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Sample records for caper capparis spinosa

  1. Metabolomic study of wild and cultivated caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from different areas of Sardinia and their comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Foddai, Marzia; Natella, Fausta; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae), also known as caper, is widely known for its very aromatic flower buds (capers),that are largely employed as a flavouring in cooking. Capparis species are regarded as a potential source of important bioactive compounds, in fact, due to their botanical relationship with Brassica species; they contain glucosinolates, secondary plant metabolites, that have been studied for their potential anticarcinogenic properties. In addition, the presence of other numerous beneficial compounds such as polyphenols, alkaloids, lipids, vitamins and minerals have been reported. The aim of this study was to individuate and determinate the principal bioactive compounds occurring in different part (leaves, buds and flowers) of wild and cultivated C. spinosa collected from different area of Sardinia (Italy). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry methods were used for identification and simultaneous determination of 27 bioactive molecules. Analysis of different samples revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the content of flavonoids, glucosinolates, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. In particular, glucocapparin resulted the most abundant with values ranging from 112 to 364 mg/100 g Fresh Weight (FW); followed by rutin with highest value of 126 mg/100 g FW, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin with highest value of 42 mg/100 g FW and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside with highest value of 24 mg/100 g FW. Based on this metabolomic targeted approach, quantitative results were treated by principal component analysis to explore and visualise correlation and discrimination among collections of C. spinosa samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27489055

  2. Effect of Pre-Chilling Duration and Kinetin on Germination of Capers (Capparis Spinosa Var. Spinosa And Capparis Ovata Var. Canescens) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Talip; SÖYLER, Durmuş Ali; ÖZCAN, Sabahattin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine theeffects of pre-chilling and kinetin treatment on germination of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata var. canescens seeds. Seeds were kept 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks for pre-chilling at +4 ºC. After the prechilling, Seeds were treated with distilled water, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm doses of kinetin and 2000 ppm dose of GA3 which was used as positive control for 24 hours at 22 ºC. The research was conducted with 4 repetitionin in fitler pape...

  3. The effect of dry caper (capparis spinosa) fruit on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary inclusion of dry Caper (Capparis spinosa) fruit (DCF) on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens between 20 and 32 weeks of age. Four groups of commercial hens (ATAK-S) were fed with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15 g DCF/kg. The results showed that final body weight, feed intake, shape index (SI) and morning hen - day egg yield were influenced by dietary supplementation of DCF (P0.05) during the entire experiment. The lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values for egg shell color were similar (P>0.05) in the DCL supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The yellowness (b*), Hue angle (H), chroma (C*) and E* values were lower (P<0.05) in 15 g DFC/kg group when compared with the control. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics amount of DCF were 43.75+-0.680 mmol trolox/kg, 60.03+-3.710 mmol TEAC/kg and 3.16+-0.060 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg, respectively. Based on the results from the current study, the dietary supplementation with dry DCF had adverse effects on productivity performance traits and egg quality. (author)

  4. Improvement of the lactic acid fermentation of capers through an experimental factorial design (Capparis spinosa L)

    OpenAIRE

    Errachidi, F.; M. BENLEMLIH; Douieb, H.

    2010-01-01

    The study of the caper fermentation process through an experiment factorial plan allows us to determine a function ƒ such that (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn)) existing between magnitude Y which is the decrease of pH (called response), and variables Xi , which are brine, lactic acid, citric acid and lactic ferment (called factors). A complete factorial plan 24 was made in order to determine the factors and the interactions among the factors which have a statistically significant influence on the studied...

  5. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product.

  6. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  7. Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae detected by RAPDs

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    Houshang Nosrati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population size of plants affects on population genetic variation. Materials and Methods: We studied the impact of population size on genetic variation in populations of Capparis spinosa (caper, Capparaceae using RAPDs in East Azerbaijan (Iran. Within-population genetic diversity was estimated based on Nei`s and Shanonn`s diversity using Popgen, and genetic similarity among the populations was studied from a UPGMA dendrogram based the matrix of Nei’s distances obtained through SHAN. Difference in the level genetic variation between small-sized and large-sized populations was tested using Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation between geographical and genetic distances among populations was examined by Pearson test (SPSS, 11.3. Total genetic variation was partitioned into within and among populations based on AMOVA using Arlequin. Results: The polymorphism levels of RAPDs bands among the populations ranged from 48.8% to 81.4%, and within-population Nei’s diversity varied from 0.1667 to 0.2630. Genetic variation in small-sized populations (0.1667 to 0.1809 was significantly lower than the variations in large-sized populations (0.2158 -0.2630 (N= 7, P0.674, Pearson correlation test. Conclusions: Population size has a dramatic impact on its genetic diversity. The results revealed that fragmentation of caper population in the study region has most likely occurred recently. The low genetic diversity revealed within caper populations indicates high risk of extinction and suggests that urgent conservation action is needed to recover diversity in these populations.

  8. Cistein proteaza (kaparin) iz kapara (Capparis spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Yasar; Güngör, Azize Alayli; Duran, Elif Duygu; Demir, Nazan

    2008-01-01

    Proteaze su enzimi koji imaju vrlo važnu funkciju u organizmu i razne mogućnosti primjene in vitro. Posljednjih se godina sve više primjenjuju u medicini, farmaciji (u liječenju probavnih tegoba, raznih upala i dr.) i industriji (u proizvodnji sira, mekšanju mesa i štavljenju kože). U ovom je radu opisan postupak pročišćavanja i karakterizacije proteaze iz kapara (Caparis spinosa). Kapare se od davnine koriste kao hrana i u medicinske svrhe, a obilato rastu u nekim dijelovima Turske. Pročišća...

  9. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp.) flower buds

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Musa; Akgül, Attila

    1999-01-01

    Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm) buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm) buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chem...

  10. Some compositional characteristics of capers (Capparis spp, seed and oil

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    Akgül, Attila

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens seeds were evaluated for weight, sizes, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy and crude fiber. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiables and wax were determined in the seed oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic, oleic and linolelc acids. The seeds were rich in protein, oil, and fiber and showed similar composition between then with a high content in unsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that they may be valuable for food uses.

    Se han evaluado semillas Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens por peso, tamaño, humedad, ceniza, proteína cruda, aceite crudo, energía y fibra cruda. Se determinaron en los aceites la densidad relativa, índice de refracción, ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxido, índice de iodo, índice de saponificación, insaponificables y cera. Los principales ácidos grasos identificados por cromatografía gaseosa fueron los ácidos palmítico, oleico y linoleico. Las semillas fueron ricas en proteínas, aceite y fibra y mostraron composiciones similares entre ellas con un alto contenido en ácidos grasos insaturados, sugiriendo que pueden ser utilizadas para usos alimentarios.

  11. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  12. An Examination of the Function of Male Flowers in an Andromonoecious Shrub Capparis spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Dun-Yan Tan

    2009-01-01

    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors.

  13. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M Negahdarizadeh; Mokhtari, M; JM Malekzadeh; J.Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medici...

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

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    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  15. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Wang; Ming-Li Zhang; Lin-Ke Yin

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes ...

  16. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

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    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  17. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Capparis Spinosa Fruit on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile of Diabetic and normal Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rasool Rahmani; Mehdi Mahmoodi; Mehrnaz Karimi; Fateme Hoseini; Rahim Heydari; Mohamadhosein Salehi; Aliakbar Yousefi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder of endocrine glands worldwide. Caper as a medicinal plant has anti-oxidant properties and has been used traditionally to cure diabetes. The aim of present research was to evaluate the effect of 200 and 800 mg/kg of caper fruit extract on blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile in diabetic and normal male rats.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 60 rats were divided into 6 groups randomly, in which three diabetic groups ...

  18. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27314028

  19. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  20. 青藏高原地区刺山柑解剖特征研究%Anatomical Characteristics of Capparis spinosa L.in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 马淼

    2012-01-01

    To further explore the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau plant distinctive physiology structure and its environmental adaptability, the anatomical structures of Capparis spinosa L. from 4 000 m altitude of Zhada in Tibet were studied by the methods of paraffin section. The results showed that the anatomical structure was highly adapted to its environment of mountain desert grassland: periderm of secondary root is developed, the cork is thicker, there is a larger proportion of secondary xylem; There are epidermal hairs and obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems, and also developed collenchyma tissue, pith is narrow in stems; The leaf is isobilateral with multilayer palisade tissues. Dense stomata exists and significant cuticles are existed in epidermis; Corolla is larger with white petals, which is suitable for insect pollination; Parietal placentation with much ovules in each locule, ex-tine is thicker which can resistant to corrosion, acid and alkaline. All of the characteristics of C. spinosa L. described above result from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau stresses of extremely ecological conditions, such as high irradi-ance, cold temperature, low air pressure in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, as well as the adaptations of the C. spinosa L. to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau environments.%采用石蜡切片法对分布于海拔4000 m的西藏札达的刺山柑解剖结构进行研究,进一步探讨青藏高原植物独特生理结构及其与环境的适应性.结果表明刺山柑具有适应高山荒漠草原环境的典型结构特征:次生根周皮发达,具有较厚的木栓层和发达的次生木质部;茎具表皮毛和角质层,皮层较厚,厚角组织发达,髓较小;叶具角质层,气孔密集,栅栏组织多层,为双栅型等面叶;花冠较大,白色花瓣,适于虫媒传粉;侧膜胎座,子房多室,胚珠多数,花粉外壁较厚,具较强的抗腐蚀及抗酸碱性能.刺山柑形成上述结构特征是青藏高原特殊综合生态环境长期作用的结果.同时也

  1. Establishment and Optimization of ISSR-PCR Reaction Systems for Capparis spinosa%药用植物刺山柑ISSR-PCR遗传体系的建立和优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冲; 杨丽; 杨伟俊; 徐建国; 廖晶晶

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity of medicinal plants of Capparis spinosa was researched, and ISSR stable reaction system was established in this study. Plant genomic DNA kit were used for extracting the total DNA of Capparis spinosa; according to the primers the 4 main factors that can affected the PCR amplification will be studied by the orthogonal experimental design, the optimal ISSR reaction was carried out in a volume of 25 /Μl containing 2.5μL 10 × buffer, primer 0.2 μmol/L,template DNA 40 ng/Μl, dNTPs 0.4 mmol/L,Taq DNA polymerase 0. 5 U,obtaining the best annealing temperature of primer U 808 by temperature gradient filter; The ISSR-PCR experiments has given good foundation for further study of Capparis spinosa.%对药用植物刺山柑遗传多样性研究分析,建立了刺山柑ISSR-PCR稳定的反应体系,利用植物基因组试剂盒提取刺山柑药材DNA;根据此引物采用正交实验设计考察影响PCR扩增的4个主要因素,筛选出最佳反应条件:25 μL ISSR-PCR的最佳浓度为10 × buffer 2.5μL、引物0.2μmol/L、模板40 ng/μL、dNTPs 0.4mmol/L、Taq/DNA聚合酶0.SU,利用梯度筛选获得U 808引物最佳退火温度.为利用这一分子标记对药用植物刺山柑进行遗传多样性分析奠定了基础.

  2. Analysis on the Content of Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar in the Fruits of Capparis spinosa L.%刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖含量的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量.[方法]采用3.5-二硝基水杨酸法对刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量进行测定.[结果]应用水提法(100℃)提取的刺山柑果实中还原糖的含量在11.6%左右,提取温度对提取结果有明显影响;刺山柑果实中的总糖含量在24.5%左右.[结论]刺山柑果实中还原糖和总糖含量相对较高,具有较好的开发前景.%[ Objective] To analyze the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Method] 3. 5-two nitro salicylic acid method was chosen to test the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Result ] Results showed that the content of reducing sugar extracted by hot-water( 100 ℃) was about 11. 6% and temperature of water had obvious effect to the results. The content of total sugar was about 24. 5%. [ Conclusion] The reducing sugar and the total sugar were all relatively higher in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. , which indicated that they would have a good development perspective.

  3. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  4. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  5. 维药刺山柑抑制金黄色葡萄球菌生物膜的研究%Effect the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus by Xinjiang Cap-paris spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琦; 吴晔华; 王晓梅; 李雪亮; 谢天宇; 马梦佳; 杨学安; 薛志琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Capparis spinosa. extract on Staphylococcus aureus’biofilm (BF) in vitro, and provide the experimental basis of clinical application. Methods The Capparis spinosa. extract by alcohol extraction was obtained, and the different polarity extracts was obtained by extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol; the Staphylococcus aureus BF in v itro was induced by 96-well plates, the determination of the tube double dilution method was used to measure the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in different extracts/extraction from Cap-paris spinosa., the impact of BF formation for Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. At the same time, the evaluation of its scavenging effect on mature BF was done by detecting the impact of Uyghur medicine Capparis spinosa. extract on the number of living bacterium in mature BF. Results The MIC for Staphylococcus aureus in Capparis spinosa. alcohol extract, petroleum ether extraction, ethyl acetate extracts were 52.50, 50.00, 45.00, 46.25 mg/mL, respectively. When the concentration reached 26.26, 23.13, 25.00, 22.50 mg/mL, alcohol extraction, ethyl acetate and n-butanol samples could inhibit the formation of BF, the number of living bacterium was significantly less than the blank control group, the difference was statistically significant (P0.05), the role of clearing BF of the high concentration of alcohol extract and n-bu-tanol extract was stronger in 24 h, compared with the blank control group, there was significant difference (P 0.05). Conclusion Capparis spinosa. alcohol extract ethyl, ethyl acetate and n-butanol samples can effevtively inhibit the BF’s formation of Staphy-lococcus aureus in vitro. It can also destroy the mature BF.%目的:研究维药刺山柑提取及萃取物对金黄色葡萄球菌体外培养生物膜(BF)形成及清除作用的影响,为进一步开发维药刺山柑的应用价值及临床辅助治疗耐药性感染提供实

  6. 刺山柑多糖提取及其抗炎镇痛作用研究%Research on the Extraction of Polysaccharides in Capparis spinosa L.and anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 张华; 韩博; 陈文

    2011-01-01

    本文主要目的是测定刺山柑中多糖的含量并研究其抗炎镇痛活性.采用水提醇沉法提取多糖,用Sevage法除蛋白、双氧水脱色,并用透析法富集多糖,用苯酚-硫酸显色法测定多糖含量.建立二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀试验模型,观察多糖的抗炎作用;通过醋酸致小鼠扭体试验和热板试验,观察多糖的镇痛作用.经测定,纯化后刺山柑多糖的含量达36.86%;多糖外敷给药对小鼠耳肿胀的抑制率为71.6%;热板镇痛抑制率为50.1%;扭体反应抑制率为44.4%.本文建立的测定多糖含量的方法简便、准确、重现复好;且刺山柑多糖对急性炎症有明显的抑制作用,对热和化学刺激引起的疼痛具有一定的抑制作用.%The aim of this paper is to determine the content of polysaccharides in Capparis spinosa L. and the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides were extracted by water and precipitated by alcohol, using sevage to deprotein and dioxogen to decolor,using dialysis to enrich the polysaccharides and henol-sulphuric acid colorimetry to determine the content of polysaccharides. Xylene-induced mouse ear edema model was established to observe the anti-inflammatory effect; acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate methods were used to observe the analgesic effects. The polysaccharides content reached to 36.86 % after purification; the inhibition rate of auris swellings model in mice,hot-plate test and body contortion were 71.6 %,50.1% and 44.4% respectively. The established method of assaying for polysaccharides is simple,accurate and repeatable. The polysaccharides in Capparis spinosa L. showed obvious anti-inflammatory effects on acute inflammatory reactions.The pains induced by heat and chemical stimulus were significantly relieved.

  7. Study of Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics of Desert Plant Capparis spinosa L%荒漠旱生植物刺山柑的光合生理生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左伟; 马淼; 马智; 高茸茸; 郭艳; 蒋雯雯; 刘静; 田丽丽

    2012-01-01

    对温带荒漠植物生长最为不利的季节是夏季,降水稀少,蒸降比悬殊,高温,强太阳辐射是温带荒漠夏季的显著特征.就荒漠植物对干旱逆境生态适应性的研究虽已有许多报道,但依旧不全面.本文刺山柑为研究对象,利用LI-6400便携式光合作用测定系统分析了刺山柑这一典型夏季生长植物的光合参数日变化特征及光响应曲线、,以了解刺山柑的光合生理生态适应机理以及影响其光合作用的可能因素.研究结果显示:与相同生境类型的荒漠植物疏叶骆驼刺、梭梭及多枝柽柳相比,刺山柑具有较高的气孔导度,蒸腾速率,净光合速率以及较高的水分利用效率.刺山柑从环境中吸收水分能力极强,凭借旺盛的蒸腾作用,不仅可以避免光合作用相关酶系统的钝化,而且可以保证气孔全天开放,确保叶肉细胞间具有足够高的CO2浓度,使其净光合速率得以维持在较高水平.%The most unfavorable season for the growth of temperate desert plants is summer,which is characterized by extremely low amount of precipitation,large gap between evaporation and precipitation, high temperature and strong solar radiation. The researches into ecological adaptation of desert plants to drought stress are still not comprehensive. In this paper,Capparis spinosa L. ,one of the typical desert plants,was employed as the research object. We used LI—6400 portable photosynthesis system in the analysis of diurnal variation of photosynthetic parameters and responses to light,so as to figure out the physiological-ecological adaptation mechanism and the possible factors affecting photosynthesis. Conclusion: Compared with other desert plants found in the similar environmental type like Alhagi sparsifolia , Tamarix ramosissima and Haloxylon ammodendron , Capparis spinosa L. Has higher stomatal conductance (Gs) .transpiration rate (E) ,net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and higher water use efficiency (WUE). It

  8. 维药野西瓜对佐剂性关节炎小鼠治疗效果及机制研究%Research on anti-inflammatory mechanism on the adjuvant arthritis mouse model by Uighur medicine Capparis Spinosa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文涛; 顾仁艳; 王家平; 张秋梅; 刘辉; 陈蓉; 何佳颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the anti-inflamatory effect of Uighur Medicine Capparis Spinosa L.on adjuvant ar-thritis(AA) in mice and to explore its mechanism.Methods 40 male Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Tripterygium wilfordii group ( Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside 0.01mg/kg) and Capparis Spinosa L. group.The mice in every group except blank control group were made into AA models by complete Freund's adju-vant.Blank control group and model group were given normal saline by intragastric administration, and Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were given respective drugs by intragastric administration.The changes of ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone and the level of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum in the mice were observed after 25 days’ intragastric administra-tion.Results After 25 days'intervention with the drugs, compared with model group, ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone of the mice in Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were all improved (P<0.05), there was no signifi-cant difference between the two groups.Conclusion Capparis Spinosa L.has good antiarthritic effects on AA in the mice, the mechanism may be associated with its significantly decreasing effect on the levels of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum.%目的:观察维药野西瓜治疗佐剂性关节炎(AA)小鼠的效果及机制。方法将40只雄性昆明鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、雷公藤组(雷公藤多甙片0.01mg/kg)及野西瓜组。除空白对照组外,其余均采用完全弗氏佐剂制作AA小鼠模型,空白对照组及模型组灌胃生理盐水,雷公藤组和野西瓜组分别灌胃相应药物,连续灌胃25d后,观察各组小鼠足肿胀、足踝关节组织病理变化及血清中白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)表达情况。结果药物干预25d后,与模型组比较,雷公藤组及野西瓜组小鼠足趾肿胀

  9. Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Bous, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting.- This investigation was carried out to assess the taxonomic relationships among eight taxa of the Egyptian members of Capparaceae based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, and to compare the results with those obtained from morphological studies. A total of 46 bands were scored for three RAPD primers corresponding to an average of 15.3 bands per primer. The three primers (A03, A07 and A09 revealed eight polymorphic RAPD markers among the studied taxa ranging in size from 200 bp to 1000 bp. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity varied from 0.28 to 0.84, indicative of high level of genetic variation among the genotypes studied. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated three distinct clusters, one comprised Cleome amblyocarpa and Gynandropsis gynandra, while another included two clusters at 0.74 phenon line; one for Capparis decidua, and the other for Capparis sinaica and all varieties of Capparis spinosa. The four varieties of Capparis spinosa were segregated at 0.84 phenon line. However, one of these varieties was more closely related to Capparis sinaica than to the other three varieties of C. spinosa. The RAPD analysis reported here confirms previous studies based on morphological markers.Consideraciones taxonómicas sobre algunos taxones egipcios de Capparis y géneros relacionados (Capparaceae a partir de RAPDs.- El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar las relaciones taxonómicas entre ocho taxones pertenecientes a las Capparaceae en base a marcadores de tipo RAPD, y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos previamente en estudios morfológicos. Se han contabilizado un total de 46 bandas para tres pares de cebadores, con una media de 15,3 bandas por cebador. Los tres pares de cebadores (A03, A07 y A09 revelan ocho marcadores polimórficos entre los taxones estudiados, de entre 200 y 1000 pares de

  10. Triterpenoid saponins from Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Wieruszeski, J M; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Leroy, Y; Charrouf, M; Fournet, B

    1992-06-01

    Five new oleanane saponins named arganine A, B, D, E and F and two known saponins: arganine C and mi-saponin A were isolated from the kernel of Argania spinosa. The structures of these saponins were elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, 13C NMR, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence. PMID:1368219

  11. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  12. The Panacea Plants for Environment and Humanity: Caper and Ritha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadim YEMİŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caper and Ritha are plants which have very important effects on both living beings and natural habitat. They are used in many areas like medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and agriculture because of their positive features. Caper is compatible with the Mediterranean ecosystem and resistant to drought and high-salinity. When compared to the other most plants, it can remain green for a long time without water even in the summer season. Due to this magnificent property, this plant is effectively used for environmental protection. It has been reported that Caper contains biologically active compounds such as glucosinolates, alkoloids, phenolics, flavonoid, tocopherol and minerals such as sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron. Ritha grows in Asia’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. It contributes to the environment like Caper because, it has ability to capture the chemical pollution from the soil. So, it helps to improve the quality and efficiency of the land by holding heavy metals like mercury, iron and zinc in the leaves and grabbing lead and cadmium in its fruits. Moreover, it biologically decomposes injurious organic molecules such as hexachlorobenzene and naphthalene. Furthermore, the nectar of Ritha can kill the flies and larvae of Southern cattle mite’s species called Boophilus microplus.

  13. Fighting organized crime through open source intelligence: regulatory strategies of the CAPER Project

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; ARRAIZA, Juan; Melero, Felipe; González-Conejero, Jorge; Molcho, Gila; Cuadros, Montse

    2014-01-01

    OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organised crime. We offer in this paper an overall view of some results, embedding into the system legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe. We briefly describe CAPER architecture, workflow, functionalities, modules and ontologies (European LEAs Interoperability ELIO, and Multi-Lingual Crime Ontology MCO). This paper is focused on th...

  14. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  15. "The Strawberry Caper": Using Scenario-Based Problem Solving to Integrate Middle School Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Rebecca L.; DeHart, Kyle; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Legg, Alison Slinskey

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a deep understanding of the many topics covered in middle school biology classes is difficult for many students. One way to help students learn these topics is through scenario-based learning, which enhances students' performance. The scenario-based problem-solving module presented here, "The Strawberry Caper," not only…

  16. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; P. Narasimha Murthy

    2009-01-01

    Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are ma...

  17. CAPER 3.0: A Scalable Cloud-Based System for Data-Intensive Analysis of Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Xinlei; Diao, Lihong; Guo, Feifei; Wang, Dan; Liu, Zhongyang; Li, Honglei; Zheng, Junjie; Pan, Jingshan; Nice, Edouard C; Li, Dong; He, Fuchu

    2015-09-01

    The Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) aims to catalog genome-encoded proteins using a chromosome-by-chromosome strategy. As the C-HPP proceeds, the increasing requirement for data-intensive analysis of the MS/MS data poses a challenge to the proteomic community, especially small laboratories lacking computational infrastructure. To address this challenge, we have updated the previous CAPER browser into a higher version, CAPER 3.0, which is a scalable cloud-based system for data-intensive analysis of C-HPP data sets. CAPER 3.0 uses cloud computing technology to facilitate MS/MS-based peptide identification. In particular, it can use both public and private cloud, facilitating the analysis of C-HPP data sets. CAPER 3.0 provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to help users transfer data, configure jobs, track progress, and visualize the results comprehensively. These features enable users without programming expertise to easily conduct data-intensive analysis using CAPER 3.0. Here, we illustrate the usage of CAPER 3.0 with four specific mass spectral data-intensive problems: detecting novel peptides, identifying single amino acid variants (SAVs) derived from known missense mutations, identifying sample-specific SAVs, and identifying exon-skipping events. CAPER 3.0 is available at http://prodigy.bprc.ac.cn/caper3.

  18. A Study On Antipyretic Activity Of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Plant Methanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiya Ranjan Padhan,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of the present work was to study the antipyretic activity of plant Capparis zeylanica Linn. belonging to family Capparaceae, known as “Karambha” in Sanskrit & “Asadhua” in Oriya. Materials & Methods - The Methanolic extract was taken for the study and evaluated for antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wister strain albino rats. The methanolic extract at a dose of 100mg/kg & 200mg/kg were evaluated for antipyretic activity. Result - The extract of C. zeylanica plant showed a significant (P < 0.01 dose dependent antipyretic effect in yeast induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. Conclusion - The Methanolic extract of Capparis. zeylanica Linn. plant have significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So. It can be recommended for further studies.

  19. Ethnoeconomical, ethnomedical, and phytochemical study of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Guillaume, D

    1999-10-01

    Populations of the South-western part of Morocco traditionally use the fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels to prepare an edible oil whose obtainment furnishes, as side product, a cake used to feed the cattle and complemented the forage furnished by the leaves and fruits of this same plant. However, the wood of A. spinosa is also used for fuel and the subsequent induced deforestation is nowadays accelerated since populations are generally eager to replace argan-groves by cultures of higher and immediate benefits. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed by several agencies to slow down the desert progress in Northern Africa. In order to promote argan tree reintroduction by the South-western Morocco dwellers, a program aimed to increase the industrial value of A. spinosa is currently carried out in Morocco. A phytochemical study is included in this program. Traditional knowledge as well as the most recent results concerning A. spinosa are described in this review.

  20. Ethnoeconomical, ethnomedical, and phytochemical study of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Guillaume, D

    1999-10-01

    Populations of the South-western part of Morocco traditionally use the fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels to prepare an edible oil whose obtainment furnishes, as side product, a cake used to feed the cattle and complemented the forage furnished by the leaves and fruits of this same plant. However, the wood of A. spinosa is also used for fuel and the subsequent induced deforestation is nowadays accelerated since populations are generally eager to replace argan-groves by cultures of higher and immediate benefits. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed by several agencies to slow down the desert progress in Northern Africa. In order to promote argan tree reintroduction by the South-western Morocco dwellers, a program aimed to increase the industrial value of A. spinosa is currently carried out in Morocco. A phytochemical study is included in this program. Traditional knowledge as well as the most recent results concerning A. spinosa are described in this review. PMID:10616955

  1. Taxonomy and morphology of Salvia spinosa L. (Lamiaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and morphology of 42 Salvia spinosa L. accessions (Lamiaceae were studied in Iran. This species had a high morphological diversity which was related to the hair frequency and indumentum of base and surface of stem, form of leaf, leaf margin and leaf apex, leaf indumentum, form of bracts margin, dimension and color of bracteole, calyx length, style length, form and color of nutlet. Using the cluster analysis based on Euclidian Distance Coefficient and SPSS V.11.5 software the infra-specific relationships were determined. The results of cluster analysis showed diversity among the accessions of this species. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the morphological variability in this species might be due to the polymorphism, hybridization and new varieties. Consequently, the morphological characters of Iranian accessions of Salvia spinosa have been described and designed in details.

  2. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  3. Micro-channel catalytic reactor integration in CAPER and research/development on highly tritiated water handling and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAPER facility of the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe has demonstrated the technology for the tokamak exhaust processing. CAPER has been significantly upgraded to pursue research/development programs towards highly tritiated water (HTW) handling and processing. The preliminary tests using a metal oxide reactor producing HTW afterward de-tritiated with PERMCAT were successful. In a later stage, a micro-channel catalytic reactor was installed in view of long term research program on HTW. The integration of this new system in CAPER was carried out along with a careful safety analysis due to high risk associated with such experiments. First experiments using the μ-CCR were performed trouble free, and HTW up to 360 kCi/kg was produced at a rate of 0.5 g/h. Such HTW was collected into a platinum zeolite bed (2 g of HTW for 20 g of Pt-zeolite), and in-situ detritiation was performed via isotopic exchange with deuterium. These first experimental results with tritium confirmed the potential for the capture and exchange method to be used for HTW in ITER. (authors)

  4. Triterpenoid saponins from the shells of Argania spinosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Asma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Soufiaoui, Mohamed; Carbone, Virginia; Malorni, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2002-07-31

    Two new oleanene saponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the shell of Argania spinosa. They possess protobassic acid and 16alpha-protobassic acid as aglycons. The disaccharide moiety linked to C-3 of the aglycon is made up of two glucose units; the pentasaccharide moiety linked to C-28 is made up of arabinose, xylose, and three rhamnose units. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H (DQF-COSY, 1D TOCSY, and 2D HOHAHA) and (1)H-(13)C (HSQC and HMBC) spectroscopy along with mass spectrometry. PMID:12137482

  5. Retrieval in a Computer-assisted Pathology Encoding and Reporting System (CAPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, S J; Altshuler, B S; Chen, H Y

    1981-05-01

    A previous report described an online computer-assisted pathology encoding and reporting system (CAPER) developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital that accessions specimens, monitors their state of completion, produces all log books, and permits instantaneous display of all diagnoses rendered within a three-year period. The present report updates the functions currently available and describes a new function that enables the pathologist, independent of computer programmer support, to request complex, in-depth searches of the entire accumulated pathology data base, which at present contains in excess of 150,000 cases and 5,000,000 pieces of information. The pathologist can instruct the system to compare more than 30 types of data items through the development of Boolean expressions. The report also describes the test codes that were developed to reflect the work product of the surgical pathology division, form the basis for automated billing and compilation of monthly and yearly statistics, and are an integral part of the long-term data base for in-depth searches.

  6. In-vitro cytotoxic activity of β-Sitosterol triacontenate isolated from Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Permender Rathee; Dharmender Rathee; Deepti Rathee; Sushila Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the isolation and characterization of the constituent responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extract of stem ofCapparis decidua (C. decidua).Methods:The preliminary cytotoxic effect of isolated compound (β-Sitosterol triacontenate) was investigated byMTT assay onA549 solid tumor cells.Results:IC50 value of the β-Sitosterol triacontenate was found to be 1 μM. The cytotoxic activity increased in a dose dependent manner in case of β-Sitosterol triacontenate.Conclusions: The data therefore provide direct evidence for the role of β-Sitosterol triacontenate as a potent antimetastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of malignant cells.

  7. Selection of Reference Genes in Saccharopolyspora Spinosa for Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传波; 薛超友; 申月琪; 卢文玉

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR)combined with the published genome information of Saccharopolyspora spinosa can allow sophisticated studies about S. spinosa, including studying the regulation of spinosyn biosynthesis, finding new target genes for engineering, and discovering and exploiting other macrolide secondary metabolites. Studies have demonstrated that appropriate internal control is needed to normalize target genes at transcription levels. However, many studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for all strains under all experimental conditions. Thus, eight candidate reference genes of three different S. spinosa strains in two different cultures were studied to find suitable reference gene(s). The number of amplification cycles of these candidate genes was calculated by BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. The results indicated that the most suitable reference genes for normalization during the fermentation of S. spinosa were 16S rRNA and rbL13.

  8. Protective effect of saponins from Argania spinosa against free radical-induced oxidative haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzal, H; Alaoui, K; Tok, S; Errachidi, A; Charof, R; Cherrah, Y; Benjouad, A

    2008-07-01

    Saponins from Argania spinosa at a non-haemolytic concentration diminish by 53.2% erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals. 2 mM aspirin and acetaminophen diminish by 75% and 68% , respectively, erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals, while 0.3 microM vitamin E shows no significant antioxidant activity. Interestingly, a combination of 1 mg/l of A. spinosa saponins and vitamin E at 0.3 microM resulted in a 68% level of protection against free radical-induced erythrocyte haemolysis, which may suggest that A. spinosa saponins enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. In contrast, no synergic effect was observed for acetaminophen (2 mM) when in combination with vitamin E (0.3 microM). These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of saponins from A. spinosa and their ability to potentate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. PMID:18514434

  9. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration. PMID:9805821

  10. In vitro establishment of Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC / Estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2009-07-01

    manufactured by the company Cimplast Ltda and used by the industry Milênia Agro Ciência S.A. had been analyzed so that later, based in already carried trough studies in design, packing, ergonomics, anatomy and usability, a guide can be produce destined to the industries that produce this type of packing, so, by means of theoretical support , these companies can produce packing bottles that could adapt better to the user or could reformulate the existing models. For the production of the content of the guide some bibliographical references and technical norms directed to these packing bottles had been overcome. Later a research of field with the potential users was carried out, which it could confirm or refute the referring hypotheses to the usability raised initially. After the evaluation of the ergonomic problems presents in these packing bottles, tables of contents for better illustrate the research had been produced and, later, the data had been questioned based in the theoretical referential. The guide, which is the final product of this work, will bring important and scientifically based information, with simple and practical language, aiming to facilitate for the industries the process of production of the packing bottles, therefore although the data contained in it is available in literatures the companies make use of little time for research.Com o objetivo de desenvolver um protocolo para o estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa a partir de diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA, foram utilizados como explantes, ápices caulinares de plantas provenientes do campo, desinfestados com solução de Saniagri® 33% v/v, durante 15 minutos e posteriormente pulverizados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio 1% v/v. O meio utilizado foi o Murashige e Skoog com a concentração de sacarose reduzida para 5g L-1. As concentrações de 6-BA foram: 0,0 mg L-1, 0,5 mg L-1, 1,0 mg L-1, 1,5 mg L-1, 2,0 mg L-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Patra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12, 23(24-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β--sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds

  12. Chemical Constituents from the Seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei LI; Xun LIAO; Shu-Lin PENG; Li-Sheng DING

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive minor components from traditional Chinese medicines, a new compound, named jujuphenoside (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphusjujuba var. spinosa (Bunge)Hu. The structure of jujuphenoside was elucidated by spectral and chemical methods, particularly twodimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, 22 known compounds were also isolated and identified from the seeds of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, among which, epiceanothic acid (2) was first obtained from natural resources, whereas compounds 7-16 were first obtained from this plant.

