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Sample records for caper capparis spinosa

  1. Assessment of the antioxidant properties of the caper fruit (Capparis spinosa L. from Bahrain

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    Abdul Ameer A. Allaith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa, a wild plant of the family Capparidaceae, is said to be native to the Mediterranean basin and found in many parts. This shrub can grow very well on dry heat and under intense sunlight and can tolerate low temperature. Caper berries from different locations of contrasting habitats were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities using several methods, including reduction of ferrictripiridyltriazine [Fe(III-TPTZ] (FRAP assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH assay, and [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging (ABTS assay. Total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids were also examined. The mean mmol Trolox equivalent/kg fresh weight for FRAP was 9.059 ± 1.450, DPPH 6.131 ± 0.607, and ABTS 8.127 ± 2,017. Mean % DPPH scavenging activity was 37.67% ± 7.19 and mean % ABTS scavenging activity was 31.29% ± 7.76. Partitioning studies revealed a higher antioxidant–antiradical capacity in the seed as compared to the flesh, and these capacities were associated more with hydrophobic and not lipophilic constituents. Antioxidant capacities strongly correlated with the total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids. Findings of this study contribute to the recent increase in scientific interest of a wild fruit which should be re-considered for its antioxidant constituencies and characteristics.

  2. Improvement of the lactic acid fermentation of capers through an experimental factorial design (Capparis spinosa L

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    Errachidi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the caper fermentation process through an experiment factorial plan allows us to determine a function ƒ such that (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn existing between magnitude Y which is the decrease of pH (called response, and variables Xi , which are brine, lactic acid, citric acid and lactic ferment (called factors. A complete factorial plan 24 was made in order to determine the factors and the interactions among the factors which have a statistically significant influence on the studied response. Brine, lactic acid and citric acid have a significant effect on the fall of pH; by contrast, lactic ferment does not have a significant effect. On the other hand, the interactions between brine and lactic acid, between brine and lactic ferment , between lactic acid with citric acid and between lactic acid with lactic ferment have significant effects on the fall of pH (p El estudio del proceso de fermentación mediante un diseño factorial nos permitió determinar una función ƒ (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn que existe entre la magnitud Y que es la disminución del pH (llamada respuesta, y las variables X, que son la salmuera, ácido láctico, ácido cítrico y los fermentos lácticos (llamados factores. Un completo plan factorial 24 fue hecho con objeto de determinar los factores y las interacciones entre los factores que tienen una influencia estadísticamente significativa en la respuesta estudiada. La salmuera, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico tienen un efecto significativo en la caída del pH; por el contrario, los fermentos lácticos no tienen efecto significativo. Por otra parte, las interacciones entre salmuera y ácido láctico, salmuera y fermentos lácticos, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico, y ácido láctico y fermentos lácticos tuvieron un efecto significativo en la caída del pH (p < 0.0001. La fermentación fue hecha en el laboratorio de investigación de la Sociedad Marocapres-Fez líder Internacional en la transformación de

  3. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

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    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product.

  4. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

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    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  5. Cistein proteaza (kaparin) iz kapara (Capparis spinosa)

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    Demir, Yasar; Güngör, Azize Alayli; Duran, Elif Duygu; Demir, Nazan

    2008-01-01

    Proteaze su enzimi koji imaju vrlo važnu funkciju u organizmu i razne mogućnosti primjene in vitro. Posljednjih se godina sve više primjenjuju u medicini, farmaciji (u liječenju probavnih tegoba, raznih upala i dr.) i industriji (u proizvodnji sira, mekšanju mesa i štavljenju kože). U ovom je radu opisan postupak pročišćavanja i karakterizacije proteaze iz kapara (Caparis spinosa). Kapare se od davnine koriste kao hrana i u medicinske svrhe, a obilato rastu u nekim dijelovima Turske. Pročišća...

  6. Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae detected by RAPDs

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    Houshang Nosrati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population size of plants affects on population genetic variation. Materials and Methods: We studied the impact of population size on genetic variation in populations of Capparis spinosa (caper, Capparaceae using RAPDs in East Azerbaijan (Iran. Within-population genetic diversity was estimated based on Nei`s and Shanonn`s diversity using Popgen, and genetic similarity among the populations was studied from a UPGMA dendrogram based the matrix of Nei’s distances obtained through SHAN. Difference in the level genetic variation between small-sized and large-sized populations was tested using Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation between geographical and genetic distances among populations was examined by Pearson test (SPSS, 11.3. Total genetic variation was partitioned into within and among populations based on AMOVA using Arlequin. Results: The polymorphism levels of RAPDs bands among the populations ranged from 48.8% to 81.4%, and within-population Nei’s diversity varied from 0.1667 to 0.2630. Genetic variation in small-sized populations (0.1667 to 0.1809 was significantly lower than the variations in large-sized populations (0.2158 -0.2630 (N= 7, P0.674, Pearson correlation test. Conclusions: Population size has a dramatic impact on its genetic diversity. The results revealed that fragmentation of caper population in the study region has most likely occurred recently. The low genetic diversity revealed within caper populations indicates high risk of extinction and suggests that urgent conservation action is needed to recover diversity in these populations.

  7. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

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    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  8. An insight on the alkaloid content of Capparis spinosa L. root by HPLC-DAD-MS, MS/MS and (1)H qNMR.

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    Khatib, Mohamad; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Innocenti, Marzia; Melani, Fabrizio; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2016-05-10

    The Capparis spinosa L. has a wide distribution in the Old World from South Europe, North and East Africa, Madagascar, Southwest and Central Asia to Australia and Oceania. The consolidated traditional use of C. spinosa root as remedy against different pains in human is well known since the antiquity. Various secondary metabolites have been found in caper plant, nevertheless, few studies have been focused to the analysis of root constituents. To date, several free and glycosilated spermidine alkaloids and a more polar alkaloid, the stachydrine, have been isolated from the root of C. spinosa. Aim of this work was to improve the knowledge on the alkaloid content of the root of a Syrian sample of C. spinosa by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and to propose methods to quantify these molecules in different raw extracts. A decoction, an hydroalcoholic extraction and a fractionation process to selectively recover the spermidine alkaloids were applied. To our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-DAD-MS(n) profile that pointed out the co-presence of stachydrine, several isobaric forms of capparispine and/or capparisine in free and glycosylated forms and some isobars of isocodonocarpine or codonocarpine as monoglycosides in extracts of C. spinosa root. The determination by HPLC/DAD for the spermidine alkaloids expressed as p-OH-coumaric acid gave values up to 3.5mg/g dried root and the stachydrine evaluated by (1)H NMR was close to 12.5mg/g dried root. Overall, the total alkaloids were almost doubled in hydroalcoholic extract with respect to the decoction, and the stachydrine in the cortex was almost double than in the whole root.

  9. Capparis spinosa reduces Doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity in cardiomyoblast cells

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    Seyed Hadi Mousavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective anticancer drug but its clinical application is limited because it induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and leads to permanent degenerative cardiomyopathy and heart failure possibly due to oxidative stress. Recent studies showed that Capparis spinosa (C. spinoseexhibits potent antioxidant activity. So, in this study, we explored the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. spinosa against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak evaluation of DNA fragmentation following PI staining. Cells were cultured with 5 μM DOX for 24 hr to induce cell damage. H9c2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations (6-200 μg/ml of C. spinosa extract for 4 hr before DOX treatment in all trials. Results:  Pretreatment with 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml of C. spinosa could increase the viability of H9C2 cells to 72.63 ± 2.8% (p< 0.05, 77.37 ± 1.8% (p< 0.05, 83.56 ± 2.6% (p< 0.001 and 90.9 ± 0.5% (p< 0.001 of control, respectively. Also, C. spinosa decreased apoptotic induction significantly, at the doses of 50 µg/ml (p

  10. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

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    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  11. An Examination of the Function of Male Flowers in an Andromonoecious Shrub Capparis spinosa

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    Tao Zhang; Dun-Yan Tan

    2009-01-01

    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

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    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats

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    Mostafa Kazemian Mansur Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively. A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2. Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p. and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study. Results: Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003. However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP. Conclusion: These results showed that C. spinosa rootextract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.

  15. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

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    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  16. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

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    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  17. 青藏高原地区刺山柑解剖特征研究%Anatomical Characteristics of Capparis spinosa L.in Tibet

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    刘静; 马淼

    2012-01-01

    To further explore the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau plant distinctive physiology structure and its environmental adaptability, the anatomical structures of Capparis spinosa L. from 4 000 m altitude of Zhada in Tibet were studied by the methods of paraffin section. The results showed that the anatomical structure was highly adapted to its environment of mountain desert grassland: periderm of secondary root is developed, the cork is thicker, there is a larger proportion of secondary xylem; There are epidermal hairs and obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems, and also developed collenchyma tissue, pith is narrow in stems; The leaf is isobilateral with multilayer palisade tissues. Dense stomata exists and significant cuticles are existed in epidermis; Corolla is larger with white petals, which is suitable for insect pollination; Parietal placentation with much ovules in each locule, ex-tine is thicker which can resistant to corrosion, acid and alkaline. All of the characteristics of C. spinosa L. described above result from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau stresses of extremely ecological conditions, such as high irradi-ance, cold temperature, low air pressure in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, as well as the adaptations of the C. spinosa L. to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau environments.%采用石蜡切片法对分布于海拔4000 m的西藏札达的刺山柑解剖结构进行研究,进一步探讨青藏高原植物独特生理结构及其与环境的适应性.结果表明刺山柑具有适应高山荒漠草原环境的典型结构特征:次生根周皮发达,具有较厚的木栓层和发达的次生木质部;茎具表皮毛和角质层,皮层较厚,厚角组织发达,髓较小;叶具角质层,气孔密集,栅栏组织多层,为双栅型等面叶;花冠较大,白色花瓣,适于虫媒传粉;侧膜胎座,子房多室,胚珠多数,花粉外壁较厚,具较强的抗腐蚀及抗酸碱性能.刺山柑形成上述结构特征是青藏高原特殊综合生态环境长期作用的结果.同时也

  18. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

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    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  19. 槌果藤提取物治疗硬皮病动物模型的研究%Efficacy of Capparis Spinosa extracts in the treatment of scleroderma:an experimental study in animal models

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    米新陵; 李凡; 惠艳; 华伟; 杨克俭

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物对硬皮病小鼠模型真皮厚度、Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原合成及转化生长因子-β1表达的影响.方法 用博莱霉素致小鼠硬皮病模型,给予槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物外用治疗;2、4、6周末皮肤病理观察真皮厚度变化,免疫组化观察Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原及转化生长因子-β1的合成表达.结果 硬皮病小鼠模型外用槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物2、4、6周后,与未用药的模型组比较,真皮厚度明显减少(F=12.99,P<0.01),Ⅰ型胶原(F=7.47,P<0.01)及转化生长因子-β1表达降低(F=11.76,P<0.01),对Ⅲ型胶原影响不大.结论 槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物具有抗皮肤纤维化作用.%Objective To observe the effect of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract of Capparis Spinosa on the thickness of dermis,synthesis of collagen type Ⅰ,type Ⅲ,and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in mouse models of scleroderma.Methods Mouse models of scleroderma were established through local injection of bleomycin on the back once a day for 4 weeks.After confirmation of model establishment,72 mouse models were equally and randomly divided into three groups.Two groups received topical treatment with ethanol extract of Capparis Spinosa and ethyl acetate extract of Capparis Spinosa,respectively,no treatment was given to the rest of the control group.After 2-,4-,6-week treatment,8 mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were obtained from the back,and subiected to the measurement of dermal thickness by HE staining,as well as to the analysis of expression of collagen type Ⅰ,collagen type Ⅲ and transforming growth factor-β1 by immunohistochemical staining.Results On week 2,4,6,the thickness of dermis was 23.22,24.94,19.97 μm respectively in mice treated with ethanol extract of Capparis Spinosa,27.66.26.15,22.13 μm respectively in those treated with ethyl acetate extract of

  20. 维吾尔族民间草药波里克果中脂肪和蛋白质组分的研究%Study on Fat and Protein Components of Uygur Folk Medicine-Capparis spinosa L.

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    努尔买买提·依力亚斯; 库尔班江·巴拉提

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore fat and protein components of Uygur folk medicine-Capparis spinosa L.. [ Method] Using Capparis spinosa L. As tested materials, contents and components of fatty acids were tested by GC-MS analysis. Semi -micro Kjeldahl and grading method were respectively employed to determine the content of crude protein and isolate protein. Furthermore, amino acid components of protein were also studied. [ Result] Oil content of Capparis spinosa L. Was up to 21.2% , among which unsaturated fatty acid was the main component. Content of lin-oleic acid was the highest at 57. 21% , followed by oleic acid, palmitic acid, linolenic acid and stearic acid. Content of crude protein was 18. 31% , in which globulin was the highest at 42.2% , followed by glutelin at 37.2% , and the least in albumin, gliadin and residue protein. 18 amino acids were identified from Capparis spinosa L. Occupying more than 80% , in which content of aspartic acid was the highest at 17.8% , followed by glutamic acid at 11.7%. Besides, Capparis spinosa L. Was rich in essential amino acid that accounted for 25.83% of all amino acids. [Conclusion] The study could provide theoretical basis for comprehensive exploitation of Xinjiang wild resource of Capparis spinosa L..%[目的]探讨维吾尔族民间草药波里克果中脂肪和蛋白质组分.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱法测定波里克果油脂中脂肪酸的含量及组分;采用半微量定氮法和分级提取法测定粗蛋白和分离蛋白,并对蛋白质中的氨基酸组分进行了分析.[结果]新疆波里克果的含油率为21.2%,以不饱和脂肪酸为主要成分,其中以亚油酸最高为57.21%,其次是油酸、粽榈酸、亚麻酸、硬脂酸.波里克果中粗蛋白质含量平均为18.31%,其中以球蛋白含量最高,为42.2%,谷蛋白为37.2%,清蛋白、醇溶蛋白和残渣蛋白含量比较低.蛋白质氨基酸含量丰富,18种氨基酸含量在80%以上,其中天冬氨酸含量最高,占蛋白质的17

  1. Analysis on the Content of Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar in the Fruits of Capparis spinosa L.%刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖含量的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量.[方法]采用3.5-二硝基水杨酸法对刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量进行测定.[结果]应用水提法(100℃)提取的刺山柑果实中还原糖的含量在11.6%左右,提取温度对提取结果有明显影响;刺山柑果实中的总糖含量在24.5%左右.[结论]刺山柑果实中还原糖和总糖含量相对较高,具有较好的开发前景.%[ Objective] To analyze the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Method] 3. 5-two nitro salicylic acid method was chosen to test the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Result ] Results showed that the content of reducing sugar extracted by hot-water( 100 ℃) was about 11. 6% and temperature of water had obvious effect to the results. The content of total sugar was about 24. 5%. [ Conclusion] The reducing sugar and the total sugar were all relatively higher in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. , which indicated that they would have a good development perspective.

  2. 野西瓜化学成分提取分离及抗氧化活性测定%Extraction and antioxidant activity of chemical compositions in Capparis spinosa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蕾; 贺春朋; 张小敏; 于娜; 谢乐琼

    2011-01-01

    Chemical compositions in Capparis spinosa L. Fruit were extracted and separated, to further explore chemical compositions with antioxidant activity in Capparis spinosa L. Fruit. Capparis spinosa L. Fruit meal was extracted The petroleum ether, ethyl aetate, butanol and water were extracted repeated respectively. Antioxidant activity of extracts were determined by DPPH · cleaning experiment. Identified antioxidant extract was separated by silica gel column, gel column with TLC, iodine vapor reagent, fluorescenrt color and universal reagent. Antioxidant compounds were got through DPPH · Experiment. The eliminating ability of every extact was ethyl acetate > water position > n - butanol > chloroform parts > petroleum ether. Three compouds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract : 1 kalanchoe glycosides, 2 succinate, 3 methyl stachydrine. Kalanchoe glycosides showed strong elimination ability while the other two showed low elimination ability. Ethyl acetate extract was the antioxidant active part of Capparis spinosa L. , and kalanchoe glycosides was one of the antioxidant compounds in ethyl acetate extract.%对野西瓜Capparis spinosa L.果实中化学成分进行提取分离,进一步探索野西瓜抗氧化活性成分,为野西瓜的充分开发利用提供科学依据,取野西瓜果实粗粉,采用95%乙醇回流提取,分别用石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、水萃取3次,反复萃取得各个部位,再用DPPH·清除实验比较各部位抗氧化活性,然后针对所确定抗氧化活性部位,经硅胶柱、凝胶柱分离,结合薄层层析、碘蒸气显色、荧光显色、通用显色剂显色等方法,得到单体化合物.最后,采用DPPH·清除实验测定各单体化合物的抗氧化活性.野西瓜各萃取部位的消除能力大小为:乙酸乙酯部位>水部位>正丁醇部位>氯仿部位>石油醚部位;从野西瓜活性部位-乙酸乙酯部位分离得到3个化合物,即化合物1

  3. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  4. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  5. Determination of the contents of gallic acid and rutin in Capparis spinosa L .seeds by HPLC%HPLC法测定维药刺山柑种子中没食子酸和芦丁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 美丽万·阿不都热依木

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立刺山柑种子中没食子酸和芦丁的含量测定方法。方法采用Phnomenex色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm ,5μm),以乙腈-2 mL · L -1磷酸溶液为流动相,流速为1.0 mL · min-1,检测波长为254 nm ,梯度洗脱。结果没食子酸在1.4~14.0μg、芦丁在1.4~28.0μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,没食子酸平均回收率为99.9%,RSD为2.0%;芦丁平均回收率为100.6%, RSD为1.3%。结论 HPLC法测定没食子酸和芦丁的含量,方法简便可行,重复性和分离效果好,可为刺山柑的进一步开发利用及质量控制提供依据。%Objective To determine of the contents of gallic acid and rutin in Capparis spinosa L .seeds .Methods The separation was performed on a Phnomennex ODS(250 mm × 4 .6 mm ,5 μm) chromatographic column ,with acetonitrile-2 mL · L -1 phosph-pric acid solution as the mobile phase .The flow rate was 1 .0 mL · min-1 ,the detection wavelength was 254 nm ,and the column temperature was 30 ℃ .Results The linear ranges of gallic acid and rutin were 1 .4-14 .0μg ,1 .4-28 .0μg with the correlation coef-ficient 0.999 5(n=6) ,0 .999 7(n=7) ,and the average recoveries were 99 .9% (RSD=2 .0% ) ,100 .6% (RSD=1 .3% ) ,respective-ly .Conclusion The method is simple and reproducible ,and could be used for C .spinosa L .further development ,utilization and quality control .

  6. 维药野西瓜对佐剂性关节炎小鼠治疗效果及机制研究%Research on anti-inflammatory mechanism on the adjuvant arthritis mouse model by Uighur medicine Capparis Spinosa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文涛; 顾仁艳; 王家平; 张秋梅; 刘辉; 陈蓉; 何佳颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the anti-inflamatory effect of Uighur Medicine Capparis Spinosa L.on adjuvant ar-thritis(AA) in mice and to explore its mechanism.Methods 40 male Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Tripterygium wilfordii group ( Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside 0.01mg/kg) and Capparis Spinosa L. group.The mice in every group except blank control group were made into AA models by complete Freund's adju-vant.Blank control group and model group were given normal saline by intragastric administration, and Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were given respective drugs by intragastric administration.The changes of ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone and the level of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum in the mice were observed after 25 days’ intragastric administra-tion.Results After 25 days'intervention with the drugs, compared with model group, ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone of the mice in Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were all improved (P<0.05), there was no signifi-cant difference between the two groups.Conclusion Capparis Spinosa L.has good antiarthritic effects on AA in the mice, the mechanism may be associated with its significantly decreasing effect on the levels of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum.%目的:观察维药野西瓜治疗佐剂性关节炎(AA)小鼠的效果及机制。方法将40只雄性昆明鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、雷公藤组(雷公藤多甙片0.01mg/kg)及野西瓜组。除空白对照组外,其余均采用完全弗氏佐剂制作AA小鼠模型,空白对照组及模型组灌胃生理盐水,雷公藤组和野西瓜组分别灌胃相应药物,连续灌胃25d后,观察各组小鼠足肿胀、足踝关节组织病理变化及血清中白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)表达情况。结果药物干预25d后,与模型组比较,雷公藤组及野西瓜组小鼠足趾肿胀

  7. 旱生植物刺山柑不同种群茎叶的解剖学研究%Anatomy of stem and leaf in different populations of Capparis spinosa in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 赵红艳; 马淼

    2011-01-01

    刺山柑常分布于极端干旱的戈壁与砾石山坡,然而其适应干旱环境的解剖学机理却未见报道.对分布于新疆石河子、新疆库尔勒以及西藏札达的3个刺山柑种群茎、叶材料进行了比较解剖学研究.结果表明:不同种群材料均具有适应旱生环境的典型结构特征:茎表皮有表皮毛和发达的角质层,皮层较厚,维管组织发达,髓明显;叶为双栅型等面叶,上、下表皮均有气孔分布,气孔密集,但以下表皮气孔数目为多,角质层、栅栏组织、输导组织十分发达.随着生境干旱程度的加剧,其茎、叶的旱生结构特征也愈加显著.由于库尔勒的刺山柑种群分布于干旱石质山坡的阳坡,年降水量只有50 mm,而夏季岩石表面温度却高达80℃.因此,该种群植株的茎、叶比其它种群具有更为显著的旱生结构.%Capparis spinosa often lives on extremely arid Gobi desert or arid stony mountain, but there were few works about the relationship between its anatomical structure and its adaptation to arid living condition. In this paper, anatomical structures of stem and leaf of the cappers in different populations(Shihezi,Korla in Xinjiang,and Zha-da in Tibet)were studied. The results showed that the anatomical structure was highly adapted to its arid environment: there were epidermal hairs and obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems,and also developed cortex, pith and vascular tissue in stems. The leaf was isobilateral with double palisade tissue. Dense stomata existed on both upper and lower epidermis,there were significant cuticle,palisade tissue and conducting tissue in leaf. Its characteristics of xerophil were more obvious as available water condition in soil became worse in natural habitats. C. Spinosa in Korla population was of much significant xeromorphic traits than that in other populations because of its severe arid habitat.

  8. QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOMEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANT CAPPARIS APHYLA ROTH (CAPPARIDACEAE FROM AKOLA DISRICT, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

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    Nitin A Khandare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focus on preliminary analysis of Capparis aphyla Roth., (Caper plant from Akola District Maharashtra , India. The plant has tremendous ethnic medicinal value. Quantitative analysis of Capparis aphyla was done in various solvents. It showed presence of maximum phytoconstituents in aqueous extract. The major phytochemicals present in this plant include Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponin and Phenolic while steroids are not detected in any solvent system.

  9. Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting

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    El-Bous, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting.- This investigation was carried out to assess the taxonomic relationships among eight taxa of the Egyptian members of Capparaceae based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, and to compare the results with those obtained from morphological studies. A total of 46 bands were scored for three RAPD primers corresponding to an average of 15.3 bands per primer. The three primers (A03, A07 and A09 revealed eight polymorphic RAPD markers among the studied taxa ranging in size from 200 bp to 1000 bp. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity varied from 0.28 to 0.84, indicative of high level of genetic variation among the genotypes studied. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated three distinct clusters, one comprised Cleome amblyocarpa and Gynandropsis gynandra, while another included two clusters at 0.74 phenon line; one for Capparis decidua, and the other for Capparis sinaica and all varieties of Capparis spinosa. The four varieties of Capparis spinosa were segregated at 0.84 phenon line. However, one of these varieties was more closely related to Capparis sinaica than to the other three varieties of C. spinosa. The RAPD analysis reported here confirms previous studies based on morphological markers.Consideraciones taxonómicas sobre algunos taxones egipcios de Capparis y géneros relacionados (Capparaceae a partir de RAPDs.- El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar las relaciones taxonómicas entre ocho taxones pertenecientes a las Capparaceae en base a marcadores de tipo RAPD, y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos previamente en estudios morfológicos. Se han contabilizado un total de 46 bandas para tres pares de cebadores, con una media de 15,3 bandas por cebador. Los tres pares de cebadores (A03, A07 y A09 revelan ocho marcadores polimórficos entre los taxones estudiados, de entre 200 y 1000 pares de

  10. Hygrophila spinosa : A comprehensive review

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    A D Kshirsagar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T Ander, belonging to the family Acanthaceae, is a promising medicinal plant with great economic potential. The medicinal value of H. spinosa has been appreciated in the ancient medical literature. The plant contains terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and is traditionally known as an aphrodisiac, renal tonic, and for its health-promoting properties. The plant is cultivated throughout India. However, systematic information on the different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information.

  11. The Panacea Plants for Environment and Humanity: Caper and Ritha

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    Fadim YEMİŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caper and Ritha are plants which have very important effects on both living beings and natural habitat. They are used in many areas like medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and agriculture because of their positive features. Caper is compatible with the Mediterranean ecosystem and resistant to drought and high-salinity. When compared to the other most plants, it can remain green for a long time without water even in the summer season. Due to this magnificent property, this plant is effectively used for environmental protection. It has been reported that Caper contains biologically active compounds such as glucosinolates, alkoloids, phenolics, flavonoid, tocopherol and minerals such as sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron. Ritha grows in Asia’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. It contributes to the environment like Caper because, it has ability to capture the chemical pollution from the soil. So, it helps to improve the quality and efficiency of the land by holding heavy metals like mercury, iron and zinc in the leaves and grabbing lead and cadmium in its fruits. Moreover, it biologically decomposes injurious organic molecules such as hexachlorobenzene and naphthalene. Furthermore, the nectar of Ritha can kill the flies and larvae of Southern cattle mite’s species called Boophilus microplus.

  12. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

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    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  13. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA LINN.

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    P. N. Dhabale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempt to evaluate the physicochemical and phytochemicals parameters of Capparis zeylanica leaves belong to family Caparadaceae is a climbing shrub found in through out India. The plant is used in folk medicine to treat, rheumatism, abdominal ulcers and hernia, swelling, itching, hepatitis, liver tonic, insect poisoning and anti-inflammatory. But there is no standardization work reported on Capparis zeylanica leaves. Physicochemical parameters, preliminary characterization and phytochemical analysis were carried out. There finding will be useful to words establishing quality control parameters for the standardization of the plant material.

  14. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

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    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  15. Capparis buwaldae Jacobs (Capparaceae). A new Myrmecophyte from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maschwitz, U.; Dumpert, K.; Moog, J.; LaFrankie, J.V.; Azarae, I.Hj.

    1996-01-01

    Capparis buwaldae, a climber of primary forests endemic to Borneo, is a myrmecophyte with stem domatia. The stems become hollow by pith degeneration and develop oval openings allowing ants to enter. These openings are localized at a strictly defined area above the insertion of the leaves and a pair

  16. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  17. Fighting organized crime through open source intelligence: regulatory strategies of the CAPER Project

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; ARRAIZA, Juan; Melero, Felipe; González-Conejero, Jorge; Molcho, Gila; Cuadros, Montse

    2014-01-01

    OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organised crime. We offer in this paper an overall view of some results, embedding into the system legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe. We briefly describe CAPER architecture, workflow, functionalities, modules and ontologies (European LEAs Interoperability ELIO, and Multi-Lingual Crime Ontology MCO). This paper is focused on th...

  18. "The Strawberry Caper": Using Scenario-Based Problem Solving to Integrate Middle School Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Rebecca L.; DeHart, Kyle; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Legg, Alison Slinskey

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a deep understanding of the many topics covered in middle school biology classes is difficult for many students. One way to help students learn these topics is through scenario-based learning, which enhances students' performance. The scenario-based problem-solving module presented here, "The Strawberry Caper," not only…

  19. Ethnoeconomical, ethnomedical, and phytochemical study of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Guillaume, D

    1999-10-01

    Populations of the South-western part of Morocco traditionally use the fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels to prepare an edible oil whose obtainment furnishes, as side product, a cake used to feed the cattle and complemented the forage furnished by the leaves and fruits of this same plant. However, the wood of A. spinosa is also used for fuel and the subsequent induced deforestation is nowadays accelerated since populations are generally eager to replace argan-groves by cultures of higher and immediate benefits. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed by several agencies to slow down the desert progress in Northern Africa. In order to promote argan tree reintroduction by the South-western Morocco dwellers, a program aimed to increase the industrial value of A. spinosa is currently carried out in Morocco. A phytochemical study is included in this program. Traditional knowledge as well as the most recent results concerning A. spinosa are described in this review.

  20. Taxonomy and morphology of Salvia spinosa L. (Lamiaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and morphology of 42 Salvia spinosa L. accessions (Lamiaceae were studied in Iran. This species had a high morphological diversity which was related to the hair frequency and indumentum of base and surface of stem, form of leaf, leaf margin and leaf apex, leaf indumentum, form of bracts margin, dimension and color of bracteole, calyx length, style length, form and color of nutlet. Using the cluster analysis based on Euclidian Distance Coefficient and SPSS V.11.5 software the infra-specific relationships were determined. The results of cluster analysis showed diversity among the accessions of this species. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the morphological variability in this species might be due to the polymorphism, hybridization and new varieties. Consequently, the morphological characters of Iranian accessions of Salvia spinosa have been described and designed in details.

  1. The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica recorded on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica was found causing a powdery mildew disease on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil. Its chasmothecial state was not observed on the collected samples. The fungus is illustrated and described. This report represents the first record of this fungus on Cleome spinosa in Brazil.

  2. CAPER 3.0: A Scalable Cloud-Based System for Data-Intensive Analysis of Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Xinlei; Diao, Lihong; Guo, Feifei; Wang, Dan; Liu, Zhongyang; Li, Honglei; Zheng, Junjie; Pan, Jingshan; Nice, Edouard C; Li, Dong; He, Fuchu

    2015-09-01

    The Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) aims to catalog genome-encoded proteins using a chromosome-by-chromosome strategy. As the C-HPP proceeds, the increasing requirement for data-intensive analysis of the MS/MS data poses a challenge to the proteomic community, especially small laboratories lacking computational infrastructure. To address this challenge, we have updated the previous CAPER browser into a higher version, CAPER 3.0, which is a scalable cloud-based system for data-intensive analysis of C-HPP data sets. CAPER 3.0 uses cloud computing technology to facilitate MS/MS-based peptide identification. In particular, it can use both public and private cloud, facilitating the analysis of C-HPP data sets. CAPER 3.0 provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to help users transfer data, configure jobs, track progress, and visualize the results comprehensively. These features enable users without programming expertise to easily conduct data-intensive analysis using CAPER 3.0. Here, we illustrate the usage of CAPER 3.0 with four specific mass spectral data-intensive problems: detecting novel peptides, identifying single amino acid variants (SAVs) derived from known missense mutations, identifying sample-specific SAVs, and identifying exon-skipping events. CAPER 3.0 is available at http://prodigy.bprc.ac.cn/caper3.

  3. Chemical Investigation of Some Capparis Species Growing in Egypt and their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Capparis cartilaginea and C. deserti growing in Egypt were investigated for their glucosiolates and rutin content. From Capparis cartilaginea four isothiocynates were isolated and identified using GC and EI/MS techniques. These compounds were butyl isothiocyanate (1, 6-methylsulphonylhexyl isothiocyanate (2, 7-methylsulphonylheptyl isothiocyanate (3 and 5-benzylsulphonyl-4-pentenyl isothiocyanate (4. In addition to compounds (1 and (2, two other compounds were isolated and identified from Capparis deserti. These compounds are 3-methylthiopropyl isothiocyanate (5 and [11-(2-butenylthio6-undecenyl isothiocyanate] (6. Compounds (1, (2, (5 and (6 are reported in this study for the first time from Capparis deserti. The main flavonoid component in the studied species was isolated and identified as rutin by comparing the data with those reported. Also, quantitative evaluation of rutin in the two species was carried out by TLC-densitometric analysis. The antioxidant activity was done using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method. The butanol fraction from C. cartilaginea and C. deserti showed the highest antioxidant properties.

  4. Estudo FitoquÃmico de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve a identificaÃÃo de constituintes volÃteis das folhas e flores e o isolamento de constituintes fixos das cascas e lenho do caule e lenho da raiz de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. Esta espÃcie, que ocorre nas margens de rios do Nordeste brasileiro, produz frutos que sÃo utilizados como alimento, e suas folhas, na forma de chÃ, combatem diarrÃia e distÃrbios menstruais. Apesar desta espÃcie ser de considerÃvel importÃncia para o povo nordestino, nenhum relato na literatura ...

  5. Identification and quantification of flavonoids from Chuquiraga spinosa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Amaya; Casado, Raquel; Calvo, M Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nine flavonol glycosides (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaemperol-3-O-glucuronide, kaemperol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempherol-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) were isolated from the aerial parts of Chuquiraga spinosa (R. et P.) D. Don (Asteraceae). The identification of the compounds was carried out by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/MS and NMR analysis. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomy of the genus and species.

  6. Environmental alterations in biofuel generating molecules in Zilla spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hemmat; El Marid, Zeinab

    2017-03-01

    Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons. Environmental stresses evoked reduction in the energy trapping pigments concomitant with increments in chlorophyll fluorescence in summer harvested plants particularly at downstream. Furthermore, the biofuels generating compounds including carbohydrate, lignin, and lipid making the plant biomasses are greatly affected by environmental conditions. Greater amount of lignin was estimated in summer harvested Z. spinosa shoots particularly at downstream. Moreover, the total oil content which is a promising source of biodiesel was considerably decreased during summer season particularly at downstream. The physical properties of the lipids major constituent fatty acid methyl esters determine the biofuel properties and contribute in the adaptation of plants against environmental stresses. Hence, the analysis of fatty acid profile showed significant modifications under combined drought and heat stress displayed in the summer season. The maximum increase in saturated fatty acid levels including tridecanoic acid (C13:0), pentadeanoic acid (C15:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0) were estimated in spring harvested Z. spinosa aerial portions particularly at midstream. In spite of the reduction in the total oil content, a marked increase in the value of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and thereby the unsaturation index were achieved during the dry summer period. Henceforth, these seasonal and spatial variations in fatty acids profiles may

  7. 刺山柑雄全同株性系统的适应意义%Adaptive significances of sexual system in andromonoecious Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 谭敦炎

    2008-01-01

    对分布于新疆北部干旱荒漠区的刺山柑Capparisspinosa性系统进行了研究.结果表明:(1)该物种具有典型的雄全同株性系统.雄花和两性花的雄蕊均正常发育,且有长短之分;两性花的雌蕊发育正常,而雄花的雌蕊败育,只行使雄性功能.(2)居群间每天开放的雄花和两性花比率、两性花的长短雄蕊数及雄花短雄蕊的花丝与花药长等存在极显著差异(P0.05).(3)单花花期为15-16 h,每天18:00时左右开始开放,有强烈的气味和花蜜产生.植株每天产生的雄花和两性花数是随机的,可形成短时的雄花与两性花异株,但居群内雄花数比两性花数多.(4)三个居群两性花的P/O值分别为1.57×104、1.65×104和1.71×104.居群内雄花和两性花的花粉数及长、短雄蕊花药的花粉数均无显著差异(P>0.05),居群间雄花和两性花的花粉数、两性花的胚珠数及P/O值差异也不显著(P>0.05).(5)各居群雄花和两性花长短雄蕊的花粉活力动态变化曲线相似,花粉寿命为18-20 h,两性花雌蕊柱头的可授期为16-18h.(6)访花昆虫为膜翅目Hymenoptera和鳞翅目Lepidoptera昆虫,3个居群共有7种访花昆虫,其活动受天气影响很大.(7)两性花不存在无融合生殖现象,授自花花粉、同株异花花粉和异株异花花粉后均可结实,属于混合交配系统.刺山柑的雄全同株性系统可能是在长期与荒漠环境相适应的过程中由遗传和环境共同作用的结果.雄花的出现不仅增加了花粉数和P/O值,提高了植株的雄性适合度,同时增加了花的数量、对传粉昆虫的吸引力以及两性花柱头接受异花花粉的机会,提高了异交率和雌性适合度,保障其在荒漠极端环境中繁殖成功.

  8. Selection of Reference Genes in Saccharopolyspora Spinosa for Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传波; 薛超友; 申月琪; 卢文玉

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR)combined with the published genome information of Saccharopolyspora spinosa can allow sophisticated studies about S. spinosa, including studying the regulation of spinosyn biosynthesis, finding new target genes for engineering, and discovering and exploiting other macrolide secondary metabolites. Studies have demonstrated that appropriate internal control is needed to normalize target genes at transcription levels. However, many studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for all strains under all experimental conditions. Thus, eight candidate reference genes of three different S. spinosa strains in two different cultures were studied to find suitable reference gene(s). The number of amplification cycles of these candidate genes was calculated by BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. The results indicated that the most suitable reference genes for normalization during the fermentation of S. spinosa were 16S rRNA and rbL13.

  9. Corruption Capers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    俗话说,人在屋檐下,不得不低头。这似乎是一种起码的自卫式生存法则。然而,有些人偏是不愿意耽于沉默,面对人间的恶,他们不惧怕结果.硬是要讲出实情来。这是一种勇敢,令人钦佩,也让人为之捏一把汗。

  10. In vitro establishment of Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC / Estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2009-07-01

    manufactured by the company Cimplast Ltda and used by the industry Milênia Agro Ciência S.A. had been analyzed so that later, based in already carried trough studies in design, packing, ergonomics, anatomy and usability, a guide can be produce destined to the industries that produce this type of packing, so, by means of theoretical support , these companies can produce packing bottles that could adapt better to the user or could reformulate the existing models. For the production of the content of the guide some bibliographical references and technical norms directed to these packing bottles had been overcome. Later a research of field with the potential users was carried out, which it could confirm or refute the referring hypotheses to the usability raised initially. After the evaluation of the ergonomic problems presents in these packing bottles, tables of contents for better illustrate the research had been produced and, later, the data had been questioned based in the theoretical referential. The guide, which is the final product of this work, will bring important and scientifically based information, with simple and practical language, aiming to facilitate for the industries the process of production of the packing bottles, therefore although the data contained in it is available in literatures the companies make use of little time for research.Com o objetivo de desenvolver um protocolo para o estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa a partir de diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA, foram utilizados como explantes, ápices caulinares de plantas provenientes do campo, desinfestados com solução de Saniagri® 33% v/v, durante 15 minutos e posteriormente pulverizados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio 1% v/v. O meio utilizado foi o Murashige e Skoog com a concentração de sacarose reduzida para 5g L-1. As concentrações de 6-BA foram: 0,0 mg L-1, 0,5 mg L-1, 1,0 mg L-1, 1,5 mg L-1, 2,0 mg L-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o

  11. Micro-channel catalytic reactor integration in CAPER and research/development on highly tritiated water handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Fanghaenel, E.; Gramlich, N.; Le, T.L.; Michling, R.; Moosmann, H.; Simon, K.H.; Wagner, R.; Welte, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Glugla, M.; Shu, W.M.; Willms, R.S. [ITER Organization, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    The CAPER facility of the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe has demonstrated the technology for the tokamak exhaust processing. CAPER has been significantly upgraded to pursue research/development programs towards highly tritiated water (HTW) handling and processing. The preliminary tests using a metal oxide reactor producing HTW afterward de-tritiated with PERMCAT were successful. In a later stage, a micro-channel catalytic reactor was installed in view of long term research program on HTW. The integration of this new system in CAPER was carried out along with a careful safety analysis due to high risk associated with such experiments. First experiments using the μ-CCR were performed trouble free, and HTW up to 360 kCi/kg was produced at a rate of 0.5 g/h. Such HTW was collected into a platinum zeolite bed (2 g of HTW for 20 g of Pt-zeolite), and in-situ detritiation was performed via isotopic exchange with deuterium. These first experimental results with tritium confirmed the potential for the capture and exchange method to be used for HTW in ITER. (authors)

  12. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Patra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12, 23(24-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β--sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds

  13. PROPAGATION OF CLEOME SPINOSA JACQ. THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiqin Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The tissue culture and rapid propagation of Cleome spinosa Jacq. was explored by investigating the effects of different plant growth regulators on callus induction, bud differentiation, and root formation of three types of explants. The results showed that hypocotyls and stem segments regenerated buds directly on growth regulator-free Murashige and Skoog (MSmedium. The highest callus induction rates of hypocotyls, stem segments, and leaves reached 100% and were obtained on the culture medium of MS + (1.0 to 2.0 mg/L kinetin (KT + 0.02 mg/L α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, on which the leaves produced the best quality of calluses. The leaf-derived calluses were subcultured on MS + 0.5 mg/L KT +0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and achieved the highest differentiation rate of 100%, producing an average of 7.5 buds per explant. Inoculation with MS + 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA resulted in the production of a number of thick roots by 66.7% of the regenerated buds. After transplanting, plantlets with more roots survived easily and grew well.

  14. Retrieval in a Computer-assisted Pathology Encoding and Reporting System (CAPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, S J; Altshuler, B S; Chen, H Y

    1981-05-01

    A previous report described an online computer-assisted pathology encoding and reporting system (CAPER) developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital that accessions specimens, monitors their state of completion, produces all log books, and permits instantaneous display of all diagnoses rendered within a three-year period. The present report updates the functions currently available and describes a new function that enables the pathologist, independent of computer programmer support, to request complex, in-depth searches of the entire accumulated pathology data base, which at present contains in excess of 150,000 cases and 5,000,000 pieces of information. The pathologist can instruct the system to compare more than 30 types of data items through the development of Boolean expressions. The report also describes the test codes that were developed to reflect the work product of the surgical pathology division, form the basis for automated billing and compilation of monthly and yearly statistics, and are an integral part of the long-term data base for in-depth searches.

  15. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  16. Comparison of tanning with flour Caesalpinia Spinosa, with mineral tanning with skins chrome sulphate chervines

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2016-01-01

    In the lab of tannery skins of the FCP, the ESPOCH was the comparison of tanning with extract of plant polyphenols in Caesalpinia Spinosa, with a mineral tanning of sulfate of chromium for goat skins, i.e. 2 treatments with 7 repetitions each one, and in two consecutive runs a total of 28 experimental units were modeled under a completely randomized design in bivariate array. The results indicate that the most suitable tanning was to use plant polyphenols Caesalpinia Spinosa, (tara), since it...

  17. Chemical Constituents from the Seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei LI; Xun LIAO; Shu-Lin PENG; Li-Sheng DING

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive minor components from traditional Chinese medicines, a new compound, named jujuphenoside (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphusjujuba var. spinosa (Bunge)Hu. The structure of jujuphenoside was elucidated by spectral and chemical methods, particularly twodimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, 22 known compounds were also isolated and identified from the seeds of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, among which, epiceanothic acid (2) was first obtained from natural resources, whereas compounds 7-16 were first obtained from this plant.

  18. Amino phenolics from the fruit of the argan tree Argania spinosa (Skeels L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, D; Khallouki, Farid; Owen, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic-type compound containing a nitrogenous, heterocyclic-fused ring from the fruit of the argan tree, Argania spinosa (Skeels L.), is described. This and another already known compound also isolated in the course of the work belong to an obscure and rare class of natural products, the amino phenolics.

  19. Bioactivity-guided isolation of spasmolytic components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Behzad, S

    2011-07-01

    Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has spasmolytic effect in vitro and antidiarrhoeal action in vivo. The aim of this research was to separate fractions of total hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa guided by their spasmolytic activity. Aerial parts of P. spinosa were extracted with ethanol. The concentrated extract was subjected to column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Initially four fractions were obtained (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and their spasmolytic activities were determined on ileum contraction induced by KCl (80 mM). The more active fraction was subjected to further isolation and tested to find its most active components. The active component was phytochemically characterized using phytochemical methods including ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa (10-320 μg/ml) in a concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contraction with the IC(50) value of 47 ± 8.1 μg/ml (mean ± S.E.M., n=6). Fraction F2 was the most potent inhibitor of ileum contraction (IC(50)= 3.4 ± 0.33 μg/ml). From five sub-fractions separated from fraction F2 (F2a, F2b, F2c, F2d, and F2e, respectively), F2c was a more active component with the IC(50) value of 2.6 ± 0.27 μg/ml. The primary results of target fraction (F2c) showed sugar moiety in its structure or in one of its components. In this research we have isolated pharmacological active fraction which is most likely responsible for antispasmodic action of P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana P. Sant'Anna; Nascimento da Silva, Luís C.; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque S.; de Araújo, Janete M.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera L. de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Due to the use of Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleomaceae) in traditional medicine against inflammatory and infectious processes, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of extracts from its roots and leaves. From leaves (L) and roots (R) of C. spinosa different extracts were obtained (cyclohexane: ChL and ChR; chloroform: CL and CR; ethyl acetate: EAL and EAR, methanol: ML and MR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal (MMC) concentrations against 17 species, including bacteria and yeasts. Additionally, antimicrobial and combinatory effects with oxacillin were assessed against eight clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. All C. spinosa extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, as they have inhibited all tested bacteria and yeasts. This activity seems to be related to the phytochemicals (flavonoid, terpenoids and saponins) detected into the extracts of C. spinosa. ChL and CL extracts were the most actives, with MIC less than 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus. It is important to note that these concentrations are much lower than their 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50) values. Strong correlations were found between the average MIC against S. aureus and their phenolic (r = −0.89) and flavonoid content (r = −0.87), reinforcing the possible role of these metabolite classes on the antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa derived extracts. Moreover, CL and CR showed the best inhibitory activity against S. aureus clinical isolates, they also showed synergistic action with oxacillin against all these strains (at least at one combined proportion). These results encourage the identification of active substances which could be used as lead(s) molecules in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27446005

  1. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana P Sant'Anna; Nascimento da Silva, Luís C; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque S; de Araújo, Janete M; Correia, Maria T Dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera L de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Due to the use of Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleomaceae) in traditional medicine against inflammatory and infectious processes, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of extracts from its roots and leaves. From leaves (L) and roots (R) of C. spinosa different extracts were obtained (cyclohexane: ChL and ChR; chloroform: CL and CR; ethyl acetate: EAL and EAR, methanol: ML and MR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal (MMC) concentrations against 17 species, including bacteria and yeasts. Additionally, antimicrobial and combinatory effects with oxacillin were assessed against eight clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. All C. spinosa extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, as they have inhibited all tested bacteria and yeasts. This activity seems to be related to the phytochemicals (flavonoid, terpenoids and saponins) detected into the extracts of C. spinosa. ChL and CL extracts were the most actives, with MIC less than 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus. It is important to note that these concentrations are much lower than their 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50) values. Strong correlations were found between the average MIC against S. aureus and their phenolic (r = -0.89) and flavonoid content (r = -0.87), reinforcing the possible role of these metabolite classes on the antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa derived extracts. Moreover, CL and CR showed the best inhibitory activity against S. aureus clinical isolates, they also showed synergistic action with oxacillin against all these strains (at least at one combined proportion). These results encourage the identification of active substances which could be used as lead(s) molecules in the development of new antimicrobial drugs.

  2. A new view on the codonocarpine type alkaloids of Capparis decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Yvonne; Ghaffar, Abdul; Bienz, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Several spermidine alkaloids are described in literature as constituents of the root bark of Capparis decidua. Since some of the proposed structures, however, are in conflict with the expected biosynthetic paths, an extract of the root bark of the plant was re-investigated. Four major spermidine alkaloids of the codonocarpine type were identified and their structures elucidated: of the four compounds, isocodonocarpine was described previously for C. decidua and cadabicine was proposed as a possible constituent as well. Codonocarpine was found for the first time in an extract of C. decidua but was previously isolated from a closely related plant. Capparidisinine, finally, is an alkaloid with a structure that has never been described before. The structures of the four alkaloids are substantiated by NMR and MS data, and the four compounds are in logical agreement with biosynthetic considerations: they would arise from α,ω-bis-adducts of spermidine with coumaric and/or ferulic acids, followed by phenol oxidation.

  3. In-vitro cytotoxic activity of β-Sitosterol triacontenate isolated from Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Permender Rathee; Dharmender Rathee; Deepti Rathee; Sushila Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the isolation and characterization of the constituent responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extract of stem ofCapparis decidua (C. decidua).Methods:The preliminary cytotoxic effect of isolated compound (β-Sitosterol triacontenate) was investigated byMTT assay onA549 solid tumor cells.Results:IC50 value of the β-Sitosterol triacontenate was found to be 1 μM. The cytotoxic activity increased in a dose dependent manner in case of β-Sitosterol triacontenate.Conclusions: The data therefore provide direct evidence for the role of β-Sitosterol triacontenate as a potent antimetastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of malignant cells.

