dedicated trade union for all healthcare workers and were one of the first to pioneer the primary healthcare approach in an informal settlement in Cape Town.

  11. Pilot study of a culturally adapted psychoeducation (CaPE) intervention for bipolar disorder in Pakistan. (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Ishrat; Chaudhry, Imran B; Rahman, Raza R; Hamirani, Munir M; Mehmood, Nasir; Haddad, Peter M; Hodsoll, John; Young, Allan H; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat


    Despite the use of maintenance medication, recurrence rates in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) are high. To date, there are no clinical trials that have investigated the use of psychological interventions in bipolar disorder in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally adapted bipolar psychoeducation programme (CaPE) in Pakistan. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar I and II outpatients were randomized to either 12 weekly sessions of individual psychoeducation plus Treatment As Usual (Intervention) or Treatment As Usual (TAU) (Control). Outcomes were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), Bipolar Knowledge and Attitudes and Questionnaire (BKAQ), and a self-reported measure of medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items, MMAS-4). Effect sizes were derived from baseline adjusted standardized regression coefficients. Retention in the study was good, 80% of patients in the TAU follow-up assessment and 100% of patients in the CaPE group attended all 12 sessions. Patient satisfaction was higher in the CaPE group relative to control (ES = 1.41). Further, there were large effect sizes shown for CaPE versus TAU for medication adherence (MMAS-4: ES = 0.81), knowledge and attitudes towards bipolar (BKAQ: ES = 0.68), mania (YMRS: ES = 1.18), depression (BDI: ES = 1.17) and quality of life measures (EQ-5D: ES ⇒ 0.88). Culturally adapted psychoeducation intervention is acceptable and feasible, and can be effective in improving mood symptoms and knowledge and attitudes to BPAD when compared with TAU. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. identifier NCT02210390.

  12. The use of Hemopure® at Groote Schuur hospital, Cape Town: 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemopure® is a cell-free haemoglobin solution that is made from bovine haemoglobin that is designed to carry oxygen in the plasma. It is approved for use in South Africa for the treatment of acute surgical anaemia. We describe the use of Hemopure® at a large tertiary hospital in Cape Town where there is a blood bank on ...

  13. Quantifying Acoustic Uncertainty due to Marine Mammals and Fish Near the Shelfbreak Front off Cape Hatteras (United States)


    Technical Information Office Naval Research Laboratory Grant and Contract Services (WHOI) AOPE Department Office (WHOI) MS#I2 • Woods Hole, MA 02543... Office ofNaval Research, Code 322 One Liberty Center 875 North Randolph Street, Suite 4125 Arlin~ton, VA 22203 Dear Dr. Headrick: Enclosed is... Front off Cape Hatteras," Principal Investigators Dr. James F. Lynch, Dr. Ying Tsong Lin, Mr. Arthur E. Newhall, and Dr. Glen G. Gawarkiewicz

  14. A Profile of the Eastern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment


    Pauw, Kalie


    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Eastern Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  15. A Profile of the Northern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment


    Pauw, Kalie


    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Northern Cape. Most of the data presented are d...

  16. A Profile of the Western Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment


    Pauw, Kalie


    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Western Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  17. A vegetation description and floristic analyses of the springs on the Kammanassie Mountain, Western Cape


    G. Cleaver; L.R. Brown; G.J. Bredenkamp


    The Kammanassie Mountain is a declared mountain catchment area and a Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra population is preserved on the mountain. The high number of springs on the mountain not only provides water for the animal species but also contributes to overall ecosystem functioning. Long-term conservation of viable ecosystems requires a broader understanding of the ecological processes involved. It was therefore decided that a classification, description and mapping of the spring veg...

  18. Causes of plant diversification in the Cape biodiversity hotspot of South Africa. (United States)

    Schnitzler, Jan; Barraclough, Timothy G; Boatwright, James S; Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C; Powell, Martyn P; Rebelo, Tony; Savolainen, Vincent


    The Cape region of South Africa is one of the most remarkable hotspots of biodiversity with a flora comprising more than 9000 plant species, almost 70% of which are endemic, within an area of only ± 90,000 km2. Much of the diversity is due to an exceptionally large contribution of just a few clades that radiated substantially within this region, but little is known about the causes of these radiations. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of plant diversification, using near complete species-level phylogenies of four major Cape clades (more than 470 species): the genus Protea, a tribe of legumes (Podalyrieae) and two speciose genera within the iris family (Babiana and Moraea), representing three of the seven largest plant families in this biodiversity hotspot. Combining these molecular phylogenetic data with ecological and biogeographical information, we tested key hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the radiation of the Cape flora. Our results show that the radiations started throughout the Oligocene and Miocene and that net diversification rates have remained constant through time at globally moderate rates. Furthermore, using sister-species comparisons to assess the impact of different factors on speciation, we identified soil type shifts as the most important cause of speciation in Babiana, Moraea, and Protea, whereas shifts in fire-survival strategy is the most important factor for Podalyrieae. Contrary to previous findings in other groups, such as orchids, pollination syndromes show a high degree of phylogenetic conservatism, including groups with a large number of specialized pollination syndromes like Moraea. We conclude that the combination of complex environmental conditions together with relative climatic stability promoted high speciation and/or low extinction rates as the most likely scenario leading to present-day patterns of hyperdiversity in the Cape.

  19. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available of calibrated Highway Development and Management (HDM 4) type models. Generally, five years continuous data would give a complete view of the behaviour of the materials for the individual sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Transport and Public Works... purposes. 4. FIELD DATA COLLECTION The CSIR project team in partnership with the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province project team conduct detailed field investigation of six sites biannually. Field (monitoring) data...

  20. Management of the natural ecosystems of the Cape Peninsula: current status and the future prospects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW


    Full Text Available of these include scenic drives, visits to special sites of interest (such as Cape Point, by road, or the top of Table Mountain, by cablecar), picnicking and hiking. These activities are catered Management of ecosystems 673 for through... the provision of hiking trails and picnic sites, and are regulated through the prohibition of barbecue fires at certain times of the year. Small indigenous forest patches occur in areas such as Orange Kloof and Newlands...

  1. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark


    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  2. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago. (United States)

    Dia, Ibrahima; Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Ba, Yamar; Diallo, Diawo; Konate, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth


    Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal.

  3. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives? (United States)

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M


    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  4. The Impacts of Urban Politics on Female Street Vendors in Praia, Cape Verde


    Pólvora, Jacqueline Britto


    Departing from transformations that are taking place on the space of the Plateau in Praia, Cape Verde, this paper discusses how these transformations are affecting the daily and working lives of the female street vendors in the city. It is an ethnographic study conducted with the ladies, also taking into account official data available from the institutional offices in Praia. It focuses on the tensions and disputes around the space, given significant changes that have been promoted by the ...

  5. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman


    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  6. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ


    Full Text Available Fleet Composition Current & Future Work FoodBank Cape Town First in South Africa Launched on 2 March 2009 Warehouse located in Philippi East [1] Majority of food sourced from DCs and retail sector Distributing to approximately 200 agencies... & Future Work Figure: Sourcing & distributing ow diagram EJ Lanz 40th Annual ORSSA Conference 11 of 36 Background Project Focus Demand & Candidate Sites Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work Data Demand Site...

  7. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes


    Nelson, Michael H.; Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.


    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI exper...

  8. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)? (United States)

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W


    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa.

  9. Level II Documentation of Launch Complex 31/32, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida (United States)


    Navigational Satellite Time and Ranging (NAVSTAR) Global Positioning System (GPS) program. Most of the above satellites have been launched from Cape...rocket, put together from existing hardware: an Honest John first stage, topped with two Nike stages, then a Recruit fourth stage, and finally, a T-55...a ground power oscillograph, exhaust fans, a sump pump, the dehydrator and humidity recorder, launch/perimeter and TV cameras, an Ampex- brand

  10. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP (United States)

    Duchon, Claude E.


    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  11. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park


    R.G.T. Paley; G.I.H. Kerley


    Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact...

  12. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin


    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  13. The Impact of Facebook on the Quality of Life of Senior Citizens in Cape Town


    Rylands , Denaneer; Belle , Jean-Paul ,


    Part 14: Current Issues; International audience; Social Networking Sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, can be used to maintain social connectedness especially with friends and family, irrespective of geographical distances or physical impairments. This is particularly beneficial for older people who are more prone to social exclusion. This paper investigates the impact that the use of Facebook has on the quality of life (QOL) of senior citizens living in Cape Town. The study use a positivist appr...

  14. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town


    Manning, Kathryn; Senekal, Marjanne; Harbron, Janetta


    Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning. Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG]) versus usual care (individual consultations) treatment. Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa. ...

  15. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana


    Simbaqueba, Jaime; S?nchez, Pilar; Sanchez, Erika; N??ez Zarantes, Victor Manuel; Chacon, Maria Isabel; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mari?o-Ram?rez, Leonardo


    Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in untranslated regions (UTRs) and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruvi...

  16. Gaseous elemental mercury depletion events observed at Cape Point during 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-G. Brunke


    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury in the marine boundary layer has been measured with a 15 min temporal resolution at the Global Atmosphere Watch station Cape Point since March 2007. The most prominent features of the data until July 2008 are the frequent occurrences of pollution (PEs and depletion events (DEs. Both types of events originate mostly within a short transport distance (up to about 100 km, which are embedded in air masses ranging from marine background to continental. The Hg/CO emission ratios observed during the PEs are within the range reported for biomass burning and industrial/urban emissions. The depletion of gaseous mercury during the DEs is in many cases almost complete and suggests an atmospheric residence time of elemental mercury as short as a few dozens of hours, which is in contrast to the commonly used estimate of approximately 1 year. The DEs observed at Cape Point are not accompanied by simultaneous depletion of ozone which distinguishes them from the halogen driven atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs observed in Polar Regions. Nonetheless, DEs similar to those observed at Cape Point have also been observed at other places in the marine boundary layer. Additional measurements of mercury speciation and of possible mercury oxidants are hence called for to reveal the chemical mechanism of the newly observed DEs and to assess its importance on larger scales.

  17. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Mid-Late Proterozoic Rayner Complex, Cape Bruce, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, D.J.; Clarke, G.L.; White, R.W.


    Granulite to transitional granulite facies gneisses exposed at Cape Bruce, Rayner Complex, East Antarctica, record three main orogenic/magmatic phases: (1) intrusion of c. 1000-980 Ma felsic orthogneisses into Mid-Proterozoic metasediments, contemporary with the development of north-trending reclined to recumbent folds; (2) extensive c. 980-900 Ma felsic magmatism, including equivalents of the Mawson Charnockite, which accompanied the development of upright, east-northeast-trending folds; and (3) ultramylonite zones of uncertain age. The first two phases are known as the Rayner Structrual Episode, the effects of which are similar in rocks to the east of Cape Bruce, at Mawson, and in the northern Prince Charles Mountains. Archaean rocks immediately to the west of Cape Bruce were tectonically reworked during the Rayner Structural Episode. The first orogenic phase is inferred to represent the collision between a wedge-shaped Proterozoic block comprising rocks of the Mawson Coast and Eastern Ghats Province, with the Archaean Napier Complex. The second orogenic phase included a major period of crustal growth through emplacement of the Mawson Charnockite and equivalents. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Long term fine aerosols at the Cape Grim global baseline station: 1998 to 2016 (United States)

    Crawford, Jagoda; Cohen, David D.; Stelcer, Eduard; Atanacio, Armand J.