  13. Extraction and Pharmacological Evaluation of Some Extracts of Tridax procumbens and Capparis decidua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Free and bound flavonoids of different parts of Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae and Capparis decidua Forsk (Edgew (Capparaceae have been studied for their antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion assay, against two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 46 and Proteus mirabilis MTCC 425, one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87, and a fungi (Candida albicans MTCC 183. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was evaluated by micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/ fungicidal concentration determined by subculturing the relevant samples.  Both plants exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Free and bound flavonoids of T. procumbens flowers and C. decidua stem were found to be more potent. C. albicans was found to be most susceptible organism followed by S. aureus, P. mirabilis, and E. coli. Among 14 extracts tested, 12 were found to be active, while 2 extracts showed no activity at tested concentration. Total activity (TA was calculated for the extracts, to relate MIC of the extracts with its amount isolated from 1 g dried plant part. Results of the present study indicate that T. procumbens and C. decidua can be exploited for future antimicrobial drugs.   Industrial relevance: Adverse effects of popular antibiotics and multidrug resistant strains of pathogens have lead rapid search for new antimicrobials. Because of the long history of plants in the treatment of different human ailments, most of the herbal drugs are believed to be safer than the synthetic drugs with no side effects; therefore medicinal plants have gained more importance as possible source of alternative and effective drugs. Plants and natural products remain as an untapped reservoir of potentially useful chemical compounds not only as drugs but also as unique templates that could serve as a starting point for synthetic analogues. Over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural product origin and

  14. Amino phenolics from the fruit of the argan tree Argania spinosa (Skeels L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, D; Khallouki, Farid; Owen, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic-type compound containing a nitrogenous, heterocyclic-fused ring from the fruit of the argan tree, Argania spinosa (Skeels L.), is described. This and another already known compound also isolated in the course of the work belong to an obscure and rare class of natural products, the amino phenolics. PMID:25711036

  15. Amino phenolics from the fruit of the argan tree Argania spinosa (Skeels L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, D; Khallouki, Farid; Owen, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic-type compound containing a nitrogenous, heterocyclic-fused ring from the fruit of the argan tree, Argania spinosa (Skeels L.), is described. This and another already known compound also isolated in the course of the work belong to an obscure and rare class of natural products, the amino phenolics.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana P Sant'Anna; Nascimento da Silva, Luís C; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque S; de Araújo, Janete M; Correia, Maria T Dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera L de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Due to the use of Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleomaceae) in traditional medicine against inflammatory and infectious processes, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of extracts from its roots and leaves. From leaves (L) and roots (R) of C. spinosa different extracts were obtained (cyclohexane: ChL and ChR; chloroform: CL and CR; ethyl acetate: EAL and EAR, methanol: ML and MR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal (MMC) concentrations against 17 species, including bacteria and yeasts. Additionally, antimicrobial and combinatory effects with oxacillin were assessed against eight clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. All C. spinosa extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, as they have inhibited all tested bacteria and yeasts. This activity seems to be related to the phytochemicals (flavonoid, terpenoids and saponins) detected into the extracts of C. spinosa. ChL and CL extracts were the most actives, with MIC less than 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus. It is important to note that these concentrations are much lower than their 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50) values. Strong correlations were found between the average MIC against S. aureus and their phenolic (r = -0.89) and flavonoid content (r = -0.87), reinforcing the possible role of these metabolite classes on the antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa derived extracts. Moreover, CL and CR showed the best inhibitory activity against S. aureus clinical isolates, they also showed synergistic action with oxacillin against all these strains (at least at one combined proportion). These results encourage the identification of active substances which could be used as lead(s) molecules in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27446005

  17. POTENCIAL BIOINSETICIDA DE UM INIBIDOR DE TRIPSINA DE SEMENTES DE Capparis flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Yumi Sasaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Buscando aperfeiçoar a produção agrícola sem o uso excessivo de fertilizantes químicos e agrotóxicos, a biotecnologia trouxe como alternativa a utilização de inibidores de proteinases como bioinseticida no controle de insetos-pragas. Neste trabalho foi avaliado o potencial inseticida de um inibidor extraído de sementes de Capparis flexuosa. Além de, sua ação sobre as larvas de A. kuehniella, através de ensaios in vitro e bioensaios em dietas artificiais. Na eletroforese SDS-PAGE foi visualizada uma banda com peso de 22 kDa em todas as amostras, sugerindo que o inibidor seja da família Kunitz, fato que foi confirmado pela coloração negativa do gel. O efeito do inibidor in vitro sobre as enzimas digestivas de larvas de 4º instar de A. kuehniella, na presença do substrato BapNA, demonstrou inibição de 77 % na presença de 6 µgP do inibidor. O efeito do inibidor in vitro sobre as enzimas do tipo tripsina de larvas de 4º instar de A. kuehniella, na presença do substrato BapNA, demonstrou inibição de 77% na presença de 6 µgP do inibidor. No bioensaio, uma dieta contendo inibidor semi-purificado a 1% e 2%, foi oferecida às larvas de lepidópteros. Não foi verificada alteração as sobre a sobrevivência larval em nenhum tratamento. No entanto, houve diferença significativa no peso médio larval, com uma redução de 69% em dieta contendo 2% de CfSP. Também foi verificado alteração nos parâmetros dos índices nutricionais, demonstrando dificuldade do inseto em sobrepujar os efeitos do inibidor. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o inibidor de C. flexuosa apresenta capacidade em inibir enzimas do tipo tripsina, apresentado efeito anti-tríptico sobre as enzimas de A. kuehniella. Adicionalmente, possui propriedades tóxicas sobre as larvas de A. kuehniella alimentadas, tendo a capacidade de alterar os índices nutricionais e o peso larval.

  18. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sadraei, H.; Ghanadian, M.; Asghari, G.; Azali, N.

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice...

  19. Soil Microbial Population in the Vicinity of the Bean Caper(Zygophyllum dumosum) Root Zone in a Desert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gain a better understanding of the changes in soil microbial biomass and basal respiration dynamics in the vicinity of the bean caper (Zygophyllum dumosum) perennial desert shrub and the inter-shrub sites. Microbial biomasses as well as basal respiration were found to be significantly greater in the soil samples taken beneath the Z. dumosum shrubs than from the inter-shrub sampling sites, with no differences between the two sampling layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) throughout the study period. However, seasonal changes were observed due to autumn dew formation, which significantly affected microbial biomass and basal respiration in the upper-layer inter-shrub locations.The calculated metabolic coefficient (qCO2) revealed significant differences between the two sampling sites as well as between the two soil layers, elucidating the abiotic effect between the sites throughout the study period. The substrate availability index was found to significantly demonstrate the differences between the two sites, elucidating the significant contribution of Z. dumosum in food source availability and in moderating harsh abiotic components. The importance of basal microbial parameters and the derived indices as tools demonstrated the importance and need for basic knowledge in understanding plant-soil interactions determined by an unpredictable and harsh desert environment.

  20. Some secrets of Argania spinosa water economy in a semiarid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Esquivias, Mari Paz; Boutaleb, Said; Valera-Burgos, Javier; Tagma, Tarek; Ain-Lhout, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa is an example of an avoider tree growing under semi-arid conditions in Morocco. To assess what are the physiological strategies of this species, different variables were measured through an annual cycle in two populations located in the species' main distribution area. Results show the expected decrease of leaf water potential (psi) with an increase of water-use efficiency (A/gs) with the onset of the dry season. In summer, leaf conductance (g(s)) was sensitive to vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and stomatal closure occurred over 30 mbar of VPD. Surprisingly, carbon isotope discrimination (delta13C) maintained very low values over the year, with almost no relationship with any physiological or morphological variable. Hence Argania spinosa presents a complex set of mechanisms to avoid water deficit, but delta13C cannot be used as an ecological tracer of long term WUE. PMID:23472449

  1. Antipyretic and antimicrobial potential of Sida spinosa linn. aqueous root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer Ahmed Mannasaheb

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antipyretic and antimicrobial potential of Sida spinosa Linn. Aqueous root extract was evaluated using aspirin and chloramphenicol as standard drugs.Materials and methods: Roots were collected and extracted with water. The doses of the extract selected were 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, according to OECD guidelines. Antipyretic potential was evaluated in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats along with Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion technique.Results: Aqueous extract demonstrated highly significant (P<0.01 antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. Maximum attenuation (65.73% at 3h was observed at 400mg/kg o.p.Antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aeruginosa, was carried out. All microbes were sensitive and activity was concentration dependent.Conclusion: Sida spinosa Linn. root possesses potent antipyretic and antimicrobial activity and has therapeutic potential.

  2. 紫外分光光度法测定酸枣仁中总黄酮的含量%Quantitative Determination of Total Flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by UV Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会军; 李萍

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine the total flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.METHOD: Using detection wavelength at 335 nm and spinosin as standard, a simple and reproducible UV spectrophotometry was developed to determine total flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae from different sources. CONCLUSION: This method proved to be feasible for evaluating the quality of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

  3. Insulin-sensitizing and Anti-proliferative Effects of Argania spinosa Seed Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Samane; Josette Noël; Zoubida Charrouf; Hamid Amarouch; Pierre Selim Haddad

    2006-01-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measu...

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmina El Bahloul; Nicolas Dauchot; Ikrame Machtoun; Fatima Gaboun; Pierre Van Cutsem

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-hig...

  5. Comparative reproductive effort and fecundity in the spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa (Majoidea, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pisani, Ximena; Greco, Laura López

    2014-04-01

    A comparative analysis of reproductive effort, fecundity, and egg weight was conducted in two species of spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa, during one-year period. Ovigerous females were collected from Patagonia-Argentina (42°56'S, 64°21'W) and were measured (CW = carapace width). Each egg brood was weighed, dried and the number of eggs (F = fecundity) counted. Scatterplots of relative fecundity (RF = F/CW) were submitted to regression analyses. Mean F and RF was calculated for each season to assess seasonal variation of reproductive intensity. Mean F was 35,000 eggs in L. tuberculosus and 30,000 eggs in L. spinosa, with these values being intermediate in comparison with other Majoidea. The RF was approximately 18% higher in L. tuberculosus that presented an average dry weight egg 45% less than L. spinosa. Although in both species F showed a positive correlation with CW, less than the 20% of the variation in the number of eggs could be explained by female's size, suggesting there are other factors that influence F. The proportion of body energy devoted to reproduction (reproductive effort), exhibited significant differences between species. In Leurocyclus tuberculosus reproductive activity is significantly different along the 12-month suggesting that the conditions for 'optimal' egg production change throughout the year. In Libinia spinosa mean fecundity did not reveal significant differences over seasons. These results are central in studies of life-history theory and in the development of life history models, as it is directly related to energy allocation and partitioning.

  6. Determination of adenosine in fruit of Capparis spinosa L.with RP-HPLC%反相高效液相法测定刺山柑果中腺苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓英; 陈强; 孙芸

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立刺山柑果中腺苷含量的测定方法.方法:色谱柱:Polaris(C18-A 250min×4.6mm,5μm,AB17),流动相∶甲醇∶水(15∶85),检测波长:260nm,流速1.0mL/min,柱温:30℃.结果:回归方程为Y=206997300X+113157.8(r=0.9991 n=5),平均回收率为104.6%,RSD=4.51%,腺苷的含量为36.61mg/Kg(RSD=2.89%,n=5).结论:本法简捷、准确,适用于刺山柑果中腺苷的含量测定.

  7. Structural investigation of hemicellulosic polysaccharides from Argania spinosa: characterisation of a novel xyloglucan motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Bimalendu; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Lange, Catherine; Condamine, Eric; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice

    2004-01-22

    Hemicellulose polymers were isolated from Argania spinosa leaf cell walls by sequential extractions with alkali. The structure of the two main polymers, xylan and xyloglucan, was investigated by enzyme degradation with specific endoglycosidases followed by analysis of the resulting fragments by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results show that A. spinosa xylan is composed of a beta-(1-->4)-linked-D-xylopyranose backbone substituted with 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid residues. Xyloglucan oligosaccharide subunits were generated by treatment with an endo-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucanase of the xyloglucan-rich hemicellulosic fractions. MALDI-TOF mass spectra and HPAE-PAD chromatography of the pool of endoglucanase-generated xyloglucan oligomers indicated that A. spinosa cell wall contains a XXXG-type xyloglucan. In addition to XXXG, XXFG, XLXG/XXLG, XLFG fragments previously characterised in various plants, a second group of XXXG-type fragments was detected. The primary structure of the major subunit was determined by a combination of sugar analysis, methylation analysis, post-source decay (PSD) fragment analysis of MALDI-TOF MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy. This fragment, termed XUFG, contains a novel beta-D-Xylp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp side chain linked to C-6 of the second glucose unit from the nonreducing end of the cellotetraose sequence. PMID:14698877

  8. Isolation and identification of bioactive antibacterial components in leaf extracts of Vangueria spinosa (Rubiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soroj Kumar Chatterjee; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The column chromatographic fraction of ethyl acetate (EA1, EA2, EA3, EA4 and EA5) leaf extracts of Vangueria spinosa (V. spinosa) were screened for antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Methods: EA3 fraction was isolated and identified by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, spectral data analysis and phytochemical screening were used for analysis. Results: EA3 fraction was significantly active at 4 to 64 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5625 to 3.1250 mg/mL. The active fraction (EA3) revealed the presence of flavonoid with retention factor value (Rf) of 0.39. The active antibacterial agent in the most potent fraction (EA3) was isolated and identified as flavonoid (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and phytochemical screening. EA1 and EA2 show inhibitory activity at 4 to 64 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus only where as fraction EA4 and EA5 do not shows any inhibitory activity within that range of concentration against any bacteria. Conclusions: The results support the ethnomedicinal use of leaf of V. spinosa for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

  9. The Development of SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE Yoghourt%酸枣仁酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云月英; 王国泽; 柳青; 王文龙

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The research aimed to develop a yoghourt drink of SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE. [ Method] A yoghourt drink was developed and produced with SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE and fresh milk as main raw materials and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in a 1:1 volume ratio as mixed fermentation strains, the optimum technological parameters of which were determined through studies on processing techniques. [Result] The optimum process was as follows: serous fluids were prepared from SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE and its 6 volumes of water, and then mixed with fresh milk in a 1:4 volume ratio as fermentation broth. After adding 9% granulated sugar, 5% milk powder and 4% starter, Let it ferment at 42 ℃ until fermentation broth was made into curds, and then the milk products were obtained. [ Conclusion] SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE yoghourt of high quality could be developed under the optimum conditions.%[目的]研制(SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE)酸枣仁酸奶饮品.[方法]以酸枣仁、鲜牛奶为主要原材料,以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌1:1为混合发酵菌种,对生产工艺进行研究,确定最佳的工艺参数.[结果]酸枣仁酸奶最佳工艺流程为:酸枣仁与6倍体积的水混合后打浆得到的酸枣仁浆液,酸枣仁浆液与鲜牛奶混合比例为1:4(WV)得待发酵液.此时加入砂糖、乳粉和发酵剂,砂糖的添加量为9%,乳粉的加入量为5%,接种量为4%,42℃下发酵至其凝乳,得酸乳产品.[结论]在最佳工艺条件下可得到品质优良的酸枣仁酸奶.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  12. Structure elucidation of three triterpene glycosides from the trunk of Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulad-Ali, A; Kirchner, V; Lobstein, A; Weniger, B; Anton, R; Guillaume, D; Charrouf, Z

    1996-02-01

    The structures of three novel saponins from Argania spinosa, named arganines G, H, and J, have been elucidated by MS and NMR techniques as 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylbayogenin (1), 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-alpha- L- arabinopyranosylbayogenin (2), and 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O- [beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L - rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]bayogenin (3), respectively. PMID:8991953

  13. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  14. Sida spinosa L., S. rhombifolia L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke adventief op lelievelden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerse, Fons A.I.; Verrijdt, Toon A.L.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    In september 2005 werd Sida rhombifolia L. aangetroffen in een lelieveld. In de vier jaar daarna zijn in dergelijke velden ook drie andere Malvaceeën aangetroffen: Sida spinosa L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke. Deze vier soorten komen wijd verspreid voor in de (sub)trop

  15. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bahloul, Yasmina; Dauchot, Nicolas; Machtoun, Ikrame; Gaboun, Fatima; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. • Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. • Conclusions: The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species. PMID:25202614

  16. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Moroccan Endemic Endangered Species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina El Bahloul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA15, (GTA8, and (TTC8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. Conclusions: The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species.

  17. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant. PMID:27630052

  18. Review on the Application of Capparis in Garden and Park Greening%山柑属植物在园林绿化中的应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付涌玉

    2011-01-01

    The application of Capparis in garden and park was classified and summed up through systematic literature investigation and their resource type, ornamental characteristics and application were reviewed. The results showed that Capparis possessed resource types of check winds and fix drifting sand, medicinal, edible and feeding and ornamental characteristics of flower, fruit and tree, so they could be applied in aspects of greening desert and drought area, greening specific medicinal botanical graden and vertical greening of garden and park.%通过系统文献调研,对山柑属植物的园林应用进行分类归纳,并对该属植物的资源类型、观赏特性及应用进行了综述.结果表明,山柑属植物具有防风固沙、药用、食用、饲用等资源类型和观花、观果、观树等观赏特性,可用于荒漠与干旱区绿化、药用植物专类园绿化和园林垂直绿化等方面.

  19. Embryology of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus (H. Milne-Edwards & Lucas 1842) and Libinia spinosa (H. Milne-Edwards 1834) (Brachyura, Majoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pisani, Ximena; Gaspar Dellatorre, Fernando; López-Greco, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The embryonic development of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa was divided into five periods based on the differentiation of: (I) cleavage, (II) embryonic primordium, III) optic lobes, (IV) optic lobes pigmented and (V) chromatophores presence. Different traits such as spines, setae and telson morphology distinguish the two species from period III until hatching. Egg volume was greater in Leurocyclus tuberculosus than in Libinia spinosa. The duration of each period was different during development. Whereas in Leurocyclus tuberculosus period II (morphogenesis) is the longest, in Libinia spinosa the period IV is the longest. Complete embryonic development at 14'C lasted 36.7 +/- 3.1 days in Leurocyclus tuberculosus and 57.4 +/- 4.4 days in Libinia spinosa.

  20. Hplc-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the water-soluble extract from Ziziphi spinosae semen and its ameliorating effect of learning and memory performance in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yanqing Zhang; Longdong Qiao; Mengyuan Song; Lijuan Wang; Junbo Xie; Hua Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS), the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chow., is a traditional herb for insomnia and anxiety in eastern Asia. However, few researches have been concerned with its effect on ameliorating memory and learning performance. Objective: To investigate the constituents of ZSS water soluble extract and its ameliorating learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: A new high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass...

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Moluccella spinosa L. (Lamiaceae) collected wild in Sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Jemia, Mariem Ben; Riccobono, Luana; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Moluccella spinosa L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. spinosa L. were α-pinene (26.6%), caryophyllene oxide (16.8%) and β-caryophyllene (8.6%). A comparison with other studied oils of genus Moluccella is made. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical textiles were also determined. PMID:25554361

  2. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  3. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.

  4. Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect of argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) in Meriones shawi rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, H; Ettaib, A; Herrera Gonzalez, M D; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Bennani-Kabchi, N; Hmamouchi, M

    2003-11-01

    The potential health benefits of various dietary oils in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer are recently receiving considerable attention. The main proposal of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary argan oil, obtained from seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) endemic from Morocco, on serum lipids composition. Hyperlipidemia was induced by high calorie and cholesterol (HCC) diet administration in 16 rats (Meriones shawi, a rodent of the Gerbillideae family). Eight rats were treated with argan oil (1ml/100g weight) daily by oral route during 7 weeks (treated group). Control animals were also fed with HCC diet for 7 weeks. After 7-week treatment with argan oil, blood lipoproteins were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol decreased with 36.67% (Pargan oil in the treatment of the hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. This effect will be related with the polyunsaturated fatty acids and other constituents of studied oil.

  5. Germination success and seedling development of Argania spinosa under different climatic conditions and browsing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, María; Jáuregui, Juan; Ain-Lhout, Fatima; Boutaled, Said; Alvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Esquivias, Maripaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study assesses whether the germination and establishment success of Argania spinosa seeds are affected by the environmental conditions under which the mother plant has grown. Seeds from three populations with different climatic conditions and herbivory intensity were collected and sown in the laboratory after different treatments. Our study suggests that the seed germination process and initial stages of seedling growth are adaptive. Seeds from the population of Agadir with the highest herbivory pressure and high air relative humidity in summer (due to the proximity to the sea) were stimulated by acid treatment, and showed a lower root/stem ratio, which allows them to take advantage of the atmospheric water resources. Seeds from the Mountain population, where the most arid environmental conditions were found, produced early-germinating seeds with the highest root/stem ratio that would facilitate seedling establishment when the harshest environmental conditions appear in summer. PMID:23472450

  6. Isolation and characterization of xylans from seed pericarp of Argania spinosa fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Youssef; Vignon, Michel R

    2005-05-23

    Hemicellulose-type polysaccharides were isolated from the pericarp of seeds of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels fruit by sequential alkaline extractions and fractionated by precipitation. Water soluble and water insoluble fractions were obtained, purified and characterized by sugar analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The water soluble fractions were assumed to be (4-O-methyl-D-glucurono)-D-xylans, with 4-O-methyl-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid groups linked to C-2 of a (1-->4)-beta-D-xylan. The 1H NMR spectrum showed that the water soluble xylans have, on average, one non-reducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid for every seven xylose units. The water insoluble fractions consisted of a neutral xylan with linear (1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl units. PMID:15854618

  7. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product. PMID:20614829

  8. Climatic conditions and herbivory effects on morphological plasticity of Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain-Lhout, Fatima; Zunzunegui, María; Díaz Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Tagma, Tarik; Boutaleb, Said

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to look into the morphological differentiation patterns and phenotypic plasticity in four populations of Argania spinosa with environmentally contrasted conditions. Mean response, magnitude and pattern of morphological intra- and inter-population plasticity indexes were measured and analyzed in order to identify which characters contribute the most to the acclimation of this species. Populations growing in the ecological optimum of the species presented the lowest plasticity, while those growing in the most stressed habitats showed an increased morphological variability. The study of four populations showed that human pressure seems to play an important function in the regulation of morphological characters. However, climatic conditions seem to play a significant role in the increase of morphological plasticity. PMID:23472448

  9. Six new cassane diterpenes from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongyang; Li, Yuanping; Tang, Hongbo; Ma, Ruijing; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Liqin

    2015-09-01

    Six new cassane diterpenes, isoneocaesalpin H (1), caespinosin A (2), caespinosin B (3), a cassane diterpene with unique 6/6/7 carbon rings, and caespinosins C-E (4-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze). The absolute configuration of isoneocaesalpin H (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 represents a class of rare natural cassane diterpene bearing unique 6/6/7 carbon rings. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Cassane diterpenes were firstly reported from Tara. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  10. Six new cassane diterpenes from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongyang; Li, Yuanping; Tang, Hongbo; Ma, Ruijing; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Liqin

    2015-09-01

    Six new cassane diterpenes, isoneocaesalpin H (1), caespinosin A (2), caespinosin B (3), a cassane diterpene with unique 6/6/7 carbon rings, and caespinosins C-E (4-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze). The absolute configuration of isoneocaesalpin H (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 represents a class of rare natural cassane diterpene bearing unique 6/6/7 carbon rings. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Cassane diterpenes were firstly reported from Tara. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive. PMID:26244825

  11. Insulin-sensitizing and Anti-proliferative Effects of Argania spinosa Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Samane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2, ERK kinase (MEK1/2 and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  12. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-09-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  13. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-09-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases. PMID:16951716

  14. A Study of Anti-Microbial Effect of Pycnocycla Spinosa's Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali, Ph.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Infectious diseases account for approximately one-half of all deaths in tropical country. In developed country, despite the progress made on the control of disease, incidence of epidemics due to drug resistant microorganisms and unknown diseases spreading microbes pose enormous public health concerns. On the other hand, in spite of improvements in food production hygiene, food safety is increasingly an important health issue. There is, therefore, still a need for new antimicrobial agent to reduce or eliminate foodborne pathogen as well as food spoilage microorganisms. Historically, plants play a major role in primary health-care as therapeutic remedies in developing countries. The screening of plant extracts has been of great interest to scientists for the discovery of new drugs effective in the treatment of infectious disease. Umbelleferea is known to be a potential source for the antimicrobial agents. The present study attempts to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Pycnocycla spinosa as a member of Umbelleferea against selected microorganisms.Materials and Methods: The plants were collected from Isfahan and different solvent extracts of plants were prepared. Then, the antimicrobial activity of extract was determined, using disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by tube dilution method.Results: Results demonstrated that different extracts of plants indicate antimicrobial activity against bucillu subtilis, aspergiluse niger and candida albicans. Generally, the antimicrobial activity of the plant’s fruit extracts is considered medium.Conclusion: Pycnocycla spinosa fruit's extract showed medium antimicrobial activity. Hydroalcoholic extract of the fruit demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity. This may reflect a low concentration of active components in extracts. Further studies are needed to investigate antimicrobial activity of the plant's essential oil and other parts

  15. Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activit...

  16. Study on Systematic Relationships of Ziziphus jujuba and Ziziphus spinosa Using RAPD Technique%应用RAPD标记技术探讨枣与酸枣的分类学关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平; 彭建营; 彭士琪; 周俊义; 代丽

    2005-01-01

    Genetic relationships between Ziziphus jujuba and Ziziphus spinosa populations were studied using RAPD data in population genetics. 275 loci were gained among which 249 loci were polymorphic by 22 primers. The polymorphic loci percentage was 89% among Z. spinosa population while that of Z .jujuba population was 56%. 31 specific RAPD markers were detected on 3 Z.jujuba varieties and 15 Z. spinosa forms. Cluster analysis showed: when λ = 12, the forms tested were divided into 2 groups. One included Z. jujuba cv. Zanhuangdazao, Yudichuangan, Yuanshichuangan, Xiaochuangan, Qiantai No. 1, Luzhuangchuangan; the other included Z. jujuba cv. Zilingdan and 26 Z. spinosa forms. All above indicated that Z. jujuba and Z. spinosa should be regarded as two separate species.

  17. Morphological characterization of in-situ variability in kair (Capparis decidua and its management for biodiversity conservation in Thar desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Mahla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   Kair [Capparis decidua (Forsk.] is one of the important indigenous multipurpose shrub of hot arid ecosystem with the ability to survive in various habitats unattended and unprotected. Besides many socioeconomic and ecological benefits, it has a number of medicinal properties as the plants have significant pharmacological activities like hypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti plaque, antihypertensive, antihelmintic and purgative activities. CAZRI, RRS Jaisalmer have 1000 ha rangeland in which density of kair shrubs are more than 15 besides Zizyphus, Acacia and Prosopis species. In natural population, rich genetic diversity with wide range of variability is available for plant types, bearing habit, fruit size, colour of fruits, spiny habit, plant spread and compactness of canopy, flower colour, time of flowering and fruiting, etc. In general two distinct plant types of kair occur, tree form having more than 5 m height whereas majority occurred as bushes. It appears that plant attains tree form when it grows from seed and remains undisturbed. On the other hand, plants that get exposed to biotic interference may tend to produce more shoots and also propagates through root suckers. There are lot of variation exists for spine length (2-5 mm but plants with very less rudimentary spines and sometimes spineless also found in nature. Kair flowers throughout the year; February - March (Ambe Bahar, July - August (Mrig Bahar and October - November (Hast Bahar but profuse flowering occurs only in Ambe Bahar which gives quality fruits in ample quantity. A wide diversity in flower colour can be seen from light red to scarlet red but plants with yellow flowers also exist in the natural stands of rangeland

  18. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (Pargan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF LEAF CHARACTERS IN THREE NATURAL POPULATIONS OF Argania spinosa L. SKEELS

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    Zahidi A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity within and between three natural populations of Argania spinosa in south west Morocco was investigated by using nine morphological characters of simple and grouped leaves for three consecutive seasons. Relative contribution of seasona l variations and seasonal variations x locality interaction on the phenotypic variance is low (0% to 17.1% for all characters of simple and grouped leaves. Relative contribution related to genotype x environment interaction (season x tree / locality on the phenotypic variance is greater (17% to 40.5% for all traits except for leaf length, midrib length and dry matter content in simple leaves (0% to 14.9%. Argan tree shows a high degree of genetic diversity especially within populations than between popu lations. Leaf length, midrib length, leaf width, leaf area and stomata number are the most discriminating characters, being responsible for 54.6% of the total variation, but differentiation between the three populations was not established. This substanti al genetic variation for morphological characters provides a database for genetic improvement of agro - morphological characters given that the argan tree is source of food for a large number of herds especially in times of drought in arid environments.

  20. Anatomical structure and ultrastructure of the endocarp cell walls of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaa, H S; Harche, M Kaid

    2014-12-01

    The anatomical and histochemical study of young and adult endocarps of Argania spinosa (sampled from Tindouf; Algeria) shows a general structure that is similar to that of majority of stone fruits. These samples consist of tissues that contain lignified and cellulosic cell walls. The majority of the tissues are composed of sclerenchyma cells; with very thick lignified cell walls and conducting tissues. Coniferyl lignins are abundant in the majority of the lignified tissues. However, the coniferyl lignins appear at the primary xylem during lignification. Syringyl lignins are present in small quantities. The electron microscopy observation of the sclerenchyma cell walls of the young endocarp shows polylamellate strates and, cellular microfibrils in arced patterns. This architecture is observed in the cell walls of the adult endocarp only after the incubation of the tissue in methylamine. These configurations (arcs) are the result of a regular and complete rotation with a 180° variation in the microfibril angle; the complete and symmetrical arcs show a helicoidal mode of construction. The observation of the sclerenchyma cells revealed the capacity of helicoidal morphogenesis to adjust itself under the influence of topological constraints, such as the presence of a large number of pit canals, which maintain symplastic transport. PMID:25125280

  1. Partial structural characterization of pectin cell wall from Argania spinosa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Kadda; Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Ghomari, Samia; Hasnaoui, Okkacha; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2016-02-01

    The pectin polysaccharides from leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, collected from Stidia area in the west coast of northern Algeria, were investigated by using sequential extractions and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. Water-soluble pectic (ALS-WSP) and chelating-soluble pectic (ALS-CSP) fractions were obtained, de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by sugar analysis combined with methylation analysis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal the presence of altering homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) in both pectin fraction. The rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) are consisted of a disaccharide repeating unit [→ α-D-GalpA-1,2-α-L-Rhap-1,4 →] backbone, with side chains contained highly branched α-(1 → 5)-linked arabinan and short linear β-(1 → 4)-linked galactan, attached to O-4 of the rhamnosyl residues. PMID:27441255

  2. Streptomyces marokkonensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Argania spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouizgarne, B; Lanoot, B; Loqman, S; Spröer, C; Klenk, H-P; Swings, J; Ouhdouch, Y

    2009-11-01

    The novel actinomycete strain Ap1(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) in the south of Morocco. Strain Ap1(T) has been reported as a novel producer of the pentaene polyene macrolide isochainin, which strongly inhibits the growth of pathogenic yeasts and phytopathogenic fungi. Strain Ap1(T) shows a greyish-white aerial mycelium with chains of smooth-surfaced spores of the Spiralis type and a cell wall containing ll-diaminopimelic acid. Based on chemotaxonomy and morphological features, strain Ap1(T) was identified as a member of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Ap1(T) is closely associated with members of the Streptomyces violaceoruber species group (S. violaceoruber, S. coelescens, S. violaceorubidus, 'S. caesius', 'S. lividans', S. violaceolatus and S. humiferus) and others (Streptomyces aurantiogriseus, S. lienomycini, S. chattanoogensis, S. rubrogriseus and S. tendae). However, protein profiling, DNA-DNA hybridization and BOX-PCR fingerprinting proved a relationship above the species level. In addition, the phenotype also allowed for the differentiation of strain Ap1(T) from its closest neighbours. As a result of this polyphasic approach, we conclude that strain Ap1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces marokkonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ap1(T) (=R-22003(T) =LMG 23016(T) =DSM 41918(T)). PMID:19628602

  3. Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect of argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) in Meriones shawi rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, H; Ettaib, A; Herrera Gonzalez, M D; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Bennani-Kabchi, N; Hmamouchi, M

    2003-11-01

    The potential health benefits of various dietary oils in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer are recently receiving considerable attention. The main proposal of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary argan oil, obtained from seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) endemic from Morocco, on serum lipids composition. Hyperlipidemia was induced by high calorie and cholesterol (HCC) diet administration in 16 rats (Meriones shawi, a rodent of the Gerbillideae family). Eight rats were treated with argan oil (1ml/100g weight) daily by oral route during 7 weeks (treated group). Control animals were also fed with HCC diet for 7 weeks. After 7-week treatment with argan oil, blood lipoproteins were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol decreased with 36.67% (P<0.01), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in 67.70% (P<0.001), triglycerides in 30.67% (P<0.05) and body weight in 12.7% (P<0.05). High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered. These results indicate the beneficial effect of argan oil in the treatment of the hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. This effect will be related with the polyunsaturated fatty acids and other constituents of studied oil. PMID:14522427

  4. Cell wall carbohydrates from fruit pulp of Argania spinosa: structural analysis of pectin and xyloglucan polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboughe-Angone, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Ghosh, Partha; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Ray, Bimalendu; Driouich, Azeddine

    2008-01-14

    Isolated cell walls of Argania spinosa fruit pulp were fractionated into their polysaccharide constituents and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. The data reveal the presence of homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) in the pectic fraction. RG-I is abundant and contains high amounts of Ara and Gal, indicative of an important branching in this polysaccharide. RG-II is less abundant than RG-I and exists as a dimer. Structural characterisation of xyloglucan using enzymatic hydrolysis, gas chromatography, MALDI-TOF-MS and methylation analysis shows that XXGG, XXXG, XXLG and XLLG are the major subunit oligosaccharides in the ratio of 0.6:1:1.2:1.6. This finding demonstrates that the major neutral hemicellulosic polysaccharide is a galacto-xyloglucan. In addition, Argania fruit xyloglucan has no XUFG, a novel xyloglucan motif recently discovered in Argania leaf cell walls. Finally, the isolation and analysis of arabinogalactan-proteins showed that Argania fruit pulp is rich in these proteoglycans. PMID:18005949

  5. Effects of Tree Shelters on the Survival and Growth of Argania spinosa Seedlings in Mediterranean Arid Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chamchelmaarif Defaa; Salwa Elantry; Sanae Lahlimi El Alami; Ahmed Achour; Abdelhamid El Mousadik; Fouad Msanda

    2015-01-01

    The argan tree is endemic species of Morocco. It occupies an area of more than 8700 km2 and plays essential ecological and economical roles. In spite of their value, the argan woodlands are subject to rapid and uncontrolled degradation during the last decades, mainly due to overgrazing and systematic collection of argan nuts. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of two types of tree shelters on survival and growth of Argania spinosa seedlings planted in the southwest o...

  6. Capparis ovata treatment suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression and ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgun-Acar, Ozden; Celik-Turgut, Gurbet; Gazioglu, Isil; Kolak, Ufuk; Ozbal, Seda; Ergur, Bekir U; Arslan, Sevki; Sen, Alaattin; Topcu, Gulacti

    2016-09-15

    Since ancient times, Capparis species have been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Our recent investigations have suggested Capparis ovata's potential anti-neuroinflammatory application for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study was designed to precisely determine the underlying mechanism of its anti-neuroinflammatory effect in a mouse model of MS. C. ovata water extract (COWE) was prepared using the plant's fruit, buds, and flower parts (Turkish Patent Institute, PT 2012/04,093). We immunized female C57BL/6J mice with MOG35-55/CFA. COWE was administered at a daily dose of 500mg/kg by oral gavage either from the day of immunization (T1) or at disease onset (T2) for 21days. Gene expression analysis was performed using a Mouse Multiple Sclerosis RT² Profiler PCR Array, and further determinations and validations of the identified genes were performed using qPCR. Whole-genome transcriptome profiling was analyzed using Agilent SurePrint G3 Mouse GE 8X60K microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to brain sections of the control and treated mice to examine the degree of degeneration. COWE was further fractionated and analyzed phytochemically using the Zivak Tandem Gold Triple Quadrupole LC/MS-MS system. COWE remarkably suppressed the development of EAE in T1, and the disease activity was completely inhibited. In the T2 group, the maximal score was significantly reduced compared with that of the parallel EAE group. The COWE suppression of EAE was associated with a significantly decreased expression of genes that are important in inflammatory signaling, such as TNFα, IL6, NF-κB, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCK10. On the other hand, the expression of genes involved in myelination/remyelination was significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analysis further supported these effects, showing that the number of infiltrating immune cells was decreased in the brains of COWE-treated animals. In addition, differential

  7. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment. PMID:15613254

  8. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sikora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, simple sugars, dietary fibre and ash was determined. The amount of antioxidant compounds was also tested: β-carotene, vitamin C, polyphenols,in this anthocyannins,as well as  antioxidantactivity expressed as an ability to quench free radical ABTS. Analyses were repeated in fruits stored in frozen state for three months. Results.  On the basis of the obtained results, it was observed that concerning basal chemical composition, the blackthorn fruits do not single out among other fruits from Rosaceae family. It was also reported that blackthorn fruits are rich in polyphenolic  compounds, as well as in vitamin C, and those compounds, most probably contribute to their high antioxidant activity, being at the level of 43.6 μmol Trolox/g f.m. Storage in the freezing state reduced the contents of water, fat, dietary fiber and ash, but did not have significant impact on the other compounds. Conclusions. Blackthorn fruits may constitute valuable source for preparations (tincture, wines, and teas, as well as an additive to other fruit processing, as a product of great pro-healthy properties. Freezing process and storage in that state did not significantlyinfluence on nutritive and antioxidant compounds of blackthorn fruits. It may be therefore observed that several months of frozen storage is a good way to make them avail- able for fruit processing and for the consumers, also the off-season.  