  4. TARA (Caesalpinia spinosa): the sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell Escuer, Joan Carles

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the fruit of the tara tree (Caesalpinia spinosa) as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with an increasing demand that concerns lower carbon footprint and health safety. Taxonomy of the tree is described and the substances contained in the fruit are chemically characterized in order to justify that tara farm forestry is economically viable and to secure a potential worth. The v...

  5. Comparative reproductive effort and fecundity in the spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa (Majoidea, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pisani, Ximena; Greco, Laura López

    2014-04-01

    A comparative analysis of reproductive effort, fecundity, and egg weight was conducted in two species of spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa, during one-year period. Ovigerous females were collected from Patagonia-Argentina (42°56'S, 64°21'W) and were measured (CW = carapace width). Each egg brood was weighed, dried and the number of eggs (F = fecundity) counted. Scatterplots of relative fecundity (RF = F/CW) were submitted to regression analyses. Mean F and RF was calculated for each season to assess seasonal variation of reproductive intensity. Mean F was 35,000 eggs in L. tuberculosus and 30,000 eggs in L. spinosa, with these values being intermediate in comparison with other Majoidea. The RF was approximately 18% higher in L. tuberculosus that presented an average dry weight egg 45% less than L. spinosa. Although in both species F showed a positive correlation with CW, less than the 20% of the variation in the number of eggs could be explained by female's size, suggesting there are other factors that influence F. The proportion of body energy devoted to reproduction (reproductive effort), exhibited significant differences between species. In Leurocyclus tuberculosus reproductive activity is significantly different along the 12-month suggesting that the conditions for 'optimal' egg production change throughout the year. In Libinia spinosa mean fecundity did not reveal significant differences over seasons. These results are central in studies of life-history theory and in the development of life history models, as it is directly related to energy allocation and partitioning.

  6. Isolation and identification of bioactive antibacterial components in leaf extracts of Vangueria spinosa (Rubiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soroj Kumar Chatterjee; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The column chromatographic fraction of ethyl acetate (EA1, EA2, EA3, EA4 and EA5) leaf extracts of Vangueria spinosa (V. spinosa) were screened for antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Methods: EA3 fraction was isolated and identified by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, spectral data analysis and phytochemical screening were used for analysis. Results: EA3 fraction was significantly active at 4 to 64 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5625 to 3.1250 mg/mL. The active fraction (EA3) revealed the presence of flavonoid with retention factor value (Rf) of 0.39. The active antibacterial agent in the most potent fraction (EA3) was isolated and identified as flavonoid (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and phytochemical screening. EA1 and EA2 show inhibitory activity at 4 to 64 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus only where as fraction EA4 and EA5 do not shows any inhibitory activity within that range of concentration against any bacteria. Conclusions: The results support the ethnomedicinal use of leaf of V. spinosa for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

  7. 紫外分光光度法测定酸枣仁中总黄酮的含量%Quantitative Determination of Total Flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by UV Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会军; 李萍

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine the total flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.METHOD: Using detection wavelength at 335 nm and spinosin as standard, a simple and reproducible UV spectrophotometry was developed to determine total flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae from different sources. CONCLUSION: This method proved to be feasible for evaluating the quality of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

  8. The Development of SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE Yoghourt%酸枣仁酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云月英; 王国泽; 柳青; 王文龙

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The research aimed to develop a yoghourt drink of SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE. [ Method] A yoghourt drink was developed and produced with SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE and fresh milk as main raw materials and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in a 1:1 volume ratio as mixed fermentation strains, the optimum technological parameters of which were determined through studies on processing techniques. [Result] The optimum process was as follows: serous fluids were prepared from SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE and its 6 volumes of water, and then mixed with fresh milk in a 1:4 volume ratio as fermentation broth. After adding 9% granulated sugar, 5% milk powder and 4% starter, Let it ferment at 42 ℃ until fermentation broth was made into curds, and then the milk products were obtained. [ Conclusion] SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE yoghourt of high quality could be developed under the optimum conditions.%[目的]研制(SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE)酸枣仁酸奶饮品.[方法]以酸枣仁、鲜牛奶为主要原材料,以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌1:1为混合发酵菌种,对生产工艺进行研究,确定最佳的工艺参数.[结果]酸枣仁酸奶最佳工艺流程为:酸枣仁与6倍体积的水混合后打浆得到的酸枣仁浆液,酸枣仁浆液与鲜牛奶混合比例为1:4(WV)得待发酵液.此时加入砂糖、乳粉和发酵剂,砂糖的添加量为9%,乳粉的加入量为5%,接种量为4%,42℃下发酵至其凝乳,得酸乳产品.[结论]在最佳工艺条件下可得到品质优良的酸枣仁酸奶.

  9. Micropropagation of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. - a tree of arid horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, N S; Shekhawat, N S

    1995-12-01

    A method for micropropagation of mature trees of Capparis decidua was developed. Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium+0.1mgl(-1) NAA+5.0mgl(-1)BAP+additives (50mgl(-1) ascorbic acid and25 mgl(-1) each of adenine sulphate, L-arginine and citric acid) at 28 ± 2°C, 12 h/dphotoperiod and 35-40 μmol m(-2)s(-1) photon flux density. The shoots were multiplied by (i) subculture of nodal shoot segments onto MS +0.1 mgl(--1) IAA+1.0mgl(-1) BAPH+additives, and (ii) repeated transfer of original explant onto MS+ 0.1mgl(-1) IAA+mg l(-1) BAP+additives, at intervals of 3 weeks. Sixty to 70% of the shoots rooted when pulse treated with 100 mg l(-1) IBA in half strength MS liquid medium for 4h, and then transferred onto hormone-free half-strength agar-gelled MS basal saltmedium. Incubation in dark at 33 ± 2°C for 6d favoured root induction. In vitro hardened plants were transferred to pots.

  10. Optimization of Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of Seleno-Capparis spionosa L. Polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experiment was designed to optimize the synthesis of seleno-Capparis spionosa L. polysaccharide (Se-CSPS by response surface methodology. Three independent variables (reaction time, reaction temperature and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS were tested. Furthermore, the thermal stability, particle size, shape and cytotoxic activity of Se-CSPS in vitro were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained shown as follows: reaction time 7.5 h, reaction temperature 71 °C, and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS 0.9 g/g. Under these conditions, the Se content in Se-CSPS reached 5.547 mg/g, which was close to the predicted value (5.518 mg/g by the model. The thermal stability, particle size and shape of Se-CSPS were significantly different from those of CSPS. Additionally, a MTT assay indicated that the Se-CSPS could inhibit the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  11. Biologia floral e mecanismos reprodutivos do Mussambê (Cleome spinosa Jacq) com vistas ao melhoramento genético

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Douglas de Almeida; Brito, Ana Carla; Amaral,Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    O Gênero Cleome, da família Capparaceae, compreende plantas economicamente utilizadas como medicinais e ornamentais. Foi objetivo deste trabalho estudar a biologia floral e os mecanismos reprodutivos de C. spinosa com vistas ao melhoramento genético. A antese ocorre entre 17h30 às 18h30 e está intimamente relacionado com as condições climáticas. Os principais polinizadores foram abelhas (Apis, Bombus), mariposas e morcegos (Glossophaga). Cleome spinosa apresenta sistema de cruzamento misto, o...

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  13. Atividade antiinflamatoria da Chuquiraga spinosa subsp. Huamanpinta em ratos e camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino Julio Sotelo Cordova

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: A Chuquiraga spinosa Lessing subsp. Huamanpinta Ezcurra, conhecida no Peru como "Huamanpinta" é utilizada na medicina popular como diurético, antiinflamatório e antitTeumático. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória do,' extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH) e suas frações (orgânica e aquosa) em modelos experimentais de inflamação aguda em ratos e camundongos. o EBH da Huamanpinta (250, 500 e 1000 mglkg, v.o.), quando adtpinistrado uma hora antes da indução de inflamaçã...

  14. Observations on Phallocryptus Spinosa (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) Populations from the high Plateaus of Northeastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mounia Amarouayache

    2014-01-01

    Phallocryptus spinosa (Thamnocephalidae) is a small primitive crustacean which lives in temporary saline pools of the Palaearctic region called Chott, Sebkha, Garâa or Daya in North Africa. Data on its biology and life history are very scarce despite its ecological importance in wetlands. Four populations living in the Northeastern High Plateaus of Algeria, Garâas Guellif, El-Tarf, Ank Djemel and Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, have been studied in point of view of their morphmetry (13 parameters) and thei...

  15. Crescimento e bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L. em área de Caatinga no Curimataú paraibano, Brasil Growth and bromatology of Capparis flexuosa at Curimatau region, Paraiba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Xavier de Almeida Neto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar aspectos relacionados com o crescimento e a bromatologia do feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa L. em uma área no Curimataú, Semiárido Paraibano. Para a análise da evolução do crescimento desta espécie formou-se quatro grupos de plantas segundo a classe de altura: GI até 0,50 m; GII de 0,51 a 1 m; GIII de 1,01 a 1,50 m e GIV a >1,51 m. No período de março a dezembro de 2007 determinou-se a altura e o número de ramos dos indivíduos, sendo o diâmetro do caule registrado de março a setembro. Avaliou-se também, a composição bromatológica das folhas e talos do feijão-bravo. Em todos os grupos, o feijão-bravo apresentou crescimento lento no período chuvoso. Entretanto, até o mês de agosto, observou-se o aumento no número de ramos das plantas, independente do grupo estabelecido. No Período amostrado, não se constatou diferença (p > 0,05 entre plantas em termos de diâmetro, em todos os grupos amostrados. Os dados bromatológicos registrados foram os seguintes: matéria orgânica (91,95%; cinzas (8,05%; matéria seca (47,1% e umidade (52,9%. Os teores de proteína bruta (8,13%; fibra bruta (32,32%; extrato etéreo (5,37%; e energia bruta (5.015 cal g-1 do feijão-bravo, dado a estas características, sugerem que esta espécie apresenta potencial para ser utilizada como forrageira.The general aim of this study was to describe the growth and bromatology of Capparis flexuosa L. in an area of Caatinga, Paraiba State, Brazil. To analyze the growth evolution, the plants were divided in four groups according to the height classes: GI until 0.50 m; GII from 0.51 to 1 m; GIII from 1.01 to 1.50 m and GIV above >1.51 m; the plants height, the number of branches and the basal diameter were determined, in the period between March and December, 2007. The bromatological composition of leaves and branches of Capparis flexuosa was evaluated. It was showed, in all groups, that Capparis flexuosa

  16. Soil Microbial Population in the Vicinity of the Bean Caper(Zygophyllum dumosum) Root Zone in a Desert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gain a better understanding of the changes in soil microbial biomass and basal respiration dynamics in the vicinity of the bean caper (Zygophyllum dumosum) perennial desert shrub and the inter-shrub sites. Microbial biomasses as well as basal respiration were found to be significantly greater in the soil samples taken beneath the Z. dumosum shrubs than from the inter-shrub sampling sites, with no differences between the two sampling layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) throughout the study period. However, seasonal changes were observed due to autumn dew formation, which significantly affected microbial biomass and basal respiration in the upper-layer inter-shrub locations.The calculated metabolic coefficient (qCO2) revealed significant differences between the two sampling sites as well as between the two soil layers, elucidating the abiotic effect between the sites throughout the study period. The substrate availability index was found to significantly demonstrate the differences between the two sites, elucidating the significant contribution of Z. dumosum in food source availability and in moderating harsh abiotic components. The importance of basal microbial parameters and the derived indices as tools demonstrated the importance and need for basic knowledge in understanding plant-soil interactions determined by an unpredictable and harsh desert environment.

  17. Sida spinosa L., S. rhombifolia L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke adventief op lelievelden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerse, Fons A.I.; Verrijdt, Toon A.L.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    In september 2005 werd Sida rhombifolia L. aangetroffen in een lelieveld. In de vier jaar daarna zijn in dergelijke velden ook drie andere Malvaceeën aangetroffen: Sida spinosa L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke. Deze vier soorten komen wijd verspreid voor in de (sub)trop

  18. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  19. Metabolomics analysis of the effect of dissolved oxygen on spinosad production by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunzhe; Yin, Jing; Zhao, Fanglong; Li, Feng; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-02-02

    Spinosad, a universal bio-pesticide, is obtained from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Dissolved oxygen, an important contributing factor in aerobic microbial fermentation, however, is not always available in sufficient amounts. To alleviate oxygen limitation in spinosad production, three different oxygen vectors, namely oleic acid, toluene, and n-dodecane, were added into early fermentation. Results indicated that n-dodecane was the optimal oxygen vector. Spinosad yield was increased by 44.2% compared to that in the control group in the presence of 0.5% n-dodecane, added after 120 h of incubation. Yields of the test group reached 6.52 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), while that of the control group was limited to 4.52 mg/g DCW. Metabolomics analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was performed to demonstrate the metabolism mechanism in the presence and absence of oxygen vector. In total, 78 principal intracellular metabolites in S. spinosa were detected and quantified in the presence and absence of n-dodecane. Levels of some metabolites that were related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway varied significantly. Aspartic acid and glucose-1-phosphate levels varied significantly and contributed most in the distinction of the fermentation conditions and phases. The above findings give new insights into the improvement and the metabolomic characteristics of industrial spinosad production.

  20. Protective effect of Hygrophila spinosa against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan G Ingale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nephroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Hygrophila spinosa (HSME (Acanthaceae in (CP-induced acute renal failure in rats. Materials and Methods: HSME (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight, were administered orally to male wistar albino rats.CP was used to induce acute renal failure. The parameters studied included blood urea and serum creatinine and malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and GSH peroxidase activities. Histopathological examination was also carried out. Results: The results revealed that HSME pretreatment signiϋcantly reduced blood urea and serum creatinine levels elevated by CP administration. Furthermore, HSME signiϋcantly attenuated CP-induced increase in MDA and decrease in reduced GSH, and CAT and SOD and GSH peroxidase activities in renal cortical homogenates. Additionally, histopathological examination showed that HSME markedly ameliorated CP-induced renal tubular necrosis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the aerial parts of H. spinosa are endowed with nephroprotective activity.

  1. [Paleoclimate of La Guajira, Colombia; by the growth rings of Capparis odoratissima (Capparidaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Jorge Andrés; Ignacio del Valle, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    There is great concern about the effect of climate change in arid and subarid areas of the tropics. Climate change combined with other anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, fires and over-grazing can accelerate their degradation and, consequently, the increases in losses of biological and economic productivity. Climate models, both local and global, predict that rainfall in the arid Peninsula of La Guajira in the Colombian Caribbean would be reduced and temperature would be increased as a result of climate change. However, as there are only suitable climate records since 1972, it is not possible to verify if, indeed, this is happening. To try to verify the hypothesis of reducing rainfall and rising temperatures we developed a growth ring chronology of Capparis odoratissima in the Middle Peninsula of La Guajira with 17 trees and 45 series which attain 48 years back. We use standard dendrochronological methods that showed statistically significant linear relationship with local climatic variables such as air temperature, sea surface temperature (SST), annual precipitation and wind speed; we also reach to successful relationship of the chronology with global climatic variables as the indices SOI and MEI of the ENSO phenomenon. The transfer functions estimated with the time series (1955 and 2003) do not showed statistically significant trends, indicating that during this period of time the annual precipitation or temperatures have not changed. The annual nature of C. odoratissima growth rings, the possibility of cross-dated among the samples of this species, and the high correlation with local and global climatic variables indicate a high potential of this species for dendrochronological studies in this part of the American continent.

  2. Extraction and Pharmacological Evaluation of Some Extracts of Tridax procumbens and Capparis decidua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Free and bound flavonoids of different parts of Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae and Capparis decidua Forsk (Edgew (Capparaceae have been studied for their antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion assay, against two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 46 and Proteus mirabilis MTCC 425, one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87, and a fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 183. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was evaluated by micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/ fungicidal concentration determined by subculturing the relevant samples.  Both plants exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Free and bound flavonoids of T. procumbens flowers and C. decidua stem were found to be more potent. C. albicans was found to be most susceptible organism followed by S. aureus, P. mirabilis, and E. coli. Among 14 extracts tested, 12 were found to be active, while 2 extracts showed no activity at tested concentration. Total activity (TA was calculated for the extracts, to relate MIC of the extracts with its amount isolated from 1 g dried plant part. Results of the present study indicate that T. procumbens and C. decidua can be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs.   Industrial relevance: Adverse effects of popular antibiotics and multidrug resistant strains of pathogens have lead rapid search for new antimicrobials. Because of the long history of plants in the treatment of different human ailments, most of the herbal drugs are believed to be safer than the synthetic drugs with no side effects; therefore medicinal plants have gained more importance as possible source of alternative and effective drugs. Plants and natural products remain as an untapped reservoir of potentially useful chemical compounds not only as drugs but also as unique templates that could serve as a starting point for synthetic analogues. Over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural product origin and

  3. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghanadian, M; Asghari, G; Azali, N

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice (25-30 g), fasted over night with free access to water, were treated with test compounds or control (p.o.). Thirty min later castor oil (0.5 ml) was given orally to the animals. In another groups of animals MgSO4 (0.5 ml of 10% solution) was given first and half an hour later the test drugs were administered. Onset and number of wet defecations were recorded for each animal over 3.5 h after treatment with diarrhoea inducing agents. In another groups, intestinal transit of charcoal meal was determined following administration of the compounds. Isovanillin (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg), iso-acetovanillon (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg) and P. spinosa extract (5 mg/kg) delayed onset of diarrhoea and significantly reduced wet defecation induced by castor oil and MgSO4. They all had antidiarrheal effect similar to propantheline (5 mg/kg). Isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and P. spinosa extract compared to control groups, significantly reduced small intestinal transit of charcoal meal. This study shows that antidiarrheal effect of P. spinosa extract is at least partially due to presence of two active compounds isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon.

  4. Embryology of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus (H. Milne-Edwards & Lucas 1842) and Libinia spinosa (H. Milne-Edwards 1834) (Brachyura, Majoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pisani, Ximena; Gaspar Dellatorre, Fernando; López-Greco, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The embryonic development of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa was divided into five periods based on the differentiation of: (I) cleavage, (II) embryonic primordium, III) optic lobes, (IV) optic lobes pigmented and (V) chromatophores presence. Different traits such as spines, setae and telson morphology distinguish the two species from period III until hatching. Egg volume was greater in Leurocyclus tuberculosus than in Libinia spinosa. The duration of each period was different during development. Whereas in Leurocyclus tuberculosus period II (morphogenesis) is the longest, in Libinia spinosa the period IV is the longest. Complete embryonic development at 14'C lasted 36.7 +/- 3.1 days in Leurocyclus tuberculosus and 57.4 +/- 4.4 days in Libinia spinosa.

  5. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Moluccella spinosa L. (Lamiaceae) collected wild in Sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Jemia, Mariem Ben; Riccobono, Luana; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Moluccella spinosa L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. spinosa L. were α-pinene (26.6%), caryophyllene oxide (16.8%) and β-caryophyllene (8.6%). A comparison with other studied oils of genus Moluccella is made. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical textiles were also determined.

  6. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  7. Six new cassane diterpenes from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongyang; Li, Yuanping; Tang, Hongbo; Ma, Ruijing; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Liqin

    2015-09-01

    Six new cassane diterpenes, isoneocaesalpin H (1), caespinosin A (2), caespinosin B (3), a cassane diterpene with unique 6/6/7 carbon rings, and caespinosins C-E (4-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze). The absolute configuration of isoneocaesalpin H (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 represents a class of rare natural cassane diterpene bearing unique 6/6/7 carbon rings. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Cassane diterpenes were firstly reported from Tara. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  8. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.

  9. Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect of argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) in Meriones shawi rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, H; Ettaib, A; Herrera Gonzalez, M D; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Bennani-Kabchi, N; Hmamouchi, M

    2003-11-01

    The potential health benefits of various dietary oils in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer are recently receiving considerable attention. The main proposal of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary argan oil, obtained from seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) endemic from Morocco, on serum lipids composition. Hyperlipidemia was induced by high calorie and cholesterol (HCC) diet administration in 16 rats (Meriones shawi, a rodent of the Gerbillideae family). Eight rats were treated with argan oil (1ml/100g weight) daily by oral route during 7 weeks (treated group). Control animals were also fed with HCC diet for 7 weeks. After 7-week treatment with argan oil, blood lipoproteins were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol decreased with 36.67% (Pargan oil in the treatment of the hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. This effect will be related with the polyunsaturated fatty acids and other constituents of studied oil.

  10. Insulin-sensitizing and Anti-proliferative Effects of Argania spinosa Seed Extracts

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    Samira Samane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2, ERK kinase (MEK1/2 and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  11. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-09-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  12. A multi-centric double blind homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Hygrophila spinosa

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    G Rakshit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to elicit the pathogenetic response of Hygrophila spinosa in homoeopathic potencies on healthy human volunteers. Methodology: The drug Hygrophila spinosa was proved by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH through randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method. The proving was conducted at three centres viz. Central Research Institute (H, [CRI (H] Noida, Drug Proving Unit [DPU], Bhubaneswar and Regional Research Institute (H [RRI (H], Kolkata. The drug was proved in two potencies (6C and 30C on 48 apparently healthy volunteers who were selected after conducting pre-trial medical examinations by the medical specialists and routine laboratory investigations. 32 of them where kept on interventional drug trial and remaining took placebo. At CRI (H, NOIDA, 56 dose schedule (i.e. 56 doses of drug/placebo were consumed in each batch was followed while at DPU, Bhubaneswar and at RRI (H, Kolkata, 12 dose schedule (i.e. 12 doses of drug/placebo were to be consumed in each batch was followed. The symptoms generated during the trial period were noted by the volunteers and elaborated by the Proving Masters which were compiled at Homoeopathic Drug Proving-cum-Data Processing cell of CCRH headquarters after decoding. Results: Out of 32 provers who were on interventional drug trial, only 14 manifested symptoms. The drug was able to produce symptoms in both the potencies. 92 symptoms appeared during the drug trial from various locations. Conclusion: The drug pathogenesis evolved indicates its therapeutic use for urticaria, frontal sinusitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, gastroenteritis, nausea (morning sickness, intermittent fever etc.

  13. Phytochemical Characterizationand in vivo Anti-inflammatory and Wound-healing Activities of Argania spinosa (L. Skeels Seed Oil

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    Hadjira Dakiche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracted oil of Argania spinosa (L. was investigated in regard to its fatty acid composition and polyphenols by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS and Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electro Spray Ionization-Quadruple Time Of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, respectively. The reduction rate of topical inflammation of extracted oil was calculated using a mouse model. The skin toxicity of argan oil on intact and damaged skin was assessed using a rabbit model. The findings revealed a rich content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and presence of phenolic acids. The oil exhibited a reduction of inflammation and facilitated a healing process without any irritation. The experimental study revealed that A. spinosa seed oil displays remarkable wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activities related to its chemical composition. Argan oil has positive potential for skin medicinal application.

  14. Actividad biológica de extractos crudos de Larrea divaricata Cav. y Capparis atamisquea Kuntze sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L. Biological activity of crude extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav. and Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Viglianco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades repelentes y antialimentarias de extractos crudos de dos plantas difundidas en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. y atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze., sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L.. Se estudiaron los extractos crudos en etanol, cloroformo y hexano de ambas especies. Para cada extracto se determino el coeficiente de disuasión total. Para las pruebas de repelencia se utilizaron papeles de filtro separados en dos mitades iguales; se determinaron los porcentajes de repelencia de cada extracto. Se observó mayor efecto antialimentario de los extractos de atamisqui con respecto a los de jarilla, y de los de hojas o tallos sobre los de frutos. El extracto de mayor efecto antialimentario fue el etanólico de tallos de atamisqui (clase ++++ seguido por los extractos etanólico y clorofórmico de hojas de esta especie (clase +++. Se observó un moderado efecto de repelencia de los extractos de jarilla y atamisqui sobre S. oryzae, destacándose el de hojas de atamisqui en hexano como el de mayor efecto de repelencia (clase IV. El extracto clorofórmico de hojas de atamisqui, los tres de hoja de jarilla y los clorofórmicos de tallos y frutos de jarilla presentaron efecto de repelencia (clase III.Repellent and antifeedant properties of crude extracts of two plants widely distributed in the province of Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. and atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae were studied. Crude extracts in ethanol, chloroform and hexane of both species were evaluated. The Total Deterrence Coefficient for each extract was determined. Repellence tests were conducted using filter paper separated in halves. Repellence percentages were determined for each extract. A greater antifeedant effect was observed in the atamisqui extracts than in the jarilla ones; the effect was also greater in extracts of leaves or twigs than in extracts of fruits. The extracts

  15. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (Pargan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  16. Observations on Phallocryptus Spinosa (Branchiopoda, Anostraca Populations from the high Plateaus of Northeastern Algeria

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    Mounia Amarouayache

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phallocryptus spinosa (Thamnocephalidae is a small primitive crustacean which lives in temporary saline pools of the Palaearctic region called Chott, Sebkha, Garâa or Daya in North Africa. Data on its biology and life history are very scarce despite its ecological importance in wetlands. Four populations living in the Northeastern High Plateaus of Algeria, Garâas Guellif, El-Tarf, Ank Djemel and Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, have been studied in point of view of their morphmetry (13 parameters and their reproduction. The population of Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, living in higher salinities and in sympatry with Artemia salina was different from the 3 other populations that are close together. Its adults are the largest (21.77 ± 2.34 mm and 23.65 ± 2.36 mm for males and females respectively and produce more cysts 771.47±8.45 cysts/brood of 293.11±10.41 µm diameter. Associated carcinological fauna and some behavioral traits are also approached.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

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    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  18. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.

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    Elżbieta Sikora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, simple sugars, dietary fibre and ash was determined. The amount of antioxidant compounds was also tested: β-carotene, vitamin C, polyphenols,in this anthocyannins,as well as  antioxidantactivity expressed as an ability to quench free radical ABTS. Analyses were repeated in fruits stored in frozen state for three months. Results.  On the basis of the obtained results, it was observed that concerning basal chemical composition, the blackthorn fruits do not single out among other fruits from Rosaceae family. It was also reported that blackthorn fruits are rich in polyphenolic  compounds, as well as in vitamin C, and those compounds, most probably contribute to their high antioxidant activity, being at the level of 43.6 μmol Trolox/g f.m. Storage in the freezing state reduced the contents of water, fat, dietary fiber and ash, but did not have significant impact on the other compounds. Conclusions. Blackthorn fruits may constitute valuable source for preparations (tincture, wines, and teas, as well as an additive to other fruit processing, as a product of great pro-healthy properties. Freezing process and storage in that state did not significantlyinfluence on nutritive and antioxidant compounds of blackthorn fruits. It may be therefore observed that several months of frozen storage is a good way to make them avail- able for fruit processing and for the consumers, also the off-season.  

  19. 酸枣仁总皂苷抗抑郁作用的实验研究%Antidepressant effect of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 王颖; 牟佳佳; 宋志国; 李金梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the antidepressant effect of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in mice.Methods To investigate the antidepressant activity of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by the forced swimming test and tail suspension test, with the immobility time of behavioral despair mice as the indicator. Results Different dose groups of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae significantly reduced the immobility time of the mice during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). Conclusion The total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae have antidepressant effect.%目的 研究酸枣仁总皂苷对行为绝望小鼠抑郁模型的影响.方法 采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验抑郁模型,小鼠行为绝望的不动时间作为指标,考察酸枣仁总皂苷抗抑郁活性.结果 酸枣仁总皂苷中、高剂量组均能减少小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾不动时间,与空白对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 酸枣仁总皂苷具有一定的抗抑郁作用.

  20. Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Khori, Vahid; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare

    2012-01-01

    The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay. PC3 cell lines treated with the extracts were analyzed for the induction of apoptosis by cell death detection (ELISA) and TUNEL assay. Dye exclusion analysis was performed for viability rate. Our results demonstrated that the Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract dose dependently suppressed the proliferation of PC3 cells (IC(50)= 250.21 μg/mL) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug (Toxol) (Vesper Pharmaceuticals) with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract attenuated the human prostate cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human prostate cell line.

  1. Effects of Tree Shelters on the Survival and Growth of Argania spinosa Seedlings in Mediterranean Arid Environment

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    Chamchelmaarif Defaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is endemic species of Morocco. It occupies an area of more than 8700 km2 and plays essential ecological and economical roles. In spite of their value, the argan woodlands are subject to rapid and uncontrolled degradation during the last decades, mainly due to overgrazing and systematic collection of argan nuts. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of two types of tree shelters on survival and growth of Argania spinosa seedlings planted in the southwest of Morocco in order to improve the results of reforestation programs which usually end by repeated failures. The experiment was conducted in the Mesguina forest for two growing seasons after transplantation in the field. After two years, the use of tree shelters significantly increased tree survival and allowed a gain of 20%. Height growth was positively affected by tree shelters. The use of tree shelters showed no significant decrease in basal diameter. In contrast, the height to diameter ratios of sheltered trees were much higher compared to the control. Thus, the use of the tree shelters could aid the early establishment and growth of Argania spinosa under conditions similar to those of the experiment.

  2. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

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    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure for the Conservation of Giant Spiny Frog (Quasipaa spinosa) Using Microsatellite Loci and Mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danna YU; Rongquan ZHENG; Qinfang LU; Guang YANG; Yao FU; Yun ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The giant spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa) is an endangered species with a relatively small distribution limited to southern China and Northern Vietnam. This species is becoming increasingly threatened because of over-exploitation and habitat degradation. This study provides data on the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the giant spiny frog to facilitate the further development of effective conservation recommendations for this economically important but threatened species. We examined 10 species-specific microsatellite loci and Cyt b genes (562 bp) collected from 13 wild populations across the entire range of this species. Results of 10 microsatellite loci analysis showed a generally high level of genetic diversity. Moreover, the genetic differentiation among all 12 populations was moderate to large (overall FST= 0.1057). A total of 51 haplotypes were identified for Cyt b, which suggests high haplotype nucleotide diversities. Phylogeographic and population structure analyses using both DNA markers suggested that the wild giant spiny frog can be divided into four distinct major clades, i.e., Northern Vietnam, Western China, Central China, and Eastern China. The clades with significant genetic divergence are reproductively isolated, as evidenced by a high number of private alleles and strong incidence of failed amplification in microsatellite loci. Our research, coupled with other studies, suggests that Q. spinosa might be a species complex within which no detectable morphological variation has been revealed. The four phylogenetic clades and some subclades with distinct geographical distribution should be regarded as independent management units for conservation purposes.

  4. Review on the Application of Capparis in Garden and Park Greening%山柑属植物在园林绿化中的应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付涌玉

    2011-01-01

    The application of Capparis in garden and park was classified and summed up through systematic literature investigation and their resource type, ornamental characteristics and application were reviewed. The results showed that Capparis possessed resource types of check winds and fix drifting sand, medicinal, edible and feeding and ornamental characteristics of flower, fruit and tree, so they could be applied in aspects of greening desert and drought area, greening specific medicinal botanical graden and vertical greening of garden and park.%通过系统文献调研,对山柑属植物的园林应用进行分类归纳,并对该属植物的资源类型、观赏特性及应用进行了综述.结果表明,山柑属植物具有防风固沙、药用、食用、饲用等资源类型和观花、观果、观树等观赏特性,可用于荒漠与干旱区绿化、药用植物专类园绿化和园林垂直绿化等方面.

  5. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant.

  6. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  7. Ecología, etnobotánica y etnofarmacología del argán (Argania spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    López Sáez, José Antonio; Alba Sánchez, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    Argania spinosa es una especie leñosa endémica del suroeste de Marruecos que ha jugado un papel fundamental, desde un punto de vista etnobotánico, en la economía local de los pueblos bereberes. El aceite de argán se extrae de manera artesanal de los frutos de esta planta siguiendo un modelo etnográfico de gran interés. En el presente trabajo se sintetizan, mediante una profunda revisión bibliográfica, los conocimientos referidos a la ecología, etnobotánica y etnofarmacología del argán y se de...

  8. The New Technology of the Rana spinosa David Artificial Propagation and Cultivation%棘胸蛙人工繁育新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宝成

    2011-01-01

    在模拟棘胸蛙的野生态环境情况下,通过人工控制养殖池水的水温和酸碱度,根据棘胸蛙的生活特性,合理进行亲蛙选育、蝌蚪培育、幼蛙饲养和病害防治的技术改良,可以达到棘胸蛙年产卵次数达6~7次,年产卵量达1935粒,蛙卵孵化率达96.1%,蝌蚪变态率达96.5%,幼蛙成活率达96.8%的养殖效果。%We simulate the environment of the wild Rana Spinosa David,so that we can control temperature,basicity and acidity of the water.According to the living characteristic of Rana Spinosa David,we choose the parents of froggy,bring tadpole and little froggy up,make prevention of disease in improving technology rationally,the Rana Spinosa David can spawn 6~7 times with 1935 spawns every year,the frog incubation rate can reach as high as 96.1%,the tadpole metamorphosis rate 96.5%,the young frog survival rate 96.8%.

  9. Isolation and characterization of stigmast-5-en-3β-ol (β-sitosterol from the leaves of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Patra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae commonly known as ‘Talmakhana’ in Hindi contains a number of phytoconstituents viz. alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, amino acids, proteins, phenolic acids, enzymes, vitamins, sugars, minerals, flavonoids, gums & ucilage, terpenoids etc. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize phytoconstituents(s from the chloroform extract of Hygrophila spinosa leaves. Methods: Chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatography and eluted with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity, composed of petroleum ether, benzene and chloroform to isolate phytoconstituents. The structure of the isolated compound was established on the basis of elemental analysis and spectroscopic evidences (IR, UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS. Results: A sterol, stigmast-5-en-3β-ol was isolated from the chloroform extract of the leaves of the plant. The yield of the compound was 0.0046% w/w, m.p. 136- 1380C, λmax in EtOH: 206 nm, Rf value 0.72 in Toluene: Ether: Cyclohexane (5:2:1. Conclusions: Hygrophila spinosa contains β-sitosterol which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of the plant.

  10. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  11. Morphological characterization of in-situ variability in kair (Capparis decidua and its management for biodiversity conservation in Thar desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Mahla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Kair [Capparis decidua (Forsk.] is one of the important indigenous multipurpose shrub of hot arid ecosystem with the ability to survive in various habitats unattended and unprotected. Besides many socioeconomic and ecological benefits, it has a number of medicinal properties as the plants have significant pharmacological activities like hypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti plaque, antihypertensive, antihelmintic and purgative activities. CAZRI, RRS Jaisalmer have 1000 ha rangeland in which density of kair shrubs are more than 15 besides Zizyphus, Acacia and Prosopis species. In natural population, rich genetic diversity with wide range of variability is available for plant types, bearing habit, fruit size, colour of fruits, spiny habit, plant spread and compactness of canopy, flower colour, time of flowering and fruiting, etc. In general two distinct plant types of kair occur, tree form having more than 5 m height whereas majority occurred as bushes. It appears that plant attains tree form when it grows from seed and remains undisturbed. On the other hand, plants that get exposed to biotic interference may tend to produce more shoots and also propagates through root suckers. There are lot of variation exists for spine length (2-5 mm but plants with very less rudimentary spines and sometimes spineless also found in nature. Kair flowers throughout the year; February - March (Ambe Bahar, July - August (Mrig Bahar and October - November (Hast Bahar but profuse flowering occurs only in Ambe Bahar which gives quality fruits in ample quantity. A wide diversity in flower colour can be seen from light red to scarlet red but plants with yellow flowers also exist in the natural stands of rangeland

  12. Investigation on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening ofRandia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irulandi Kokkaiah; Geetha Sethupandian; Mehalingam Palanichamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity ofRandia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir. andDillenia pentagyna Roxb. leaf extracts against human pathogens such as Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis andStaphyllococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae andPseudomonas aeruginosa), and a fungusCandida albicans. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the two plants against the human pathogens was investigated by agar well diffusion method, and qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted for the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, catechins, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of diverse range of compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The plants exhibited broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against all the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in methanol extracts when compared with acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. The present study demonstrated that the selected plants had promising effect on the bacterial and fungal pathogens. Conclusions: The phytochemicals in the plants may be potentially responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of these medicinal plants.

  13. Quality analysis of commercial samples of Ziziphi spinosae semen (suanzaoren by means of chromatographic fingerprinting assisted by principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of resources of Ziziphi spinosae semen (ZSS, many inferior goods and even adulterants are generally found in medicine markets. To strengthen the quality control, HPLC fingerprint common pattern established in this paper showed three main bioactive compounds in one chromatogram simultaneously. Principal component analysis based on DAD signals could discriminate adulterants and inferiorities. Principal component analysis indicated that all samples could be mainly regrouped into two main clusters according to the first principal component (PC1, redefined as Vicenin II and the second principal component (PC2, redefined as zizyphusine. PC1 and PC2 could explain 91.42% of the variance. Content of zizyphusine fluctuated more greatly than that of spinosin, and this result was also confirmed by the HPTLC result. Samples with low content of jujubosides and two common adulterants could not be used equivalently with authenticated ones in clinic, while one reference standard extract could substitute the crude drug in pharmaceutical production. Giving special consideration to the well-known bioactive saponins but with low response by end absorption, a fast and cheap HPTLC method for quality control of ZSS was developed and the result obtained was commensurate well with that of HPLC analysis. Samples having similar fingerprints to HPTLC common pattern targeting at saponins could be regarded as authenticated ones. This work provided a faster and cheaper way for quality control of ZSS and laid foundation for establishing a more effective quality control method for ZSS.

  14. Flavor improvement of Rana spinosa enzymatic hydrolysate%石蛙的酶解液化及风味改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君

    2012-01-01

    Rana spinosa meat was hydrolyzed by papain and neutral protease. Lactic acid bacteria and rice wine yeasts were used to improve the flavor of the hydrolysate. Results indicate that neutral protease is superior to papain. The amount of amino nitrogen included in fermentation broth fermented by lactic acid bacteria is higher. The fermenting liquor from lactic acid bacteria flavor is better than that from rice wine yeast.%在酶适宜的环境条件下,利用木瓜蛋白酶与中性蛋白酶酶解石蛙肉及利用乳酸菌、黄酒酵母对酶解液进行风味改良。结果表明,中性蛋白酶对石蛙的水解效果较好,乳酸菌发酵液中氨态氮含量较高,乳酸菌发酵液风味改良效果优于黄酒酵母。

  15. Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

    2010-09-01

    Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

  16. A complete enzymatic recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues with extracellular enzymes from Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Dong; McClendon, Shara; Le, Tien; Taylor, Frank; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2006-12-20

    An economic ferulic acid recovery from biomass via biological methods is of interest for a number of reasons. Ferulic acid is a precursor to vanillin synthesis. It is also a known antioxidant with potential food and medical applications. Despite its universal presence in all plant cell wall material, the complex structure of the plant cell wall makes ferulic acid recovery from biomass a challenging bioprocess. Previously, without pretreatment, very low (3-13%) recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues was achieved. We report here the discovery of a filamentous fungus Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185 capable of producing a full complement of enzymes to release ferulic acid and the development of an enzymatic process for a complete recovery of ferulic acid from corn bran and corn fibers. A partial characterization of the extracellular proteome of the microbe revealed the presence of at least seven cellulases and hemicellulases activities, including multiple iso-forms of xylanase and ferulic acid esterase. The recovered ferulic acid was bio-converted to vanillin, demonstrating its potential application in natural vanillin synthesis. The enzymatic ferulic acid recovery accompanied a significant release of reducing sugars (76-100%), suggesting much broader applications of the enzymes and enzyme mixtures from this organism.

  17. Characterization and hepatoprotective effect of polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Wu, Shuangchan; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xuyan; Niu, Yunhui; Cao, Xiaoqin; Huang, Fuwei; Ding, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp (PWJS) is evaluated for the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect. The characteristics of PWJS were determined by FT-IR spectral and HPLC analysis. The antioxidant activity was investigated using in vitro systems. An in vivo study of PWJS against CCl4 induced liver injury was also conducted. HPLC analysis showed that PWJS is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, rich in glucose (38.59%), arabinose (23.16%), galacturonic acid (17.64%) and galactose (10.44%). PWJS displayed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, PWJS treatment lowered the serum levels of ALT and AST in CCl4-intoxicated mice. Additionally, levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and GSH were elevated in liver damage mice by PWJS intervention, while content of MDA was lessened. Meanwhile, PWJS reverses the suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increases the protein expression of HO-1, GSTα and NQO1 in liver damage mice. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the condition of liver damage was mitigated. This study demonstrates that PWJS reverses hepatotoxicity in CCl4-intoxicated mice through the mechanisms of antioxidant activity, as well as an augmentation of the Nrf2 pathway in liver tissue.

  18. Hplc-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the water-soluble extract from Ziziphi spinosae semen and its ameliorating effect of learning and memory performance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge Hu ex H. F. Chow., is a traditional herb for insomnia and anxiety in eastern Asia. However, few researches have been concerned with its effect on ameliorating memory and learning performance. Objective: To investigate the constituents of ZSS water soluble extract and its ameliorating learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: A new high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the main constituents in the extract. The effect of ZSS water soluble extract on memory and learning performance was investigated in mice by Y-maze and passive avoidance test. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the number of errors (NOE, and increase the transfer latency time (TLT and electrical stimuli time (EST. In addition, spinosin, jujuboside A (JuA and jujuboside B (JuB were simultaneously identified and quantified in the extract. Their contents in the extract were as followed: Spinosin (223.51mg/g, JuA (63.76mg/g and JuB (26.29mg/g. Conclusion: The extract played a promising role in ameliorating memory in mice with alcohol induced memory retrieval disorders, and might help to improve learning capacity to some extent. Spinosin, JuA and JuB were the predominant constituents, which might be mainly responsible for the definite activity.

  19. Feeding habits of the spider crab Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (Decapoda, Brachyura in Ubatuba bay, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara de Paiva Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the identification of the items of the diet of the L. spinosa, based on the stomach contents analysis. The crabs were obtained from Ubatuba region north-eastern shore of São Paulo State. In the laboratory, all the individuals were dissected, the stomach was retreated and fixed in 10% formaline. The alimentary items were identified under stereomicroscope and analysed by the method of Frequency of Occurrence. A total of 194 stomachs was analysed and nine alimentary items were obtained. Unindentified material was found in 98% of analysed stomach and poriferan were present in less then 1% of stomachs. These results pointed a diversified diet explored by this crab, as well as the employment of some different methods for food intake. This suggested that these crabs could occupy different position in the trophic chain.O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os itens alimentares que compõem a dieta de L. spinosa, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. Os caranguejos foram coletados no litoral norte paulista (23º25’S-45º00’W. No laboratório, todos indivíduos foram dissecados, os estômagos foram retirados e fixados em formol 10%. Os itens alimentares foram identificados sob estereomicroscópio, sendo que para a análise foi utilizado o método Freqüência de Ocorrência. Foram analisados 194 estômagos, nos quais foram encontrados nove itens alimentares. A maior freqüência foi para material não identificado, ocorrendo em 98% dos estômagos analisados e Porifera foi o item com a menor freqüência, ocorrendo em menos de 1% dos estômagos. Com base nos resultados obtidos, sugere-se que o caranguejo L. spinosa apresenta uma dieta diversificada, sugerindo a utilização de diferentes métodos para a obtenção de alimento e por conseqüência podendo ocupar vários níveis na cadeia trófica.

  20. Preparation of A Health Jelly using Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Poria Cocos%酸枣仁、茯神营养果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 李和平; 李云芳

    2011-01-01

    Using Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Poria cocos as the main raw material, the preparation of a heath jelly was studied. The best processing conditions were as follows: 4.8% of beanjuice, 0.4% of konjak, 0.1% of agar, l 5% of white sugar, and 0.1% of citric acid, under which the produdct showed a special refreshing flavor with comprehensive nutrition of semen ziziphi spinosae and poria cocos health jelly. The products was delicious with a milky white appearance and without any artificial pigment.%以酸枣仁和茯神为主要原料,辅以白砂糖、食用胶凝剂和柠檬酸等研制出果冻.通过实验确定营养果冻的最佳配方为:卡拉胶0.4%,海藻酸钠0.2%,白砂糖12%,蛋白糖1%,酸枣仁、茯神提取液15%,柠檬酸0.2%,柠檬酸钠0.1%,乳粉8%.生产产品香味特别,风味爽口,营养全面且具有较好保健功能的酸枣仁茯神果冻.产品呈乳白色,酸甜可口,不含防腐剂,不添加色素、香精,是值得信赖的健康食品.

  1. Research Progress of Spinosad Produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa%刺糖多孢菌生产多杀菌素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡恒; 王燕; 万红贵; 蒋导航; 王汉领; 赵宗松

    2011-01-01

    The spinosad, produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa, is an new-style microbiological insecticide. Spinosad with the properties of both safety of biological pesticide and fast effect of agrochemical, has a weak toxicity towards mammalian, natural enemies of insects and environment. Thus, it has obtained permission and used in many countries. At present the research of spinosad in our country is still in the laboratory, and the lower yields of spinosad limited its industrial production. The structure of spinosad and its biosynthesis were summarized. The fermentation medium optimization, breeding of high spinosad producing strains, and its derivatives were reviewed.%多杀菌素(spinosacl)是由放线菌刺糖多孢菌(Saccharopolyspora spinosa)发酵产生的新型生物杀虫剂.多杀菌素由于具有生物农药的安全性,化学合成农药的速效性,以及对哺乳动物、昆虫天敌和环境安全等特点,已在多个国家获准使用.目前我国多杀菌素的研究尚处于实验室阶段,产量相对较低,尚不具备工业化生产的条件.对多杀菌素的结构、生物合成途径、发酵培养基优化、高产菌株的选育及其衍生物等进行了综述.

  2. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  3. Study on the antidepressant effect of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae%酸枣仁总黄酮抗抑郁作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 王颖; 牟佳佳; 宋志国; 李金梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究酸枣仁总黄酮对行为绝望小鼠抑郁模型的影响.[方法]采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验等抑郁模型,小鼠行为绝望的不动时间作为指标,考察酸枣仁总黄酮抗抑郁活性.[结果]酸枣仁总黄酮低、中、高剂量组均能减少小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾不动时间,与空白组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与阳性药组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),[结论]酸枣仁总黄酮具有显著的抗小鼠实验性抑郁作用.%[Objective] To observe the antidepressant effect of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in mice. [Methods] To inves tigate the antidepressant activity of total Flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test, with behavioral despair mice in the immobility time as an indicator. [Results] Different dose groups of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae could significantly reduce the immobility time of mice during the forced swimming test and the tail Suspension test, compared with that of the control group (P<O.05); compared with that of the positive group (P<O.05). [Conclusion] The total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae possess had significant antidepressant effects.

  4. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  5. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant%Total phenolic,total flavonoid content,and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb.,an Indian medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Biplab De; N Devanna; Raja Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents,and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb.ex Link,a traditional medicinal plant of India.METHODS:Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol,ethyl acetate,and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays,including the 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging,superoxide anion scavenging,hydroxyl radical scavenging,nitric oxide radical scavenging,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity,metal chelating assay,and reducing power ability method.Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method.Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures.RESULTS:Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g,respectively.The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH,superoxide anion,hydroxyl radical,nitric oxide radical,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41),(35.9 ± 0.19),(24.1 ± 0.33),(23.7 ± 0.09),(126.8 ± 2.92),and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL-1,respectively.The methanol e.xtract showed potent reducing power ability,total antioxidant activity,and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards.CONCLUSION:The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts,which may the foremost contributors to the

  6. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L) e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus) Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa) and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus)

    OpenAIRE

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz; BEELEN, P. M. G.; Silva,D.S.; PEREIRA, W. E.; Beelen, R; Beltrão,F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC) e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L) e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd). As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT) das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difu...

  7. Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.S.B.S. Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd. As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difusão radial. Para a DIVMS, foi utilizado método de dois estágios. Foram observadas diferenças entre as espécies (PCondensed tannins (CT of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii, flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera, feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus were characterized and the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of those species were determined. Concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT of the plants was determined using butanol-HCL method; astringency was determined, using radial diffusion method, and the IVDMD was determined using two-stages method. Concentration and astringency of condensed tannins varied between species (P<0.01. Jureminha was the species that presented the highest value (2.4% TT and 13.7-3 astringency. No tannins were detected in flor-de-seda. Crude protein was higher than 16% in all studied species, and the ADF and lignin values were lower than 39 and 15%, respectively. The IVDMD was low in jureminha (43% and high in flor-de-seda (80%. The correlation between IVDMD and TT was low (r²=0.097.