    When air masses were arriving from the baseline sector, the maximum concentration of aged sea salt was 1.3 μg/m3, compared to overall maximum of 4.9 μg/m3. For secondary sulfates and nitrates the maximum concentrations were 2.5 and 7.5 μg/m3 from the baseline sector and overall, respectively. While measurements at Cape Grim can be affected from long range transport from mainland Australia and some local Tasmanian sources, the average concentrations of anthropogenic sources are still considerably lower than those measured at more populated areas. For example, at Lucas Heights (located south-west of the Sydney central business district, with little local sources) the average concentrations of secondary sulfates/nitrates and aged sea air were 1.4 and 1.0 μg/m3, respectively; compared to average concentrations of 0.8 and 0.6 μg/m3, at Cape Grim. The average concentrations of smoke were compatible at the two sites. The impact of primary aerosols from vehicle exhaust at Cape Grim was limited and no corresponding fingerprint was resolved.

  19. CAPES: Unsupervised Storage Performance Tuning Using Neural Network-Based Deep Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Parameter tuning is an important task of storage performance optimization. Current practice usually involves numerous tweak-benchmark cycles that are slow and costly. To address this issue, we developed CAPES, a model-less deep reinforcement learning-based unsupervised parameter tuning system driven by a deep neural network (DNN). It is designed to nd the optimal values of tunable parameters in computer systems, from a simple client-server system to a large data center, where human tuning can be costly and often cannot achieve optimal performance. CAPES takes periodic measurements of a target computer system’s state, and trains a DNN which uses Q-learning to suggest changes to the system’s current parameter values. CAPES is minimally intrusive, and can be deployed into a production system to collect training data and suggest tuning actions during the system’s daily operation. Evaluation of a prototype on a Lustre system demonstrates an increase in I/O throughput up to 45% at saturation point. About the...

  20. Exploring urban health in Cape Town, South Africa: an interdisciplinary analysis of secondary data (United States)

    Mumm, Rebekka; Hänselmann, Eva; Freund, Johanna; Wirsching, Michael; Gärtner, Jan; Gminski, Richard; Vögtlin, Katrin; Körner, Mirjam; Zirn, Lena; Wittwer-Backofen, Ursula; Oni, Tolu


    Background: With modern information technology, an overwhelming amount of data is available on different aspects of societies. Our research investigated the feasibility of using secondary data sources to get an overview of determinants of health and health outcomes in different population strata of Cape Town, a large city of South Africa. Methods: The methodological approach of secondary-data analysis was similar in the different disciplines: Biological Anthropology, Public Health, Environmental Health, Mental Health, Palliative Care, Medical Psychology and Sociology at the University of Freiburg and Public Health at the University of Cape Town. The teams collected information on Cape Town through Internet searches and published articles. The information was extracted, analyzed, condensed, and jointly interpreted. Results: Data show the typical picture of a population in epidemiological and demographic transition exposed to often difficult social, mental, and physical environmental conditions. Comparison between low and higher socioeconomic districts demonstrated that the former had higher air pollution, poorer water quality, and deficient sanitary conditions in addition to sub-optimal mental health services and palliative care. Conclusion: Although important information gaps were identified, the data draw attention to critical public health interventions required in poor health districts, and to motivate for pro-equity policies. PMID:28093045

  1. Improving Access to Pediatric Cardiology in Cape Verde via a Collaborative International Telemedicine Service. (United States)

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Correia, Artur


    This paper addresses the role of international telemedicine services in supporting the evacuation procedures from Cape Verde to Portugal, enabling better quality and cost reductions in the management of the global health system. The Cape Verde, as other African countries, health system lacks many medical specialists, like pediatric cardiologists, neurosurgery, etc. In this study, tele-cardiology shows good results as diagnostic support to the evacuation decision. Telemedicine services show benefits while monitoring patients in post-evacuation, helping to address the lack of responsive care in some specialties whose actual use will help save resources both in provision and in management of the evacuation procedures. Additionally, with tele-cardiology collaborative service many evacuations can be avoided whereas many cases will be treated and followed locally in Cape Verde with remote technical support from Portugal. This international telemedicine service enabled more efficient evacuations, by reducing expenses in travel and housing, and therefore contributed to the health system's improvement. This study provides some evidence of how important telemedicine really is to cope with both the geography and the shortage of physicians.

  2. Impact of Sahara dust transport on Cape Verde atmospheric element particles. (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, M; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Pio, C A; Nunes, T; Cardoso, J


    The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct an elemental characterization of airborne particles sampled in Cape Verde and (2) assess the influence of Sahara desert on local suspended particles. Particulate matter (PM(10)) was collected in Praia city (14°94'N; 23°49'W) with a low-volume sampler in order to characterize its chemical composition by k0-INAA. The filter samples were first weighed and subsequently irradiated at the Portuguese Research Reactor. Results showed that PM(10) concentrations in Cape Verde markedly exceeded the health-based air quality standards defined by the European Union (EU), World Health Organization (WHO), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in part due to the influence of Sahara dust transport. The PM(10) composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (K, Sm, Co, Fe, Sc, Rb, Cr, Ce, and Ba) and sea (Na), and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Zn, and Sb). In addition, the high concentrations of PM measured in Cape Verde suggest that health of the population may be less affected compared with other sites where PM(10) concentrations are lower but more enriched with toxic elements.

  3. Motivations of backpackers in the Cape Coast-Elmina Conurbation, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Dayour


    Full Text Available Research has shown that the backpacker market is one of the tourism markets that economically benefit local communities than the conventional market or mass tourists. The purpose of the study was to examine the motivations of backpackers in the Cape Coast-Elmina conurbation, Ghana. Questionnaire was used to collect data from 184 backpackers in Cape Coast and Elmina. Factor Analysis and some descriptive statistical analysis were employed in presenting the report. The study revealed that backpackers, who visited the Cape Coast-Elmina conurbation, were mostly young international students, most of whom were of European origin. Using the push-pull theory by Dann (1981, 6 main orthogonal push-pull related factors, including historical/cultural attractions, service delivery, ecological attractions, heritage, escape, and adventure were found to have explained backpackers’ motivations for travelling. It is recommended that local travel intermediaries focus attention on packaging tailored tours that will sell the country’s historical, cultural and ecological attractions to backpackers. Secondly, the Ghana Tourism Authority (GTA should formally recognize and incorporate hostel facilities into the accommodation sub-sector, and regularize monitoring activities in these facilities in order to maintain quality standards for patronage by backpackers.

  4. Lessons from the past: Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri


    Full Text Available The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa’s colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the development of early hospital and mental health services in the Eastern Cape from the time of the Cape Colony to the dissolution of apartheid in 1994, and highlights the influence of colonialism, race and legislation in the development of mental health services in this province. The objective is to provide a background of mental health services in order to identify the historical factors that have had an impact on the current shortcomings in the provision of public sector mental health services in the province. This information will assist in the future planning and development of a new service for the province without the stigma of the past. This research indicates that one lesson from the past should be the equitable distribution of resources for the provision of care for all that inhabit this province, as enshrined in South Africa’s constitution.

  5. Paper trail: Chasing the Chinese in the Cape (1904-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Harris

    Full Text Available The Chinese Exclusion Act passed by the Cape parliament in 1904 was one of the first pieces of legislation promulgated in the southern region of Africa where a particular 'racial group' was singled out, documented and discriminated against. Although it had trans-oceanic antecedents and tapped into this global anti-Chinese sentiment, unlike the Chinese exclusion legislation elsewhere, the Cape exclusion legislation targeted the entire Chinese 'race'. This article proposes to trace the application of this unwieldy registration system and show how the small Chinese community was registered, identified, monitored and hounded both on paper and on the ground until well after the repeal of the Act three decades later. Through an analysis of these paper records, the article intends to elucidate the nature of this imposition and consider what they tell us of the Chinese it was imposed upon and how they responded. It also proposes that, while the Act was formulated for exclusion, ironically for just under 1,500 of the Chinese resident at the colonial Cape it eventually warranted a double inclusion, one in the form of a certificate of exemption and hence domicile - albeit with perpetual surveillance and scrutiny - and the other as part of the archived historic record.

  6. Proximate and fatty acid composition of cooked South African Cape snoek (Thyrsites atun

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    Suné S. Henning


    Full Text Available Cape snoek (Thyrsites atun is an important source of protein for people in South Africa; however, nutritional information thereof is limited. The proximate and fatty acid compositions of raw and cooked (80 °C snoek muscles were determined according to official AOAC methods. The mean moisture, ash, total lipids and protein for raw snoek were 72.8±1.86%, 1.3±0.09%, 4.0±1.16 and 21.5±1.35%, respectively. Cape snoek is very high in palmitic acid (24.65±1.43%, oleic acid (18.21±2.64%, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 9.11±2.06% and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 19.70±3.25%. With the exception of total lipids, cooking significantly reduced moisture (69.40±2.03% and ash (1.12±0.12%, and increased protein (24.47±1.39% content. It is concluded that Cape snoek is very high in protein and can be classified as a low-fat fish which is rich in EPA and DHA.

  7. Simulations of atmospheric methane for Cape Grim, Tasmania, to constrain southeastern Australian methane emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Loh


    Full Text Available This study uses two climate models and six scenarios of prescribed methane emissions to compare modelled and observed atmospheric methane between 1994 and 2007, for Cape Grim, Australia (40.7° S, 144.7° E. The model simulations follow the TransCom-CH4 protocol and use the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS and the CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM. Radon is also simulated and used to reduce the impact of transport differences between the models and observations. Comparisons are made for air samples that have traversed the Australian continent. All six emission scenarios give modelled concentrations that are broadly consistent with those observed. There are three notable mismatches, however. Firstly, scenarios that incorporate interannually varying biomass burning emissions produce anomalously high methane concentrations at Cape Grim at times of large fire events in southeastern Australia, most likely due to the fire methane emissions being unrealistically input into the lowest model level. Secondly, scenarios with wetland methane emissions in the austral winter overestimate methane concentrations at Cape Grim during wintertime while scenarios without winter wetland emissions perform better. Finally, all scenarios fail to represent a~methane source in austral spring implied by the observations. It is possible that the timing of wetland emissions in the scenarios is incorrect with recent satellite measurements suggesting an austral spring (September–October–November, rather than winter, maximum for wetland emissions.