  9. Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Khori, Vahid; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare

    2012-01-01

    The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay. PC3 cell lines treated with the extracts were analyzed for the induction of apoptosis by cell death detection (ELISA) and TUNEL assay. Dye exclusion analysis was performed for viability rate. Our results demonstrated that the Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract dose dependently suppressed the proliferation of PC3 cells (IC(50)= 250.21 μg/mL) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug (Toxol) (Vesper Pharmaceuticals) with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract attenuated the human prostate cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human prostate cell line. PMID:23320197

  10. 酸枣仁总皂苷抗抑郁作用的实验研究%Antidepressant effect of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 王颖; 牟佳佳; 宋志国; 李金梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the antidepressant effect of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in mice.Methods To investigate the antidepressant activity of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by the forced swimming test and tail suspension test, with the immobility time of behavioral despair mice as the indicator. Results Different dose groups of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae significantly reduced the immobility time of the mice during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). Conclusion The total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae have antidepressant effect.%目的 研究酸枣仁总皂苷对行为绝望小鼠抑郁模型的影响.方法 采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验抑郁模型,小鼠行为绝望的不动时间作为指标,考察酸枣仁总皂苷抗抑郁活性.结果 酸枣仁总皂苷中、高剂量组均能减少小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾不动时间,与空白对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 酸枣仁总皂苷具有一定的抗抑郁作用.

  11. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  12. Effects of Tree Shelters on the Survival and Growth of Argania spinosa Seedlings in Mediterranean Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamchelmaarif Defaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is endemic species of Morocco. It occupies an area of more than 8700 km2 and plays essential ecological and economical roles. In spite of their value, the argan woodlands are subject to rapid and uncontrolled degradation during the last decades, mainly due to overgrazing and systematic collection of argan nuts. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of two types of tree shelters on survival and growth of Argania spinosa seedlings planted in the southwest of Morocco in order to improve the results of reforestation programs which usually end by repeated failures. The experiment was conducted in the Mesguina forest for two growing seasons after transplantation in the field. After two years, the use of tree shelters significantly increased tree survival and allowed a gain of 20%. Height growth was positively affected by tree shelters. The use of tree shelters showed no significant decrease in basal diameter. In contrast, the height to diameter ratios of sheltered trees were much higher compared to the control. Thus, the use of the tree shelters could aid the early establishment and growth of Argania spinosa under conditions similar to those of the experiment.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure for the Conservation of Giant Spiny Frog (Quasipaa spinosa) Using Microsatellite Loci and Mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danna YU; Rongquan ZHENG; Qinfang LU; Guang YANG; Yao FU; Yun ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The giant spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa) is an endangered species with a relatively small distribution limited to southern China and Northern Vietnam. This species is becoming increasingly threatened because of over-exploitation and habitat degradation. This study provides data on the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the giant spiny frog to facilitate the further development of effective conservation recommendations for this economically important but threatened species. We examined 10 species-specific microsatellite loci and Cyt b genes (562 bp) collected from 13 wild populations across the entire range of this species. Results of 10 microsatellite loci analysis showed a generally high level of genetic diversity. Moreover, the genetic differentiation among all 12 populations was moderate to large (overall FST= 0.1057). A total of 51 haplotypes were identified for Cyt b, which suggests high haplotype nucleotide diversities. Phylogeographic and population structure analyses using both DNA markers suggested that the wild giant spiny frog can be divided into four distinct major clades, i.e., Northern Vietnam, Western China, Central China, and Eastern China. The clades with significant genetic divergence are reproductively isolated, as evidenced by a high number of private alleles and strong incidence of failed amplification in microsatellite loci. Our research, coupled with other studies, suggests that Q. spinosa might be a species complex within which no detectable morphological variation has been revealed. The four phylogenetic clades and some subclades with distinct geographical distribution should be regarded as independent management units for conservation purposes.

  14. Biologia da polinização de Jacaratia spinosa (AUBL) ADC. (CARICACEAE) em mata residual do sudeste brasileiro Pollination biology of Jacaratia spinosa (AUBL) ADC. (CARICACEAE) in a residual forest in southwest Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. PIRATELLI; F. C. M. PIÑA-RODRIGUES; F. B. GANDARA; E. M. G. SANTOS; Costa, L. G. S.

    1998-01-01

    A biologia da polinização de Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl) ADC. (Caricaceae) foi estudada na Mata de Santa Genebra, Campinas (20º54'S; 47º05'W), estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram obtidos dados de antese floral, volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar, viabilidade do pólen, receptividade do estigma, localização de glândulas de odor, sistemas de reprodução e principais visitantes/potenciais polinizadores. A espécie é dióica e as plantas masculinas florescem por um período maior (52 dias) que as f...

  15. Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Koushan Sineh Sepehr; Behzad Baradaran; Masoumeh Mazandarani; Vahid Khori; Fatemeh Zare Shahneh

    2012-01-01

    The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorime...

  16. Isolation and characterization of stigmast-5-en-3β-ol (β-sitosterol from the leaves of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders

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    Arjun Patra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae commonly known as ‘Talmakhana’ in Hindi contains a number of phytoconstituents viz. alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, amino acids, proteins, phenolic acids, enzymes, vitamins, sugars, minerals, flavonoids, gums & ucilage, terpenoids etc. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize phytoconstituents(s from the chloroform extract of Hygrophila spinosa leaves. Methods: Chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatography and eluted with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity, composed of petroleum ether, benzene and chloroform to isolate phytoconstituents. The structure of the isolated compound was established on the basis of elemental analysis and spectroscopic evidences (IR, UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS. Results: A sterol, stigmast-5-en-3β-ol was isolated from the chloroform extract of the leaves of the plant. The yield of the compound was 0.0046% w/w, m.p. 136- 1380C, λmax in EtOH: 206 nm, Rf value 0.72 in Toluene: Ether: Cyclohexane (5:2:1. Conclusions: Hygrophila spinosa contains β-sitosterol which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of the plant.

  17. A new case of late-acting self-incompatibility in Capparis L. (Brassicaceae: C. jacobinae Moric. ex Eichler, an endemic andromonoecious species of the Caatinga, Pernambuco State, Brazil Novo registro de auto-incompatibilidade de ação tardia em Capparis (Brassicaceae: C. jacobinae Moric. ex Eichler, uma espécie andromonóica endêmica da Caatinga, PE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Primo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the reproductive system of Capparis jacobinae Moric ex Eichler (Brassicaceae, based on controlled hand-pollination and observation of pollen tube growth made in a fluorescence microscope. Of 105 self-pollinated flowers only one produced fruits (success = 0.95%, all the other flowers abscised at the same time, between the eighth and tenth day after anthesis. Nevertheless, self- and cross-pollinated pollen tubes reached the micropyle. The rate of penetrated ovules in self-pollinated flowers was lower during the first 24 h after pollination; thereafter this rate was similar between self- and cross-pollinated flowers for treatments of 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after pollination. In addition, we carried out two indirect estimates of the reproductive system, based on pollen/ovule and seed/ovule ratios, which resulted in typical features of xenogamous species. We concluded that C. jacobinae has a late-acting self-incompatibility system. This is the third record of this mechanism for the genus and the first for a species of Capparis endemic to the Caatinga. We suggest that this self-incompatibility system may occur in other species of the same genus and family.O sistema reprodutivo de Capparis jacobinae Moric. ex Eichler (Brassicaceae, uma espécie endêmica da Caatinga no Brasil, foi analisado através de polinizações controladas e observações do desenvolvimento dos tubos polínicos por meio de microscopia de fluorescência. De 105 flores autopolinizadas, apenas uma formou fruto (sucesso= 0,95%, ocorrendo a abscisão das demais em um intervalo de tempo uniforme, entre o oitavo e o décimo dia após a antese. Entretanto, tanto tubos polínicos procedentes de autopolinização quanto de polinização cruzada penetraram na micrópila, sendo a taxa de óvulos penetrados menor em flores autopolinizadas durante as 24 horas posteriores à polinização, igualando-se entre os dois tratamentos para 48, 72 e 96 horas posteriores à polinização. Al

  18. Quality analysis of commercial samples of Ziziphi spinosae semen (suanzaoren by means of chromatographic fingerprinting assisted by principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of resources of Ziziphi spinosae semen (ZSS, many inferior goods and even adulterants are generally found in medicine markets. To strengthen the quality control, HPLC fingerprint common pattern established in this paper showed three main bioactive compounds in one chromatogram simultaneously. Principal component analysis based on DAD signals could discriminate adulterants and inferiorities. Principal component analysis indicated that all samples could be mainly regrouped into two main clusters according to the first principal component (PC1, redefined as Vicenin II and the second principal component (PC2, redefined as zizyphusine. PC1 and PC2 could explain 91.42% of the variance. Content of zizyphusine fluctuated more greatly than that of spinosin, and this result was also confirmed by the HPTLC result. Samples with low content of jujubosides and two common adulterants could not be used equivalently with authenticated ones in clinic, while one reference standard extract could substitute the crude drug in pharmaceutical production. Giving special consideration to the well-known bioactive saponins but with low response by end absorption, a fast and cheap HPTLC method for quality control of ZSS was developed and the result obtained was commensurate well with that of HPLC analysis. Samples having similar fingerprints to HPTLC common pattern targeting at saponins could be regarded as authenticated ones. This work provided a faster and cheaper way for quality control of ZSS and laid foundation for establishing a more effective quality control method for ZSS.

  19. A complete enzymatic recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues with extracellular enzymes from Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Dong; McClendon, Shara; Le, Tien; Taylor, Frank; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2006-12-20

    An economic ferulic acid recovery from biomass via biological methods is of interest for a number of reasons. Ferulic acid is a precursor to vanillin synthesis. It is also a known antioxidant with potential food and medical applications. Despite its universal presence in all plant cell wall material, the complex structure of the plant cell wall makes ferulic acid recovery from biomass a challenging bioprocess. Previously, without pretreatment, very low (3-13%) recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues was achieved. We report here the discovery of a filamentous fungus Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185 capable of producing a full complement of enzymes to release ferulic acid and the development of an enzymatic process for a complete recovery of ferulic acid from corn bran and corn fibers. A partial characterization of the extracellular proteome of the microbe revealed the presence of at least seven cellulases and hemicellulases activities, including multiple iso-forms of xylanase and ferulic acid esterase. The recovered ferulic acid was bio-converted to vanillin, demonstrating its potential application in natural vanillin synthesis. The enzymatic ferulic acid recovery accompanied a significant release of reducing sugars (76-100%), suggesting much broader applications of the enzymes and enzyme mixtures from this organism.

  20. Flavor improvement of Rana spinosa enzymatic hydrolysate%石蛙的酶解液化及风味改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君

    2012-01-01

    Rana spinosa meat was hydrolyzed by papain and neutral protease. Lactic acid bacteria and rice wine yeasts were used to improve the flavor of the hydrolysate. Results indicate that neutral protease is superior to papain. The amount of amino nitrogen included in fermentation broth fermented by lactic acid bacteria is higher. The fermenting liquor from lactic acid bacteria flavor is better than that from rice wine yeast.%在酶适宜的环境条件下,利用木瓜蛋白酶与中性蛋白酶酶解石蛙肉及利用乳酸菌、黄酒酵母对酶解液进行风味改良。结果表明,中性蛋白酶对石蛙的水解效果较好,乳酸菌发酵液中氨态氮含量较高,乳酸菌发酵液风味改良效果优于黄酒酵母。

  1. Quality analysis of commercial samples of Ziziphi spinosae semen (suanzaoren) by means of chromatographic fingerprinting assisted by principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Sun; Hailing Liu; Shunjun Xu; Yuzhen Yan; Peishan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of resources of Ziziphi spinosae semen (ZSS), many inferior goods and even adulterants are generally found in medicine markets. To strengthen the quality control, HPLC fingerprint common pattern established in this paper showed three main bioactive compounds in one chromatogram simultaneously. Principal component analysis based on DAD signals could discriminate adulterants and inferiorities. Principal component analysis indicated that all samples could be mainly regrouped into two main clusters according to the first principal component (PC1, redefined as Vicenin II) and the second principal component (PC2, redefined as zizyphusine). PC1 and PC2 could explain 91.42%of the variance. Content of zizyphusine fluctuated more greatly than that of spinosin, and this result was also confirmed by the HPTLC result. Samples with low content of jujubosides and two common adulterants could not be used equivalently with authenticated ones in clinic, while one reference standard extract could substitute the crude drug in pharmaceutical production. Giving special consideration to the well-known bioactive saponins but with low response by end absorption, a fast and cheap HPTLC method for quality control of ZSS was developed and the result obtained was commensurate well with that of HPLC analysis. Samples having similar fingerprints to HPTLC common pattern targeting at saponins could be regarded as authenticated ones. This work provided a faster and cheaper way for quality control of ZSS and laid foundation for establishing a more effective quality control method for ZSS.

  2. Caesalpinone A, a new type of gorgonane sesquiterpenoid containing an unprecedented 1,15-bridge, from the pods of Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Weihua; Tang, Hongbo; Li, Yuanping; He, Dongyang; Ma, Ruijing; Wang, Liqin

    2016-07-01

    Caesalpinone A (1), a new type of gorgonane sesquiterpenoid containing an unprecedented 1,15-bridge, along with ten known sesquiterpenoids (2-11) were isolated from the pods of Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze (Tara). The structure of caesalpinone A was elucidated based on its 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by the comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Compound 1 was evaluated for the inhibitory activities against five human tumor cell lines. The sesquiterpenoids of isodaucane skeleton and caryolane skeleton were isolated from Caesalpinia genus for the first time. Compounds 5-9 were firstly reported from Tara. PMID:27345940

  3. 酸枣仁的化学成分及应用研究进展%Research Progress on the Chemical Compositions and Application of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜; 张艳强; 杨艳婷; 裴瑞霞; 郑伟; 王亚慧

    2015-01-01

    因现代社会工作生活压力大,失眠、焦虑等症状困扰着越来越多的人,对养心安神药物的研发也越发迫切。酸枣仁养心、益肝、安神,是常用的安神药,本文对近年来关于酸枣仁的化学成分和应用方面的研究进行了综述。%The symptom such as insomnia and anxiety troubled more and more people for the high pressure of modern life and work, so the research on the drugs which could heal insomnia and anxiety is increasingly urgent. Semen ziziphi spinosae is a com-monly used herb which could help healed insomnia and anxiety. This paper summaried the researches on the chemical compositions and application of Semen ziziphi spinosae in recent years.

  4. Hplc-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the water-soluble extract from Ziziphi spinosae semen and its ameliorating effect of learning and memory performance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge Hu ex H. F. Chow., is a traditional herb for insomnia and anxiety in eastern Asia. However, few researches have been concerned with its effect on ameliorating memory and learning performance. Objective: To investigate the constituents of ZSS water soluble extract and its ameliorating learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: A new high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the main constituents in the extract. The effect of ZSS water soluble extract on memory and learning performance was investigated in mice by Y-maze and passive avoidance test. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the number of errors (NOE, and increase the transfer latency time (TLT and electrical stimuli time (EST. In addition, spinosin, jujuboside A (JuA and jujuboside B (JuB were simultaneously identified and quantified in the extract. Their contents in the extract were as followed: Spinosin (223.51mg/g, JuA (63.76mg/g and JuB (26.29mg/g. Conclusion: The extract played a promising role in ameliorating memory in mice with alcohol induced memory retrieval disorders, and might help to improve learning capacity to some extent. Spinosin, JuA and JuB were the predominant constituents, which might be mainly responsible for the definite activity.

  5. Quality evaluation of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by grey incidence degree method%灰关联度法评价中药酸枣仁的质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路娟; 王维宁; 赵娟; 刘晓秋

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立中药酸枣仁的质量评价方法.方法 通过测定不同品种和产地酸枣仁药材中黄酮、皂苷、多糖和脂肪油的含量,采用灰关联度法,以定义的相对关联度为测度,构建质量评价模型,并与传统经验鉴别结果相比较.结果 对14批样品进行质量排序,优劣情况与经验鉴别结果一致.结论 本方法可用于中药酸枣仁的综合性质量评价.%Objective To evaluate systematically the quality of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Methods Grey model was set up by determining the contents of flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides and fat oils contained in the samples,and compared with description identification. Results Fourteen samples were carried out quality orderings, the result showed concordance with description identification. Conclusions Grey incidence degree method and the model can be used to evaluate the quality of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen.

  6. Feeding habits of the spider crab Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (Decapoda, Brachyura in Ubatuba bay, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara de Paiva Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the identification of the items of the diet of the L. spinosa, based on the stomach contents analysis. The crabs were obtained from Ubatuba region north-eastern shore of São Paulo State. In the laboratory, all the individuals were dissected, the stomach was retreated and fixed in 10% formaline. The alimentary items were identified under stereomicroscope and analysed by the method of Frequency of Occurrence. A total of 194 stomachs was analysed and nine alimentary items were obtained. Unindentified material was found in 98% of analysed stomach and poriferan were present in less then 1% of stomachs. These results pointed a diversified diet explored by this crab, as well as the employment of some different methods for food intake. This suggested that these crabs could occupy different position in the trophic chain.O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os itens alimentares que compõem a dieta de L. spinosa, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. Os caranguejos foram coletados no litoral norte paulista (23º25’S-45º00’W. No laboratório, todos indivíduos foram dissecados, os estômagos foram retirados e fixados em formol 10%. Os itens alimentares foram identificados sob estereomicroscópio, sendo que para a análise foi utilizado o método Freqüência de Ocorrência. Foram analisados 194 estômagos, nos quais foram encontrados nove itens alimentares. A maior freqüência foi para material não identificado, ocorrendo em 98% dos estômagos analisados e Porifera foi o item com a menor freqüência, ocorrendo em menos de 1% dos estômagos. Com base nos resultados obtidos, sugere-se que o caranguejo L. spinosa apresenta uma dieta diversificada, sugerindo a utilização de diferentes métodos para a obtenção de alimento e por conseqüência podendo ocupar vários níveis na cadeia trófica.

  7. Protoplast formation and regeneration for Saccharopolyspora spinosa%刺糖多孢菌原生质体制备与再生条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘邱锋; 张晓琳; 王洁颖; 汪洋; 黄必旺; 关雄

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究多杀菌素产生菌刺糖多孢菌(Saccharopolyspora spinosa)原生质体制备与再生的最佳条件.方法 利用数理统计的方法研究了不同制备培养基、菌龄、甘氨酸浓度、溶菌酶处理条件以及再生培养基对原生质体制备和再生的影响,并考察了原生质体的适宜保藏温度.结果 菌体在添加0.3%甘氨酸的EHC培养基中培养72h,用2mg/mL溶菌酶32℃酶解40min后,涂布在再生培养基R6上再生,原生质体制备率超过99%,再生数町达到10cfu/mL.刺糖多孢菌原生质体可置于4℃短期保存72h,长期保存需要放置于-80℃条件下.结论 优化的结果为刺糖多孢菌原生质体融合育种和遗传转化体系建立奠定了基础.%Objective The optimal conditions for the formation, regeneration and preservation of protoplasts were established in Saccharopolyspora spinosa N-15-50-4B, a spinosad-producing strain. Methods Several crucial factors were tested on protoplast formation and regeneration including the preparation medium, spawn age, glycine concentration, regeneration medium and the treatment conditions of lysozyme. Results The results presented that the protoplast could be efficiently formed and regenerated under a certain condition. When the collected mycelia from S. spinosa N-15-50-4B grown in EHC medium with 0.3% glycine for 72h and were treated by 2mg/mL lysozyme at 32℃ for 40min, then plated on the R6 medium, the rate of protoplasts formation could reach more than 99% and the number of regeneration protoplast was up to 107cfu/mL. We also studied the effects of temperature on protoplast preservation. Short-term storage for protoplasts was 4℃ for 72h, and long-term storage needed -80℃. Conclusion These studies enable to improve spinosad-producing strains though protoplast fusion and to establish genetic transformation system orS. spinosa.

  8. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  9. Study on the antidepressant effect of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae%酸枣仁总黄酮抗抑郁作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 王颖; 牟佳佳; 宋志国; 李金梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究酸枣仁总黄酮对行为绝望小鼠抑郁模型的影响.[方法]采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验等抑郁模型,小鼠行为绝望的不动时间作为指标,考察酸枣仁总黄酮抗抑郁活性.[结果]酸枣仁总黄酮低、中、高剂量组均能减少小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾不动时间,与空白组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与阳性药组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),[结论]酸枣仁总黄酮具有显著的抗小鼠实验性抑郁作用.%[Objective] To observe the antidepressant effect of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in mice. [Methods] To inves tigate the antidepressant activity of total Flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test, with behavioral despair mice in the immobility time as an indicator. [Results] Different dose groups of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae could significantly reduce the immobility time of mice during the forced swimming test and the tail Suspension test, compared with that of the control group (P<O.05); compared with that of the positive group (P<O.05). [Conclusion] The total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae possess had significant antidepressant effects.

  10. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant%Total phenolic,total flavonoid content,and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb.,an Indian medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Biplab De; N Devanna; Raja Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents,and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb.ex Link,a traditional medicinal plant of India.METHODS:Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol,ethyl acetate,and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays,including the 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging,superoxide anion scavenging,hydroxyl radical scavenging,nitric oxide radical scavenging,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity,metal chelating assay,and reducing power ability method.Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method.Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures.RESULTS:Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g,respectively.The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH,superoxide anion,hydroxyl radical,nitric oxide radical,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41),(35.9 ± 0.19),(24.1 ± 0.33),(23.7 ± 0.09),(126.8 ± 2.92),and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL-1,respectively.The methanol e.xtract showed potent reducing power ability,total antioxidant activity,and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards.CONCLUSION:The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts,which may the foremost contributors to the

  11. Isolation of flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by high-speed counter-current chromatography%高速逆流色谱分离酸枣仁中黄酮类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白鹤龙; 王晶; 刘春明; 陆娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:利用高速逆流色谱法对酸枣仁黄酮类成分进行分离研究.方法:以乙酸乙酯-正丁醇-水(3:2:5)为溶剂系统,流动相的流速为1.0 mL·min-1,主机转速为1500 r·min-1,检测波长360 nm,对酸枣仁中黄酮类化合物进行分离;利用HPLC法测定化合物的纯度;利用ESI-MS及参照文献确定了化合物的结构.结果:首次从酸枣仁粗提物中分离得到:酸枣仁黄酮碳苷、6 -芥子酰酸枣仁黄酮碳苷及6 -阿魏酰酸枣仁黄酮碳苷,应用HPLC检测,纯度均在90%以上.结论:利用高速逆流色谱法分离酸枣仁中黄酮类化合物,快速,简单,重复性好,分离样品纯度高.%Objective :To separate and isolate high - purity flavonoids from extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by a preparative high - speed counter - current chromatography( HSCCC) . Methods : The solvent system was composed of ethyl acetate - n-butyl alcohol - water( 3: 2: 5) , the flow rate was 1. 0 mL · min-1, the rotational speed was 1500 r · min -1 , and the detection wavelength was set at 360 nm. To separate flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae; their purities were examined by HPLC; the structures of these compounds were identified by ESI - MS compared with the literatures. Results : Three flavonoids, spinosin, 6''' - sinapoylspinosin and 6''' - feruloylspinosin were separated from crude extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for the first time. The purities of obtained flavonoids were assessed to be over 90% by HPLC. Conclusion : HSCCC was proved to be a very fast and efficient tool for separation of high - purity flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, and the method is quick, simple, good repeatability and high purity.

  12. Rapid characterization of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by UPLC/Qtof MS with novel informatics platform and its application in evaluation of two seeds from Ziziphus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-xiang; Li, Min; Qiao, Li-rui; Yao, Zhi-hong; Li, Chang; Shen, Xiu-yu; Wang, Yu; Yu, Kate; Yao, Xin-sheng; Dai, Yi

    2016-04-15

    A strategy for rapid identification of target and non-target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) extracts were proposed by utilizing the UNIFI informatics platform for the computer-assisted UPLC/Qtof MS data analyses. Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) contains various bioactive chemical ingredients, such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Currently, there is no method that allows rapid and comprehensive identification of these multiple components. The rapid identification of chemical components in ZSS was successfully achieved with this strategy. As a result, 60 target components were identified and 53 non-target components were characterized. Among them, chemical structures of 40 new components were deduced based on their characteristic MS fragmentation patterns. In addition, the chemical ingredients of Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen (ZMS), which is often used as substitution of ZSS, were also investigated with the same strategy. A total of 132 chemical components were identified from these two plants, including 7 additional non-target new components. It demonstrated that this strategy not only facilitated an efficient protocol for the screening and identification of target components, but also offered a new perspective on discovering non-target components in TCMs or other herbal medicines. Furthermore, 48 components were selected for semi-quantitative analyses to evaluate the difference in chemical ingredients between these two seeds of Ziziphus species. The results showed that ZSS enriched many saponins, while ZMS contained few saponins. On the contrary, many cyclopeptide alkaloids could be detected in ZMS with high content, but rare in ZSS. These results can be used for the differentiation between ZSS and its adulterant (ZMS), and also to set a scientific foundation for the establishment of quality control of ZSS. PMID:26845203

  13. Patterns of Genetic Diversity and Structure at Fine Scale of an Endangered Moroccan Endemic Tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels Based on ISSR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila MOUHADDAB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of the diversity of endangered populations of argan trees, in their natural habitat, is a crucial step toward their conservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of the argan trees in the wild, and to establish a phylogenetic map using DNA fingerprints. The ultimate goal was to develop a core set that would represent the existing diversity in the whole germplasm. In regard to this, 200 samples of Argania spinosa individual trees were collected from 10 different provenances in the region of Essaouira (Morocco. The genetic variation between and within these argan trees was investigated using previously described Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat markers. These markers generated a total of 149 fragments, in which 148 (99.33% were polymorphic. The samples collected in the ‘Ouled Lhaj’ provenance showed the lowest diversity (% of polymorphic locus P=48.32%; genetic diversity Nei h=0.153; allelic richness A=1.483, compared to those collected in the ‘Mramer’ provenance (%P=68.46%; h=0.233; A=1.685. Also, the results showed a high level of genetic differentiation among provenances (AMOVA=44%, Gst=0.40, and a limited gene flow (Nm=0.73 between the provenances. In addition, these data suggested a low correlation between the genetic diversity of the tree and their respective geographical location in relation to the proximity to the littoral. Finally, a core collection of 13 genotypes that represent the essential of the detected diversity was established. The distribution pattern of this genetic diversity provides an important baseline data for the conservation strategies of argan tree species in the wild.

  14. Rapid characterization of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by UPLC/Qtof MS with novel informatics platform and its application in evaluation of two seeds from Ziziphus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-xiang; Li, Min; Qiao, Li-rui; Yao, Zhi-hong; Li, Chang; Shen, Xiu-yu; Wang, Yu; Yu, Kate; Yao, Xin-sheng; Dai, Yi

    2016-04-15

    A strategy for rapid identification of target and non-target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) extracts were proposed by utilizing the UNIFI informatics platform for the computer-assisted UPLC/Qtof MS data analyses. Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) contains various bioactive chemical ingredients, such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Currently, there is no method that allows rapid and comprehensive identification of these multiple components. The rapid identification of chemical components in ZSS was successfully achieved with this strategy. As a result, 60 target components were identified and 53 non-target components were characterized. Among them, chemical structures of 40 new components were deduced based on their characteristic MS fragmentation patterns. In addition, the chemical ingredients of Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen (ZMS), which is often used as substitution of ZSS, were also investigated with the same strategy. A total of 132 chemical components were identified from these two plants, including 7 additional non-target new components. It demonstrated that this strategy not only facilitated an efficient protocol for the screening and identification of target components, but also offered a new perspective on discovering non-target components in TCMs or other herbal medicines. Furthermore, 48 components were selected for semi-quantitative analyses to evaluate the difference in chemical ingredients between these two seeds of Ziziphus species. The results showed that ZSS enriched many saponins, while ZMS contained few saponins. On the contrary, many cyclopeptide alkaloids could be detected in ZMS with high content, but rare in ZSS. These results can be used for the differentiation between ZSS and its adulterant (ZMS), and also to set a scientific foundation for the establishment of quality control of ZSS.

  15. Effective components of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for sedative-hypnotic based on receptor ligand binding assay%基于受体配体结合技术研究酸枣仁镇静催眠活性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳虹; 高瑞萍; 王军业; 叶晓琼; 潘雪刁; 臧林泉; 唐旗羚; 郭纪全; 王其友; 祝曙光; 王有娣; 杨晨; 高思远; 刘金泳

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine the effective compo-nents of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for sedative-hypnotic and its mechanism. Methods The extraction of Se-men Ziziphi Spinosae and the rat brain homogenates were prepared. High concentrations of Diazepam com-petitively replaced the ligand compounds of Semen Ziz-iphi Spinosae combining BDZ receptor in brain tissue, and all the compounds with sedative and hypnotic effects were collected and identified by HPLC and LC-MS technique, as the compounds extracted from the brain tissue were administered with Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae. The brain tissue was administered with Diaze-pam, and with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Diazepam. Results The HPLC chromatograms show that the peak time of BDZ receptor ligand compounds was 2. 71 min and 46. 87min, when compared with Diazepam. And the LC-MS chromatograms display the relative molecu-lar weight of the ligand compounds was 274. 28 m/z, 453. 34 m/z,496. 34 m/z and 608. 38 m/z respective-ly. According to the fingerprint of Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae, these compounds may be fatty acid substances and lupine pill triterpene compounds. Conclusions On the basis of the principle of receptor ligand bind-ing, we established a way to quickly analyze and iden-tify the role of natural products in the same drug target compounds. The method not only can clearly define the effective components of natural products, but also clar-ify the mechanism of action of the compounds. The ac-tive ingredient of calm hypnosis in Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae may be fatty acid substances Palmitic acid ( C16 H32 O2 ) and lupine pill triterpene compounds Alphitolic acid( C30 H48 O4 ) and Spinosin( C28 H32 O15 ) . They exert their sedative and hypnotic effects by combining with BDZ receptor, and the research has laid a theoretical foundation for the further study about mechanism of Se-men Ziziphi Spinosae.%目的:利用受体配体结合法探索酸枣仁中镇静催眠的活性成分,以及该成分的镇静催眠作用机制与苯二氮卓

  16. 刺糖多胞菌合成多杀菌素的基因研究%Study on Spinosad Synthetic Genes in Saccharopolyspora spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丽娟; 王辂

    2009-01-01

    多杀菌素是由刺糖多孢菌产生的一种新型大环内酯类混合次级代谢产物,为新型、高效、安全的生物杀虫剂.该类化合物由一个12元大环内酯以及一个中性糖和一个胺糖构成.多杀菌素生物合成基因大部分聚集在刺糖多孢菌基因组上约80kb大小的区域中.该区域DNA已被完全测序,并通过破坏目的基因的方法,对这一区域DNA的特性和功能进行了深入研究.多杀菌素生物合成基因簇包括5个编码I型聚酮合成酶的基因和14个与大环内酯结构修饰有关的基因,另外还有4个编码鼠李糖的基因未包含在上述基因簇中.%As a serial of novel, efficient and safe bio-insecticides, spinosad are produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa and are catalogued into macrolide secondary metabolites. These compounds are composed by one neutral sugar (rhamnose), an amino sugar (forosamine), and a 5,6,5-tricyclic ring system fused to a 12-membered macrocyclic lactone. In the bacteria producing these compounds, most of the macrolide biosynthetic genes clustered together in a 70~80kb region of the genome. DNA in this region has been sequenced and the character and function of it has been intensively studied by interrupting target gene. The gene clusters in charge of spinosad biosynthesis include 5 genes encoding polyketide synthase type I (PKS-I), 14 genes required for modification of macrolide. Another 4 genes encoding for rhamnose are not included in the above-mentioned gene clusters.

  17. 酸枣仁及伪品滇枣仁的质量分析%Species Differentiation and Quality Assessment of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa Based on the HPLC Fingerprint and Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠英; 王阶; 郭丽丽; 程惠平; 崔翰明; 吴萍; 董宇; 黄世敬

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish an HPLC method of a characteristical chemical fingerprint analysis in combination with simultaneous determination of four bioactive components for species differentiation and quality assessment of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa.Methods:The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent TC-C18 BDS (250 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm) column.The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water in a linear gradient elution procedure.The evaporator tube temperature of ELSD was set at 110.5 ℃ with the nebulizing gas flow rate of 3.1 mL/min and the flow rate of mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min.The column was maintained at 30 ℃.The injection volume was 20 μL.Results:HPLC methodology for both chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination of four active ingredients were validated,respectively.According to the contents of the four ingredients and the chemical fingerprints of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa using principal component analysis,Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa was different from the fake derived from the seeds of Ziziphus mauriliana.Conclusion:The developed HPLC method is exclusive and repetitive for the species identification and quality evaluation of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa.%目的:建立酸枣仁的多成分HPLC含量测定及HPLC指纹图谱分析方法,为鉴定酸枣仁的伪品滇枣仁提供可靠的科学方法.方法:采用Agilent TC-C18BDS(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm)色谱柱;流动相为乙腈-水进行梯度洗脱;ELSD漂移管温度:110.5℃,气体流速:3.1 mL/min;流速:1.0 mL/min;柱温:30℃;进样量:20μL.结果:利用所建立的HPLC色谱分析方法,通过对27批商品酸枣仁中斯皮诺素、酸枣仁皂苷A、酸枣仁皂苷B和白桦脂酸4种活性成分的含量分析,并结合指纹图谱分析可以得出:正品酸枣仁与伪品滇枣仁在有效成分含量及指纹图谱方面具有明显的鉴别特征,易于鉴别.结论:本法专属性强、重现性好,可用于酸枣仁的质量控制及伪品滇枣仁的鉴别.