  8. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  9. Study of Composition of Amino Acids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Its Nutritive Evaluation%酸枣仁氨基酸组成分析及营养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 李贞; 刘海英

    2016-01-01

    以酸枣仁为原料,分别采用凯氏定氮法和氨基酸自动分析仪法测定酸枣仁的蛋白质含量和氨基酸组成,以WHO/FAO的必需氨基酸模式为标准,应用氨基酸模糊识别法和氨基酸比值系数法对其营养价值进行综合评价。结果表明:酸枣仁蛋白质含量高达40%(干重),酸枣仁蛋白质中含有18种常见氨基酸,谷氨酸含量最高,占总氨基酸的30.95%,蛋氨酸含量最低,占总氨基酸的0.37%;必需氨基酸(EAA)含量占总氨基酸的23.60%,赖氨酸是酸枣仁第一限制性氨基酸。氨基酸模糊识别法和氨基酸比值系数法计算得出酸枣仁蛋白质与标准蛋白(鸡蛋)的贴近度为0.5609,氨基酸比值系数法计算酸枣仁氨基酸比值系数分仅为22.78,酸枣仁蛋白质中氨基酸比例不够均衡。%Kjeldahl fixed nitrogen and amino acid automatic analyzer method were used to determinate protein content and amino acid composition of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Using the essential amino acid pattern of WHO/FAO as the standard, the nutritional value was evaluated by using the method of fuzzy recognition and amino acid ratio coefficient. The results showed that protein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae content as high as 40%(dry weight), protein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae contains 18 kinds of amino acid, glutamic acid content was the highest, 30.95%of total amino acids, methionine content was the lowest, 0.37%of total amino acids. The con-tent of essential amino acids(EAA) accounted for 23.60%of total amino acid, lysine is the first limiting amino acid in suanzaoren. Amino acid fuzzy recognition and ratio coefficient of amino acid (AA) calculated protein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae with the standard protein(eggs) of closeness degree for the 0.560 9 and ratio coefficient of amino acid (calculation of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae ratio coefficient of amino acid score was just 22.78, pro-tein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in the amino acid ratio was

  10. 中国特有产甜蛋白植物马槟榔常规繁育技术研究%Researches on Conventional Breeding Technology of Capparis masaikai Levl., a Sweet-protein Producing Plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 于旭东; 顾文亮; 朱会军; 胡新文; 郭建春

    2011-01-01

    研究濒危植物马槟榔的种子繁殖和压条繁殖方法,为其异地保护、繁殖和有效利用建立基础.探索种子预处理方法、存放时间、播种方法以及不同激素、温度、基质等对发芽率的影响,并研究普通压条和高空压条繁育技术.马槟榔种子为中度顽拗性种子,去除果皮后:晒干种子发芽率低;30℃烘干24 h种子发芽率为0;阴凉处晾干表面种子发芽率最高,离开母体种子约72天后种子失去活力.其最佳播种方法为:每年的11-12月,用新鲜种子播种,播种基质为红壤土:椰糠=1∶1;对种子进行开裂处理和激素处理有助于种子快速萌发并提高发芽率,而以10mg/L GA3的效果最佳,提前至少5天萌发.高于65℃低于100℃的热水处理4 h能提高种子的萌发率.高空压条是马槟榔较好的压条繁殖方法.该研究成功探索出了马槟榔较好的常规繁殖方法,可广泛应用于该植物的异地保护和小规模扩繁.%The objective is establishing the foundation for Capparis masakai ex-situ protection, propagation and utilization effectively by studying on the methods of seed breeding and layering.The facts of the seed pretreatment, seed storage, seed sowing and the different hormones, hot-water, and substrates on seed germination have been studied.At the same time, the technologies of common layering and air layering were also researched.The results showed that the seeds of Capparis masaikai belong to moderate recalcitrant ones,which lost their activity after about 72 days leaving mother plants.The dry seeds partly lowest or completely lost their activity drying in the sun or by oven, respectively.However, the seeds in nature conditions have high activity.The best sowing method was that the fresh seeds were sown on the substrate (red loam∶coconut residuum= 1∶1) in November or December.The seeds were cracked or pretreated with hormones could improve germination rate, and the best hormone was 10 mg/L GA3

  11. An Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Drought Tolerance in Argan Tree (Argania spinosa) Populations: Potential for the Development of Improved Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhchar, Abdelghani; Haworth, Matthew; El Modafar, Cherkaoui; Lauteri, Marco; Mattioni, Claudia; Wahbi, Said; Centritto, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification. In this study we collected argan ecotypes from four contrasting habitats and grew them under identical controlled environment conditions to investigate their response to drought. Leaf gas exchange analysis indicated that the argan ecotypes showed a high degree of adaptation to drought stress, maintaining photosynthetic activity at low levels of foliar water content and co-ordinating photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and metabolism. The stomata of the argan trees were highly sensitive to increased leaf to air vapor pressure deficit, representing an adaptation to growth in an arid environment where potential evapotranspiration is high. However, despite originating in contrasting environments, the four argan ecotypes exhibited similar gas exchange characteristics under both fully irrigated and water deficit conditions. Population genetic analyses using microsatellite markers indicated a high degree of relatedness between the four ecotypes; indicative of both artificial selection and the transport of ecotypes between different provinces throughout centuries of management of the argan forest. The majority of genetic variation across the four populations (71%) was observed between individuals, suggesting that improvement of argan is possible. Phenotypic screening of physiological responses to drought may prove effective in identifying

  12. Rapid characterization of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by UPLC/Qtof MS with novel informatics platform and its application in evaluation of two seeds from Ziziphus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-xiang; Li, Min; Qiao, Li-rui; Yao, Zhi-hong; Li, Chang; Shen, Xiu-yu; Wang, Yu; Yu, Kate; Yao, Xin-sheng; Dai, Yi

    2016-04-15

    A strategy for rapid identification of target and non-target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) extracts were proposed by utilizing the UNIFI informatics platform for the computer-assisted UPLC/Qtof MS data analyses. Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) contains various bioactive chemical ingredients, such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Currently, there is no method that allows rapid and comprehensive identification of these multiple components. The rapid identification of chemical components in ZSS was successfully achieved with this strategy. As a result, 60 target components were identified and 53 non-target components were characterized. Among them, chemical structures of 40 new components were deduced based on their characteristic MS fragmentation patterns. In addition, the chemical ingredients of Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen (ZMS), which is often used as substitution of ZSS, were also investigated with the same strategy. A total of 132 chemical components were identified from these two plants, including 7 additional non-target new components. It demonstrated that this strategy not only facilitated an efficient protocol for the screening and identification of target components, but also offered a new perspective on discovering non-target components in TCMs or other herbal medicines. Furthermore, 48 components were selected for semi-quantitative analyses to evaluate the difference in chemical ingredients between these two seeds of Ziziphus species. The results showed that ZSS enriched many saponins, while ZMS contained few saponins. On the contrary, many cyclopeptide alkaloids could be detected in ZMS with high content, but rare in ZSS. These results can be used for the differentiation between ZSS and its adulterant (ZMS), and also to set a scientific foundation for the establishment of quality control of ZSS.

  13. 酸枣叶多糖抗氧化性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎进; 闫军; 周俊丽; 孔丽霞; 张海容

    2013-01-01

    The polysaccharides from the leaves of Zizyphus jujuba cv. spinosa were extracted with ultrasonic method, meanwhile, the antioxidant activities of the crude polysaccharides (CP) and deproteinated polysaccharides (DP) were investigated in vitro by determining the scavenging effects on·OH, O2-·, DPPH·, ABTS·and reducing capacity. The results showed that both CP and DP exhibited strong scavenging effects on ·OH, O2-·, DPPH·, ABTS·and reducing capacity, the antioxidant activities of CP were higher than that of DP. The dose-effect relationship was obviously. The polysaccharide is an excellent natural antioxidant and scavenging reagent on radicals, and has a broad development prospects.%  采用超声波法提取酸枣叶多糖,考察酸枣叶粗多糖(CP)和脱蛋白多糖(DP)对·OH、O2-·、DPPH·和ABTS·的清除作用及还原能力。结果表明,CP和DP均具有较强的清除·OH、O2-·、DPPH·和ABTS·作用和还原能力,CP抗氧化活性高于DP;并且清除率与浓度之间存在明显量效关系。酸枣叶多糖是一种优良的天然抗氧化剂和自由基清除剂,具有广泛的开发前景。

  14. Effective components of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for sedative-hypnotic based on receptor ligand binding assay%基于受体配体结合技术研究酸枣仁镇静催眠活性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳虹; 高瑞萍; 王军业; 叶晓琼; 潘雪刁; 臧林泉; 唐旗羚; 郭纪全; 王其友; 祝曙光; 王有娣; 杨晨; 高思远; 刘金泳

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine the effective compo-nents of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for sedative-hypnotic and its mechanism. Methods The extraction of Se-men Ziziphi Spinosae and the rat brain homogenates were prepared. High concentrations of Diazepam com-petitively replaced the ligand compounds of Semen Ziz-iphi Spinosae combining BDZ receptor in brain tissue, and all the compounds with sedative and hypnotic effects were collected and identified by HPLC and LC-MS technique, as the compounds extracted from the brain tissue were administered with Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae. The brain tissue was administered with Diaze-pam, and with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Diazepam. Results The HPLC chromatograms show that the peak time of BDZ receptor ligand compounds was 2. 71 min and 46. 87min, when compared with Diazepam. And the LC-MS chromatograms display the relative molecu-lar weight of the ligand compounds was 274. 28 m/z, 453. 34 m/z,496. 34 m/z and 608. 38 m/z respective-ly. According to the fingerprint of Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae, these compounds may be fatty acid substances and lupine pill triterpene compounds. Conclusions On the basis of the principle of receptor ligand bind-ing, we established a way to quickly analyze and iden-tify the role of natural products in the same drug target compounds. The method not only can clearly define the effective components of natural products, but also clar-ify the mechanism of action of the compounds. The ac-tive ingredient of calm hypnosis in Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae may be fatty acid substances Palmitic acid ( C16 H32 O2 ) and lupine pill triterpene compounds Alphitolic acid( C30 H48 O4 ) and Spinosin( C28 H32 O15 ) . They exert their sedative and hypnotic effects by combining with BDZ receptor, and the research has laid a theoretical foundation for the further study about mechanism of Se-men Ziziphi Spinosae.%目的:利用受体配体结合法探索酸枣仁中镇静催眠的活性成分,以及该成分的镇静催眠作用机制与苯二氮卓

  15. Effect of vegetable oils on the growth and spinosad biosynthetic potency of Saccharopolyspora spinosa%植物油对刺糖多孢菌生长及其合成多杀菌素能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马坤; 裘娟萍; 赵春田

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of vegetable oils on the growth and spinosad biosynthetic potency of Saccharopolyspora spinosa and explore new methods to improve the yield of spinosad,six kinds of vegetable oils,including sunflower oil,peanut oil,soybean oil,sesame oil, olive oil and rapeseed oil were screened. To study their influence on the growth,the lipase activity and the spinosad synthetic potency of S. spinosa,different vegetable oils were added to the fermentation medium as partial carbon sources,respectively. In addition,the temporal transcriptional profiles of the lipase gene and some selected genes in the spinosad biosynthetic pathway were examined by RT-PCR. The results indicated that the effects of different vegetable oils on the growth of S. spinosa and the production of spinosad varied significantly,which were that rapeseed oil ﹥olive oil ﹥peanut oil ﹥sesame oil ﹥sunflower oil ﹥soybean oil. The rapeseed oil was conducive to the induction of lipase expression,the delay of the decline phase of S. spinosa and the extension of the spinosad synthetic period. And the lipase activity,the biomass and the yield of spinosad were improved by 310. 09%, 8. 97% and 33. 94%,respectively. The transcriptional intensity of lipase gene and spinosad synthetic genes were also promoted. Thus the rapeseed oil was the optimal candidate of auxiliary carbon sources among the selected vegetable oils.%为研究不同种类植物油对刺糖多孢菌生长及其合成多杀菌素能力的影响,探索提高多杀菌素产量的方法,在发酵培养基中分别添加葵花油、花生油、大豆油、芝麻油、橄榄油和菜籽油,研究了其对菌体生长、脂肪酶活性和多杀菌素产量的影响,并利用RT-PCR对脂肪酶基因及多杀菌素合成相关基因的转录水平进行分析。结果表明:6种供试植物油对菌体生长和多杀菌素产量的影响程度不同,依次为菜籽油﹥橄榄油﹥花生油﹥芝麻油﹥

  16. 基于均匀设计法对酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的配伍研究%Uniform Designed Research on the Active Ingredients Assembling of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for Anti-depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕾

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen out the optimized compatibility proportion of three active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae foranti-depression.Methods Groups were ar anged fol owing uniform design. The forced swimming test,tail suspension test were car ied out to determine theanti-depressantactivity in mice.Mice immobility duration in forced swimming test and tail suspension test were observed.Results The optimized dosage of total fat y oil was 10mg/kg,total flavonoids was 100mg/kg and total saponins was 10mg/kg.Conclusion It would be possible to use uniform design combined with pharmacodynamics method in defining the optimized compatibility of active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae.%目的优选酸枣仁中3种抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍比例。方法根据均匀设计法进行分组,采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验,用小鼠不动时间作为药效学评价指标。结果酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最优配伍为总脂肪油10mg/Kg,总黄酮100mg/Kg,总皂苷10mg/Kg。验证实验证明,酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍组合抗抑郁疗效确切。结论应用均匀设计法与药效学相结合确定酸枣仁活性组分配伍的方法是可行的。

  17. 酸枣仁汤对DL-4-氯苯基丙氨酸所致失眠的药效学研究%The Research into Efficacy of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in Treating Insomnia due to DL-4-chlorobenzene alanine of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军武; 田凡; 邹文信; 张亚宁; 张胜威

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pharmacological action mechanism of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in treating insomnia due to DL-4-chlorobenzene alanine of rats.Methods:Fifty rats were randomly divided into the normal control group,the model group,the diazepam group,the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,and the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,with 10 cases in each group.They were fed adaptively for 2 days,then given medicine and their mass was measured each day.The ones in the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae were given 12 g · kg-1 of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for gavage,while the ones in the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae were given 6 g·kg-1 of Decoction of Semen Zizipbi Spinosae,the ones in the diazepam group were given 1 mg · kg-1 of diazepam,the ones in the normal control group,the model group were given the same volume of distilled water through administration by gavage according to body mass.The model of rats' insomnia due to DL-4-chlorobenzene alanine was established.Then the influence of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae on the number of independent activities of rats with insomnia was observed.The contents of 5-HT,5 HIAA,GABA,GLU,NA of the brain were detected by using Elisa method.Results:Compared with the model group,the number of independent activities of rats in the diazepam group,the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,and the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,was higher than that of the model control group,but there were no significant differences between them (P>0.05).The contents of 5-HT,5 HIAA,GABA,GLU,NA of the brain in the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,and the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae had obvious changes,but compared with the model group,the differences between them had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion:The group

  18. Study on Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae%酸枣仁提取物定性定量分析方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕福钧; 林彤; 江英桥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish thin layer chromatography(TLC)method for identifying the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, and to develop a method of high performance liquid chromatography- evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD)for the simultaneous determination of jujuboside A,jujuboside B and spinosin in the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Methods N-butanol saturated with water was used as solvent system and silica gel G was used as stationary phase for the identification of extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. HPLC-ELSD method was adopted for the quantitative analysis. The analysis was performed on a Kromasil C18 column(200 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile(A)-water(B)by gradient elution(0~15 min,20 %A→40 %A;15~22 min,40 %A;22~24 min,40 % A→80 % A;24~30 min,80 % A→100 % A;30~40 min,100 % A) at 25 ℃ with a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The evaporative light scattering detector was set at 50 ℃,and the decay gradient was set at 6. Results The TLC method was good for the identification of extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. The linear range was 0.105~1.68 μg (r=0.9998)for jujuboside A ,0.0743~1.1885 μg(r=0.9995)for jujuboside B,and 0.2972~4.757μg (r=0.9992)for spinosin. The average recoveries(n=6) of three components were 97.6 %,99.9% and 104.8 % and RSD was 1.2 %,1.9 %and 1.0 %,respectively. Conclusion The TLC method is rapid and stable. The HPLC-ELSD method is accurate and reproducible. The established methods are suitable for the identification and quantitative determination of the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.%目的:建立酸枣仁提取物薄层色谱鉴别方法及高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法(HPLC-ELSD)同时测定酸枣仁皂苷A、B和斯皮诺素含量的方法。方法以水饱和正丁醇为展开剂,采用硅胶G板进行定性鉴别;采用HPLC-ELSD法进行定量测定,Kromasil C18色谱柱(200 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相为乙腈(A)-水(B),梯度洗脱(0

  19. A NEW ANGULAR FURANOFLAVONOL RHAMNOSIDE FROM SEEDS OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA VAR.SPINOSA(BUNGE) HU%酸枣仁中一个新的角型呋喃黄酮苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 毕志明; 李萍; 叶文才; 易玲

    2005-01-01

    A new flavonol rhamnoside was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa(Bunge) Hu.The process was as follows:70% EtOH extract of the seeds of this plant was successively partitioned with petroleum ether,ethyl acetate and n-BuOH;then the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to silica gel column chromatography followed by Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography,to afford the compound.On the basis of spectral analysis and acid hydro-lysis,the structure was confirmed to be an angular furanoflavonol rhamnoside,which is a novel compound,named spinorhamnoside.%对鼠李科植物酸枣仁的化学成分进行了研究,分离得到一个新的角型呋喃黄酮苷类化合物.研究流程如下:药材的70%乙醇提取物依次用石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取,乙酸乙酯部分再经过反复硅胶柱层析后得到一个黄酮苷类化合物.经酸水解和波谱分析,其结构确证为一个新的角型呋喃黄酮鼠李糖苷,命名为spinorhamnoside.

  20. ExperimentaI Study of the Hypnotic Effect of the CompatibiIity of Sedum aizoon L.and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa by Increase-decrease BaseIine Geometric Proportion Design Method%基于基线等比增减法的养心草配伍酸枣仁安神药效的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 林珠灿; 张睿卓; 郭素华

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the optimal proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa on hypnotic effect .METHODS According to the increase-decrease baseline geometric proportion design method , different proportion compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa were optimized through observing the pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice.RESULTS Compared with the control group,prescrip-tions 3,4 could extent the sleep time significantly and increased the sleep rate (P<0.01),and the prescriptions 3 was best.CONCLUSION Prescriptions 3 is the best proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa.on hypnotic effects.%目的:优选养心草与酸枣仁配伍安神作用的最佳配比。方法采用基线等比增减法拟定养心草与酸枣仁不同比例配伍,观察其对小鼠协同戊巴比妥钠睡眠实验的影响。结果与空白组相比,处方3,4能显著延长小鼠的睡眠时间和增加小鼠入睡率(P<0.01),且以处方3药效最佳。结论处方3为养心草配伍酸枣仁安神作用的最佳比例。

  1. 均匀设计法优选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分配伍研究%Compatibility of Effective Antidepressant Components of semen Ziziphi spinosae Based on Uniform Design Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 高岚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To optimize the best compatibility of effective antidepressant components (total fat oil, total flavonoids, total saponins) of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Methods 90 mice were randomly divided into 9 groups, the control group and administration A -H groups by the uniform design method. The mice forced swimming and the tail suspension test in each group were observed. With the immobility time at latter 4 min within 6 min as the evaluating index, the best compatibility of effective antidepressant components was screened. The pharmaceutical effects of obtained optimal compatibility of the effective components were to be proved by the comparison and verification experiment. Results The immobility time of mice during the forced swimming test in the administration A, B, C, F, H groups were significantly less than those in the control group( P < 0. 05); the immobility time of mice during the tail suspension test in the administration A, B, D, E, F, H groups were significantly less than those in the control group( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). After the multivariate statistical analysis, the optimal compatibility of effective antidepressant components of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae was total fat oil 10 mg / kg, to-tal flavonoids 100 mg / kg and total saponins 10 mg / kg. Conclusion The compatibility of effective components determined by the combina-tion of the uniform design, mathematical statistics and pharmacodynamics is feasible, the pharmaceutical effect of optimized active component compatibility reaches or surpasses that of the original medicinal materials.%目的:优选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分(总脂肪油、总黄酮、总皂苷)的最佳配伍。方法采用均匀设计法将90只小鼠随机分为9组,分别为对照组及给药 A ~ H 组,观察各组小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾试验情况,以小鼠在6 min 中后4 min 内不动时间为评价指标,筛选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍,对所得有效组分最佳配伍的药效进

  2. Cusp Alfven and Plasma Electrodynamics Rocket (CAPER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch a single rocket from Andoya Rocket Range into an active cusp event. Observe electric and magnetic fields, HF waves, electron and ion distributions and...

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.and Z.spinosa (Bunge) Hu%利用组织培养技术研究枣和酸枣耐盐性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐呈祥; 马艳萍; 尚旭岚; 徐锡增

    2011-01-01

    以“金丝小枣”、“泗洪大枣”和酸枣枣头枝为试材,研究了基本培养基含NaCl 0、25、75mmol/L对它们初代培养、继代培养、生根培养效果的影响及多代转接培养后的耐盐性变化.结果表明,培养基中NaCl含量为25 mmol/L对3种试材微茎段组培繁殖效果影响甚微,但NaCl含量达75 mmol/L则产生显著抑制作用;抑制作用的主要表现在不同培养阶段有所不同,总体上对根系生长发育的影响大于对地上部分的影响;无论在何种培养阶段,3种试材的耐盐性均为酸枣>金丝小枣>泗洪大枣;盐胁迫下随培养代数增多,3种试材的耐盐性均表现出增强趋势,耐盐性提升幅度枣大于酸枣,耐盐性弱的泗洪大枣的提升幅度大于耐盐性强的金丝小枣.%Developing shoot segments of two famous cultivars of Chinese date, 'Jinsixiaozao' and 'Si-hongdazao', and sour date were used for in vitro investigation of the responses of Chinese date Ziz-iphus jujuba MilL and sour date Z. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu to salt stress and the influences of multi-generations of subcultures under salt stress on their salt tolerance. The basic media (MS medium) were added with NaCl at concentrations of 0, 25,75 mmol/L and used in primary cultures, sub-cultures and rooting cultures. The results indicated that the addition of 25 mmol/L of NaCl did not show significant effects on in vitro propagation of the three species, but 75 mmol/L NaCl exerted significant growth inhibitory effects which varied with the in vitro propagation stages. In general, root development was more significantly affected by salt than that of the upper parts. It was shown that the salt tolerance of the three materials in all stages of culture was as follows: sour date>' Jinsixiaozao' >'Sihongdazao'. In addition, the salt tolerance of the three materials tended to increase with more generations of sub-culture under salt-stress, and the increase was higher in Chinese date than in sour

  4. Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D

    1987-01-01

    In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose.

  5. 麦芽糖转运相关基因的表达对刺糖多孢菌生长及多杀菌素合成的影响%Effects of Expression of Maltose Transport Related Genes on Cell Growth and Spinosad Production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖; 赵晨; 张求学; 宋渊; 张晓琳

    2015-01-01

    多杀菌素(spinosad)为土壤放线菌刺糖多孢菌(Saccharopolyspora spinosa)经有氧发酵产生的次级代谢产物,是一种广谱、高效、低毒的生物杀虫剂,已在农药、兽药和卫生用药领域得到广泛应用.刺糖多孢菌对长效碳源淀粉的利用能力很低,这给多杀菌素的工业化发酵带来了困难.本研究在刺糖多孢菌高产菌株ASAGF73中表达阿维链霉菌(Streptomyces avermitilis)的麦芽糖转运系统基因(maltose transporter gene)malE、malF和malG,以提高菌株利用淀粉的能力.将整合型载体pSET 152∷malEFG通过接合转移转化ASAGF73,获得的转化子成功表达了malEFG基因.单一碳源发酵实验结果表明,转化子利用糊精和麦芽糖的能力显著提高.以糊精或麦芽糖为单一碳源的条件下,malEFG的表达显著促进了菌体生物量的提高,进而提高多杀菌素的产量.本研究对于以淀粉为主要碳源发酵生产多杀菌素的工艺研究具有理论指导意义及应用价值.

  6. Effects of Herbal Pair of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Albizia Julibrissin Flower on Quality of Life among Elderly Patients with Depression%对药酸枣仁-合欢花对老年抑郁症患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 郭超峰; 范丽丽; 张永全; 黄克南; 蒋春雷

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察对药酸枣仁-合欢花对老年抑郁症患者生活质量的影响。方法:收集老年抑郁症病例70例,随机分为中药组和西药组,各35例。中药组服用酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂;西药组服用盐酸文拉法辛缓释片。两组分别于治疗前及治疗8周后进行HAMD抑郁量表、生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLI-74)和副作用量表(TESS)评分。结果:治疗后两组间临床疗效无显著差异;生活质量综合评定方面:中药组患者躯体功能维度、心理功能维度及生活质量总分高于西药组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。物质生活维度、社会功能维度与西药组无显著差异;治疗后两组患者的HAMD评分、躯体功能维度、心理功能维度、社会功能维度、生活质量总分均高于治疗前,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。中药组TESS评分低于西药组,其不良反应主要为恶心呕吐。结论:酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂具有抗抑郁功效,能够改善老年抑郁患者的生活质量。%This study was aimed to observe the effects of herbal pair of Semen ziziphi spinosae (SZS) and A lbizia julibrissin flower (AJF) on the quality of life (QOL) among elderly patients with depression. A total of 70 elderly patients with depression were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The Chinese medicine group (with 35 cases) was given SZS-AJF decoction, and the western medicine group (with 35 cases) was given venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets. The HAMD scale score, QOL Assessment Questionnaire (GQOLI-74), and the Side-Effects Scale Score (TESS) were detected 8 weeks before and after the treatment. The results showed that there was no significant difference on the clinical efficacy between two groups. On the comprehensive assessment of QOL, the physical function dimension, mental function dimension and QOL total score of Chinese medicine group were higher than the western medicine group

  7. 对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁患者认知功能及血清BDNF水平的影响%Effects of Herbal Pair of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Albizia Julibrissin Flower on Cognitive Function and Serum BDNF among Depression Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 郭超峰; 蒋春雷; 张永全

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe effects of herbal pair of semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and A lbizia Julib-rissin flower (AJF) on cognitive function and serum BDNF among depression patients. A total of 60 depression pa-tients were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. In the SZS-AJF group, 30 patients were administered with SZS-AJF decoction. In the control group, 30 patients were administered with venlafaxine hydrochloride sus-tained-release tablets. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the serum-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were detected before treatment and after six weeks of treatment. The results showed that there were no significant differences on the HAMD score, WCST (Response Administered (Ra), Categories Completed (Cc), Correct Responses (Cr), Perseverative Errors (Pe), Non-perseverative Errors (Npe)), serum BDNF before and after treatment between two groups. Compared with pretreatment, HAMD score, Ra, Cc, Cr, serum BDNF were increased after treatment in both groups. The Pe and Npe were decreased after treatment. There was sta-tistical significance between pretreatment and posttreatment (P< 0.05, or P< 0.01). It was concluded that the herbal pair of SZS-AJF has anti-depressant effect. It can improve cognitive function of depression patients. The anti-de-pressant mechanism of herbal pair of SZS-AJF may be related to the increasing of serum BDNF level.%目的:观察对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁症患者认知功能及血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法:收集抑郁症患者60例,随机分为两组。酸枣仁-合欢花组30例,服用酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂;盐酸文拉法辛组30例,口服盐酸文拉法辛缓释片。两组分别于治疗前及治疗6周后进行汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD量表)评分、威斯康星卡片分类(WCST)测试及血清BDNF检测。结果:治疗前后两组间HAMD评分、WCST(总应答数、完成分

  8. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ARGAN OIL (ARGANIA SPINOSA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system. Present study thus reveals that argan oil holds promise as immunomodulatory agent, which act by stimulating dose dependent phagocytic function.

  9. The rheological properties of tara gum (Caesalpinia spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbei; Ding, Wei; Jia, Lirong; He, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The rheological properties of tara gum, as affected by concentration, temperature, pH and the presence of salts and sucrose, were investigated by using steady and dynamic shear measurements and atomic force microscope observation. Tara gum exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour without thixotropy at tested concentrations (0.2-1.0%, w/v). Salts (CaCl2 and NaCl) led to a viscosity reduction, which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than to Na(+). The gum had stable viscosity over a wide pH range (pH 3-11), and the influence of sucrose was concentration dependent. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 80°C decreased the gum viscosity. Frequency sweeps indicated that tara gum (1.0% w/v) behaved as a liquid at low frequency, and acted more like a gel at high frequency. With the decrease of concentration, tara gum may show a viscous property rather than an elastic one. These results are potentially useful for the application of tara gum in food processing.

  10. Triterpenoids from Argania spinosa: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals.

  11. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  12. Kareel plant: A natural source of medicines and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua or kareel is an indigenous medicinal plant of India having large biodiversity in different north-western states of India. The young flower bud and fruits are used to make pickles while caper berries are used as vegetable. Plant has its wider utility in traditional folk medicine and is used as ailments to relieve variety of pains or aches such as toothache, cough and asthma heal. Plant contains few important secondary metabolites such as quercetin which act as melanogenesis stimulator and also increase tyrosinase protein expression. Capparis sp. seeds contain lectin that exhibit potent anti HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition activity and also inhibits proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. It shows anti-rheumatic, anti-diabitic, anti-arthritis and anti-gout agent. C. decidua contains generous quantities of alkaloids, fatty acids, terpenes, vitamins, fibre and oils that show greater medicinal and nutritive value. It also contains saccharides, glycosides, flavonoids, volatile oils, sterols and steroids, which showed multiple pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, anti-fungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, anti-oxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anti-coagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction. Cadabicine an alkaloid that occurs in leaves shows anti-parasitic activity, while root bark and pulp are used to kill helminthes. Due to enzymatic inhibition plant extract shows the ability to control Leishmania major and L. infantum, L. donovani, L. braziliensis, Crithidia fasciculata and Herpetomonas muscarum infection. In the present review article both medicinal and nutraceutical properties of C decidua have been described in detail and special emphasis is given on its sustainable use of plant and its conservation in natural habitat.

  13. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  14. Quality of Cosmetic Argan Oil Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Argania spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaa Taribak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan oil has been extracted using supercritical CO2. The influence of the variables pressure (100, 200, 300, and 400 bar and temperature (35, 45, 55°C was investigated. The best extraction yields were achieved at a temperature of 45°C and a pressure of 400 bar. The argan oil extracts were characterized in terms of acid, peroxide and iodine values, total tocopherol, carotene, and fatty acids content. Significant compositional differences were not observed between the oil samples obtained using different pressures and temperatures. The antioxidant capacity of the argan oil samples was high in comparison to those of walnut, almond, hazelnut, and peanut oils and comparable to that of pistachio oil. The physicochemical parameters of the extracted oils obtained by SFE, Soxhlet, and traditional methods are comparable. The technique used for oil processing does not therefore markedly alter the quality of argan oil.

  15. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at thi

  16. Prescriptions of Chinese medicinal herbs in Switzerland: the example of suan zao ren (Ziziphi Spinosae Semen)

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Sabine; Becker, Simon; Wolf, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Introduction According to the Swiss Health Survey 2007, 1.7% of the adult population use traditional Chinese medicine (including Chinese herbal medicine, but excluding acupuncture). In contrast to conventional drugs, that contain single chemically defined substances, prescriptions of Chinese herbs are mixtures of up to 40 ingredients (parts of plants, fungi, animal substances and minerals). Originally they were taken in the form of decoctions, but nowadays granules are more popular. Medium...

  17. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  18. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ARGAN OIL (ARGANIA SPINOSA L)

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2013-01-01

    Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimu...

  19. Structure and Oligomers Distribution of Commercial Tara (Caesalpina spinosa Hydrolysable Tannin

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    Samuele GIOVANDO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracted commercial Tara tanninextract have been examined by Matrix Assisted LaserDesorption/Ionisation Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOFmass spectrometry and by High Pressure LiquidChromatography (HPLC. The Tara extract has beenfound to be composed of a series of oligomers ofpolygallic acid attached by an ester link to one quinicacid. They constitute the oligomers in higherproportion in the extract. Other polygallic chains linkedto one only or two repeating units such as caffeic acidand methylated quinic, methylated gallic andmethylated caffeic acids are also present. Negativeion mode MALDI-TOF showed that somecarbohydrate residues appear to still be present,linked to the polyphenolic material of the extract buttheir proportion is very low as would be expected of asolvent extracted tannin.

  20. Study on preliminary mechanism of apoptosis in HepG-2 by CSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; MU Ke; WANG Wei; CUI Rong-tian; JI Yu-bin; ZOU Xiang

    2008-01-01

    t Objective To study on the mechanism of killing and apoptosis inducing effect of total alkaloid in the CSA(Capparis spinosa L. alkaloid, CSA)on human hepatoearcinoma cell Line HepG-2. Methods The killing effect of the CSA on human hepatoeareinoma cell Line HepG-2 was measured by MTT method. Morphological observation of the HepG-2 cells was completed by fluorescence microscope. The apoptosis indueing effect and changing of mitoehondria membrane potential of the CSA on the HepG-2 cells were measured by flow cytometry. In addition, effect of intraeellular Ca2+ level of the CSA on the HepG-2 cells was studied by laser confocal microscope. Results The CSA has obvious cytotoxicity on the HepG-2 and seems to be dose-dependent, and its IC50 value is 162.4 μg·mL-1. The HepG-2 cells have characteristic morphologic changes of apoptosis by the function of CSA, and the apoptosis percentage is higher than the natural one. The progress of cells cycle from S phase to G2 phase has been blocked, and the mitochondria membrane potential is markedly decreased, and the intraecllular Ca2+ level is increased by the function of CSA. Conclusions The CSA has obviously killing and apoptosis inducing effect on human hepatoearcinoma cell Line HepG-2 by the mechanism of decreasing the mitoehondria membrane potential and increasing the intracellular Ca2+ level.

  1. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  2. Study of Herbal Medicine in Zirrah (Touz /Dashtestan/Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Ziraee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 23 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 131 medicinal plants belonging to 62 families were identified. Malva sylvestris, Zataria multiflora, Terminalia chebula, Cuminum cyminum, Foenicum vulgare, Olivera decumbens, Echium amoenum, Teucriuma polium, Cannabis sativa and Papaver somniferum had the highest cultural importance indices. Ducrosia anethifolia Bioss, Nigella sativa, Capparis spinosa and Urtica dioica had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynecological diseases and dermatological uses, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province are the same as Iran’s traditional medicine, but the people of this region use some of these plants for some diseases which are unique for this area. Thus, investigation about these plants should be initiated to discover novel drugs for clinical applications.

  3. The potentiality of botanicals and their products as an alternative to chemical insecticides to sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: A review

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    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of chemical pesticides is the current method for controlling sandflies. However, resistance is being developed in sandflies against the insecticide of choice that is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane. Botanicals have potential to act as an alternative to chemical insecticides as the crude extracts and active molecules of some plants show insecticidal effect to sandflies. This will lead to safe, easy and environment friendly method for control of sandflies. Therefore, information regarding botanicals acting as alternative to chemical insecticide against sandflies assumes importance in the context of development of resistance to insecticides as well as to prevent environment from contamination. This review deals with some plants and their products having repellent and insecticidal effect to sandflies in India and abroad. Different methods of extraction and their bioassay on sandflies have been emphasized in the text. Various extracts of some plants like Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Solanum jasminoides (Solanaceae, Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae, Capparis spinosa (Capparidaceae, Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae had shown repellent/insecticidal effect on sandflies. This review will be useful in conducting the research work to find out botanicals of Indian context having insecticidal effect on sandflies.

  4. The ethogram and activity rhythm of capative Paa spinosa during breeding period%人工环境下棘胸蛙(Paa spinosa)繁殖期的行为谱及活动节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞宝根; 叶容晖; 郑荣泉; 周妍; 刘春涛; 陈希

    2008-01-01

    2007年4月,利用红外线摄像设备记录人工环境下的棘胸蛙行为活动,采用扫描取样法和目标动物取样法对录像资料进行分析,对人工环境下棘胸蛙的个体行为和活动节律进行了研究.结果表明:人工环境下的棘胸蛙行为主要包括静止行为(休息、对视);社会行为(打斗、追逐);运动行为(游泳、鸣叫、跳跃);捕食行为;繁殖行为(求偶鸣唱、侵占、驱赶、撕咬,摔跤、抱对、错抱、拒绝行为、产卵)等.日变化规律变化表明:棘胸蛙的静止行为占了多数,其余多数行为集中在夜间,在凌晨03:00~05:00间出现一个最高峰,与此不同的是棘胸蛙的打斗行为在白天06:00~07:00、08:00~09:00、11:00~12:00多次出现高峰,而在夜间17:00~24:00打斗行为时间分配很少.鸣叫行为在06:00~07:00,13:00~14:00出现两个高峰,而在夜间17:00~01:00鸣叫行为时间分配很少.棘胸蛙的繁殖行为也主要发生在夜间,在凌晨02:30~04:30为高峰,其间抱对行为占到67%,其次为摔跤17%,撕咬15%,而其余所占很少.在行为描述的基础上,对棘胸蛙的有关行为机制进行了探讨.

  5. Isolation, Structural Characterization, and Valorization of Pectic Substances from Algerian Argan Tree Leaves (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadda Hachem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectic polysaccharides were solubilized from Algerian argan tree leaves by sequential extraction with water at 100°C (water-soluble pectin; AL-WSP and EDTA solution at 80°C (chelating-soluble pectin; AL-CSP. Both AL-WSP and AL-CSP were rich in arabinose (28% and 74.5%, resp. and had a high content of uronic acid (38.5% and 21.5%, resp.. Pectic substances were deesterified and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography, giving five fractions for each extract. Most of the fractions were characterized by methylation analysis and then analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that AL-WSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I, with arabinan and galactan branching at the O-4 position of the main rhamnose chain, while AL-CSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I and a block of homogalacturonan. Antioxidant activities of AL-WSP and AL-CSP were evaluated by electronic spin resonance. The results showed that the antioxidant potential of AL-WSP (8.1% and AL-CSP (−1.2% was significantly lower than that of vitamin E.

  6. Field evaluation in Thailand of spinosad, a larvicide derived from Saccharopolyspora spinosa (Actinomycetales) against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Mulla, Mir S

    2009-03-01

    Two formulations of spinosad, direct application tablet (DT) and 0.5% granules (GR), at 3 dosages (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l) in 200-liter earthen jars were evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Two water regimens were used in the jars: jar full all the time and a full jar in which half the volume of the water was removed and replaced at each assessment interval. All treatments and controls were replicated 4 times and challenged with cohorts of 25 third-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti at weekly intervals during the study. The number of pupal skins (indicating successful emergence of adults) in the treated and control regimens were counted 7 days post-addition and they were used to calculate inhibition of emergence (% IE) based on the original number of larvae used. The DT formulation at the highest concentration (1.0 mg/l) yielded 79-100% IE for 34 days in the full jars, efficacy declining beyond this period. However, the longevity of this dosage was much longer with 90-100% IE for 62 days post-treatment in the water exchange regimen. The target and manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mg/l of DT gave good control (92-100% IE) for 20 days, declining below 92% IE thereafter in full jars. This dose also yielded good control with IE of 97-100% for 27 days in the water exchange regimen. The 0.5% GR formulation at all 3 dosages showed higher efficacy and greater longevity in the jars than the DT. In the full jars, all 3 dosages produced IE of 76-100% for 55 days post-treatment. In the water exchange regimen, the efficacy and longevity were increased by about one week, up to 62 days post-treatment. It is clear that the DT formulation can be used effectively against Ae. aegypti larvae at a target dose of 0.5 mg/l in 200-liter jars. This dose can be increased to 1.0 mg/l if slightly longer residual activity is desired. In containers where water is consumed and more water added, the longevity of efficacy will be longer for the DT than in jars which remain full all the time. GR (0.5%) gave longer control than DT. GR (0.5%) floated on the surface and produced scum and an oily film, features not desirable in stored water.

  7. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  8. 维药刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸的含量测定%Determination of Vanillic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid in Cappers spinoza by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王响华; 陈文; 郭小娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸含量的高效液相色谱法.方法:采用Dikma Kromasil C18柱(4.6 mm×150mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸水梯度洗脱,紫外检测波长258 nm,流速0.8 mL· min-1.结果:刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸分别在0.00150 ~0.00900,0.00580 ~0.0348 μg呈良好的线性关系,(r=0.9999);平均加样回收率(n=3)分别为105% (RSD1.90%)103% (RSD=1.81%).结论:该方法操作简单、结果可靠、重复性好、定量准确,可用于刺山柑果实中原儿茶酸和香草酸的含量测定.%Objective: To establish a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in Capparis spinosa. Method: The samples were separated on a C18 column (4. 6 mm x 150 mm, 5 μm) , the mobile phase was consisted of methanol-0. 1 % phosphoric acid with gradient elution at the flow rate of 0. 8 mL -1 min and the detection wavelength was set at 258 nm. Result; The calibration curves for vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were linear in the range of 0. 001 50-0. 009 00, 0. 005 80-0. 034 8μg respectively. All the correlation coefficient were 0.999 9, and the average recoveries ( n = 3 ) were 105% and 103% with corresponding RSDs of 1.90% and 1.81% respectively. Conclusion; The method is simple, accurate and sensitive and can be used to determine the content of the vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in C. spinosa.

  9. Capacidad antioxidante de poblaciones silvestres de “tara” (Caesalpinia spinosa de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe (Provincia de Tarma, departamento de Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es el principal abastecedor de “tara”, gracias a que nuestro país posee una gran variedad de climas y tipos de suelos, haciendo posible la obtención de este cultivo durante la mayor parte del año. El departamento de Junín cuenta con poblaciones naturales de “tara” que aun no han sido caracterizadas bioquímica ni genéticamente, que podrían aprovecharse en beneficio de las comunidades locales. En este trabajo se reporta la capacidad antioxidante de “tara” provenientes de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe, ambas ubicadas en Tarma, Junín. Se utilizó la técnica del DPPH y del ABTS para valorar la capacidad antioxidante; para la determinación de fenoles y flavonoides se utilizó el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau según la técnica de Singleton. La muestra de Picoy reportó mayor cantidad de fenoles siendo de 563.70 mg/g de extracto seco, mientras que la cantidad de flavonoides fue de 0.664 mg/g. La capacidad antioxidante mostro una mejor respuesta en la muestra de Picoy, reportándose mediante el DPPH un IC50 1.244 mg/ml y con el ABTS un 35.3% de inhibición. Estos datos podrían aprovecharse para incrementar el valor agregado y mejorar la oferta de este recurso en dicha localidad debido a sus mejores características antioxidantes.

  10. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (Pargan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  11. 酸枣仁与黑胡椒的组方研究%Study of Prescription Composition of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Black Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛琳; 周丽娟; 张俊清; 王勇; 刘明生

    2012-01-01

    研究酸枣仁与黑胡椒不同配比及用量对改善睡眠作用的影响.酸枣仁水煎液喷雾干燥得到粉末与黑胡椒的细粉分别按药材量1∶5、1∶10、1∶15比例混合均匀后进行改善睡眠功能实验,筛选最佳配比;进而筛选最佳用量.3种配比均能延长戊巴比妥钠诱导的小鼠睡眠时间和缩短入睡潜伏期,以1∶10的比例混合效果更突出,按拟定剂量实验得到较好的效果.酸枣仁与黑胡椒的组方在改善睡眠方面其最佳配比为1∶10,在此基础上所拟定的剂量是适宜的.

  12. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1800 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a [Deinopis spinosa] 1e-121 58% MLVMSPLAKHRQMGAEQILCRYGCRCGCRLCVGVGAGMGAVVGTAVCSGVGTGVGAGMGAGVGIGVCSGVGAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVGAGVDAGM...GAGVGAGVDAGVDAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVDAGVGAGMGAAVDAGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGM...GAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGM...GAGVDAGVVAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGMGTGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGVGAGVDAGMAAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGMGAGMGAGVDAGIGTGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVGWWRAR ...

  13. Initial study on apoptosis in HepG-2 Human heptocarcinoma cell line by CSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; CUI Rong-tian; MO Ke; WANG Wei; JI Yu-bin; ZOU Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss on mechanism of the killing and apoptosis inducing effect induced by total alkaloid in the CSS(Capparis spinosa L. saponin, CSS)on human hepatocarcinoma cell Line HepG-2. Methods The killing effect of the CSS on human hepatocarcinoma cell Line HepG-2 was observed by MTT method. Morphological observation of the HepG-2 cells was completed by fluorescence microscope. This test was signed to observe the changes of the cell cycle of HepG-2 cells affected by the CSS by PI single-staining, and to observe if there were typical apoptosis peaks. The apoptosis inducing effect and changing of mitochondria membrane potential of the CSS on the HepG-2 cells were studied by flow cytometry. The effect of intraceUular Ca2+ level of CSS on the HepG-2 cells was measured by laser confocal microscope. Results CSS has growth inhibiting on the HepG-2 and seems to be enhanced with the increasing concentration of CSS, and its IC50 value was 46.16 μg·mL-1. The HepG-2 cells are characteristic apoptosis morphologic changed, and the apoptosis percentage is increased to 66.652 % in the 50 μg·mL-1 dosage group. The cells cycle has been changed obviously that the progresses of cells cycle of G1 period and G2 period in high dosage group have been blocked, and the cellular proportion in G2 period is decreased by the function of CSS for 24 h. The mitochondria membrane potential of HepG-2 cells induced by CSS is decreased in various degrees. In addition, the intracellular Ca2+ level is increased by the function of CSS in the middle and high dose groups. Conclusions The CSS has obviously killing and apoptosis inducing effect on human hepatoearcinoma cell Line HepG-2 by the mechanism of decreasing the mitochondria membrane potential and increasing the intracellular Ca2+ level.