  8. Psychosocial concomitants of loneliness among students of Cape Verde and Portugal. (United States)

    Neto, F; Barros, J


    This research is an examination of the relationship between loneliness and a number of psychosocial variables (e.g., affective state, cultural issues, gender, age) among adolescents and young adults from Cape Verde and Portugal. Two studies are presented. The participants in the first study were 285 adolescents from Cape Verde and 202 from Portugal, and in the second study there were 134 college students from Cape Verde and 112 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all the participants in both studies: The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), the Social Anxiety subscale (A. Fenigstein, M. Scheier, & A. Buss, 1975), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). No ethnic or gender differences were found for loneliness between the two groups. For both groups, the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life. However, as expected, the adolescent group recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the college students.

  9. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit. (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison


    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamic Properties, Sorption Isotherms and Glass Transition Temperature of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica López


    Full Text Available Adsorption and desorption isotherms of fresh and dried Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. were determined at three temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C using a gravimetric technique. The data obtained were fitted to several models including Guggenheim-Anderson- De Boer (GAB, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, Henderson, Caurie, Smith, Oswin, Halsey and Iglesias-Chirife. A non-linear least square regression analysis was used to evaluate the models. The Iglesias-Chirife model fitted best the experimental data. Isosteric heat of sorption was also determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy-controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperature (Tg of Cape gooseberry was also determined by differential scanning calorimetry and modelled as a function of moisture content with the Gordon-Taylor, the Roos and the Khalloufi models, which proved to be excellent tools for predicting glass transition of Cape gooseberry.

  11. Possible impacts of sea-level rise on the Diep river/Rietvlei system, Cape-Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hughes, P


    Full Text Available Many of the Cape Province's estuaries and tidal inlets have sandy connections to the sea and are often intensively developed for industrial or residential purposes. The possible impacts of sea-level rise are of considerable interest...

  12. Development and implementation of a Bridge Management System for the Provincial Government of the Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a bridge management system for the Provincial Government Western Cape (PGWC). During the first phase of the project, the inventory and inspection modules were customised to meet the needs...

  13. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil. (United States)

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela


    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  14. Combined silver nanoparticles and temperature effects in the Cape River crab Potamanautes perlatus - Interactions between chemical and climatic stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R


    Full Text Available The influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and temperature variation on toxicity and oxidative stress responses were investigated in the tissues of the Cape River crab Potamanautes perlatus following a seven-day exposure period. Toxicity...

  15. Wave Climate and Littoral Sediment Transport Potential, Cape Fear River Entrance and Smith Island to Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward


    Numerical model studies were conducted to assist the U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington, in evaluating potential plans for modifying the Cape Fear River entrance channel and in preparing General Reevaluation Reports...

  16. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit) (United States)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  17. Interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and synoptic type association

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ


    Full Text Available The link between interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and different synoptic types as well as selected teleconnections is explored. Synoptic circulation over the region is classified into different...

  18. 2009 USGS/NPS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Cape Hatteras National Seashore - Post-Nor'easter Ida (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a bare-earth data lidar data set that was collected on November 27, 29 and December 1, 2009 along the shoreline of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore in...

  19. Comment Period for Proposed Remedy Selection Plan for Multiple Training Areas located at Joint Base Cape Cod (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the EPA’s proposal indicating no further action is needed for multiple Training Areas on the Camp Edwards portion of Joint Base Cape Cod (JBCC).

  20. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira


    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing a ComputerAided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishingindustry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes thatare less polluting to the environment. Metal finish...

  2. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile (United States)


    ... gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on the...

  3. A description of pharmacological analgesia administration by public sector advanced life support paramedics in the City of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Matthews


    Discussion: Pre-hospital acute pain management in the Western Cape does not appear to conform to best practice as Advanced Life Support providers in the Western Cape use low doses of morphine. Chest pain is an important reason for drug administration in acute pre-hospital pain. Multimodal analgesia is not a feature of care in this pre-hospital service. The development of a Clinical Practice Guideline for and training in pre-hospital pain should be viewed as imperative.

  4. Diurnal variability of inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions (United States)

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Dias, J.; Oliveira, P. B.; Angélico, M. M.; Castro, J. J.; Fernandes, J. N.; Trindade, A.; Cruz, T.


    The nearshore circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions was studied using in-situ data from 3 consecutive summers (2006-2008). Focus was given to a period between 20 July and 04 August 2006 to study the diurnal variability of the cross-shelf circulation. This period was chosen because it had a steady upwelling-favourable wind condition modulated by a diurnal cycle much similar to sea breeze. The daily variability of the observed cross-shelf circulation consisted of three distinct periods: a morning period with a 3-layer vertical structure with onshore velocities at mid-depth, a mid-day period where the flow is reversed and has a 2-layer structure with onshore velocities at the surface and offshore flow below, and, lastly, in the evening, a 2-layer period with intensified offshore velocities at the surface and onshore flow at the bottom. The observed cross-shelf circulation showed a peculiar vertical shape and diurnal variability different from several other systems described in literature. We hypothesize that the flow reversal of the cross-shelf circulation results as a response to the rapid change of the wind magnitude and direction at mid-day with the presence of the cape north of the mooring site influencing this response. A numerical modelling experiment exclusively forced by winds simulated successfully most of the circulation at the ADCP site, especially the mid-day reversal and the evening's upwelling-type structure. This supports the hypothesis that the cross-shelf circulation at diurnal timescales is mostly wind-driven. By analysing the 3D circulation in the vicinity of Cape Sines we came to the conclusion that the diurnal variability of the wind and the flow interaction with topography are responsible for the circulation variability at the ADCP site, though only a small region in the south of the cape showed a similar diurnal variability. The fact that the wind diurnally undergoes relaxation and intensification strongly affects the

  5. Fonte investigadora em Educação: registros do banco de teses da CAPES An investigation source in Education: the records in the CAPES theses database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Almeida Vieira


    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma investigação realizada no Banco de Teses CAPES - Resumos, banco de dados multidisciplinar disponibilizado via internet pela Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES. Ao congregar informações básicas de pesquisas de pós-graduação stricto sensu - mestrado e doutorado - das diversas áreas e subáreas do conhecimento humano, desenvolvidas em Instituições de Ensino Superior - IES - públicas e particulares de todo o território nacional e defendidas a partir de 1987, esse banco, por meio de resumos, constitui-se em uma fonte de pesquisa abrangente, bem como em um instrumento relevante de divulgação do conhecimento científico brasileiro. Considerada tal abrangência e relevância, ao perceber em consulta às suas bases algumas incongruências nos dados recuperados pelo sistema, bem como falta de informações senão importantes, mas efetivamente necessárias àqueles que pesquisam ou buscam informações preliminares de estudos, efetuou-se uma investigação exploratória em uma amostra de seus registros, a qual se pautou em pesquisa documental e foi iniciada por meio da palavra-chave preconceito. Fruto dessa exploração é o presente ensaio, que tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama das constatações feitas acerca do aspecto formal dos registros e das estrutura dos resumos constantes nesse banco. Objetiva-se, também, marcar a importância de se realizar estudos que contribuam para o fomento de um debate crítico-reflexivo que implique ações resolutivas dos problemas constatados.This article presents results of an investigation made with the CAPES Theses Database - Abstracts, a multidisciplinary database offered through the Internet by CAPES - Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. By congregating basic information about stricto sensu graduate researches - Master and Doctorate levels - developed in various areas and sub-areas of

  6. Em busca de um delineamento de proposta para classificação dos periódicos internacionais de contabilidade para o Qualis CAPES In search of a plan for ranking international accounting periodicals for Qualis CAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren


    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva buscar subsídios ao delineamento de uma proposta para classificação dos periódicos internacionais de contabilidade para o Qualis CAPES. Para tanto, foi realizada pesquisa exploratória, por meio de levantamento, com abordagem quantitativa dos dados e corte seccional. Os dados foram levantados no Portal de Periódicos da CAPES, obtendo-se um total de 50 periódicos. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram: os periódicos internacionais de contabilidade disponíveis no Portal de Periódicos da CAPES; os periódicos internacionais de contabilidade indexados no SCOPUS ou ISI e não disponíveis no Portal de Periódicos da CAPES; os periódicos da área contábil citados por periódicos da área contábil indexados no SCOPUS; os periódicos da área contábil citados por periódicos da área contábil indexados no SCOPUS e não disponíveis no Portal de Periódicos da CAPES e o fator de impacto 2006 dos periódicos da área contábil citados por periódicos da área contábil indexados no SCOPUS. Com base nos achados da pesquisa foi delineada uma proposta de classificação dos periódicos internacionais de contabilidade para o Qualis CAPES, a qual pretende ser um ponto de partida para a discussão e construção de uma proposta em face da revisão do Qualis CAPES em 2007.The objective of this article was to search for ways to support the outlining of a proposal for ranking international accounting periodicals for use by Qualis CAPES. To do so, an exploratory cross-sectional survey was carried out, using a quantitative approach. Data was collected from the CAPES Journal Portal, obtaining a total of 50 periodicals. Results show: international accounting journals available through the CAPES Journal Portal; international accounting journals indexed in SCOPUS or ISI but not available through the CAPES Journal Portal; accounting journals cited in accounting journals indexed in SCOPUS; accounting journals cited in accounting journals

  7. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal. (United States)

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo


    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades.

  8. Surveying the Underwater Arcaheological Site of Cape Glaros at Pagasetikos Gulf (United States)

    Diamanti, E.; Spondylis, E.; Vlachaki, F.; Kolyva, E.