  18. Effect of vegetable oils on the growth and spinosad biosynthetic potency of Saccharopolyspora spinosa%植物油对刺糖多孢菌生长及其合成多杀菌素能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马坤; 裘娟萍; 赵春田

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of vegetable oils on the growth and spinosad biosynthetic potency of Saccharopolyspora spinosa and explore new methods to improve the yield of spinosad,six kinds of vegetable oils,including sunflower oil,peanut oil,soybean oil,sesame oil, olive oil and rapeseed oil were screened. To study their influence on the growth,the lipase activity and the spinosad synthetic potency of S. spinosa,different vegetable oils were added to the fermentation medium as partial carbon sources,respectively. In addition,the temporal transcriptional profiles of the lipase gene and some selected genes in the spinosad biosynthetic pathway were examined by RT-PCR. The results indicated that the effects of different vegetable oils on the growth of S. spinosa and the production of spinosad varied significantly,which were that rapeseed oil ﹥olive oil ﹥peanut oil ﹥sesame oil ﹥sunflower oil ﹥soybean oil. The rapeseed oil was conducive to the induction of lipase expression,the delay of the decline phase of S. spinosa and the extension of the spinosad synthetic period. And the lipase activity,the biomass and the yield of spinosad were improved by 310. 09%, 8. 97% and 33. 94%,respectively. The transcriptional intensity of lipase gene and spinosad synthetic genes were also promoted. Thus the rapeseed oil was the optimal candidate of auxiliary carbon sources among the selected vegetable oils.%为研究不同种类植物油对刺糖多孢菌生长及其合成多杀菌素能力的影响,探索提高多杀菌素产量的方法,在发酵培养基中分别添加葵花油、花生油、大豆油、芝麻油、橄榄油和菜籽油,研究了其对菌体生长、脂肪酶活性和多杀菌素产量的影响,并利用RT-PCR对脂肪酶基因及多杀菌素合成相关基因的转录水平进行分析。结果表明:6种供试植物油对菌体生长和多杀菌素产量的影响程度不同,依次为菜籽油﹥橄榄油﹥花生油﹥芝麻油﹥

  19. 基于均匀设计法对酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的配伍研究%Uniform Designed Research on the Active Ingredients Assembling of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for Anti-depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕾

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen out the optimized compatibility proportion of three active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae foranti-depression.Methods Groups were ar anged fol owing uniform design. The forced swimming test,tail suspension test were car ied out to determine theanti-depressantactivity in mice.Mice immobility duration in forced swimming test and tail suspension test were observed.Results The optimized dosage of total fat y oil was 10mg/kg,total flavonoids was 100mg/kg and total saponins was 10mg/kg.Conclusion It would be possible to use uniform design combined with pharmacodynamics method in defining the optimized compatibility of active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae.%目的优选酸枣仁中3种抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍比例。方法根据均匀设计法进行分组,采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验,用小鼠不动时间作为药效学评价指标。结果酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最优配伍为总脂肪油10mg/Kg,总黄酮100mg/Kg,总皂苷10mg/Kg。验证实验证明,酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍组合抗抑郁疗效确切。结论应用均匀设计法与药效学相结合确定酸枣仁活性组分配伍的方法是可行的。

  20. Cloning and reconstitution of rhamose and forosamine biosynthetic gene of Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL18395%刺糖多孢菌鼠李糖和福乐糖胺合成基因的克隆和组装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭航; 白亭丽; 陶美凤

    2012-01-01

    Rhamnose and forosamine are two essential deoxysugars components of spinosad. Four genes involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnose and forosamine, I. E. Gtt (encoding NDP-glucose syn-thase) ,gdh (encoding NDP-glucose dehydratase), epi (encoding epimerase) and kre (encoding 4 -ke-toreductase),are not located together with the spinosad biosynthetic gene cluster, but distributed in 3 scattered loci in the chromosome of Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL18395. To get an integral spinosad biosynthetic pathway, the four genes were cloned by constructing a genomic library and PCR amplifying from S. Spinosa NRRL18395. The 4 genes were successively assembled into an integrative vector to construct an expression vector for biosynthesis of rhamnose and forosamine in heterologous hosts.%鼠李糖和福乐糖胺是多杀菌素生物合成必需的2个脱氧糖结构单元,负责其合成的4种酶的基因(gtt、epi、gdh、kre)与多杀菌素生物合成基因簇并不在一起,而是分散分布在染色体的3个位点上.为克隆到完整的多杀菌素生物合成基因簇,采用构建基因组文库、PCR扩增等手段从刺糖多孢菌NRRL18395染色体分别克隆gtt、epi、gdh和kre基因,并将其克隆组装在同一整合型载体上,以便于构建用于表达多杀菌素糖单元合成基因的表达载体.

  1. Study on Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae%酸枣仁提取物定性定量分析方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕福钧; 林彤; 江英桥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish thin layer chromatography(TLC)method for identifying the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, and to develop a method of high performance liquid chromatography- evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD)for the simultaneous determination of jujuboside A,jujuboside B and spinosin in the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Methods N-butanol saturated with water was used as solvent system and silica gel G was used as stationary phase for the identification of extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. HPLC-ELSD method was adopted for the quantitative analysis. The analysis was performed on a Kromasil C18 column(200 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile(A)-water(B)by gradient elution(0~15 min,20 %A→40 %A;15~22 min,40 %A;22~24 min,40 % A→80 % A;24~30 min,80 % A→100 % A;30~40 min,100 % A) at 25 ℃ with a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The evaporative light scattering detector was set at 50 ℃,and the decay gradient was set at 6. Results The TLC method was good for the identification of extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. The linear range was 0.105~1.68 μg (r=0.9998)for jujuboside A ,0.0743~1.1885 μg(r=0.9995)for jujuboside B,and 0.2972~4.757μg (r=0.9992)for spinosin. The average recoveries(n=6) of three components were 97.6 %,99.9% and 104.8 % and RSD was 1.2 %,1.9 %and 1.0 %,respectively. Conclusion The TLC method is rapid and stable. The HPLC-ELSD method is accurate and reproducible. The established methods are suitable for the identification and quantitative determination of the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.%目的:建立酸枣仁提取物薄层色谱鉴别方法及高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法(HPLC-ELSD)同时测定酸枣仁皂苷A、B和斯皮诺素含量的方法。方法以水饱和正丁醇为展开剂,采用硅胶G板进行定性鉴别;采用HPLC-ELSD法进行定量测定,Kromasil C18色谱柱(200 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相为乙腈(A)-水(B),梯度洗脱(0

  2. Argania spinosa var. mutica and var. apiculata: variation of fatty-acid composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities among varieties, organs, and development stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Adib, Saifeddine; Aissi, Oumayma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Messaoud, Chokri

    2015-09-01

    Argania spinosa includes two varieties, var. apiculata and var. mutica. These argan varieties were introduced into Tunisia in ancient times and are actually cultivated in some botanic gardens. Little is known about the chemical differentiation among these argan varieties. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the fatty-acid composition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of leaf, seed, and pulp extracts of both argan varieties harvested during the months of January to April. The fatty-acid distribution was found to depend on the argan variety, the plant organ, and the harvest time. Significant variations in the phenolic contents were observed between the investigated varieties as well as between leaves, pulps, and seeds of each variety. As expected, phenolic compounds were found to be contributors to the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of both argan varieties. The chemical differentiation observed among the two argan varieties, based mainly on the fatty-acid composition, might have some chemotaxonomic value. PMID:26363877

  3. ExperimentaI Study of the Hypnotic Effect of the CompatibiIity of Sedum aizoon L.and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa by Increase-decrease BaseIine Geometric Proportion Design Method%基于基线等比增减法的养心草配伍酸枣仁安神药效的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 林珠灿; 张睿卓; 郭素华

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the optimal proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa on hypnotic effect .METHODS According to the increase-decrease baseline geometric proportion design method , different proportion compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa were optimized through observing the pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice.RESULTS Compared with the control group,prescrip-tions 3,4 could extent the sleep time significantly and increased the sleep rate (P<0.01),and the prescriptions 3 was best.CONCLUSION Prescriptions 3 is the best proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa.on hypnotic effects.%目的:优选养心草与酸枣仁配伍安神作用的最佳配比。方法采用基线等比增减法拟定养心草与酸枣仁不同比例配伍,观察其对小鼠协同戊巴比妥钠睡眠实验的影响。结果与空白组相比,处方3,4能显著延长小鼠的睡眠时间和增加小鼠入睡率(P<0.01),且以处方3药效最佳。结论处方3为养心草配伍酸枣仁安神作用的最佳比例。

  4. 均匀设计法优选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分配伍研究%Compatibility of Effective Antidepressant Components of semen Ziziphi spinosae Based on Uniform Design Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 高岚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To optimize the best compatibility of effective antidepressant components (total fat oil, total flavonoids, total saponins) of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Methods 90 mice were randomly divided into 9 groups, the control group and administration A -H groups by the uniform design method. The mice forced swimming and the tail suspension test in each group were observed. With the immobility time at latter 4 min within 6 min as the evaluating index, the best compatibility of effective antidepressant components was screened. The pharmaceutical effects of obtained optimal compatibility of the effective components were to be proved by the comparison and verification experiment. Results The immobility time of mice during the forced swimming test in the administration A, B, C, F, H groups were significantly less than those in the control group( P < 0. 05); the immobility time of mice during the tail suspension test in the administration A, B, D, E, F, H groups were significantly less than those in the control group( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). After the multivariate statistical analysis, the optimal compatibility of effective antidepressant components of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae was total fat oil 10 mg / kg, to-tal flavonoids 100 mg / kg and total saponins 10 mg / kg. Conclusion The compatibility of effective components determined by the combina-tion of the uniform design, mathematical statistics and pharmacodynamics is feasible, the pharmaceutical effect of optimized active component compatibility reaches or surpasses that of the original medicinal materials.%目的:优选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分(总脂肪油、总黄酮、总皂苷)的最佳配伍。方法采用均匀设计法将90只小鼠随机分为9组,分别为对照组及给药 A ~ H 组,观察各组小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾试验情况,以小鼠在6 min 中后4 min 内不动时间为评价指标,筛选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍,对所得有效组分最佳配伍的药效进

  5. 葡萄糖及磷酸盐对刺糖多孢菌多杀菌素发酵的影响%Effects of Glucose and Phosphate on Spinosad Fermentation by Saccharopolyspora spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金志华; 程休; 岑沛霖

    2006-01-01

    The effects of glucose and inorganic phosphate on mycelium growth and spinosad production with Saccharopolyspora spinosa were studied. The results showed that the increase of glucose concentration from 18.6g·L-1 to 58.8g·L-1 could promote the mycelium growth and spinosad production. And when the glucose concentration increased from 58.8g·L-1 to 79.6g·L-1, no obvious change was detected but a slight drop in spinosad production was observed, whereas, when the glucose concentration increased from 79.6g·L-1 to l15.3g·L-1, substantial decrease in both mycelium growth and spinosad production occurred. The increase of phosphate conccntration from 3.68mmol· L-1 to 29.41mmol·L-1 rendered corresponding increase in mycelium growth and spinosad production. When phosphate concentration increased from 29.41mmol· L-1 to 44.12mmol·L-1, mycelium growth slightly increased and spinosad production dropped, while when phosphate concentration increased from44.12mmol·L-1 to 57.62mmol·L-1, both mycelium growth and spinosad production decreased sharply. Conclusively,the optimal initial concentration of glucose and phosphate is 58.8g·L-1 and 29.41mmol·L-1, respectively. The spinosad fermentation in the production medium containing 58.8g·L-1 glucose and 29.41mmol·L-1 phosphate was scaled up in 5-L fermentation and the spinosad production reached 507mg·L-1, which was 28% higher than that in the flask fermentation.

  6. Cara's Caper or So You Want to Buy a Car?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Constance Van Brunt; And Others

    This is one of a series of workbooks in consumer education which would also be useful in English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. In addition to textual material, each lesson is illustrated with pen-and-ink drawings and contains various types of short exercises to check comprehension and vocabulary. (AMH)

  7. Cusp Alfven and Plasma Electrodynamics Rocket (CAPER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch a single rocket from Andoya Rocket Range into an active cusp event. Observe electric and magnetic fields, HF waves, electron and ion distributions and...

  8. 基于"病证-效应-生物样本分析"方法的酸枣仁"安神"药性物质及归经的研究%Investigation on"An-shen"Drug Substances and Meridian Tropism of Semen Zizyphi Spinosae Based on"Syndrome-effect-analysis of Biological Samples"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔瑛; 杨晶晶; 郭敏娟; 王君明; 赵素霞; 马开; 汪晶; 王珩杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究酸枣仁"安神"药性物质及指标性成分体内分布与归经的相关性.方法:灌胃甲状腺片混悬液160 mg·kg-1连续13天制备大鼠阴虚模型,结合高架十字迷宫装置和明暗箱装置评价酸枣仁对阴虚大鼠焦虑行为的影响;将阴虚焦虑大鼠于灌胃酸枣仁水煎液后10、20、30、40、60、90、120、240 min时摘眼球取血,并立即处死,采集心、肝、脾、肺、肾、胃、脑、大肠、小肠等组织,联合应用HPLC-PDA-ELSD检测斯皮诺素、酸枣仁皂苷A和酸枣仁皂苷B在大鼠各组织中的浓度,检测数据用DAS 2.0软件处理得到相关药动学参数.结果:与阴虚模型组比较,酸枣仁显著降低阴虚大鼠24 h内异常增高的进食量(P胃>肝>脑>大肠>脾>肺>心>肾,在组织中的AUC0-t依次为小肠>胃>肝>大肠>脾>脑>心>肾>肺;酸枣仁皂苷A在组织中的平均分布浓度依次为肺>大肠>心>脾>肝>肾>小肠>胃>脑,在组织中的AUC0-t依次为肺>脾>肝>心>大肠>脑>胃>肾>小肠;酸枣仁皂苷B在组织中的平均分布浓度依次为大肠>小肠>胃,在组织中的AUC0-t依次为大肠>小肠>胃.结论:酸枣仁能有效改善阴虚症状,能很好地对抗阴虚大鼠的焦虑行为,具有良好的抗焦虑作用.酸枣仁中斯皮诺素和酸枣仁皂苷A为"安神"功效物质,也是酸枣仁甘、酸味的物质基础.斯皮诺素和酸枣仁皂苷A成分在阴虚焦虑大鼠体内的分布情况与酸枣仁的归经情况比较接近.%This article was aimed to study "An-shen" drug substances of semen ziziphi spinosae and the relationship between index component distribution in vivo and meridian tropism. Intragastric administration of thyroid tablet suspension at the dose of 160 mg·kg-1 was given for 13 days for the establishment of yin deficiency rat model. Elevated plus maze test (EPM) was combined with light/dark box test to evaluate the effect of semen ziziphi spinosae on anxiety behavior among yin deficiency rats

  9. Enhanced production of spinosad with strains of Saccharopolyspora spinosa by genome shuffling%基于基因组重排技术的多杀菌素高产菌株选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏燕春; 王超; 陈园; 吴江磊; 邹球龙; 张晓琳; 李春

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genome shuffling of eight original strains obtained by various methods of chemical and physical mutations was used to achieve rapid improvement of spinosad production. The conditions of preparation, regeneration, parents inactivation and fusion of protoplast of the original strain were investigated. The strain grown for 65 h was treated by 4 mg·ml-1 lysozyme at 39℃for 20 min, and preparation rate and regeneration rate were 92.30%and 7.66%, respectively. The protoplasts were inactivated by heating at 60℃for more than 90 min and UV treatment more than 200 s, respectively. The inactivated protoplasts were fused and regenerated in polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000, 50%) for 15 min, and fusion rate was about 1.18%. After three rounds of genome shuffling, a high yielding strain, designated as S.spinosa 3-652, was isolated. The increased yield was about 36.07% higher than that of the original strain. Subculture experiments indicated that the high producers were stable.%利用课题组前期通过不同物理化学诱变和分子生物学方法获得的8株多杀菌素产生菌为出发菌株,采用96孔板发酵培养结合生物检测的高通量筛选方法,探索了原生质体制备、再生、双亲灭活和原生质体融合等条件,并通过多轮基因组重排获得了多杀菌素高产菌株。结果表明:当菌龄为65 h、溶菌酶浓度为4 mg·ml-1,39℃处理时间20 min时,原生质体的制备率及再生率分别为92.30%和7.66%;60℃恒温水浴90 min以上和紫外照射200 s以上为双亲灭活条件;PEG浓度为50%,在32℃下处理15 min时,原生质体融合率约为1.18%。最终获得1株产量较出发菌株提高了36.07%且遗传稳定的融合株。

  10. A Brief overview of some natural molluscicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineda Dahane-Rouissat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, there are three active schistosome centers (Schistosoma haematobium carried by the intermediate host (Bulinus forskalii and Bulinus truncatus in the Saharan oasis of Djanet region, Beni Abbes and Biskra and north in the area of Algiers (Mitidja, Reghaia, Gué of Constantine finally near Oran (Jdioua. This bref reviews on natural molluscicides give and presents preliminary research of a molluscicidal screening programme carried out on some Algerian Saharan molluscicidal plants: Anvillea radiata, Artemisia herba alba Asso, Bubonium gravealens, Launaea nudicaulis, Warionea saharea [Asteraceae] ; Capparis spinosa L. [Capparidaceae]; Acacia raddiana [Fabaceae] et Limoniastrum Feei [Plumbagiaceae].

  11. Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D

    1987-01-01

    In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose.

  12. Isolation, identification and drug sensitivity tests of Proteus mirabilis from rotten-skin disease of Rana spinosa%棘胸蛙烂皮病奇异变形杆菌的分离、鉴定及对药物敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君; 熊筱娟

    2012-01-01

    从患烂皮病的棘胸蛙(Rana spinosa)中分离到一株致病菌,通过形态学、生理生化试验等方法鉴定该致病菌株为奇异变形杆菌(Proteus mirabilis).同时,通过抑菌圈法研究了该菌株对11种抗生素、11种中草药、4种消毒剂的敏感性.结果显示:该菌株对头孢曲松、阿莫西林、链霉素、诺氟沙星、庆大霉素、卡那霉素、氯霉素等抗生素敏感,对四环素、红霉素不敏感;未观察到黄芪、茵陈对该菌的抑制作用,忍冬藤抑菌效果最好,其次依次为紫花地丁、金银花与甘草、鱼腥草、大青叶与柴胡、陈皮、黄连;致病菌株对消毒剂的敏感性依次为:高锰酸钾>三氯异氰脲酸>硫酸铜>氧化钙.%Pathogenic strain originated from the rotten-skin disease of Rana spinosa was isolated. The isolated strain was I-dentified as Proteus mirabilis by its morphological and biochemical properties. At the same time, the susceptibility of isolated strain to antibiotics, Chinese herbal medicine and disinfectant was studied by zone of inhibition testing. Results showed: it was sensitive to ceftriaxone sodium, amoxicillin, streptomyclin, norfloxacin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin and chloroamphenicol; it was not sensitive to tetracycline and erythromyclin. Astragalus membranaceus and Artemisiac apil-laris Thunb had less inhibition to this strain. The bigger inhibition zone is Lonicera japonica, Viola philippica Car, Honeysuckle and Radix glycyrrhiza, Houttuynia cordata Thunb, halts indigotica Fortune and Radix Bupleuri, Pericarpium citri, Coptis chinensis Franch sorted by size. Inhibitory effect of these disinfectors.was: Potassium permanganate >Trichloro iso-cyanuric acid > Copper sulfate > Calcium oxide.

  13. Pollution Based Study of Heavy Metals in Some Selected Medicinal Plants by Dry Digestion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Niaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of heavy metals including Iron (Fe, Nickel (Ni, Manganese( Mn, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu, Cadmium (Cd, Chromium (Cr and Lead (Pb in four selected medicinal plants Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala , Rhazya stricta and Tamarix articulata collected from polluted and unpolluted areas of Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Dry Ashingmethod was adopted for sample preparation. In general the concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants from polluted area was found to decrease in the order of Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu >Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd, and the same order was also found in unpolluted area. In polluted area Iron was found high 48.76 mg/kg in leaves ofCapparis spinosa while least level (Below detection level was that of Cadmium and in unpolluted area the level of iron was high 54.94 mg/kg in roots of Rhazya stricta while least concentration was that of Cd 0.02 mg/kg in leaves of Peganum harmala. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind their extensive use in traditional medicine for various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals is a supreme importance in protecting the Public from the adverse and hazardous affects of these heavy metals.

  14. Bell ringers' bruises and broken bones: capers and crises in campanology.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, A C; London, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence, aeriology, and outcome of injuries due to bell ringing. DESIGN--Retrospective review of the last six years' issues of Ringing World, advertisement in Ringing World, and a postal questionnaire sent to 20 active ringing towers. SUBJECTS--Regular bell ringers. RESULTS--Seventy nine injuries were identified both from review and by advertisement in Ringing World. The incidence of injury among 221 ringers identified by postal questionnaire was 1.8% a year. CON...

  15. Triterpenoids from Argania spinosa: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals.

  16. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ARGAN OIL (ARGANIA SPINOSA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system. Present study thus reveals that argan oil holds promise as immunomodulatory agent, which act by stimulating dose dependent phagocytic function.

  17. Triterpenoids from Argania spinosa: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals. PMID:23472456

  18. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  19. Kareel plant: A natural source of medicines and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua or kareel is an indigenous medicinal plant of India having large biodiversity in different north-western states of India. The young flower bud and fruits are used to make pickles while caper berries are used as vegetable. Plant has its wider utility in traditional folk medicine and is used as ailments to relieve variety of pains or aches such as toothache, cough and asthma heal. Plant contains few important secondary metabolites such as quercetin which act as melanogenesis stimulator and also increase tyrosinase protein expression. Capparis sp. seeds contain lectin that exhibit potent anti HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition activity and also inhibits proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. It shows anti-rheumatic, anti-diabitic, anti-arthritis and anti-gout agent. C. decidua contains generous quantities of alkaloids, fatty acids, terpenes, vitamins, fibre and oils that show greater medicinal and nutritive value. It also contains saccharides, glycosides, flavonoids, volatile oils, sterols and steroids, which showed multiple pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, anti-fungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, anti-oxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anti-coagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction. Cadabicine an alkaloid that occurs in leaves shows anti-parasitic activity, while root bark and pulp are used to kill helminthes. Due to enzymatic inhibition plant extract shows the ability to control Leishmania major and L. infantum, L. donovani, L. braziliensis, Crithidia fasciculata and Herpetomonas muscarum infection. In the present review article both medicinal and nutraceutical properties of C decidua have been described in detail and special emphasis is given on its sustainable use of plant and its conservation in natural habitat.

  20. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  1. Phenolic profile of Arbutus unedo L. and Prunus spinosa L. wild fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are commonly found in both edible and inedible plants, and they have been reported to have multiple biological effects. The interest of plant phenolics derives from the evidence of their potent antioxidant activity and their wide range of pharmacologic properties including anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and antibacterial activities. Flavonoids are a type of phenolic secondary metabolites with a widespread occurrence in the plant kingdom [1]. These compounds and...

  2. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  3. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ARGAN OIL (ARGANIA SPINOSA L)

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2013-01-01

    Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimu...

  4. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at thi

  5. Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa): The sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Joan Carles; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Aribau, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with environment and social concerns. Tara tannins have been used in retanning formulas in leather processing and its properties are well known. This work aims to optimize formulations using tara as a pre-tanning agent. Combinations with a naphthalene sulphonic syntan are used to obtain an innovative wet-white rec...

  6. Structure and Oligomers Distribution of Commercial Tara (Caesalpina spinosa Hydrolysable Tannin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele GIOVANDO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracted commercial Tara tanninextract have been examined by Matrix Assisted LaserDesorption/Ionisation Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOFmass spectrometry and by High Pressure LiquidChromatography (HPLC. The Tara extract has beenfound to be composed of a series of oligomers ofpolygallic acid attached by an ester link to one quinicacid. They constitute the oligomers in higherproportion in the extract. Other polygallic chains linkedto one only or two repeating units such as caffeic acidand methylated quinic, methylated gallic andmethylated caffeic acids are also present. Negativeion mode MALDI-TOF showed that somecarbohydrate residues appear to still be present,linked to the polyphenolic material of the extract buttheir proportion is very low as would be expected of asolvent extracted tannin.

  7. Quality of Cosmetic Argan Oil Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Argania spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaa Taribak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan oil has been extracted using supercritical CO2. The influence of the variables pressure (100, 200, 300, and 400 bar and temperature (35, 45, 55°C was investigated. The best extraction yields were achieved at a temperature of 45°C and a pressure of 400 bar. The argan oil extracts were characterized in terms of acid, peroxide and iodine values, total tocopherol, carotene, and fatty acids content. Significant compositional differences were not observed between the oil samples obtained using different pressures and temperatures. The antioxidant capacity of the argan oil samples was high in comparison to those of walnut, almond, hazelnut, and peanut oils and comparable to that of pistachio oil. The physicochemical parameters of the extracted oils obtained by SFE, Soxhlet, and traditional methods are comparable. The technique used for oil processing does not therefore markedly alter the quality of argan oil.

  8. Quality of Cosmetic Argan Oil Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Argania spinosa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chouaa Taribak; Lourdes Casas; Casimiro Mantell; Zoubaida Elfadli; Metni, Rédouane E.; Enrique J. Martínez de la Ossa

    2013-01-01

    Argan oil has been extracted using supercritical CO2. The influence of the variables pressure (100, 200, 300, and 400 bar) and temperature (35, 45, 55°C) was investigated. The best extraction yields were achieved at a temperature of 45°C and a pressure of 400 bar. The argan oil extracts were characterized in terms of acid, peroxide and iodine values, total tocopherol, carotene, and fatty acids content. Significant compositional differences were not observed between the oil samples obtained us...

  9. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention. PMID:16982463

  10. Activated carbons from KOH-activation of argan (Argania spinosa) seed shells as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouwahidi, Abdelhakim; Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by KOH-activation of argan seed shells (ASS). The activated carbon with the largest surface area and most developed porosity was superficially treated to introduce oxygen and nitrogen functionalities. Activated carbons with a surface area of around 2100 m(2)/g were obtained. Electrochemical measurements were carried out with a three-electrode cell using 1M H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte and Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. The O-rich activated carbon showed the lowest capacitance (259 F/g at 125 mA/g) and the lowest capacity retention (52% at 1A/g), due to surface carboxyl groups hindering electrolyte diffusion into the pores. Conversely, the N-rich activated carbon showed the highest capacitance (355 F/g at 125 mA/g) with the highest retention (93% at 1A/g), due to its well-developed micro-mesoporosity and the pseudocapacitance effects of N functionalities. This capacitance performance was among the highest reported for other activated carbons from a large variety of biomass precursors. PMID:22370231

  11. A Study of Anti-Microbial Effect of Pycnocycla Spinosa's Fruit Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jalali, Ph.D.; D. Abedi, Ph.D; Gh.R. Asghari, Ph.D.; Z. Rezaie, Ph.D

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Infectious diseases account for approximately one-half of all deaths in tropical country. In developed country, despite the progress made on the control of disease, incidence of epidemics due to drug resistant microorganisms and unknown diseases spreading microbes pose enormous public health concerns. On the other hand, in spite of improvements in food production hygiene, food safety is increasingly an important health issue. There is, therefore, still a need for new a...

  12. [Optimization of culture conditions for in vitro rooting of argan (Argania spinosa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousselmame, F; Kenny, L; Chlyah, H

    2001-11-01

    The root system produced of in vitro organ plantlets is of poor quality and not efficient for the transfer to out-door conditions. To overcome such problems, experimentation was undertaken where the effects of growth regulators, nitrogen, sugar, activated charcoal and coconut fiber were tested on root induction and elongation. Modified Murashige and Skoog with half strength salt was used as a basal medium. Root induction (85%) with a mean of 16 roots per explant was obtained when shoots were grown, under dark conditions for 14 days, with a combination of two auxins (IBA and NNA), added at equal concentrations (5 mg.L-1). Secondary roots, 10 cm long, were initiated in 12% of the cultures in presence of 5 g.L-1 activated charcoal. Further improvements in the growth of the primary and secondary roots were obtained when semi-solid medium was substituted with a substrate composed of coconut fibers (80 g) mixed with semi-solid medium (35 mL) and agar (2.5 g.L-1). PMID:11725707

  13. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

  14. 维药刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸的含量测定%Determination of Vanillic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid in Cappers spinoza by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王响华; 陈文; 郭小娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸含量的高效液相色谱法.方法:采用Dikma Kromasil C18柱(4.6 mm×150mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸水梯度洗脱,紫外检测波长258 nm,流速0.8 mL· min-1.结果:刺山柑果实中香草酸和原儿茶酸分别在0.00150 ~0.00900,0.00580 ~0.0348 μg呈良好的线性关系,(r=0.9999);平均加样回收率(n=3)分别为105% (RSD1.90%)103% (RSD=1.81%).结论:该方法操作简单、结果可靠、重复性好、定量准确,可用于刺山柑果实中原儿茶酸和香草酸的含量测定.%Objective: To establish a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in Capparis spinosa. Method: The samples were separated on a C18 column (4. 6 mm x 150 mm, 5 μm) , the mobile phase was consisted of methanol-0. 1 % phosphoric acid with gradient elution at the flow rate of 0. 8 mL -1 min and the detection wavelength was set at 258 nm. Result; The calibration curves for vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were linear in the range of 0. 001 50-0. 009 00, 0. 005 80-0. 034 8μg respectively. All the correlation coefficient were 0.999 9, and the average recoveries ( n = 3 ) were 105% and 103% with corresponding RSDs of 1.90% and 1.81% respectively. Conclusion; The method is simple, accurate and sensitive and can be used to determine the content of the vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid in C. spinosa.

  15. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  16. Field evaluation in Thailand of spinosad, a larvicide derived from Saccharopolyspora spinosa (Actinomycetales) against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Mulla, Mir S

    2009-03-01

    Two formulations of spinosad, direct application tablet (DT) and 0.5% granules (GR), at 3 dosages (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l) in 200-liter earthen jars were evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Two water regimens were used in the jars: jar full all the time and a full jar in which half the volume of the water was removed and replaced at each assessment interval. All treatments and controls were replicated 4 times and challenged with cohorts of 25 third-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti at weekly intervals during the study. The number of pupal skins (indicating successful emergence of adults) in the treated and control regimens were counted 7 days post-addition and they were used to calculate inhibition of emergence (% IE) based on the original number of larvae used. The DT formulation at the highest concentration (1.0 mg/l) yielded 79-100% IE for 34 days in the full jars, efficacy declining beyond this period. However, the longevity of this dosage was much longer with 90-100% IE for 62 days post-treatment in the water exchange regimen. The target and manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mg/l of DT gave good control (92-100% IE) for 20 days, declining below 92% IE thereafter in full jars. This dose also yielded good control with IE of 97-100% for 27 days in the water exchange regimen. The 0.5% GR formulation at all 3 dosages showed higher efficacy and greater longevity in the jars than the DT. In the full jars, all 3 dosages produced IE of 76-100% for 55 days post-treatment. In the water exchange regimen, the efficacy and longevity were increased by about one week, up to 62 days post-treatment. It is clear that the DT formulation can be used effectively against Ae. aegypti larvae at a target dose of 0.5 mg/l in 200-liter jars. This dose can be increased to 1.0 mg/l if slightly longer residual activity is desired. In containers where water is consumed and more water added, the longevity of efficacy will be longer for the DT than in jars which remain full all the time. GR (0.5%) gave longer control than DT. GR (0.5%) floated on the surface and produced scum and an oily film, features not desirable in stored water.

  17. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18066138

  18. Isolation, Structural Characterization, and Valorization of Pectic Substances from Algerian Argan Tree Leaves (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadda Hachem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectic polysaccharides were solubilized from Algerian argan tree leaves by sequential extraction with water at 100°C (water-soluble pectin; AL-WSP and EDTA solution at 80°C (chelating-soluble pectin; AL-CSP. Both AL-WSP and AL-CSP were rich in arabinose (28% and 74.5%, resp. and had a high content of uronic acid (38.5% and 21.5%, resp.. Pectic substances were deesterified and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography, giving five fractions for each extract. Most of the fractions were characterized by methylation analysis and then analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that AL-WSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I, with arabinan and galactan branching at the O-4 position of the main rhamnose chain, while AL-CSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I and a block of homogalacturonan. Antioxidant activities of AL-WSP and AL-CSP were evaluated by electronic spin resonance. The results showed that the antioxidant potential of AL-WSP (8.1% and AL-CSP (−1.2% was significantly lower than that of vitamin E.

  19. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  20. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  1. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

  2. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1800 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a [Deinopis spinosa] 1e-121 58% MLVMSPLAKHRQMGAEQILCRYGCRCGCRLCVGVGAGMGAVVGTAVCSGVGTGVGAGMGAGVGIGVCSGVGAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVGAGVDAGM...GAGVGAGVDAGVDAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVDAGVGAGMGAAVDAGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGM...GAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGM...GAGVDAGVVAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGMGTGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGVGAGVDAGMAAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGMGAGMGAGVDAGIGTGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVGWWRAR ...

  3. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (Pargan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  4. Comparison of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer application on yield and concentration of some nutrients in spinach (Spinosa olerace L. in three textural classes of a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ronaghi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Addition of sewage sludge (SS in soil causes increasing soil organic matter, which in turn improves soil physical properties, and could supply part of the nutrients required by plants. For comparison of SS application and chemical fertilizer treatment (CFT on yield and concentration of some macro and micro nutrients in spinach, a greenhouse factorial experiment, arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD, was conducted with three replications. The first factor included SS levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 gr kg-1 and the second factor was soil textural classes (clay loam, sandy loam and sandy. A CFT was also used to compare its affect with that of SS levels. Results showed that addition of all levels of SS caused significant increase in the weight of spinach shoots in three soil textures. Application of all SS levels caused significant increase of nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and manganese (Mn concentration in spinach shoots. With SS application, none of the nutrients’ concentration in spinach reached the toxic level. The amounts of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were not detectable in shoots. However, in frequent application of SS, especially at high levels, it is necessary to measure and detect these elements in plants. Effect of fertilizer in increasing yield and concentration of nutrients was less than the 40 and 80 gr kg-1 SS treatments. Considering the Fe and Zn deficiency in calcareous soils, application of SS can be effective for combating this deficiency. Prior to any recommendation of SS application, the results of this research need to be verified under field conditions.

  5. Chemical constituents of volatile oils from Catunaregam spinosa fruits%山石榴果实挥发油的化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨克迪; 葛利; 曾东强; 周永红

    2009-01-01

    采用超临界CO2提取山石榴果实挥发油,并利用GC-MS联用技术分析挥发油的化学组成.从山石榴果实挥发油中分离、鉴定出33个化合物,占挥发油总量的89.43%.挥发油主要由各种酯、脂肪酸成分组成,含量较高的成分是11,14-二十碳二烯酸甲酯(11,14-eicosadienoic acid,methyl ester,42.49%),棕榈酸(palmitic acid,15.34%),硬脂酸(stearic acid,10.54%),肉豆蔻酸(myristic acid,6.26%),十六酸乙酯(hexadecanoic acid,ethyl ester,5.84%).

  6. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P<0.01) and reduced the disappearance of Vitamin E in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of HDL with VAO-PE significantly increased the fluidity of the HDL phospholipidic bilayer (P=0.0004) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. These results suggest that Virgin argan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL. PMID:16019008

  7. High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among populations of the argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] endemic to Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mousadik, A; Petit, R J

    1996-05-01

    Genetic diversity at nine isozyme loci was surveyed in an endangered tree species, the argan tree, endemic to south-western Morocco. The species is highly diverse (3.6 alleles/locus) with populations strongly differentiated from each other (F ST=0.25). This example is used to illustrate a method for standardizing measures of allelic richness in samples of unequal sample sizes, which was developed for the estimation of the number of species and relies on the technique of rarefaction. In addition, it is shown that the measure of subdivision, θ ST, obtained when allelic richness is used in place ofh (Nei's index of diversity), is much larger than the F ST [e.g. θ ST(40)=0.52, where (40) indicates the specified sample used to estimate the allelic richness]. This suggests that rare alleles (which strongly influence measures of allelic richness) have a more scattered distribution than more frequent ones, a result which raises special conservation issues for the argan tree. PMID:24166548

  8. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  9. 棘胸蛙、虎纹蛙、黑斑蛙血细胞的比较%Comparison of Blood Cells of Paa spinosa, Rana rugulosa and Rana nigromaculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡知渊; 来雅萍; 陈文静

    2005-01-01

    应用Giemsa染色法对棘胸蛙、虎纹蛙和黑斑蛙的血细胞进行显微观察和各形态参数测定,并对各类细胞作了图示和描述.结果表明,红细胞和白细胞的形态和数量比例有一定属和种的特征,并与其生长环境和进化地位有一定联系.

  10. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  11. Not Competent, Not Restorable, and Not Committable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Kirk W

    2016-06-01

    I comment on the problem discussed by Simpson of criminal defendants who are found not competent, not restorable, and subject to involuntary civil commitment. He presents the 2010 case of Donn Thomas Spinosa in Oregon as an exemplar of serial nonrestorability. The facts of the Spinosa case are illustrative of a prosecutor who is frustrated by not being able to bring a criminal prosecution against a person who is not competent to stand trial and a state hospital that is proposing discharge of the person because he can no longer be civilly committed. I review and apply the longstanding constitutional principles of Jackson v. Indiana to the Spinosa case. PMID:27236172

  12. An unusual giant pycnogonid (Pycnogonida-Colossendeidae) Decolopoda qasimi sp. nov. from Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Five specimens of benthic pycnogonids collected from the Southern Ocean are described. Of these, two are identified as Nymphon australis (Hodgson) and two as Ecleipsotherma spinosa (Hodgson). One specimen under the class Colossendeidae, is described...