  14. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  15. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

  16. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Caribbean Islands Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Service (NRCS), Washington, DC; Karl Hipple, NRCS National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE; Dan Martel, USAE District, San Francisco , CA; Jennifer...fustic or tachuelo (Pictetia aculeata), black wattle or bejuco prieto (Capparis cynophallophora), fiddlewood, bastard cedar or guacima (Guazuma

  17. Capacities of Candidate Herbaceous Plants for Phytoremediation of Soil-based TNT and RDX on Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    installations and distribution of Sida spinosa...Lehi, UT • Forb seeds from three vendors as follows: redroot pigweed (Amaran- thus retroflexus), morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa), and prickly sida ... Sida spinosa) from Azlin Seed Service, Leland, MS; common milk- weed (Asclepias syriaca) from Prairiemoon Nursery, Winona, WI; common purslane

  18. Models for Undergraduate Project Courses in Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    B. Software Development: A Rigorous Approach. Prentice-Hall Interna- tional, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. 68. Jones, Capers . Programming...Engineering: Analysis and Verification. Reston Publishing Company, Reston, Virginia, 1982. 80. Liskov, Barbara and Guttag, John. Abstraction and

  19. Census U.S. Civil Aircraft Calendar Year 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-31

    1 41 1 0 1 1 BANTY .................................................. 1 41 1 0 1 1 BARBARA JEAN .................................. 2 41 1 0 1 1...KORNS CAPER ................................... 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 ........................................ 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOWALEWSKI ZERO FITR

  20. Joint Program on Rapid Prototyping. RaPIER (Rapid Prototyping to Investigate End-User Requirements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-28

    Prototype System Description Language," ISSI Technical Report, unnumbered, January 30,198 6 ., . [JONES84] T. Capers Jones. "Reusability in Programming: A...Systems, Inc.. "PSDL: Prototype System * Description Language," ISSI Technical Report, unnumbered, January 30, 1986. T. Capers Jones. "Reusability in...Game Design," IEEE Software, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 1984, pp. 28-38. -[LISKOV5] -5. Barbara H. Liskov, Stephen N. Zilles. "Specification Techniques for j

  1. Technical Guidance for Conducting ASVAB Validation/Standards Studies in the U.S. Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    technology, psychology, and health) (pp. 316-336). Santa Barbara , CA: Greenwood. Wise, L., Welsh, J., Grafton, F., Foley, P., Earles, J., Sawin, L., & Divgi...outcomes. A Navy-developed model called the Cost of Attaining Personnel Requirements ( CAPER ) incorporated the Taylor-Russell (1939) tables discussed in...Chapters 3 and 17. The CAPER model takes into account the magnitude of the validity coefficient and includes the following factors: Quota = # of

  2. A Descriptive Evaluation of Software Sizing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    are Captain Joseph Dean and Ms. Barbara Mentzel . The ESD sizer consists of two primary components: 1) the ESD sizing database, and 2) an interface that...3ased Upon Albrecht’s Original 1979 Methodology. The SPR implementation of function points, developed by Capers Jones, wasIplemented within the SPQR/20...of FP implementations by Albrecht, Capers Jones (SPR, Inc.), Xerox, and Hallmark [PUTN87]. The iiain data entry screen for QSM FP, shown in Figure 2-11

  3. Using New Technologies: A Technology Transfer Guidebook. Version 02.00. 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In a June 1992 IEEE Spectrum article, Capers Jones (1992) recounted aCASEWorld conference presentation by Chuck House, a former executive of Hewlett...Addison-Wesley. Implementation Management Accelerating Change Workshop. Brighton, Colorado: IMA, Inc. Associates 1992 Jones, Capers CASE’s Missing...Technology, Stan Przybylinski and Priscilla J. Fowler, eds., Santa Barbara , California (November 15-16, 1987):63-66. CASE Consulting Group. CASE Outlook

  4. Consolidated Bibliography--Unclassified Technical Reports, Special Reports, and Technical Notes: FY 1974 through FY 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    45 computer in the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of California, Santa Barbara . The new system was then compared to five generative...research might be done on the sea/shore rotation problem. A Method for Evaluating Alternative Recruiting Selection Strategies: The CAPER Model. TR 74-3...expected to result from the implementation of a proposed selection program. The cost of attaining personnel requirements ( CAPER ) model determines an optimal

  5. Mississippi River Cultural Resources Survey. A Comprehensive Study. Phase I. Component A. Thematic Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Barbara E. Holmes, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park, New Orleans; Rose Lambert and Joseph Castle, Louisiana State Museum Library, New Orleans...leadership positions. Reinders, "Militia in New Orleans," p. 36. See also Gerald M. Capers , Occupied City: New Orleans under the Federals, 1862-1865...Berry, "Negro Troops in Blue and Gray," pp.170-71. Also see Capers , Occupied City, pp. 95-96. 11*1* 171 0 q% cruel and degrading punishment. The

  6. A Hedonic Approach to Estimating Software Cost Using Ordinary Least Squares Regression and Nominal Attribute Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    14 T. Capers Jones states that using functional points requires a certain amount of subjectivity that can lead to complications with the...Network, (June 2004). 29 July 2005 http://ssrn.com/abstract=569875 Foss, Tron, Erik Stensrud, Barbara Kitchenham, and Ingunn Myrtveit. “A...Company-Specific Data,” Information and Software Technology, 42:1009-1016 (2000). Jones, T. Capers . Estimating Software Costs. New York: McGraw-Hill

  7. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .6 4.2 Carya spp. Hickory 1.1 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm Zanthoxylum clava-heralis L...Cercis canadensis L. Redbud .6 Juglans spp. Walnut 1.6 Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .9 4.8 1.6 4.8 Carya spp. Hickory Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash...Walnut 3.4 2.1 Carya illinoenis Wangh. Pecan 1.2 10.2 3.6 4.2 5.7 1.4 7.1 Carya spp. Hickory 2.2 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl

  8. An unusual giant pycnogonid (Pycnogonida-Colossendeidae) Decolopoda qasimi sp. nov. from Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Five specimens of benthic pycnogonids collected from the Southern Ocean are described. Of these, two are identified as Nymphon australis (Hodgson) and two as Ecleipsotherma spinosa (Hodgson). One specimen under the class Colossendeidae, is described...

  9. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  10. Precision-Guided Logistics. Flexible Support for the Force-Projection Army’s High-Technology Weapons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    systems that are at the core of our analysis. We are also deeply grateful for the excellent work and special efforts of Lori Parker and Barbara Stanton...the FRA averaged 13 days.6 5For example, see "The Turn-In Caper ," P.S. Magazine, No. 440, July 1989, pp. 27-34. The advent of stock funding of depot...Evaluation of the VISION Assessment System, RAND, R-4182-A, 1992. "The Turn-In Caper ," P.S. Magazine, No. 440, July 1989, pp. 27-34. U.S. Army

  11. Energy Policies for Resilience and National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    walls and vaults and neutralize modern alarm systems, and devote up to 2 years of planning for a single ’ caper ."’ [id.: vi]. Considerable technical...Gang’s Computer Caper ," New York magazine 13:65-75, 8 Deceuber. Galloway, C.D. & Kirchmayer, L.K. 1958: "Comment," Transactions of the American...PO Drawer 719 ATTN: Document Library Santa Barbara , CA 93102 1700 Main Street Santa Monica, CA 90401 President, Naval War College ATTN: Code 1212

  12. Bibliography of Statistical and Meteorological Methodology in Weather Modification, II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    ressiat isconsidered. ~ carp1es of hailstaies collected fran specific sto nre aregiven, arid these are capered with the theoretical expected type of...g~~ rathrs .Silver iodide aid l,5-dihydraKynaphthalene ice nucleation is capered , the primary difference being a th,rter fall out tints for the ~~ I... Barbara ,arid &~ nsczi, Earl (1976) “Inpact Asseswent of ~1thre Hail SuWressiai ‘lbchnologies in the U.S.” 2nd *0 Scientific ~~~ference on Weather Modifica

  13. P. W. Botha and the Space Research Corporation: Clandestine Operations and the Rise of a New Order in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    from SRC. The SRC caper brought together the intelligence community, under the direction of the DMI, and ARMSCOR. Anthony Sampson, an expert on...in the SRC caper could have bolstered Vorster’s sagging political fortunes. Unfortunately for Vorster and his hand-picKed successor, the Information...NY: Stein and Day, 19B4) P. 26S. 24. Winter, p. 36. 25. Winter, Pp. 36-37, West, p. 2B6. 26. Winter, Pp. 38, 81. 27. Barbara Carr, Spy in the Sun: The

  14. 整合UHPLC-Q Exactive轨道肼高分辨质谱与HPLC-CL技术分析酸枣叶中抗氧化活性成分%Integrated strategy of UHPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap-HRMS and HPLC-CL to study with constituents in Ziziphi Spinosae Folium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫艳; 杜晨晖; 冯红霞; 戚进; 秦雪梅

    2016-01-01

    目的 整合UHPLC-Q Exactive轨道肼高分辨质谱与HPLC-CL技术分析酸枣叶中主要化学成分,追踪其抗氧化活性成分.方法 采用UHPLC-Q Exactive轨道肼高分辨质谱鉴定酸枣叶中化学成分;并建立不同产地酸枣叶样品HPLC-UV指纹图谱;利用HPLC-CL方法对8个不同产地的酸枣叶指纹图谱进行抗氧化活性评价.结果 酸枣叶中共鉴定10个化合物,均为黄酮苷类化合物,8批不同产地的酸枣叶相似度均大于0.9,并最终确定其中6种物质(eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside、quercetin-3-O-robinobioside、quercetin-3-O-rutinoside、quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside、quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside、quercetin-3-O-β-L-arabinosyl-(1-2)-α-L-thamnoside)清除自由基能力强.结论 酸枣叶中富含大量的黄酮类成分,且具有较好的抗氧化活性.酸枣叶可为市场提供一种新型绿色的、可持续的抗氧化剂来源.

  15. 对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁患者生活质量及神经-内分泌-免疫网络的影响%Effects of herb pair of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and Albizia julibrissin flower (AJF) on the life quality and NEI of patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 夏猛; 冯秋瑜; 张永全; 蒋春雷

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁症患者生活质量及神经-内分泌-免疫网络的影响.方法 收集抑郁症病例100例,随机分为中药组和西药组,各50例,中药组服用酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂;西药组服用盐酸文拉法辛缓释片.两组分别于治疗前及治疗6周后进行HAMD抑郁量表评分、生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLI-74)评分及及血清5-HT、CRH、IL-6检测.结果 治疗后两组间临床疗效没有显著差异(P>0.05);生活质量评定方面:中药组患者躯体功能维度、心理功能维度、总体生活质量因子得分显著高于西药组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者血清5-HT、CRH含量上升,IL-6含量下降,与治疗前相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01,P<0.05).结论 酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂具有抗抑郁功效,并能够改善抑郁患者的生活质量,其作用机制可能与调节神经-内分泌-免疫网络有关.

  16. A study on the effects of compound oil of semen spinosa, semen orientalis, and jasminoides on soothing nerves and improving mental capacities in mice%棘仁柏仁栀子油配方的安神与益智作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高枫; 符兆英; 李宝莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨棘仁、柏仁和栀子配伍组方的安神与益智作用.方法:将棘仁、柏仁和栀子的活性部位棘仁油、柏仁油和栀子油按3:2:I配成复方制剂,灌胃给药,观察其对小鼠自主活动和学习记忆的影响.结果:棘仁柏仁栀子油可使小鼠自主活动减少且无耐受现象,并可缩短小鼠水迷宫登台潜伏期.结论:棘仁柏仁栀子油配方有镇静安神和增强学习记忆的作用.

  17. A Laboratory Study of Wind-Wave-Current Interactions. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    showed that non- linear modification of surface drift occurs near long wave crests and troughs to modulate the drift experienced by caper - imposed...Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn Route 110, Room 205 Farmingdale NY 11735 Dr. Harold W. Lewis Inst. for Defense Analysis P. 0. Box 62 3,l- Santa Barbara

  18. Woman in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    caper was "Nancy Hart’s dinner party". Five 0 Tories, who had just shot a neighbor, forced their way into her home, demanding a meal. Nancy Hart fed... Barbara and Umlauf, Hana. The Good Housekeeping Woman’s Almanan. New York: Newspaper Enterprise Association, Inc., 1977. Miller, Donald L. An Album of

  19. Symposium on the Interface: Computing Science and Statistics (20th). Theme: Computationally Intensive Methods in Statistics Held in Reston, Virginia on April 20-23, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-20

    John ". Hsieh, University of Toronto 3 This caper develops a precise method for constructing period life tables through estimation of death density...Falls Church VA 22041 Madison WI 53706 (703) 756-1818 (608) 263-3871 1 Ryan Barbara Statistics Department Ryan Thomas A. Stanford University Minitab

  20. Physician Practice Patterns Within an Acute Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Linn, Lawrence S., Yager, Joel, Leake, Barbara D., Gastaldo, Gregory, Palkowski, Chris, "Differences in the Number and Costs of Tests Ordered by...Affairs Summer 1984 pp 16. Wennberg, John E.; McPherson, Klim; Caper , Philip; "Will Payment Based on Diagnosis-Related Groups Control Hospital Costs"? New

  1. 77 FR 72873 - Notice of Revocation of Customs Broker Licenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Charleston. Sabback Darlene B 10353 Charleston. Lott Jesse J 23539 Charleston. Barr IV Capers 21749... Charlotte. McHale Bernard J 09099 Charlotte. Abernathy Barbara B 15707 Charlotte. McKinnon Candace E 15923.... Flick Barbara L 06943 Chicago. Downie Kevin 05733 Chicago. Santos Pablo C 17201 Chicago. Dai...

  2. Software Quality Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    March 1979, pp. 121-128. Gorla, Narasimhaiah, Alan C. Benander, and Barbara A. Benander, "Debugging Effort Estimation Using Software Metrics", IEEE...Society, IEEE Guide for the Use of IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software, IEEE Std 982.2-1988, June 1989. Jones, Capers

  3. Guidelines and Metrics for Assessing Space System Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Overpass Rd. Santa Barbara , CA 93111 http:// www.technomics.net Sponsor Defense Communication Agency/Institute for Defense Analyses • • • • 117 CHAPTER...Jones, T. Capers , Estimating Software Costs, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. Killingsworth, Paul, “Applying Cost Improvement Theory to the Production

  4. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    company, Santa Barbara , and the private firm, Rio Tinto Explosives, are working together on a missile manufacturing program, although those familiar...34vol de coloms" here, that is, capers in the air. But the most interesting and most controversial project will be the Olympic Village. Ramon

  5. Factors Affecting Peace Negotiations in Resolving Armed Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    http://www.csus.edu/org/ caper /documents/archives/2005/Conference Proceedings/Rothchild-emmnuel.pdf (accessed November 7, 2010). Rupert, Smith...http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 1057610071200173 (accessed December 13, 2010). Walter, F. Barbara . 2001. Committing to peace. Princeton University Press

  6. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 23, Number 3, May/June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    International Cryptology Conference Santa Barbara , CA www.iacr.org/conferences/ crypto2010 COMING EVENTS: Please submit coming events that are of interest to...practice principles to the development and maintenance of software. CrossTalk mainstay Capers Jones—along with other past authors Christof Ebert, Donald J

  7. Proceedings of the CASE Adoption Workshop Held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 13-14 November 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    3.3 Process Starting with a practical adoption model suggested by Barbara Bouldin [4], we examined the actions in each life-cycle phase that foster...Requirements (508) 470-3880 Capers Jones: Software Measurement a Estimation CASE: The Next Generation Computer-Aided Software Engineering Symposium Data

  8. Guerrilla Warfare: Cause and Conflict (A 21st Century Success Story?),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Compleat Pentagon Capers , as well as numerous articles in Navy Times, US Naval Institute Proceedings, and the Naval War College Review. His Essays on...cross of iron.’ 2 NOTES 1. George Bernard Shaw, Major Barbara , 1905. 2. John Hamer, World Arms Sales, (Congressional Quarterly, Inc., Washing- ton, D.C

  9. Security Quality Requirements Engineering (SQUARE) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Barbara ; Roback, Edward. An Introduction to Computer Security. Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Department of Commerce, Tech- nology Administration, National...Software Engineering: A Use Case Driven Approach. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992. [Jones 86] Jones, Capers , ed. Tutorial: Programming Productivity

  10. Quantum Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-14

    Barbara , California, March 1993. I Carrier Dynamics in Quantum Wires Investigators: Wolfgang Porod I I Using the Monte Carlo technique, we have...8217.ubtle correlations between impunty scanenng events tin the "res;ence oft a ma.’neuc fle!dlp which are beyond Fermi’s Golden Rule. In this caper . we

  11. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 92, Number 5, September-October 1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-10-01

    Strategic PIns. Gp., Rm. 2E269, Pentagon. Wash. 25, D. C. French. A. J., Tunnel Rd., Santa Barbara , Calif. French. Paul H .. KG Bureau, The Pentagon, Wash...Peterson, Capers L., 119 1fontague Ave., Greenwood, S. C. Peterson, 1. A, 4817 Keswick Rd .. Baltimore 10. 1fd. Phillips. A. J,’ Jr., 3401 Centenary

  12. National Computer Security Conference Proceedings (10th): Computer Security--From Principles to Practices, 21-24 September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-24

    8217ihis stunoy was leo by Alejandro Buchkiann ot straints some upuates are allowed without CCA. barbara blaustein and Uspen Chakra- consistency checking...piled code as ’no -variable is read before it is, iiittcln" [ORA 85]. twal, for CXsarnipi, cair be thorugh t of mast higher typa’ caper - We tam

  13. Retooling for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    by one single actor or lone wolf in today’s digitally connected world as the Robin Sage caper reminds us. On 18 July 2010 the Washington Times...Presidents,” The American Presidency Project, Santa Barbara : California, UCSB, www. presidency.ucsb.edu/executive_orders.php. 208. Micah Zenko

  14. CAA Annual Report Fiscal Year 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Peacekeeping Operations DCSOPS BAT CAPER Brilliant Anti-Tank Munition’s Capability at DCSOPS RAMCA-1 Roles and Missions Capabilities Analysis DCSOPS...MODS SAWVAS SCSC-M DACS DCSOPS ST BARBARA 91 SWA 2000 DCSOPS TARO 91 TRADOC TD90 THAADS-SWA AMC TPUG DCSOPS TRETOAD+ DCSOPS TS DCSLOG

  15. Evolutionary Capability Delivery of Coast Guard Manpower System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    providing the U.S. Coast Guard research data needed to complete this work. I would like to further thank Ms. Barbara Berlitz, a technical writing...whatissystemseng.aspx Jones, Capers . 1996. “Strategies for Managing Requirements Creep.” Computer 29: 92– 94. http://www.students.science.uu.nl/~3092062/papers

  16. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master yan zhenghua's prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Meng-di; Sheng, Xiao-guang

    2014-11-01

    The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix.

  17. Meiotic behavior of wild Caricaceae species potentially suitable for papaya improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelli Narducci da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meiotic behavior and determine the meiotic index and pollen viability of representative plants of the wild species V. goudotiana, V. quercifolia and J. spinosa. Meiotic analysis confirmed that the species are diploid and have 18 chromosomes. Meiosis was partially normal, since some abnormalities, e.g, sticky and lagging chromosomes, precocious segregation, lack of synchrony, and disturbances in the spindle fibers were observed. These abnormalities resulted in post-meiotic products (monads, dyads, triads, and polyads that probably contributed to the meiotic index of 85.7 % (V. goudotiana to 95.9 % (J. spinosa; significant variation was observed in the species V. goudotiana. The pollen viability of 68.0% (V. goudotiana to 96.0 % (J. spinosa was reasonably good in these wild species. Crossings in breeding programs involving V. goudotiana should therefore be carefully planned, since part of the gametes of this species is unviable.

  18. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  19. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay; Gayatri Jaiswal; Shoeb Ahmad; Leena Khanna; Subhash Chand Jain

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2), triacontanol (CDS3), and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8) which have ...

  20. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species.

  1. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  2. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of biofuel plant Euphorbia lathyris to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Yang, Ziyi; Lu, Changmei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanjing (China)], E-mail: 08134@njnu.edu.cn); Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Lijun [Nanjing Inst. for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild plants, Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    Saline lands are characterized by salinity and nutrient deficiency and there is an ever increasing need for economical, adaptable plant species to rejuvenate these lands. In this study, we determined the suitability and tolerance of Euphorbia lathyris L. (Caper spurge), a well-known biofuel plant, as a sustainable candidate to colonize saline lands. We investigated the germination rate, seedling growth, solute change and anti-oxidative enzyme activities etc. under salt stress conditions. Our results showed that Caper spurge seeds prefer to germinate under nonsaline environments and high salt stress induced temporary dormancy during germination, but did not completely hamper the viability of the seeds. The seedling biomass increased without any visible distress symptoms in the presence of NaCl not over 171 mM. Further increase in NaCl concentration had a negative impact on the seedling growth. These demonstrate that Caper spurge seedlings have the potential to grow in saline lands. The salinity tolerance of Caper spurge seedlings was closely associated with the regional distribution of Na{sup + }in roots, stable absorption of Ca{sup 2{sup +,}} K{sup + }and Mg{sup 2{sup +,}} accumulation of organic solutes, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. However, excessive accumulation of Na{sup +,} sharp increase of superoxide (O{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, malonaldehyde (MDA) and cell membrane leakage, reduction of osmoprotectants, and decreased activities of CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) etc. under high salinity might be the reasons for the restrained seedling growth.

  3. Area Handbook Series: Mauritania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    collection of tribute from vast stretches of the Sudan and the Sahel . The slow decline of the Mali Empire that started at the end of the fourteenth...water is nearer the surface, some flora-including acacias, soapberry trees, capers, and swallowwort-may be found. Saline areas have a particular kind of...wind. In the northern Sahel , dunes are covered with scrub grasses and spiny acacia trees. Farther south, greater rainfall permits more dense vegetation

  4. Toward Integrated DoD Biosurveillance: Assessment and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Outpatient (DHSS/TMA)8)CAPER)) •Reportable medical events) •Immunizations (DEERS)) • Microbiology lab results (DHSS/TMA)* •Chemistry lab results...visits$ • Microbiology ,$chemical,$ pathology$lab$results$ • Pharmacy$transactions$ • Immunizations$ • HIV$serology$results$ • DoD$Serum$Repository...USSOUTHCOM Colombia X X* (n = 12) Ecuador X X Guatemala X Haiti X Honduras X Nicaragua X Paraguay X

  5. Report to the U.S. Congress on the National Oceanographic Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    extending from Capers Island above Charleston Harbor, and a third line set north of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, at Fripp Inlet. Each line includes...Environmental Laboratory (PFEL), and the Tagging of Pacific Pelagics (TOPP) program coordinated by Dr. Barbara Block (Stanford). This partnership includes...University of California, Santa Barbara ; University of California, Irvine; University of California, Los Angeles; University of Southern California

  6. The Subject Matter of Process Improvement: A Topic and Reference Source for Software Engineering Educators and Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Materiel Com- mand, November 1993. [SQPA] Software Quality and Productivity Analysis (SQPA). Hewlett Packard, (developed in conjunction with Capers Jones...Companies. New York: John Wiley &Sons, 1993. Mink, Oscar G.; Owen, Keith Q.; & Mink, Barbara P. Developing High- Performance People: The Art of...Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976. [Bennis 85] Bennis, Warren & Nanus, Burt. Leaders. New York: Harper & Row, 1985. [Bouldin 89] Bouldin, Barbara M

  7. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13, Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    wave propagation as dispersion, Thefinl Caper e l wih lecroaousicrein- evanescent waves, wave qroups, attenuation and Thee nl wchtsrudealyue wit e...Olivos St., DaCe RY DATAbe ACQUISITION Santa Barbara , CA 93105 - (815) 682-7171. Place: Carson City, Nevada Objective: This seminar is designed for...in production Place: Santa Barbara , California losses and equipment costs through vibration analy- Dates: March 1-5, 1982 sis and correction will be

  8. India as a Responsible Nuclear Power: A Strategy for Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Westview Press, Inc.,1991) 306 & 308. 70 Ibid., 12. 71 Newt Gingrich, quoted in Barbara Conry “U.S. "Global Leadership": A Euphemism for World...unable to link its Kargil caper with a nuclear flashpoint, though some foreign observers believe it was a near thing” The Kargil Review Committee...On-line. Internet. Available from http://www.rand.org// Conry, Barbara , U.S. "Global Leadership":A Euphemism for World Policeman . Policy

  9. Parameters, Journal of the U.S. Army War College. Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    press and President Nixon, histoiy shows that *he press, notably The Washington Post, influenced the public agenda by bringing the Watergate caper to...evidence that people perceive the newspapers they read as strongly biased to the left." In a similar study in Public Opinion, Barbara G. Farah and Elda...notwithstanding— that technology-enhanced firepower docs make a difference. We cannot replace the big guns associated with St. Barbara with the movement

  10. A Synthesis of Research on Color, Typography, and Graphics as they Relate to Readability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    scores for groups -1crr-’ and white caper (Michael arnd Jones, 1955). On the other hand, jr.:i,3 *,e, .!r ano J. Kenneth Jones. in ;-raestudies, cite the...source of that data. Cohen, Peter A., Barbara J. Ebeling, and James A. Kulik (1981) "A meta- ainalysis of outcome studies on visual-based instruction...learning-visual testing scored significantly higher in indentifying details than did the control group. Tversky, Barbara ( 1969) "Pictorial and verbal

  11. International Conference on Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems (5th) Held at Oxford, England on 5-9 September 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tbom~ral Pbywa Santa Barbara sail (a support by the 14SF throughb Grant DMR 82-07431, r1 s’(001) (a) Frational cheap in enflected s.-~’~ lateanty Ai(q)/I...toeat ee! reseic et troen* trfiet sere not affected by enohonge, we wold caper . the ia feldi- 1ccct iesper.Icnren in the hccpe :f cont Ibot-cn to the

  12. A Study of Quantitative Measurements of Programmer Productivity for Fleet Material Support Office (FMSO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Acute Shortag of Pr~gramm.rs" BUness Week, pp. 49, 1 September 198.. 7. Kiser, Barbara C. Stewart, "Software Management Productivity- Understanding the...34Productivity: The First Step", 21wiel ews, pp. 28-30, Mar:= 1, 1982. 29. Jones, Capers , P_ gam i an _oramo-1 2ducti.ity, TR 02 761W -rBMo6r 1p. IGeral

  13. Instructional Systems Development: Conceptual Analysis and Comprehensive Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    Sands, W. A. Application of the cost of attaining personnel requirements ( CAPER ) model. WTB 72-1, Naval Personnel Pesearch and Development Laboratory...in pilot training. Anacapa Sciences, Inc., Santa Barbara , CA, March 1972. McKinnon, C. The worlds oldest training device. In Second Annual Worldwide...Colonial House Santa Barbara , CA 93102 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601 Dr. Robert C. Sugarman, Head Human Factors Section Applied Science Associates, Inc

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of the Open Literature on Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Daniel and Herbig (eds.), Strategic Military Deception. New York and London: Pergamon Press, 1982, pp. 151-173. Schorr, David, "The Trigon Caper ...Swindling and Selling. Free Press, 1976. Lindey, A., Plagiarism and Originality. New York: Harper & Bros., 1952. Lockard, Joan S., Barbara C. Kirkevold, and...Palsky, N., Hustlers, Beats and Others. Garden City, New York: Anchor, 1969. Pilisuk, Marc, Barbara Brandes, and Didier van den Hove, "Deceptive

  15. C4 Software Technology Reference Guide - A Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-10

    Jack Callahan, West Virginia University and NASA i Lt Col Thomas Croak, AFMC SSSG/SMX ^ Dr. Barbara B. Cuthill, NIST/ATP Helen Gill, National Science...of Two-Phase Commit Protocols in the Presence of Site Failures (TRCS94-09). Santa Barbara , CA: University of California, Computer Science...8217 Group (IFPUG) Web site [online]. Available WWW <URL: http://www.bannister.com/ifpug/home/docs/ ifpughome.html> (1996). Jones, Capers . "Backfiring

  16. U.S. Army War College Guide to Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    was handled directly out of the White House because of the deeply rooted domestic dimension of those issues. The Oliver North Iran-Contra caper ...Data.” National Defense 83 (September 1998): 24-25. Starr, Barbara . “Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction: USA Moves to Block Weapons Danger...Jane’s Defence Weekly 28 (12 November 1997): 39-41. Starr, Barbara . “Interview (with Edward Warner III, US Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy

  17. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Northern Bering, Eastern Chukchi, and Alaskan Beaufort Seas, 1984: with a Six Year Review, 1979-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Scheidt supplied satellite imagery from the National Weather Service, U. S. Department of Commerce. Jeanne Cole and Barbara McAvoy of SEACO, Inc. typed...70048.6’ 1 0015.2’ 562 MP FE 300 0 B4 22 A-42 Il * -0- CHUIKCHI SEA 72 PT BA 71 CAPEIC CAPER ~ 1370 LEEN A-43 Flight 21: 30 July 1994 Flight was a

  18. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Shikha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.

  19. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, Ruta [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Peciulyte, Dalia [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baltrunas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Paskevicius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-03-15

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to {sup 239}Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  20. Description of two new species of the genus Automate De Man, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Rong; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2017-03-02

    Three species of the genus Automate De Man, 1888 are described herein, including two new species: A. anacanthopusoides sp. nov. and A. spinosa sp. nov.. Automate anacanthopusoides sp. nov. can be easily identified by the presence of a rostrum, the notch on the lower margin of the major chela, the stout minor cheliped and the cutting edge of the pollex not dentate, and by the absence of spines on the ventral margin of the propodus of the third and fourth pereiopod. Automate spinosa sp. nov. can be easily identified by the nearly straight anterior margin of the carapace, and the presence of spines on the ventral margin of the propodus of third and fourth pereiopod. A key of all species of the Automate is provided.

  1. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  2. Susceptibility of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Spinosad (Tracer®) as a Eco-friendly Biopesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Sadeghi; Asgar Ebadollahi

    2015-01-01

    Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) are internal feeder of various stored grains and introducted as major stored product insect pests. Due to the resistance by insect pests and negative effects of synthetic pesticides to the environment, it is necessary to use novel and suitable compounds in insect pest’s management. Spinosad is a bio-insecticide that is derived from fermentation of a bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa Mertz and Yao. In the present study, the toxicity of Tra...

  3. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  4. Distribution, Genetic Characterization, and Life History of the James spinymussel, Pleurobema collina (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Virginia and North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    Three spined, mussel species occur in the United States along the Atlantic slope; James spinymussel (Pleurobema collina), Tar spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana), and Altamaha spinymussel (E. spinosa). The James spinymussel was listed as endangered in 1988, and was until recently considered to be endemic to the James River basin (Clarke and Neves 1984; USFWS 1990). Biologists with the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) discovered spinymussel populations in the Dan and Mayo...

  5. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of seven Medicinal plants species from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Isabel Josefa

    2015-01-01

    Seven plant species, used as traditional medicine, from two regions of Ecuador have been subjected to qualitative and cuantitative phytochemistry screening in order to provide information about possible chemical compounds present in these species that will contribute to future researchs. Chuquiraga jussieui J.F. Gmel., Pseudognaphalium elegans (Kunth) Kartesz (Asteraceae), Gustavia pubescens Ruiz & Pav. ex Berg (Lecythidaceae), Aeghiphila alba Moldenke (Lamiaceae), Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleom...

  6. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Michael H. Gordon; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  7. Meiotic behavior of wild Caricaceae species potentially suitable for papaya improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuelli Narducci da Silva; Monique Freitas Neto; Pereira,Telma N. S.; Pereira,Messias G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meiotic behavior and determine the meiotic index and pollen viability of representative plants of the wild species V. goudotiana, V. quercifolia and J. spinosa. Meiotic analysis confirmed that the species are diploid and have 18 chromosomes. Meiosis was partially normal, since some abnormalities, e.g, sticky and lagging chromosomes, precocious segregation, lack of synchrony, and disturbances in the spindle fibers were observed. These abnormalities...

  8. Chemotaxonomy and flavonoid diversity of Salvia L.(Lamiaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the chemotaxonomic status and chemical diversity of Salvia L. species in Iran using leaf flavonoid profiles. From natural habitats in the country, we collected samples of 14 species of the genus: S. spinosa L.; S. macrosiphon Boiss.; S. reuterana Boiss.; S. sharifii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. nemorosa L.; S. virgata Jacq.; S. syriaca L.; S. mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. atropatana Bunge; S. limbata C. A. Mey; S. sclarea L.; S. ceratophylla L.; S. multicaulis Vahl.; and S. hydrangea Dc. ex Benth. Two-dimensional maps of these species were created with thin-layer chromatography. In order to study the taxonomic position of these species and 37 accessions, cluster analysis was applied. The results of the cluster analysis showed that S. spinosa was distinct from S. reuterana. Despite considerable morphological similarity between S. nemorosa and S. virgata, those two species are definitely distinguished. In addition, S. spinosa and S. macrosiphon were roughly grouped, whereas S. ceratophylla and S. multicaulis composed two separate groups. In the 14 species collected, the flavonoids identified were flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols and chalcones. We found that flavonoids are appropriate indicators to determine the taxonomic position of Salvia species.

  9. [Study on medication regularity of grand master of traditional Chinese medicine YAN Zheng-hua's Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    In this study, prescriptions were collected to establish a database based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS). Such data-mining methods as software's statistical statement module, data analysis module and apriori algorithm were used to analyze the frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules and the core drug combinations of ostreae concha-containing prescriptions. The results showed that Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions were frequently used to treat insomnia, vertigo, stomach-ache and other syndromes. The frequently used drugs included Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Paeoniae Rubra Radix. The frequently used drug combinations included "Ostreae Concha and Ossis Mastodi Fossilia", "Ostreae Concha and Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", and "Ostreae Concha and Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The drug association rules with the confidence coefficient of more than 0. 95 included "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-->Ostreae Concha", "Cocos Poria-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Ostreae Concha", "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Ostreae Concha", and "Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia--Ostreae Concha".

  10. Research on the Capsule of Ganoderma lucidum and Zizhiphi spinozae Improving the Sleep in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Dang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more people are suffering from insomnia with difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum and Ziziphi spinosae (Z. Spinosae are conventional herbal drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and they have been used lonely for the treatment of insomnia. In the present study, G. lucidum and Z. spinosae were combined and the active fractions were extracted to make the capsule. Furthermore, their effect on improving sleep in mice was investigated. The functional compositions of the capsule were polysaccharide, total flavone, spinosin and triterpenoid, with the content being 12.08, 1.35, 0.67 and 1.50 g/100 g, respectively. The effect of the capsule on improving sleep in mice was studied. Results showed no effects on the sleep induced directly in mice assessed with the loss-of-righting reflex even at the high dose of 450, 1350 mg/kg/day. However, the capsule significantly decreased sleep latency and increased sleeping time and prolonged sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium at high doses. In conclusion, the capsule of G. lucidum and Z. spinozae combined had the function of improving sleep

  11. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  12. Open source intelligence, open social intelligence and privacy by design

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Austràlia). Centre for Applied Social Research

    2014-01-01

    Ponència presentada a European Conference on Social Intelligence (ECSI-2014) OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence, (O)SI for (Open) Social Intelligence, PbD for Privacy by Design. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organized crime. How to balance freedom and security? This position paper describes a way to embed the legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe into this kind of surveillance platforms. It f...

  13. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure...... in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results...

  14. The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations NWP 9 (REV.A)/ FMFM 1-10. Annotated Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Great Reinterpretation Caper , 99 Harv. L. Rev. 1956 (1986), discuss the proper interpretation of the scope of the obligation in article V of the ABM... Barbara Channel 1I.. 165 + 60.. US 25008-11 931.650 34*10’N. 420000’W 38. *Anegada Passage. 43i0 1.000O+’ 27 UK between Anacapa Island (Santa Barbara ...Belt (85) Kafireos Strait (Dhiekplous Notsuke-suido (194) SAN BERNARDINO STRAIT (166) Kafireosl (113) Obi Strait (159) Santa Barbara Channel (26

  15. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    2 TOTAL 0 1,317 1,317 AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 CONT MOTOR 1 75 0 1 1 BARBARA JEAN 2 41 LYCOMING 1 115 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 3 3 TOTAL 0 3 3...140 3 3VS-1 2 41 CONT MOTOR 1 85 1 1NAZGUL 1 41 LYCOMING 1 65 1 1Z 1 41 CONT MOTOR 1 75 4 4 KORNS CAPER 2 41 LYCOMING 1 140 2 2HM 360 2 41 CONT MOTOR 1

  16. Theory Reform caused by an Argumentation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-13

    caper concerns one such system, called NoteCards. The raier discusses two incidents where using the system uncovered major flaws in the arguments...Navy Personnel R&D Center NTTC (Code 016) San Diego, CA 92152 NAS Memphis (75) Millington, TN 38054 Dr. Barbara Means Human Resources Dr. Richard E...Institute Prcovo, UT 8-:57 Dr. Barbara Hayes-Roth Department of Computer Science Dr. S. ye-::r Stanford University Stanford Un-versity S ta"f r, C A ;33

  17. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    3 3 TOTAL 0 3 3 AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 I 0 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 1 41 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC...1 KORNS CAPER 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSAN #39 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 2 41 1 0 1 1 KR II 2 41 I 0 2 2 KR P-51J 41 1 0 1 1 KRi 1 41 1 0 3 3 KR 1 1/2 1 41

  18. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft for Calendar Year 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-31

    TOTAL 0 3 3 AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 1 0 1 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 1 41 1 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41...FLYER 1 51 2 0 1 1 KOLB ULTRA-STAR 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOLB ULTRASTAR 1 41 1 0 2 2 KORNS CAPER 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSAN #39 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 2 41 1 0 1 1 KR

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, OH. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Evergreen Nurseries, Inc. Fairview, PA 16415 Barbara Bol, Chairman 16 June 1978 LWV Land Use Committee League of Women Voters of Erie County 709 Hilltop Road...t’s r. ’ - Caper cases cre r *& Atss ee;crs rat a r -oe c a cstr-ss ’care’sCrst ’ vc0 r’sa’m*Cme ! =;c1*, 1ce5’s tC’ -"Weta- roe’ "s -c~ otre atatrca

  20. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program, 1988. Program Technical Report. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    trips and provided much needed support. I thank Dr. Newcomb, Mr. Dick Vigue, Mrs. Barbara Eaton, and Capt. Dimitroff for reviewing this manuscript...species of stinging wasp, nearly all cases 144-10 were caper wasps. These records were examined to determine the frequency of wasp control relative to other...Phys. Chem., 88, p2320(1984). 12. Siemens A.-G. (Hans J. Henkel), Ger. Pat. 1,234,341, February 16, 1967. 13. R. G. Lawler and P. F. Barbara

  1. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-31

    AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 10 1 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 I 41 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 2 2...34 - "SP-" , K(OLB LLTRA-5-A; 4. KOL.E u_7P-’S4 KIORNS CAPER 2 " .4. KOSAN 039 1 4’ 0 , KOSTOOM-3 2 4 1 0 1 - KR I 2 4’ 0 O 1 1 KR P-51i 1 4’ 1 O 1 1 KR I

  2. Selected Current Acquisitions and Articles from Periodicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    KF390.5.C6 B57 1993 COMPUTER SOFTWARE--QUALITY CONTROL. Jones, Capers . Assessment & control of software risks. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Yourdon Press...Producers Feeling the Heat. MEED 38:2-3 Apr 8 󈨢. Conry, Barbara . Middle East Peacekeeping Is an Invitation to Disaster. Insight 10:30-31 Apr 11 󈨢...Society? Asian Survey 34:133- 138 Feb 󈨢. PEACEKEEPING Conry, Barbara . Middle East Peacekeeping Is an Invitation to Disaster. Insight 10:30-31 Apr 11 󈨢

  3. United States Air Force College Science and Engineering Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Department and Chemistry Department 5 University: University of Ca. at Santa Barbara Research Location: AF Astronautics Laboratory/VSSC Comonent Structures...University of I Ca. at Santa Barbara with a B.S. degree in Chemistry, which 3 I intend to apply to the field of material science. This is the second...an average diameter of 2 in. and length 1.5 ft. The mandrels used for this were constructed out of steel and had slight capers to them of approx. .17

  4. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Management Report. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Newcomb, Mr. Dick Vigue, Mrs. Barbara Eaton, and Capt. Dimitroff for reviewing this manuscript. Other AFHRL/IDC members, including Dan Muraida, Bill...nearlv a--ll cMace_ 144-10 were caper wasps. These records were ei.amined to determine the freauency of wasp control relative to other insect pests...1984). 12. Siemens A.-G. (Hans J. Henkel), Ger. Pat. 1,234,341, February 16, 1967. 13. R. G. Lawler and P. F. Barbara , "Practical Aspects of

  5. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft. Calendar Year 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    A/E N/E CARRIER AVIATION AIRCRAFT AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 1 0 1 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 1 41 1 0 2...34 MARK V11200 2 410 4 K N 2 2 41 1 0 1 KNIGHT TWISTER 2 410 KNOB QUICKIE 11 1411 0 KOLB FEATHER 2 Al 1 KORNS CAPER 2 A1ll 01 KOSTOO- 3 I 4Al 0 1 K R

  6. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    3 3 AUSTIN 2 1 0 BARBARA JEAN 41 1 0 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 Iŕ TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 41 C F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 2 2... CAPER 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSAN .39 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 2 41 1 0 I 1 KR 12 41 1 0 1 1 KRP -I Ij 1 41 1 0 1 1 KR 1 1 41 1 0 2 2 KRI 1,2 1 41 1 0 1 1 5 KR E

  7. Gallium Arsenide and Related Compounds, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    California at Santa Barbara , for his contributions to hot-electron effects, the Gunn Oscillator, and III - V heterojunction devices including the... Caper )o p A11k ’I T~’I N-H Lboratoiets Mimarrai% ill. N.J (;70)71 lh.-.tra1 t ml’.Ii"’i"~t. lh’~t’~’ I)(- it first rt’alizaioni of a t’(’"mmianit... Barbara , CA 93106 J. R. Abelson and T. W. Sigmon Stanford Electronics Laboratories Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract Epitaxial regrowth

  8. Index to the Field Artillery Journal, Author and Subject Index, January 1982 - December 1986. Volumes 50-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Letter John D. Spengler 50:3 SE-O 󈨖. BARBARA , SAINT (PATRON SAINT OF ARTILLERY) Feature. 52:33 SE-O 󈨘. Order of Saint Barbara . Feature 51:20-3 N...D 󈨗. Saint Barbara Guards, The 59th Brigade. Article 52:48 N-D 󈨘. Wear of the Award of the Order of Saint Barbara . Feature 52:31 JL-AG 󈨘...Korean capers . 53:26-8 MY-JE 󈨙. DAYTON, KEITH W., 1949- We Can’t Shoot What We Don’t Have. 54:26-30 MR-AP 󈨚. DEEP BATTLE The Soviet Showdown: A

  9. Preparation and Identification of the Polyclonal Antibody Against Plant Sweet Protein Mabinlin Ⅱ%植物甜蛋白马宾灵(MabinlinⅡ)多克隆抗体的制备与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾文亮; 夏启玉; 姚晶; 胡新文; 郭建春

    2012-01-01

    马宾灵(MabinlinⅡ)是中国所特有的植物马槟榔种子中的甜味蛋白,将其作为新型甜味剂有着广阔的市场前景.为了给重组马宾灵的基因工程应用提供可靠的蛋白质检测与鉴定的抗体,通过离子交换法从马槟榔(Capparis masaikai Lévl)种子中分离纯化马宾灵,将其作为抗原免疫新西兰大白兔,收集免疫后血清经抗原亲和纯化制备马宾灵多克隆抗体.结果表明,制备的马宾灵多克隆抗体经ELISA检测效价比达到1:256000,Western-blot检测表明其具有良好的反应性和特异性.本研究制备的马宾灵多克隆抗体可用于马宾灵在不同生物反应器中表达的检测,为马宾灵的基因工程研究提供灵敏可靠的免疫学鉴定.%The plant sweet protein Mabinlin Ⅱ is found rich in mature seeds of Capparis masaikai Levl which is particular to China and may have wide application prospects in food sweeteners industry. In this study, in order to provide a reliable testing antibody for engineering applications of recombinant Mabinlin Ⅱ, Mabinlin Ⅱ was separated and purified from the mature seeds of Capparis masaikai Levl by ion exchange chromatography. The purified protein was used as antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits to prepare polyclonal antibody against the Mabinlin Ⅱ protein. The result of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbnent Assay (ELISA) showed that the titer of the polyclonal antibody to purified Mabinlin Ⅱ was 1:256000, and the polyclonal antibody against the purified Mabinlin E also had highly reactivity and specialty in western blot analysis. The polyclonal antibody against Mabinlin II could be used for detecting the protein amounts of Mabinlin Ⅱ expressed in various bioreactors, which may serve sensitive and reliable methods for immunology detection in genetic engineering research of Mabinlin Ⅱ .

  10. HPLC identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kulevanova

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A new and rapid HPLC method for identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in ten herbal drugs of Macedonian origin is presented. Preparation of samples (Uvae ursi folim, Pruni spinosae flos, Sambuci flos, Betulae folim, Primulae flos, Herniariae herba, Centaurii herba, Tiliae flos, Robiniae pseudoacaciae flos, Bursae pastoris herba included hydrolysis of glycosides and extraction of total aglycones with ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis with UV-diode array detection was carried out on RP C18 column, using 5% acetic acid and acetonitrile in agradient elution mode and column temperature of 30 o C. The monitoring of the elution is performed in the whole UV-range and the acquisition of data for quantitative analysis at 367 nm. Screening of the extracts showed presence of quercetin in nine, kaempferol in seven and myricetin in only one sample. The quantitative analysis showed that the content of quercetin ranged from 0.026-0.506 % (m/m, while for kaempferol it was from traces to 1.246 %. Uvaeursi folium and Pruni spinosae flos were rich in content of quercetin (0.482 % and 0.506 %, respectively, while Pruni spinosae flos and Robiniae pseudoaccaciae flos contained the highest amounts of kaempferol (1.246 % and 0.892 %, respectively. Myricetin was identified and determined only in Betulae folium (0.102 %. The content of total flavonoids in the investigated samples expressed in terms of quercetin ranged from 0.040 to 1.680 %. The proposed HPLC method is convenient for use in routine analysis of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, as well as for estimation of total flavonoids content in herbal drugs.

  11. Note e recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autori Vari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adriano Ardovino, Raccogliere il mondo. Per una fenomenologia della rete [Angela Maiello] • Clive Bell, L’Arte [Filippo Focosi] • Alessandro Bertinetto, Il pensiero dei suoni. Temi di filosofia della musica [Domenica Lentini] • Terrence Deacon, Incomplete Nature. How Mind Emerged From Matter [Mariagrazia Portera] • Roger Scruton, La bellezza. Ragione ed esperienza estetica [Filippo Focosi] • Miriam Bratu Hansen, Cinema and Experience. Sigfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin and Theoder W. Adorno [Domenico Spinosa] • Lawrence Barsalou, scritti sulla “Grounded Cognition” [Gialuca Consoli] • Dis-forme, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 28-29 maggio 2012 [Michele Bertolini e Pietro Conte

  12. Spinosad affects chemical communication in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbachi, Wafa; Bensafi, Hanene; Adjami, Yasmine; Ouakid, Mohamed L; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Everaerts, Claude

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide, derived from fermentation by the soil-dwelling actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is used to control a variety of insects. Spinosad kills a wide range of insect pests when ingested or topically applied, by overexciting the nervous system, yet is harmless to mammals and many predatory insects. Other modes of action of this insecticide have not been documented. Here, we report that a non-lethal dose of spinosad causes adult male and female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, to exhibit altered responses to their aggregation pheromone as well as to have a changed cuticular hydrocarbon profile.

  13. Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the Tibbee Creek Site (22Lo600) Lowndes County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    chenopod and amaranth . Amaranthus spinosas (spiny amaranth ) was one of the first plants to appear in the cleared areas around the Tibbee Creek site during...time and get an impression of the overall site layout. I i W - - - - - - -- - ~ ______ 23 oII oil ON Rom T U. o - Of’ 024 o 0 n 01? 0 FS 0 0 FIO F7...extent that the long axis of the artifact is apparent but it has no refinement . These artifacts are generally asymmetrical and may not be bifacially

  14. Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.

  15. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03781-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 136 3e-31 EU736254_1( EU736254 |pid:none) Absidia spinosa strain FSU552 tran... 136 3e-31 EU257537_1( EU257537 |pid:none) Tilletia...e) Oxymonadida environmental sample c... 133 2e-30 EU257525_1( EU257525 |pid:none) Tilletia secalis voucher ... AK100658 |pid:none) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA c... 132 3e-30 EU257552_1( EU257552 |pid:none) Tilletia

  17. A revision of the Chinese species of Cyamophiliopsis (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Psyllidae) associated with Spiraea (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinyu; Li, Fasheng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-03-20

    Cyamophiliopsis is a small genus restricted to the Palaearctic Region and associated with Spiraea spp. (Rosaceae). In the present work, following five species are recognized in China: C. pseudofasciata sp. nov., C. sarmatica, C. spinosa sp. nov., C. xinjiangana sp. nov. and C. zaisani. Cyamophiliopsis is diagnosed, redescribed in detail, and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. All the species are described or redescribed, and the fifth instar immature of C. zaisani is described for the first time. Nomenclatorial problems are discussed concerning the Far East Russian Psylla spiraee which is transferred to Cyamophiliopsis as C. spiraee comb. nov.

  18. A review of the genus Parapachymorpha Brunner von Wattenwyl (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae) from China, with descriptions of two new species%中国副厚(螩)属分类研究及二新种记述((螩)目:(螩)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何维俊

    2014-01-01

    本文对中国副厚(螩)属Parapachymorpha Brunner yon Wattenwyl,1893进行了分类研究,其中包括2新种——道英副厚(螩)Parapachymorpha daoyingi sp.nov.和西双版纳副厚(螩)Parapachymorpha xishuangbannaensis sp.nov.,以及1中国新记录种——刺副厚(螩)Parapachymorpha spinosa Brunner von Wattenwyl,1893.新种模式标本保存于上海昆虫博物馆.