    The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A.)1 has been conducting an underwater archaeological research in the west coast of southern Pagasetikos Gulf, since 2000. Every year the underwater research focuses on specific archaeological targets that have been recovered during previous field campaigns. The current publication elaborates on the comprehensive documentation of the underwater archaeological site at Cape Glaros, during the 2015 field season, under the direction of the archaeologist Elias Spondylis. The 2015 research campaign was conducted within the framework of the ITACA- Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites European Project (FP7/2007-2013, GA No 606805), at two archaeological sites, namely the Cape Glaros and Metohi. It was among the most important challenges of the project to successfully produce the detailed and accurate 3D mapping of the Cape Glaros site that covers an extended area. Four large concentrations of pottery finds and numerous anchors of different typology have been recorded, that can be dated from the late Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods. This challenge was tackled through the simultaneous implementation of three recording methods; photogrammetry, geodesy and conventional architectural mapping. The workflow of the documentation process, including data acquisition, processing and graphic visualization, along with the derived results are presented below. 1The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A.) is a private, non-profit organization, founded in 1973, which undertakes maritime archaeological research under the supervision or in collaboration with the Greek Ministry of Culture. It has over 100 members, with diverse academic credentials, all of whom work, mainly, on a voluntary basis. 3D recording of underwater archaeological sites has been applied to numerous projects that have been carried out by the multidisciplinary team of H.I.M.A. in locations of utmost archaeological

  9. Substances of abuse - demand for their determinations in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van der Bijl


    Full Text Available Background. Drug abuse is as relevant today as ever. Management of such cases on a primary health care level may be challenging, particularly when laboratory facilities are unavailable. Furthermore, substance abuse and its sequelae place a significant burden on the already overstretched primary health care resources in the country, as well as on other ser- vices and society in general. Objectives. The current study surveyed the trends in demand for laboratory determination of amphetamines, opiates, methaqualone, cannabis, cocaine and ethanol for the period 1991 - 2002, in the Western Cape. The survey was conducted by extracting the relevant data from the records of the Pharmacology/Toxicology Laboratory of the University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital. This facility processes the largest number of specimens by a single laboratory in the Western Cape. Results. From the data obtained a seasonal pattern emerged for all substances except ethanol, with a trough appearing in early winter. Demand for ethanol analysis was fairly constant throughout the year, with a peak in the last quarter. Ethanol level was the most frequently requested analysis between 1991 and 1997. This concurs with its status as the main substance of abuse in South Africa and the rest of the world. There was an increased demand for analysis of ampheta- mines, opiates, methaqualone, cannabis and cocaine between 1991 and 2002. Generally dominating, next to ethanol, were requests for cannabis and methaqualone analysis. Interesting to note was the increase in demand for opiate analysis, following the trend observed in certain other regions of the world. Conclusion. The analysis trends observed in this study demon- strate global patterns of drug abuse emerging in the Western Cape. The medical and social effects of drug abuse impose a grave responsibility on policymakers to ensure that adequate funding is available for analytical laboratories. Only in such a way can

  10. New and interesting marine and littoral diatoms from sea point, near Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH


    Full Text Available Steenbras, South Western Cape and mentions that the species had not until then been re corded from South African waters. ? 591, 592. C. serpentina var. pusilla (GREvILLE) PERAGALLO. ? Small individuals of this variety, sometimes less than the 25?SO... ~ given for length (1-lusTaD 1. C.: 50) are easily overlooked when both C. serpentina var. pusilla and C. an,gu/osa are present in a sample. They can only be distin guished by counting the striae viz. 14?20 in 10 it for C. angulosa and 22?25 in 10...

  11. Dryland salinity: threatening water resources in the semi-arid Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH


    Full Text Available associated with the mobilisation of inorganic salts from the landscape and the consequent increase in salt concentrations in receiving water bodies. Dyland salinity is not new to this area. Wheat lands in the Swartland and Overberg regions are widely known... to contain ?brak kolle? (saline scalds) where the wheat will not germinate. CAPTION: The Berg River near Velddrif. The river drains an area of approximately 9 000 km? and is an important source of water to the Boland and Cape Peninsula (source: Vernon...

  12. The isotopic chemical and dissolved gas concentrations in groundwater near Venterstad, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.; Talma, A.S.; Heaton, T.H.E.


    Groundwater was collected for a multi parameter investigation from 27 boreholes within a radius of 120 km from Venterstad (Cape Province). The samples were analysed for the isotopes carbon-14, carbon-13, oxygen-18, tritium and radon-222, for the dissolved gases nitrogen, oxygen, argon, methane and helium and for the major ionic species. These data, with those collected during previous investigations of the flooding of the Orange Fish tunnel, are used to discuss the geohydrology of the area. Three water types of different origin were delineated

  13. Smectites on Cape York, Matijevic Hill, Mars, Observed and Characterized by Crism and Opportunity (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Bennett, K.; Catalano, J.; Fraeman, A.; Gellert, R.; Guinness, E.; Morris, R.; Murchie, S.; Smith, M.; Squyres, S.; hide


    Opportunity has conducted an extensive "walk-about" and set of in-situ measurements on strata exposed on the inboard side of Cape York, a segment of the dissected rim of the Noachian-age approx.22 km wide Endeavour crater [1] (Fig. 1). The specific region for the observations (Matijevic Hill) was chosen based on along track oversampled (ATO) CRISM hyperspectral observations (processed to 5 m/pixel) that showed the presence of exposures of Fe/Mg smectite phyllosilicates. We describe the first ground-based observations of phyllosilicates on Mars and discuss implications based on the combined CRISM and Opportunity measurements.

  14. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH


    Full Text Available collec ted in a small bay near the holiday resort of Langebaan (long. 18,02 E, lat. 33,05 5) on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay. Saldanha Bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa some 110 km north of Cape Town, and forms a long narrow... per annum about 79% during April to September (i.e. winter rainfall). The region can therefore be regarded as semi-desert. The salinity of the sea water at Langebaan was 35 0/00. The average temperature range of the air in summer is from 16.5? C...

  15. Cape buffalo mitogenomics reveals a holocene shift in the African human-megafauna dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Rasmus; Brüniche-Olsen, Anna; Siegismund, Hans Redlef


    Africa is unique among the continents in having maintained an extraordinarily diverse and prolific megafauna spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene epochs. Little is known about the historical dynamics of this community and even less about the reasons for its unique persistence to modern times. We...... sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from 43 Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) to infer the demographic history of this large mammal. A combination of Bayesian skyline plots, simulations and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) were used to distinguish population size dynamics from the confounding...... the first systematic assessment of megafauna dynamics on the only continent where large mammals remain abundant....

  16. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar


    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  17. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation

  18. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes. (United States)

    Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K


    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations' to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula.

  19. Some ecological studies of the lower Cape Fear River Estuary, ocean outfall, and Dutchman Creek, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, B.J.; Birkhead, W.S.


    A survey of the hydrography and biological components of the Cape Fear River Estuary and nearshore ocean off Oak Island was conducted. Species diversity indices were computed from nekton samples and phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos samples are being analysed. A computer program was developed whereby data were alphabetized by species, sorted by location, station, and date, and printed. Experiments were conducted to determine the Critical Thermal Maximum of shrimp. Measurements were made on water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen from June through October. (U.S.)

  20. Geohydrological investigation of an uranium anomaly near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.; Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C.


    An anomaly, caused by low-grade uranium accumulations in organic-rich diatomaceous earth deposits, was located by an airborne radiometric survey near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape. Low-grade uraniferous calcrete also occurs in the vicinity of the anomaly. A significant uranium anomaly was found along the whole course of the palaeodrainage with the highest values occuring behind a dolerite dyke a few kilometres south of the confluence. A multidisciplinary approach in corporating geohydrology, water geochemistry, isotopic data and radiometric borehole logging studies was used to evaluate its potential

  1. Molecular detection of airborne Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen, in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan S Schwartz


    Full Text Available Emergomyces africanus is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a systemic mycosis in immunocompromised persons in South Africa. Infection is presumed to follow inhalation of airborne propagules. We developed a quantitative PCR protocol able to detect as few as 5 Es. africanus propagules per day. Samples were collected in Cape Town, South Africa over 50 weeks by a Burkard spore trap with an alternate orifice. We detected Es. africanus in air samples from 34 days (10% distributed over 11 weeks. These results suggest environmental exposure to airborne Es. africanus propagules occurs more commonly in endemic areas than previously appreciated.

  2. Molecular detection of airborne Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen, in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Schwartz, Ilan S; McLoud, Josh D; Berman, Dilys; Botha, Alfred; Lerm, Barbra; Colebunders, Robert; Levetin, Estelle; Kenyon, Chris


    Emergomyces africanus is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a systemic mycosis in immunocompromised persons in South Africa. Infection is presumed to follow inhalation of airborne propagules. We developed a quantitative PCR protocol able to detect as few as 5 Es. africanus propagules per day. Samples were collected in Cape Town, South Africa over 50 weeks by a Burkard spore trap with an alternate orifice. We detected Es. africanus in air samples from 34 days (10%) distributed over 11 weeks. These results suggest environmental exposure to airborne Es. africanus propagules occurs more commonly in endemic areas than previously appreciated.

  3. Banking on coal: perspectives on a Cape Breton community within an international context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.F.


    The development of the coal mining industry in Inverness, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia is described from the discovery of coal in the 17th century to the closing of the last mine in 1953, with its aftermath within the single industry community. The impact of the mines and unions on the community, public perception of coal miners, the miners self-perception, social and religious aspects, and politics are considered. Studies of three other coal mining communities (in Great Britain, the United States, and Australia) are examined, as a comparison. 140 refs., 283 notes, 11 photos.

  4. Climatic controls on Later Stone Age human adaptation in Africa's southern Cape. (United States)

    Chase, Brian M; Faith, J Tyler; Mackay, Alex; Chevalier, Manuel; Carr, Andrew S; Boom, Arnoud; Lim, Sophak; Reimer, Paula J


    Africa's southern Cape is a key region for the evolution of our species, with early symbolic systems, marine faunal exploitation, and episodic production of microlithic stone tools taken as evidence for the appearance of distinctively complex human behavior. However, the temporally discontinuous nature of this evidence precludes ready assumptions of intrinsic adaptive benefit, and has encouraged diverse explanations for the occurrence of these behaviors, in terms of regional demographic, social and ecological conditions. Here, we present a new high-resolution multi-proxy record of environmental change that indicates that faunal exploitation patterns and lithic technologies track climatic variation across the last 22,300 years in the southern Cape. Conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation were humid, and zooarchaeological data indicate high foraging returns. By contrast, the Holocene is characterized by much drier conditions and a degraded resource base. Critically, we demonstrate that systems for technological delivery - or provisioning - were responsive to changing humidity and environmental productivity. However, in contrast to prevailing models, bladelet-rich microlithic technologies were deployed under conditions of high foraging returns and abandoned in response to increased aridity and less productive subsistence environments. This suggests that posited links between microlithic technologies and subsistence risk are not universal, and the behavioral sophistication of human populations is reflected in their adaptive flexibility rather than in the use of specific technological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bibliometric analysis of theses and dissertations on prematurity in the Capes database. (United States)

    Pizzani, Luciana; Lopes, Juliana de Fátima; Manzini, Mariana Gurian; Martinez, Claudia Maria Simões


    To perform a bibliometric analysis of theses and dissertations on prematurity in the Capes database from 1987 to 2009. This is a descriptive study that used the bibliometric approach for the production of indicators of scientific production. Operationally, the methodology was developed in four steps: 1) construction of the theoretical framework; 2) data collection sourced from the abstracts of theses and dissertations available in the Capes Thesis Database which presented the issue of prematurity in the period 1987 to 2009; 3) organization, processing and construction of bibliometric indicators; 4) analysis and interpretation of results. Increase in the scientific literature on prematurity during the period 1987 to 2009; production is represented mostly by dissertations; the institution that received prominence was the Universidade de São Paulo. The studies are directed toward the low birth weight and very low birth weight preterm newborn, encompassing the social, biological and multifactorial causes of prematurity. There is a qualified, diverse and substantial scientific literature on prematurity developed in various graduate programs of higher education institutions in Brazil.