  13. A study on the effects of compound oil of semen spinosa, semen orientalis, and jasminoides on soothing nerves and improving mental capacities in mice%棘仁柏仁栀子油配方的安神与益智作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高枫; 符兆英; 李宝莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨棘仁、柏仁和栀子配伍组方的安神与益智作用.方法:将棘仁、柏仁和栀子的活性部位棘仁油、柏仁油和栀子油按3:2:I配成复方制剂,灌胃给药,观察其对小鼠自主活动和学习记忆的影响.结果:棘仁柏仁栀子油可使小鼠自主活动减少且无耐受现象,并可缩短小鼠水迷宫登台潜伏期.结论:棘仁柏仁栀子油配方有镇静安神和增强学习记忆的作用.

  14. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master yan zhenghua's prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Meng-di; Sheng, Xiao-guang

    2014-11-01

    The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix.

  15. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN)

    OpenAIRE

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-01-01

    A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus commu...

  16. Il paesaggio agrario dell’alto Garda bresciano e i suoi prodotti storici: un patrimonio da recuperare e valorizzare

    OpenAIRE

    Alberta Cazzani

    2015-01-01

    Upper Garda Lake landscape is particular: a pristine natural environment is joined with an ancient transformation work by man to make profitable cultivations possible. These cultivations were giving rare and precious products, in the past very valuable, like lemons, citrons, olive oil, wine, laurel oil and capers. The tourism development since late XIX Century and the high maintenance costs have decreased the economic interest in Upper Garda Lake agriculture. In 2012 a no profit association T...

  17. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of biofuel plant Euphorbia lathyris to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Yang, Ziyi; Lu, Changmei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanjing (China)], E-mail: 08134@njnu.edu.cn); Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Lijun [Nanjing Inst. for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild plants, Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    Saline lands are characterized by salinity and nutrient deficiency and there is an ever increasing need for economical, adaptable plant species to rejuvenate these lands. In this study, we determined the suitability and tolerance of Euphorbia lathyris L. (Caper spurge), a well-known biofuel plant, as a sustainable candidate to colonize saline lands. We investigated the germination rate, seedling growth, solute change and anti-oxidative enzyme activities etc. under salt stress conditions. Our results showed that Caper spurge seeds prefer to germinate under nonsaline environments and high salt stress induced temporary dormancy during germination, but did not completely hamper the viability of the seeds. The seedling biomass increased without any visible distress symptoms in the presence of NaCl not over 171 mM. Further increase in NaCl concentration had a negative impact on the seedling growth. These demonstrate that Caper spurge seedlings have the potential to grow in saline lands. The salinity tolerance of Caper spurge seedlings was closely associated with the regional distribution of Na{sup + }in roots, stable absorption of Ca{sup 2{sup +,}} K{sup + }and Mg{sup 2{sup +,}} accumulation of organic solutes, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. However, excessive accumulation of Na{sup +,} sharp increase of superoxide (O{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, malonaldehyde (MDA) and cell membrane leakage, reduction of osmoprotectants, and decreased activities of CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) etc. under high salinity might be the reasons for the restrained seedling growth.

  18. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  19. Meiotic behavior of wild Caricaceae species potentially suitable for papaya improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelli Narducci da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meiotic behavior and determine the meiotic index and pollen viability of representative plants of the wild species V. goudotiana, V. quercifolia and J. spinosa. Meiotic analysis confirmed that the species are diploid and have 18 chromosomes. Meiosis was partially normal, since some abnormalities, e.g, sticky and lagging chromosomes, precocious segregation, lack of synchrony, and disturbances in the spindle fibers were observed. These abnormalities resulted in post-meiotic products (monads, dyads, triads, and polyads that probably contributed to the meiotic index of 85.7 % (V. goudotiana to 95.9 % (J. spinosa; significant variation was observed in the species V. goudotiana. The pollen viability of 68.0% (V. goudotiana to 96.0 % (J. spinosa was reasonably good in these wild species. Crossings in breeding programs involving V. goudotiana should therefore be carefully planned, since part of the gametes of this species is unviable.

  20. Antibacterial, antiprotozoal and antioxidant activity of five plants used in Izabal for infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M C; Montilla, M P; Cabo, M M; Galisteo, M; Cáceres, A; Morales, C; Berger, I

    2003-04-01

    Methanol and aqueous extracts from fi ve plant species, used in traditional medicine in Guatemala for the treatment of microbial infections, were tested in vitro for their ability to scavenge DPPH, OH(.) and O(2) (-) radicals and to inhibit lipoperoxidation (LPO) in order to establish a relationship between their antioxidant activities and their effects against infectious agents. Acalypha guatemalensis, Ocimum micranthum and Smilax spinosa possessed a significant activity against both the three free radicals assayed and LPO; Guazuma ulmifolia showed effects against DPPH and OH(.). Piper auritum showed no activity. These extracts were also evaluated for antibacterial and antiprotozoal activities. A. guatemalensis showed activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; S. spinosa was active against Salmonella typhi, and A. guatemalensis, and S. spinosa against Trypanosoma cruzi or Leishmania spp. PMID:12722133

  1. Phycomycetes (Phytophthora spp. nov. and Pythium sp. nov. ) associated with degrading mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J.W.; Master, I.M.

    1975-12-15

    Fungi of the genus Phytophthora were found to be associated with the initial stages of leaf litter decay of Rhizophora mangle L. and other Rhizophora species in estuarine and coastal marine waters. Phytophthora appears to be an important component of red-mangrove litter degradation systems throughout the tropics, which includes the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The distributions of Phytophthora vesicula Anastasiou et Churchland and four new species of Phytophthora are discussed, as well as their occurrence in other tropical marine allochthonous spermatophytic leaf litter. The descriptions of the new species and varieties, Phytophthora bahamensis, P. epistomium, P. mycoparasitica, P. spinosa var. spinosa, and P. spinosa var. lobata, are presented. Pythium was rarely observed in the mangrove litter system, although one species, Pythium grandisporangium sp. nov., is described. (auth)

  2. Variations in Vegetation Structure, Species Dominance and Plant Communities in South of the Eastern Desert-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy SALAMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For two successive years, the floristic diversity and vegetation composition in the southern part of the Eastern Desert ofEgypt were investigated through four transects (3 crossing the Eastern Desert and one along the Red Sea. The data collected from 142 stands covering the study area included the species composition, functional groups, chorology and occurrences (Qvalues. A total of 94 plant species belonging to 33 different families were recorded, with Asteracea, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae as the largest families. Shrubs represented the largest functional group (39.4%, while perennial herbs represented the smallest ones (12.8%. Species occurrence (Q-value revealed that Zilla spinosa, Acacia tortilis subsp raddiana, Morettia philaeana, Caroxylon imbricatum, Zygophyllum coccineum and Citrullus colocynthis had wide ecological range of distribution (dominant species, Q-values 0.2. Saharo-Arabian chorotype was highly represented (72.6 % in the flora of this area, eventually as mono, bi or pluriregional. Classification of the data set yielded 7 vegetation groups included: (A Zilla spinosa-Morettia philaeana, (B1 Zilla spinosa-Citrullus colocynthis-Morettia philaeana, (B2 Zilla spinosa, (C1Zygophyllum album-Tamarix nilotica, (C2 Zygophyllum coccineum-Tamarix nilotica, (D1 Zilla spinosa-Zygophyllum coccineum and (D2 Zilla spinosa-Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana-Tamarix aphylla-Balanites aegyptiaca. Certain vegetation groups were assigned to one or more transects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed that electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, moisture content, sulphates, pH, organic matter and gravel were the soil variables that affect the species distribution in this study.

  3. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Prunus spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)...

  4. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Druteikienė, Rūta; Pečiulytė, Dalia; Baltrūnas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Paškevičius, Algimantas

    2012-03-01

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to (239)Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. PMID:22112595

  5. A Powerful New Insecticide for the Organic Grower

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Speese, John

    2009-01-01

    Entrust contains the active ingredient spinosad, which is in the naturalyte class of chemistry. Spinosad is a fermentation product produced by the soil-dwelling actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Actinomycetes are microorganisms that have characteristics of both bacteria and fungi. This publication reviews the uses for this insecticide.

  6. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Shikha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.

  7. Empatia, fra neuroscienze e antropologia filosofica

    OpenAIRE

    Stafano Parenti

    2012-01-01

    Tramite la percezione (per-capere, cogliere con la mente) non ci è possibile conoscere quel “di più” che si manifesta nell’esperienza, e che non è sensorialmente rilevabile. Molti studi scientifici contemporanei, di ricerca e clinici, ergendosi su presupposti scientisti e materialisti, considerano questa incapacità conoscitiva dell’uomo come l’evidenza della riducibilità del pensiero, delle emozioni e di tutto ciò che è immateriale della vita umana, ad epifenomeni complessi della materia. Cos...

  8. Open source intelligence, open social intelligence and privacy by design

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Austràlia). Centre for Applied Social Research

    2014-01-01

    Ponència presentada a European Conference on Social Intelligence (ECSI-2014) OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence, (O)SI for (Open) Social Intelligence, PbD for Privacy by Design. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organized crime. How to balance freedom and security? This position paper describes a way to embed the legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe into this kind of surveillance platforms. It f...

  9. Structure Identification of Euphorbia Factor L3 and Its Induction of Apoptosis through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have focused on the structure identification of Euphorbia factor L3 belonging to the lathyrane diterpenoids isolated from Caper Euphorbia Seed. Its anticancer activity in vitro against lung cancer A549 cells was also investigated and the IC50 values were 34.04 ± 3.99 μM. Furthermore, Euphorbia factor L3 could induce apoptosis in A549 cells via the mitochondrial pathway including loss of mitochondrial potential and release of cytochrome c.

  10. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, Ruta [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Peciulyte, Dalia [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baltrunas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Paskevicius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-03-15

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to {sup 239}Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  11. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red ...

  12. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  13. Skin Whitening and Anti-aging Effect of Fine Hydro-gel Cream Formulation with Botanical Oil Complex Using PIT Emulsifying System

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Dae Cho1

    2014-01-01

    This study was to get unique formulation of multi-functional activity for preparing hydro-gel cream using PIT emulsifying system. In order to develop the good safety, adsorption and multi-functions, we made a new formulation using phase inversion temperature (PIT) containing 4 botanical oils such as camellia japonica seed oil, macadamia integrifolia seed oil, limnanthes alba (meadowfoam) seed oil, argania spinosa kernel oil, 0.04wt% of adenosine and 2wt% of niacinamide. The fi...

  14. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts. PMID:11849838

  15. Carboxy Methyl and Carboxy Analogs Argaminolics B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel D. Klika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new analogs, a carboxy methyl (Argaminolic B and a carboxy derivative (Argaminolic C, of a recently reported amino phenolic, Argaminolic A, isolated from the fruit of the argan tree, Argania spinosa (Skeels L., are described. Argaminolic B exhibits facile hydrolysis of its methyl ester to yield Argaminolic C, which then undergoes a remarkably facile decarboxylation to the previously described Argaminolic A.

  16. Grandes branquiópodos (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Notostraca en la provincia de Málaga, España (año hidrológico 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll Rodríguez, J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Notostraca from Málaga province, Spain (2012/2013 hydrological year This paper presents the occurrence of the large branchiopods detected during a survey carried out in the province of Málaga (Andalusia, southern Spain. Five species (Branchipus cortesi, Chirocephalus diaphanus, Streptocephalus torvicornis, Triops mauritanicus aggr. and Phallocryptus spinosa were recorded at 90 sampled wetlands.

  17. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  18. A review of Spinosyns, a derivative of biological acting substances as a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci, L.; D. Lupi; Savoldelli, S.; B. Rossaro

    2016-01-01

    Spinosyns are a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests belonging to different orders, noxious to a wide variety of agricultural crops; spinosyns were also used against insects of sanitary interest. Spinosyns are derivative of biological active substances produced by soil Actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa; being of biological origin, they are considered to have a low environmental impact and they are not much aggressive against nontarget species. They...

  19. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca...

  20. Genetic diversity analysis in a set of Caricaceae accessions using resistance gene analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Samik; Das, Basabdatta; Acharyya, Pinaki; Prasad, Manoj; Ghose, Tapas Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to assess genetic diversity of a set of 41 Caricaceae accessions, this study used 34 primer pairs designed from the conserved domains of bacterial leaf blight resistance genes from rice, in a PCR based approach, to identify and analyse resistance gene analogues from various accessions of Carica papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana, V. microcarpa, V. parviflora, V. pubescens, V. stipulata and, V. quercifolia and Jacaratia spinosa. Results Of the 34 primer pairs fourteen gave amp...

  1. Research on the Capsule of Ganoderma lucidum and Zizhiphi spinozae Improving the Sleep in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Dang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more people are suffering from insomnia with difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum and Ziziphi spinosae (Z. Spinosae are conventional herbal drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and they have been used lonely for the treatment of insomnia. In the present study, G. lucidum and Z. spinosae were combined and the active fractions were extracted to make the capsule. Furthermore, their effect on improving sleep in mice was investigated. The functional compositions of the capsule were polysaccharide, total flavone, spinosin and triterpenoid, with the content being 12.08, 1.35, 0.67 and 1.50 g/100 g, respectively. The effect of the capsule on improving sleep in mice was studied. Results showed no effects on the sleep induced directly in mice assessed with the loss-of-righting reflex even at the high dose of 450, 1350 mg/kg/day. However, the capsule significantly decreased sleep latency and increased sleeping time and prolonged sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium at high doses. In conclusion, the capsule of G. lucidum and Z. spinozae combined had the function of improving sleep

  2. Breaking seed dormancy of three orthodox Mediterranean Rosaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovoglou, Valasia; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2015-03-01

    Biodiversity levels could be enhanced when regenerating a site by seed-derived seedlings. However, seed dormancy poses limitations for many species. As a result, nurseries either produce seedlings from species where dormancy is not an obstacle, or they propagate through cuttings with the risk of decreasing the genetic diversity within and among species at the regenerated sites. In the present study, breaking of seed dormancy was investigated in valuable Mediterranean species of Prunus avium, Prunus spinosa and Rosa canina Specifically, in order to break dormancy, seeds of those species were warm-, cold-stratified and chemically treated. Based on the results, maximum germination for P. avium was 12% when seeds were warm stratified for four weeks altered with eight weeks of cold stratification. For P. spinosa, maximum percent germination was 26% when seeds were warm stratified for two weeks and continuously altered for eight weeks of cold stratification. Finally, for R. canina maximum percent germination was 40% under four weeks of warm stratification altered with twenty weeks of cold stratification, when seeds were pretreated with H2SO4 for 15 min. A maximum of twelve weeks of cold stratification for P. avium, P. spinosa and 20 weeks for R. canina provided almost zero percent germination. The results indicated that all three species experienced intense dormancy levels suggesting that those species need to be treated properly prior to sowing. Nonetheless, additional experiments are needed to achieve greater germination percentage of highly valuable species in orderto encourage seed derived seedling production. PMID:25895254

  3. Nematode parasite, Auchenacantha spp of flying lemur, Cynocephalus variegatus (Audebert, 1799) from Indonesia:Morphological study with SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2011-01-01

    To observe morphology of Auchenacantha galeopteri (A. galeopteri), Auchenacanthaspinosa (A. spinosa) and Auchenacantha parva (A. parva) from Sukabumi and Ujung Kulon, Indonesia using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with warm 70% alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Drawings were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to a Nikon compound microscope. Specimens for SEM examination were processed according to Bozzola. Measurements were given in micrometers (μm) as the average of findings, followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. Results: The measurements of Auchenacantha spp are same with those of previously described. The striations of male and female A. galeopteri are widen towards outside and wavy. The mouth of female with 6 lips, each of them is wider at base than distal end in A. galeopteri and rectangular in A. spinosa. Both species have dentiform protrusion from inner surface of lips, such structure absent in A. parva, but the lips with transverse festoon like pattern at anterior end of each lip. Conclusions: Using SEM, the lip and the striation pattern of three species of Auchenacantha can be clearly distinguished. Sukabumi and Ujung Kulon are new locality of A. galeopteri and A. spinosa , and A. parva is the new record in Indonesia.

  4. Experimental validation of a method for performance monitoring of the Impurity Processing stage in the TEP system of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) system within the Tritium Plant of ITER needs to be designed such that tritium is recovered from all exhaust gases produced during different modes and operational conditions of the vacuum vessel. The reference process for the TEP system of ITER is called CAPER and comprises three different, consecutive steps to recover hydrogen isotopes at highest purity for direct transfer to the cryogenic Isotope Separation System. The second step ('' impurity processing '', IP) of the CAPER process developed at TLK is carried out in a closed loop involving heterogeneously catalyzed cracking or conversion reactions to liberate tritium from tritiated hydrocarbons or tritiated water combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through a Pd/Ag permeator. This combination shifts chemical equilibria towards dehydrogenation and therefore enables detritiation factors higher than 1000 in the IP stage. A closed loop with a catalyst reactor and a permeator can in principle be operated in two different modes, the batch mode or the continuous mode. In the batch mode the loop is filled with the gas to be detritiated, its cycled for a certain time until the tritium level is sufficiently lowered, and then the loop is emptied for the next batch. In the continuous mode the loop is continuously fed with gas and simultaneously gas is withdrawn from the loop. Both modes are sensitive to different extents to the actual permeability of the Pd/Ag membrane, which unavoidably becomes deteriorated by the decomposition of methane and coverage with carbon. Therefore, the permeator needs to be repeatedly regenerated in order to sustain high decontamination factors. In a series of tritium experiments with the CAPER facility at TLK a method has been developed to determine the actual performance of the 2nd process step in both possible operation modes. During this experimental campaign the permeator has been operated with DT mixed with tritiated methane under conditions

  5. The use of capecitabine in daily practice: a study on adherence and patients' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmers L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lonneke Timmers,1 Eleonora L Swart,1 Christel CLM Boons,1 Dirk Mangnus,1 Peter M van de Ven,2 Godefridus J Peters,3 Epie Boven,3 Jacqueline G Hugtenburg11Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Adherence to pharmacological therapy is a complex and multifactorial issue that can substantially alter the outcome of treatment. Especially when using long-term medication, cancer patients have adherence rates similar to those of patients with other diseases. The consequences of poor adherence are poor health outcomes and increased health care costs. Only few studies have focused on the use of oral anticancer agents in daily practice. Information about the reasons for nonadherence is essential for the development of interventions that may improve adherence. This report presents the CAPER-capecitabine protocol, which is designed to study the adherence to capecitabine and the influence of patient attitudes towards medication and self-reported side effects. Furthermore, the relationships between patient characteristics, disease characteristics, side effects, quality of life, patient beliefs and attitudes towards disease and medication, dose adjustments, reasons for discontinuation, and plasma concentration of three of the main metabolites, including the active compound 5-fluorouracil, will be explored.Methods: In this multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study, 90 patients aged 18 years or older starting treatment with capecitabine will be included and followed for a period up to five cycles. The main study parameters are adherence, patient attitudes towards medication, and the number and grade of patient-reported side effects. At baseline and during week 2 of cycles 1, 3 and 5, patients will be asked to donate blood and fill out a questionnaire. Blood samples will be analyzed for plasma

  6. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ignacio del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimáticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronológicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimétricas del río Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatología en regiones tropicales.

  7. Etnoconhecimentos de Espécies Forrageiras no Semi-árido da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga, bioma with restricted occurrence to Brazil, is characterized by a xerophilous vegetation, with herb, shrub and tree components and high species diversity. The objective of this work was to study with participative forage species of the caatinga and establish a order of importance of the species as forage value at different altidudes. The collection of data was done through the use of questionnaires with rural workers of two ecoregion in Santa Luzia, Paraíba State: Borborema plateau and “sertaneja” Depression setentrional. The altitude affected the crude protein content of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poiret (jurema preta, Cnidoscollus phyllacanthus Muel. Arg. Pax et. K. Hoffm. (faveleira, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (catingueira, Capparis flexuosa L. (feijão bravo and Bauhinia cheilantha Bong. (mororó forage, was higher than the minimum demanded by ruminants in the dormant period.

  8. Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S S; Harsha, V H; Shripathi, V; Hegde, G R

    2004-10-01

    The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal literature of India. Basella alba, Blepharis repens, Capparis sepiaria, Oxalis corniculata and Ricinus communis are used for the treatment of aphthae; Azima tetracantha, Caesalpinia coriaria, Cleome gynandra, Gossypium herbacium, Leucas aspera, Merremia chryseides, Pergularia daemia, Prosopis juliflora and Solanum nigrum are used to treat tooth ache and Cassia hirsuta and Cassia tora are used in the treatment of plaque and caries. PMID:15325728

  9. Nutritional value of some non-conventional plant foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, A; Chauhan, B M; Punia, D

    1992-07-01

    Thirteen non-conventional foods including fruits, leaves and grains consumed in various parts of the Indian subcontinent were analysed for their nutritional value. Khejri beans (Prsopsis cineria), Pinju (Capparis decidua) and Kachri (Cucumis species) contained considerable amounts of protein (15-18%). Kachri was rich in fat (13%). Bhakri (Tribulus terristris), Gullar (Ficus glomerata) and Peehl (Salvadora oleoides) were found to be rich sources of calcium; Gullar contained about 15 times the amount of calcium present in wheat. Phosphorus content of Santhi (Boernavia diffusa), Khejri beans, Bhakri, Pinju and Lehsora (Cordia dichotoma) were noticeable. Zinc was present in high amounts in Peepalbanti (Ficus religiosa) and Gullar; as was iron in Santhi and Bhakri and manganese in Santhi. Besides iron, zinc and calcium, Pinju contained appreciable amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin C. However, Santhi contained high amounts of oxalic acid.

  10. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  11. Anti - HIV-1 integrase activity of Thai Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingkan Bunluepuech

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of discovering anti-HIV-1 agents from natural sources, the aqueous and EtOH extracts of eight Thaiplants including Clerodendron indicum (whole plant, Tiliacora triandra (stem, Capparis micracantha (wood, Harrissoniaperforata (wood, Ficus glomerata (wood, Diospyros decandra (wood, Dracaena loureiri (heartwood, and Tinospora crispa (stem were screened for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (IN using the multiplate integration assay(MIA. Of the EtOH extracts, Ficus glomerata (wood was the most potent with an IC50 value of 7.8 g/ml; whereas the water extract of Harrisonia perforata (wood was the most potent aqueous extract with an IC50 value of 2.3 g/ml. The isolation of active principles against HIV-1 IN from Ficus glomerata is now actively pursued.

  12. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera David Andrés

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimaticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronologicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimetricas del rio Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatologia en regiones tropicales.

  13. Memory, Identity and Desire: A Psychoanalytic Reading of David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a reading of David Mulholland Drive through psychoanalytic approach of Lacan from the perspective of formation of fantasy and shifting identities. Lynch constructs his films consciously choosing his themes from the sub(versive/conscious side of human mind. Previous attempts to read Lynch's films are fixed around the idea that Lynch is using film genres to create postmodern pastiches. Mulholland Drive has been analyzed several times from different approaches ranging from gender (Love, 2004, narratology (Lentzner, 2005; McGowan, 2004; Cook, 2011. Elements of film noir, musical, caper films can be identified in Lynch’s films. This detailed textual analysis intends to rationalize Lynch’s narrative structure through Lacanian terms in reference to Zizekian terminology.

  14. Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; Common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; Eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; Pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius. Aims of the present research the characteristics of butterfly fauna from Tehsil Tangi, are helpful in awareness, education and further research. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Tehsil Tangi.

  15. 软件成本评估系列(三)——处理重复使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; H.Roetzheim; 康怡

    2001-01-01

    在CostXpert Group工作期间,我发现,很多合作的公司都通过制定正规的成本评估而大大提高了投资收益(ROI)。这三年来我们对CostXpeit Group客户投资收益进行了调查,结果显示:这些公司的投资收益平均在29:1到37:1之间。这和Capers Johns的研究结果十分相似(详见《软件成本评估》,McGraw Hill出版社,1998年版)。

  16. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil...... and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to which a number of amendments are introduced inspired by existing work on hazard and risk characterisation...... and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure...

  17. Laurentide: The Crime Fighting Geologist, A Comic-Book Curriculum Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, A.; Gilbert, L. A.; Enright, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    When the police are just too ill informed on matters of earth science to solve the case it is up to Laurentide and her crew of geologists to bring justice to evildoers. Using every tool available, from a rock hammer to LiDAR, Laurentide fights crime while teaching her apprentice Esker about how geologists uncover mysteries everyday. This is the first of what will be a series of free teaching materials targeted at grades 5-8 based around the National Science Education Standards. Students will get the chance to practice problem solving and data analysis in order to solve mysteries with a combination of comic book style story telling and hands-on worksheets. The pilot story, "The Caper of the Ridiculously Cheap Condominiums" will cover 4 of the 9 Earth Science Literacy Principles 'Big Ideas'. Material will explore earthquakes, the hazards and risks they present, and the tools geologists use to map faults and estimate reoccurrence intervals.

  18. Empatia, fra neuroscienze e antropologia filosofica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafano Parenti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tramite la percezione (per-capere, cogliere con la mente non ci è possibile conoscere quel “di più” che si manifesta nell’esperienza, e che non è sensorialmente rilevabile. Molti studi scientifici contemporanei, di ricerca e clinici, ergendosi su presupposti scientisti e materialisti, considerano questa incapacità conoscitiva dell’uomo come l’evidenza della riducibilità del pensiero, delle emozioni e di tutto ciò che è immateriale della vita umana, ad epifenomeni complessi della materia. Così un giorno saranno misurabili i pensieri poiché espressione delle connessioni neuronali, le emozioni poiché insieme complesso di attivazioni e disattivazioni sub-corticali, la tensione continua alla felicità poiché carattere genetico ereditario.

  19. Decline and local extinction of Fucales in French Riviera: the harbinger of future extinctions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. THIBAUT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Riviera is one of the Mediterranean areas that has been longest and most thoroughly impacted by human activities. Fucales are long-lived, large-sized brown algae that constitute a good model for studying human impact on species diversity. We gathered all historical data (literature and herbarium vouchers, since the early 19th century, to reconstruct their distribution. The current distribution was established from a 7-year (2007-2013 survey of the 212-km shoreline (1/2 500 map, by means of boating, snorkelling and scuba diving. Overall, 18 taxa of Cystoseira and Sargassum have been reported. Upon comparison with historical data, 5 taxa were no longer observed (C. elegans, C. foeniculacea f. latiramosa, C. squarrosa, C. spinosa var. spinosa and S. hornschuchii while C. jabukae, previously unrecorded, was observed. In addition to these  taxa, probably extinct at a local scale, some taxa had suffered a dramatic decline (C. barbata f. barbata, C. crinita, C. spinosa var. compressa and S. acinarium or become nearly extinct (C. foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa. Three of them, which played in the past significant functional roles in coastal communities, can be considered as functionally extinct. Possible causes of decline and local extinction are discussed. A similar situation has already been reported, although at a much more local scale, in a variety of Mediterranean localities. The question therefore arises about the status of Fucales species in the Mediterranean: are some species on the brink of extinction? Is their extinction at the scale of the French Riviera the harbinger of their extinction Mediterranean–wide?

  20. Preparation process of ZaorenYimian capsule%枣仁益眠胶囊的制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛琳; 张俊清; 符乃光; 王勇; 刘明生

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究枣仁益眠胶囊的制备工艺.方陆:酸枣仁用水提取,通过正交实验获得最佳工艺,水煎液喷雾干燥得到粉末与黑胡椒的细粉按比例混合均匀后制粒、装胶囊.结果:酸枣仁的水煎工艺为药材粗粉碎破壳后加水煎煮3次,每次1 h,加水量为10倍量.制粒成型时采用13%聚乙二醇6000的乙醇溶液为黏合剂.结论:所得工艺路线简单、操作容易,制剂成型性良好.%Objective: To explore the preparation process of Zaoren Yimian capsule. Methods: Ziziphi spinosae semen was extracted by water and the optimum extracting process was investigated through orthogonal experiment. The spray of Ziziphi spinosae semen extraction was dried, then the dry powder was mixed with the fine powder of black pepper to fill into capsules. Results: The coarse powder of Ziziphi spinosae semen was cracked and decocted for 1 hour for three times. And 13% polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000 in ethanol solution was applied as bonding agent. Conclusions: The preparation process is simple, and easy to operate, and with a good formability.

  1. Note e recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autori Vari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adriano Ardovino, Raccogliere il mondo. Per una fenomenologia della rete [Angela Maiello] • Clive Bell, L’Arte [Filippo Focosi] • Alessandro Bertinetto, Il pensiero dei suoni. Temi di filosofia della musica [Domenica Lentini] • Terrence Deacon, Incomplete Nature. How Mind Emerged From Matter [Mariagrazia Portera] • Roger Scruton, La bellezza. Ragione ed esperienza estetica [Filippo Focosi] • Miriam Bratu Hansen, Cinema and Experience. Sigfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin and Theoder W. Adorno [Domenico Spinosa] • Lawrence Barsalou, scritti sulla “Grounded Cognition” [Gialuca Consoli] • Dis-forme, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 28-29 maggio 2012 [Michele Bertolini e Pietro Conte

  2. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

  3. Occurrence of Eriogaster catax (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lasiocampidae, Lepidoptera) and the proposed protective actions on the Polish territory

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Chrzanowski; Robert Kuźmiński; Andrzej Łabędzki; Andrzej Mazur; Paweł Rutkowski

    2013-01-01

    The study presents the location of Eriogaster catax in Poland. Research from this point of view was conducted in 2006-2007. As a result of analysis of this position, it was found that the main host plant of E. catax – Prunus spinosa is over 50% refugia. It was not stated that any other tree species were host plants. For the most appropriate habitats of the species refugia, were considered those located in habitats of fresh and fresh mixed sites. The most important threats to species and...

  4. Occurrence of Eriogaster catax (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lasiocampidae, Lepidoptera and the proposed protective actions on the Polish territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Chrzanowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the location of Eriogaster catax in Poland. Research from this point of view was conducted in 2006-2007. As a result of analysis of this position, it was found that the main host plant of E. catax – Prunus spinosa is over 50% refugia. It was not stated that any other tree species were host plants. For the most appropriate habitats of the species refugia, were considered those located in habitats of fresh and fresh mixed sites. The most important threats to species and propositions of methods of protection of sites on Polish territory have been presented.

  5. Nuevas observaciones sobre la vegetación del Sur del Perú. Del Desierto Pacífico al Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Nuevas observaciones sobre la vegetación del Sur del Perú. Del Desierto Pacífico al Altiplano. En este trabajo, aportamos novedades sobre la vegetación del S del Perú desde el Desierto Pacífico a las cumbres del Altiplano. Como resultado se describen 19 asociaciones distribuidas entre diferentes formaciones vegetales: arbustedas y bosques climácicos de la costa [Echinopsio chalaensis-Randietum armatae (arbustedas espinosas termotropicales semiáridas), Caesalpinio spinosae-Myrcianthetum ferrey...

  6. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  7. Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.

  8. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid.

  9. Prunella vulgaris L. Upregulates eNOS expression in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Bollinger, Larissa; Steinkamp-Fenske, Katja; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2010-01-01

    The purported effects of "circulation-improving" herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) show striking similarities with the vascular actions of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). We have previously reported that Salviae miltiorrhizae radix and Zizyphi spinosae semen upregulate eNOS expression. In the present study, we studied the effect on eNOS gene expression of 15 Chinese herbs with potential effects on the vasculature, and identified Prunella vulgaris L. (PVL) (flowering spike) as a potent eNOS-upregulating agent. In EA.hy 926 cells, a cell line derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), an aqueous extract of PVL increased eNOS promoter activity, eNOS mRNA and protein expressions, as well as NO production in concentration- and time-dependent manners. We have previously shown that ursolic acid (a constituent of Salviae miltiorrhizae radix), betulinic acid (a compound present in Zizyphi spinosae semen), luteolin and cynaroside (ingredients of artichoke, Cynara scolymus L.) are capable of enhancing eNOS gene expression. These compounds are also present in significant quantities in PVL. Thus, PVL contains active principles that stimulate human eNOS gene expression, and such compounds may have therapeutic potential against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20503475

  10. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid. PMID:9805822

  11. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural world around them. The game is set around a mystery in which red wolves in eastern North Carolina are being poisoned. The students are asked to portray the role of a wildlife biologist, botanist, or entomologist, whose job it is to determine who is poisoning the red wolves. MSEG are a new form of SEG that is divided into components or modules. Each module has to be completed before the player can move on to the next module. A module can take on any format, but must encompass the storyline of the game and end in an assessment. The study focused on three research questions. How would students improve the Red Wolf Caper mSEG? Do mSEG affect students' understanding in environmental education concepts, specifically, collecting, evaluating, and developing an explanation for data they collected in the game and knowledge of environmental systems and biological and social implications for the reintroduction of a species? Which role within the mSEG do the students choose and what is their reasoning behind choosing that particular role? The game was tested by 81 middle school students during six sessions in June 2010. The study participants played the game and participated in design sessions. In addition, they were given a 5-question pretest/ posttest, role selection survey, and Serious Educational Game Rubric (SEGR). They were asked to develop a hypothesis and provide evidence to support their hypothesis. Finally, they were asked to write a letter to a local in judge explaining the importance of the red wolf reintroduction project. Twenty-three students were selected to participate in interviews to determine how to improve the game

  12. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  13. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Hardy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym: Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller, comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt, comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt, comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis. We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculata Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  14. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  15. Drought Stress Response of Dry Forest Trees of the Brazilian Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R.; Worbes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Martin Worbes and Romulo Menezes In the frame of the "Tropi-Dry" network we studied drought response strategies of six tree species in a Caatinga forest at the Fazenda Tamandua near Patos in Paraiba, NE Brazil. We selected the tree species as representatives of the different phenological ecotypes: evergreen, deciduous and stem succulent. The deciduous group comprised N-fixing as well as non N-fixing Leguminosae. Over an entire vegetation period (dry and wet-season) we monitored their phenological behaviour, photosynthesis rates, stomata conductance and water potential, measured if leaves were present and we estimated seasonal variations in stable carbon and N15 content of the leaves. The major results are: Evergreen species (e.g. Capparis) may compensate low carbon-fixing rates in the wet season with a much longer vegetation period as the deciduous species. Stem succulents (Jatropha) do not fulfill the expectations of being high productive species under drought stress conditions, while the N-fixing Mimosa performed in particular at the end and the beginning of the dry period better than the rest of the investigated species. In general the results may help to understand different strategies of tree species in respect to extended dry periods of at least six months as in our study area and their role in carbon sequestration of tropical dry forests. The variety of observed strategies may contribute to the resilience of the ecosystem tropical dry forests.

  16. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  17. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  18. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  19. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  20. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

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    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  1. Fungal Control of Pathogenic Fungi Isolated From Some Wild Plants in Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

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    Abou-Zeid, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two plants were collected from Taif Governorate and identified as: Aerva lanata, Arnebia hispidissima, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia monosperma, Asphodelus aestives, Avena barbata, Capparis dcidua, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia glomerifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Juniperus procera, Launaea mucronata, Launaea sonchoides, Medicago sativa, Opuntia ficus, Phagnalon sinaicum, Prunus persica, Pulicaria crispa, Punica granatum, Rumex dentatus and Trichodesma calathiforme. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from some of these plants and identified as Alternaria alternata, Cephalosporium madurae, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporum, Humicola grisea, Penicillium chrysogenum and Ulocladium botrytis. Four antagonistic isolates were tested, 2 from Gliocladium fungus and 2 from Trichoderma fungus. We found that all the four antagonistic isolates (G. deliquescens, G. virens, T. viride and T. hamatum significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogenic fungi tested, with different ratios. The results indicated that the antibiotics produced by the antagonists were more effective than the fungus itself and differ with different fungi. Coating plant stems with antagonists or with antagonist extracts reduce the severity of the disease but not prevent it in all tested pathogens.