  19. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

  20. A Cache Management Algorithm for the Heterogeneous Storage Systems%一种适用于异构存储系统的缓存管理算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 王冉; 冯丹; 施展

    2016-01-01

    The scale of storage system is becoming larger with the rapid increase of the amount of produced data .Along with the development of computer technologies ,such as cloud computing ,cloud storage and big data ,higher requirements are put forward to storage systems :higher capacity ,higher performance and higher reliability . In order to satisfy the increasing requirement of capacity and performance , modern data center widely adopts multi technologies to implement the dynamic increasing of storage and performance ,such as virtualization ,hybrid storage and so on ,which makes the storage systems trend more and more heterogeneous . The heterogeneous storage system introduces multiple new problems ,of which one key problem is the degradation of performance as load unbalance .That's because the difference of capacity and performance between heterogeneous storage devices make the parallelism technologies hardly to obtain high performance ,such as RAID ,Erasure code . For this problem , we propose a caching algorithm based on performance prediction and identification of workload characteristic , named Caper (access‐pattern aware and performance prediction‐based cache allocation algorithm) .The main idea of Caper algorithm is to allocate the load according to the capacity of the storage devices ,which aims to alleviate the load unbalance or eliminate the performance bottleneck in the heterogeneous storage systems .The Caper algorithm is composed of three parts :prediction of performance for I/O request ,analysis of caching requirement for storage device ,and caching replacement policy . The algorithm also classifies the application workload into three types :random access ,sequential access ,and looping access .In order to ensure high caching utility ,the algorithm adjusts the size of logic cache partition based on the analysis of the caching requirement .Besides ,in order to adapt to the heterogeneous storage system ,the Caper algorithm improves the Clock cache

  1. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  2. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  3. Etnoconhecimentos de Espécies Forrageiras no Semi-árido da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga, bioma with restricted occurrence to Brazil, is characterized by a xerophilous vegetation, with herb, shrub and tree components and high species diversity. The objective of this work was to study with participative forage species of the caatinga and establish a order of importance of the species as forage value at different altidudes. The collection of data was done through the use of questionnaires with rural workers of two ecoregion in Santa Luzia, Paraíba State: Borborema plateau and “sertaneja” Depression setentrional. The altitude affected the crude protein content of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poiret (jurema preta, Cnidoscollus phyllacanthus Muel. Arg. Pax et. K. Hoffm. (faveleira, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (catingueira, Capparis flexuosa L. (feijão bravo and Bauhinia cheilantha Bong. (mororó forage, was higher than the minimum demanded by ruminants in the dormant period.

  4. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ignacio del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimáticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronológicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimétricas del río Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatología en regiones tropicales.

  5. Nutritional value of some non-conventional plant foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1992-07-01

    Thirteen non-conventional foods including fruits, leaves and grains consumed in various parts of the Indian subcontinent were analysed for their nutritional value. Khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria), Pinju (Capparis decidua) and Kachri (Cucumis species) contained considerable amounts of protein (15-18%). Kachri was rich in fat (13%). Bhakri (Tribulus terristris), Gullar (Ficus glomerata) and Peehl (Salvadora oleoides) were found to be rich sources of calcium; Gullar contained about 15 times the amount of calcium present in wheat. Phosphorus content of Santhi (Boernavia diffusa), Khejri beans, Bhakri, Pinju and Lehsora (Cordia dichotoma) were noticeable. Zinc was present in high amounts in Peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa) and Gullar; as was iron in Santhi and Bhakri and manganese in Santhi. Besides iron, zinc and calcium, Pinju contained appreciable amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin C. However, Santhi contained high amounts of oxalic acid.

  6. The use of capecitabine in daily practice: a study on adherence and patients' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmers L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lonneke Timmers,1 Eleonora L Swart,1 Christel CLM Boons,1 Dirk Mangnus,1 Peter M van de Ven,2 Godefridus J Peters,3 Epie Boven,3 Jacqueline G Hugtenburg11Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Adherence to pharmacological therapy is a complex and multifactorial issue that can substantially alter the outcome of treatment. Especially when using long-term medication, cancer patients have adherence rates similar to those of patients with other diseases. The consequences of poor adherence are poor health outcomes and increased health care costs. Only few studies have focused on the use of oral anticancer agents in daily practice. Information about the reasons for nonadherence is essential for the development of interventions that may improve adherence. This report presents the CAPER-capecitabine protocol, which is designed to study the adherence to capecitabine and the influence of patient attitudes towards medication and self-reported side effects. Furthermore, the relationships between patient characteristics, disease characteristics, side effects, quality of life, patient beliefs and attitudes towards disease and medication, dose adjustments, reasons for discontinuation, and plasma concentration of three of the main metabolites, including the active compound 5-fluorouracil, will be explored.Methods: In this multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study, 90 patients aged 18 years or older starting treatment with capecitabine will be included and followed for a period up to five cycles. The main study parameters are adherence, patient attitudes towards medication, and the number and grade of patient-reported side effects. At baseline and during week 2 of cycles 1, 3 and 5, patients will be asked to donate blood and fill out a questionnaire. Blood samples will be analyzed for plasma

  7. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid.

  8. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng

    2016-12-04

    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  9. Empatia, fra neuroscienze e antropologia filosofica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafano Parenti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tramite la percezione (per-capere, cogliere con la mente non ci è possibile conoscere quel “di più” che si manifesta nell’esperienza, e che non è sensorialmente rilevabile. Molti studi scientifici contemporanei, di ricerca e clinici, ergendosi su presupposti scientisti e materialisti, considerano questa incapacità conoscitiva dell’uomo come l’evidenza della riducibilità del pensiero, delle emozioni e di tutto ciò che è immateriale della vita umana, ad epifenomeni complessi della materia. Così un giorno saranno misurabili i pensieri poiché espressione delle connessioni neuronali, le emozioni poiché insieme complesso di attivazioni e disattivazioni sub-corticali, la tensione continua alla felicità poiché carattere genetico ereditario.

  10. Memory, Identity and Desire: A Psychoanalytic Reading of David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive

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    Murat Akser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a reading of David Mulholland Drive through psychoanalytic approach of Lacan from the perspective of formation of fantasy and shifting identities. Lynch constructs his films consciously choosing his themes from the sub(versive/conscious side of human mind. Previous attempts to read Lynch's films are fixed around the idea that Lynch is using film genres to create postmodern pastiches. Mulholland Drive has been analyzed several times from different approaches ranging from gender (Love, 2004, narratology (Lentzner, 2005; McGowan, 2004; Cook, 2011. Elements of film noir, musical, caper films can be identified in Lynch’s films. This detailed textual analysis intends to rationalize Lynch’s narrative structure through Lacanian terms in reference to Zizekian terminology.

  11. Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; Common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; Eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; Pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius. Aims of the present research the characteristics of butterfly fauna from Tehsil Tangi, are helpful in awareness, education and further research. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Tehsil Tangi.

  12. Laurentide: The Crime Fighting Geologist, A Comic-Book Curriculum Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, A.; Gilbert, L. A.; Enright, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    When the police are just too ill informed on matters of earth science to solve the case it is up to Laurentide and her crew of geologists to bring justice to evildoers. Using every tool available, from a rock hammer to LiDAR, Laurentide fights crime while teaching her apprentice Esker about how geologists uncover mysteries everyday. This is the first of what will be a series of free teaching materials targeted at grades 5-8 based around the National Science Education Standards. Students will get the chance to practice problem solving and data analysis in order to solve mysteries with a combination of comic book style story telling and hands-on worksheets. The pilot story, "The Caper of the Ridiculously Cheap Condominiums" will cover 4 of the 9 Earth Science Literacy Principles 'Big Ideas'. Material will explore earthquakes, the hazards and risks they present, and the tools geologists use to map faults and estimate reoccurrence intervals.

  13. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  14. Screening and production study of microbial xylanase producers from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Prado, Heloiza Ferreira; Pavezzi, Fabiana Carina; Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Sette, Lara Durães; Dasilva, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides of low molecular weight containing 100 to 200 glycosidic residues. In plants, the xylans or the hemicelluloses are situated between the lignin and the collection of cellulose fibers underneath. The xylan is the most common hemicellulosic polysaccharide in cell walls of land plants, comprising a backbone of xylose residues linked by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. So, xylanolytic enzymes from microorganism have attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade, particularly because of their biotechnological characteristics in various industrial processes, related to food, feed, ethanol, pulp, and paper industries. A microbial screening of xylanase producer was carried out in Brazilian Cerrado area in Selviria city, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. About 50 bacterial strains and 15 fungal strains were isolated from soil sample at 35 degrees C. Between these isolated microorganisms, a bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. and a fungus Neosartorya spinosa as good xylanase producers were identified. Based on identification processes, Lysinibacillus sp. is a new species and the xylanase production by this bacterial genus was not reported yet. Similarly, it has not reported about xylanase production from N. spinosa. The bacterial strain P5B1 identified as Lysinibacillus sp. was cultivated on submerged fermentation using as substrate xylan, wheat bran, corn straw, corncob, and sugar cane bagasse. Corn straw and wheat bran show a good xylanase activity after 72 h of fermentation. A fungus identified as N. spinosa (strain P2D16) was cultivated on solid-state fermentation using as substrate source wheat bran, wheat bran plus sawdust, corn straw, corncob, cassava bran, and sugar cane bagasse. Wheat bran and corncobs show the better xylanase production after 72 h of fermentation. Both crude xylanases were characterized and a bacterial xylanase shows optimum pH for enzyme activity at 6.0, whereas a fungal xylanase has optimum pH at 5.0-5.5. They were

  15. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Hardy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym: Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller, comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt, comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt, comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis. We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculata Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  16. Variações sazonais de aspectos fisiológicos de espécies da Caatinga Seazonal variations of physiological aspects of Caatinga species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilma M. de B. M. Trovão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de compreender as estratégias de sobrevivência utilizadas pelas espécies da Caatinga para se adaptarem às condições oferecidas pelo clima da região, avaliaram-se o potencial hídrico e a eficiencia quântica da fotossíntese obtida pela fluorescência das espécies: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis,Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp, Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigida, considerando-se dois períodos de observação: estiagem (1 e chuvoso (2, para se verificar os possíveis identificadores de estresse. Com relação ao potencial hídrico verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas entre as duas estações, porém o fato que chamou a atenção reside nos altos níveis do potencial hídrico, mesmo no período de estiagem que, caracteristicamente, provocaria o estresse hídrico em função da ausência de água no solo. Os dados de fluorescência revelaram ótimos estados nos aparatos fotossintéticos, não indicando condição de estresse. Concluiu-se que as estratégias de sobrevivência dessas espécies são altamente eficientes e resultam de uma alta complexidade evolutiva.With the purpose of understanding the survival strategies used by Caatinga species to face the weather conditions, the water potential and quantical photosynthetic efficiency of some species were studied. The data were obtained through the fluorescence of 11 species: Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Amburana cearensis, Capparys cynophallophora, Anadenanthera colubrine var. cebil, Pseudobombax sp., Commiphora leptophloeos, Ziziphus joazeiro, Bumelia sartorum, Caesalpinia ferrea, Maytenus rigidat. Two observation conditions of weather, the dry period and the wet one were studied, in which possible stress characteristics were verified. The study of the water potential presented statistical differences between

  17. The advancement of biological research in amphibian culture in China%中国养殖的两栖动物生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕亮

    2004-01-01

    综合论述了中国养殖的6种主要两栖动物:虎纹蛙Rana tigrina rugulosa Wiegmann、棘胸蛙Rana spinosa David、中国林蛙Rana temporaria chensinensis David、牛蛙Rana catesbeiana Shaw、猪蛙Rana grylio和中国大鲵Megalobatrachus davidianus Blanchara的生物学研究成果,包括养殖种类与地理分布,栖息习性,对盐度、温度、湿度、溶解氧、pH值的适应,摄食方式与食物组成,生长与繁殖生物学;展望了其生物学研究前景.

  18. 黄瓜苗根围拮抗细菌X3的分子鉴定%Identification on an antagonistic rhizobacterium X3 from rhizosphere of cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈爱华; 张炳欣; 李斌; 沈立荣; 喻景权

    2003-01-01

    采用生理生化、Biolog和16S rDNA分子鉴定3种不同方法,对抑制黄瓜苗期猝倒病病原真菌的细菌菌株X3进行了鉴定.生理生化鉴定显示该菌株为Pseudomonas aeruginosa;而Biolog鉴定显示其为P.spinosa;进一步对该菌株作16S rDNA基因的测定与分析,表明其与已报道的P.aeruginosa 16S rDNA 具有93.7%的同源性,二者在所建系统发育树中处于同一分枝,据此确定该菌株为P aeruginosa.

  19. Note e recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autori Vari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Kendall L. Walton, Mimesi come far finta [Chiara Bisignano] • Nick Zangwill, La metafisica della bellezza [Filippo Focosi] • Dominic McIver Lopes, A Philosophy of Computer Art [Elisa Caldarola] • Jacques Rancière, Béla Tarr, le temps d’après [Domenico Spinosa] • Stefano Marino, Un intreccio dialettico. Teoresi, estetica, etica e metafisica in Theo­dor W. Adorno [Marco Jacobsson] • Antonio Somaini, Ejzenštejn. Il cinema, le arti, il montaggio [Marie Rebecchi] • Aa.Vv., Alla fine delle cose. Contributi a una storia critica delle immagini [Marie Rebecchi]Convegni Merleau-Ponty et l’esthétique aujourd-hui, Università degli Studi di Milano, 5-6 maggio 2011 [Pietro Conte

  20. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  1. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Dmitriev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska; Empoasca (Empoasca chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste; Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry; Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti; Zyginella vietnamica nom.nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy; Eupteryx (Eupteryx dlabolai nom.nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy; Baaora ahmedi nom.nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed (not Beamer; Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, syn.nov.

  2. A study of the genus Protosticta Selys, 1855, with descriptions of four new species from Vietnam (Odonata: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Kompier, Tom

    2016-04-07

    The genus Protosticta Selys, 1855 from Vietnam is revised. Four new species, P. ngoai spec. nov., P. socculus spec. nov., P. pseudocuriosa spec. nov., and P. spinosa spec. nov. are described; detailed morphological structures of four species P. beaumonti Wilson, 1997 (dark form), P. caroli van Tol, 2008, P. grandis Asahina, 1995, and P. satoi Asahina, 1997, are provided. P. beaumonti is newly recorded for Vietnam. The female of P. caroli is described for the first time. P. linnaei van Tol, 2008, is also listed here, based on the original description and visual inspection of the type specimens. The occurrence of P. khaosoidaoensis Asahina, 1984, in Vietnam is reviewed and rejected. A total of nine Protosticta species have now been recorded for Vietnam.

  3. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  4. Ascidian recruitment patterns on an artificial reef in Eilat (Red Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Noa; Zeldman, Yael; Loya, Yossi

    2008-01-01

    Although ascidians are conspicuous members of the fouling community not much is known regarding their recruitment patterns in coral reefs. A 1-year study was carried out along the Red Sea coast of Israel to examine the effects of season and spatial distribution on ascidian recruitment to artificial marine structures. In general, autumn and spring were characterized by higher coverage with a significantly higher percentage of cover of Didemnum granulatum in autumn and higher numbers of Herdmania momus in spring. These species contributed the most to similarity between treatments consequently setting the pattern for each group (colonial and solitary). Halocynthia spinosa had significantly higher numbers during winter and Phallusia nigra was absent in spring and winter. H. momus showed a preference for horizontal surfaces. P. nigra and Ascidia cannelata showed a preference for floating units. It is concluded that the ascidian recruitment patterns are species-specific and vary between seasons, orientation and position on the substrata and in the water column.

  5. Habitat and nest site preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jannie K.; Sell, Henrik; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluate nest site and habitat preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in the national park Mols Bjerge, Denmark. In total, 28 nests were found during 2010 and 2011. To determine nesting site preferences, the species composition of vegetation in scrub used for nesting...... was compared to that of nearest unused scrub. To evaluate habitat preferences, a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) was modelled based on presence/absence data. The habitat factors were represented by Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) derived measures of vegetation height and topographic wetness...... as well as distance to nearest road/path, as an indicator of human disturbance. Scrub used as nesting sites were characterized by thorny shrub species such as Prunus spinosa and Rubus fruticosus. RSPF showed that shrike presence was positively correlated with vegetation heterogeneity and high topographic...

  6. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.

  7. Oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Said; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr; Guillaume, Dominique; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Bouzoubaa, Zakia; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical stability of cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil). The methodology involves the repeated measurement over a 1-year period of the quality metrics used in the cosmetic industry: acid and peroxide value and specific absorbance. During this year, storage is performed at 40° or 25°C to assess the importance of temperature. In this latter case, oil samples have been either protected or exposed to sunlight. In addition, sterol and fatty acid composition is determined to attest argan oil chemical integrity over 1 year. Storage of argan oil at 40°C results in a rapid loss of quality. Stored at 25°C and protected from sunlight, argan oil quality is still satisfactory after 12 months according to the official Moroccan norm, but storage should not be longer than 6 months to fulfill industrial standards.

  8. ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA AGAINST SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FR. IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTARJO DIKIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune Fr., is one of the important fungi, causes brown germ and seed rot of oil palm. Biodiversity of antagonistic bacteria from oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia is expected to support in development of biopesticide. Isolation with liquid assay and screening antagonistic bacteria using dual culture assay were carried out in the bioexploration. A total of 265 bacterial isolates from plant parts of oil palm screened 52 antagonistic bacterial isolates against 5. commune. Bacterial isolates were identified by using Biolog* Identification System i.e. Bacillus macroccanus, B. thermoglucosidasius, Burkholderia cepacia, B. gladioli, B. multivorans, B pyrrocinia, B. spinosa, Corynebacterium agropyri, C. misitidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. citronellolis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Serratia ficaria, Serratia sp., S. marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri, Sternotrophomonas maltophilia.

  9. A review on chemical and medicobiological applications of capparidaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature′s gift to human being to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. Capparidaceae family comprises various important medicinal properties distributed in tropical and subtropical India, whose medicinal usage has been reported in the traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurvedha, Siddha and Unani. Plants belongs to the Capparidaceae family has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non specific resistance of antioxidant and immunostimulant effects. The C. sepiaria, C. spinosa, C. tomentosa and C. zeylanica etc., belongs to this family is reported as used in traditional medicine. The diverse phytoconstituents and various medicobiological uses of the plants belonging to this family were reviewed here.

  10. Short-term effects of a spinosyn's family insecticide on energy metabolism and liver morphology in frugivorous bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Amaral

    Full Text Available A new class of insecticide derived from fermentation of Sacharopolyspora spinosa - spinosad, has been indicated as being of low toxicity and a natural alternative to classical pesticides. In order to elucidate several aspects related to the morphophysiological changes induced by spinosad in Artibeus lituratus, the effects of a seven-day administration on plasma glucose, glycogen, protein and lipid concentrations were evaluated, and possible changes in liver cells were examined by histological analysis. Animals were fed with spinosyn-contaminated fruit through immersion in a solution. Data reporting on metabolism revealed a decrease in hind limb muscle lipid concentration in the treated group. Morphological analysis indicated a significant increase in liver cell diameter in treated animals compared to the control group. This study indicates that spinosyn, used at its recommended dose, does not affect general energy metabolism in A. lituratus but may affect some ultrastructural characteristics of liver cells.

  11. Utility of cyclodextrins in the formulation of genistein part 1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of genistein complexes with native cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, Balázs; Mátyus, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Takács, Mária; Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szoke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

    2008-11-04

    Isoflavones are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs). The molecular encapsulation with CDs results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of isoflavones. Genistein, a key isoflavone constituent of Ononidis spinosae radix was found to form a supramolecular, non-covalent inclusion complex with both beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD), while it did not form a stable complex with alpha-CD. The guest genistein was found to spatially located in the less polar cavity of cyclodextrin. The isolated binary genistein/CD complexes appeared novel crystalline lattices. The in vitro dissolution of genistein entrapped into both beta- and gamma-CD, significantly surpassed that of the plain isoflavone.

  12. The greater sense of involvement - literary festivals and cultural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Innovative projects of a cultural nature provide value for those who organize and participate in them. However, for the politician in charge of the culture file, such projects gain value only when they deliver economic or social impact. Turning culture and art into an economic instrument...... is not a new idea in the politics of culture. The entrepreneur, the arts manager, and the administrator of cultural institutions become key figures when the cultural sector is professionalized and made into an economic engine. Starting from the thesis that economic values are helpful in advancing some social...... or economic purpose, I attempt to liberate the entrepreneur from the role and task of orchestrating economic logic. Using two literature festivals in Berlin and Copenhagen respectively, I seek to illustrate ”how entrepreneurs contribute to reconfiguring the practices of their society” (Spinosa, Flores...

  13. 杰氏涡虫属一新种及中国一新纪录种(扁形动物门,单肠目,达氏科)%A NEW SPECIES AND ONE NEWLY RECORDED SPECIES OF THE GENUS GIEYSZTORIA FROM CHINA (PLATYHELMINTHES, RHABDOCOELA, DALYELLIIOIDA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪安泰; 邓利

    2006-01-01

    报道中国杰氏涡虫属1新种:丽杰氏涡虫Gieysztoria pulchra sp.nov.,标本采于广东省梅州市郊区鱼塘,对新种涡虫的形态特征作了详细描述,并与杰氏涡虫属所有物种进行了比较;中国1新纪录亚种:大变杰氏涡虫九刺亚种Gieysztoria macrovariata 9-spinosa Luther,1955,标本分别采自安徽芜湖市和湖北省武汉市东湖.所有标本保存在深圳大学生命科学学院形态学研究室.

  14. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway.

  15. Emergência de plantas daninhas em solo coberto com palha de cana-de-açúcar Weed emergence in soil covered with sugarcane harvest straw residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Correia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da cobertura do solo, com 0, 5, 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana-de-açúcar da variedade SP 79 2233, sobre a emergência de seis espécies de plantas daninhas (Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spinosa, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia e Ipomoea quamoclit, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da Universidade Estadual Paulista, campus de Jaboticabal, SP. Cada unidade experimental foi constituída por um vaso plástico com 21,50 cm de diâmetro e capacidade para quatro litros de solo. Foram semeados 0,112 g de sementes de D. horizontalis, 2,12 g sementes de I. quamoclit e 50 sementes das demais espécies, por vaso. Foram contabilizadas as plântulas emersas aos 6 e 32 dias após a semeadura (DAS sob a palha e aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a remoção da palha (DARP. Constatou-se que a cobertura do solo com 5, 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana inibiu a emergência de plântulas das espécies B. decumbens e S. spinosa, sendo o mesmo observado para D. horizontalis submetida a 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha. No entanto, para I. grandifolia e I. hederifolia o número de plantas emersas não diferiu entre as quantidades de palha. Por outro lado, a presença da cobertura morta com palha de cana incrementou a emergência de plântulas de I. quamoclit. Não foram verificados, após a remoção da palha, fluxos expressivos na emergência de plântulas das espécies estudadas.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to study the effects of soil coverage with sugarcane harvest straw residue (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1 on the emergence of six weed species (Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spinosa, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia and Ipomoea quamoclit at the Department of Phytosanitation of Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil. Each experimental unit consisted of one plastic pot (diameter = 21.50 cm; total

  16. Large branchiopods (Branchiopoda: Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata from the salt lakes of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjéma SAMRAOUI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda of the major salt lakes of Algeria, particularly those of the eastern Hauts Plateaux. The aim of the survey was to complement a previous survey that focused on the freshwater habitats of Numidia, northeast Algeria. The study revealed 8 species, with one taxon new to Algeria and North Africa (Chirocephalus salinus. Data on the status, phenology and habitats of collected and previously known species are presented for 19 taxa. The distribution of many species has been greatly extended and the co-occurrence of Artemia tunisiana and Branchinella spinosa has been recorded. The studied salt lakes, owing to a large production of fairy shrimps, support a great number of wintering and breeding waterbirds, but are subject to increasing human pressure.

  17. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  18. Impact des coopératives féminines sur la préservation et la valorisation de l’arganeraie : cas de la coopérative Tafyoucht (confédération des Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Maroc)

    OpenAIRE

    FAOUZI, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    L'arganier (Argania spinosa) est un arbre qui pousse principalement au Maroc. Les arganeraies occupent environ 800 000 hectares au sud-ouest du pays. Dans ces zones semi-arides et arides, 1,3 million de personnes sont concernées par l’exploitation de systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels reposant sur l’arganier. L'aire de l’arganier se dégrade d’année en année sous l’effet conjugué de la croissance démographique et du surpâturage. En moins d'un siècle, plus d'un tiers de la forêt a disparu. D...

  19. Impact des coopératives féminines sur la préservation et la valorisation de l’arganeraie : cas de la coopérative Tafyoucht (confédération des Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Maroc) Impacto das cooperativas de mulheres sobre a preservação e valorização do argan: o caso da cooperativa Tafyoucht (Confederação de AitBaamrane, Anti-Atlas, Marrocos) Impact of women’s cooperatives on the conservation and enhancement of the argan tree: case of the Tafyoucht cooperative (confederation of the Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Faouzi

    2012-01-01

    L'arganier (Argania spinosa) est un arbre qui pousse principalement au Maroc. Les arganeraies occupent environ 800 000 hectares au sud-ouest du pays. Dans ces zones semi-arides et arides, 1,3 million de personnes sont concernées par l’exploitation de systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels reposant sur l’arganier. L'aire de l’arganier se dégrade d’année en année sous l’effet conjugué de la croissance démographique et du surpâturage. En moins d'un siècle, plus d'un tiers de la forêt a disparu. D...

  20. Sternaspidae (Annelida, Sedentaria) from Vietnam with description of three new species and clarification of some morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadan, Anna E; Tzetlin, Alexander B; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2017-01-25

    Five sternaspid species were found near Vietnam shores: Sternaspis britayevi sp. nov., S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879, S. nana sp. nov., S. papillosa sp. nov., and S. spinosa Sluiter 1882. Sternaspis britayevi is described from the shallow water in Vietnam inhabiting soft bottoms; it resembles S. spinosa described from Java and S. thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 described from the Persian Gulf, but differs in having a medially projected and markedly ribbed fan of the ventro-caudal shield and nearly parallel, distally widened and rounded branchial plates. Sternaspis nana sp. nov. is described from Nha Trang Bay; it differs from the other known species by the combination of the following characters: small size, evenly distributed micropapillae and regular rows of long cirriform papillae; posterior chaetal fascicles consisting of single thick chaeta; a ventral shield with smooth integument, without ribs and usually without concentric lines. Sternaspis papillosa sp. nov. is also described from Nha Trang Bay; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 by having similar ventro-caudal shields but differs by body papillation and details of the ventro-caudal shield. Based upon observations of different species some morphological features are clarified: 1) notochaetae are present in introvert chaetigers as delicate capillaries; 2) peg-chaetae are really a dense group of more than 100 thin individual chaetae, embedded in a fibrous matrix, and covered by a common sheath; 3) the pharynx is an eversible, lobed, axial non-muscular proboscis with a ciliated surface; 4) the body cavity is divided by three septa in the anterior body region, and there are no other septa; and 5) an eversible anal peduncle is confirmed, as has been shown by early taxonomists.

  1. Univariate and Multivariate Analysis of Agronomical Traits of Preselected Argan Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima AIT AABD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of thirty argan trees (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels, representing the Aoulouz provenance in southwest of Morocco were used to study genetic variability and selection for three years. In this study, the genetic diversity of thirty genotypes (tree mothers of argan (Argania spinosa collected from Aoulouz was evaluated using agro-morphological characters. The main objective of the study was to assess and describe with multivariate analysis the genetic diversity in order to select good candidate trees for a future breeding program. The results obtained showed a large variation for all the traits examined. Analysis of variance using general linear model provided a significant variation between genotypes. Furthermore, genotypic and phenotypic variances for quantitative traits, particularly for seed length, seed width, almond length and oil content were higher. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters. High heritability was recorded for oil content (97.90%, seed width (72.68% and seed length (57.55% respectively, indicating the additive gene action. In addition, a three dimensional plot based on principal coordinate analysis method was used to evaluate the performance genotypes as to the production of oil for three years. The genotypes ‘Ao-12R’, ‘Ao-7R’, ‘Ao-4R’, ‘Ao-4V’, ‘Ao-11R’, ‘Ao-8V’ and ‘Ao-7V’ were found to be the best for high oil content. Identification and selection with superior agronomic traits may be an effective method for genetic improvement of argan trees, and a first step for further breeding studies.

  2. Biominerals doped nanocrystalline nickel oxide as efficient humidity sensor: A green approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) Chennai, Chennai 600 048, Tamil Nadu (India); Magesan, P. [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Judith Vijaya, J. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 034, Tamil Nadu (India); Umapathy, M.J. [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Aruldoss, Udaya, E-mail: udayaevs@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new resistive type of sensor was prepared by green synthesis. • The mineral oxide from seed part of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (HST) plant is chosen as a dopant in NiO. • The HST plant is found abundantly and commercially available in many countries. • The band gap of NH2 (Ni:HST of 0.5:0.5 weight ratio) sample is greater than prepared bulk NiO due to quantum effects. • The NH2 sample shows remarkable changes in the humidity sensing properties. - Abstract: The simple and green method is adopted for the preparation of biominerals (derived from the Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders plant seeds) doped nanocrystalline NiO. The prepared samples were subjected to instrumental analysis such as XRD, FT-IR, HR-SEM, EDX, UV–vis–DRS techniques. The surface area of all the samples was calculated from the Williamson–Hall's plot. The humidity sensitivity factor (S{sub f}) of the prepared samples was evaluated by two probe dc electrical resistance method at different relative humidity levels. The change in the resistance was observed for the entire sensor samples except pure NiO (NH0). Compared to all the other composition, HST of 0.5% in NiO (NH2 sample) enhances the sensitivity factor (S{sub f}) of about 90,000. The NH2 sample exhibited good linearity, reproducibility and response and recovery time about 210 ± 5 s and 232 ± 4 s, respectively. It is found that the sensitivity largely depends on composition, crystallite size and surface area.

  3. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc.

  4. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural world around them. The game is set around a mystery in which red wolves in eastern North Carolina are being poisoned. The students are asked to portray the role of a wildlife biologist, botanist, or entomologist, whose job it is to determine who is poisoning the red wolves. MSEG are a new form of SEG that is divided into components or modules. Each module has to be completed before the player can move on to the next module. A module can take on any format, but must encompass the storyline of the game and end in an assessment. The study focused on three research questions. How would students improve the Red Wolf Caper mSEG? Do mSEG affect students' understanding in environmental education concepts, specifically, collecting, evaluating, and developing an explanation for data they collected in the game and knowledge of environmental systems and biological and social implications for the reintroduction of a species? Which role within the mSEG do the students choose and what is their reasoning behind choosing that particular role? The game was tested by 81 middle school students during six sessions in June 2010. The study participants played the game and participated in design sessions. In addition, they were given a 5-question pretest/ posttest, role selection survey, and Serious Educational Game Rubric (SEGR). They were asked to develop a hypothesis and provide evidence to support their hypothesis. Finally, they were asked to write a letter to a local in judge explaining the importance of the red wolf reintroduction project. Twenty-three students were selected to participate in interviews to determine how to improve the game

  5. Drought Stress Response of Dry Forest Trees of the Brazilian Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R.; Worbes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Martin Worbes and Romulo Menezes In the frame of the "Tropi-Dry" network we studied drought response strategies of six tree species in a Caatinga forest at the Fazenda Tamandua near Patos in Paraiba, NE Brazil. We selected the tree species as representatives of the different phenological ecotypes: evergreen, deciduous and stem succulent. The deciduous group comprised N-fixing as well as non N-fixing Leguminosae. Over an entire vegetation period (dry and wet-season) we monitored their phenological behaviour, photosynthesis rates, stomata conductance and water potential, measured if leaves were present and we estimated seasonal variations in stable carbon and N15 content of the leaves. The major results are: Evergreen species (e.g. Capparis) may compensate low carbon-fixing rates in the wet season with a much longer vegetation period as the deciduous species. Stem succulents (Jatropha) do not fulfill the expectations of being high productive species under drought stress conditions, while the N-fixing Mimosa performed in particular at the end and the beginning of the dry period better than the rest of the investigated species. In general the results may help to understand different strategies of tree species in respect to extended dry periods of at least six months as in our study area and their role in carbon sequestration of tropical dry forests. The variety of observed strategies may contribute to the resilience of the ecosystem tropical dry forests.

  6. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2, triacontanol (CDS3, and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8 which have shown very low LD50 value in a range of 5.537–10.083 μg/mg. Similarly, one novel compound 6-(1-hydroxy-non-3-enyl-tetrahydropyran-2-one (CDF1 was isolated from flower extract that has shown an LD50 8.08 μg/gm. Repellent action of compounds was tested in a Y-shaped glass olfactometer in which CDF1 compounds have significantly repelled termites to the opposite arm. Besides this, C. decidua extracts have shown significant reduction (P<0.05 and 0.01 in termite infestation in garden saplings when it was coated on cotton tags and employed over tree trunks. Further, C. deciduas stem extract was used for wood seasoning, which gave very good results as test wood sticks have shown significantly (P<0.05 and 0.01 very low termite infestation.

  7. Topical Treatment of Dermatophytic Lesion on Mice (Mus musculus) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bindu; Kumar, Padma; Joshi, Suresh Chandra

    2011-06-01

    Antidermatophytic potential of three weed plants viz. Tridax procumbens L., Capparis decidua (forsk) Edgew and Lantana camara L. were explored and experimentally induced dermatophytic lesion was topically treated in mice. Microbroth dilution method was carried out for determination of MIC and MFC of different extracts of selected plants. In animal studies, mice were experimentally inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and infected animals were topically treated with 5 mg/g terbinafine and two concentrations, i.e., 5 and 10 mg/g of test extract ointment. Complete recovery from the infection was observed on 12th day of treatment for reference drug terbinafine (5 mg/g) and 10 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment whereas 5 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment showed complete cure on 16th day of treatment. Fungal burden was also calculated by culturing skin scrapings from infected animals of different groups. Test extract ointment successfully treated induced dermatophytosis in mice without any disease recurrence incidences, thereby indicating efficacy of test extract as an excellent topical antifungal agent for the cure of dermatophytosis.

  8. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  9. Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda.

  10. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

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    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  11. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

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    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  12. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  13. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  14. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  15. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  16. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  17. Fungal Control of Pathogenic Fungi Isolated From Some Wild Plants in Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Zeid, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two plants were collected from Taif Governorate and identified as: Aerva lanata, Arnebia hispidissima, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia monosperma, Asphodelus aestives, Avena barbata, Capparis dcidua, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia glomerifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Juniperus procera, Launaea mucronata, Launaea sonchoides, Medicago sativa, Opuntia ficus, Phagnalon sinaicum, Prunus persica, Pulicaria crispa, Punica granatum, Rumex dentatus and Trichodesma calathiforme. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from some of these plants and identified as Alternaria alternata, Cephalosporium madurae, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporum, Humicola grisea, Penicillium chrysogenum and Ulocladium botrytis. Four antagonistic isolates were tested, 2 from Gliocladium fungus and 2 from Trichoderma fungus. We found that all the four antagonistic isolates (G. deliquescens, G. virens, T. viride and T. hamatum significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogenic fungi tested, with different ratios. The results indicated that the antibiotics produced by the antagonists were more effective than the fungus itself and differ with different fungi. Coating plant stems with antagonists or with antagonist extracts reduce the severity of the disease but not prevent it in all tested pathogens.

  18. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Juckmeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list. Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies.

  19. College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Greene, W. M.; Pompea, S.; Prather, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator, SIRTF Mission and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These workshops are being held in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. This three-day, interactive teaching excellence workshop focuses on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts provided at the workshop are: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; and (iii) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2002.

  20. LACTIC FLORA-LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INTERACTION

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    S. Colombo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The EC Regulation 2073/2005 (1 requires that food processors evaluate the capability of ready-to-use (RTE products to support the development of Listeria monocytogenes when their pH and aW values are favourable to the growth of this microorganism. It is renown that the lactic flora plays an important role in many different foods, both from a technological and a food safety standpoint. This study was aimed to observe the behaviour and the potential anti-Listeria effect of some natural lactic flora present in Italian liver patè crostini (chicken heart and liver, anchovies, onions, capers, starch, no added preservatives through the Combase Predictor – Max Growth Rate predictive software. The natural lactic flora of the crostini demonstrated a variable capability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes which depends upon : the concentration of the lactic flora at the beginning of the shelf life period and the subsequent lag phase, the possible release of anti-Listeria substances, and the maximum growth rate.

  1. Field approach to mining-dump revegetation by application of sewage sludge co-compost and a commercial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Mingorance, M D

    2015-08-01

    An approach was devised for revegetation of a mining dump soil, sited in a semiarid region, with basic pH as well as Fe and Mn enrichment. A field experiment was conducted involving the use of co-compost (a mixture of urban sewage sludge and plant remains) along with a commercial biofertilizer (a gel suspension which contains arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) to reinforce the benefits of the former. Four treatments were studied: unamended soil; application of conditioners separately and in combination. Pistachio, caper, rosemary, thyme and juniper were planted. We evaluated the effects of the treatments using soil quality (physicochemical properties, total content of hazardous elements, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activities) and plant establishment indicators (survival, growth, vigor, nutrient content in leaves, nutrient balances and mycorrhizal root colonization). Thyme and juniper did not show a suitable survival rate ( co-compost > biofertilizer > unamended. The application of co-compost was therefore essential with regard to improving soil fertility; furthermore, it increased leaf N and P content, whereas leaf Fe and Mn concentrations showed a decrease. The combined treatment, however, provided the best results. The positive interaction between the two soil conditioners might be related to the capacity of the biofertilizer to increase nutrient uptake from the composted residue, and to protect plants against Fe and Mn toxicity.

  2. ASTRO 101 Labs and the Invasion of the Cognitive Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-04-01

    Since the mid 1800's there has been widespread agreement that we should be about the business of engaging students in the practices of scientific research in order to best teach the methods and practices of science. There has been significantly less agreement on precisely how to teach science by mimicking scientific inquiry in a way that can be empirically supported, even with our ``top students.'' Engaging ``ASTRO 101 students'' in scientific inquiry is a task that has left our astronomy education research community more than a little stymied, to the extent that it is difficult to find non-major science students practicing anything other than confirmation exercises in college labs. Researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research have struggled with this problem as well, until in our frustration we had to ask: ``Can research tell us anything about how to get students to do research?'' This talk presents an overview of the cognitive science that we've brought to bear in the ASTRO 101 laboratory setting for non-science majoring undergraduates and future teachers, along with the results of early studies that suggest that a ``backwards faded scaffolding'' approach to instruction in Intro Labs can successfully support large numbers of students in enhancing their understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Supported by NSF DUE 1312562.

  3. Understanding the Correlations Among Undergraduates’ Spatial Reasoning Skills and Their Ability to Learn Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Inge

    2012-01-01

    We tacitly assume that astronomy is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students’ spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students’ spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn astronomy content in college science classes are beginning to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning astronomy. In support, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research conducted a first-steps correlational study of 148 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students’ cognition was measured for pretest and posttest gains in astronomy understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they were tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of reliable spatial thinking assessment tools from the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC). Results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work was supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  4. Preliminary correlational data on the relationships between undergraduates' spatial reasoning skills and their ability to learn space science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, I.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    We tacitly assume that space science is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students' spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students' spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn space science content in K-12 and college science classes have yet to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning space science. In response, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research describe preliminary data describing a first-steps correlational study of 170 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students' cognition is measured for pretest and posttest gains in space science understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they are tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of an established spatial thinking assessment tools (such as a modified Purdue Rotations Test). Preliminary results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work is supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  5. Refocusing International Astronomy Education Research Using a Cognitive Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    For over 40 years, the international astronomy education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about astronomy, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has motivated the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to advance a new model that allowing us to operate on students' astronomical learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (e.g., phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g., spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in astronomy and the space sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in astronomy beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  6. Teaching ASTRO 101 Students the Art of Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleigh, Sharon P.; Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Going beyond asking students to simply memorize facts about the universe, a longstanding challenge in teaching astronomy centers on successfully teaching students about the nature of science. As introductory astronomy survey courses, known widely as ASTRO 101, can sometimes be the last science course non-science majoring undergraduates take, many faculty hope to emphasize the scientific enterprise as a broad field in inquiry making valuable contributions to civilization as a whole, rather than as an isolated study of objects far from Earth. Scholars have long proposed that an understanding of the nature of science as a human endeavor requires explicit instruction. In other words, students successfully learning the facts of astronomy does not in any way ensure that students will learn anything about the nature of how astronomy is done. In a purposeful effort to improve students' understanding about the practices and discourse of astronomy, scholars working with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education research are developing a suite of carefully designed instructional sequences—called Scientific Argumentation—focused on teaching students the differences between data and evidence, how to communicate and defend evidence-based conclusions, and how to be informed skeptics of scientific claims. Early results show students moving from naïve understandings of scientific practices to more informed understandings as well as demonstrating enhanced value for science in general as an worthwhile human endeavor with far reaching benefits.

  7. True Story of the Moon Rock Heist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, three NASA Co-op students along with a colleague from the University of Utah stole lunar samples from the Johnson Space Center. Three members of the "gang" removed a 600 pound safe containing lunar, meteorite and Martian samples from Dr. Gibson s laboratory. The thieves offered the samples for sale using the internet. They were arrested by undercover FBI and OIG agents. Three guilty pleas along with a conviction yielded sentences as long as 90 months in federal prison. Two of the thieves went to federal prison and have now been released. One of the thieves told his story to the popular author Ben Mezrich who released the book "Sex on the Moon" in July. Hollywood has "picked-up" the rights to their caper. The stolen lunar samples were not "trash". The loss of 30 years of Dr. Gibson s research records occurred along with contaminating and breaking the chain-of-custody for the lunar samples. The ring-leader has displayed no remorse for his crimes and is currently on the motivational speaker s lecture circuit. Investigators commented "they were the gang, who may have had the highest IQ but the least common sense in history." Previous unreleased information about the crime will be discussed by Dr. Gibson along with information about the forthcoming National Geographic Society s television special on the crime.

  8. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  9. Aspects of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2009-09-01

    Musgrave Park Hospital in 1942 was the site of an Anglo-American Vitamin A caper. A threatened court-martial was pre-empted. Subsequently the Queen's lecturer in Anatomy, JW Millen, who was the other lecturer to the first editor of this journal, RH Hunter, did much distinguished work. The neurological effects of Vitamin A were elucidated. Further work on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), placenta, thalidomide and poliomyelitis led to the pre-eminence in applied anatomy and teratology of now Reader James Wilson Millen and Professors JD Boyd and WJ Hamilton, all Queen's Medical School graduates. Training of RH Hunter, JH Biggart and JD Boyd at Johns Hopkins University profoundly influenced these seminal discoveries. The Garretts, a family of Lisburn, County Down origin, saved Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School from financial disaster. The Garretts founded a commercial and mercantile empire that took control of the Baltimore and Ohio (B and O) Railroad and enabled the Garretts to dictate that women should be admitted to the Hopkins Medical School and Hospital on exactly the same terms as men. All women and men should already be university honours graduates. Winston S Churchill on his progress up and down the B and O main line in March 1946, recounted to President Harry S Truman and Harry Hopkins his mother's tales of the Garrett boys' adventures.

  10. Multivariate analysis for the evaluation of fiber, sugars, and organic acids in commercial presentations of table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Antonio; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; García-García, Pedro; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2007-12-26

    Table olives constitute an important part of the Mediterranean diet and the diet of many non-olive-producing countries. The aim of this work was to determine the fiber, sugar, and organic acid contents in Spanish commercial presentations of table olives and characterize them by means of a multivariate analysis. The selection of variables was carried out on the basis of a canonical analysis and their classification, according to processing styles and cultivars, through a linear discriminant analysis. Values of dietary fiber in table olives ranged from 2 to 5 g/100 g edible portion (e.p.). Some stuffing materials (almond, hot red pepper, and hazelnut) or the addition of capers produced a significant increase in the total dietary fiber in green olives. Glucose, fructose, and mannitol were usually found in the ranges of 0-55, 0-70, and 0-107 mg/100 g e.p., respectively. Succinic acid was detected only in green and directly brined olives (0-40 mg/100 g e.p.), while lactic and acetic acids were used within the ranges of 0-681 and 5-492.8 mg/100 g e.p., respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that fiber, mannitol, and succinic, lactic, and acetic acids can be used to discriminate between processing styles (95.5% correct assignations) and cultivars (61.20%). Current data can also be used in the evaluation of the dietary value of table olives.

  11. Supporting Interactive Teaching Methods at the New Faculty Workshop with Astronomy Lecture-Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Brissenden, G.; Duestua, S.; Prather, E. E.

    2004-05-01

    Ongoing research by the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona Steward Observatory suggests that, although faculty realize that lecture-based instruction is ineffective for many students, they are not aware of what interactive teaching strategies are available, particularly for large enrollment courses. A major emphasis of the AAPT/AAS New Faculty Workshop was to introduce faculty to effective active-learning strategies based on an understanding of how people learn. Faculty were introduced to think-pair-share methods where students work together to explain difficult concepts to each other. Faculty were also introduced to authentic assessment strategies that go beyond using traditional multiple-choice tests. In particular, faculty were introduced to Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy. The Lecture-Tutorials are instructional materials intended for use with collaborative student learning groups and are designed specifically to be easily integrated into existing courses centered on conventional lectures and do not require any outside equipment or a drastic course revision for implementation. The materials are based on research into student beliefs and reasoning difficulties and use effective instructional strategies that center on student learning. Each workshop presentation was complimented by a follow-up small group discussion session.

  12. Les chemins de fer atmosphériques. Deuxième partie

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    Paul Smith

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En France, l’enthousiasme atmosphérique des années 1840 gagna le gouvernement qui, craignant d’être en retard sur une nouvelle révolution dans les chemins de fer, se décida à subventionner un essai officiel du système. Cet essai fut confié à la Compagnie du Paris-Saint-Germain, qui construisit une ligne atmosphérique entre Le Pecq et Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Cette deuxième partie de l’article raconte l’histoire de cette ligne qui fonctionna à partir de 1847 mais dont l’abandon en 1860 marqua la fin des chemins de fer atmosphériques en Europe.In France, the atmospheric enthusiasm on the 1840s encouraged the government to finance an official trial of the system, the Ministry of Public Works clearly concerned about keeping abreast of new railway technologies. The trial was carried out by the Paris-Saint-Germain Company, and this second part of the article examines the history of its line built from Le Pecq to Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It was operational from 1847 but its abandon, in 1860, marked the end of the atmospheric caper in Europe.

  13. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

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    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  14. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Operable Unit 5, Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-04

    x1IV 1.67 x101 31655 014 0 WAS. IAmmdo 2.6-6.4 4.64 x100 US x 10’ 11.4 014 0 Roo. abib 50.3-96.7 7.19 x1If 7.54 x1IV 214.3 014 0 Root cadmim i 1.5-l...0.51 0.70 No ɘ.0005 ɘ.0005 • Cadmim 1.3 0.68 - 1.1 2.53 No ɘ.0012 ɘ.0012 Calcium 6,S20 5,090 - 5,610 8,490 No 3.7727 7.1394 Chromium 25.5 9.8. 12.0...L.auumpewmae Cadmim 11.3-27.5 4.2-6.5 Caper72-195 13-41 __________ ________ _ Lead 290 8 psmm;Cdim2.3 1.1 Copper 750 41 _________ _________ Liad 420 31

  15. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  16. Exploring the Breadth and Sources of Variable Star Astronomers’ Astronomy Knowledge: First Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) There is considerable interest related to the astronomy content knowledge of various groups, whether that group consists of 3rd graders who have just learned the phases of the moon, or astronomy graduate students who are working on original research. Similarly, the Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team and the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) are interested in the general astronomy content knowledge of the AAVSO members. To increase our understanding of the knowledge base of today’s variable star astronomers, we asked a subset of members to respond to an online general astronomy content knowledge survey called the Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST). The TOAST is a twenty-nine-item, multiple-choice format assessment instrument which addresses the full range of topics commonly taught in an introductory astronomy survey course, and is criterion referenced aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the AAS Chair’s Conference on ASTRO 101, the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the NRC National Science Education Standards. This paper presents preliminary results on this work to the AAVSO membership in the hope that the findings will begin a conversation about the kinds of experiences and education that are transformative for this important group of astronomy researchers.

  17. Weird-World, Weird-World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan; Wargo, Rich

    2014-03-01

    We will present the first in a series of videos designed and produced specifically as a pilot for the YouTube audience to playfully explore interesting and unusual phenomena that physics reveals, and their uses in modern life. No talking heads, no pedants, no complicated theory - but rather a visually captivating and often kooky comical look at exclusion principle, entanglement, tunneling and the retinue of exceedingly strange things that happen in classical and quantum physics and how we understand and actually use this weirdness each and everyday. Produced by the UC San Diego-based creative partnership between an active physicist and established university based science media producer responsible for the highly successful and comical nanoscience caper When Things Get Small, this will pilot an on-going series with the specific goal of entertaining and engaging audiences of all ages. The series has planned distribution and marketing on YouTube though the unique programming and distribution capacities of University of California Television to commence in 2013. Supported by APS, UCSD-Center for Advanced Nanoscience and UCTV.