  6. Firearm injuries to children in Cape Town, South Africa: impact of the 2004 Firearms Control Act. (United States)

    Campbell, N M; Colville, J G; van der Heyde, Y; van As, A B


    Before the introduction of the Firearms Control Act in 2004, the epidemiology of childhood firearm injuries from 1991 to 2001 in Cape Town, South Africa, was reported. This study analyses current data as a comparator to assess the impact of the Act. Firearm injuries seen at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, from 2001 to 2010 were respectively reviewed. Data recorded included the patients' folder numbers, gender, date of birth, age, date of presentation, date discharged and inpatient stay, firearm type, number of shots, circumstances, injury sites, injury type, treatment, resulting morbidities and survival. These data were compared with the 1991 - 2001 data. One hundred and sixty-three children presented with firearm injuries during this period. The results showed a decrease in incidence from 2001 to 2010. Older children and males had a higher incidence than younger children and females. Most injuries were to an extremity and were unintentional. Mortality had reduced significantly from the previous study (6% to 2.6%), as did the total number of inpatient days (1 063 to 617). Compared with the earlier study, this study showed a significant reduction in the number of children presenting with a firearm-related injury. Mortality and inpatient stay were also significantly reduced. The study shows the impact that the Firearms Control Act has had in terms of paediatric firearm-related injury and provides evidence that the medical profession can play an important role in reducing violence.

  7. Contraception usage and timing of pregnancy among pregnant teenagers in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Vollmer, Linda R; van der Spuy, Zephne M


    To evaluate knowledge and use of contraception among pregnant teenagers in the Cape Town metropolitan area. A cross-sectional study enrolled women aged 16 to 19 years who were pregnant and attending prenatal clinics, and prenatal and labor wards at regional hospitals and midwife-run obstetric clinics in the Cape Town area between March 1, 2011 and September 30, 2011. Data were collected using an administered questionnaire. The study enrolled 314 participants. Of the participants, 240 (76.4%) felt their pregnancies had occurred at the "wrong time" but only 38 (12.1%) were using contraception at the time of conception. The form of contraception that participants most commonly had knowledge of was injectable hormonal contraception (274 [87.3%]). Contraception use was low, with 126 (40.1%) participants having never used contraception. The forms of contraception used most commonly were the male condom (106 [33.8%]) and injectable contraception (98 [31.2%]). The majority of participants found it easy to get contraception (192 [61.1%]) and felt that information regarding contraception was readily available (233 [74.2%]). Contraception use is suboptimal but this may not simply be a reflection of ineffective family-planning services. Further research is needed to fully explain the lack of contraceptive use in this population. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  9. Microbial Diversity and Toxin Risk in Tropical Freshwater Reservoirs of Cape Verde. (United States)

    Semedo-Aguiar, Ana P; Pereira-Leal, Jose B; Leite, Ricardo B


    The Cape Verde islands are part of the African Sahelian arid belt that possesses an erratic rain pattern prompting the need for water reservoirs, which are now critical for the country’s sustainability. Worldwide, freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in frequency due to global climate change and the eutrophication of water bodies, particularly in reservoirs. To date, there have been no risk assessments of cyanobacterial toxin production in these man-made structures. We evaluated this potential risk using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and full metagenome sequencing in freshwater reservoirs of Cape Verde. Our analysis revealed the presence of several potentially toxic cyanobacterial genera in all sampled reservoirs. Faveta potentially toxic and bloom-forming Microcystis sp., dominated our samples, while a Cryptomonas green algae and Gammaproteobacteria dominated Saquinho and Poilão reservoirs. We reconstructed and assembled the Microcystis genome, extracted from the metagenome of bulk DNA from Faveta water. Phylogenetic analysis of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa CV01’s genome revealed its close relationship with other Microcystis genomes, as well as clustering with other continental African strains, suggesting geographical coherency. In addition, it revealed several clusters of known toxin-producing genes. This survey reinforces the need to better understand the country’s microbial ecology as a whole of water reservoirs on the rise.

  10. First report of Dirofilaria immitis in the Republic of Cape Verde. (United States)

    Pereira, Cristina; Almeida, Conceição; Malta, Manuel; Vilaça, Raquel; Payo-Puente, Pablo


    In Maio Island, Republic of Cape Verde, a seven-year old mongrel female dog exhibiting severe generalized adenomegaly and a poor body condition was examined during an animal welfare campaign. A blood smear was drawn from peripheral blood collection and several organisms consistent with Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae were identified. Both the antigen test conducted from plasma and the RT-PCR test performed from the blood smear sample were positive for D. immitis. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of D. immitis in Cape Verde. The fact that the dog was autochthonous and had never left the island strongly suggests there might be other animals infected with the parasite. Our finding confirms the existence of the parasite in the canine population and necessarily implies the presence of a competent vector. As a serious cardiopulmonary disease and with the risk of the pathogen spreading rapidly, broader epidemiological studies need to be conducted to determine D. immitis prevalence in the canine population of Maio Island. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Under-reporting of tuberculosis in Praia, Cape Verde, from 2006 to 2012. (United States)

    Furtado da Luz, E; Braga, J U


    According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the under-reporting rate for tuberculosis (TB) in Cape Verde between 2006 and 2012 was 49%. However, the WHO recognises the challenges associated with this estimation process and recommends implementing other methods, such as record linkage, to combat TB under-reporting. To estimate and analyse under-reporting of cases by TB surveillance health units and to evaluate TB cases retrieved from other TB diagnostic sources in Praia, Cape Verde, from 2006 to 2012. This cross-sectional study evaluated under-reporting using the following data: 1) the under-reporting index from TB reporting health units (RHUs), where the number of validated TB cases from RHUs was compared with data from the National Programme for the Fight against Tuberculosis and Leprosy (NPFTL); and 2) the under-reporting index among overall data sources, or a comparison of the number of all validated TB cases from all sources with NPFTL data. The TB under-reporting rate was 40% in Praia during the study period, and results were influenced by laboratory findings. The TB under-reporting rate was very similar to the rate estimated by the WHO. TB surveillance must be improved to reduce under-reporting.

  12. A Phytosociological Study on the Moss and Lichen Communities in Cape Hinode, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Under the project of the 15th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, the field investigation was carried out between December 30, 1973 and January 6, 1974 in Cape Hinode. This paper was undertaken to classify and describe the moss and lichen communities in Cape Hinode according to the vegetation concept and method of the Zrich-Montpellier (Z-M school of phytosociology. The following vegetation units of moss and lichen communities were classified: A. Ceratodontetum purpurei ass. nov.: 1. Subass. of typicum, 2. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina, 3. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina-Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 4. Subass. of Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 5. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula, 6. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula-Buellia frigida, 7. Subass. of Buellia frigida; B. Buellietum frigidae ass. nov.: 8. Subass. of typicum, 9. Subass. of Caloplaca elegans var. pulvinata; C. Alectorietum minusculae ass. nov.: 10. Subass. of Buellia frigida, 11. Subass. of typicum. Each vegetation unit classified was described with an association table showing floristic composition and data on growing habitat. The distribution of each subassociation was shown on the map. The relationships among 11 classified subassociations were examined using the similarity index.

  13. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from the City of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia Nickless


    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology used to spatially and temporally disaggregate carbon dioxide emission estimates for the City of Cape Town, to be used for a city-scale atmospheric inversion estimating carbon dioxide fluxes. Fossil fuel emissions were broken down into emissions from road transport, domestic emissions, industrial emissions, and airport and harbour emissions. Using spatially explicit information on vehicle counts, and an hourly scaling factor, vehicle emissions estimates were obtained for the city. Domestic emissions from fossil fuel burning were estimated from household fuel usage information and spatially disaggregated population data from the 2011 national census. Fuel usage data were used to derive industrial emissions from listed activities, which included emissions from power generation, and these were distributed spatially according to the source point locations. The emissions from the Cape Town harbour and the international airport were determined from vessel and aircraft count data, respectively. For each emission type, error estimates were determined through error propagation techniques. The total fossil fuel emission field for the city was obtained by summing the spatial layers for each emission type, accumulated for the period of interest. These results will be used in a city-scale inversion study, and this method implemented in the future for a national atmospheric inversion study.

  14. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) Filter Radiometer (FR) (United States)

    Kotecki, Carl; Chu, Martha; Wilson, Mark; Clark, Mike; Nanan, Bobby; Matson, Liz; McBirney, Dick; Smith, Jay; Earle, Paul; Choi, Mike; hide


    The GeoCAPE Filter Radiometer (FR) Study is a different instrument type than all of the previous IDL GeoCape studies. The customer primary goals are to keep mass, volume and cost to a minimum while meeting the science objectives and maximizing flight opportunities by fitting on the largest number of GEO accommodations possible. Minimize total mission costs by riding on a commercial GEO satellite. For this instrument type, the coverage rate, km 2 min, was significantly increased while reducing the nadir ground sample size to 250m. This was accomplished by analyzing a large 2d area for each integration period. The field of view will be imaged on a 4k x 4k detector array of 15 micrometer pixels. Each ground pixel is spread over 2 x 2 detector pixels so the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) is 2048 X 2048 ground pixels. The baseline is, for each field of view 50 sequential snapshot images are taken, each with a different filter, before indexing the scan mirror to the next IFOV. A delta would be to add additional filters.

  15. Health risk behaviours of stroke patients in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    D. Biggs


    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  16. A community in trouble? The impact of gentrification on the Bo-Kaap, Cape Town

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    Nico Kotze


    Full Text Available The Bo-Kaap is an older inner-city, working-class neighbourhood in Cape Town, South Africa. By the 1930s, the area had degenerated into an overcrowded and run-down neighbourhood, consisting largely of dilapidated houses, but by 1941 about 150 housing units had been expropriated by the local authority for redevelopment in a comprehensive renewal scheme for the area. However, the process was halted with the formation of the so-called “Group for the Preservation of the Malay Quarter”, which fought against the demolition of the houses. At present, the area with its colourful housing units and 11 mosques is part of Cape Town’s cultural heritage and a very important tourist attraction. As in the case of De Waterkant, a gentrified neighbourhood adjacent to it, the area has seen a large number of housing units renovated and upgraded. Property prices have increased dramatically, although they are still relatively low, while the number of properties sold is also on the rise – so much so that the community leaders and especially the Muslim residents are in a constant battle to preserve the neighbourhood’s cultural identity.