  2. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

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    Thana Juckmeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list. Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies.

  3. Inhibitory Effect on β -Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckmeta, Thana; Thongdeeying, Pakakrong; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. PMID:25580152

  4. LACTIC FLORA-LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INTERACTION

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    S. Colombo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The EC Regulation 2073/2005 (1 requires that food processors evaluate the capability of ready-to-use (RTE products to support the development of Listeria monocytogenes when their pH and aW values are favourable to the growth of this microorganism. It is renown that the lactic flora plays an important role in many different foods, both from a technological and a food safety standpoint. This study was aimed to observe the behaviour and the potential anti-Listeria effect of some natural lactic flora present in Italian liver patè crostini (chicken heart and liver, anchovies, onions, capers, starch, no added preservatives through the Combase Predictor – Max Growth Rate predictive software. The natural lactic flora of the crostini demonstrated a variable capability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes which depends upon : the concentration of the lactic flora at the beginning of the shelf life period and the subsequent lag phase, the possible release of anti-Listeria substances, and the maximum growth rate.

  5. Il paesaggio agrario dell’alto Garda bresciano e i suoi prodotti storici: un patrimonio da recuperare e valorizzare

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    Alberta Cazzani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Upper Garda Lake landscape is particular: a pristine natural environment is joined with an ancient transformation work by man to make profitable cultivations possible. These cultivations were giving rare and precious products, in the past very valuable, like lemons, citrons, olive oil, wine, laurel oil and capers. The tourism development since late XIX Century and the high maintenance costs have decreased the economic interest in Upper Garda Lake agriculture. In 2012 a no profit association Terre & Sapori d’alto Garda was issued with the goal to recovery and gain top quality crops and food and to valorize the local landscape with research, didactic and promotion activities. The program’s mission is to discover and increase local cultivations, maintaining historic varieties, improving typical production quality. Upper Garda Lake landscape still has agricultural potentialities in addition to cultural-historic and ecological-natural values. This valorization project about food and culture is a fundamental support to a Gardesan tourism more knowledgeable of traditional values and able to recognize the strong link between landscape and products. This kind of tourism will focus on eco-sustainability and lifestyle improvement appreciating the historic connection of good quality landscape and healthy food.

  6. Teaching ASTRO 101 Students the Art of Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleigh, Sharon P.; Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Going beyond asking students to simply memorize facts about the universe, a longstanding challenge in teaching astronomy centers on successfully teaching students about the nature of science. As introductory astronomy survey courses, known widely as ASTRO 101, can sometimes be the last science course non-science majoring undergraduates take, many faculty hope to emphasize the scientific enterprise as a broad field in inquiry making valuable contributions to civilization as a whole, rather than as an isolated study of objects far from Earth. Scholars have long proposed that an understanding of the nature of science as a human endeavor requires explicit instruction. In other words, students successfully learning the facts of astronomy does not in any way ensure that students will learn anything about the nature of how astronomy is done. In a purposeful effort to improve students' understanding about the practices and discourse of astronomy, scholars working with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education research are developing a suite of carefully designed instructional sequences—called Scientific Argumentation—focused on teaching students the differences between data and evidence, how to communicate and defend evidence-based conclusions, and how to be informed skeptics of scientific claims. Early results show students moving from naïve understandings of scientific practices to more informed understandings as well as demonstrating enhanced value for science in general as an worthwhile human endeavor with far reaching benefits.

  7. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  8. College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Bennett, M.; Greene, W. M.; Pompea, S.; Prather, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator, SIRTF Mission and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These workshops are being held in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. This three-day, interactive teaching excellence workshop focuses on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts provided at the workshop are: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; and (iii) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2002.

  9. ASTRO 101 Labs and the Invasion of the Cognitive Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-04-01

    Since the mid 1800's there has been widespread agreement that we should be about the business of engaging students in the practices of scientific research in order to best teach the methods and practices of science. There has been significantly less agreement on precisely how to teach science by mimicking scientific inquiry in a way that can be empirically supported, even with our ``top students.'' Engaging ``ASTRO 101 students'' in scientific inquiry is a task that has left our astronomy education research community more than a little stymied, to the extent that it is difficult to find non-major science students practicing anything other than confirmation exercises in college labs. Researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research have struggled with this problem as well, until in our frustration we had to ask: ``Can research tell us anything about how to get students to do research?'' This talk presents an overview of the cognitive science that we've brought to bear in the ASTRO 101 laboratory setting for non-science majoring undergraduates and future teachers, along with the results of early studies that suggest that a ``backwards faded scaffolding'' approach to instruction in Intro Labs can successfully support large numbers of students in enhancing their understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Supported by NSF DUE 1312562.

  10. Understanding the Correlations Among Undergraduates’ Spatial Reasoning Skills and Their Ability to Learn Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Inge

    2012-01-01

    We tacitly assume that astronomy is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students’ spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students’ spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn astronomy content in college science classes are beginning to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning astronomy. In support, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research conducted a first-steps correlational study of 148 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students’ cognition was measured for pretest and posttest gains in astronomy understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they were tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of reliable spatial thinking assessment tools from the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC). Results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work was supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  11. Preliminary correlational data on the relationships between undergraduates' spatial reasoning skills and their ability to learn space science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, I.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    We tacitly assume that space science is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students' spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students' spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn space science content in K-12 and college science classes have yet to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning space science. In response, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research describe preliminary data describing a first-steps correlational study of 170 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students' cognition is measured for pretest and posttest gains in space science understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they are tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of an established spatial thinking assessment tools (such as a modified Purdue Rotations Test). Preliminary results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work is supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  12. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  13. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  14. Les chemins de fer atmosphériques. Deuxième partie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En France, l’enthousiasme atmosphérique des années 1840 gagna le gouvernement qui, craignant d’être en retard sur une nouvelle révolution dans les chemins de fer, se décida à subventionner un essai officiel du système. Cet essai fut confié à la Compagnie du Paris-Saint-Germain, qui construisit une ligne atmosphérique entre Le Pecq et Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Cette deuxième partie de l’article raconte l’histoire de cette ligne qui fonctionna à partir de 1847 mais dont l’abandon en 1860 marqua la fin des chemins de fer atmosphériques en Europe.In France, the atmospheric enthusiasm on the 1840s encouraged the government to finance an official trial of the system, the Ministry of Public Works clearly concerned about keeping abreast of new railway technologies. The trial was carried out by the Paris-Saint-Germain Company, and this second part of the article examines the history of its line built from Le Pecq to Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It was operational from 1847 but its abandon, in 1860, marked the end of the atmospheric caper in Europe.

  15. Weird-World, Weird-World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan; Wargo, Rich

    2014-03-01

    We will present the first in a series of videos designed and produced specifically as a pilot for the YouTube audience to playfully explore interesting and unusual phenomena that physics reveals, and their uses in modern life. No talking heads, no pedants, no complicated theory - but rather a visually captivating and often kooky comical look at exclusion principle, entanglement, tunneling and the retinue of exceedingly strange things that happen in classical and quantum physics and how we understand and actually use this weirdness each and everyday. Produced by the UC San Diego-based creative partnership between an active physicist and established university based science media producer responsible for the highly successful and comical nanoscience caper When Things Get Small, this will pilot an on-going series with the specific goal of entertaining and engaging audiences of all ages. The series has planned distribution and marketing on YouTube though the unique programming and distribution capacities of University of California Television to commence in 2013. Supported by APS, UCSD-Center for Advanced Nanoscience and UCTV.

  16. True Story of the Moon Rock Heist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, three NASA Co-op students along with a colleague from the University of Utah stole lunar samples from the Johnson Space Center. Three members of the "gang" removed a 600 pound safe containing lunar, meteorite and Martian samples from Dr. Gibson s laboratory. The thieves offered the samples for sale using the internet. They were arrested by undercover FBI and OIG agents. Three guilty pleas along with a conviction yielded sentences as long as 90 months in federal prison. Two of the thieves went to federal prison and have now been released. One of the thieves told his story to the popular author Ben Mezrich who released the book "Sex on the Moon" in July. Hollywood has "picked-up" the rights to their caper. The stolen lunar samples were not "trash". The loss of 30 years of Dr. Gibson s research records occurred along with contaminating and breaking the chain-of-custody for the lunar samples. The ring-leader has displayed no remorse for his crimes and is currently on the motivational speaker s lecture circuit. Investigators commented "they were the gang, who may have had the highest IQ but the least common sense in history." Previous unreleased information about the crime will be discussed by Dr. Gibson along with information about the forthcoming National Geographic Society s television special on the crime.

  17. Aspects de l'ornithochorie et de la germination des semences des arbustes en fruticée calcicole de Calestienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éthel Dupont

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersai by birds and germination of seeds from some scrubs in a calcareous shrublandThe thorny shrubland is the mort common évolution stage of ungrazed calcareous grasslands in Western Europe. Shrubs of this thicket bear many fruits which are especially dispersed by birds, according to différent feeding behaviours. Regarding the phenology of the main species, ripe fruits are available during nearly eight months. Some germination tests have been applied to seeds with intention to break possible dormancy phenomenon. The seed of Ligustrum vulgare L. can germinale without any pretreatment. For Prunus spinosa L. and Rhamnus cathartica L., a cold period is required to break dormancy. Other species, like Rosa canina L., or Crataegus monogyna Jacq., demand spécial treatment to break complex dormancies. The role of frugivores seems more to pull down the pulp of the fruit than to break dormancy by passage into digestive system.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL HERBAL EXTRACTS ON CLINICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suriya et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Abutilon indicum, Hygrophila spinosa and Mimosa pudica were studied by agar well diffusion method in vitro. The effect of antibacterial potential was examined against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. The methanol extract of these medicinal plants have showed consistently significant inhibitory activity on different bacterial pathogens tested. Furthermore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC studies carried out by broth dilution assay and found the MIC ranged between 0.2 to 0.9mg/ml. Overall the methanol extracts was found to be more effective. The results of the extracts were compared with the standard antibiotics Kanamycin.

  19. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.

  20. Oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Said; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr; Guillaume, Dominique; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Bouzoubaa, Zakia; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical stability of cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil). The methodology involves the repeated measurement over a 1-year period of the quality metrics used in the cosmetic industry: acid and peroxide value and specific absorbance. During this year, storage is performed at 40° or 25°C to assess the importance of temperature. In this latter case, oil samples have been either protected or exposed to sunlight. In addition, sterol and fatty acid composition is determined to attest argan oil chemical integrity over 1 year. Storage of argan oil at 40°C results in a rapid loss of quality. Stored at 25°C and protected from sunlight, argan oil quality is still satisfactory after 12 months according to the official Moroccan norm, but storage should not be longer than 6 months to fulfill industrial standards.

  1. Carpophilus zeaphilus, a new sap beetle species acclimatized in Italy (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carpophilus zeaphilus Dobson, 1969 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Carpophilinae is an Afrotropical species that has become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Mediterranean areas in recent years. The species was first recorded from Europe in Portugal and Spain nearly thirty years ago, and it was later intercepted in Sicily near Trapani in 1991. A few specimens of this species were collected in April, 2015 in a sparsely forested area near Rome, which suggests a recent acclimatization into peninsular Italy. Specimens were taken on flowering trees of Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae, an unusual occurrence for most introduced species of Carpophilinae that are normally associated with rotten fruit and other decomposing vegetal matter.

  2. Emergência de plantas daninhas em solo coberto com palha de cana-de-açúcar Weed emergence in soil covered with sugarcane harvest straw residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Correia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da cobertura do solo, com 0, 5, 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana-de-açúcar da variedade SP 79 2233, sobre a emergência de seis espécies de plantas daninhas (Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spinosa, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia e Ipomoea quamoclit, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da Universidade Estadual Paulista, campus de Jaboticabal, SP. Cada unidade experimental foi constituída por um vaso plástico com 21,50 cm de diâmetro e capacidade para quatro litros de solo. Foram semeados 0,112 g de sementes de D. horizontalis, 2,12 g sementes de I. quamoclit e 50 sementes das demais espécies, por vaso. Foram contabilizadas as plântulas emersas aos 6 e 32 dias após a semeadura (DAS sob a palha e aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a remoção da palha (DARP. Constatou-se que a cobertura do solo com 5, 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana inibiu a emergência de plântulas das espécies B. decumbens e S. spinosa, sendo o mesmo observado para D. horizontalis submetida a 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha. No entanto, para I. grandifolia e I. hederifolia o número de plantas emersas não diferiu entre as quantidades de palha. Por outro lado, a presença da cobertura morta com palha de cana incrementou a emergência de plântulas de I. quamoclit. Não foram verificados, após a remoção da palha, fluxos expressivos na emergência de plântulas das espécies estudadas.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to study the effects of soil coverage with sugarcane harvest straw residue (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1 on the emergence of six weed species (Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spinosa, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia and Ipomoea quamoclit at the Department of Phytosanitation of Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil. Each experimental unit consisted of one plastic pot (diameter = 21.50 cm; total

  3. Habitat and nest site preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jannie K.; Sell, Henrik; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2015-01-01

    was compared to that of nearest unused scrub. To evaluate habitat preferences, a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) was modelled based on presence/absence data. The habitat factors were represented by Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) derived measures of vegetation height and topographic wetness...... as well as distance to nearest road/path, as an indicator of human disturbance. Scrub used as nesting sites were characterized by thorny shrub species such as Prunus spinosa and Rubus fruticosus. RSPF showed that shrike presence was positively correlated with vegetation heterogeneity and high topographic...... wetness, and that it was unaffected by the distance to the nearest road/path. These results provide some guidelines for management, showing that Red-backed Shrike for nesting preferred habitats with high wetness, possibly linked to food availability, and heterogeneous vegetation, consistent...

  4. A study of the genus Protosticta Selys, 1855, with descriptions of four new species from Vietnam (Odonata: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Kompier, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The genus Protosticta Selys, 1855 from Vietnam is revised. Four new species, P. ngoai spec. nov., P. socculus spec. nov., P. pseudocuriosa spec. nov., and P. spinosa spec. nov. are described; detailed morphological structures of four species P. beaumonti Wilson, 1997 (dark form), P. caroli van Tol, 2008, P. grandis Asahina, 1995, and P. satoi Asahina, 1997, are provided. P. beaumonti is newly recorded for Vietnam. The female of P. caroli is described for the first time. P. linnaei van Tol, 2008, is also listed here, based on the original description and visual inspection of the type specimens. The occurrence of P. khaosoidaoensis Asahina, 1984, in Vietnam is reviewed and rejected. A total of nine Protosticta species have now been recorded for Vietnam. PMID:27394599

  5. The advancement of biological research in amphibian culture in China%中国养殖的两栖动物生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕亮

    2004-01-01

    综合论述了中国养殖的6种主要两栖动物:虎纹蛙Rana tigrina rugulosa Wiegmann、棘胸蛙Rana spinosa David、中国林蛙Rana temporaria chensinensis David、牛蛙Rana catesbeiana Shaw、猪蛙Rana grylio和中国大鲵Megalobatrachus davidianus Blanchara的生物学研究成果,包括养殖种类与地理分布,栖息习性,对盐度、温度、湿度、溶解氧、pH值的适应,摄食方式与食物组成,生长与繁殖生物学;展望了其生物学研究前景.

  6. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  7. Oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Said; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr; Guillaume, Dominique; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Bouzoubaa, Zakia; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical stability of cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil). The methodology involves the repeated measurement over a 1-year period of the quality metrics used in the cosmetic industry: acid and peroxide value and specific absorbance. During this year, storage is performed at 40° or 25°C to assess the importance of temperature. In this latter case, oil samples have been either protected or exposed to sunlight. In addition, sterol and fatty acid composition is determined to attest argan oil chemical integrity over 1 year. Storage of argan oil at 40°C results in a rapid loss of quality. Stored at 25°C and protected from sunlight, argan oil quality is still satisfactory after 12 months according to the official Moroccan norm, but storage should not be longer than 6 months to fulfill industrial standards. PMID:24797024

  8. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity. PMID:24580537

  9. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  10. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  11. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Dmitriev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska; Empoasca (Empoasca chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste; Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry; Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti; Zyginella vietnamica nom.nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy; Eupteryx (Eupteryx dlabolai nom.nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy; Baaora ahmedi nom.nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed (not Beamer; Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, syn.nov.

  12. ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA AGAINST SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FR. IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTARJO DIKIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune Fr., is one of the important fungi, causes brown germ and seed rot of oil palm. Biodiversity of antagonistic bacteria from oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia is expected to support in development of biopesticide. Isolation with liquid assay and screening antagonistic bacteria using dual culture assay were carried out in the bioexploration. A total of 265 bacterial isolates from plant parts of oil palm screened 52 antagonistic bacterial isolates against 5. commune. Bacterial isolates were identified by using Biolog* Identification System i.e. Bacillus macroccanus, B. thermoglucosidasius, Burkholderia cepacia, B. gladioli, B. multivorans, B pyrrocinia, B. spinosa, Corynebacterium agropyri, C. misitidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. citronellolis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Serratia ficaria, Serratia sp., S. marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri, Sternotrophomonas maltophilia.

  13. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  14. A review on chemical and medicobiological applications of capparidaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature′s gift to human being to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. Capparidaceae family comprises various important medicinal properties distributed in tropical and subtropical India, whose medicinal usage has been reported in the traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurvedha, Siddha and Unani. Plants belongs to the Capparidaceae family has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non specific resistance of antioxidant and immunostimulant effects. The C. sepiaria, C. spinosa, C. tomentosa and C. zeylanica etc., belongs to this family is reported as used in traditional medicine. The diverse phytoconstituents and various medicobiological uses of the plants belonging to this family were reviewed here.

  15. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

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    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  16. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Vientiane province and municipality, Laos

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    Alexey A. Kotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first faunistic report on the Laotian Cladocera from diverse habitats in Vientiane province, Central Laos. We counted a total of 70 species, belonging to 37 genera, which is realistically close to an estimated 77 species. The five most common species were Diaphanosoma excisum, Ephemeroporus cf. barroisi, Anthalona harti, Macrothrix spinosa and Chydorus cf. eurynotus. The fauna is typically Oriental/Southeast (SE Asian, showing a strong similarity with neighbouring countries and especially Thailand. We discussed the current taxonomical status of the species and provided illustrations of the main taxa for future comparison. There are no surprising faunistic elements, except for a few new records for SE Asia (Matralona freyi, Ilyocryptus thailandensis. Our data is preliminary, as the fauna of Laos remains insufficiently studied. As for SE Asia as a whole, a significant number of taxa is in need of taxonomical revision.

  17. Note e recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autori Vari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Kendall L. Walton, Mimesi come far finta [Chiara Bisignano] • Nick Zangwill, La metafisica della bellezza [Filippo Focosi] • Dominic McIver Lopes, A Philosophy of Computer Art [Elisa Caldarola] • Jacques Rancière, Béla Tarr, le temps d’après [Domenico Spinosa] • Stefano Marino, Un intreccio dialettico. Teoresi, estetica, etica e metafisica in Theo­dor W. Adorno [Marco Jacobsson] • Antonio Somaini, Ejzenštejn. Il cinema, le arti, il montaggio [Marie Rebecchi] • Aa.Vv., Alla fine delle cose. Contributi a una storia critica delle immagini [Marie Rebecchi]Convegni Merleau-Ponty et l’esthétique aujourd-hui, Università degli Studi di Milano, 5-6 maggio 2011 [Pietro Conte

  18. Univariate and Multivariate Analysis of Agronomical Traits of Preselected Argan Trees

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    Naima AIT AABD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of thirty argan trees (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels, representing the Aoulouz provenance in southwest of Morocco were used to study genetic variability and selection for three years. In this study, the genetic diversity of thirty genotypes (tree mothers of argan (Argania spinosa collected from Aoulouz was evaluated using agro-morphological characters. The main objective of the study was to assess and describe with multivariate analysis the genetic diversity in order to select good candidate trees for a future breeding program. The results obtained showed a large variation for all the traits examined. Analysis of variance using general linear model provided a significant variation between genotypes. Furthermore, genotypic and phenotypic variances for quantitative traits, particularly for seed length, seed width, almond length and oil content were higher. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters. High heritability was recorded for oil content (97.90%, seed width (72.68% and seed length (57.55% respectively, indicating the additive gene action. In addition, a three dimensional plot based on principal coordinate analysis method was used to evaluate the performance genotypes as to the production of oil for three years. The genotypes ‘Ao-12R’, ‘Ao-7R’, ‘Ao-4R’, ‘Ao-4V’, ‘Ao-11R’, ‘Ao-8V’ and ‘Ao-7V’ were found to be the best for high oil content. Identification and selection with superior agronomic traits may be an effective method for genetic improvement of argan trees, and a first step for further breeding studies.

  19. Hongos micorrícico arbusculares presentes en bosques de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae de la Yunga Argentina Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests of Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Becerra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se citan 22 especies de Hongos Micorrícico Arbusculares (HMA presentes en la rizosfera de plantas pertenecientes a las familias Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Oxalidaceae, Rosaceae y Caprifoliaceae de la Yunga Argentina. Se dan a conocer como nuevas citas específicas para el país a Pacispora chimonobambusae (Wu & Liu Sieverd. & Oehl ex Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler y Glomus lacteum Rose & Trappe. Se amplía la distribución para el país de Acaulospora denticulata Sieverding & Toro, A. excavata Ingleby & Walker, A. laevis Gerdemann & Trappe, A. mellea Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, Ambispora leptoticha Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Glomus claroideum Schenck & Smith, G. clarum Nicolson & Schenck, G. fuegianum (Speg. Trappe & Gerdemann, G. geosporum (Nicolson & Gerdemann Walker y G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, Scutellospora biornata Spain, Sieverding & Toro y S. dipapillosa (Walker & Koske Walker & Sanders.In this study 22 species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF are cited for the rhizosphere of Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Oxalidaceae, Rosaceae and Caprifoliaceae families of the Argentinian Yunga. Pacispora chimonobambusae (Wu & Liu Sieverd. & Oehl ex Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler and Glomus lacteum Rose & Trappe are new registers for Argentina. The distribution area of Acaulospora denticulata Sieverding & Toro, A. excavata Ingleby & Walker, A. laevis Gerdemann & Trappe, A. mellea Spain& Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, Ambispora leptoticha Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Glomus claroideum Schenck & Smith, G. clarum Nicolson & Schenck, G. fuegianum (Speg. Trappe & Gerdemann, G. geosporum (Nicolson & Gerdemann Walker, G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, Scutellospora biornata Spain, Sieverding & Toro and S. dipapillosa

  20. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc. PMID:17613745

  1. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g−1, chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g−1, lead 0.12–0.23 μg g−1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g−1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  2. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM. It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85% caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75% of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to

  3. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Havik

    Full Text Available Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  4. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  5. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  6. Study of Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Uses of Indicator Species of District Bannu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ullah khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess record and report the chemical constituents and ethnobotanical knowledge of indicator species of District Bannu. Medicinal outlines of about 57 plants were recorded through interview local people i.e. farmers, herbalists, hakims and Medicinal plants user dealers. The present investigation comprises the indigenous uses of 57 species belonging to 36 families of Angiosperms based upon their utility. Out of this rich Medicinal germplasm, 66.15% plants are wild while 44.18%, species were found to be cultivated, 26.74% species are both wild and cultivated of the total flora of this area. The most important medicinal families are Solanaceae (7 spp, 12.28%, Asteraceae (5 spp, 8.77%, Mimosaceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Moraceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Rhamnaceae (2 spp, 3.51% While the remaining 25 families having 1 species each which is 1.75% of all families. The most common medicinal plants in the area are Abroma augusta (L. F., Acacia modesta wall., Achyranthes bidentata Blume , Albizia lebbeek L., Calotropis procera L., Capparis decidua Forsk Carthamus oxycantha M. B, Chenopodium album L., Citrus medica L., Citrullus colocynthis Schrad, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb, Cynodon dactylon L. Cyperus rotundrus L., Dodonia viscosa L., Eucalyptus globule L., Nerium oleander L., Papaver somniferum L., Trachy spermum ammi L. Typha orientallis J. Preslw., Vitex negundo L., Withania somnifera L., Xanthium strumarium L., Zizphus mauratiana Lam., Some plants have wild fruits i.e.., Solanum nigrum L., while Nerium oleander L. and Dodonaea viscosa (L. Jaeq are ornamental.

  7. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF KELP GULL LARUS DOMINICANUS (CHARADRIIFORMES, LARIDAE IN THREE ISLANDS NORTH OFF PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November and December 2004, an evaluation was done of some aspects of breeding biology of the kelp gull Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823 in Lobos de Afuera, Lobos de Tierra and Foca islands, located off northern Peru. An association was found between the colonies of this species with the South American sea lion Otariaflavescens (Shaw, 1800 in Lobos de Afuera and Foca, with the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii (Milne-Edwards, 1882 in Lobos de Afuera and Lobos de Tierra, the peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Molina, 1782 in Lobos de Afuera, and with the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti (Meyen, 1834 in Foca. Egg predation and kleptoparasitism of S. nebouxii was common for this species in the three islands. Regarding the selection of nesting areas, it was noted that the Kelp Gull used different types of substrates such as rock, gravel, flagstone, boulders and seashells and that the nests were built using the resources of the site, mainly seaweeds and feathers and, in the Foca case, using leaves from sapote Capparis scabrida (Kunth, 1821. The nests were located in high and windy areas of the islands next to cracks and large rocks, from slopes of less than 15º to cliffs. Apparently, the timing of nest initiation was the same in the three islands, starting around the third week of October; in most cases were found three eggs in the nests. Factors are discussed that could affect the biological characteristics of the Kelp Gull in northern Peru and its differences with other breeding areas.

  8. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Jha, Prabhat Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl) concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM). It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85%) caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75%) of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid) in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR) in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase) under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to using PGPR

  9. Exploring Metacogntive Visual Literacy Tasks for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, S.; Dwyer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Undoubtedly, astronomy is a scientific enterprise which often results in colorful and inspirational images of the cosmos that naturally capture our attention. Students encountering astronomy in the college classroom are often bombarded with images, movies, simulations, conceptual cartoons, graphs, and charts intended to convey the substance and technological advancement inherent in astronomy. For students who self-identify themselves as visual learners, this aspect can make the science of astronomy come alive. For students who naturally attend to visual aesthetics, this aspect can make astronomy seem relevant. In other words, the visual nature that accompanies much of the scientific realm of astronomy has the ability to connect a wide range of students to science, not just those few who have great abilities and inclinations toward the mathematical analysis world. Indeed, this is fortunate for teachers of astronomy, who actively try to find ways to connect and build astronomical understanding with a broad range of student interests, motivations, and abilities. In the context of learning science, metacognition describes students’ self-monitoring, -regulation, and -awareness when thinking about learning. As such, metacognition is one of the foundational pillars supporting what we know about how people learn. Yet, the astronomy teaching and learning community knows very little about how to operationalize and support students’ metacognition in the classroom. In response, the Conceptual Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team is developing and pilot-testing metacogntive tasks in the context of astronomy that focus on visual literacy of astronomical phenomena. In the initial versions, students are presented with a scientifically inaccurate narrative supposedly describing visual information, including images and graphical information, and asked to assess and correct the narrative, in the form of peer evaluation. To guide student thinking, students

  10. 2005 College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Slater, T. F.; Greene, W. M.; Thaller, M.; Brissenden, G.; UA Steward Observatory CAPER Team; NASA JPL Navigator EPO CenterAstrononomy Education Team; NASA Spitzer EPO Team

    2004-12-01

    As part of the education and public outreach efforts of the NASA JPL Navigator and Spitzer EPO Programs along with the American Astronomical Society and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, astronomy educators affiliated with the Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Arizona are conducting a series of two- and three-day teaching excellence workshops for college faculty. These regional workshops are being held at community colleges around the country and in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. These interactive teaching excellence workshops focus on dilemmas astronomy teachers face and develop practical solutions for the troubling issues in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. After reviewing the latest research about how students learn, participants define and set measurable student learning goals and objectives for students in their astronomy courses and construct effective course syllabi reflecting the ASTRO 101 goals publicized by the AAS. To improve instruction, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, computer-based laboratories, and observational projects. Participants also learn how to write more effective multiple-choice tests and implement authentic assessment strategies including portfolio assessment, performance tasks, and concept maps. Texts used at the workshop include: (i) Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching, Slater and Adams, Prentice Hall, 2002; (ii) Great Ideas for Teaching Astronomy, Pompea, Brooks Cole, 2000; Insights into the Universe, Slater and Zeilik, and (iv) Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy, Adams, Prather, & Slater, Prentice Hall, 2005.

  11. Better Categorizing Misconceptions Using a Contemporary Cognitive Science Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the last three decades of discipline-based education research in the geosciences has focused on the important work of identifying the range and domain of misconceptions students bring into undergraduate science survey courses. Pinpointing students' prior knowledge is a cornerstone for developing constructivist approaches and learning environments for effective teaching. At the same time, the development of a robust a priori formula for professors to use in mitigating students' misconceptions remains elusive. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to put forth a model that will allow professors to operate on students' various learning difficulties in a more productive manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast, we propose a model based on the notion that 'misconceptions' are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties (e.g. students' spiritual commitments). In this sense, each of these different types of learning barriers would be more effectively addressed with an instructional strategy purposefully targeting these different attributes. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in geosciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the single generalized category of 'misconceptions' might allow our community to more effectively design learning experiences for our students and the general public

  12. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  13. First Year K-12 Teachers as High Leverage Point to Implement GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Mendez, B. J.; Schultz, G.; Wierman, T.

    2013-01-01

    The recurring challenge for curriculum developers is how to efficiently prepare K-12 classroom teachers to use new curricula. First-year teachers, numbering nearly 250,000 in the US each year, have the greatest potential to impact the largest number of students because they have potential to be in the classroom for thirty years. At the same time, these novice teachers are often the most open minded about adopting curricular innovation because they are not yet deeply entrenched in existing practices. To take advantage of this high leverage point, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators at the University of California, Berkeley’s Lawrence Hall of Science and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory with experts from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Curriculum Sequence. Then, these master teachers were mentored in coaching interning student teachers assigned to them in using GEMS materials. Evaluation showed that novice teachers mentored by the master teachers felt knowledgeable after teaching the GEMS units. However, they seemed relatively less confident about the solar system and objects beyond the solar system. Overall, mentees felt strongly at the end of the year that they have acquired good strategies for teaching the various topics, suggesting that the support they received while teaching and working with a mentor was of real benefit to them. Funding provided in part by NASA ROSES AMANTISS NNX09AD51G

  14. Publishing in the Refereed International Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education JAESE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research. More information about the journal and its policies are available online at http://www.JAESE.org

  15. Analysis and determination of diterpenoids in unprocessed and processed Euphorbia lathyris seeds by HPLC-ESI-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Rong Hou; Lei-Lei Wan; Zha-Jun Zhan; Cheng-Ping Li; Wei-Guang Shan

    2011-01-01

    Euphorbia lathyris (Caper spurge) is a toxic and potent Chinese materia medica (T/PCMM). This study sought a method for identifying five diterpenoids (Euphorbia factors LI-L3, L7a, and Ls) with the spectra of UV and mass, quantifying three diterpenoids L1, L2, and L8 in crude extracts of unprocessed and processed E. lathyris seeds by liquid chromatography/ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The analysis was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm× 150mm i.d., 5 μm) with an isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min at column temperature of 30 ℃ and UV detection was set at 272 nm. An ESI source was used with a positive ionization mode. The calibration curve was linear in the ranges of 9.9-79 μg/mL for Euphorbia factor Lb 3.8-30.5μg/mL for Euphorbia factor L2, and 1.0-20.6 μg/mL for Euphorbia factor LB. The average recoveries (n=6) of three diterpenoids were 98.39%, 91.10% and 96.94%, respectively, with RSD of 2.5%, 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively. The contents of the three diterpenoids in processed E. lathyris seeds were 3.435, 1.367 and 0.286 mg/g, respectively, which decreased more sharply than those in unprocessed E. lathyris seeds which were 4.915, 1.944 and 0.425 mg/g, respectively. The method is simple, accurate, reliable and reproducible, and it can be applied to control the quality of unprocessed and processed E. lathyris seeds.

  16. Enhancing ASTRO101 Student Engagement Using Student-Created ScienceSKETCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    As astronomy teaching faculty are changing their teaching strategies from those less desirable approaches that allow students to passively listen to professor-centered, information-lectures to more desirable, active-student engagement classrooms characterized by active learning, ASTRO 101 professors are looking for more ways to help students learn to participate in authentic scientific practices. This is consistent with notion advocated by the NRC that students should practice scientific thinking, scientific discourse, and scientific practices while learning science. Noticing that much informal scientific discussion is mediated by sketches—such as those occasionally lively discussions held after hours during scientific conferences—scholars at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research have been piloting a series of active learning tasks where students are challenged to create scientific drawings to illustrate their understanding of astronomical phenomena or structures. Known informally as ScienceSKETCHES, examples of these tasks challenge students to illustrate: the spectral curve differences between high and low mass stars; the differences among galaxy shapes; the distribution of stars for the Andromeda Galaxy in terms of luminosity versus temperature; old and young planetary surfaces; or the relationships between distances and speeds of orbiting objects. Although our initial testing has focused on predominately on paper and pencil tasks, with the occasional cell phone picture of a ScienceSKETCH being texted to the professor, the electronic-based teaching world is nearly ready to support these sorts of drawing tasks. Already, the ability to complete and submit scientific sketches is becoming commonplace across electronic learning platforms, including shared white-boarding in many desktop videoconferencing systems, and handheld device learning systems for interactive classrooms, like those from Learning Catalytics, among many others. Our

  17. First Results from the iSTAR International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Our best efforts in the United States to dramatically improve teaching and learning in astronomy courses has been less than satisfactory despite Herculean efforts. A possible solution is to expand our view beyond our own culture's borders and presumptions in order to bring our shortcomings in discipline-based astronomy education research to light. Before we can begin the process of international comparisons of student conceptual understanding, we need to better understand how different citizens of different countries position astronomy culturally. Under the banner of the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning Project, iSTAR, we are now carefully observing how foreign experts in teaching astronomy and the science of astronomy translate the Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST multiple-choice assessment instrument to look for subtle clues revealed during the translation process. The TOAST is the widely used standard to evaluate students' gains in the United States' Astronomy classrooms. We hope that the process of translation itself will help us comprehend how other cultures think differently about astronomical concepts and eventually we are looking to obtain useful data of how other cultures develop their society's understanding of particular astronomy aspects where we may fall short. Several of the iSTAR Project's bilingual speakers are documenting their thoughts and insights as they translate the TOAST. The end-goal is to collect a comprehensible, well-defined, and logical translation in various languages that are culturally sensitive and linguistically accurate. This project is sponsored and managed by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research at CAPERTeam.com in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46.