  18. Revisão do gênero Polyrhaphis Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

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    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyrhaphis Audinet-Serville, 1835, gênero de Lamiinae distribuído entre o México e América do Sul (excluindo o Chile e abaixo da latitude 35°S, é revisado. Três espécies novas são descritas: P. baloupae, procedente da Guiana Francesa; P. lanei, proveniente do Brasil (Amazonas e Pará; e P. peruana, do Peru. Duas espécies são sinonimizadas: P. testacea Lane, 1965 (= P. gracilis Bates, 1862 e P. paraensis [= P. papulosa (Olivier, 1795]. É designado neótipo para P. papulosa. A autoria de P. horrida [= P. spinosa (Drury, 1773] é discutida. Cerambyx armatus Voet (1778? é considerado um nome inválido e Lamia armiger Schöenherr, 1817 (= Polyrhaphis armiger o nome válido dessa espécie. Polyrhaphis spinipennis Laporte, 1840, é excluída da fauna da Colômbia. Novos registros de distribuição: P. argentina Lane, 1978, para o estado de São Paulo (Brasil; P. batesi Hovore & McCarty, 1998, para o Equador; P. belti Hovore & McCarty, 1998 para o Equador e Colômbia; P. gracilis Bates, 1862, para a guiana Francesa; e P. turnbowi Hovore & McCarty, 1998, em dúvida, para o Peru. É apresentada chave para as espécies do gênero.Polyraphis Audinet-Serville, 1835, a genus belonging to the Lamiinae, and distributed between Mexico and South America, excluding Chile and under latitude 35°S, is reviewed. Three new species are described: P. baloupae, from French Guiana; P. lanei, from Brazil (Amazonas and Pará; P. peruana, from Peru. Two species are synonymyzed: P. testacea Lane, 1965 (= P. gracilis Bates, 1862 and P. paraensis [= P. papulosa (Olivier, 1795]. Neotype to P. papulosa is designated. The authorship of P. horrida [= P. spinosa (Drury, 1773] is commented. Cerambyx armatus Voet (1778? is considered an invalid name and Lamia armiger Schöenherr, 1817 (= Polyrhaphis armiger the valid name of the species. Polyrhaphis spinipennis Laporte, 1840, is excluded of the fauna of Colombia. New records: P. argentina Lane, 1978, for São Paulo state

  19. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

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    Wesley Silveira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.

  20. Identificación y caracterización de especies de Neosartorya aisladas de frutillas (Fragaria spp. frescas y tratadas térmicamente

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    Laura Frisón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Aspergillus es uno de los géneros fúngicos más estudiados y de gran impacto a nivel industrial. La sección Fumigati incluye unas pocas especies anamorfas del género Aspergillus. Las especies que son teleomorfas se encuentran dentro del género Neosartorya. Este es un moho resistente al calor que causan problemas en las industrias alimentarias o enfermedades en los seres humanos. Sus ascosporas han sido aisladas a partir de frutas, pulpas y jugos, ya que pueden sobrevivir a los tratamientos de térmicos industriales pudiendo aparecer la contaminación post-pasteurización. El objetivo fue caracterizar aislados de Neosartorya de frutillas frescas recién cosechadas y tratadas térmicamente, analizando la ornamentación de las ascosporas, toxicidad y resistencia térmica. Se aislaron las colonias, y se identificaron macro y microscópicamente siguiendo la metodología de Pitt y Hocking (2009, de 60 muestras. Se caracterizaron las ascosporas por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se determinó la capacidad toxicogénica de los extractos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Se evaluó la resistencia térmica a diferentes temperaturas. Se aislaron 18 cepas de Neosartorya de frutillas recién cosechadas, y otros mohos termorresistentes como Arthrinium phaeospermum, Byssochlamys nivea y Talaromyces macrosporus. En las frutillas tratadas térmicamente no se aislaron mohos termorresistentes. Trece aislados mostraron ascosporascoincidentes con N. fischeri, el resto con N. spinosa. Los aislados de N. fischeri produjeron fumitremorgina A y B y verruculógeno en arroz, pero no lo hicieron en frutillas frescas. Los parámetros de resistencia térmica fueron: D80 ºC: 20 - 22 minutos, D85 ºC: 9 - 11 minutos, D90 ºC: 2 - 3 minutos y z: 10 - 11 ºC para N. fischeri y D80 ºC: > 120 minutos, D85 ºC: 11 - 94 minutos, D90 ºC: 3 - 15 minutos y z: 6 - 9 ºC para N. spinosa. Es indispensable aplicar buenas prácticas agrícolas y

  1. Identificación y caracterización de especies de Neosartorya aisladas de frutillas (Fragaria spp. frescas y tratadas térmicamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Frisón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Aspergillus es uno de los géneros fúngicos más estudiados y de gran impacto a nivel industrial. La sección Fumigati incluye unas pocas especies anamorfas del género Aspergillus. Las especies que son teleomorfas se encuentran dentro del género Neosartorya. Este es un moho resistente al calor que causan problemas en las industrias alimentarias o enfermedades en los seres humanos. Sus ascosporas han sido aisladas a partir de frutas, pulpas y jugos, ya que pueden sobrevivir a los tratamientos de térmicos industriales pudiendo aparecer la contaminación post-pasteurización. El objetivo fue caracterizar aislados de Neosartorya de frutillas frescas recién cosechadas y tratadas térmicamente, analizando la ornamentación de las ascosporas, toxicidad y resistencia térmica. Se aislaron las colonias, y se identificaron macro y microscópicamente siguiendo la metodología de Pitt y Hocking (2009, de 60 muestras. Se caracterizaron las ascosporas por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se determinó la capacidad toxicogénica de los extractos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Se evaluó la resistencia térmica a diferentes temperaturas. Se aislaron 18 cepas de Neosartorya de frutillas recién cosechadas, y otros mohos termorresistentes como Arthrinium phaeospermum, Byssochlamys nivea y Talaromyces macrosporus. En las frutillas tratadas térmicamente no se aislaron mohos termorresistentes. Trece aislados mostraron ascosporas coincidentes con N. fischeri, el resto con N. spinosa. Los aislados de N. fischeri produjeron fumitremorgina A y B y verruculógeno en arroz, pero no lo hicieron en frutillas frescas. Los parámetros de resistencia térmica fueron: D80 ºC: 20 - 22 minutos, D85 ºC: 9 - 11 minutos, D90 ºC: 2 - 3 minutos y z: 10 - 11 ºC para N. fischeri y D80 ºC: > 120 minutos, D85 ºC: 11 - 94 minutos, D90 ºC: 3 - 15 minutos y z: 6 - 9 ºC para N. spinosa. Es indispensable aplicar buenas prácticas agrícolas y

  2. Fungi Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil with Loquat Root Rot Disease in Yunnan Province%云南蒙自枇杷根腐病植株根际土壤真菌多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若鹏; 郑肖兰; 田学军; 李建平; 鲁海菊

    2012-01-01

    摘要摸清蒙自枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌区系分布.为有效可持续防控枇杷根腐病提供理论依据。采用五点取样法采集土壤样品,稀释平板法在PDA培养基上分离纯化,获得114株枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌,经显微镜形态鉴定。109株真菌鉴定为以下24种: A bs idia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa,Acremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circineUoides f. janssenii, Mucor circinelloides f. wsitanicus, PeniciUium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, PeniciUium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, Penicillium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, Penicillium variabile,Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum, Verticillium fungicola,分属于11个属.其中青霉属(Penicillium)是优势属,另外5株真菌属于担子菌。%To establish the species and distribution of fungi of Loquat rhizosphere soil which had rot root disease at Mengzi in Yunnan Province and to provide theoretical basis for efficient control to disease of the root rot; Soil specimen were collected with the 5-point method. The fungi strains were isolated by the plate of gradient dilution with PDA medium. The strains were identified by morphology with microscope. The strains respectively belong to A bsidia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa, A cremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circinelloides f. janssenii, Mucor circineUoides f. wsitanicus, Penicillium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, PeniciUium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, PeniciUium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, PeniciUium variabile, Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum

  3. Fungos micorrízicos no crescimento e na extração de metais pesados pela braquiária em solo contaminado Mycorrhizal fungi influence on brachiariagrass growth and heavy metal extraction in a contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em casa de vegetação, a influência de 14 isolados de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA no crescimento e extração de Zn, Cd, Cu e Pb pela Brachiaria decumbens em solo contaminado. Foram utilizadas plantas com e sem FMA, em vasos com 0,92 kg de solo com (mg kg-1: Zn, 3.300; Cu, 60; Cd, 29; Pb, 73. Os isolados fúngicos tiveram efeitos diferenciados no crescimento e aumentaram a produção de matéria seca em 84%. Os teores de metais na planta foram elevados e apresentaram relação inversa com a produção de matéria seca. Verificou-se que os FMA não afetaram os teores de Pb, mas reduziram em 20, 28 e 63% os teores de Zn, Cd e Cu na parte aérea, respectivamente, e aumentaram os teores de Cu nas raízes em mais de 1.000%. Os FMA aumentaram a quantidade de metais extraídos do solo em 845, 142, 68 e 54% para Cu, Pb, Zn e Cd, respectivamente. Acaulospora spinosa, Acaulospora morrowiae-UFLA e Gigaspora gigantea aumentaram a extração simultânea dos quatro metais contaminantes. Os FMA, de acordo com a espécie, aumentam a capacidade da B. decumbens de extrair metais pesados do solo.The influence of 14 arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal isolates (AMF on brachiariagrass growth and extraction of Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb from a contaminated soil was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Brachiaria decumbens plants were grown in pots with 0.92 kg of soil containing (mg kg-1: Zn, 3,300; Cu, 60; Cd, 29; Pb, 73. The AMF increased dry matter yield in 84%. Plant heavy metal concentrations were high and were inversely related to dry matter yield. Isolates caused no effect on Pb, but reduced shoot Zn, Cd and Cu concentrations by 20, 28 and 63%, respectively. It was observed effect of mycorrhiza on Cu accumulation in roots (over 1,000%. Isolates enhanced the total amount of soil extracted metals by 845, 142, 68 and 54% for Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Only Acaulospora spinosa, Acaulospora morrowiae-UFLA and Gigaspora

  4. Xanthophyceae planctônicas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1353 Planktonic Xanthophyceae from upper Parana River floodplain - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1353

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    Sueli Train

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos abordando a biodiversidade fitoplanctônica em ambientes aquáticos de planície de inundação, o que sugere a necessidade de estudos taxonômicos visando à conservação e recuperação desses ecossistemas. A Classe Xanthophyceae foi estudada quanto à taxonomia e contribuição para a densidade e biomassa fitoplanctônica total. Foram analisadas amostras das regiões pelágica e litorânea de 33 ambientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, entre fevereiro de 2000 e fevereiro de 2001. As xantofíceas ocorreram em 61% dos biótopos, sendo identificados 20 táxons. Gloeobotrys lunatus Ettl, Goniochloris spinosa Pascher, Istmochloron neustonica Zalocar e Pizarro e Pseudostaurastrum limneticum (Borge Chodat constituíram primeira citação para esse sistema. O maior número de táxons ocorreu nos ambientes próximos ao rio Paraná, destacando-se a lagoa do Osmar. A contribuição de Xanthophyceae para a densidade e biomassa foi reduzida em todo o período estudado, sendo maior no período de águas altasThere are scarce studies concerning phytoplankton biodiversity in floodplain environment. This suggest the need of taxonomic studies for the conservation and recuperation of these ecosystems. Xanthophyceae was studied in relation to taxonomy and contribution to phytoplanktonic density and biomass. Samples were taken from limnetic and seaboard regions in 33 biotopes in the Upper Parana River floodplain, between February 2000 and February 2001. This group occurred in 61% of the biotopes and 20 species were registered. Gloeobotrys lunatus Ettl, Goniochloris spinosa Pascher, Istmochloron neustonica Zalocar and Pizarro and Pseudostaurastrum limneticum (Borge Chodat were considered first citation for this system. The highest number of taxa was registered in the biotopes near Parana River, especially in the Osmar Lagoon. The contribution of Xanthophyceae to density and biomass was low throughout the studied period and

  5. Fenologia de espécies lenhosas da caatinga do Seridó, RN Phenology of woody species in the caatinga of Seridó, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Lucena de Amorim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia de 13 espécies arbustivas e arbóreas da caatinga do Seridó foi acompanhada durante dois anos para determinar se, nesta vegetação aberta e pobre de espécies, as fenofases sucedem-se ao longo de todo o ano. Foram selecionados 10 indivíduos adultos de cada espécie e feitas observações quinzenais sobre sua cobertura de folhagem, floração e frutificação. A cobertura de folhas foi fortemente influenciada pela pluviosidade, em 11 das espécies que tiveram as copas totalmente desfolhadas durante um número variável de dias durante as estações secas. Essa influência ficou patente nos rápidos fluxos de formação e queda de folhas, subsequentes a chuvas esporádicas, em épocas normalmente secas. No entanto, Capparis flexuosa e Erythroxylum pungens permaneceram com folhas o ano todo. Ao longo dos dois anos, apenas por curtos períodos de tempo (cerca de 15 dias não havia flores ou frutos na comunidade. No entanto, floração e frutificação tiveram picos na estação chuvosa. Os padrões em nível de espécie foram mais complexos do que em nível de comunidade. Erythroxylum pungens não floresceu, e Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Tabebuia impetiginosa floresceram uma única vez, ao longo dos dois anos, enquanto Mimosa acutistipula floresceu cinco vezes e Jatropha mollissima e Pithecellobium foliolosum, quatro. Em quatro espécies (Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera colubrina, Pithecellobium foliolosum e Tabebuia impetiginosa, a frutificação não ocorreu em todos os indivíduos que floresceram, enquanto nas outras espécies os que floresceram produziram frutos. Apesar de a frutificação ter ocorrido quase que continuamente, durante muitos períodos foi composta exclusivamente de frutos do tipo seco.The phenology of 13 shrub and tree species in the caatinga of Seridó was observed for two years to determine if, in this open vegetation, poor in species, phenophases occur throughout all the seasons. Ten plants of each species

  6. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  7. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF KELP GULL LARUS DOMINICANUS (CHARADRIIFORMES, LARIDAE IN THREE ISLANDS NORTH OFF PERU

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    Figueroa, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November and December 2004, an evaluation was done of some aspects of breeding biology of the kelp gull Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823 in Lobos de Afuera, Lobos de Tierra and Foca islands, located off northern Peru. An association was found between the colonies of this species with the South American sea lion Otariaflavescens (Shaw, 1800 in Lobos de Afuera and Foca, with the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii (Milne-Edwards, 1882 in Lobos de Afuera and Lobos de Tierra, the peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Molina, 1782 in Lobos de Afuera, and with the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti (Meyen, 1834 in Foca. Egg predation and kleptoparasitism of S. nebouxii was common for this species in the three islands. Regarding the selection of nesting areas, it was noted that the Kelp Gull used different types of substrates such as rock, gravel, flagstone, boulders and seashells and that the nests were built using the resources of the site, mainly seaweeds and feathers and, in the Foca case, using leaves from sapote Capparis scabrida (Kunth, 1821. The nests were located in high and windy areas of the islands next to cracks and large rocks, from slopes of less than 15º to cliffs. Apparently, the timing of nest initiation was the same in the three islands, starting around the third week of October; in most cases were found three eggs in the nests. Factors are discussed that could affect the biological characteristics of the Kelp Gull in northern Peru and its differences with other breeding areas.

  8. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Jha, Prabhat Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl) concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM). It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85%) caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75%) of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid) in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR) in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase) under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to using PGPR

  9. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM. It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85% caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75% of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to

  10. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

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    Gilles Havik

    Full Text Available Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  11. Cold-blooded vertebrates at the proposed Reference Repository Location in southeastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The information in this interim report will be used to design future environmental monitoring plans and assess impacts related to Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) activities. New reports will be issued as more data become available. Five study locations were established to study cold-blooded vertebrates in the vicinity of the proposed Reference Repository Location. Four study sites were in shrub-dominated stands of vegetation; the other site was devoid of shrubs because of a range fire in 1984. The side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), trapped in four of the five plots, was the only lizard species captured. It was not trapped in the one plot dominated by spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa) shrubs. It is uncertain whether the side-blotched lizard is absent from this particular vegetation type, or if the population is too low to have been detected in the relatively short time span of the investigation. Two species of snakes were captured, gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and green racers (Coluber constrictor mormon). The number of snakes captured was too small to detect any distributional pattern in space or time. Studies are continuing. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effectiveness of insecticides in controlling the first and second generations of the Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-04-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of table and wine grape (Vitis spp.) varieties in Cyprus. Many different insecticide combinations were applied for three consecutive years (2006-2008) in a Sultana seedless table grape vineyard, aimed at controlling the first and second generations of this pest under warm and dry Mediterranean climatic conditions. In Cyprus, Sultana is the main early maturing table grape variety grown in the country. L. botrana has two generations and a partial third on this export variety, of which the first two generations are the most destructive. Applications were made according to pheromone trap captures of males. One application was used against the first and two applications against the second generation of L. botrana. A high rate of bunch damage was observed in the untreated rows during all years, reaching 56.7, 62.5, and 69.2% in 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Differences between insecticide treatments and the untreated control were statistically significant. The treatment combination of lufenuron, spinosad, and indoxacarb as well as the combination of chlorpyrifos, spinosa and indoxacarb, used against the first and second generations of L. botrana, were the most effective compared with the untreated control. Satisfactory control of the pest also was observed with other combinations such as lufenuron, cypermethrin, and Bacillus thuringiensis; chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and B. thuringiensis; and lufenuron, deltamethrin, and azadirachtin.

  13. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

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    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  14. Activation of MITF by Argan Oil Leads to the Inhibition of the Tyrosinase and Dopachrome Tautomerase Expressions in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells

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    Myra O. Villareal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan (Argania spinosa L. oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1, and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders.

  15. Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Naohiro; Zaima, Kazumasa; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Hamato, Akane; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kang, Dong Hyo; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Maruyama, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    Jujube seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid).

  16. Species richness and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across distinct land uses in western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2011-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were surveyed for species richness and abundance in sporulation in six distinct land uses in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Areas included mature pristine forest and sites converted to pasture, crops, agroforestry, young and old secondary forest. A total of 61 AMF morphotypes were recovered and 30% of them could not be identified to known species. Fungal communities were dominated by Glomus species but Acaulospora species produced the most abundant sporulation. Acaulospora gedanensis cf., Acaulospora foveata, Acaulospora spinosa, Acaulospora tuberculata, Glomus corymbiforme, Glomus sp15, Scutellospora pellucida, and Archaeospora trappei sporulated in all land use areas. Total spore numbers were highly variable among land uses. Mean species richness in crop, agroforestry, young and old secondary forest sites was twice that in pristine forest and pasture. fungal communities were dominated in all land use areas except young secondary forest by two or three species which accounted for 48% to 63% of all sporulation. Land uses influenced AMF community in (1) frequency of occurrence of sporulating AMF species, (2) mean species diversity, and (3) relative spore abundance. Conversion of pristine forest into distinct land uses does not appear to reduce AMF diversity. Cultural practices adopted in this region maintain a high diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  17. Ten Species of Vam Fungi in Five Ginseng Fields of Jilin Province%吉林省参地中的10种VA菌根真菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晓科; Dal.,Y

    2000-01-01

    从吉林省主要人参产区的5个参场人参根际土壤中分离得到10种VA菌根真菌: 1.穴状无梗囊霉Acaulospora cavernata Blaszkowski; 2.刺状无梗孢囊霉Acaulospora spinosa Walker & Trapple; 3.束球囊霉Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerd.& Trappe; 4.地球囊霉Glomus geosporum (Nicol.& Gerd) Walker; 5.大果球囊霉Glomus macrocarpum Tulasne & Tulasne; 6.微丛球囊霉Glomus microaggregatum Koske; 7.摩西球囊霉Glomus mosseae (Nicolson & Gerdemann) Gerdemann & Trappe;8.帚状硬囊霉Sclerocystis coremioides Berk.& Broome; 9.棒孢硬囊霉Sclerocystis clavispora Trappe; 10.丽孢盾巨孢囊霉Scutellospora calospora (Nicol.& Gerd.) Walker & Sanders.其中穴状无梗囊霉(Acaulospora cavernata)为国内新记录种.文中描述了10种VA菌根真菌形态学特征,并对其频度、优势种类及孢子数量的季节变化等进行了研究.

  18. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  19. Deep sequencing of mixed total DNA without barcodes allows efficient assembly of highly plastic ascidian mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Botero-Castro, Fidel; Griggio, Francesca; Mastrototaro, Francesco; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Gissi, Carmela; Huchon, Dorothée

    2013-01-01

    Ascidians or sea squirts form a diverse group within chordates, which includes a few thousand members of marine sessile filter-feeding animals. Their mitochondrial genomes are characterized by particularly high evolutionary rates and rampant gene rearrangements. This extreme variability complicates standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques for molecular characterization studies, and consequently only a few complete Ascidian mitochondrial genome sequences are available. Using the standard PCR and Sanger sequencing approach, we produced the mitochondrial genome of Ascidiella aspersa only after a great effort. In contrast, we produced five additional mitogenomes (Botrylloides aff. leachii, Halocynthia spinosa, Polycarpa mytiligera, Pyura gangelion, and Rhodosoma turcicum) with a novel strategy, consisting in sequencing the pooled total DNA samples of these five species using one Illumina HiSeq 2000 flow cell lane. Each mitogenome was efficiently assembled in a single contig using de novo transcriptome assembly, as de novo genome assembly generally performed poorly for this task. Each of the new six mitogenomes presents a different and novel gene order, showing that no syntenic block has been conserved at the ordinal level (in Stolidobranchia and in Phlebobranchia). Phylogenetic analyses support the paraphyly of both Ascidiacea and Phlebobranchia, with Thaliacea nested inside Phlebobranchia, although the deepest nodes of the Phlebobranchia-Thaliacea clade are not well resolved. The strategy described here thus provides a cost-effective approach to obtain complete mitogenomes characterized by a highly plastic gene order and a fast nucleotide/amino acid substitution rate.

  20. Comparative tree growth, penology and fruit yield of several Japanese plum cultivars in two newly established orchards, organic and conventionally managed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, F. T.; Jimenez-Bocanegra, J. A.; Garcia-Galavis, P. A.; Santamaria, C.; Camacho, M.; Castejon, M.; Perez-Romero, L. F.; Daza, A.

    2013-05-01

    The growth, penology and fruit yield of 14 Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl) were studied in two newly established experimental orchards under organic and conventional management. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2011 in the province of Seville (SW Spain), an important region of Japanese plum culture. Trunk cross-section areas (TCSA), flowering, yield and tree defoliation before winter dormancy were analysed over several years. After one year, TCSA were larger in the organically managed orchard (OMO) for most of the cultivars, in the next two years they were equal, and from the fourth year, several cultivars showed significantly larger TCSA in the conventionally managed orchard (CMO). Flowering in the conventional orchard started from 2 to 6 days before and lasted for 3 to 5 days more than in the OMO. Several cultivars produced significantly more fruit in the CMO, being the average fruit yield in the organic orchard about 72% of the conventionally managed orchard. Autumn defoliation was significantly advanced in the organic orchard, especially in cultivars highly susceptible to rust (Tranzschelia pruni spinosae), a disease not adequately controlled in the organic orchard. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-04

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases.

  2. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of compound Valeriana jatamansi Jones in mice

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    You Jie-Shu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compound Valeriana jatamansi Jones is a formula for treating anxiety-related diseases in the clinic, which is composed of Valeriana jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Albiziae Cortex and Junci Medulla. The purpose of this study was to explore the anxiolytic properties of this compound in mice. Methods Male ICR mice were treated with compound Valerianae Jatamansi Jones (1.2 g/kg, 2.4 g/kg, 4.8 g/kg, saline, diazepam (2 mg/kg orally for 10 days and then exposed to elevated maze-plus (EPM and light–dark box (LDB. The effects of the compound on spontaneous activity were evaluated by locomotor activity test. We further investigated the mechanism of action underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of compound by pre-treating animals with antagonists of benzodiazepine (flumazenil, 3mg/kg prior to evaluation using EPM and LDB. Results Compound Valerianae Jatamansi Jones (2.4, 4.8 g/kg, p.o. significantly increased entries (PPPPP>0.05. In addition, compound Valerianae Jatamansi Jones treatment didn’t affect the spontaneous activity in mice (P> 0.05. Conclusions The present study supports the hypothesis that compound Valeriana jatamansi Jones exert anxiolytic action but no sedative effects in mice and that this effect might be mediated by benzodiazepine receptors.

  3. Switching antibiotics production on and off in actinomycetes by an IclR family transcriptional regulator from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Jha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Doxorubicin, produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, is tightly regulated by dnrO, dnrN, and dnrI regulators. Genome mining of S. peucetius revealed the presence of the IclR (doxR) type family of transcription regulator mediating the signal-dependent expression of operons at the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Overexpression of doxR in native strain strongly repressed the drug production. Furthermore, it also had a negative effect on the regulatory system of doxorubicin, wherein the transcript of dnrI was reduced to the maximum level in comparision with the other two. Interestingly, the overexpression of the same gene also had strong inhibitory effects on the production of actinorhodin (blue pigment) and undecylprodigiosin (red pigment) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, herboxidiene production in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982, and spinosyn production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, respectively. Moreover, DoxR exhibited pleiotropic effects on the production of blue and red pigments in S. coelicolor when grown in different agar media, wherein the production of blue pigment was inhibited in R2YE medium and the red pigment was inhibited in YEME medium. However, the production of both blue and red pigments from S. coelicolor harboring doxR was halted in ISP2 medium, whereas S. coelicolor produced both pigmented antibiotics in the same plate. These consequences demonstrate that the on and off production of these antibiotics was not due to salt stress or media compositions, but was selectively controlled in actinomycetes.

  4. Morphometric study of some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran

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    Navaz Kharazian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the morphological studies in some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status and morphological studies, 53 accessions of 12 Salvia species were collected from their natural habitats in Iran. A total of 17 quantitative and 13 qualitative morphological characters were selected as diagnostic characters in Salvia species through the use of numerical methods. The statistical analysis consisted of cluster analysis with Euclidean distance coefficient, factor analysis, descriptive analysis and variance analysis using SPSS V.20.0 software. The clustering results of quantitative and qualitative morphological characters showed five groups. Despite the high morphological similarity between S. nemorosa L. and S. virgata Jaq., these species were separated using qualitative and quantitative characters and factor analysis. Regarding cluster and factor analyses, S. spinosa L. and S. atropatana Bunge accessions displayed high morphological diversity. Based on these findings, morphological characteristics such as the features of the leaf, calyx, corolla, bract, stamen and style were considered to be the appropriate diagnostic characters in the taxonomy of the Salvia species studied.  

  5. Exploration of Medicinal Species of Lamiaceae family in Ilkhji and Sharafaldin Regions of Esat Azarbaijan in Iran

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    Leila Joudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research medicinal species of Lamiaceae family were detected. As medicinal plants are suitable alternatives for synthetic and chemical drugs (Idu and Osemwegie also because of medical and nutritional importance and valuable protein contents of Lamiaceae sp., all plants of Lamiaceae family are collected in Ilkhji and sharafaldin regions during growth seasons of 2007-2009. Plants were collected in 2 regions according to the classical method of regional floristical studies. Collected plants were recognized by valid references (Parsa 1943-1950; Reshinger, 1963-1990. Then medical species are chosen by using pharmacopeias. The results of the current study demonstrated that at Ilkhji region 16 species belong to 8 genuses and at Sharafaldin region 4 species belong to 4 genuses that all of them belong to Lamiaceae family. Among these species, 18 species at Ilkhji and sharafaldin region had medicinal properties. Medicinal species of these 2 regions consist of: Marrubium vulgare, Mentha longifolia, Nepeta meyeri, Nepeta persica, Nepeta racemosa, Phlomis olivieri, Salvia nemorasa, Salvia sahendica, Salvia spinosa, Stachys virgata, Stachys inflate, Stachys lavandifolia, Stachys turcomanica, Stachys persica, Thymus cotschyanus, Thymus pubescens, Ziziphora tenuior Lamium amplexicaule. The results of this study showed that the region has a great potential for producing respective medicinal plants species belong to those families. Medicinal plants recently become more important because of their medicinal uses and in addition they are valuable source of protein.

  6. Seasonal Variation and Correlation with Environmental Factors of Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency of Juglans regia and Ziziphus jujuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Yang; Shu-Qing An; Osbert-Jianxin Sun; Zuo-Min Shi; Xin-Song She; Qing-Ye Sun; Shi-Rong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Both the photosynthetic light curves and CO.2 curves of Juglans regia L. and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa in three seasons were measured using a LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system. The maximal net photosynthetic rate (Ainu), apparent quantum efficlency(ψ), maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the two species were calculated based on the curves. The results showed that Amax of J. regia reached its maximum at the late-season, while the highest values of Amax of Z. jujuba occurred at the mid-season. The Amax of J. regia was more affected by relative humidity (RH) of the atmosphere, while that of Z, Jujuba was more affected by the air temperature. Light saturation point (LSP) and Light compensation point (LCP) of J. regia had a higher correlation with RH of the atmosphere, those of Z. jujube, however, had a higher correlation with air temperature. Vcmax of both J. regia and Z. jujube had negative correlation with RH of the atmosphere. WUE of J. regia would decrease with the rise of the air temperature while that of Z. Jujuba increased. Thus it could be seen that RH, temperature and soil moisture had main effect on photosynthesis and WUE of J. regia and Z.jujuba. Incorporating data on the physiological differences among tree species into forest carbon models will greatly improve our ability to predict alterations to the forest carbon budgets under various environmental scenarios such as global climate change, or with differing species composition.

  7. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kolanthasamy Prabhu; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Nareshkumar; Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad againstAnopheles stephensi Listen.Methods: Spinosad from the actinomycete,Saccharopolyspora spinosa was tested againstAnopheles stephensi at different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and0.08ppm.), and against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae.Results: The larval mortality ranged from36.1±1.7 in (0.01 ppm) to 79.3±1.8 (0.08 ppm) the first instar larva. The LC50andLC90values of first, second, third and fourth instar larva were0.001, 0.031, 0.034, 0.036and0.0113, 0.102, 0.111, 0.113, respectively. The pupal mortality ranged from33.0±2.0 (0.01 ppm) to 80.0±0.9 (0.08 ppm). The LC50 andLC90values were0.028 and 0.1020, respectively. The reduction percentage ofAnopheles larvae was82.7%, 91.4% and96.0% after 24, 48, 72 hours, respectively, while more than80% reduction was observed after3 weeks.Conclusions:In the present study spinosad effectively caused mortality of mosquito larvae in both the laboratory and field trial. It is predicted that spinosad is likely to be an effective larvicide for treatment of mosquito breeding sites.

  8. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Activation of MITF by Argan Oil Leads to the Inhibition of the Tyrosinase and Dopachrome Tautomerase Expressions in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells.

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    Villareal, Myra O; Kume, Sayuri; Bourhim, Thouria; Bakhtaoui, Fatima Zahra; Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Han, Junkyu; Gadhi, Chemseddoha; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders.

  10. Comparative Study on the Effect of the Tranquilizer of Zhongzhen Anshen and Yangxin Anshen on Insomnia Rats in the Sleeping Phase%养心安神药与重镇安神药对失眠大鼠睡眠时相影响的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜珊珊; 闫立地; 李廷利; 杜娟

    2010-01-01

    目的:比较养心安神药和重镇安神药改善睡眠时相作用的异同.方法:在恒温、恒湿、自动光控和电磁屏蔽实验条件下,采用多导睡眠描记方法,观察养心安神药与重镇安神药对大鼠睡眠时相的影响.结果:柏子仁(Semen Platycladi)、远志(Radix Polygalae)可延长失眠大鼠睡眠时相中的SWS1期,但不缩短SWS2期和REMS期;酸枣仁(Semen Ziziphi Spinosae)延长失眠大鼠的SWS1期和SWS2期;磁石(Magnetitum)、朱砂(Cinnabari)同时延长SWS1期、SWS2期和REMS期.结论:养心安神药对REMS期无影响,而重镇安神药对REMS期有影响;与养心安神药相比,重镇安神药的磁石、朱砂对失眠大鼠的慢波睡眠延长作用更明显,可显著提高失眠大鼠的睡眠质量.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the metabolic mechanism of L-ascorbic acid in Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

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    Chunmei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is the most economically important member of the Rhamnaceae family and contains a high concentration of ascorbic acid (AsA. To explore the metabolic mechanism of AsA accumulation, we investigated the abundance of AsA in the fruit development stages, the leaf and flower of Z. jujuba cv Junzao, and the mature fruit of one type of wild jujube (Z. jujuba var. spinosa Hu, Yanchuan sour jujube. And the expression patterns of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, degradation and recycling were analyzed. The result showed that AsA biosynthesis during early fruit development (the enlargement stage is the main reason for jujube high accumulation. The L-galactose pathway plays a predominant role in the biosynthesis of AsA during jujube fruit development, and the genes GMP1, GME1, GGP, and GaLDH involved in the determination of AsA concentration during fruit development and in different genotypes; the myo-inositol pathway along with the genes GME2 and GMP2 in the L-galactose pathway play a compensatory role in maintaining AsA accumulation during the ripening stage. These findings enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism in regulating AsA accumulation for jujube.

  12. 棘胸蛙白内障病原鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓云; 郑芊芷; 宋婷婷; 郑善坚; 郑荣泉

    2016-01-01

    从患病棘胸蛙(Quasipaa spinosa)中分离到BN1306菌株,经肌肉注射回健康棘胸蛙,复制出棘胸蛙白内障病的基本症状,并显示对棘胸蛙有较强的致病性.通过形态学、生理生化试验、16S rDNA测序等方法鉴定该致病菌为布氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter braakii).药敏试验显示该菌对诺氟沙星、链霉素、四环素、吡哌酸高度敏感,对氟哌酸、头孢哌酮、庆大霉素、青霉素、新霉素、林可霉素、先锋霉素和红霉素不敏感.

  13. Isolation and morphological and metabolic characterization of common endophytes in annually burned tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyam, Keerthi; Loughin, Thomas; Jumpponen, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are common and abundant root-colonizing fungi in the native tallgrass prairie. To characterize DSE fungi were isolated from roots of mixed tallgrass prairie plant communities. Isolates were grouped according to morphology, and the grouping was refined by ITS-RFLP and/or sequencing of the ITS region. Sporulating species of Periconia, Fusarium, Microdochium and Aspergillus were isolated along with many sterile fungi. Leek resynthesis was used to quickly screen for DSE fungi among the isolates. Periconia macro-spinosa and Microdochium sp. formed typical DSE structures in the roots; Periconia produced melanized intracellular microsclerotia in host root cortex, whereas Microdochium produced abundant melanized inter- and intracellular chlamydospores. To further validate the results of the leek resynthesis growth responses of leek and a dominant prairie grass, Andropogon gerardii, were assessed in a laboratory resynthesis system. Leek growth mainly was unresponsive to the inoculation with Periconia or Microdochium, whereas Andropogon tended to respond positively. Select Periconia and Microdochium isolates were tested further for their enzymatic capabilities and for ability to use organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. These fungi tested positive for amylase, cellulase, polyphenol oxidases and gelatinase. Periconia isolates used both organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. Our study identified distinct endophytes in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem and indicated that these endo-phytes can use a variety of complex nutrient sources, suggesting facultative biotrophic and saprotrophic habits.

  14. Bidirectional recovery patterns of Mojave Desert vegetation in an aqueduct pipeline corridor after 36 years: I. Perennial shrubs and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Weigand, James F.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Mack, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    We studied recovery of 21 perennial plant species along a severely disturbed aqueduct corridor in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa plant alliance in the Mojave Desert 36 years after construction. The 97-m wide corridor contained a central dirt road and buried aqueduct pipeline. We established transects at 0 m (road verge), 20 m and 40 m into the disturbance corridor, and at 100 m in undisturbed habitat (the control). Although total numbers of shrubs per transect did not vary significantly with distance from the verge, canopy cover of shrubs, species richness, and species diversity were higher in the control than at the verge and other distances. Canopy cover of common shrubs (Ericameria nauseosa, Ambrosia salsola, A. dumosa, L. tridentata, Grayia spinosa) and perennial grasses (Elymus elymoides, Poa secunda) also varied significantly by location. Discriminant analysis clearly separated the four distances based on plant composition. Patterns of recovery were bidirectional: secondary succession from the control into the disturbance corridor and inhibition from the verge in the direction of the control. Time estimated for species composition to resemble the control is dependent on location within the disturbance corridor and could be centuries at the road verge. Our findings have applications to other deserts.

  15. Wild jujube polysaccharides protect against experimental inflammatory bowel disease by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Wu, Shuangchan; Li, Zhike; Li, Jian; Li, Xiaofei; Xiang, Jin; Ding, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Dietary polysaccharides provide various beneficial effects for our health. We investigated the protective effects of wild jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou) sarcocarp polysaccharides (WJPs) against experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function. Colitis was induced in rats by the intrarectal administration of TNBS. We found that WJPs markedly ameliorated the colitis severity, including less weight loss, decreased disease activity index scores, and improved mucosal damage in colitis rats. Moreover, WJPs suppressed the inflammatory response via attenuation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MPO activity in colitis rats. And then, to determine the effect of WJPs on the intestinal barrier, we measured the effect of WJPs on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-conjugated dextran permeability in Caco-2 cell stimulation with TNF-α. We further demonstrated that the alleviation of WJPs to colon injury was associated with barrier function by assembly of tight junction proteins. Moreover, the effect of WJPs on TER was eliminated by the specific inhibitor of AMPK. AMPK activity was also up-regulated by WJPs in Caco-2 cell stimulation with TNF-α and in colitis rats. This study demonstrates that WJPs protect against IBD by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function involving the activation of AMPK.

  16. Food-related behaviors during drought: a study of rural Fulani, northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, C T; Grivetti, L E

    2000-03-01

    Two rural settled Fulani villages in northeast Nigeria were surveyed for dietary practices and use of edible wild plants (n = 100 adult subjects). Dietary patterns and medical data were obtained for children under 5, pregnant and lactating women and the elderly. A diversified diet was maintained at both geographical locations through hunting, gathering, agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, food exchanges and cash purchases. Edible wild plants associated with children included fruits of baure (Ficus sycomorus), faru (Lannea schiniperi), giginya (Gardenia aqualla), kokiya (Strychnos spinosa) and nunu (Parinari curatellitolia). Leaves of shiwaka (Veronia colorate) were consumed by lactating women to stimulate breastmilk production. Generally, fruits of baure (Ficus sycomorus) were eaten to counter stomach pain; fruits of kisni (Bridelia ferruginea) were eaten to treat diarrhea; and bark of kuka (Adansonia digitata) was consumed for weight gain. Food storage was more important during wet seasons than dry because of local and regional flooding. Adult Fulani men rode to distant markets on bicycles, while women walked to market and in some instances expended 3200 kcal/day engaging in this activity.

  17. Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of polygalactomannans from the seeds of a few species of leguminous plants and characterization of the oxidized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Luca; Boccia, Antonella Caterina; Mendichi, Raniero; Galante, Yves M

    2015-03-20

    Plant polysaccharides are used in a growing number of applications, in their native or in chemically and/or biochemically modified forms. In the present work, we compare TEMPO-mediated oxidation with laccase of polygalactomannans (PGM) from different species of plant leguminous to chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO. We have investigated the gums from: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Upon laccase/TEMPO oxidation, PGM viscosity and concentration of reducing groups increased up to five-fold and structured, elastic, stable gels were formed, which could be degraded by hydrolysis with β-mannanase. Conversely, chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO caused a rapid, intermediate transition of the gum solutions to compact gels, that immediately reverted to liquid, with a lower viscosity than at the start and an increased concentration of reducing groups, similar to the reaction with laccase. We interpret the above as due to, in the case of laccase, oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes, able to form stable hemiacetalic bonds with free hydroxyl groups. While upon chemical oxidation, primary OH's are only transiently oxidized to aldehydes, followed by rapid oxidation of all carbonyl groups to carboxylates. In either cases, TEMPO appeared to cause a limited splitting of glycosidic bonds of PGM. Native and oxidized PGM were further characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by rheology.

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of spinosad formulation Natular T30 against immature Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Thieme, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Spinosad consisting of spinosyn A and D is derived from a naturally occurring, soil-dwelling bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are neurotoxins that activate postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and cause rapid excitation of the insect nervous system and ultimately exhaustion and death of the targets. During the past 30 yr, numerous spinosad-based formulations have been developed and applied to control various arthropod pests of agricultural importance. Natular T-30 is a new slow-release formulation containing 8.33% spinosad for use in mosquito larval control programs. High-level larvicidal activity, as indicated by low LC50 and LC90 levels, was demonstrated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Larvicidal efficacy was evaluated in semifield microcosms, field mesocosms, and underground storm drains. Fair performance against larval populations of Culex spp. and other mosquito species was achieved, although low efficacy during the initial few days posttreatment was encountered. This slow-release formulation will play an important role in controlling mosquitoes in persistent breeding sources.

  19. Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native amphibians exported from Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected following establishment in Madagascar, enhanced surveillance is imperative. I sampled 565 amphibians commercially exported from Madagascar for the presence of Bd upon importation to the USA, both to assist early detection efforts and demonstrate the conservation potential of wildlife trade disease surveillance. Bd was detected in three animals via quantitative PCR: a single Heterixalus alboguttatus, Heterixalus betsileo, and Scaphiophryne spinosa. This is the first time Bd has been confirmed in amphibians from Madagascar and presents an urgent call to action. Our early identification of pathogen presence prior to widespread infection provides the necessary tools and encouragement to catalyze a swift, targeted response to isolate and eradicate Bd from Madagascar. If implemented before establishment occurs, an otherwise likely catastrophic decline in amphibian biodiversity may be prevented.

  20. The Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of Southern South America. I. The species of Microcerella Macquart from the Patagonian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Olea, María Sofía

    2015-03-17

    A revision is given of the species placed in the genus Microcerella Macquart, known from the southern extreme of South America, the so-called Patagonian Region. A new diagnosis of the genus is given on the basis of the revision of a large number of Neotropical species. A total of 25 valid species are recognized in the region. Most of these (21 species) are divided into four species-groups on the basis of general groundplan of genitalia and external characters. Four new species are described, M. deliae sp. nov., M. holmbergi sp. nov., M. nataliae sp. nov. and M. paetoi sp. nov. One new synonymy is established: Austrohartigia shannoni Lopes as a new junior synonym of Microcerella spinosa (Hall), syn. nov. A lectotype is designated for Doringia subandina Blanchard [a junior synonym of Microcerella spinigena (Rondani)]. Two species are recorded from Argentina for the first time: M. chicoensis (Lopes) and M. engeli (Hall). Three nominal species were not examined and are treated as nomina dubia within Microcerella: M. apicalis (Townsend), M. rufomaculata Macquart and M. sarcophagina Thomson. An illustrated key is provided to the males of Patagonian species of Microcerella allowing for separation of 25 species. Additionally, a series of images of male genitalia based on color photography and illustrations is provided to aid in the identification of these species of Microcerella. Biological information is given for the species, where known.

  1. Efficacité de quelques séquences d’herbicides contre les mauvaises herbes du pois chiche et de la féverole conduits en semis direct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr HAJJAJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficacy of 18 sequences of pre and post emergence herbicides on weeds of no till faba bean and chickpea and their impact on crops grain yield, two trials were conducted during 2014-2015 growing season at Sidi El Aidi INRA research station and at a farmer’s farm in Ouled Said (Settat. Dominant species of weed flora in chickpea in Sidi El Aidi were: Bromus rigidus, Lolium rigidum, Avena sterilis, Cichorium endivia, Centaurea diluta, Emex spinosa and Papaver rhoeas. Dominant species of weed flora in faba bean at Ouled Said were: Avena sterilis, Plantago afra, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Centaurea diluta, Sonchus oleraceus and Silybum marianum. The obtained results showed that herbicides react differently on weed and crops. Treatments which showed good weed control and better selectivity provided the best crop yield. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” and “Acetochlor (2100 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” provided good weed control and good selectivity in horse bean crop. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” needs to be more tested on chickpea before its recommendation on this crop.

  2. A ICT "Literacy" Revisited: or What the Literate Citizen Really Needs to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Fleming

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of the term ‘literacy’ to describe various sorts of competence in information and communication technologies (ICTs has been widespread (e.g. digital literacy, media literacy but this is usually little more than a vaguely defined metaphorical usage. The paper revisits the notion of literacy and uses British educational sociologist BasilBernstein’s analysis of codes and of classification and framing practices in order to suggest that there is a desirable form of ICT literacy that is more than a metaphor for a general level of competence. This ICT literacy is characterized as an ability to graspboth the objects of ICT and their conditions of possibility (e.g. with reference to Open Source as a specific configuration of such conditions. Spinosa, Flores and Dreyfus’s concepts of articulation, reconfiguration and cross-appropriation are re-defined as framing practices and their strategic importance is argued for within the field of ‘conditions of possibility’ defining today’s ICTs. In making this case, the paper addresses the nature of the genuinely ‘elaborated code’ that, it is argued, must replace the pseudoelaborated code of general technical competence at the core of ICT literacy if the ICTliterate citizen is to be capable of meeting contemporary challenges.

  3. Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native amphibians exported from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd), a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected following establishment in Madagascar, enhanced surveillance is imperative. I sampled 565 amphibians commercially exported from Madagascar for the presence of Bd upon importation to the USA, both to assist early detection efforts and demonstrate the conservation potential of wildlife trade disease surveillance. Bd was detected in three animals via quantitative PCR: a single Heterixalus alboguttatus, Heterixalus betsileo, and Scaphiophryne spinosa. This is the first time Bd has been confirmed in amphibians from Madagascar and presents an urgent call to action. Our early identification of pathogen presence prior to widespread infection provides the necessary tools and encouragement to catalyze a swift, targeted response to isolate and eradicate Bd from Madagascar. If implemented before establishment occurs, an otherwise likely catastrophic decline in amphibian biodiversity may be prevented.

  4. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  5. Immune-system-dependent anti-tumor activity of a plant-derived polyphenol rich fraction in a melanoma mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cadena, A; Urueña, C; Prieto, K; Martinez-Usatorre, A; Donda, A; Barreto, A; Romero, P; Fiorentino, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that part of the anti-tumor effects of several chemotherapeutic agents require an intact immune system. This is in part due to the induction of immunogenic cell death. We have identified a gallotannin-rich fraction, obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et) as an anti-tumor agent in both breast carcinoma and melanoma. Here, we report that P2Et treatment results in activation of caspase 3 and 9, mobilization of cytochrome c and externalization of annexin V in tumor cells, thus suggesting the induction of apoptosis. This was preceded by the onset of autophagy and the expression of immunogenic cell death markers. We further demonstrate that P2Et-treated tumor cells are highly immunogenic in vaccinated mice and induce immune system activation, clearly shown by the generation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) producing tyrosine-related protein 2 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the tumor protective effects of P2Et treatment were abolished in immunodeficient mice, and partially lost after CD4 and CD8 depletion, indicating that P2Et's anti-tumor activity is highly dependent on immune system and at least in part of T cells. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that the gallotannin-rich fraction P2Et's anti-tumor effects are mediated to a great extent by the endogenous immune response following to the exposure to immunogenic dying tumor cells. PMID:27253407

  6. Phylogeography above the species level for perennial species in a composite genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Karin; Ortiz, María Ángeles; Terrab, Anass; Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; Talavera, María; Talavera, Salvador

    2015-12-07

    In phylogeography, DNA sequence and fingerprint data at the population level are used to infer evolutionary histories of species. Phylogeography above the species level is concerned with the genealogical aspects of divergent lineages. Here, we present a phylogeographic study to examine the evolutionary history of a western Mediterranean composite, focusing on the perennial species of Helminthotheca (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). We used molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), internal transcribed spacer and plastid DNA sequences) to infer relationships among populations throughout the distributional range of the group. Interpretation is aided by biogeographic and molecular clock analyses. Four coherent entities are revealed by Bayesian mixture clustering of AFLP data, which correspond to taxa previously recognized at the rank of subspecies. The origin of the group was in western North Africa, from where it expanded across the Strait of Gibraltar to the Iberian Peninsula and across the Strait of Sicily to Sicily. Pleistocene lineage divergence is inferred within western North Africa as well as within the western Iberian region. The existence of the four entities as discrete evolutionary lineages suggests that they should be elevated to the rank of species, yielding H. aculeata, H. comosa, H. maroccana and H. spinosa, whereby the latter two necessitate new combinations.