  17. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheona Shackleton


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  18. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Geldenhuys


    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes, where species richness in the more southern Rooiberg and Kamanassie Mountains was higher than in the Swartberg range. The Rooiberg, a dry mountain with small forests far away from the coastal source area, had more species than, and contained many species which are absent from, the larger, moister forests of the Kamanassie which are closest to the coastal source areas. Neither altitude nor distance from the source area, the forests south of the coastal mountains, nor long-distance dispersal, adequately explained the variation in species richness. The variations are best explained in terms of dispersal corridors along the Gouritz and Gamtoos River systems which connect the coastal forests with the inland mountains. The distribution patterns of four species groups in relation to the geomorphological history of the two river systems provide relative dates for the expansion and contraction of temperate forest, subtropical forest and subtropical transitional thicket in the southern Cape.

  19. Places for all? Cape Town’s public library services to gays and lesbians

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    Genevieve Hart


    Full Text Available The article reports on an investigation of the provision of gay and lesbian literature and of information services to gays and lesbians in Cape Town’s public libraries. Although by definition public libraries serve all members of a community, the international literature suggests that they neglect the reading and information needs and interests of gays and lesbians. The progressive South African Constitution views the rights of gays and lesbians as human rights; yet homophobia is prevalent. Using a questionnaire, the study explored attitudes and practices of 69 senior librarians, responsible for collection development, across all six of Cape Town’s library districts. The situation was found to be “spotty” with only 26 respondents believing that their library service is meeting the needs of gays and lesbians. The survey found contradictions between stated beliefs and behaviours. Thus, although most agree that LGBT rights to information and equal services are human rights, only 55% consider LGBT people in their selection procedures and very little material is acquired. Information services are thin with, for example, only 10% of the libraries in the survey providing LGBT related information in their community information files.

  20. Behavioural correlates of urbanisation in the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris (United States)

    Chapman, Tarryn; Rymer, Tasmin; Pillay, Neville


    Urbanisation critically threatens biodiversity because of habitat destruction and novel selection pressures. Some animals can respond to these challenges by modifying their behaviour, particularly anti-predator behaviour, allowing them to persist in heavily transformed urban areas. We investigated whether the anti-predator behaviour of the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris differed in three localities that differed in their level of urbanisation. According to the habituation hypothesis, we predicted that ground squirrels in urban areas would: (a) be less vigilant and forage more; (b) trade-off flight/vigilance in favour of foraging; and (c) have shorter flight initiation distances (FID) when approached by a human observer. Observations were made in winter and summer at each locality. As expected, ground squirrels in urbanised areas were less vigilant and had shorter FIDs but did not trade-off between foraging and vigilance. In contrast, a population in a non-urbanised locality showed greater levels of vigilance, FID and traded-off vigilance and foraging. A population in a peri-urban locality showed mixed responses. Our results indicate that Cape ground squirrels reduce their anti-predator behaviour in urban areas and demonstrate a flexible behavioural response to urbanisation.

  1. Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy (United States)

    Teal, T. H.; Chapman, M.; Guillemette, T.; Margulis, L.


    Spirochetes from microbial mats and anaerobic mud samples collected in salt marshes were studied by light microscopy, whole mount and thin section transmission electron microscopy. Enriched in cellobiose-rifampin medium, selective for Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, seven distinguishable spirochete morphotypes were observed. Their diameters ranged from 0.17 micron to > 0.45 micron. Six of these morphotypes came from southwest Cape Cod, Massachusetts: five from Microcoleus-dominated mat samples collected at Sippewissett salt marsh and one from anoxic mud collected at School Street salt marsh (on the east side of Eel Pond). The seventh morphotype was enriched from anoxic mud sampled from the north central Cape Cod, at the Sandy Neck salt marsh. Five of these morphotypes are similar or identical to previously described spirochetes (Leptospira, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi and Treponema), whereas the other two have unique features that suggest they have not been previously described. One of the morphotypes resembles Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi (the largest free-living spirochete described), in its large variable diameter (0.4-3.0 microns), cytoplasmic granules, and spherical (round) bodies with composite structure. This resemblance permits its tentative identification as a Sippewissett strain of Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Microbial mats samples collected in sterile Petri dishes and stored dry for more than four years yielded many organisms upon rewetting, including small unidentified spirochetes in at least 4 out of 100 enrichments.

  2. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

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    J.D. Skinner


    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  3. Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS Beverage from Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

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    R. Hemalatha


    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a process for the development of ready to serve (RTS beverages from enzyme liquefied (pectinase Cape gooseberry juice with additives and preservatives. Storage stability of the RTS beverage at both refrigerated temperature (LT: 4 ± 1 °C and room temperature (RT: 27 ± 2 °C were evaluated for 90 days for microbial, sensorial and physicochemical quality parameters. The stability of RTS beverage stored at LT (4 ± 1 °C was excellent with a retention of the primary quality attributes ascorbic acid (15.44 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content (15.50 mg GAE/100 mL, total carotene (1.07 mg/100 mL, β-carotene (0.78 mg/100 mL, high viscosity (30.29 cp, and with high sensory scores of the product (8.3 up to 90 days as compared to the overall acceptability (6.5 of RT stored RTS for 60 days. Additionally, both the LT and RT stored RTS beverages had microbial counts within the permissible limits. Therefore, both beverages were safe to consume at the end of storage duration. In conclusion, the RTS beverage developed from Cape gooseberry could be served as functional health drink alternative to synthetic soft drinks due to its unique features (high nutritive values, high organoleptic values and high stability of the product.

  4. Characterization of the mechanical properties of the cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.

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    Willian Javier Llanos


    Full Text Available Colombia is the world’s leading producer of the cape gooseberry and it is a crop of great importance due to its high demand in the international market. The fruit, the part that is sold, is an ovoid-shaped, juicy berry, and its harvest starts when the fruit is orange-colored and the cap surrounding the fruit is yellowcolored. This labor is done manually. During this phase of collection, subsequent handling and transport to the places of packaging and marketing, the fruit is subjected to multiple loads which may deteriorate it in different ways, resulting in significant product losses. Rheological tests of unidirectional compression, punctures, and cuts at the peduncle were performed in order to characterize the mechanical response of the fruit to the type of forces exerted at harvest and post-harvest handling. It was found that the fruit’s firmness in unidirectional compression in the axial direction, with a ripeness grade of four, was 38.6 N, while the force required to separate the fruit from the peduncle was 15.1 N. The mechanical behavior of the cape gooseberry corresponds to a viscoelastic, anisotropic, highly variable material

  5. Groundwater resources of Ribeira Paúl basin, island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde, West Africa (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  6. Groundwater resources of Ribeira Fajã basin, island of São Nicolau, Cape Verde, West Africa (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  7. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    Farai Nyabadza


    Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  8. EMI – young HIMU rock association at the Cape Verde Islands revisited: on the role of oceanic carbonatites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Kokfelt, Thomas Find; Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    Isotopic compositions of the Cape Verde (Central) hotspot magmas indicate a predominant influence from young HIMU and EM-1 type sources. Detailed modelling based on high precision Sr, Nd and Pb (DS) isotope data suggests that seven local mantle end-members explain the isotopic variation within five...... HIMU. Carbonatites are widespread throughout Cape Verde Islands but volumetrically minor and are low in Ti, K, and Rb. In several silicate rocks from all three islands low Ti/Eu is evidence for a carbonatite component and is accompanied by LREE enrichment, and relatively low K and Rb. Other rocks have...

  9. A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.


    High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands...... indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like...

  10. Characterising fifteen years of continuous atmospheric radon activity observations at Cape Point (South Africa) (United States)

    Botha, R.; Labuschagne, C.; Williams, A. G.; Bosman, G.; Brunke, E.-G.; Rossouw, A.; Lindsay, R.


    This paper describes and discusses fifteen years (1999-2013) of continuous hourly atmospheric radon (222Rn) monitoring at the coastal low-altitude Southern Hemisphere Cape Point Station in South Africa. A strong seasonal cycle is evident in the observed radon concentrations, with maxima during the winter months, when air masses arriving at the Cape Point station from over the African continental surface are more frequently observed, and minima during the summer months, when an oceanic fetch is predominant. An atmospheric mean radon activity concentration of 676 ± 2 mBq/m3 is found over the 15-year record, having a strongly skewed distribution that exhibits a large number of events falling into a compact range of low values (corresponding to oceanic air masses), and a smaller number of events with high radon values spread over a wide range (corresponding to continental air masses). The mean radon concentration from continental air masses (1 004 ± 6 mBq/m3) is about two times higher compared to oceanic air masses (479 ± 3 mBq/m3). The number of atmospheric radon events observed is strongly dependent on the wind direction. A power spectral Fast Fourier Transform analysis of the 15-year radon time series reveals prominent peaks at semi-diurnal, diurnal and annual timescales. Two inter-annual radon periodicities have been established, the diurnal 0.98 ± 0.04 day-1 and half-diurnal 2.07 ± 0.15 day-1. The annual peak reflects major seasonal changes in the patterns of offshore versus onshore flow associated with regional/hemispheric circulation patterns, whereas the diurnal and semi-diurnal peaks together reflect the influence of local nocturnal radon build-up over land, and the interplay between mesoscale sea/land breezes. The winter-time diurnal radon concentration had a significant decrease of about 200 mBq/m3 (17%) while the summer-time diurnal radon concentration revealed nearly no changes. A slow decline in the higher radon percentiles (75th and 95th) for the

  11. Multi-disciplinary Monitoring of the 2014 Eruption of Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Faria, B. V. E.


    The Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago (offshore Western Africa), is a complete stratovolcano system. It is the most recent expression of the Cape Verde hotspot, that has formed the archipelago. The summit reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises 1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area. The last eruption of Fogo started on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC), after 19 years of inactivity. C4G, a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, collaborated immediately with INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institut with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network in operation on Fogo island. The INMG permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, with real-time data transmitted. On the basis of increased pre-event activity (which started in October 2014), INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, about 24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Although the eruption caused no casualties or personal injuries due to the warnings issued, the lava expelled by the eruption (which last until the end of January) destroyed the two main villages in the caldera (~1000 inhabitants) and covered vast areas of agricultural land, causing very large economic losses and an uncertain future of the local populations. The C4G team installed a network of seven GNSS receivers and nine seismometers, distributed by the entire island. The data collection started on 28th November 2014, and continued until the end of January 2015. The mission also included a new detailed gravimetric survey of the island, the acquisition of geological samples, and the analysis of the air quality during the eruption. We present here a detailed description of the monitoring efforts carried out during the eruption as well as initial results of the analysis of the

  12. Chemistry of volcanic soils used for agriculture in Brava Island (Cape Verde) (United States)

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Marques, Rosa; Waerenborgh, João Carlos; José Vieira, Bruno; Dias, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando


    Brava is a small volcanic island located on the south-western part of the Cape Verde archipelago. It is characterized by an irregular plateau between 300 and 976 m above sea level, which is bounded by steep coastal cliffs and cut by fluvial incision in a generally radial drainage pattern. The major volcano-stratigraphic units of the island are: Lower Unit, Middle Unit, Upper Unit, and Sediments. Although Brava is one of the islands with more frequent rainy periods in Cape Verde, the climate is essentially semi-arid, which associated with the rough topography leads to incipient soils. Detailed Fe speciation and chemical composition studies of Cape Verde soils have shown that oxidation is a major weathering mechanism, and high contents of trace elements may occur originated from imbalance of elements in the volcanic parent materials, which can be a threat to the environmental health. The soils mostly used for agriculture in Brava Island are those developed on phonolitic pyroclasts on the plateau and also on sediments. In this work the whole sample (< 2 mm) and the clay-sized fraction (< 2 µm) of these soils were analysed by Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis, aiming to characterize the iron speciation and to determine the concentration and distribution of 30 chemical elements in Brava soils. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that Fe is more oxidyzed in topsoils developed on sediments (84-87%) than in soils developed on pyroclasts (71-79%). In the clay sized-fraction of all the studied soils only Fe(III) was detected. Iron oxides clearly distinguish the soils derived from the two types of parent materials, hematite being the only Fe oxide present in soils developed on sediments, while maghemite is more abundant in soils developed on pyroclasts. Iron and chromium are depleted in this fine fraction suggesting their occurrence as iron oxides and ferromagnesian minerals present in coarser particles. Among the chemical elements studied, antimony was found

  13. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier


    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  14. Inequitable access to substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Johann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high levels of substance use disorders in Cape Town, substance abuse treatment utilization is low among people from disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. To improve substance abuse treatment utilization, it is important to identify any potential barriers to treatment initiation so that interventions to reduce these barriers can be implemented. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization within developing countries. Using the Behavioural Model of Health Services Utilization as an analytic framework, this study aimed to redress this gap by examining whether access to substance abuse treatment is equitable and the profile of variables associated with treatment utilization for people from poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods This study used a case-control design to compare 434 individuals with substance use disorders from disadvantaged communities who had accessed treatment with 555 controls who had not accessed treatment on a range of predisposing, treatment need and enabling/restricting variables thought to be associated with treatment utilization. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to assess the unique contribution that the need for treatment, predisposing and enabling/restricting variable blocks made on substance abuse treatment utilization. Results Findings revealed that non-need enabling/restricting variables accounted for almost equal proportions of the variance in service utilization as the need for treatment variables. These enabling/restricting variables also attenuated the influence of the treatment need and predisposing variables domains on chances of treatment utilization. Several enabling/restricting variables emerged as powerful partial predictors of utilization including competing financial priorities, geographic access barriers and awareness of treatment services. Perceived severity of

  15. The southern cape conductive belt (South Africa): Its composition, origin and tectonic significance (United States)

    De Beer, J. H.; Van Zijl, J. S. V.; Gough, D. I.


    Magnetometer array studies have led to the discovery and mapping of the Southern Cape Conductive Belt (SCCB) crossing the southern tip of Africa from west to southeast coasts. The SCCB lies just south of the Namaqua-Natal Belt of cratonic rocks remobilized about 1000 m.y. B.P. It is shown that it coincides with a zone of weakness which has been exploited by three major geosynclinal accumulations over some 600 m.y. Relationships between the SCCB and the basement geochronology, geology and tectonics are considered in detail. These relationships support the view that the conductive belt was formed by an accumulation of marine sediments and oceanic lithosphere at the top of a Proterozoic subduction which stopped about 1000 to 800 m.y. B.P. Associated with this subduction we propose a Proterozoic range of Andean mountains, whose roots are now exposed in the Namaqua-Natal Belt. Later subduction further south, near the present south coast, is proposed to account for the intrusion, between the south coast and the SCCB, of the Cape Granites in the time interval 600-500 m.y. B.P. There is some evidence for a third, yet more distant, subduction episode off Permian Gondwanaland. After outlining this tectonic history, the paper turns to a closer examination of the hypothesis that the Southern Cape Conductive Belt consists of partly serpentinized basalt accumulated at the top of a Proterozoic subduction. A large static magnetic anomaly, which correlates with the SCCB over most of its length, is well fitted by a model which strongly supports this hypothesis. Bouguer gravity anomalies along western and central profiles likewise support the hypothesis. A discussion follows of the process of formation of the proposed block of serpentinized marine rocks, beginning with serpentinization of the crust near oceanic ridges by reaction of warm, porous, newly-extruded basalt with seawater convecting through it. The serpentinized basalt is stable at crustal temperatures and pressures and so

  16. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.


    high-fidelity kinetics simulation, while maintaining the spatial information derived from the geometrically faithful CFD model. The reduced-order models are generated in such a way that they can be easily imported into a process flowsheet simulator, using the CAPE-OPEN architecture for unit operations. The ENERGICO/CHEMKIN-PRO software produces an ERN-definition file that is read by a dynamically linked library (DLL) that can be easily linked to any CAPE-OPEN compliant software. The plug-in unitoperation module has been successfully demonstrated for complex ERNs of coal gasifiers, using both Aspen Plus and COFE process flowsheet simulators through this published CAPE-OPEN interface.

  17. 33 CFR 207.610 - St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor and U.S. breakwater. 207.610 Section 207... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.610 St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  18. Psicologia positiva e bem-estar docente: Estado de Conhecimento (CAPES, 2011-2012 = Positive psychology teacher and welfare State of Knowledge ( CAPES, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm, Jordana Wruck


    Full Text Available São variadas as situações que afetam docentes em aspectos pessoais e profissionais, causando o denominado mal-estar docente, levando até a um estado de estresse ou mesmo esgotamento, destacando-se, entre eles: indisciplina discente, falta de qualificação, remuneração, gestão de tempo, tempo de preparo de atividades, entre outros. Como contraponto pode-se trabalhar em direção ao bem-estar docente, levando-se em conta propostas da Psicologia da Saúde e da Psicologia Positiva, antecipando-se ao mal-estar com medidas preventivas. O estudo levou em conta material bibliográfico (Teses e Dissertações disponibilizado em forma digital no Banco de Teses da CAPES, com o que pode-se construir um referencial que aborda aspectos referentes à Psicologia Positiva e ao bem-estar docente, bem como a relação entre ambos. Vale destacar que se trata de um estado de conhecimento sobre a temática, com base nos dois anos disponibilizados no referido banco. Após essa busca, foi realizada leitura flutuante dos textos selecionados. Como comentários finais destacam-se bons resultados com a aplicação mormente quando se atua de modo preventivo, sendo que Psicologia da Saúde e Psicologia Positiva conectam-se bem à Educação, tanto para docentes como para discentes

  19. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

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    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia


    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD and Vanuatu Tall (VTT, have shown high resistance to the disease, and their hybrid (SGD × VTT is under observation to determine its performance. A programme to rehabilitate the CSPWD-devastated areas was started in 1999. Emerging results indicate that the MYD × VTT hybrid being used for the programme, succumbs to the disease under intense disease pressure. A redirection of the rehabilitation programme and the screening of more varieties are recommended.

  20. The Nainital Cape Survey Project : A Search for Pulsation in Chemically Peculiar Stars (United States)

    Chakradhari, Nand Kumar; Joshi, Santosh


    The Nainital-Cape Survey is a dedicated search programme initiated in 1999 in the coordination of astronomers from SAAO South Africa, ARIES Nainital and ISRO Bangalore. Over the last 17 years a total of 345 chemically peculiar stars were monitored for photometric variability, making it one of the longest ground-based survey to search for pulsation in chemically peculiar stars in terms of both time span and sample size. Under this survey, we discovered rapid pulsation in the Ap star HD12098 while δ Scuti-type pulsations were detected in seven Am stars. Those stars in which pulsations were not detected have also been tabulated along with their detailed astrophysical parameters for further investigation.

  1. Typhoid fever: A report on a point-source outbreak of 69 cases in Cape Town. (United States)

    Popkiss, M E


    In 1978, after a party in a Cape Town suburb attended by several hundred people, 69 persons were treated for typhoid fever. The precise source of the infection could not be traced, although it is reasonable to suppose that food eaten at the party had been contaminated by the main caterer. All 57 cultures of Salmonella typhi phage-typed were of phage type 46, including that obtained from the stool of the main caterer, who was asymptomatic. An epidemiological profile of the cases and an account of the management of the outbreak is given. There were no deaths and no patient became a carrier. Although the outbreak was contained, certain problems relating thereto are aired, including in particular the potential hazard of food-borne disease wherever housing and environmental standards are low.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of small size fluorescent LEEH caped blue emission ZnTe quantum dots

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    Patnaik Sumanta Kumar


    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the synthesis of LEEH caped very small size (2 nm ZnTe quantum dots at low temperature (less than 100 °C using a simple chemical route. The effects of aging and stirring time on the absorption spectra of the quantum dots were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystal (NC was characterized by PL, TEM, XRD and the formation of very small size quantum dots having FCC structure was confirmed. Further, blue emission from the prepared sample was observed during exposure to monochromatic UV radiation. ZnTe NCs obtained in this study were found to be more stable compared to those presented in literature reports. ZnTe NCs may be considered as a new material in place of CdTe for optoelectronics devices.

  3. Evaluation of Two Fitting Methods Applied for Thin-Layer Drying of Cape Gooseberry Fruits

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    Erkan Karacabey

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying data of cape gooseberry was used to compare two fitting methods: namely 2-step and 1-step methods. Literature data was also used to confirm the results. To demonstrate the applicability of these methods, two primary models (Page, Two-term-exponential were selected. Linear equation was used as secondary model. As well-known from the previous modelling studies on drying, 2-step method required at least two regressions: One is primary model and one is secondary (if you have only one environmental condition such as temperature. On the other hand, one regression was enough for 1-step method. Although previous studies on kinetic modelling of drying of foods were based on 2-step method, this study indicated that 1-step method may also be a good alternative with some advantages such as drawing an informative figure and reducing time of calculations.

  4. Statistical Assessment of Cetacean Stranding Events in Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area. (United States)

    Zellar, R.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Moore, K.; Reeb, D.; Karakoylu, E.; Uritskaya, O.


    Cetacean (whales, dolphins and porpoises) mass strandings are a longstanding mystery in the field of marine biology that continue to be recorded in coastal environments around the world. For each of these events, anywhere from a few to several hundred otherwise healthy animals strand in onshore environments, often for no apparent reason. While the causes of these events remain unclear, anthropogenic and naturogenic mechanisms have been suggested. We present results of an inter-disciplinary study that draws expertise from space weather, marine mammal biology and ecology, and marine mammal stranding response. This study assessed 16 years of cetacean stranding events in the Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area concurrently with a large dataset of meteorological, geophysical, biological, oceanographic and space weather data to produce inferences about possible causes for these unexplained events.