  18. New Contemporary Criterion-Referenced Assessment Instruments for Astronomy & Geology: TOAST & EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, Sarah Katie; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    Considerable effort in the astronomy and Earth sciences education research over the past decade has focused on developing assessment tools in the form of multiple-choice conceptual diagnostics and content knowledge surveys. This has been critically important in advancing discipline-based education research allowing scholar to establish the initial, incoming knowledge state of students as well as to attempt to measure some of the impacts of innovative instructional interventions. Before now, few of the existing instruments were constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. Whereas first-generation assessment tools, such as the Astronomy Diagnostics Test ADT2) were based primarily upon further identifying documented astronomy misconceptions, scholars from the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research team are creating contemporary instruments based instead by developing items using modern test construction techniques and tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals identified by the American Association of the Advancement of Science’s Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council’s National Science Education Standards, and the National Research Council’s Frameworks for A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. These consensus learning goals are further enhanced guiding documents from the American Astronomical Society - Chair’s Conference on ASTRO 101 and the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative. Two of the resulting criterion-referenced assessment tools widely used by researchers are the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) and the Exam of GeoloGy StandardS (EGGS). These easy-to-use and easy-to-score multiple-choice instruments have a high degree of reliability and validity for instructors and researchers needing information on students’ initial knowledge state at the beginning of a course and can be used, in aggregate, to

  19. Modern Publishing Approach of Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    a Senior Scientist at the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research. More information about the journal and its policies are available online at http://www.JAESE.org

  20. Identificación y caracterización de especies de Neosartorya aisladas de frutillas (Fragaria spp. frescas y tratadas térmicamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Frisón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Aspergillus es uno de los géneros fúngicos más estudiados y de gran impacto a nivel industrial. La sección Fumigati incluye unas pocas especies anamorfas del género Aspergillus. Las especies que son teleomorfas se encuentran dentro del género Neosartorya. Este es un moho resistente al calor que causan problemas en las industrias alimentarias o enfermedades en los seres humanos. Sus ascosporas han sido aisladas a partir de frutas, pulpas y jugos, ya que pueden sobrevivir a los tratamientos de térmicos industriales pudiendo aparecer la contaminación post-pasteurización. El objetivo fue caracterizar aislados de Neosartorya de frutillas frescas recién cosechadas y tratadas térmicamente, analizando la ornamentación de las ascosporas, toxicidad y resistencia térmica. Se aislaron las colonias, y se identificaron macro y microscópicamente siguiendo la metodología de Pitt y Hocking (2009, de 60 muestras. Se caracterizaron las ascosporas por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se determinó la capacidad toxicogénica de los extractos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Se evaluó la resistencia térmica a diferentes temperaturas. Se aislaron 18 cepas de Neosartorya de frutillas recién cosechadas, y otros mohos termorresistentes como Arthrinium phaeospermum, Byssochlamys nivea y Talaromyces macrosporus. En las frutillas tratadas térmicamente no se aislaron mohos termorresistentes. Trece aislados mostraron ascosporascoincidentes con N. fischeri, el resto con N. spinosa. Los aislados de N. fischeri produjeron fumitremorgina A y B y verruculógeno en arroz, pero no lo hicieron en frutillas frescas. Los parámetros de resistencia térmica fueron: D80 ºC: 20 - 22 minutos, D85 ºC: 9 - 11 minutos, D90 ºC: 2 - 3 minutos y z: 10 - 11 ºC para N. fischeri y D80 ºC: > 120 minutos, D85 ºC: 11 - 94 minutos, D90 ºC: 3 - 15 minutos y z: 6 - 9 ºC para N. spinosa. Es indispensable aplicar buenas prácticas agrícolas y

  1. Fungos micorrízicos no crescimento e na extração de metais pesados pela braquiária em solo contaminado Mycorrhizal fungi influence on brachiariagrass growth and heavy metal extraction in a contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em casa de vegetação, a influência de 14 isolados de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA no crescimento e extração de Zn, Cd, Cu e Pb pela Brachiaria decumbens em solo contaminado. Foram utilizadas plantas com e sem FMA, em vasos com 0,92 kg de solo com (mg kg-1: Zn, 3.300; Cu, 60; Cd, 29; Pb, 73. Os isolados fúngicos tiveram efeitos diferenciados no crescimento e aumentaram a produção de matéria seca em 84%. Os teores de metais na planta foram elevados e apresentaram relação inversa com a produção de matéria seca. Verificou-se que os FMA não afetaram os teores de Pb, mas reduziram em 20, 28 e 63% os teores de Zn, Cd e Cu na parte aérea, respectivamente, e aumentaram os teores de Cu nas raízes em mais de 1.000%. Os FMA aumentaram a quantidade de metais extraídos do solo em 845, 142, 68 e 54% para Cu, Pb, Zn e Cd, respectivamente. Acaulospora spinosa, Acaulospora morrowiae-UFLA e Gigaspora gigantea aumentaram a extração simultânea dos quatro metais contaminantes. Os FMA, de acordo com a espécie, aumentam a capacidade da B. decumbens de extrair metais pesados do solo.The influence of 14 arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal isolates (AMF on brachiariagrass growth and extraction of Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb from a contaminated soil was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Brachiaria decumbens plants were grown in pots with 0.92 kg of soil containing (mg kg-1: Zn, 3,300; Cu, 60; Cd, 29; Pb, 73. The AMF increased dry matter yield in 84%. Plant heavy metal concentrations were high and were inversely related to dry matter yield. Isolates caused no effect on Pb, but reduced shoot Zn, Cd and Cu concentrations by 20, 28 and 63%, respectively. It was observed effect of mycorrhiza on Cu accumulation in roots (over 1,000%. Isolates enhanced the total amount of soil extracted metals by 845, 142, 68 and 54% for Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Only Acaulospora spinosa, Acaulospora morrowiae-UFLA and Gigaspora

  2. Revisão do gênero Polyrhaphis Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyrhaphis Audinet-Serville, 1835, gênero de Lamiinae distribuído entre o México e América do Sul (excluindo o Chile e abaixo da latitude 35°S, é revisado. Três espécies novas são descritas: P. baloupae, procedente da Guiana Francesa; P. lanei, proveniente do Brasil (Amazonas e Pará; e P. peruana, do Peru. Duas espécies são sinonimizadas: P. testacea Lane, 1965 (= P. gracilis Bates, 1862 e P. paraensis [= P. papulosa (Olivier, 1795]. É designado neótipo para P. papulosa. A autoria de P. horrida [= P. spinosa (Drury, 1773] é discutida. Cerambyx armatus Voet (1778? é considerado um nome inválido e Lamia armiger Schöenherr, 1817 (= Polyrhaphis armiger o nome válido dessa espécie. Polyrhaphis spinipennis Laporte, 1840, é excluída da fauna da Colômbia. Novos registros de distribuição: P. argentina Lane, 1978, para o estado de São Paulo (Brasil; P. batesi Hovore & McCarty, 1998, para o Equador; P. belti Hovore & McCarty, 1998 para o Equador e Colômbia; P. gracilis Bates, 1862, para a guiana Francesa; e P. turnbowi Hovore & McCarty, 1998, em dúvida, para o Peru. É apresentada chave para as espécies do gênero.Polyraphis Audinet-Serville, 1835, a genus belonging to the Lamiinae, and distributed between Mexico and South America, excluding Chile and under latitude 35°S, is reviewed. Three new species are described: P. baloupae, from French Guiana; P. lanei, from Brazil (Amazonas and Pará; P. peruana, from Peru. Two species are synonymyzed: P. testacea Lane, 1965 (= P. gracilis Bates, 1862 and P. paraensis [= P. papulosa (Olivier, 1795]. Neotype to P. papulosa is designated. The authorship of P. horrida [= P. spinosa (Drury, 1773] is commented. Cerambyx armatus Voet (1778? is considered an invalid name and Lamia armiger Schöenherr, 1817 (= Polyrhaphis armiger the valid name of the species. Polyrhaphis spinipennis Laporte, 1840, is excluded of the fauna of Colombia. New records: P. argentina Lane, 1978, for São Paulo state

  3. Identificación y caracterización de especies de Neosartorya aisladas de frutillas (Fragaria spp. frescas y tratadas térmicamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Frisón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Aspergillus es uno de los géneros fúngicos más estudiados y de gran impacto a nivel industrial. La sección Fumigati incluye unas pocas especies anamorfas del género Aspergillus. Las especies que son teleomorfas se encuentran dentro del género Neosartorya. Este es un moho resistente al calor que causan problemas en las industrias alimentarias o enfermedades en los seres humanos. Sus ascosporas han sido aisladas a partir de frutas, pulpas y jugos, ya que pueden sobrevivir a los tratamientos de térmicos industriales pudiendo aparecer la contaminación post-pasteurización. El objetivo fue caracterizar aislados de Neosartorya de frutillas frescas recién cosechadas y tratadas térmicamente, analizando la ornamentación de las ascosporas, toxicidad y resistencia térmica. Se aislaron las colonias, y se identificaron macro y microscópicamente siguiendo la metodología de Pitt y Hocking (2009, de 60 muestras. Se caracterizaron las ascosporas por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se determinó la capacidad toxicogénica de los extractos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Se evaluó la resistencia térmica a diferentes temperaturas. Se aislaron 18 cepas de Neosartorya de frutillas recién cosechadas, y otros mohos termorresistentes como Arthrinium phaeospermum, Byssochlamys nivea y Talaromyces macrosporus. En las frutillas tratadas térmicamente no se aislaron mohos termorresistentes. Trece aislados mostraron ascosporas coincidentes con N. fischeri, el resto con N. spinosa. Los aislados de N. fischeri produjeron fumitremorgina A y B y verruculógeno en arroz, pero no lo hicieron en frutillas frescas. Los parámetros de resistencia térmica fueron: D80 ºC: 20 - 22 minutos, D85 ºC: 9 - 11 minutos, D90 ºC: 2 - 3 minutos y z: 10 - 11 ºC para N. fischeri y D80 ºC: > 120 minutos, D85 ºC: 11 - 94 minutos, D90 ºC: 3 - 15 minutos y z: 6 - 9 ºC para N. spinosa. Es indispensable aplicar buenas prácticas agrícolas y

  4. Dos especies nuevas de Borreria (Rubiaceae, sinopsis y clave de las especies para Bahia, Brasil Two new species of Borreria (Rubiaceae, synopsis and key to distinguish the species from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Leonor Cabral

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata del estudio taxonómico del género Borreria (Rubiaceae para el estado de Bahia, siendo registradas 29 especies. La mayor parte de estas especies habitan en los biomas del cerrado y la mata atlántica. Se describen e ilustran dos especies nuevas, Borreria catolensis E.L. Cabral & L.M. Miguel y B. diamantinae R.M. Salas & E.L. Cabral. Se realiza la nueva combinación, Borreria schumannii (Standl. ex Bacigalupo E.L. Cabral & Sobrado. Se selecciona neotipo para B. virgata. Se elige epitipo para B. scabiosoides y se designa lectotipos para B. eryngioides y B. humifusa. Se presenta clave de identificación, comentarios sobre distribución geográfica y hábitat, se incluyen mapas y un cuadro de distribución de las especies por bioma. Se presenta por primera vez ilustraciones de B. crispata, B. cupularis, B. humifusa, B. virgata y B. wunschmannii. Se discute las identidades de B. ocymoides y B. prostrata, la primera de las cuales es también ilustrada. Se rehabilitan a B. virgata y B. spinosa. Se incluye además dos figuras con 20 especies.This work deals with a taxonomic study of the genus Borreria (Rubiaceae for the state of Bahia, 29 species are recorded. Most of these species are distributed in the cerrado and Atlantic forest biomes. Two new species are described and illustrated, Borreria catolensis E.L. Cabral & L.M. Miguel and Borreria diamantinae R.M. Salas & E.L. Cabral. Th e new combination Borreria schumannii (Standl. ex Bacigalupo E.L. Cabral & Sobrado is proposed. Neotype is designated for B. virgata. Epitype is designated for B. scabiosoides and lectotypes are designated for B. eryngioides and B. humifusa. A key for identification, comments on geographic distribution and habitats are provided, maps and a table with the species distribution for biomes are also included. Borreria crispata, B. cupularis, B. humifusa, B. virgata and B. wunschmannii are illustrated for the first time. The identities of B. ocymoides

  5. Xanthophyceae planctônicas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1353 Planktonic Xanthophyceae from upper Parana River floodplain - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1353

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Train

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos abordando a biodiversidade fitoplanctônica em ambientes aquáticos de planície de inundação, o que sugere a necessidade de estudos taxonômicos visando à conservação e recuperação desses ecossistemas. A Classe Xanthophyceae foi estudada quanto à taxonomia e contribuição para a densidade e biomassa fitoplanctônica total. Foram analisadas amostras das regiões pelágica e litorânea de 33 ambientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, entre fevereiro de 2000 e fevereiro de 2001. As xantofíceas ocorreram em 61% dos biótopos, sendo identificados 20 táxons. Gloeobotrys lunatus Ettl, Goniochloris spinosa Pascher, Istmochloron neustonica Zalocar e Pizarro e Pseudostaurastrum limneticum (Borge Chodat constituíram primeira citação para esse sistema. O maior número de táxons ocorreu nos ambientes próximos ao rio Paraná, destacando-se a lagoa do Osmar. A contribuição de Xanthophyceae para a densidade e biomassa foi reduzida em todo o período estudado, sendo maior no período de águas altasThere are scarce studies concerning phytoplankton biodiversity in floodplain environment. This suggest the need of taxonomic studies for the conservation and recuperation of these ecosystems. Xanthophyceae was studied in relation to taxonomy and contribution to phytoplanktonic density and biomass. Samples were taken from limnetic and seaboard regions in 33 biotopes in the Upper Parana River floodplain, between February 2000 and February 2001. This group occurred in 61% of the biotopes and 20 species were registered. Gloeobotrys lunatus Ettl, Goniochloris spinosa Pascher, Istmochloron neustonica Zalocar and Pizarro and Pseudostaurastrum limneticum (Borge Chodat were considered first citation for this system. The highest number of taxa was registered in the biotopes near Parana River, especially in the Osmar Lagoon. The contribution of Xanthophyceae to density and biomass was low throughout the studied period and

  6. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Silveira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.

  7. Fungi Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil with Loquat Root Rot Disease in Yunnan Province%云南蒙自枇杷根腐病植株根际土壤真菌多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若鹏; 郑肖兰; 田学军; 李建平; 鲁海菊

    2012-01-01

    摘要摸清蒙自枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌区系分布.为有效可持续防控枇杷根腐病提供理论依据。采用五点取样法采集土壤样品,稀释平板法在PDA培养基上分离纯化,获得114株枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌,经显微镜形态鉴定。109株真菌鉴定为以下24种: A bs idia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa,Acremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circineUoides f. janssenii, Mucor circinelloides f. wsitanicus, PeniciUium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, PeniciUium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, Penicillium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, Penicillium variabile,Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum, Verticillium fungicola,分属于11个属.其中青霉属(Penicillium)是优势属,另外5株真菌属于担子菌。%To establish the species and distribution of fungi of Loquat rhizosphere soil which had rot root disease at Mengzi in Yunnan Province and to provide theoretical basis for efficient control to disease of the root rot; Soil specimen were collected with the 5-point method. The fungi strains were isolated by the plate of gradient dilution with PDA medium. The strains were identified by morphology with microscope. The strains respectively belong to A bsidia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa, A cremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circinelloides f. janssenii, Mucor circineUoides f. wsitanicus, Penicillium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, PeniciUium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, PeniciUium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, PeniciUium variabile, Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum

  8. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  9. Comparative tree growth, penology and fruit yield of several Japanese plum cultivars in two newly established orchards, organic and conventionally managed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, F. T.; Jimenez-Bocanegra, J. A.; Garcia-Galavis, P. A.; Santamaria, C.; Camacho, M.; Castejon, M.; Perez-Romero, L. F.; Daza, A.

    2013-05-01

    The growth, penology and fruit yield of 14 Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl) were studied in two newly established experimental orchards under organic and conventional management. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2011 in the province of Seville (SW Spain), an important region of Japanese plum culture. Trunk cross-section areas (TCSA), flowering, yield and tree defoliation before winter dormancy were analysed over several years. After one year, TCSA were larger in the organically managed orchard (OMO) for most of the cultivars, in the next two years they were equal, and from the fourth year, several cultivars showed significantly larger TCSA in the conventionally managed orchard (CMO). Flowering in the conventional orchard started from 2 to 6 days before and lasted for 3 to 5 days more than in the OMO. Several cultivars produced significantly more fruit in the CMO, being the average fruit yield in the organic orchard about 72% of the conventionally managed orchard. Autumn defoliation was significantly advanced in the organic orchard, especially in cultivars highly susceptible to rust (Tranzschelia pruni spinosae), a disease not adequately controlled in the organic orchard. (Author) 35 refs.

  10. Cold-blooded vertebrates at the proposed Reference Repository Location in southeastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information in this interim report will be used to design future environmental monitoring plans and assess impacts related to Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) activities. New reports will be issued as more data become available. Five study locations were established to study cold-blooded vertebrates in the vicinity of the proposed Reference Repository Location. Four study sites were in shrub-dominated stands of vegetation; the other site was devoid of shrubs because of a range fire in 1984. The side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), trapped in four of the five plots, was the only lizard species captured. It was not trapped in the one plot dominated by spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa) shrubs. It is uncertain whether the side-blotched lizard is absent from this particular vegetation type, or if the population is too low to have been detected in the relatively short time span of the investigation. Two species of snakes were captured, gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and green racers (Coluber constrictor mormon). The number of snakes captured was too small to detect any distributional pattern in space or time. Studies are continuing. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids.

  12. Activation of MITF by Argan Oil Leads to the Inhibition of the Tyrosinase and Dopachrome Tautomerase Expressions in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Kume, Sayuri; Bourhim, Thouria; Bakhtaoui, Fatima Zahra; Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Han, Junkyu; Gadhi, Chemseddoha; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders.

  13. Activation of MITF by Argan Oil Leads to the Inhibition of the Tyrosinase and Dopachrome Tautomerase Expressions in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra O. Villareal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan (Argania spinosa L. oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1, and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders.

  14. Seasonal Variation and Correlation with Environmental Factors of Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency of Juglans regia and Ziziphus jujuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Yang; Shu-Qing An; Osbert-Jianxin Sun; Zuo-Min Shi; Xin-Song She; Qing-Ye Sun; Shi-Rong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Both the photosynthetic light curves and CO.2 curves of Juglans regia L. and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa in three seasons were measured using a LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system. The maximal net photosynthetic rate (Ainu), apparent quantum efficlency(ψ), maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the two species were calculated based on the curves. The results showed that Amax of J. regia reached its maximum at the late-season, while the highest values of Amax of Z. jujuba occurred at the mid-season. The Amax of J. regia was more affected by relative humidity (RH) of the atmosphere, while that of Z, Jujuba was more affected by the air temperature. Light saturation point (LSP) and Light compensation point (LCP) of J. regia had a higher correlation with RH of the atmosphere, those of Z. jujube, however, had a higher correlation with air temperature. Vcmax of both J. regia and Z. jujube had negative correlation with RH of the atmosphere. WUE of J. regia would decrease with the rise of the air temperature while that of Z. Jujuba increased. Thus it could be seen that RH, temperature and soil moisture had main effect on photosynthesis and WUE of J. regia and Z.jujuba. Incorporating data on the physiological differences among tree species into forest carbon models will greatly improve our ability to predict alterations to the forest carbon budgets under various environmental scenarios such as global climate change, or with differing species composition.

  15. Pycnogonids associated with the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby) in Ojo de Liebre Bay, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Espinosa, Angel; de León-González, Jesus A

    2015-01-01

    Five species of epibenthic pycnogonids collected on the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus are recorded. A new species of Eurycyde, Eurycyde bamberi, is described. Of the 19 species known in this genus; the new species is closest to Eurycyde hispida Kroyer, 1844 but differs from it in the absence of plumose spines and the shapes of the lateral process, first coxa, and ocular tubercle. The new species represents the third member of Eurycyde from the eastern Pacific in addition to Eurycyde spinosa Hilton, 1916 and Eurycyde clitellaria Stock, 1955. Besides Eurycyde bamberi, the following species were collected: Nymphopsis duodorsospinosa Hilton, 1942c; Callipallene californiensis (Hall, 1913); Nymphon lituus Child, 1979; and Pycnogonum rickettsi Schmitt, 1934. Pycnogonum rickettsi is recorded for first time from Mexican waters, as is Nymphon lituus from the western coast of Baja California Peninsula. Each of these four species are re-described and re-illustrated in order to fill in existing gaps in the literature of the region. PMID:26692802

  16. Shrub facilitation of Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens regeneration in a wooded pasture in central Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the woodlands of Sardinia, as in many other areas of the Mediterranean region, grazing of domestic animals is still very common, though often in the absence of any sustainable management logic or technique. The present work analyzes the effects of excessive grazing pressure on a wooded pasture in the municipality of Orgosolo (Nuoro province, emphasizing the effects on the natural regeneration of the oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens. This study has revealed the positive effects of the interaction between shrubs and seedlings of tree species. Crataegus monogyna proved to be the most efficient shrub species in favouring the establishment and growth of saplings; Rubus ulmifolius is efficient in the establishing phase but somewhat less so in the following stages. The other shrub species (Prunus spinosa, Genista pichi-sermolliana, Stachys glutinosa play a lesser facilitating role. Despite the fact that seedlings are found in more than half (56% of the shrub patches, the average age of the seedlings (14±0.6 yrs and their small average size (height 24±1.4cm lead to think that the present grazing pressure is incompatible with any concrete chance of success for their natural regeneration.

  17. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  18. The gathering and consumption of wild edible plants in the Campoo (Cantabria, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Morales, Ramón

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses the traditional consumption of wild edible plants in the rural communities of the Campoo (Cantabria), a region in northern Spain. Through semi-structured interviews with key informants, data on the perception, gathering, preparation and use of 60 edible wild plant species were collected. Social, economic and cultural factors need to be taken into account when trying to understand why some wild foods and traditional vegetables continue to be consumed while others are not. Wild foods were traditionally important as a supplement to the diet (particularly during food shortages), to which they bring diversity and serve as a source of vitamins and minerals. However, only a few people who like the taste of wild species and enjoy gathering them continue to consume them. Many people consider wild food to be old fashioned, unprofitable, or too time-consuming, and prefer to cultivate or buy their food. The most frequently cited species in the region (Rumex acetosa, Origanum vulgare, Rosa canina, Vaccinium myrtillus, Crataegus monogyna and Prunus spinosa) are widely consumed in the Mediterranean area. Unusual food species, such as Pedicularis schizocalyx, Romulea bulbocodium or Viburnum lantana, have also been gathered in the study area. PMID:16503563

  19. Study on character evolution and cladistic taxonomy of wild rapes (Brassica campestris and B. juncea)in Tibet%西藏野生油菜性状演化与分支分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建林; 常天军; 成海宏; 方华丽

    2008-01-01

    以西藏野生白菜型油菜(Brassica campestris L.)和野生芥菜型油菜(B. judea Czern. et Coss.)的39个形态学性状为依据,以醉蝶花(Cleome spinosa Jacq.)为外类群,确定了性状的祖征和衍征.应用最大同步法,对35个西藏野生油菜种源的性状演化与分支分类进行了研究.结果表明,野生白菜型油菜和野生芥菜型油菜的基生叶、薹茎叶和花器官性状既有同期演化性状也有非同期演化性状;而伸长茎叶的所有性状均为非同期演化性状,有各自独特的演化规则.西藏野生白菜型油菜分为藏东野生白菜型油菜和藏中野生白菜型油菜2个组,野生芥菜型油菜分为藏中西野生芥菜型油菜和藏南野生芥菜型油菜2个组,各自沿不同的路线演化.

  20. 棘胸蛙白内障病原鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓云; 郑芊芷; 宋婷婷; 郑善坚; 郑荣泉

    2016-01-01

    从患病棘胸蛙(Quasipaa spinosa)中分离到BN1306菌株,经肌肉注射回健康棘胸蛙,复制出棘胸蛙白内障病的基本症状,并显示对棘胸蛙有较强的致病性.通过形态学、生理生化试验、16S rDNA测序等方法鉴定该致病菌为布氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter braakii).药敏试验显示该菌对诺氟沙星、链霉素、四环素、吡哌酸高度敏感,对氟哌酸、头孢哌酮、庆大霉素、青霉素、新霉素、林可霉素、先锋霉素和红霉素不敏感.

  1. Wild jujube polysaccharides protect against experimental inflammatory bowel disease by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Wu, Shuangchan; Li, Zhike; Li, Jian; Li, Xiaofei; Xiang, Jin; Ding, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Dietary polysaccharides provide various beneficial effects for our health. We investigated the protective effects of wild jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou) sarcocarp polysaccharides (WJPs) against experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function. Colitis was induced in rats by the intrarectal administration of TNBS. We found that WJPs markedly ameliorated the colitis severity, including less weight loss, decreased disease activity index scores, and improved mucosal damage in colitis rats. Moreover, WJPs suppressed the inflammatory response via attenuation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MPO activity in colitis rats. And then, to determine the effect of WJPs on the intestinal barrier, we measured the effect of WJPs on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-conjugated dextran permeability in Caco-2 cell stimulation with TNF-α. We further demonstrated that the alleviation of WJPs to colon injury was associated with barrier function by assembly of tight junction proteins. Moreover, the effect of WJPs on TER was eliminated by the specific inhibitor of AMPK. AMPK activity was also up-regulated by WJPs in Caco-2 cell stimulation with TNF-α and in colitis rats. This study demonstrates that WJPs protect against IBD by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function involving the activation of AMPK.

  2. Karina Lagünü (Aydın’nün Malacostraca faunası

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Özbek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Karina Lagünü Malacostraca faunasının belirlenmesi amacıyla, 26.05.2011-10.04.2012 tarihleri arasında, toplam 9 adet istasyonda mevsimsel olarak kantitatif bir çalışma yapılmıştır.Çalışmanın sonucunda, Amhipoda’dan 7 (Gammarus aequiacuda, G. subtypicus, G. insensibilis, Monocorophium sextonae, Ericthonius punctatus, Dexaminae spinosa, Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, Isopoda’dan 4 (Idothea baltica basteri, Sphaeroma serratum, Sphaeroma pulchellum, Lekanesphaera monodi ve Decapoda’dan 3 (Palaemon longirostris, Hippolyte holthuisi, Carcinus aestuarii olmak üzere toplam 14 tür saptanmıştır. Türlerin istasyonlara ve örnekleme tarihlerine göre dağılımları verilmiştir.Mevcut çalışma ile Türkiye’nin en önemli ve verimli lagüner alanlarından biri olan Karina Lagünü’nde dağılım gösteren Malacostraca türleri tespit edilerek Türkiye biyo-çeşitliliği hakkındaki bilgilere katkı yapılması amaçlanmıştır.

  3. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography of isoflavones and phenolic acids on different stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejdus, B; Vacek, J; Lojková, L; Benesová, L; Kubán, V

    2008-06-27

    Complete separation of aglycones and glucosides of selected isoflavones (genistin, genistein, daidzin, daidzein, glycitin, glycitein, ononin, sissotrin, formononetin, and biochanin A) was possible in 1.5 min using an ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) on a different particular chemically modified stationary phases with a particle size under 2 microm. In addition, selected separation conditions for simultaneous determination of isoflavones together with a group of phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acid) allowed separation of all 19 compounds in 1.9 min. Separations were conducted on a non-polar reversed phase (C(18)) and also on more polar phases with cyanopropyl or phenyl groups using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.3% aqueous acetic acid and methanol. Chromatographic peaks were characterised using parameters such as resolution, symmetry, selectivity, etc. Individual substances were identified and quantified using UV-vis diode array detector at wavelength 270 nm. Limits of detection (3S/N) were in the range 200-400 pg ml(-1). Proposed U-HPLC technique was used for separation of isoflavones and phenolic acids in samples of plant materials (Trifolium pratense, Glycine max, Pisum sativum and Ononis spinosa) after acid hydrolysis of the samples and modified Soxhlet extraction. PMID:18501366

  4. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the metabolic mechanism of L-ascorbic acid in Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

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    Chunmei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is the most economically important member of the Rhamnaceae family and contains a high concentration of ascorbic acid (AsA. To explore the metabolic mechanism of AsA accumulation, we investigated the abundance of AsA in the fruit development stages, the leaf and flower of Z. jujuba cv Junzao, and the mature fruit of one type of wild jujube (Z. jujuba var. spinosa Hu, Yanchuan sour jujube. And the expression patterns of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, degradation and recycling were analyzed. The result showed that AsA biosynthesis during early fruit development (the enlargement stage is the main reason for jujube high accumulation. The L-galactose pathway plays a predominant role in the biosynthesis of AsA during jujube fruit development, and the genes GMP1, GME1, GGP, and GaLDH involved in the determination of AsA concentration during fruit development and in different genotypes; the myo-inositol pathway along with the genes GME2 and GMP2 in the L-galactose pathway play a compensatory role in maintaining AsA accumulation during the ripening stage. These findings enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism in regulating AsA accumulation for jujube.

  5. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kolanthasamy Prabhu; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Nareshkumar; Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad againstAnopheles stephensi Listen.Methods: Spinosad from the actinomycete,Saccharopolyspora spinosa was tested againstAnopheles stephensi at different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and0.08ppm.), and against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae.Results: The larval mortality ranged from36.1±1.7 in (0.01 ppm) to 79.3±1.8 (0.08 ppm) the first instar larva. The LC50andLC90values of first, second, third and fourth instar larva were0.001, 0.031, 0.034, 0.036and0.0113, 0.102, 0.111, 0.113, respectively. The pupal mortality ranged from33.0±2.0 (0.01 ppm) to 80.0±0.9 (0.08 ppm). The LC50 andLC90values were0.028 and 0.1020, respectively. The reduction percentage ofAnopheles larvae was82.7%, 91.4% and96.0% after 24, 48, 72 hours, respectively, while more than80% reduction was observed after3 weeks.Conclusions:In the present study spinosad effectively caused mortality of mosquito larvae in both the laboratory and field trial. It is predicted that spinosad is likely to be an effective larvicide for treatment of mosquito breeding sites.

  6. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  7. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

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    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF HERBAL EXTRACTS AND THEIR FOOD APPLICATION

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    Martin Mellen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal extracts are considered as a good sources of antioxidant compounds. This work describes antioxidant effect of 15 kinds of herbs. Three different antioxidant assays were used, Trolox equivalent antiradical activity (TEAC, test based on deoxyribose oxidation and DPPH method. The TEAC values ranged from 0.38mM to 0.77 mM. Deoxyribose assay showed antioxidant activity of selected extracts expressed as the inhibition of formation of oxidative products of deoxyribose from 2.68 to 50.05 %.  The DPPH method values ranged from 6.47 to 73.80 %. Extracts of Prunus spinosa L., Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne were the best antioxidants confirmed by all methods. Scrophularia nodosa L. extract showed the weak antioxidant effect  determined by all selected methods. Phenolic content was in relation to the antioxidant effect of herbs, very high significancy between DPPH and polyphenols content was found. To improve selected properties of apple juice (taste, smell, functional properties by addition of medicinal herbs was achieved in this work. Antioxidant effect  of  apple juice variants with herbs additions determined by DPPH method was high and ranged from 73 to 78.49 %. Herbal extracts can be utilised in selected combinations to improve sensory and functional properties of some kinds of beverages. doi:10.5219/75

  9. Channel Response to Low-Elevation Desert Fire: The King Valley Fire of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boyer, Diane E.

    2007-01-01

    In late September to early October 2005, a fire swept north from the Yuma Proving Grounds and into the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), traveling mainly along desert wash systems and low-relief alluvial fans. This fire burned 9,975 ha, moving through xeroriparian systems in washes as well as low-elevation desert ecosystems in King Valley, a major area of designated wilderness in the southern part of the Kofa NWR. Using satellite imagery, we determined that 9,255 ha of the Kofa NWR in King Valley burned. The fine-fuel loading for the fire was mostly a native forb (Plantago insularis), and the desert environment that was burned was mostly low-cover creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) scrub with scattered palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum). The wash environments had significant tree cover, including ironwood (Olneya tesota), blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), and/or smoke tree (Psorothamnus spinosa). This report presents monitoring data collected in June 2006 and January-February 2007 on the effects of this fire on channel morphology in King Valley.

  10. Eficiência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares isolados de solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita no crescimento inicial de espécies nativas Efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from bauxite mine spoils on seedling growth of native woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Donizetti Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, estabelecendo simbioses eficientes com plantas, desempenham papel importante na sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas e podem ser manejados para a revegetação bem sucedida de áreas degradadas. A eficiência da simbiose está relacionada não só aos genótipos dos simbiontes, i.e, FMA e espécie vegetal, como também às condições ambientais que influenciam a expressão da relação simbiótica. Assim, o primeiro passo visando ao manejo de simbioses eficientes é estudar a variabilidade de FMAs quanto à eficiência com diferentes espécies vegetais. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a colonização micorrízica e a eficiência simbiótica de isolados de FMAs obtidos de áreas de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação em dois ambientes (campo e serra, no crescimento de mudas de duas espécies pioneiras [aroeira (Schinus terebenthifolius e trema (Trema micrantha] e de duas espécies secundárias iniciais [açoita-cavalo (Luehea grandiflora e sesbânia (Sesbania virgata], em solo de baixa fertilidade. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, por 120 dias. Para cada espécie vegetal, foram aplicados 10 tratamentos de inoculação com FMAs (isolados de FMAs ou de sua mistura: Acaulospora longula, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp., Gigaspora sp., Acaulospora spinosa e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de campo; e Acaulospora scrobiculata, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp. e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de serra. Para comparação, foram acrescentados ainda um tratamento-referência inoculado com Glomus etunicatum eficiente e um tratamento não-inoculado como controle. Plantas de todas as espécies apresentaram crescimento reduzido na ausência de FMAs (controle, porém beneficiaram-se de modo diferenciado dos tratamentos de inoculação. Todos os isolados, ou sua mistura, foram eficientes em promover o crescimento de sesbânia, enquanto para trema e aroeira somente um isolado de Glomus

  11. Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native amphibians exported from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd), a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected following establishment in Madagascar, enhanced surveillance is imperative. I sampled 565 amphibians commercially exported from Madagascar for the presence of Bd upon importation to the USA, both to assist early detection efforts and demonstrate the conservation potential of wildlife trade disease surveillance. Bd was detected in three animals via quantitative PCR: a single Heterixalus alboguttatus, Heterixalus betsileo, and Scaphiophryne spinosa. This is the first time Bd has been confirmed in amphibians from Madagascar and presents an urgent call to action. Our early identification of pathogen presence prior to widespread infection provides the necessary tools and encouragement to catalyze a swift, targeted response to isolate and eradicate Bd from Madagascar. If implemented before establishment occurs, an otherwise likely catastrophic decline in amphibian biodiversity may be prevented.

  12. Species richness and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across distinct land uses in western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2011-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were surveyed for species richness and abundance in sporulation in six distinct land uses in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Areas included mature pristine forest and sites converted to pasture, crops, agroforestry, young and old secondary forest. A total of 61 AMF morphotypes were recovered and 30% of them could not be identified to known species. Fungal communities were dominated by Glomus species but Acaulospora species produced the most abundant sporulation. Acaulospora gedanensis cf., Acaulospora foveata, Acaulospora spinosa, Acaulospora tuberculata, Glomus corymbiforme, Glomus sp15, Scutellospora pellucida, and Archaeospora trappei sporulated in all land use areas. Total spore numbers were highly variable among land uses. Mean species richness in crop, agroforestry, young and old secondary forest sites was twice that in pristine forest and pasture. fungal communities were dominated in all land use areas except young secondary forest by two or three species which accounted for 48% to 63% of all sporulation. Land uses influenced AMF community in (1) frequency of occurrence of sporulating AMF species, (2) mean species diversity, and (3) relative spore abundance. Conversion of pristine forest into distinct land uses does not appear to reduce AMF diversity. Cultural practices adopted in this region maintain a high diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  13. Respuesta fenológica de la vegetación arbórea de las lomas del sur del Perú (Mejía -Arequipa EN relación con el evento "El Niño 1997-98"

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    Carmelo Talavera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presentó la evaluación del comportamiento fenológico de la vegetación arbórea con el fin de determinar su probable utilización como indicadores biológicos de la ocurrencia de eventos "El Niño". Los árboles evaluados fueron Caesalpinea spínosa, Duranta armata, Caríca candícans y Citharexylum flexuosum. Los resultados indican una alta variación en las respuestas fenológicas. C. spinosa por ejemplo en 1995 y 1996 inició la floración antes que el brote; en 1997 inicio mucho antes, pero tuvo una corta duración, yen 1998, se ha presentado en forma tardía y breve, mientras que la cubierta foliar se ha mantenido en forma constante. En el caso de D. armata y C. flexuosum la floración se presenta posterior al brote, pero en ambos casos durante la ocurrencia del evento en 1998 no presentaron floración; y C. candícans presenta floración antes que el brote, pero con alta variabilidad en el tamaño de la floración.