  7. Respuesta fenológica de la vegetación arbórea de las lomas del sur del Perú (Mejía -Arequipa EN relación con el evento "El Niño 1997-98"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Talavera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presentó la evaluación del comportamiento fenológico de la vegetación arbórea con el fin de determinar su probable utilización como indicadores biológicos de la ocurrencia de eventos "El Niño". Los árboles evaluados fueron Caesalpinea spínosa, Duranta armata, Caríca candícans y Citharexylum flexuosum. Los resultados indican una alta variación en las respuestas fenológicas. C. spinosa por ejemplo en 1995 y 1996 inició la floración antes que el brote; en 1997 inicio mucho antes, pero tuvo una corta duración, yen 1998, se ha presentado en forma tardía y breve, mientras que la cubierta foliar se ha mantenido en forma constante. En el caso de D. armata y C. flexuosum la floración se presenta posterior al brote, pero en ambos casos durante la ocurrencia del evento en 1998 no presentaron floración; y C. candícans presenta floración antes que el brote, pero con alta variabilidad en el tamaño de la floración.

  8. Deep Sequencing of Mixed Total DNA without Barcodes Allows Efficient Assembly of Highly Plastic Ascidian Mitochondrial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Nimrod D.; Feldstein, Tamar; Shenkar, Noa; Botero-Castro, Fidel; Griggio, Francesca; Mastrototaro, Francesco; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P.; Gissi, Carmela; Huchon, Dorothée

    2013-01-01

    Ascidians or sea squirts form a diverse group within chordates, which includes a few thousand members of marine sessile filter-feeding animals. Their mitochondrial genomes are characterized by particularly high evolutionary rates and rampant gene rearrangements. This extreme variability complicates standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques for molecular characterization studies, and consequently only a few complete Ascidian mitochondrial genome sequences are available. Using the standard PCR and Sanger sequencing approach, we produced the mitochondrial genome of Ascidiella aspersa only after a great effort. In contrast, we produced five additional mitogenomes (Botrylloides aff. leachii, Halocynthia spinosa, Polycarpa mytiligera, Pyura gangelion, and Rhodosoma turcicum) with a novel strategy, consisting in sequencing the pooled total DNA samples of these five species using one Illumina HiSeq 2000 flow cell lane. Each mitogenome was efficiently assembled in a single contig using de novo transcriptome assembly, as de novo genome assembly generally performed poorly for this task. Each of the new six mitogenomes presents a different and novel gene order, showing that no syntenic block has been conserved at the ordinal level (in Stolidobranchia and in Phlebobranchia). Phylogenetic analyses support the paraphyly of both Ascidiacea and Phlebobranchia, with Thaliacea nested inside Phlebobranchia, although the deepest nodes of the Phlebobranchia–Thaliacea clade are not well resolved. The strategy described here thus provides a cost-effective approach to obtain complete mitogenomes characterized by a highly plastic gene order and a fast nucleotide/amino acid substitution rate. PMID:23709623

  9. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  10. Preparation of Anshen-jiangzhi functional drinks%安神降脂功能性饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜文

    2011-01-01

    安神降脂功能性饮料是针对目前日益增加的危害或者影响到人们健康的两大公共卫生:血脂异常以及睡眠不好而研制的功能性饮料.该饮料以山楂汁为基础饮料加入银杏叶提取物、酸枣仁提取物以及由高梁麸皮酿制的陈醋,并且加入低热量的醇类甜味剂麦芽糖醇,使得产品不仅适合正常人群也适合糖尿病人群食用.%Anshen-jiangzhi functional drinks was prepared for the dyslipidemia and undersleep people. It was basically made up of hawthorn juice, by adding up ginkgo biloba P.E, semen ziziphi spinosae P.E and mature vinegar. In addition,the drinks used maltitol as sweetener,to make it feasible for the normal people, as well as the diabetes peoples.

  11. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  12. The genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Peruvian Amazonia, with description of sixteen new species and notes on local species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippa, Heikki; Kurina, Olavi; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2017-02-21

    A comprehensive study of material of the worldwide fungus gnat genus Manota Williston, sampled from the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve in Peruvian Amazonia, was conducted. The following 16 species are described as new: M. aligera sp. n., M. aristoseta sp. n., M. calva sp. n., M. ciliata sp. n., M. exigua sp. n., M. digitata sp. n., M. flabellata sp. n., M. iquitosensis sp. n., M. limulata sp. n., M. micella sp. n., M. minutula sp. n., M. nuda sp. n., M. parvula sp. n., M. pauloides sp. n., M. pustulosa sp. n. and M. serrulata sp. n. In addition, the following 16 species are recorded: M. acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. acutistylus Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. aristata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. bisulca Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. iota Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. papillosa Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. paula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. penicillata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 and M. virgata Hippa & Kurina, 2013. Altogether 67 species of Manota are now known from the Neotropical region.

  13. Fire effects on soil properties and post-fire recovery in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, A.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Ghiglieri, G.; Pittalis, D.; Deroma, M.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the large number of works on fire effects on soil and post-fire recovery in Mediterranean areas, several aspects need to be established. The study area is located in north-western Sardinia. The climate is sub-arid Mediterranean, with a mean annual temperature of about 16.8 °C and mean annual precipitation ranging from 600 mm to 700 mm, with an autumn maximum. The area is mainly covered by the typical shrubland Mediterranean vegetation. The object of this study is: i) to compare burned and unburned soil in order to evaluate the effect of fire on physical and chemical soil properties; ii) to analyse the vegetation recovery of the main Mediterranean maquis species. The analysis was carried out in a human caused fire occurred in North-West Sardinia (Italy) immediately after fire in 2006, and during the 2007 and 2008 summer seasons. Several pedological samples were collected from various depths (0-5, 5-15 and 15-25 cm) and under the canopy of different species (Chamaerops humilis L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Calycotome spinosa L.), both in burned and in unburned plots. The soil organic matter content, total and available element concentrations, and soil texture were then determined in laboratory. Different statistical parameters were calculated to describe the relationships between soil properties and species composition comparing burned and unburned plots.

  14. Evaluación del perdón: Diferencias generacionales y diferencias de sexo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maganto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene dos objetivos: 1 analizar la capacidad de perdón en función de la edad y sexo, y 2 investigar dos aspectos relacionados con el perdón, su definición y las circunstancias o razones que lo facilitan. La metodología del estudio es descriptiva y comparativa. La muestra se configura con 140 participantes, 70 hijos y 70 padres, de ambos sexos y con edades entre 17-25 años y 45-60 años, respectivamente. Los participantes más jóvenes fueron reclutados en instituciones educativas en el país Vasco (España. Para medir las variables dependientes, se utilizan dos instrumentos: la escala de evaluación de la capacidad de perdonar, CAPER, y la escala del perdón y factores facilitadores, ESPER. Los resultados indican que los padres tienen más capacidad de perdón que sus hijos y las mujeres más que los varones. En la definición del perdón, padres e hijos tienen similares concepciones: "falta de rencor, reconciliación y comprensiónempatía"; sin embargo, varones y mujeres tienen más diferencias, aunque para ambos "la falta de rencor" es la primera característica que define el perdón. Sobre las razones que facilitan el perdón, se observan diferencias en función de la edad y del sexo; pese a las diferencias, "que haya arrepentimiento de la otra parte y se pida perdón" así como "que se haga justicia por medio de la ley", son los argumentos que mayor peso tienen. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados.

  15. Exploring Metacogntive Visual Literacy Tasks for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, S.; Dwyer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Undoubtedly, astronomy is a scientific enterprise which often results in colorful and inspirational images of the cosmos that naturally capture our attention. Students encountering astronomy in the college classroom are often bombarded with images, movies, simulations, conceptual cartoons, graphs, and charts intended to convey the substance and technological advancement inherent in astronomy. For students who self-identify themselves as visual learners, this aspect can make the science of astronomy come alive. For students who naturally attend to visual aesthetics, this aspect can make astronomy seem relevant. In other words, the visual nature that accompanies much of the scientific realm of astronomy has the ability to connect a wide range of students to science, not just those few who have great abilities and inclinations toward the mathematical analysis world. Indeed, this is fortunate for teachers of astronomy, who actively try to find ways to connect and build astronomical understanding with a broad range of student interests, motivations, and abilities. In the context of learning science, metacognition describes students’ self-monitoring, -regulation, and -awareness when thinking about learning. As such, metacognition is one of the foundational pillars supporting what we know about how people learn. Yet, the astronomy teaching and learning community knows very little about how to operationalize and support students’ metacognition in the classroom. In response, the Conceptual Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team is developing and pilot-testing metacogntive tasks in the context of astronomy that focus on visual literacy of astronomical phenomena. In the initial versions, students are presented with a scientifically inaccurate narrative supposedly describing visual information, including images and graphical information, and asked to assess and correct the narrative, in the form of peer evaluation. To guide student thinking, students

  16. First Year K-12 Teachers as High Leverage Point to Implement GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Mendez, B. J.; Schultz, G.; Wierman, T.

    2013-01-01

    The recurring challenge for curriculum developers is how to efficiently prepare K-12 classroom teachers to use new curricula. First-year teachers, numbering nearly 250,000 in the US each year, have the greatest potential to impact the largest number of students because they have potential to be in the classroom for thirty years. At the same time, these novice teachers are often the most open minded about adopting curricular innovation because they are not yet deeply entrenched in existing practices. To take advantage of this high leverage point, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators at the University of California, Berkeley’s Lawrence Hall of Science and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory with experts from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence. Then, these master teachers were mentored in coaching interning student teachers assigned to them in using GEMS materials. Evaluation showed that novice teachers mentored by the master teachers felt knowledgeable after teaching the GEMS units. However, they seemed relatively less confident about the solar system and objects beyond the solar system. Overall, mentees felt strongly at the end of the year that they have acquired good strategies for teaching the various topics, suggesting that the support they received while teaching and working with a mentor was of real benefit to them. Funding provided in part by NASA ROSES AMANTISS NNX09AD51G

  17. 2005 College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Slater, T. F.; Greene, W. M.; Thaller, M.; Brissenden, G.; UA Steward Observatory CAPER Team; NASA JPL Navigator EPO CenterAstrononomy Education Team; NASA Spitzer EPO Team

    2004-12-01

    As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator and Spitzer EPO Programs along with the American Astronomical Society and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These regional workshops are being held at community colleges around the country and in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. These interactive teaching excellence workshops focus on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts used at the workshop include: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; Insights into the Universe, Slater and Zeilik, and (iv) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2005.

  18. Publishing in the Refereed International Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education JAESE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research. More information about the journal and its policies are available online at http://www.JAESE.org

  19. MRI Features and Differential Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma and Metas-tases in the Vertebral Column%脊柱多发骨髓瘤与转移瘤的MRI诊断及表现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛仪龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the MRI features of multiple myeloma (MM)and metastases in the vertebral column. Methods Selection in our hospital for treatment of the spine from April 2011 to April 2015, a total of 32 patients with multiple myeloma and a total of 31 patients with spinal metastases, analysis of the MRI characteristics of both. Results In MM, 150 vertebra were involved, in which 13.3% appendixes wereimplicated; 6.0% vertebra bodies were destroyed and metamorphosed; In metastases, 90 vertebra were involved and the distribution was capering, in which 51.1% appendixes were involved; 57.8% vertebra bodies were metamorphosed. Conclusion MRI for diagnosis of multiple myeloma and metastatic tumors of the spine has a certain value.%目的:探讨脊柱多发骨髓瘤与转移瘤的诊断与表现。方法整群选取2011年4月—2015年4月在该院接受治疗的脊柱多发骨髓瘤患者共32例和转移瘤患者共31例,对比分析两者的MRI特点。结果脊柱多发骨髓瘤患者中,累及的椎体为150个,累及附件占13.3%;椎体破坏变形现象占6.0%;脊柱转移瘤患者中,累及的椎体为90个,累及附件占51.1%;椎体破坏变形现象占57.8%。结论 MRI对脊柱多发骨髓瘤与转移瘤的诊断具有一定价值。

  20. First Results from the iSTAR International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Our best efforts in the United States to dramatically improve teaching and learning in astronomy courses has been less than satisfactory despite Herculean efforts. A possible solution is to expand our view beyond our own culture's borders and presumptions in order to bring our shortcomings in discipline-based astronomy education research to light. Before we can begin the process of international comparisons of student conceptual understanding, we need to better understand how different citizens of different countries position astronomy culturally. Under the banner of the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning Project, iSTAR, we are now carefully observing how foreign experts in teaching astronomy and the science of astronomy translate the Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST multiple-choice assessment instrument to look for subtle clues revealed during the translation process. The TOAST is the widely used standard to evaluate students' gains in the United States' Astronomy classrooms. We hope that the process of translation itself will help us comprehend how other cultures think differently about astronomical concepts and eventually we are looking to obtain useful data of how other cultures develop their society's understanding of particular astronomy aspects where we may fall short. Several of the iSTAR Project's bilingual speakers are documenting their thoughts and insights as they translate the TOAST. The end-goal is to collect a comprehensible, well-defined, and logical translation in various languages that are culturally sensitive and linguistically accurate. This project is sponsored and managed by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research at CAPERTeam.com in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46.

  1. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  2. Creating Interactive Teaching Methods for ASTRO 101 That Really Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Adams, J. P.; Bailey, J. M.; Huggins, D.; Jones, L. V.; Slater, T. F.

    2004-05-01

    Acknowledging that lecture-based teaching methods are insufficient at promoting significant conceptual gains for students in the introductory astronomy course for non-science majors (ASTRO 101) is only the first step. But then, what can you do besides lecture? The Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona has been developing and conducting research on the effectiveness of learner-centered instructional materials that put students in an active role in the classroom. With the support of an NSF CCLI (9952232) and NSF Geosciences Education (9907755) awards, we have designed and field-tested a set of innovative instructional materials called Lecture Tutorials. These Lecture Tutorial activities are intended for use with collaborative student learning groups and are designed specifically to be easily integrated into existing conventional lecture-based courses. As such, these instructional materials directly address the needs of heavily loaded teaching faculty in that they offer effective, learner-centered, classroom-ready activities that do not require any outside equipment/staffing or a drastic course revision for implementation. Each 15-minute Lecture-Tutorial poses a carefully crafted sequence of conceptually challenging, Socratic-dialogue driven questions, along with graphs and data tables, all designed to encourage students to reason critically about conceptually challenging and commonly taught topics in astronomy. The materials are based on research into student beliefs and reasoning difficulties and make use of a conceptual change instructional framework that promotes the intellectual engagement of students. Our research into the effectiveness of the Lecture Tutorials illustrates that traditional lectures alone make unsatisfactory gains on student understanding; however, supplementing traditional instruction with the lecture tutorials helps students make impressive conceptual gains over traditional instruction. In

  3. The NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE): 2007 College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, E. E.; Slater, T. F.; Greene, W. M.; Thaller, M.

    2006-12-01

    Since 2003 the NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to the professional development of introductory college astronomy faculty with a special focus on faculty teaching at community colleges. As part of our efforts CAE conducts 2-day and 3-day Teaching Excellence Workshops. In Tier I (introductory) Workshops, the overarching goal is for participants to become familiar with learner-centered teaching and assessment materials, as well as how to implement them in their college introductory astronomy courses. To accomplish this goal, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by reviewing research on the nature of teaching and learning; setting course goals and objectives; and using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, and ranking tasks. Participants also learn how to create more effective multiple-choice tests. In Tier II (advanced) Workshops, the overarching goal is to help past workshop participants with their obstacles to implementing a learner-centered introductory college astronomy course. Workshop participants work to understand how students learn while engaged in learner-centered activities and what the role of the instructor is in the learner-centered class. CAE regional workshops are held at community colleges around the country, NASA Research Centers, and in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and also through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. The NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) is a partnership with the Univ. of Arizona Conceptual Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team. CAE is supported by NASA JPL's Navigator Public Engagement program (consisting of several space telescopes--including SIM PlanetQuest, the Terrestrial Planet Finder, the Keck Interferometer, and the Large

  4. Enhancing ASTRO101 Student Engagement Using Student-Created ScienceSKETCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    As astronomy teaching faculty are changing their teaching strategies from those less desirable approaches that allow students to passively listen to professor-centered, information-lectures to more desirable, active-student engagement classrooms characterized by active learning, ASTRO 101 professors are looking for more ways to help students learn to participate in authentic scientific practices. This is consistent with notion advocated by the NRC that students should practice scientific thinking, scientific discourse, and scientific practices while learning science. Noticing that much informal scientific discussion is mediated by sketches—such as those occasionally lively discussions held after hours during scientific conferences—scholars at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research have been piloting a series of active learning tasks where students are challenged to create scientific drawings to illustrate their understanding of astronomical phenomena or structures. Known informally as ScienceSKETCHES, examples of these tasks challenge students to illustrate: the spectral curve differences between high and low mass stars; the differences among galaxy shapes; the distribution of stars for the Andromeda Galaxy in terms of luminosity versus temperature; old and young planetary surfaces; or the relationships between distances and speeds of orbiting objects. Although our initial testing has focused on predominately on paper and pencil tasks, with the occasional cell phone picture of a ScienceSKETCH being texted to the professor, the electronic-based teaching world is nearly ready to support these sorts of drawing tasks. Already, the ability to complete and submit scientific sketches is becoming commonplace across electronic learning platforms, including shared white-boarding in many desktop videoconferencing systems, and handheld device learning systems for interactive classrooms, like those from Learning Catalytics, among many others. Our

  5. New Contemporary Criterion-Referenced Assessment Instruments for Astronomy & Geology: TOAST & EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, Sarah Katie; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    Considerable effort in the astronomy and Earth sciences education research over the past decade has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important in advancing discipline-based education research allowing scholar to establish the initial, incoming knowledge state of students as well as to attempt to measure some of the impacts of innovative instructional interventions. Before now, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. Whereas first-generation assessment tools, such as the Astronomy Diagnostics Test ADT2) were based primarily upon further identifying documented astronomy misconceptions, scholars from the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research team are creating contemporary instruments based instead by developing items using modern test construction techniques and tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals identified by the American Association of the Advancement of Science’s Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council’s National Science Education Standards, and the National Research Council’s Frameworks for A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. These consensus learning goals are further enhanced guiding documents from the American Astronomical Society - Chair’s Conference on ASTRO 101 and the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative. Two of the resulting criterion-referenced assessment tools widely used by researchers are the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) and the Exam of GeoloGy StandardS (EGGS). These easy-to-use and easy-to-score multiple-choice instruments have a high degree of reliability and validity for instructors and researchers needing information on students’ initial knowledge state at the beginning of a course and can be used, in aggregate, to

  6. Modern Publishing Approach of Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    a Senior Scientist at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research. More information about the journal and its policies are available online at http://www.JAESE.org

  7. Caracterización químico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botánicas empleando análisis descriptivo y multivariado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo (AD, de componentes principales (ACP y correlaciones lineales (CL, se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los géneros Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra; y otras no leguminosas: Chlorophora, Morus, Guazuma, Cordia, Trichantera, Tithonia, Moringa, Azadirachta, Bulnesia, Capparis, Hibiscus y Wedelia. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y de la proteína bruta (DPB. Las especies evaluadas presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación animal (PB: 23.46 ±4.43%; FDN: 39.33 ±2.55%; cenizas: 9.78 ±4.35%; DMS: 64.98 ±14.42%; DPB: 69.15 ±15.89%. Sin embargo, las especies leguminosas, comparadas con las no leguminosas, exhibieron numéricamente mayor concentración de taninos condensados (4.06 ±4.01 vs 0.49 ±0.31%, taninos que precipitan proteínas (1.95 ±1.37 vs 0.28 ±0.23% y digestibilidad de la proteína con pepsina (72.51 ±14.64 vs 66.90 ±16.92%. Aunque el porcentaje de inhibición de la tripsina fuese similar entre los dos grupos (50.84 ±6.81 vs 50.92 ±8.94, la actividad de estos inhibidores (3.29 ±2.76 vs 1.55 ±0.39 tripsina inhibida/ gMS y la cantidad de unidades inhibidas (625.10 ±524.01 vs 323.33 ±135.31 unidades/ gMS fueron superior en los forrajes leguminosos. Mediante el AD, ACP y las CL sepudo comprobar que las especies leguminosas exhibieron diferencias acentuadas en el patrón fitoquímico de la biomasa, comparadas con el resto. Los taninos precipitantes de las leguminosas afectaron la digestibilidad de las fracciones nutritivas, mientras que los fenoles y los esteroles presentes en las no leguminosas exhibieron mayor potencial antinutricional en ese tipo de especies.

  8. Preference of goats (Capra hircus L.) for tanniniferous browse species available in semi-arid areas in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, G; Bezabih, M; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-11-29

    The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2.5 years receiving a daily ration of grass hay (4% of body weight) and 200 g wheat bran. In trial 1, goats were offered 25 g of each browse species for a total of 30 min with intake, time spent on consumption and the number of visits to specific browse species recorded at 10-min intervals. In trial 2, the same procedure was followed except that 25 g of PEG 4000 was added to the daily wheat bran ration. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in browse species ranged from 69.0-245.5 to 159.8-560.6 g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively. Total phenols and total tannins contents ranged between 3.7-70.6 and 2.5-68.1 mg tannic acid equivalent/g DM, respectively, and condensed tannins 1.7-18.4 Abs550 nm /g DM. Preference indicators measured in the first 10 min of browse species intake differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (p < 0.0001). Principal components explained 69.9% of the total variation in browse species DMI. Despite the high tannin levels, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Tannin levels at the observed browse species DMI did not determine preference, instead, preference appeared to be based on hemicellulose. Determining browse species preference is essential to exploit them to improve nutrient utilization and control parasites in goats.

  9. Revision of sternaspis otto, 1821 (polychaeta, sternaspidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2013-01-01

    , 1944 from abyssal depths around Indonesia, Sternaspis scutata (Ranzani, 1817) from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis spinosa Sluiter, 1882 from Indonesia, and Sternaspis thorsoni sp. n. from the Iranian Gulf. Two genera are newly proposed to incorporate the remaining species: Caulleryaspis and Petersenaspis. Caulleryaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of falcate introvert hooks, seven abdominal segments, and soft shields with sediment particles firmly adhered on them; it includes two species: Caulleryaspis gudmundssoni sp. n. from Iceland and Caulleryaspis laevis (Caullery, 1944) comb. n. from Indonesia. Petersenaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of spatulate introvert hooks, eight abdominal segments, and stiff shields with poorly defined ribs but no concentric line; it includes Petersenaspis capillata (Nonato, 1966) from Brazil and Petersenaspis palpallatoci sp. n. from the Philippines. Neotypes are proposed for eight species: Sternaspis thalassemoides, Sternaspis affinis, Sternaspis africana, Sternaspis costata, Sternaspis fossor, Sternaspis maior, Sternaspis scutata and Sternaspis spinosa, to stabilize these species-group names, and a lectotype is designated for Sternaspis laevis which is transferred to Caulleryaspis gen. n. The geographic range of most species appears to be much smaller than previously indicated, and for some species additional material in good condition is needed to clarify their distributions. Keys to genera and to all species are also included.

  10. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Sendall

    2013-04-01

    . spinosa Sluiter, 1882 from Indonesia, and S. thorsoni sp. n. from the Iranian Gulf. Two genera are newly proposed to incorporate the remaining species: Caulleryaspis and Petersenaspis. Caulleryaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of falcate introvert hooks, seven abdominal segments, and soft shields with sediment particles firmly adhered on them; it includes two species: C. gudmundssoni sp. n. from Iceland and C. laevis (Caullery, 1944 comb. n. from Indonesia. Petersenaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of spatulate introvert hooks, eight abdominal segments, and stiff shields with poorly defined ribs but no concentric line; it includes P. capillata (Nonato, 1966 from Brazil and P. palpallatoci sp. n. from the Philippines. Neotypes are proposed for eight species: S. thalassemoides, S. affinis, S. africana, S. costata, S. fossor, S. maior, S. scutata and S. spinosa, to stabilize these species-group names, and a lectotype is designated for S. laevis which is transferred to Caulleryaspis gen. n. The geographic range of most species appears to be much smaller than previously indicated, and for some species additional material in good condition is needed to clarify their distributions. Keys to genera and to all species are also included.

  11. Citogenética de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do nordeste do Brasil Cytogenetics of some species of native fruits from northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erllens Éder-Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o cariótipo de seis espécies de frutíferas nativas do Brasil por meio da análise do número e morfologia cromossômica das mesmas. As pontas de raízes jovens foram pré-tratadas com 8-hidroxiquinolina 0,002M, esmagadas em ácido acético 45% e coradas convencionalmente com Giemsa. O material estudado apresentou cariótipo simétrico, com cromossomos pequenos, medindo de 0,6 a 2,5µm, predominantemente metacêntricos a submetacêntricos com uma a duas constrições secundárias visíveis em todas as espécies, exceto em Bromelia karatas, onde não foi possível identificar a morfologia cromossômica ou a presença de constrições secundárias. Na família Myrtaceae, observou-se um complemento cromossômico diplóide com 2n=98 em Psidium arboreum Vell. e 2n=44 em P. araça Raddi; na família Bromeliaceae, 2n=50 em Bromelia karatas L.; na família Malvaceae, 2n=16 para Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; na família Sapindaceae, 2n=32 em Talisia esculenta Radlk., e, na família Caricaceae, 2n=18 em Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl. A. DC. Todos os dados cromossômicos apresentados neste trabalho são inéditos, exceto para a espécie T. esculenta, que teve seu registro prévio confirmado. As espécies possuem potencial para utilização no melhoramento de plantas, e uma inversão em heterozigoze parece estar envolvida na evolução cariotípica de Guazuma ulmifolia.This work aimed to characterize the karyotype of six species of native fruits from Brazil through number and chromosome morphology analysis. The young root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxiquinolin 0.002M, squashed in 45% acetic acid, and conventionally stained with Giemsa. All species showed symmetrical karyotype with small chromosomes and 0.6-2.5µm of length, mainly meta to sub-metacentric ones with one to two secondary visible constrictions in all species, except in Bromelia karatas in which it was not possible to identify the chromosome

  12. Efeito do "fluxo sazonal mínimo da inundação" sobre a composição e estrutura de um campo inundável no Pantanal de Poconé, MT, Brasil "Minimum seasonal flow" effects on the composition and structure of a flooding grassland in Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rebellato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da sazonalidade hídrica sobre a composição e a estrutura de um campo inundável. Foram utilizadas 30 parcelas (armações de 0,5 m×0,5 m para as coletas de cada período (chuvoso e estiagem, onde estimou-se o grau de cobertura das espécies. Calculou-se alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos, índices de diversidade e similaridade entre os dois períodos. Foram amostradas 48 espécies, em 35 gêneros, distribuídos em 20 famílias. As famílias com o maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (seis e Euphorbiaceae (cinco. As terófitas destacaram-se com 41,02% e hemicriptófitas com 23,08%. A diversidade e a riqueza foram maiores no período chuvoso (S = 41, H' = 4,01 e D = 0,91 em relação ao período de estiagem (S = 26, H' = 3,29 e D = 0,85, sendo a similaridade igual a Sa = 55,88%. Algumas espécies como Bacopa myriophylloides Wettst., Cyperus haspan L. ssp. juncoides (Lam. Kük., Digitaria fuscescens (J. Presl Henrard, Eleocharis mínima Kunth, foram indicadoras de umidade, enquanto Euphorbia thymifolia L., Wedelia brachycarpa Baker, Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P.H. Raven, Hydrolea spinosa L., de estiagem. Foram 12 espécies que caracterizaram o campo entre os dois períodos, destacando-se com altos valores de cobertura relativa (CRi e freqüência relativa (FRi com variações destes parâmetros entre os dois períodos.The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal effect of wet and dry periods on the composition and structure of flooding grassland. Thirty quadrats (0,5 m×0,5 m were used in each period (wet and dry to estimate the degree of covering of the species. Phytosociological parameters, diversity and similarity indices were calculated between periods. Forty eight species were collected, 35 genera distributed in 20 families. Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (six and Euphorbiaceae (five were the families with the highest number of species. Therophytes were the most

  13. 基于关联规则与熵聚类的安神类中成药组方规律研究%Analysis on Composition Rules of TCM Tranquilizer Based on Association Rules and Clustering Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉瑞; 金燕萍; 张晓朦; 张冰; 盛晓光

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore composition rules of TCM tranquilizer prescriptions.Methods:The tranquilizer prescriptions in“The New National Medicine”were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assist system. The methods of association rules with apriori algorithm and complex system entropy cluster were used to achieve the frequency of medicines and association rules between drugs.Results:The data-mining results indicated that in the tranquilizer prescriptions,the highest frequently used drugs were Poria Cocos Wolff,Radix Glycyrrhizae,Angelica sinensis,Radix Ophiopogonis,Cinnabaris. The most frequent drug combinations were “Angelica sinensis,Poria Cocos Wolff”,“Poria Cocos Wolff,Parched Semen Ziziphi Spinosae”,“Radix Glycyrrhizae,Poria Cocos Wolff”.The drugs with a high degree confidence coefficient of association rules in-cluded “Calculus Bovis,Cinnabaris”,“Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,Poria Cocos Wolff”.The new prescriptions contained Poria Co-cos Wolff,Parched Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,Radix Rehmanniae Preparata,Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis,Radix Salviae Miltior-rhizae,Radix Ophiopogonis,and Radix Rehmanniae Exsiccata.Conclusion:Chinese medicine drugs in tranquilizer prescriptions usually have the effects of nourishing the blood,calming mind,benefiting the qi,replenishing the yin and quieting the spirit.%目的:分析常用安神类中成药的处方用药规律。方法:收集《新编国家中成药》中的安神类药品处方,基于中医传承辅助系统建立处方数据库,采用关联规则apriori算法、复杂系统熵聚类等方法开展研究,确定处方中各种药物的使用频次及药物之间的关联规则等。结果:高频次药物包括茯苓、甘草、当归、麦冬、朱砂等;高频次药物组合包括“当归、茯苓”“茯苓、炒酸枣仁”“甘草、茯苓”等;置信度较高的关联规则包括“牛黄、朱砂”“酸枣仁、茯苓”等,新处

  14. Métodos de remoção da sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de jaracatiá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio de Jesus Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A presença da sarcotesta pode prejudicar a germinação e desenvolvimento das plântulas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar métodos favoráveis à remoção da sarcotesta para a promoção da germinação de sementes de Jaracatia spinosa, cujas sementes foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: 1- sem remoção da sarcotesta; 2- remoção com fricção sobre peneira, com adição de areia; 3- remoção com fricção sobre peneira com adição de cal; 4- remoção com o uso de liquidificador, 5- remoção com despolpador de sementes; e 6- remoção com solução química (imersão, por 30 min, numa solução composta por 1.0 L de água, 3.5 mL de hipoclorito de sódio, 3.0 mL de ácido muriático e 22.5g de soda cáustica, em que as sementes foram avaliadas quanto à percentagem de germinação, Índice de Velocidade de Emergência (IVE e comprimento da parte aérea de plântulas. O método mais favorável à remoção da sarcotesta e promoção da germinação das sementes de jaracatiá foi a fricção sobre peneira com a adição de areia.

  15. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Blanco, Emilio; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Lastra, Juan José; San Miguel, Elia; Morales, Ramón

    2007-01-01

    Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca) and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile). The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity. PMID:17555572

  16. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastra Juan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile. The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOME SOIL PARAMETERS AND WEED COMMUNITY (CASE STUDY: WINTER WHEAT FIELDS OF UREMIA-IRAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassannejad, S; Pirouie, M Saleh; Haghi, D Zare

    2015-01-01

    In order to find relationships between weed species distribution and soil pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter percentage (OM %), fields surveys were done in 50 wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) fields of Uremia county (one of the northwest counties of Iran) in 2013. Data sampling of weeds was conducted from the beginning of stem elongation until the end of heading stages of wheat. In each field, 20 quadrates (0.25 m²) were randomly placed along a "W" pattern (5 quadrates in each line of this pattern) and in each quadrat, weed species were coded and recorded (density and cover percentage) for subsequent data entry and analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to find relationships between presence and absence of weeds in wheat fields and some of soil parameters. A total 169 weed species belonging to 35 plant families were recorded. CCA showed that four soil factors including soil pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter percentage (OM %) showed 58.6 percentage of weed species distribution variance. Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, Datura stramonium L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Portulaca oleracea L., Sisymbrium irio L., Atriplex patulum (L.). Aellen., and Heliotropium europaeum L. had maximum correlation with soil's pH. Euphorbia peplus L. and Salvia spinosa L. had negative correlation with pH, so that increasing pH caused reduction in the presence of these weeds. The presence of Chondrilla juncea L., Lepidium perfoliatum L., and Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoff in the center of CCA biplot indicated that these weeds were correlated with all of these soil parameters.

  18. Susceptibility of Rhyzopertha dominica (F. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae and Sitophilus oryzae (L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Spinosad (Tracer® as a Eco-friendly Biopesticide

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    Reza Sadeghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhyzopertha dominica (F. and Sitophilus oryzae (L. are internal feeder of various stored grains and introducted as major stored product insect pests. Due to the resistance by insect pests and negative effects of synthetic pesticides to the environment, it is necessary to use novel and suitable compounds in insect pest’s management. Spinosad is a bio-insecticide that is derived from fermentation of a bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa Mertz and Yao. In the present study, the toxicity of Tracer® as a spinosad based insecticidise was evaluated against R. dominica and S. oryzae. Insect species were kept in stored-products insects rearing room in Agriculture Faculty of Tehran University at 27 ± 2ºC, 65 ± 5% relative humidity. Adult insects were exposed to different concentrations of Tracer® by oral trials for 10 and 20 days exposure periods. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis using SPSS software to estimate LC (lethal concentration values and their related information. Tracer® showed strong toxicity against the adults of R. dominica and S. oryzae. Maximum mortality was occurred in the concentration of 250 and 80 ppm after 20 days exposure for R. dominica and S. oryzae, respectively. Direct relationship between mortality of insects with concentration and exposure period was found. Probit analysis displayed R. dominica (10-days LC50 = 49.89 ppm was more susceptible than S. oryzae (10-days LC50 = 50.75 ppm to Tracer®. Results of present study stimulated the utilization of Tracer® as an eco-friendly and safe agent for insect pests’ management.

  19. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from the cowtail stingray Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf, with a key to the species of Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseli, Mohammad; Palm, Harry W

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the genus Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994 is described from Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. is allocated to the genus Dollfusiella based on the possession of two bothria, prebulbar organs, a heteroacanthous typical armature with tightly spaced rows of hollow hooks, a basal swelling and a characteristic basal armature without prominent macrohooks. The presence of an enlarged external seminal vesicle in Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. distinguishes this species from D. michiae (Southwell, 1929), D. bareldsi (Beveridge, 1990), D. owensi (Beveridge, 1990), D. geraschmidti (Dollfus, 1974), D. angustiformis Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. hemispinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. spinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013 and D. taminii Menoret & Ivanov, 2014. The new species is distinguished from the remaining species within the genus by a combination of the following morphological features: the number of testes per segment, the number of testis columns and the number of homeomorphous hooks per half spiral row in the metabasal region. In the most recent taxonomic key to the species of Dollfusiella, the presence or absence of enlarged, microscopically visible spinitriches on the scolex was used as the first distinguishing character dividing the congeners into two groups. Since the existence of visible microtriches on the scolex peduncle of D. vooremi (São Clemente & Gomes, 1989), a species so far grouped among the species lacking visible microtriches on the scolex, has been recently demonstrated, and given the fact that the presence of microscopically visible microtriches on the scolex is variable in some eutetrarhynchid species, a new key to the species of Dollfusiella is provided in which the spinitriches have been given less priority.

  20. Survey for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hong Kong in native amphibians and in the international amphibian trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Chan, Simon Kin Fung; Tang, Wing Sze; Speare, Richard; Skerratt, Lee F; Alford, Ross A; Cheung, Ka Shing; Ho, Ching Yee; Campbell, Ruth

    2007-12-13

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is responsible for many amphibian declines and has been identified in wild amphibian populations on all continents where they exist, except for Asia. In order to assess whether B. dendrobatidis is present on the native amphibians of Hong Kong, we sampled wild populations of Amolops hongkongensis, Paa exilispinosa, P. spinosa and Rana chloronota during 2005-2006. Amphibians infected with B. dendrobatidis have been found in the international trade, so we also examined the extent and nature of the amphibian trade in Hong Kong during 2005-2006, and assessed whether B. dendrobatidis was present in imported amphibians. All 274 individuals of 4 native amphibian species sampled tested negative for B. dendrobatidis, giving an upper 95% confidence limit for prevalence of 1.3%. Approximately 4.3 million amphibians of 45 species from 11 countries were imported into Hong Kong via air over 12 mo; we did not detect B. dendrobatidis on any of 137 imported amphibians sampled. As B. dendrobatidis generally occurs at greater than 5% prevalence in infected populations during favorable environmental conditions, native amphibians in Hong Kong appear free of B. dendrobatidis, and may be at severe risk of impact if it is introduced. Until it is established that the pathogen is present in Hong Kong, management strategies should focus on preventing it from being imported and decreasing the risk of it escaping into the wild amphibian populations if imported. Further research is needed to determine the status of B. dendrobatidis in Hong Kong with greater certainty.

  1. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose.

  2. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco.

  3. Activity of spinosad on stored-tobacco insects and persistence on cured tobacco stripst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel P; Panighini, Cécile; Gadani, Ferruccio; Rossi, Luca

    2004-11-01

    Every year raw tobacco and manufactured tobacco products are lost to two major storage pests, the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F) and the tobacco moth, Ephestia elutella (Hiibner). Post-harvest management of both insects is achieved through sanitation, insect monitoring and fumigation with phosphine. However, insect resistance to phosphine and control failures have been reported, and fumigants are under constant regulatory pressure. Here we report the evaluation of spinosad, a bioinsecticide derived from the fermentation of the soil micro-organism Saccharopolyspora spinosa Mertz & Yao. Spinosad was first registered in 1997 and is now widely used as a field pest control agent on many crops, including tobacco. The insecticidal activity of the fermentation product (technical spinosad, TS) was measured by diet incorporation assays against L serricorne and E elutella larvae. Mortality levels were determined on newly hatched larvae and over the whole insect life cycle. For both species, no emergence of adult insects was observed in cured tobacco sprayed with 50mg TS kg(-1) and inoculated with eggs or newly hatched larvae. These results indicated that spinosad has potential for the control of both species in stored tobacco, since 100% control of both pests could be achieved at 50 mg TS kg(-1), and with almost full control (90-95%) at 10 mg kg(-1). We also monitored the stability of the product on cured tobacco. The original concentration of the main active component of TS, spinosyn A, did not change significantly over 18 months, indicating no loss of spinosad during a typical leaf storage period of time. Bioassays against larvae confirmed that the bioinsecticidal activity of spinosad was retained.

  4. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Mediated by an ABC Transporter Mutation Increases Susceptibility to Toxins from Other Bacteria in an Invasive Insect.

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    Yutao Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of pest resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticidal proteins from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt used widely in sprays and transgenic crops. Recent efforts to delay pest adaptation to Bt crops focus primarily on combinations of two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest, but this approach is often compromised because resistance to one Bt toxin causes cross-resistance to others. Thus, integration of Bt toxins with alternative controls that do not exhibit such cross-resistance is urgently needed. The ideal scenario of negative cross-resistance, where selection for resistance to a Bt toxin increases susceptibility to alternative controls, has been elusive. Here we discovered that selection of the global crop pest, Helicoverpa armigera, for >1000-fold resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac increased susceptibility to abamectin and spineotram, insecticides derived from the soil bacteria Streptomyces avermitilis and Saccharopolyspora spinosa, respectively. Resistance to Cry1Ac did not affect susceptibility to the cyclodiene, organophospate, or pyrethroid insecticides tested. Whereas previous work demonstrated that the resistance to Cry1Ac in the strain analyzed here is conferred by a mutation disrupting an ATP-binding cassette protein named ABCC2, the new results show that increased susceptibility to abamectin is genetically linked with the same mutation. Moreover, RNAi silencing of HaABCC2 not only decreased susceptibility to Cry1Ac, it also increased susceptibility to abamectin. The mutation disrupting ABCC2 reduced removal of abamectin in live larvae and in transfected Hi5 cells. The results imply that negative cross-resistance occurs because the wild type ABCC2 protein plays a key role in conferring susceptibility to Cry1Ac and in decreasing susceptibility to abamectin. The negative cross-resistance between a Bt toxin and other bacterial insecticides reported here may facilitate more sustainable pest control.

  5. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Mediated by an ABC Transporter Mutation Increases Susceptibility to Toxins from Other Bacteria in an Invasive Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Gong, Lingling; He, Fei; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of pest resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticidal proteins from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used widely in sprays and transgenic crops. Recent efforts to delay pest adaptation to Bt crops focus primarily on combinations of two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest, but this approach is often compromised because resistance to one Bt toxin causes cross-resistance to others. Thus, integration of Bt toxins with alternative controls that do not exhibit such cross-resistance is urgently needed. The ideal scenario of negative cross-resistance, where selection for resistance to a Bt toxin increases susceptibility to alternative controls, has been elusive. Here we discovered that selection of the global crop pest, Helicoverpa armigera, for >1000-fold resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac increased susceptibility to abamectin and spineotram, insecticides derived from the soil bacteria Streptomyces avermitilis and Saccharopolyspora spinosa, respectively. Resistance to Cry1Ac did not affect susceptibility to the cyclodiene, organophospate, or pyrethroid insecticides tested. Whereas previous work demonstrated that the resistance to Cry1Ac in the strain analyzed here is conferred by a mutation disrupting an ATP-binding cassette protein named ABCC2, the new results show that increased susceptibility to abamectin is genetically linked with the same mutation. Moreover, RNAi silencing of HaABCC2 not only decreased susceptibility to Cry1Ac, it also increased susceptibility to abamectin. The mutation disrupting ABCC2 reduced removal of abamectin in live larvae and in transfected Hi5 cells. The results imply that negative cross-resistance occurs because the wild type ABCC2 protein plays a key role in conferring susceptibility to Cry1Ac and in decreasing susceptibility to abamectin. The negative cross-resistance between a Bt toxin and other bacterial insecticides reported here may facilitate more sustainable pest control. PMID:26872031

  6. Trends in wild food plants uses in Gorbeialdea (Basque Country).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Tardío, Javier; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2017-05-01

    Despite wild food plants' potential nutritional and economic value, their knowledge and consumption is quickly decreasing throughout the world. We examine how the consideration that a wild plant use is within the cultural tradition of a given area relates to its consumption by analysing 1) current perception and 2) past and present use of six wild plants' food-uses, of which only three are locally perceived as being part of the local tradition. Research was conducted in Gorbeialdea, an area in the Basque Country with a clearly marked Basque identity opposed to the Spanish identity. Overall, there is a clear decrease in the knowledge and consumption of the selected uses and especially of the three uses acquired from local sources (i.e., the consumption of the raw leaves of Fagus sylvatica and Rumex acetosa and of the fruits of Pyrus cordata). The trend is likely driven by the disappearance of the traditional agrarian lifestyle. Among the uses not acquired from local sources, the use recently adopted from another Basque-speaking area (i.e., macerating the fruits of Prunus spinosa to elaborate a liqueur) is now considered part of the local tradition by young generations, whereas the use acquired from southern Spanish migrants (i.e., using Laurus nobilis leaves as condiments) is not. While lifestyle changes largely explain overall trends in wild edibles consumption, other cultural aspects -in our case study the stigmatization of a given source of information associated to cultural identity- might help shape which new uses of wild plants become embedded in local traditions.

  7. 两周时期的植物利用——来自《诗经》与植物考古的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永超; 吴文婉; 杨晓燕; 靳桂云

    2015-01-01

    本文从《诗经》入手,结合考古学、民族学材料,对两周时期的植物利用状况进行了分析.周代先民栽培的主要农作物为粟(Setaria italica)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)等,穿着由大麻(Cannabis sativa)、蚕丝纺织而成的服饰,采食野葵(Malva verticillata)等蔬菜,食用桃(Prunus persica)、郁李(Cerasus japonica)、酸枣(Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa)、葡萄属(Vitis sp.)等水果;利用檀木、松柏等制作车船,利用梓属(Catalpa sp.)、栎属(Quercus sp.)、竹子等制作乐器、兵器等各类器物;蒸煮苹(Marsilea quadrifolia)和杉叶藻(Hippuris vulgaris)、腌制甜瓜(Cucumis melo)等以为祭祀的菜肴.简而言之,周代先民利用的植物种类是多种多样的,植物的用途也是多种多样的.《诗经》中所涉及到的植物种类为植物考古研究提供了参考.与同期的考古遗存数据相比,发现考古遗存和文献记载在记录古人植物利用信息方面各有所长,可以互相弥补.

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-04

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  9. Use and Safety of Anthroposophic Medications for Acute Respiratory and Ear Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Harald J. Hamre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anthroposophic medications (AMED are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections.Methods: A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged 1 month, treated by anthroposophic physicians for acute otitis and respiratory infections. Physicians’ prescription data and patient reports of adverse events were analyzed. Main outcome measures were use of AMED and ADR to AMED.Results: Two patients had confirmed ADR to AMED: 1 swelling and redness at the injection site after subcutaneous injections of Prunus spinosa 5%, 2 sleeplessness after intake of Pneumodoron® 2 liquid. These ADR lasted one and two days respectively; both subsided after dose reduction; none were unexpected; none were serious. The frequency of confirmed ADR to AMED was 0.61% (2/327 of all different AMED used, 0.28% (2/715 of patients, and 0.004% (3/73,443 of applications.Conclusion: In this prospective study, anthroposophic medications used by primary care patients with acute respiratory or ear infections were well tolerated.Abbreviations: A-: anthroposophy; ADR: adverse drug reactions; AE: adverse events; AM: anthroposophic medicine; AMED: AM medication; C-: conventional; ENE-patients: eligible, not enrolled patients; IIPCOS: International Primary Care Outcomes Study

  10. Saccharopolyspora griseoalba sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Wei, Xiaomin; Chen, Xiu; Jiang, Yi; Xue, Quanhong; Lai, Hangxian; Jiang, Chenglin

    2016-12-01

    A novel halotolerant actinomycete, designated strain AFM 10238(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew at 15-45 °C, pH 6-12 and with 0-15 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain AFM 10238(T) contains meso-diaminopimelic acid as cell wall diamino acid, and galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol. Major fatty acids are iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C17:1 ω8c. MK-9(H4) is the predominant menaquinone and the DNA G + C content is 72.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM10238(T) belongs to the genus Saccharopolyspora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain AFM 10238(T) and its close neighbours, Saccharopolyspora halophila YIM 90500(T) , Saccharopolyspora spinosa DSM 44228(T), Saccharopolyspora dendranthemae KLBMP 1305(T) and Saccharopolyspora cebuensis DSM 45019(T) were 98.2, 97.2, 97.1 and 97.0 %, respectively. Sequence similarities to other type strains of this genus were below 97 %. DNA-DNA relatedness data, together with phenotypic and chemotaxonomic differences, clearly distinguished the isolate from its close neighbours. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic analysis, a novel species Saccharopolyspora griseoalba sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFM 10238(T) (= DSM 46,663 = CGMCC 4.7124).

  11. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SELECTED LESS COMMON FRUIT SPECIES

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    BRIGITA PAULOVICSOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the anthocyanins, ascorbic acid content and the antiradical activity in less common fruit species native in the territory of Slovakia (black mulberries, cornelian cherries, blackberries, blackthorn, rowanberries and honeyberries (Lonicera kamtschatica originated from Kamtschatka. Anthocyanins were evaluated after extraction from solid materials with acidified ethanol or after direct solution of liquid samples with HCl in ethanol solution by spectrophotometer measurement. To evaluate the antiradical activity, a spectrophotometer method based on the reaction of antioxidants with a stable radical 2,2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyle (DPPH• in methanol solution was used. The reduction properties of ascorbic acid are used in the measurement. The highest value of anthocyanin pigments was found out in honeyberries (Lonicera kamtschatica of all analyzed clones. Black mulberries of the genotype M104 and cornelian cherries of the genotypes 55 a 44 are the most significant sources of ascorbic acid among analysed less common fruit species. It is an interesting fact that blackthorns (Prunus spinosa contenting the lowest value of ascorbic acid (10.31±1.016 mg.100 g-1 and medium value of anthocyanins (1.71±0.08 g.kg-1 shows the highest level of antiradical activity (461.25±3.69 % ≈ EC50= 0.1084 ± 0.0101. A similar phenomenon was observed in honeysuckles, too. According to these results we can suppose that another flavonoids (flavonols, flavons and flavanols can also significantly contributed to antiradical activity of the blackthorns and edible honeysuckles. In summary, analysed less known fruit species are important sources of nutritive compounds, particularly anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and show significant free radical scavenging ability.