  5. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Coovadia, K M; Chothia, M-Y; Baker, S G; Peter, J G; Potter, P C


    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A retrospective analysis was conducted on a series of 60 cases of HAE seen between 2010 and 2015 at the Allergy Diagnostic and Clinical Research Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, and the Allergy Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The findings in 43 cases of type 1 HAE are described. Parameters assessed included age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of illness, family history, identifiable triggers, average duration of attack, number of attacks per year and type of attack. A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Of these, 65.1% (28/43) were female. The median age at diagnosis was 20 years (interquartile range (IQR) 10 - 27) and the median duration of illness 10.5 years (IQR 6 - 22). Of the patients, 62.8% (27/43), 32.6% (14/43) and 4.7% (2/43) were of mixed ancestry, white and black African, respectively; 51.2% (22/43) were index cases, with the remaining 48.8% (21/43) diagnoses via family member screening, 12 families making up the majority of the cohort. The mean (standard deviation) duration of an acute attack was 49 (25.8) hours, and 64.3% (27/42), 71.4% (30/42), 14.3% (6/42) and 88.1% (37/42) of patients experienced facial or upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. Danazol for long-term prophylaxis was used in 21 patients, while C1-inhibitor concentrate (Berinert) was accessed for short-term prophylaxis in only four patients. Acute life-threating attacks were treated with fresh frozen plasma in 11

  6. The development of hospitalbased palliative care services in public hospitals in the Western Cape South Africa

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    L Gwyther


    Full Text Available With the recent approval of a South African (SA National Policy Framework and Strategy for Palliative Care by the National Health Council, it is pertinent to reflect on initiatives to develop palliative care services in public hospitals. This article reviews the development of hospital-based palliative care services in the Western Cape, SA. Palliative care services in SA started in the non-governmental sector in the 1980s. The first SA hospital-based palliative care team was established in Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital in 2001. The awareness of the benefit of palliative care in the hospital setting led to the development of isolated pockets of excellence providing palliative care in the public health sector in SA. This article describes models for palliative care at tertiary, provincial and district hospital level, which could inform development of hospital-based palliative care as the national policy for palliative care is implemented in SA.

  7. Multi-year Current Observations on the Shelf Slope off Cape Hatteras, NC (United States)

    Muglia, M.


    As part of an observing and modeling effort by the North Carolina Renewable Ocean Energy Program to determine if the Gulf Stream is a viable marine hydrokinetic energy resource for the state, upper continental slope current measurements were made over a period of nearly four years off of Cape Hatteras, NC. Velocity profiles were measured by a near-bottom, upward-looking, 150-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler deployed at a depth of 230-260 m. The mooring was sited at the location where water from the Gulf Stream, Middle Atlantic Bight, South Atlantic Bight, and Slope Sea all converge. Measured tidal amplitudes here are 2 m. These observations are used to consider the temporal variability and vertical structure of the currents at this location at tidal to interannual periods at this complex location. Concurrent near-bottom water mass properties are considered.

  8. Emerging Societal Involvement in City Management : the case of Cape Town

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    Neil Dewar


    Full Text Available Since the advent of full participatory democracy in South Africa in April 1994, a fundamental revision of the norms, values and practices of urban management has occurred. A central feature of this is expressed commitment to greater transparency and public participation in decision-making and project execution. Manegerial practice has moved from being essentially technocratic and control-oriented to more pluralistic and development-oriented. The previously disenfranchised and largely impoverished sectors of the community have moved from exclusion and confrontation toward greater involvement and empowerment. This has not been without problems however. The current status of community participation in Cape Town is reviewed and explored against a theoretical model. The conclusion drawn is that, political impediments notwithstanding, a considerable energy and momentum has been generated at local level in civil society towards the goal of improvement in social and living environments in the city.

  9. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Giorgio, Maggie; Zembe, Yanga; Cheyip, Mireille; Mathews, Catherine


    HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among foreign migrants in South Africa has not been explored. This paper describes the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, reports HIV prevalence, and describes key characteristics among them. We conducted a biological and behavioural surveillance survey using RDS. After written informed consent, participants completed an audio computer assisted self-interview and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. HIV prevalence was estimated to be 7 % (CI 4.9-9.5) among 935 women. HIV sero-positivity was associated with older age (p = 0.001), country of origin (p used a condom at last sex with a main partner (p = 0.007). Few women reported early sexual debut, or multiple sexual partners. RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant women.

  10. Application of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in Investigating Saltwater Intrusion of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Represas, Patrícia; Mota Gomes, A.; Lobo de Pina, A. F.; Almeida, Eugénio P.


    Santiago Island, the biggest and most populated island of the Cape Verde Republic, is characterised by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. However, as a consequence of the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense overexploitation of the groundwater resources, the freshwater management is also in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas. The time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method is used to locate the extent of saltwater intrusion in four important agricultural regions in Santiago Island; São Domingos, Santa Cruz, São Miguel, and Tarrafal. The application of this method in Santiago Island proves it to be a successful tool in imaging the fresh/saltwater interface location. Depths to the saline zones and extensions of saline water are mapped along eight TDEM profiles.

  11. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob


    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...... on soil and litter carbon stocks. The second site showed a clear decline in combined soil and litter carbon stocks following wattle encroachment. The lowest stock was in the oldest wattle stand, meaning that carbon stocks are still declining after 50 years of encroachment. The results from the two sites...

  12. Introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: Probing student perspectives

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    Vinesh Rajpaul


    Full Text Available We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ, which we administered as pre- and posttests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students’ worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in the future be used to identify students requiring special teaching intervention.

  13. Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease of coconut in Ghana: surveillance and management of disease spread

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    Nkansah-Poku Joe


    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, a lethal-yellowing type disease of coconut has been in Ghana since 1932. Aerial and/or ground surveys were undertaken to assess the current status of the disease spread. The survey showed that the spread of the disease for the past 5 years has mainly been the expansion of existing foci. However, new outbreaks were identified at Glidzi in the Volta, Bawjiase and Efutu Breman in Central regions. After the resurgence in the Volta region in 1995, the Woe-Tegbi-Dzelukope corridor has remained endemic, but less aggressive. Pockets of healthy groves remain along all the coastline and inland of known disease zones. Eradication of diseased palms at Ampain focus lying just about 60 km to the Ivorian border, and disease situations on new replanting with MYD × VTT hybrid are discussed.

  14. Geo-ecological spatial pattern analysis of the island of Fogo (Cape Verde) (United States)

    Olehowski, C.; Naumann, S.; Fischer, D.; Siegmund, A.


    With its small-scale climatic, floristic and geo-ecological differentiation, the island of Fogo is an optimal research area for understanding semi-arid island ecosystems in the marginal tropics. Because of the high variability in precipitation, the archipelago of Cape Verde has a potentially high ecological vulnerability, which is caused mainly by population growth, intensification of agricultural land use and increasing tourism. In this context, a geo-ecological spatial pattern analysis has been conducted for Fogo, including several types of geo-ecological layers like vegetation, elevation, aspect, soil and geology. The different kinds of spatial patterns that are detected can be used as a first tool to display distinctive levels of ecological vulnerability. These levels could constitute a base for sustainable land use planning and the redevelopment of agricultural strategies.

  15. Fungal radiation in the Cape Floristic Region: an analysis based on Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma. (United States)

    Roets, F; Wingfield, M J; Crous, P W; Dreyer, L L


    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) displays high levels of plant diversity and endemism, and has received focused botanical systematic attention. In contrast, fungal diversity patterns and co-evolutionary processes in this region have barely been investigated. Here we reconstruct molecular phylogenies using the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions of the ophiostomatoid fungi Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma associated with southern African Protea species. Results indicate that they evolved in close association with Protea. In contrast to Protea, Ophiostoma species migrated to the CFR from tropical and subtropical Africa, where they underwent subsequent radiation. In both Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma vector arthropods probably facilitated long-distance migration and shorter-distance dispersal. Although ecological parameters shaped most associations between ophiostomatoid fungi and Protea, there is congruence between fungal-host-associations and the systematic classification of Protea. These results confirm that the entire biotic environment must be considered in order to understand diversity and evolution in the CFR as a whole.

  16. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS) (United States)

    Kotecki, Carl; Chu, Martha; Mannino, Antonio; Marx, Catherine Trout; Bowers, Gregory A.; Bolognese, Jeffrey A.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; McBirney, Thomas R.; Earle, Cleland P.; Choi, Michael K.; hide


    The GeoCAPE Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS) Study was a revisit of the COEDI Study from 2012. The customer primary goals were to keep mass, volume and cost to a minimum while meeting the science objectives and maximizing flight opportunities by fitting on the largest number of GEO accommodations possible. Riding on a commercial GEO satellite minimizes total mission costs. For this study, it is desired to increase the coverage rate,km2min, while maintaining ground sample size, 375m, and spectral resolution, 0.4-0.5nm native resolution. To be able to do this, the IFOV was significantly increased, hence the wide angle moniker. The field of view for COEDI was +0.6 degrees or (2048) 375m ground pixels. The WAS Threshold (the IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Claude Manaliyo


    Full Text Available Community participation in crime prevention has been embraced byanti-crime organizations as apanaceaforcrime problems. Thisapproach gained its preeminent status after governments realisedthatlaw enforcement alone cannot reducecrimewithout involvingcommunities.This paper provides insight into challenges facingcommunityparticipationinone of the Cape Town townships. Thestudy employed qualitative method and participants such as ordinarycitizens and representatives of anti-crime organizati ons operating inKhayelitshawere purposively selected. Data was collected using in-depthface-to-faceinterviews. Key findings show that Khayelitsharesidentspatrolstreets during the night undera neighborhood watchproject; and by reporting committed crimes to police or providingpolice with informationon potential crimes, this same communitypatrol helps decrease potential criminal activities.Communityparticipation in Khayelitsha however, faces some impediments suchaspoverty among the community residents, and ineffective policeresponse to crimes.

  18. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman


    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  19. Protists from a sewage‐contaminated aquifer on cape cod, Massachusetts (United States)

    Novarino, Gianfranco; Warren, Alan; Kinner, Nancy E.; Harvey, Ronald W.


    Several species of flagellates (genera Bodo, Cercomonas, Cryptaulax, Cyathomonas, Goniomonas, Spumella) have been identified in cultures from a plume of organic contamination (treated sewage effluent) within an aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Amoebae and numerous unidentifiable 2‐ to 3‐μm flagellates have also been observed. As a rule, flagellates were associated with solid surfaces, or were capable of temporary surface attachment, corroborating earlier observations from in situ and column transport experiments suggesting that protists in the Massachusetts aquifer have a high propensity for association with sediment grain surfaces. Based on the fact that cultures from the uncontaminated part of the aquifer yielded only a few species of protists, it is hypothesized that the greater abundance and variety of food sources in the contaminant plume is capable of supporting a greater number of protistan species.

  20. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.T. Paley


    Full Text Available Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact that elephants represent 78 of the herbivore biomass in the park, it appears likely that elephant feeding restricts the availability of forage for other browsers. Due to the limited time frame of this study, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive record of the elephant diet for all seasons of the year.