  13. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

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    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  14. Names and publication dates of the Brachyura in F.É. Guérin (Guérin-Méneville) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Ng, Peter K L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-11-12

    The names and dates of the publications of Brachyura of Guérin (Guérin-Méneville from 1836) are reviewed, and previously unidentified or overlooked names are identified. Several identical new names used in multiple publications by Guérin (also under the name Guérin-Méneville), and others that appeared in the same year necessitated the accurate determination of publication dates to establish priority. The authorships of three names should be credited to Guérin (1832): Gecarcinus lateralis (Gecarcinidae), Halimus aries (Majidae), and Libinia spinosa (Epialtidae), the first previously attributed to Fréminville (1835), the last two to H. Milne Edwards (1834). The overlooked genus- and species-group names Cyclocarcinus pinnotheroides Guérin-Méneville, 1838, are determined to be senior subjective synonyms of the genus- and species-group names Hapalonotus reticulatus (De Man, 1879) (Pilumnidae). Applying Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, precedence is reversed between the genus-group names and the correct name is Hapalonotus pinnotheroides (Guérin-Méneville, 1838). Current and widespread use of the genus-group name Thalamita Latreille, 1829 (31 March) (Portunidae) is threatened by the overlooked Thalamites Guérin, 1829 (21 March), and the precedence of the names is also reversed to maintain usage of the former. The genus-group name Eurypodius Guérin (Inachidae) is shown to have been established in 1828, not 1825. Included is a complete bibliography of the publications in which Guérin (also under Guérin-Méneville) established new names for Brachyura, with their accurate publication dates.

  15. Eficiência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares isolados de solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita no crescimento inicial de espécies nativas Efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from bauxite mine spoils on seedling growth of native woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Donizetti Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, estabelecendo simbioses eficientes com plantas, desempenham papel importante na sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas e podem ser manejados para a revegetação bem sucedida de áreas degradadas. A eficiência da simbiose está relacionada não só aos genótipos dos simbiontes, i.e, FMA e espécie vegetal, como também às condições ambientais que influenciam a expressão da relação simbiótica. Assim, o primeiro passo visando ao manejo de simbioses eficientes é estudar a variabilidade de FMAs quanto à eficiência com diferentes espécies vegetais. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a colonização micorrízica e a eficiência simbiótica de isolados de FMAs obtidos de áreas de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação em dois ambientes (campo e serra, no crescimento de mudas de duas espécies pioneiras [aroeira (Schinus terebenthifolius e trema (Trema micrantha] e de duas espécies secundárias iniciais [açoita-cavalo (Luehea grandiflora e sesbânia (Sesbania virgata], em solo de baixa fertilidade. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, por 120 dias. Para cada espécie vegetal, foram aplicados 10 tratamentos de inoculação com FMAs (isolados de FMAs ou de sua mistura: Acaulospora longula, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp., Gigaspora sp., Acaulospora spinosa e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de campo; e Acaulospora scrobiculata, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp. e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de serra. Para comparação, foram acrescentados ainda um tratamento-referência inoculado com Glomus etunicatum eficiente e um tratamento não-inoculado como controle. Plantas de todas as espécies apresentaram crescimento reduzido na ausência de FMAs (controle, porém beneficiaram-se de modo diferenciado dos tratamentos de inoculação. Todos os isolados, ou sua mistura, foram eficientes em promover o crescimento de sesbânia, enquanto para trema e aroeira somente um isolado de Glomus

  16. Analysis on Seedling Functional Traits of 7 Wild Fruit Tree Species on the Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains%天山北坡7种野生果树幼苗的功能性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆华; 臧润国; 丁易; 许正; 刁永强; 孙霞

    2012-01-01

    以分布在天山北坡的7种野生果树幼苗为研究对象,测定比叶面积( SLA)、木材密度、叶片厚度、茎皮厚度及根、茎、叶器官的N,P,K含量等功能性状指标,分析影响植物功能性状的环境因子.结果表明:7种野生果树幼苗各项功能性状测定指标均差异显著(P<0.05),新疆野苹果木材密度最小,酸枣木材密度和比叶面积均最大,但叶片厚度和茎皮厚度均最小,胡桃比叶面积最小,但茎皮厚度最大;SLA与叶N含量呈显著正相关(P<0.05);不同树种的根、茎、叶器官的N,P,K含量,除茎P含量差异不显著外(P>0.05),其他均差异显著(P<0.05);酸枣和新疆桃的根、茎、叶器官N,P,K含量均相对较高,辽宁山楂和胡桃各器官养分含量均相对较低.7个树种的叶N含量平均为28.4 mg·g-1,较报道的国内外陆地植物叶片N含量平均水平高,叶P含量平均为2.20 mg·g-1,也相对高于国内陆地植物叶片P含量平均水平,近似于全球平均水平;新疆桃和酸枣的养分利用率较低,辽宁山楂和胡桃的养分利用率较高,其他3个树种居中.%Plant functional traits can reflect their adaptability to environment and their ability of utilizing various resources. The major functional traits of 7 wild fruit tree species in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang were measured and analyzed. The functional traits include specific leaf area (SLA) , wood density, thickness of leaf and bark, and the N, P, K contents in roots, leaves and stems. The results showed that Mains sieversii had the lowest wood density among the 7 tree species, while Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa had the highest wood density and SLA, but the lowest leaf and bark thickness among the 7 tree species. Juglans regia had the smallest SLA, but the highest bark thickness among the 7 tree species. The SLA was significantly and positively correlated with leaf N content ( P < 0. 05 ) . The nutrient contents in leaves, stems

  17. 中国长角枝(螩)亚科一新属及五新种((螩)目,笛(螩)科)%A NEW GENUS AND FIVE NEW SPECIES OF NECROSCIINAE(PHASMATODEA, DIAPHEROMERIDAE) FROM CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何维俊

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and five new species of Necrosciinae,Lopaphus micropterus sp.nov.,Marmessoidea guangmgensis sp.nov.,Pseudosipyloidea shuchuni gen.et sp.nov.,Pseudosipyloidea damingshanensis gen.et sp.nov.and Scionecra spinosa sp.nov.,are described from China.The type specimens are deposited in the Shanghai Entomological Museum,Shanghai and Hong Kong Entomological Society,Hong Kong,China.Lopaphus micropterus sp.nov.(Figs 1-2)This new species is related to L.sinensis (Bi,1995),but differs in smaller size and apex of subgenital plate not reaching anterior margin of the anal segment.Measurements (mm).Body 66.0 ; pronotum 3.0 ; mesonotum 15.0 ; metanotum (with median segment) 8.0 ; profemur 15.0 ; mesofemur 12.0 ;metafemur 17.0.Holotype ♀,Damingshan,Wuming Cotmtry,Guangxi Autonomous Region,China,28 July 2012,collected by George HO Wai-Chun.Etymology.This new species is named after the micro-wings on the body.Marmessoidea guangdongensis sp.nov.(Figs 3-6)This new species is allied to M.annulata(Fabricius,1798),but differs in brownish body with grayish mottlings.Measurements (mm).Body:♀ 73.0,♂ 59.0;pronotum:♀ 4.5,♂ 3.0; mesonotum:♀ 13.0,♂ 11.0; metanotum (with median segment):♀ 9.5,♂9.5; profemur:♀ 16.0,♂ 18.0; mesofemur:♀ 11.0,♂ 11.0; metafemur:♀ 17.0,♂ 17.0.Holotype ♀,Heishiding,Fengkai,Guangdong Province,China,26 July 2011,collected by George HO Wai-Chun.Paratypes:2 ♀ ♀,2 ♂ ♂,same data as holotype; 2 ♀ ♀,Heishiding,Fengkai,Guangdong Province,China,21 Aug.2012,collected by George HO Wai-Chun.Etymology.The specific name is derived from the type locality "Guangdong".Pseudosipyloidea gen.nov.Type species:Pseudosiyloidea shuchuni sp.nov.By present designation.This new genus is related to Sipyloidea Brunner von Wattenwyl,1893,but differs in thick-built femora and costal area with subcosta area at right angle.Etymology.The specific name is derived from the close resemblance to the genus Sipyloidea.Pseudosipyloidea shuchuni sp.nov.(Figs 7

  18. Impact des coopératives féminines sur la préservation et la valorisation de l’arganeraie : cas de la coopérative Tafyoucht (confédération des Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Maroc Impacto das cooperativas de mulheres sobre a preservação e valorização do argan: o caso da cooperativa Tafyoucht (Confederação de AitBaamrane, Anti-Atlas, Marrocos Impact of women’s cooperatives on the conservation and enhancement of the argan tree: case of the Tafyoucht cooperative (confederation of the Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Faouzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available L'arganier (Argania spinosa est un arbre qui pousse principalement au Maroc. Les arganeraies occupent environ 800 000 hectares au sud-ouest du pays. Dans ces zones semi-arides et arides, 1,3 million de personnes sont concernées par l’exploitation de systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels reposant sur l’arganier. L'aire de l’arganier se dégrade d’année en année sous l’effet conjugué de la croissance démographique et du surpâturage. En moins d'un siècle, plus d'un tiers de la forêt a disparu. Depuis une quinzaine d’années, des efforts sont déployés pour définir les conditions d’un développement véritablement durable. L’huile d’argane, est certainement la production sur laquelle pourrait reposer un projet de développement socio-économique. Les populations concernées et les autorités locales ont pris conscience de l’ampleur du problème que représente le développement de l’arganeraie et de sa valeur socioculturelle et économique et de la nécessité d’agir. Cela s’est traduit par la création de coopératives associant l’amélioration de l’extraction et de la commercialisation de l’huile au bénéfice des femmes et la préservation de cette ressource ainsi que la lutte contre la désertification.The Argan tree (Argania spinosa is a tree that grows mainly in Morocco. Argan trees cover approximately 800,000 hectares in the south-west of Morocco. In these arid and semi-arid areas, 1.3 million people are involved on the exploitation of traditional agroforestry systems based on the Argan tree. The area of the Argan tree gets deteriorated year by year due to the combined effect of population growth and overgrazing. In less than a century, more than one third of the forest has disappeared. In the last fifteen years, efforts have been made to define the conditions of a really sustainable development. Argan oil, is undoubtedly the production on which could be based a socio-economic development project

  19. Supporting Survey Courses with Lecture-Tutorials and Backwards-Faded Scaffolded Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of learning science, it is generally accepted that successful science learning experiences should result in learners developing a meaningful understanding of the nature of science as inquiry where: (i) students are engaged in questions; (ii) students are designing plans to pursue data; and (iii) students are generating and defending conclusions based on evidence they have collected. Few of these learning targets can be effectively reached through a professor-centered, information download lecture. In response to national reform movements calling for professors to adopt teaching strategies and learning environments where non-science majors and future teachers can actively engage in scientific discourse, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research have leveraged NSF DUE funding over the last decade to develop and systematically field-test two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is called Lecture-Tutorials (NSF 99077755 and NSF 9952232) . These are self-contained, classroom-ready, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course revision for implementation. Students are asked to reason about difficult concepts, while working in pairs, and to discuss their ideas openly. The second of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction (NSF 1044482). Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design

  20. Collaborative Group Learning Approaches for Teaching Comparative Planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Modern science education reform documents propose that the teaching of contemporary students should focus on doing science, rather than simply memorizing science. Duschl, Schweingruber, and Shouse (2007) eloquently argue for four science proficiencies for students. Students should: (i) Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world; (ii) Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations; (iii) Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge; and (iv) Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse. In response, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating and field-tested two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction. Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Planetary science databases and virtual environments used by students to conduct scientific investigations include the NASA and JPL Solar System Simulator and Eyes on the Solar System as well as the USGS Moon and Mars Global GIS Viewers. The second of these is known widely as a Lecture-Tutorial approach. Lecture-Tutorials are self-contained, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course

  1. Design and Dynamic Analysis of Lower Extremity Exoskeleton%下肢外骨骼机器人动力学分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志勇; 谭振中; 裴忠才

    2013-01-01

    设计了一种针对军事用途的下肢外骨骼机器人,主要为行军过程中的士兵承载负重,分析了人类下肢自由度以及下肢步态的特点,对人体下肢在单足和双足支撑期进行了动力学分析,建立了七杆模型,并与通常的五杆模型进行比较,得到各关节在一个步态周期内驱动力矩以及功率的变化,随后分析了人体下肢在登台阶过程中的功率变化,利用两者的分析结果确定了各关节的驱动方式.结合下肢外骨骼所需要实现的功能、工作原理及其结构组成,利用SolidWorks软件对其进行结构设计.最后,为验证所得到的结果的正确性,将样机模型导入ADAMS中进行验证,证明了所得到的液压缸力和各关节力矩是正确的.%A kind of lower extremity exoskeleton for military purpose to help soldiers bearing weight during marching process mainly was designed.The freedoms of the human lower limbs and the lower extremity gait were analyzed.Its dynamic modeling of single-leg supporting phase and bipedal stance phase with a 7-link model capered with the common 5-1ink model was defined.The torque of each joint and the power of each joint were calculated.In the meanwhile,the power was analyzed when human was climbing the stairs.Then which joints need to be actuated and how to actuate them were determined.With the function,working principle and structure composition,its structure with SolidWorks was designed.Finally,to verify the correctness of the results obtained,the prototype was validated into ADAMS.It turns out that the hydraulic cylinder force and toque of each joint are right.

  2. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode′s solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS, KCl (80 mM and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37 °C and continuously gassed with O 2 . The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%, β-eudesmol (6.4 %, ρ-cymene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.6%, α-pinine (1.4% and α-phelandrene (1.1%. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC 50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml, ACh (IC 50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml and EFS (IC 50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC 50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  3. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  4. Determination of Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in 34 Batches of Chinese Herbs by HPLC Associated with Post Column Photochemical Derivatization%免疫亲和柱净化HPLC柱后光化学衍生法测定34批中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文武; 熊凌云; 王瑞芳; 刘岩; 孙启生; 雷雨; 王强

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立HPLC柱后光化学衍生法检测中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1方法.方法 样品经过70%甲醇提取、免疫亲和拄净化后,采用HPLC柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测中药材黄曲霉毒素含量.对疑似成分进行液质确认.结果 黄曲霉毒素G2和B2,G1和B1分别在0.75 ~ 22.5 pg和5~ 75Pg线性关系良好,方法准确稳定.检测的34批次药材中,3批酸枣仁检出黄曲霉毒素,其中1批酸枣仁黄曲霉毒素B1超过5μg·kg-1.结论 该方法简便、准确,适用于中药材黄曲霉毒素的检测.%Objective To establish HPLC methods associated with post column Photochemical Derivatization to determine aflatoxin G2, Gl, B2, Bl in Chinese herbal. Method Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol and purified by an immunoaffinity column. Then the samples were analysed by HPLC fluorescence detector with post column Photochemical derivatization. Confirm the suspected components with LC-MS. Results The method with the great linear concentration range of 0.75-22.5 pg for aflatoxins G2,B2,and 5-75 pg for aflatoxins G1,B1 respectively, was stable and accurate. In the result of 34 batches of Chinese herbs,Aflatoxins were detected in 3 batches of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae among which Aflatoxin Bl of one batch exceed 5 μg·kg-l. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate,which is suitable for the determination of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal.

  5. Species composition and correlation of understory woody plants in Chinese fir plantation in the lower subtropical area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Bing; LIU Shirong; CAI Daoxiong; WEN Yuanguang

    2006-01-01

    There are 71 species in the shrub layer of the Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation after natural succession.The species richness and diversity have increased with slight anthropogenic disturbance.The status and function of tmderstory woody species were judged by the analysis of the important value (IV).X2 statistics and r test were used for testing the significance of interspecific association and correlation among 25 main understory woody plants selected from the woody population.The results clearly showed their interspecific relationships and their differences in resource utilization.Species-pairs of positive association were in the majority.Most species were accommodated in the shady habitat.There was a positive correlation between the IV of the species and the interspecific association.The higher the IV of the species,the closer and more significant was the interspecific association.Based on analytical results of interspecitic association and correlation,25 woody plants in the shrub layer could be divided into four ecological species groups:I.Ficus hispida +Antidesma bunius+Mallotus barbatus+Ficus cunia+Saurauia tristyla+Mallotus philippinensis+Maesa japonica +Ficus hirta+Alchornea rugosa+Ficus fulva+Mallotus apelta;II.Cudrania tricuspidata+Schefflera octopylla;III.Cunninghamia lanceolata+Clerodendron cytophyllum +Millettia semicastrata+Randia spinosa+Litsea cubeba +Litsea pungens;IV.Ardisia japonica+Psychotria rubra +Vitex quinata+Cephalanthus occidentalis+ Pithecellobium lucidum+Mycetia sinensis.If species group III or II is the advantaged species in the shrub layer,the community would change from a coniferous forest to a sparse evergreen broad-leaved forest.For group IV,the community would be relatively stable.For group I,the coniferous forest would be mixed with coniferous-broad leaved forest.The classification of ecological species groups would provide a theoretical basis on judging its ecological function,adjusting the stand structure of the plantation and

  6. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  7. Efficacy of eco-smart insecticides against certain biological stages of jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb.(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of six eco-smart insecticides, Dipel 2x 6.4% WP (Bacillus thuringensis AI, Biofly 100% WP (Beauvaria bessiana AI, Radiant 12% SC (Saccharopolyspora spinosa AI, Mectin 1.8% EC (Streptomyces avermitilis AI, Nimbecidine 0.03% EC (Azadirachtin AI and Bio-Power 50% EC (Beauvaria bessiana AI, were tested against eggs, larvae and pupae of the jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb. and its parasitoid Apanteles syleptae under laboratory conditions. Data indicated that all tested insecticides had ovicidal activity against P. unionalis. Mectin was the most toxic among the tested insecticides against the egg stage, followed by Radiant or Dipel 2x, and their respective values of LC50 were 0.005 cm/l, 0.006 cm/l and 0.055 g/l. Dipel 2x was the most toxic insecticide to the 1st instar larvae of P. unionalis, whereas Mectin was the most toxic to both the 3rd and 5th instar larvae. Also, the results revealed that Mectin was the most effective against the pupal stage, followed descendingly by Radiant and Dipel 2x. The toxicity index values showed a superior efficiency of Mectin at LC50 (100% against eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupal stage, whereas Dipel 2x showed such superior efficiency at LC50 (100% only against 1st instar larvae. The results showed that the percents of pupation and emergence of moths were significantly different in all treatments compared to control, while deformed pupae and malformed adults were insignificantly different when fifth instar larvae were treated with the tested insecticides. Moreover, the rate of P. unionalis adult emergence from treated pupae was concentration-dependent and significant differences were found between insecticide treatments and control. Generally, Mectin, Radiant and Dipel 2x caused the highest impacts on adult emergence and malformed adults percentages. Regarding the toxicity of insecticides to the endoparasitoid A. syleptae, the treated cocoons developed to adult stages with no significant

  8. The Effects of Argan Oil in Second-degree Burn Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Umit; Halici, Zekai; Akpinar, Erol; Yayla, Muhammed; Avsar, Ummu; Harun, Un; Harun, Un; Hasan Tarik, Atmaca; Bayraktutan, Zafer

    2016-03-01

    Argan oil, produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa), has been shown to have antioxidant properties. To examine the effect of argan oil in second-degree burn wound healing, an in vivo experiment was conducted among 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups: a sham group, a control group (burned but no topical agent), a group in which argan oil was applied once a day, a group in which argan oil was applied twice a day, and a group treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine once a day. Second-degree burns were created by scalding hot water (85˚ C for 15 seconds). Treatment began 24 hours after the burn injury; in the argan oil groups, 1 mL of argan oil was administered via syringe to the wound. The rate of wound healing was quantified by wound measurements on days 1, 7, and 14 after burn injury. Tissues were analyzed for molecular and histologic changes in TGF-β expression and fibroblast activity. Percent contraction of burned skin tissue was determined using the stereo investigator program, which calculated the burn field to the millimeter. Means (SD) were calculated and compared using Duncan's multiple comparison test. The group receiving argan oil twice daily showed significantly increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 from 39.66- to 58.70-fold compared to the burn control group on day 14 (P less than 0.05). Both argan oil-treated groups showed significantly increased contraction compared to the burn control group at all 3 timepoints; the group receiving argan oil twice daily had a greater contraction rate (31% on day 7, 76% on day 14) than the silver sulfadiazine group (22% on day 7, 69% on day 14), (P less than 0.05). Histopathological assessments on days 3, 7, and 14 showed greater healing/contraction in both argan oil and silver sulfadiazine groups compared to the control group. These results suggest argan oil is effective in healing experimentally created second-degree burns in rats. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are

  9. Variability among the most rapidly evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific: implications of pairwise genome comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae and other angiosperms for marker choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Korotkova

    Full Text Available Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae-a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC-trnV, trnR-atpA, ndhF-rpl32, psbM-trnD, and trnQ-rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters. Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid, Olea (asterids and Cymbidium (monocots showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF-rpl32 and trnK-rps16 were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations. Sequencing

  10. Biodegradation of alpha- and beta-endosulfan by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sarfraz; Arshad, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem

    2007-12-01

    Extensive applications of persistent organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan on cotton have led to the contamination of soil and water environments at several sites in Pakistan. Microbial degradation offers an effective approach to remove such toxicants from the environment. This study reports the isolation of highly efficient endosulfan degrading bacterial strains from soil. A total of 29 bacterial strains were isolated through enrichment technique from 15 specific sites using endosulfan as sole sulfur source. The strains differed substantially in their potential to degrade endosulfan in vitro ranging from 40 to 93% of the spiked amount (100 mg l(-1)). During the initial 3 days of incubation, there was very little degradation but it got accelerated as the incubation period proceeded. Biodegradation of endosulfan by these bacteria also resulted in substantial decrease in pH of the broth from 8.2 to 3.7 within 14 days of incubation. The utilization of endosulfan was accompanied by increased optical densities (OD(595)) of the broth ranging from 0.511 to 0.890. High performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that endosulfan diol and endosulfan ether were among the products of endosulfan metabolism by these bacterial strains while endosulfan sulfate, a persistent and toxic metabolite of endosulfan, was not detected in any case. The presence of endosulfan diol and endosulfan ether in the bacterial metabolites was further confirmed by GC-MS. Abiotic degradation contributed up to 21% of the spiked amount. The three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas spinosa, P. aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia, were the most efficient degraders of both alpha- and beta-endosulfan as they consumed more than 90% of the spiked amount (100 mg l(-1)) in the broth within 14 days of incubation. Maximum biodegradation by these three selected efficient bacterial strains was observed at an initial pH of 8.0 and at an incubation temperature of 30 degrees C. The results of this study may

  11. The ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: synonymisation of Pheidologeton Mayr under Carebara, establishment and revision of the C. polita species group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Fischer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the genus Pheidologeton Mayr, 1862 is synonymized under Carebara Westwood, 1840 and the Carebara polita group is established and revised. This species group currently includes six species from the Afrotropical region (C. madibai, C. nicotianae, C. perpusilla, C. polita, C. silvestrii, and C. villiersi and two species from the Neotropical region (C. brevipilosa and C. urichi. The polita group clearly links Carebara and Pheidologeton, and, due to a lack of autapomorphic characters for the latter, a separation of the two genera is no longer justified. As a result Carebara is presented as a monophyletic and better defined genus that can be separated from other genera with more confidence. We present an overview of the distribution and biology of Carebara as well as images from the various genera currently in synonymy under Carebara, and discuss the characters they share. The polymorphism present in Afrotropical and Malagasy Carebara is discussed and one new species from Africa, C. madibai sp. n., is described. The subspecies Carebara perpusilla arnoldiana syn. n., Carebara perpusilla concedens syn. n., and Carebara perpusilla spinosa syn. n. are new synonyms of Carebara perpusilla. Oligomyrmex politus nicotianae is re-elevated to species level and transferred into Carebara, C. nicotianae comb. n., stat. rev.; C. punctata is a new synonym of C. silvestrii comb. n. and C. pygmaea albipes comb. n., syn n., C. pygmaea bugnioni comb. n., syn. n., and C. simularensis syn. n. are new synonyms of C. pygmaea comb. n.. The following names are transferred from Pheidologeton to Carebara as new combinations (with the species epithets adjusted to female endings where necessary: aberrans, affinis, affinis javana, affinis minor, affinis spinosior, affinis sumatrensis, ceylonensis, dentiviris, diversa, diversa draco, diversa ficta, diversa laotina, diversa macgregori, diversa philippina, diversa standfussi, diversa taprobanae, diversa tenuirugosa

  12. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański Wojciech M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack, 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves. The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider Nymphon gracile (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braband Anke

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes form units of genetic information replicating indepentently from nuclear genomes. Sequence data (most often from protein-coding genes and other features (gene order, RNA secondary structure of mitochondrial genomes are often used in phylogenetic studies of metazoan animals from population to phylum level. Pycnogonids are primarily marine arthropods, often considered closely related to chelicerates (spiders, scorpions and allies. However, due to their aberrant morphology and to controversial results from molecular studies, their phylogenetic position is still under debate. Results This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a sea spider (Nymphon gracile, class Pycnogonida. Gene order derives from that of other arthropods so that presumably 10 single tRNA gene translocations, a translocation of the mitochondrial control region, and one large inversion affecting protein-coding genes must have happened in the lineage leading to Nymphon gracile. Some of the changes in gene order seem not to be common to all pycnogonids, as those were not found in a partial mitochondrial genome of another species, Endeis spinosa. Four transfer RNAs of Nymphon gracile show derivations from the usual cloverleaf secondary structure (truncation or loss of an arm. Initial phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences placed Pycnogonida as sister group to Acari. However, this is in contrast to the majority of all other studies using nuclear genes and/or morphology and was not recovered in a second analysis where two long-branching acarid species were omitted. Conclusion Extensive gene rearrangement characterizes the mitochondrial genome of Nymphon gracile. At least some of the events leading to this derived gene order happened after the split of pycnogonid subtaxa. Nucleotide and amino acid frequencies show strong differences between chelicerate taxa, presumably biasing

  14. In vitro and in vivo acaricidal activity and residual toxicity of spinosad to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Shiel, R S; Appleby, W G C; Knox, A; Guy, J H

    2010-10-29

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to examine the acaricidal potential of spinosad against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. Spinosad is a natural product derived from the fermentation of the micro-organism Saccharopolyspora spinosa. In vitro testing confirmed that, when applied to a galvanised metal plate to the point of run-off, spinosad was toxic to adult female D. gallinae and suggested that at an application rate of 3.88 g/L a significant residual toxicity of spinosad could be achieved for up to 21 days. A subsequent in vivo experiment in a conventional cage housing system for laying hens demonstrated the acaricidal activity and residual toxicity to D. gallinae of a single application of spinosad when applied at either 1.94 or 3.88 g/L. Residual toxicity of spinosad at both of these application rates was maintained throughout the course of the 28 day post-spray study period, with a peak in product efficacy seen 14 days after spraying. The results suggest that the greater the D. gallinae population the greater will be the toxic effect of spinosad. Although the exact reasons for this are unclear, it can be speculated that conspecifics spread the product between each other more efficiently at higher mite population densities. However, further study is warranted to confirm this possibility. Application of spinosad in vivo had no effect on hen bodyweight or egg production parameters (number and weight), suggesting that this product could be used to effectively control D. gallinae infestations whilst birds are in lay. This paper also describes a novel method for effectively and efficiently achieving replication of treatments in a single poultry house, previously unpopulated with D. gallinae. Individual groups of conventional cages were stocked with hens, seeded with D. gallinae and used as replicates. Independence of replicates was achieved by isolating cage groups from one another using a

  15. Expression of Plant Sweet Protein Mabinlin Ⅱ in Escherichia coli%植物甜蛋白Mabinlin Ⅱ在大肠杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌博; 黄东彦; 胡文锋; 罗文华; 李雪玲; 颜少帆; 陈永泉

    2011-01-01

    本研究从马槟榔种子中扩增得到天然植物甜蛋白MabinlinⅡ的全长cDNA序列(M1),并通过特异引物PCR去除部分5'端序列得到修饰型的基因序列(M2).将M1与M2分别克隆至表达载体pET43.1a(+),并分别转化表达宿主菌Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)和Rosetta(DE3),成功构建出BL21(DE3)/pET43.1a-M1(缩写B-M1)、BL21(DE3)/pET43.1a-M2 (缩写B-M2)、Rosetta(DE3)/pET43.1a-M1(缩写R-M1)、Rosetta(DE3)/pET43.1a-M2(缩写R-M2)四个表达系统.经IPTG诱导表达后证明,R-M1的重组甜蛋白表达量最高,并可检测到轻微甜味和后甜感.同时利用镍柱对R-M1诱导表达的目的蛋白进行纯化,得到单一条带的重组甜蛋白.%Mabinlin Ⅱ is a safe, low calorie and strong sweet protein found in the seed of Capparis masasaikai Levl grown in Yunnan Province Southern China. We amplified the whole cDNA sequence of Mabinlin Ⅱ(M1) and the modified gene sequence (M2), which without 105bp of the 5'terminal from the seeds, and cloned into the expression plasmid pET43.la (+) respectively. The two recombinant plasmid were then transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and Rosetta (DE3), resulting in 4 recombinant expression system: BL21 (DE3)/pET43.la-M1 (abbr:B-M1), BL2I(DE3)/pET43.la-M2 (abbr: B-M2), Rosetta (DE3)/pET43.la- M1 (abbr: R-M1) and Rosetta/pET43.la-M2 (abbr: R-M2).Recombinant proteins expression was detected by SDS-PAGE, and the results indicated R-M1 yielded the recombinant Mabinlin Ⅱ in highest level, and sweetness was also detected. The R-M1 recombinant protein was then purified using Ni-NTA resin, and single protein band was observed after SDS-PAGE.

  16. Flora and vegetation of Rio Torto area in Brasimone ENEA Centre, Bologna; Flora e vegetazione dell'area Rio Torto nel centro ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mei, M.; Varriale, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The Rio Torto area, on the northern slope of the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine, in the C.R. Enea Brasimone property, has been the object of a research study on flora and vegetation to delineate the vegetal coverage and to evaluate the vegetal population changes. The study on vegetation has been carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method, a flora-statistical approach based on an accurate analysis of the flora and on statistical sampling of the studied object. Data has been analysed using the SYN-TAX-Multivariate Data Analysis software package, in order to get out a classification and, therefore, some syn-taxonomic levels in vegetation. Result is a dendogram with clusters connected by transverse lines and organised in a Hierarchical Clustering system. The dominant species in the Rio Torto area is beech; elements of the Arrhenatheretalia association are well-represented at the lower edge of the wood, while a broad glade characterised by Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, by Prunus spinosa L. and by Crataegus monogyna Jacq is at the upper edge. Grassy undergrowth is dominated by Eurasian and boreal elements and, from a physiognomic-structural point of view, is quite rich. The biological spectrum analysis points up the particularly high value of the hemicryptophytes: this result couldn't be justified by the mountainous nature of the zone but it could be considered a sign of stress. From the vegetation and phytosociological study, a classification of the beech population on the basis of the complex of characteristics is gained; in this classification, the beech population is fitted in the order Fagetalia Pawl, 1928 (Ubaldi and Speranza, 1985) and in the alliance Fagion Sylvaticae medioeuropeo (Luquet 1926) Tx and Diemont 1936. No particular association has been identified within the alliance, because is not possible to detect a species well-defined contingent. Ecologically more demanding species absence and non-characteristic entities intrusion is linked to the general state

  17. Flora and vegetation of Rio Torto area in Brasimone ENEA Centre, Bologna; Flora e vegetazione dell'area Rio Torto nel centro ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mei, M.; Varriale, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The Rio Torto area, on the northern slope of the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine, in the C.R. Enea Brasimone property, has been the object of a research study on flora and vegetation to delineate the vegetal coverage and to evaluate the vegetal population changes. The study on vegetation has been carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method, a flora-statistical approach based on an accurate analysis of the flora and on statistical sampling of the studied object. Data has been analysed using the SYN-TAX-Multivariate Data Analysis software package, in order to get out a classification and, therefore, some syn-taxonomic levels in vegetation. Result is a dendogram with clusters connected by transverse lines and organised in a Hierarchical Clustering system. The dominant species in the Rio Torto area is beech; elements of the Arrhenatheretalia association are well-represented at the lower edge of the wood, while a broad glade characterised by Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, by Prunus spinosa L. and by Crataegus monogyna Jacq is at the upper edge. Grassy undergrowth is dominated by Eurasian and boreal elements and, from a physiognomic-structural point of view, is quite rich. The biological spectrum analysis points up the particularly high value of the hemicryptophytes: this result couldn't be justified by the mountainous nature of the zone but it could be considered a sign of stress. From the vegetation and phytosociological study, a classification of the beech population on the basis of the complex of characteristics is gained; in this classification, the beech population is fitted in the order Fagetalia Pawl, 1928 (Ubaldi and Speranza, 1985) and in the alliance Fagion Sylvaticae medioeuropeo (Luquet 1926) Tx and Diemont 1936. No particular association has been identified within the alliance, because is not possible to detect a species well-defined contingent. Ecologically more demanding species absence and non-characteristic entities intrusion is linked to the general state

  18. Improving Early Career Science Teachers' Ability to Teach Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, G. R.; Slater, T. F.; Wierman, T.; Erickson, J. G.; Mendez, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The GEMS Space Science Sequence is a high quality, hands-on curriculum for elementary and middle schools, created by a national team of astronomers and science educators with NASA funding and support. The standards-aligned curriculum includes 24 class sessions for upper elementary grades targeting the scale and nature of Earth's, shape, motion and gravity, and 36 class sessions for middle school grades focusing on the interactions between our Sun and Earth and the nature of the solar system and beyond. These materials feature extensive teacher support materials which results in pre-test to post-test content gains for students averaging 22%. Despite the materials being highly successful, there has been a less than desired uptake by teachers in using these materials, largely due to a lack of professional development training. Responding to the need to improve the quantity and quality of space science education, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators - from the University of California, Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL), the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education - experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. Research on the exodus of young teachers from the teaching profession clearly demonstrates that early career teachers often leave teaching because of a lack of mentoring support and classroom ready curriculum materials. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers in middle school, and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Sequence for Grades 6-8. Then, these master teachers were mentored in how to coach their

  19. Gaining A Geological Perspective Through Active Learning in the Large Lecture Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J. L.; Richardson, R. M.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    more freedom in when and where they complete their work, and we provide instant feedback on their submitted work. The University of Wyoming Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team, who specialize in project evaluation, are leading the evaluation effort. We are comparing pre-test to post-test gains on the Geoscience Concept Inventory and Attitudes Toward Science surveys before and after the redesign, and inductive analysis of student interviews and reflective writing that describe student perceptions of the modified learning environment. The redesign has cut the cost of the class per student by more than half. This was achieved primarily in two ways: 1) by greatly reducing the number of hours spent by faculty and graduate teaching assistants on preparation, class time, and grading; and 2) reducing the number of graduate teaching assistants required for the class and replacing many of them with undergraduate preceptors. Undergraduate preceptors are not paid, but receive academic credit for their teaching service. The savings from the redesign is used to allow faculty more time to work on institutional priorities.

  20. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    How can science teachers become more familiar with emerging technology, excite their students and give students a taste of astronomy research? Astronomy teachers do not always have research experience, so it is difficult for them to convey to students how researchers use telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier to providing teachers with insight into the process. Robotic telescopes (operated automatically with queued observing schedules) and remotely controlled telescopes (controlled by the user via the Internet) allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), and middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005). However, teachers need to be trained to use these resources. Responding to this need, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are developing teacher professional development programs using Internet-based telescopes. We conducted an online course in the science education graduate program at the University of Wyoming. This course was designed to sample different types of Internet-based telescopes to evaluate them as resources for teacher professional development. The 10 participants were surveyed at the end of the course to assess their experiences with each activity. In addition, pre-test/post-test data were collected focusing specifically on one of the telescopes (Gershun, Berryhill and Slater 2012). Throughout the course, the participants learned to use a variety of robotic and remote telescopes including SLOOH Space Camera (www.slooh.com), Sky Titan Observatory (www

  1. Los trabajos de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrovsky Jauneau, Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the purpose of showing the identity between science and technology from within scientific language. The traditional philosophical argument in favour of this identity is briefly examined, through the work of Heidegger. Then, following Henri Atlan (“Ordres et Significations”, 1979. Le crystal et la fumée. Essai sur l’organisation du vivant. Paris: Éd. Du Seuil the scientific definitions of order and disorder are reviewed; then Boltzmann’s statistical formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is discussed, to show that such a law could only appear in the context of Modernity and the Industrial Revolution. In fact, the concept of “mechanical work” would be the “missing link” assimilating science to techno-science, to technology. The paper also discusses the consequences of such an assimilation, and the resistance with which it is usually received by the scientific community. This resistance arises from the loss of the unconditional character of scientific truth. The concept of the “unconditional”, its genealogy and ethic relevance within Modern philosophical thought, from Spinosa to Kant and Wittgenstein, are discussed. Finally, Emmanuel Lévinas’ Ethics is introduced: for Lévinas, in fact, the recovery of the unconditional character of the ethical (and also, of cognitive truth requires that the dialogic character of all kind of statements be taken into account.Esta comunicación pretende mostrar la identidad ciencia/ técnica desde el interior del lenguaje tecnocientífico. Se revisa brevemente la argumentación filosófica tradicional al respecto, cuyo exponente paradigmático es Heidegger. Luego, siguiendo a Henri Atlan (“Ordres et Significations”, Le cristal et la fumée. Essai sur l’organisation du vivant, Éd. Du Seuil, Paris, 1979 se analiza la definición científica de orden y desorden; enseguida se discute la formulación estadística de Boltzmann de la 2.ª Ley de la Termodin

  2. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    three categories were divided in 27 subcategories (common uses). Results and discussion The informants recognise and use a total of 184 species from 49 families. During interviews, 5658 individual use-reports were collected relating to three use-categories – as medicines, food and health-food. The two main groups with almost the same number of species each are health-food (75 species) and (locally gathered) food only (73), with medicinal uses only (36) being the smallest group. This highlights the important overlap between food and medicines. Overall, three core families were identified (based on the number of use reports and in the number of species): Asteraceae (25 species), Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (24 each). The most frequently reported species are Jasonia glutinosa, Chamaemelum nobile, Prunus spinosa and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota. The most important general use-subcategories are as raw vegetables (27.43% of the use-reports and including 81 species), infusions (14.74%/42) and gastrointestinal (12.53%/42). Conceptually foods and medicines are clearly distinguished but the intermediate group of health foods is more ambiguous. Conclusion Food and medicinal uses of plants are culturally closely linked. A wide range of plants are known and many still used. The analysis shows that the Basques use a wide range of species which are typical for Western European cultures. In comparison to other studies in the Mediterranean countries there are many similarities in the uses of different families, species of plants and their use and preparations. Some of these plants are key Mediterranean species, often used for a multitude of uses as food and medicine. PMID:26481607

  3. 枣地安神丸质量标准研究%Study on Quality Standard of Zaodi Anshen Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智; 王爽; 许贵军; 高菲

    2013-01-01

    目的建立枣地安神丸的质量标准。方法采用薄层色谱法对制剂中酸枣仁、制何首乌进行定性鉴别。采用高效液相色谱法对五味子醇甲、五味子甲素和五味子乙素进行含量测定,用Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5µm),流动相为甲醇-水梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL/min,柱温40℃,检测波长254 nm。结果酸枣仁、制何首乌薄层色谱斑点清晰,分离效果较好,且阴性无干扰。五味子醇甲、五味子甲素和五味子乙素分别在338~1690 ng(r2=0.9991)、128~640 ng(r2=0.9993)、236~1180 ng(r2=0.9994)范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均加样回收率分别为99.2%、99.0%、98.9%。结论本方法准确可靠、专属性强、重复性好,可作为枣地安神丸的质量控制标准。%Objecfive To establish the quality standard of Zaodi Anshen Pills. Methods TLC method was used to identify Spinosae and Radix polygoni Multiflori. HPLC method was used to determine the schisandrin, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B. Eclipse XDB-C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm) was adopted by gradient elution using MeOH-water solution as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was at 254 nm, column temperature was at 40 ℃ and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Results The TLC spots were clear without interference of the negative control. The linear ranges of schisandrin, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were within 338-1690 ng (r 2=0.999 1), 128-640 ng (r 2=0.999 3) and 236-1180 ng (r 2=0.999 4), and the average recoveries were 99.2%, 99.0% and 98.9% respectively. Conclusion This method is accurate, reliable, specific and reproducible, and can be used for quality control of Zaodi Anshen Pills.

  4. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    purple willow (Salix purpurea). Only the 25% of the interventions was accomplished by the use of secondary plant species, as tamarisk (Tamarix spp.,) blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) , whitethorn (Crataegus spp.), sea-buckthorn (Hipphopae rhamnoides), wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), cottonwood (Populus nigra), eglantine (Rosa spp.), goat-willow (Salix caprea) and cornel (Cornus sanguinea). Better results were achieved with Spanish Broom, a very rural plant that can effectively colonise even poor soils like badlands; as a matter of fact, more than the 75% of the interventions had positive outcomes The efficacy of the consolidation work by the presence of living structures point out an increase of the stability of those interventions older than 4 years, with taking root species present from 54% to 78%. So far, the construction and the reliability of the works have been monitored, in order to capture critical aspects for the success of works and to build a geo-referenced data base of the existing works and their status.

  5. The terebinth population (Pistacia mutica Fisсh. & C.A. Mey. in the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Ju. Letukhova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive work on the study of rare and protected wood plants on the territory of the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea was carried out on the instructions of Karadag Nature Reserve administration in 2013. The Besh-Tash valley (approximate area of 15 hectares is wedged in the territory of the Karadag reserve from the south-west side, but it is not included in its structure. This article describes the material on distribution, abundance, population structure of terebinth (Pistacia mutica in this area. P. mutica is a Mediterranean relict species of the Tertiary period, included in the Red Books of Russia, Crimea and Ukraine. Terebinth creates rare relict plant communities (formation P. mutica listed in the Green Book of Ukraine. In the study area we counted all P. mutica specimens. We determined their taxation parameters, as well as characterized their locality. Based on the literature and our own research age-state classes of P. mutica were characterized for the studied population. As a result, we registered a total number of 3086 specimens of P. mutica: immature (im – 1259 (40.8%, virginal (v – 1054 (34.2%, young generative (g1 – 341 (11.0%, middle-age generative (g2 – 372 (12.0%, mature generative (g3 – 60 (2.0% plants. Senile plants have not been found out. So the age spectrum of the population is normal, not complete (without senile individuals, left-sided with predominance of immature plants. The population density is 206 specimens/ha. In the Besh-Tash valley P. mutica forms its own dense thickets or it is the component of hemixerophytical oak forests with Quercus pubescens, Juniperus deltoides, rarer Cornus mas, Sorbus torminalis. It also grows in shrub communities with Pyrus elaeagrifolia, Paliurus spina-christi, Prunus spinosa, Rosa corymbifera, Cotoneaster tauricus, Crataegus species, rarer Cotinus coggygria, Clematis vitalba. The distribution of the terebinth tree by elevation above sea level is analyzed. The great

  6. Divisão do gênero Distenia Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, notas sobre a venação alar em Disteniini, Homonímias, Sinonímia e Redescrições (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Disteniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Divisão do gênero Distenia Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, notas sobre a venação alar em Disteniini, homonímias, sinonímia e redescrições (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Disteniinae. O gênero Distenia é dividido em cinco gêneros: Hovorestenia Santos-Silva gen. nov. [H. humeralis (Waterhouse, 1880 comb. nov.] Oculipetilus gen. nov. [O. brunneorufus (Thomson, 1860 comb. nov.; O. pulcher (Melzer, 1926 comb. nov.] Elytrimitatrix gen. nov., Novantinoe nom. nov., gen. rev. [N. agriloides (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. bicolora (Thomson, 1864; N. cribristernis (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. darlingtoni (Fisher, 1942 comb. nov.; N. denticornis (Bates, 1870 comb. nov.; N. equatoriensis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. fulvopicta (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. germaini (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. guyanensis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. mathani (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. pegnai (Hüdepohl, 1989 comb. nov.; N. peruviensis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. puertoricensis (Lingafelter & Micheli, 2004 comb. nov.; N. rufa (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. spinosa (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. striatiscapis (Villiers, 1885 comb. nov.; N. tumidicollis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. unidentata (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.] Disteniazteca gen. nov. [D. pilati (Chevrolat, 1857 comb. nov.; D. fimbriata (Lacordaire, 1869 comb. nov.] e Distenia sensu stricto. Elytrimitatrix e Distenia são compostos de dois subgêneros: E. (Elytrimitatrix [E. (E. undata (Fabricius, 1775 comb. nov.] e E. (Grossifemora subgen. nov. [E. (G. batesi (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; E. (G. brevicornis (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. chrysostigma (Bates, 1872 comb. nov.; E. (G. fuscula (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. geniculata (Bates, 1872 comb. nov.; E. (G. hoegei (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. irregularis (Linsley, 1935 comb. nov.; E. (G. lineatopora (Bates, 1880 comb. nov.; E. (G. nigrella (Bates, 1880 comb. nov.; E. (G. pictipes (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. punctiventris (Bates, 1885 comb. nov

  7. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    records vary from station to station. In some cases records were given in details including geographical details regarding the position of observed individual plant (orientation of the slopes) and the damages caused by frosts but this was not a general feature. All phenological observations were done on a voluntary basis. Moreover, even the stations that performed the observations for more than ten years changed the observed species from year to year. This makes the data sets quite fragmented with many gaps and the standard statistical characteristics of any station can be hardly obtained and their statistical significance is very low. As the standard statistical processing of the data sets was not possible, we tried to elaborate some descriptions that can characterize the distribution of phenological manifestation in space and time. Climatologic records available in the yearbooks were expressed as monthly mean values and totals. There are also gaps and missing data in the climatologic records. Nevertheless, these data sets enable us to get general characteristics of months and seasons. Next possible evaluation can follow the local phenological calendar. This was done also in 1874. As only three phenological phases were recorded, it was difficult to follow the development and growth of a particular plant. That is why only flowering of the plants characterizing start of early spring /Corylus Avellana/, full spring /Cornus mas, Salix alba and Prunus spinosa/, late spring /Syringa vulgaris, Aesculus Hippocastanum and Crataegus laevigata/ and early summer /Robinia Pseudoacacia and Sambucus nigra/ were considered. The full start of summer is indicated usually by flowering of Tilia platyphyllos. Three stations from the lowlands in northern region with relatively good data sets were selected in order to get this course of flowering. The northern most positioned station showed the delay in the beginning of flowering at the plants which flower in full spring and early summer while

  8. DIVERSE RESPONSES OF CAMBRIAN ORGANISMS TO SEDIMENTARY EVENTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE CHENGJIANG LAGERST(A)TTE OF EASTERN YUNNAN%不同生活方式的物种对快速沉积埋藏事件的反应——来自寒武纪早期澄江生物群中的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵方臣; 朱茂炎; 胡世学

    2012-01-01

    Because of its exquisite soft-bodied fossil preservation the famous Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstatte of eastern Yunnan presents a unique window in time, revealing a fascinating glimpse on the diversification and palaeoecology of early meta-zoans. Based on statistical analysis of preservation-al body orientations, stratigraphic horizon, and of size distribution of four ecological kinds of Chengjiang fossils in the event mudstone layers, we demonstrate here how different organisms responded to sedimentary events. This enables an e-valuation of whether taphonomic 'escape biases' may have significantly altered the composition of the original living community compared with that of the death assemblages found actually preserved as fossils. The four ecological kinds of organism studied include; 1) infaunal vagrant forms of Cric-ocosmia jinningensis and Mafangscolex sinensis ; 2) an epifaunal sessile form, Heliomedusa orienta ; 3) the epifaunal vagrant form Naraoia spinosa ; and 4) the pelagic Stellostomites eumorphus. Our results demonstrate that these different ecological forms left different preservational signatures in the event mudstone layer, which may reflect differences in responsiveness and ability to escape from sudden sediment input amongst the different animals. The thickness (several millimetres to centimetre thick) of the event mudstone layers which include the preservation of many such kinds of soft-bodied fossils, and the relationship between stratigraphic position and size distribution of these organisms, indicate that most benthic animals could not make a sufficiently rapid response to escape burial as a result of the rapid sediment deposition. So the fossil assemblage in the Chengjiang Lagerstatte appears to reflect the original biodiversity. However, exactly which factors restrained the escape capacity of some of the living organisms to escape burial is not yet clear. They may relate to the unique physical and chemical properties resulting from rapid