  14. Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Naohiro; Zaima, Kazumasa; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Hamato, Akane; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kang, Dong Hyo; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Maruyama, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    Jujube seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid).

  15. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21584872

  16. Structural characterization and cytotoxic properties of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan from castanea sativa. 2. Evidence of a structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat, Aline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Moine, Charlotte; Sainte-Catherine, Odile; Kraemer, Michel; Rogniaux, Hélène; Ropartz, David; Krausz, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Xylans were purified from delignified holocellulose alkaline extracts of Castanea sativa (Spanish chestnut) and Argania spinosa (Argan tree) and their structures analyzed by means of GC of their per-trimethylsilylated methylglycoside derivatives and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The structures deduced were characteristic of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MGX) and a homoxylan (HX), respectively, with degrees of polymerization ranging from 182 to 360. In the case of MGX, the regular or random distribution of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid along the xylosyl backbone--determined by MALDI mass spectrometry after autohydrolysis of the polysaccharide--varied and depended both on the botanical source from which they were extracted and on the xylan extraction procedure. The MGX also inhibited in different ways the proliferation as well as the migration and invasion capability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. These biological properties could be correlated with structural features including values of the degree of polymerization, 4-O-MeGlcA to xylose ratios, and distribution of 4-O-MeGlcA along the xylosyl backbone, giving evidence of a defined structure-activity relationship. PMID:18646856

  17. Activation of MITF by Argan Oil Leads to the Inhibition of the Tyrosinase and Dopachrome Tautomerase Expressions in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Kume, Sayuri; Bourhim, Thouria; Bakhtaoui, Fatima Zahra; Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Han, Junkyu; Gadhi, Chemseddoha; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:23935660

  18. Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corander, Jukka; Waldmann, Patrik; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian method for estimating hidden population substructure using multilocus molecular markers and geographical information provided by the sampling design. The joint posterior distribution of the substructure and allele frequencies of the respective populations is available in an analytical form when the number of populations is small, whereas an approximation based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation approach can be obtained for a moderate or large number of populations. Using the joint posterior distribution, posteriors can also be derived for any evolutionary population parameters, such as the traditional fixation indices. A major advantage compared to most earlier methods is that the number of populations is treated here as an unknown parameter. What is traditionally considered as two genetically distinct populations, either recently founded or connected by considerable gene flow, is here considered as one panmictic population with a certain probability based on marker data and prior information. Analyses of previously published data on the Moroccan argan tree (Argania spinosa) and of simulated data sets suggest that our method is capable of estimating a population substructure, while not artificially enforcing a substructure when it does not exist. The software (BAPS) used for the computations is freely available from http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/~mjs. PMID:12586722

  19. A ICT "Literacy" Revisited: or What the Literate Citizen Really Needs to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Fleming

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of the term ‘literacy’ to describe various sorts of competence in information and communication technologies (ICTs has been widespread (e.g. digital literacy, media literacy but this is usually little more than a vaguely defined metaphorical usage. The paper revisits the notion of literacy and uses British educational sociologist BasilBernstein’s analysis of codes and of classification and framing practices in order to suggest that there is a desirable form of ICT literacy that is more than a metaphor for a general level of competence. This ICT literacy is characterized as an ability to graspboth the objects of ICT and their conditions of possibility (e.g. with reference to Open Source as a specific configuration of such conditions. Spinosa, Flores and Dreyfus’s concepts of articulation, reconfiguration and cross-appropriation are re-defined as framing practices and their strategic importance is argued for within the field of ‘conditions of possibility’ defining today’s ICTs. In making this case, the paper addresses the nature of the genuinely ‘elaborated code’ that, it is argued, must replace the pseudoelaborated code of general technical competence at the core of ICT literacy if the ICTliterate citizen is to be capable of meeting contemporary challenges.

  20. Bidirectional recovery patterns of Mojave Desert vegetation in an aqueduct pipeline corridor after 36 years: I. Perennial shrubs and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Weigand, James F.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Mack, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    We studied recovery of 21 perennial plant species along a severely disturbed aqueduct corridor in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa plant alliance in the Mojave Desert 36 years after construction. The 97-m wide corridor contained a central dirt road and buried aqueduct pipeline. We established transects at 0 m (road verge), 20 m and 40 m into the disturbance corridor, and at 100 m in undisturbed habitat (the control). Although total numbers of shrubs per transect did not vary significantly with distance from the verge, canopy cover of shrubs, species richness, and species diversity were higher in the control than at the verge and other distances. Canopy cover of common shrubs (Ericameria nauseosa, Ambrosia salsola, A. dumosa, L. tridentata, Grayia spinosa) and perennial grasses (Elymus elymoides, Poa secunda) also varied significantly by location. Discriminant analysis clearly separated the four distances based on plant composition. Patterns of recovery were bidirectional: secondary succession from the control into the disturbance corridor and inhibition from the verge in the direction of the control. Time estimated for species composition to resemble the control is dependent on location within the disturbance corridor and could be centuries at the road verge. Our findings have applications to other deserts.

  1. Morphometric study of some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the morphological studies in some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status and morphological studies, 53 accessions of 12 Salvia species were collected from their natural habitats in Iran. A total of 17 quantitative and 13 qualitative morphological characters were selected as diagnostic characters in Salvia species through the use of numerical methods. The statistical analysis consisted of cluster analysis with Euclidean distance coefficient, factor analysis, descriptive analysis and variance analysis using SPSS V.20.0 software. The clustering results of quantitative and qualitative morphological characters showed five groups. Despite the high morphological similarity between S. nemorosa L. and S. virgata Jaq., these species were separated using qualitative and quantitative characters and factor analysis. Regarding cluster and factor analyses, S. spinosa L. and S. atropatana Bunge accessions displayed high morphological diversity. Based on these findings, morphological characteristics such as the features of the leaf, calyx, corolla, bract, stamen and style were considered to be the appropriate diagnostic characters in the taxonomy of the Salvia species studied.  

  2. Cold-blooded vertebrates at the proposed Reference Repository Location in southeastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The information in this interim report will be used to design future environmental monitoring plans and assess impacts related to Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) activities. New reports will be issued as more data become available. Five study locations were established to study cold-blooded vertebrates in the vicinity of the proposed Reference Repository Location. Four study sites were in shrub-dominated stands of vegetation; the other site was devoid of shrubs because of a range fire in 1984. The side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), trapped in four of the five plots, was the only lizard species captured. It was not trapped in the one plot dominated by spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa) shrubs. It is uncertain whether the side-blotched lizard is absent from this particular vegetation type, or if the population is too low to have been detected in the relatively short time span of the investigation. Two species of snakes were captured, gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and green racers (Coluber constrictor mormon). The number of snakes captured was too small to detect any distributional pattern in space or time. Studies are continuing. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Preliminary Investigation on the Toxicity of Different Formulations on Some Groups of Beneficial Arthropods in Emilia-Romagna Orchards

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    Stefano Civolani

    Full Text Available Control of the most relevant phytophagous of apple and pear trees in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy is achieved by insecticides but it is improved also by defence techniques allowing protection of useful insects. It is therefore relevant to understand in detail the effects of the most common insecticides employed in integrated defence of the two above mentioned cultures on the main auxiliary insects, both predators and parasitoids. With this aim we performed open field tests to evaluate the acute toxicity (48 hours after the treatment, according to the method suggested by IOBC Working Group “Integrated Protection in Orchards” to test three recently developed active ingredient: Spinosad, Indoxacarb and Methoxyfenozide. These three principles were compared to Azinphos methyl, presently one of the most widely employed insecticides with a broad action spectrum. Spinosad is a natural insecticide compound, whose active principle is a toxin produced by Saccharopolispora spinosa, Indoxacarb and Methoxyfenozide are synthetic molecules, respectively belonging to the family of oxadiazines and moult accelerators, while Azinphos methyl is an organophosphate compound. The results show that Azinphos methyl is characterized by a lower selectivity towards generic Coccinellidae, while mortality towards Antochoris nemoralis is rather limited for all active principles tested, on the contrary to what observed for parasitoid Hymenoptera.

  4. Community Structure and Survival of Tertiary Relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae in the Subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Q Tang

    Full Text Available A rare coniferous Tertiary relict tree species, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch, has survived in the Daba Mountains of southwestern China. It was almost eliminated by logging during the past century. We measured size and age structures and interpreted regeneration dynamics of stands of the species in a variety of topographic contexts and community associations. Forest communities containing T. sutchuenensis were of three types: (1 the Thuja community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, growing on cliffs; (2 the Thuja-Quercus-Cyclobalanopsis community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Quercus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, along with Fagus engleriana and Carpinus fargesiana, on steep slopes; (3 the Thuja-Tsuga-Quercus community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Tsuga chinensis, and Quercus spinosa, on crest ridges. The established seedlings/saplings were found in limestone crevices, on scarred cliff-faces, cliff-edges, fallen logs, canopy gaps and forest margins. The radial growth rate was 0.5-1.1 mm per year. Its growth forms were distorted. It had strong sprouting ability after disturbances. The T. sutchuenensis population thrives on cliffs where there is little competition from other species because of harsh conditions and rockslide disturbances. It is shade-intolerant but stress-tolerant. Its regeneration has depended on natural disturbances.

  5. Community Structure and Survival of Tertiary Relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae) in the Subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cindy Q; Yang, Yongchuan; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Momohara, Arata; Yi, Si-Rong; Robertson, Kevin; Song, Kun; Zhang, Shi-Qiang; He, Long-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A rare coniferous Tertiary relict tree species, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch, has survived in the Daba Mountains of southwestern China. It was almost eliminated by logging during the past century. We measured size and age structures and interpreted regeneration dynamics of stands of the species in a variety of topographic contexts and community associations. Forest communities containing T. sutchuenensis were of three types: (1) the Thuja community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, growing on cliffs; (2) the Thuja-Quercus-Cyclobalanopsis community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Quercus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, along with Fagus engleriana and Carpinus fargesiana, on steep slopes; (3) the Thuja-Tsuga-Quercus community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Tsuga chinensis, and Quercus spinosa, on crest ridges. The established seedlings/saplings were found in limestone crevices, on scarred cliff-faces, cliff-edges, fallen logs, canopy gaps and forest margins. The radial growth rate was 0.5-1.1 mm per year. Its growth forms were distorted. It had strong sprouting ability after disturbances. The T. sutchuenensis population thrives on cliffs where there is little competition from other species because of harsh conditions and rockslide disturbances. It is shade-intolerant but stress-tolerant. Its regeneration has depended on natural disturbances. PMID:25928845

  6. Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of polygalactomannans from the seeds of a few species of leguminous plants and characterization of the oxidized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Luca; Boccia, Antonella Caterina; Mendichi, Raniero; Galante, Yves M

    2015-03-20

    Plant polysaccharides are used in a growing number of applications, in their native or in chemically and/or biochemically modified forms. In the present work, we compare TEMPO-mediated oxidation with laccase of polygalactomannans (PGM) from different species of plant leguminous to chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO. We have investigated the gums from: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Upon laccase/TEMPO oxidation, PGM viscosity and concentration of reducing groups increased up to five-fold and structured, elastic, stable gels were formed, which could be degraded by hydrolysis with β-mannanase. Conversely, chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO caused a rapid, intermediate transition of the gum solutions to compact gels, that immediately reverted to liquid, with a lower viscosity than at the start and an increased concentration of reducing groups, similar to the reaction with laccase. We interpret the above as due to, in the case of laccase, oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes, able to form stable hemiacetalic bonds with free hydroxyl groups. While upon chemical oxidation, primary OH's are only transiently oxidized to aldehydes, followed by rapid oxidation of all carbonyl groups to carboxylates. In either cases, TEMPO appeared to cause a limited splitting of glycosidic bonds of PGM. Native and oxidized PGM were further characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by rheology.

  7. Studies on the efficacy of some bacteria and fungi for control of Globodera restochiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonova Zlatka T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol potential of B. thuringiensis var. berliner (Kustom larvo WT-1 ml/pot, var. kurstaki (Kostar 76 LW-1 ml/pot, Saccharopolyspora spinosa (Treisr 480 EC-1 ml/pot, Fusarium spp. (1; 2; 4 g mycelium/pot and Trichoderma spp. (1; 5; 10 g mycelium/pot against G. rostochiensis on potato was examined in glasshouse. They were applied to the soil with the planting. All treatments improved the plant growth and yield of potatoes, being greatest with Kostar 76 LW. The greatest increase in the yield occurred in the Oxamyl application (16.6% followed by Kostar 76 LW or Fusarium spp. (9.9%, Kustom larvo WT (8.2% and Trichoderma spp. (6.6%. The percentage of infected females was from 40.5% to 48.9%, from 29.6% to 49.3% and from 28.1% to 31.5% when applied fungi Fusarium spp. Trichoderma spp. and bacterial preparations respectively. The bioagents caused significant inhibitory effect on multiplication of the nematode. Reproduction rates decreased from 27.7% to 33.3% by bacterial preparations and from 36.0% to 44.4% by both fungi in comparison with the control.

  8. Exploration of Medicinal Species of Lamiaceae family in Ilkhji and Sharafaldin Regions of Esat Azarbaijan in Iran

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    Leila Joudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research medicinal species of Lamiaceae family were detected. As medicinal plants are suitable alternatives for synthetic and chemical drugs (Idu and Osemwegie also because of medical and nutritional importance and valuable protein contents of Lamiaceae sp., all plants of Lamiaceae family are collected in Ilkhji and sharafaldin regions during growth seasons of 2007-2009. Plants were collected in 2 regions according to the classical method of regional floristical studies. Collected plants were recognized by valid references (Parsa 1943-1950; Reshinger, 1963-1990. Then medical species are chosen by using pharmacopeias. The results of the current study demonstrated that at Ilkhji region 16 species belong to 8 genuses and at Sharafaldin region 4 species belong to 4 genuses that all of them belong to Lamiaceae family. Among these species, 18 species at Ilkhji and sharafaldin region had medicinal properties. Medicinal species of these 2 regions consist of: Marrubium vulgare, Mentha longifolia, Nepeta meyeri, Nepeta persica, Nepeta racemosa, Phlomis olivieri, Salvia nemorasa, Salvia sahendica, Salvia spinosa, Stachys virgata, Stachys inflate, Stachys lavandifolia, Stachys turcomanica, Stachys persica, Thymus cotschyanus, Thymus pubescens, Ziziphora tenuior Lamium amplexicaule. The results of this study showed that the region has a great potential for producing respective medicinal plants species belong to those families. Medicinal plants recently become more important because of their medicinal uses and in addition they are valuable source of protein.

  9. Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants in and Around Fiche District, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiyu Enyew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was conducted in and around Fiche District, North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia from September 2011 to January 2012. Ten kebeles were selected from North to South and East to West directions of Fiche District and its surroundings by purposive sampling method. Six informants including one key informant were selected from each kebele for data collection by using printed data collection sheets containing, semi-structured interview questions, group discussion and guided field walk. The plant specimens were identified by using taxonomic keys in the Floras of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics; informant consensus factor and fidelity level using MS-Excel 2010. Totally, 155 medicinal plants belonging to 128 genera and 65 families were recorded. Most medicinal plants (72.9% were used for human healthcare in which Lamiaceae was dominant (11% in which Ocimum lamiifolium, Otostegia integrifolia and Leonotis ocymifolia were the most common species. Herbs were dominant (43.87% flora followed by shrubs (35.48%. The most frequently used plant parts for remedial preparation were leaves (38.1% followed by roots (14.8% and others. Fresh plant parts were used mostly (47.7% followed by dried (13.5% and the remaining (38.7% either in fresh or dried. Among the preparations, crushing was the dominant (21.3% form followed by squeezing (16.1%. The remedial administration was mostly oral (38.7% followed by dermal (29%. The highest (88% ICF was associated with intestinal parasites followed by emergency diseases (82%. The FL of Actiniopteris semiflabellata, Plantago lanceolata, Capparis tomentosa, and Clerodendrum myricoides was calculated 100% irrespective of diseases. In conclusion, rich diversity of floras were mostly practiced in crude form and to prevent extinction of medicinal plants due to unsustainable anthropogenic activities, local communities need to give attention for in

  10. Population dynamics and on-farm fruit fly integrated pest management in mango orchards in the natural area of Niayes in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend of the populations of fruit flies in the Niayes area of Senegal follows the dynamics of the rains. This tendency is more visible in Bactrocera invadens than in Ceratitis cosyra. Based on trap captures, B. invadens was largely the dominant pest species, and this was confirmed by the incubation of host fruits, showing that mango, loquat, guava and grapefruit were the favoured commercial host fruits of B. invadens. This recently introduced pest species seemed to displace the presence of the indogenous C. cosyra and other related fruit fly species. Interspecific competition could explain the fact that C. cosyra dominated emergence (up to 87%) in incubated fruits from alternate or wild host plants such as Cactus sp., Capparis spp., Cordyla pinata, and Momordica balsamina. An integrated pest management (IPM) package was tested cooperatively at the village level, which included: (1) male annihilation using wood blocks soaked in insecticide (malathion 500 EC) and lure (methyl eugenol for B. invadens and terpinyl acetate for C. cosyra); (2) two protein hydrolysate bait applications (Success Appat (spinosad) at 1 litre per ha); and (3) sanitation trough weeding and destruction of collected fallen fruits by the following practices: using black plastic bags, burying holes, burning on the ground surface, and incinerating with a barrel transformed into incinerator. The aim of this work was to develop an improved management system for fruit flies in mango orchards. Fruit fly infestations were up to 83% lower in the treated orchard compared to the 6 km distant untreated orchard. The C. cosyra population was higher in the treated orchard where B. invadens was suppressed. Results obtained might be improved if the IPM package is implemented on an area-wide basis. From all above sanitation methods implemented to destroy collected fruits, a reinforced black plastic bag would be recommended as the most effective and practical for popular use. When comparing methyl eugenol to

  11. Caracterización químico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botánicas empleando análisis descriptivo y multivariado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo (AD, de componentes principales (ACP y correlaciones lineales (CL, se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los géneros Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra; y otras no leguminosas: Chlorophora, Morus, Guazuma, Cordia, Trichantera, Tithonia, Moringa, Azadirachta, Bulnesia, Capparis, Hibiscus y Wedelia. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y de la proteína bruta (DPB. Las especies evaluadas presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación animal (PB: 23.46 ±4.43%; FDN: 39.33 ±2.55%; cenizas: 9.78 ±4.35%; DMS: 64.98 ±14.42%; DPB: 69.15 ±15.89%. Sin embargo, las especies leguminosas, comparadas con las no leguminosas, exhibieron numéricamente mayor concentración de taninos condensados (4.06 ±4.01 vs 0.49 ±0.31%, taninos que precipitan proteínas (1.95 ±1.37 vs 0.28 ±0.23% y digestibilidad de la proteína con pepsina (72.51 ±14.64 vs 66.90 ±16.92%. Aunque el porcentaje de inhibición de la tripsina fuese similar entre los dos grupos (50.84 ±6.81 vs 50.92 ±8.94, la actividad de estos inhibidores (3.29 ±2.76 vs 1.55 ±0.39 tripsina inhibida/ gMS y la cantidad de unidades inhibidas (625.10 ±524.01 vs 323.33 ±135.31 unidades/ gMS fueron superior en los forrajes leguminosos. Mediante el AD, ACP y las CL sepudo comprobar que las especies leguminosas exhibieron diferencias acentuadas en el patrón fitoquímico de la biomasa, comparadas con el resto. Los taninos precipitantes de las leguminosas afectaron la digestibilidad de las fracciones nutritivas, mientras que los fenoles y los esteroles presentes en las no leguminosas exhibieron mayor potencial antinutricional en ese tipo de especies.

  12. [History and sidelights on the forceps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M

    1984-01-01

    The author starts by showing that the first forceps were originally designed to handle hot metal in founderies and that the word derived from "formus" (hot) and "capere" (to take). The author, Professor Dumont, tries to trace the history of the development of modern forceps, discussing whether the Arabs or such well known authors of classical works as Roesslin, Raynald, Rueff and Rousset knew of the instrument or whether they just described instruments of destruction. Crainz in 1941 had written an article to discuss whether the early Romans had forceps and came to no firm conclusion. Speert in 1957 said that a live baby had been born earlier than the 17th Century, possibly as early as the 2nd or 3rd century of the Roman empire, i.e. over 300 years before Jesus-Christ, by forceps. The description is given of a bas-relief depicting forceps delivery but no one knows whether the bas-relief is genuine or not. The discovery of the Chamberlen forceps in 1813 at Woodham Mortimer Hall in Essex, England, and the lengthy description of how the Chamberlens kept the secret of the invention of the forceps over several generations is very well described. Then follows the story of Jean Palfyn's "mains de fer" which led later to Levret and his long curved forceps. Returning to England, the authors describes how William Smellie covered his forceps with leather so that the patients should not feel the cold metal or hear the clink of the handles. The author then quotes Dr Slop, who appears in Laurence Sterne's "Tristram Shandy" and who knew the Smellie's forceps. Sacombe was an arch enemy of instrumental delivery. The role of the Dane Saxtorph, and how Antoine Dubois delivered Napoleon's son, the future King of Rome, by forceps, is reviewed. Madame La Chapelle and her work as well as that of Scanzoni, and finally of Simpson who first used anaesthesia after inventing a forceps, continues the history. Great names such as Pajot, Tarnier with his axis-traction forceps and finally Barton

  13. Collaborative Group Learning Approaches for Teaching Comparative Planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Modern science education reform documents propose that the teaching of contemporary students should focus on doing science, rather than simply memorizing science. Duschl, Schweingruber, and Shouse (2007) eloquently argue for four science proficiencies for students. Students should: (i) Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world; (ii) Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations; (iii) Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge; and (iv) Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse. In response, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating and field-tested two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction. Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Planetary science databases and virtual environments used by students to conduct scientific investigations include the NASA and JPL Solar System Simulator and Eyes on the Solar System as well as the USGS Moon and Mars Global GIS Viewers. The second of these is known widely as a Lecture-Tutorial approach. Lecture-Tutorials are self-contained, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course

  14. Supporting Survey Courses with Lecture-Tutorials and Backwards-Faded Scaffolded Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of learning science, it is generally accepted that successful science learning experiences should result in learners developing a meaningful understanding of the nature of science as inquiry where: (i) students are engaged in questions; (ii) students are designing plans to pursue data; and (iii) students are generating and defending conclusions based on evidence they have collected. Few of these learning targets can be effectively reached through a professor-centered, information download lecture. In response to national reform movements calling for professors to adopt teaching strategies and learning environments where non-science majors and future teachers can actively engage in scientific discourse, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research have leveraged NSF DUE funding over the last decade to develop and systematically field-test two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is called Lecture-Tutorials (NSF 99077755 and NSF 9952232) . These are self-contained, classroom-ready, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course revision for implementation. Students are asked to reason about difficult concepts, while working in pairs, and to discuss their ideas openly. The second of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction (NSF 1044482). Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design

  15. Design and Dynamic Analysis of Lower Extremity Exoskeleton%下肢外骨骼机器人动力学分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志勇; 谭振中; 裴忠才

    2013-01-01

    设计了一种针对军事用途的下肢外骨骼机器人,主要为行军过程中的士兵承载负重,分析了人类下肢自由度以及下肢步态的特点,对人体下肢在单足和双足支撑期进行了动力学分析,建立了七杆模型,并与通常的五杆模型进行比较,得到各关节在一个步态周期内驱动力矩以及功率的变化,随后分析了人体下肢在登台阶过程中的功率变化,利用两者的分析结果确定了各关节的驱动方式.结合下肢外骨骼所需要实现的功能、工作原理及其结构组成,利用SolidWorks软件对其进行结构设计.最后,为验证所得到的结果的正确性,将样机模型导入ADAMS中进行验证,证明了所得到的液压缸力和各关节力矩是正确的.%A kind of lower extremity exoskeleton for military purpose to help soldiers bearing weight during marching process mainly was designed.The freedoms of the human lower limbs and the lower extremity gait were analyzed.Its dynamic modeling of single-leg supporting phase and bipedal stance phase with a 7-link model capered with the common 5-1ink model was defined.The torque of each joint and the power of each joint were calculated.In the meanwhile,the power was analyzed when human was climbing the stairs.Then which joints need to be actuated and how to actuate them were determined.With the function,working principle and structure composition,its structure with SolidWorks was designed.Finally,to verify the correctness of the results obtained,the prototype was validated into ADAMS.It turns out that the hydraulic cylinder force and toque of each joint are right.

  16. Citogenética de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do nordeste do Brasil Cytogenetics of some species of native fruits from northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erllens Éder-Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o cariótipo de seis espécies de frutíferas nativas do Brasil por meio da análise do número e morfologia cromossômica das mesmas. As pontas de raízes jovens foram pré-tratadas com 8-hidroxiquinolina 0,002M, esmagadas em ácido acético 45% e coradas convencionalmente com Giemsa. O material estudado apresentou cariótipo simétrico, com cromossomos pequenos, medindo de 0,6 a 2,5µm, predominantemente metacêntricos a submetacêntricos com uma a duas constrições secundárias visíveis em todas as espécies, exceto em Bromelia karatas, onde não foi possível identificar a morfologia cromossômica ou a presença de constrições secundárias. Na família Myrtaceae, observou-se um complemento cromossômico diplóide com 2n=98 em Psidium arboreum Vell. e 2n=44 em P. araça Raddi; na família Bromeliaceae, 2n=50 em Bromelia karatas L.; na família Malvaceae, 2n=16 para Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; na família Sapindaceae, 2n=32 em Talisia esculenta Radlk., e, na família Caricaceae, 2n=18 em Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl. A. DC. Todos os dados cromossômicos apresentados neste trabalho são inéditos, exceto para a espécie T. esculenta, que teve seu registro prévio confirmado. As espécies possuem potencial para utilização no melhoramento de plantas, e uma inversão em heterozigoze parece estar envolvida na evolução cariotípica de Guazuma ulmifolia.This work aimed to characterize the karyotype of six species of native fruits from Brazil through number and chromosome morphology analysis. The young root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxiquinolin 0.002M, squashed in 45% acetic acid, and conventionally stained with Giemsa. All species showed symmetrical karyotype with small chromosomes and 0.6-2.5µm of length, mainly meta to sub-metacentric ones with one to two secondary visible constrictions in all species, except in Bromelia karatas in which it was not possible to identify the chromosome

  17. Analysis on Composition Rules of TCM Tranquilizer Based on Association Rules and Clustering Algorithm%基于关联规则与熵聚类的安神类中成药组方规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉瑞; 金燕萍; 张晓朦; 张冰; 盛晓光

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析常用安神类中成药的处方用药规律。方法:收集《新编国家中成药》中的安神类药品处方,基于中医传承辅助系统建立处方数据库,采用关联规则apriori算法、复杂系统熵聚类等方法开展研究,确定处方中各种药物的使用频次及药物之间的关联规则等。结果:高频次药物包括茯苓、甘草、当归、麦冬、朱砂等;高频次药物组合包括“当归、茯苓”“茯苓、炒酸枣仁”“甘草、茯苓”等;置信度较高的关联规则包括“牛黄、朱砂”“酸枣仁、茯苓”等,新处方包括“茯苓、炒酸枣仁、熟地黄、五味子、丹参、麦冬、生地黄”等。结论:安神类中成药处方药物多具有养血定志,补气滋阴和重镇安神之功效。%Objective:To explore composition rules of TCM tranquilizer prescriptions.Methods:The tranquilizer prescriptions in“The New National Medicine”were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assist system. The methods of association rules with apriori algorithm and complex system entropy cluster were used to achieve the frequency of medicines and association rules between drugs.Results:The data-mining results indicated that in the tranquilizer prescriptions,the highest frequently used drugs were Poria Cocos Wolff,Radix Glycyrrhizae,Angelica sinensis,Radix Ophiopogonis,Cinnabaris. The most frequent drug combinations were “Angelica sinensis,Poria Cocos Wolff”,“Poria Cocos Wolff,Parched Semen Ziziphi Spinosae”,“Radix Glycyrrhizae,Poria Cocos Wolff”.The drugs with a high degree confidence coefficient of association rules in-cluded “Calculus Bovis,Cinnabaris”,“Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,Poria Cocos Wolff”.The new prescriptions contained Poria Co-cos Wolff,Parched Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,Radix Rehmanniae Preparata,Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis,Radix Salviae Miltior-rhizae,Radix Ophiopogonis,and Radix Rehmanniae

  18. Efeito do "fluxo sazonal mínimo da inundação" sobre a composição e estrutura de um campo inundável no Pantanal de Poconé, MT, Brasil "Minimum seasonal flow" effects on the composition and structure of a flooding grassland in Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rebellato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da sazonalidade hídrica sobre a composição e a estrutura de um campo inundável. Foram utilizadas 30 parcelas (armações de 0,5 m×0,5 m para as coletas de cada período (chuvoso e estiagem, onde estimou-se o grau de cobertura das espécies. Calculou-se alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos, índices de diversidade e similaridade entre os dois períodos. Foram amostradas 48 espécies, em 35 gêneros, distribuídos em 20 famílias. As famílias com o maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (seis e Euphorbiaceae (cinco. As terófitas destacaram-se com 41,02% e hemicriptófitas com 23,08%. A diversidade e a riqueza foram maiores no período chuvoso (S = 41, H' = 4,01 e D = 0,91 em relação ao período de estiagem (S = 26, H' = 3,29 e D = 0,85, sendo a similaridade igual a Sa = 55,88%. Algumas espécies como Bacopa myriophylloides Wettst., Cyperus haspan L. ssp. juncoides (Lam. Kük., Digitaria fuscescens (J. Presl Henrard, Eleocharis mínima Kunth, foram indicadoras de umidade, enquanto Euphorbia thymifolia L., Wedelia brachycarpa Baker, Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P.H. Raven, Hydrolea spinosa L., de estiagem. Foram 12 espécies que caracterizaram o campo entre os dois períodos, destacando-se com altos valores de cobertura relativa (CRi e freqüência relativa (FRi com variações destes parâmetros entre os dois períodos.The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal effect of wet and dry periods on the composition and structure of flooding grassland. Thirty quadrats (0,5 m×0,5 m were used in each period (wet and dry to estimate the degree of covering of the species. Phytosociological parameters, diversity and similarity indices were calculated between periods. Forty eight species were collected, 35 genera distributed in 20 families. Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (six and Euphorbiaceae (five were the families with the highest number of species. Therophytes were the most

  19. 金矿周围树木对土壤重金属的吸收%Study on Absorption of Heavy Metals by Several Trees around the Gold Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞; 程书强

    2013-01-01

    Six species of trees as subjects around the golden mineral in Tongguan county was used to establish artificial ecosystem of the plant species,including Morus alba L.,Periploca sepium Bunge,Robinia pseudoacacia L.,Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa (Bunge) Hu,Populus tomentosa Carr.and Broussonetiapapyrifera (L.) vent.,and to determine the concentration of the heavy metals in root,branch,leef and soil by flame atomic absorption spectrometry,including Cu,Zn and Cd.The results show that the root areas for six species of plants are contaminated by three kinds of metals.For R.pseudoacacia L.,the transfer factors to Zn is 1.40,and the concentration factors is 10.61,so it is the enrichment plant of Zn.B.papyrifera (L.) Vent.has the strongest enrichment capacity to Cu,and the transfer factors and concentration factor to Cu is 0.87 and 0.56,respectively.However,the concentration factor values to Cd for six plants are less than 1.The transfer factors amount to 8.90 and 1.44 for M.alba L.and R.pseudoacacia L.respectively,and Cd is mostly in the leaves of plant.So M.alba L.and R.pseudoacacia L.are two important plants for recycling Cd.%为了确定修复土壤重金属污染的植物种类,以潼关县黄金生产区及附近桑树(Morus albaL.)、杠柳(Periploca sepium Bunge)、洋槐(Robinia pseudoacacia L.)、酸枣(Ziziphus jujuba var,spinosa (Bunge) Hu)、毛白杨(Populus tomentosa Carr.)、枸树(Broussonetia papyrifera(L.)Vent.)为研究对象,用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定了其根、枝、叶及根际土壤中Cu、Cd和Zn质量分数.结果表明:6种树木根际区域3种重金属均处于污染状态;洋槐对Zn的转移系数为1.40,富集系数为10.61,是Zn的超富集植物;枸树对Cu的转移系数为0.87,富集系数为0.56,是6种植物中对Cu富集能力最强的树种;6种树木对Cd的富集系数均小于1,但桑树对Cd的转移系数高达8.90,洋槐的也达1.44,且Cd主要富集在叶片中,有利于回收,二者是吸收Cd的重要植物种类.

  20. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Sendall

    2013-04-01

    . spinosa Sluiter, 1882 from Indonesia, and S. thorsoni sp. n. from the Iranian Gulf. Two genera are newly proposed to incorporate the remaining species: Caulleryaspis and Petersenaspis. Caulleryaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of falcate introvert hooks, seven abdominal segments, and soft shields with sediment particles firmly adhered on them; it includes two species: C. gudmundssoni sp. n. from Iceland and C. laevis (Caullery, 1944 comb. n. from Indonesia. Petersenaspis gen. n. is defined by the presence of spatulate introvert hooks, eight abdominal segments, and stiff shields with poorly defined ribs but no concentric line; it includes P. capillata (Nonato, 1966 from Brazil and P. palpallatoci sp. n. from the Philippines. Neotypes are proposed for eight species: S. thalassemoides, S. affinis, S. africana, S. costata, S. fossor, S. maior, S. scutata and S. spinosa, to stabilize these species-group names, and a lectotype is designated for S. laevis which is transferred to Caulleryaspis gen. n. The geographic range of most species appears to be much smaller than previously indicated, and for some species additional material in good condition is needed to clarify their distributions. Keys to genera and to all species are also included.

  1. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Hudaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%. These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml, Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml, Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml, and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml. Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition, Helianthemum ledifolium (L. Mill. (28.4%, Majorana syriaca (L. Kostel. (25.1%, and Mentha spicata L. (22.5% showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

  2. 两周时期的植物利用——来自《诗经》与植物考古的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永超; 吴文婉; 杨晓燕; 靳桂云

    2015-01-01

    本文从《诗经》入手,结合考古学、民族学材料,对两周时期的植物利用状况进行了分析.周代先民栽培的主要农作物为粟(Setaria italica)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)等,穿着由大麻(Cannabis sativa)、蚕丝纺织而成的服饰,采食野葵(Malva verticillata)等蔬菜,食用桃(Prunus persica)、郁李(Cerasus japonica)、酸枣(Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa)、葡萄属(Vitis sp.)等水果;利用檀木、松柏等制作车船,利用梓属(Catalpa sp.)、栎属(Quercus sp.)、竹子等制作乐器、兵器等各类器物;蒸煮苹(Marsilea quadrifolia)和杉叶藻(Hippuris vulgaris)、腌制甜瓜(Cucumis melo)等以为祭祀的菜肴.简而言之,周代先民利用的植物种类是多种多样的,植物的用途也是多种多样的.《诗经》中所涉及到的植物种类为植物考古研究提供了参考.与同期的考古遗存数据相比,发现考古遗存和文献记载在记录古人植物利用信息方面各有所长,可以互相弥补.

  3. Detection of Ni, Cd, and Cu in green leafy vegetables collected from different cultivation areas in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananke, Thilini; Wansapala, Jagath; Gunaratne, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Five types of green leafy vegetables ["Kankun" (Ipomoea aquatica), "Mukunuwenna" (Alternanthera sessilis), "Thampala" (Amaranthus viridis), "Nivithi" (Basella alba), and "Kohila leaves" (Lasia spinosa)] were randomly collected from six different locations (Wellampitiya, Kolonnawa, Kottawa, Piliyandala, Bandaragama, and Kahathuduwa) in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka, and subjected to analysis of three heavy metals [nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu)] by atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils from green leafy vegetable cultivation lands and irrigated water were also tested. The average concentrations of heavy metals Ni, Cd, and Cu in soils were 51.5 ± 45.5, 1.4 ± 1.1, and 66.5 ± 59.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The highest Ni contamination was detected in the irrigated water samples from Wellampitiya (2.02 mg L(-1)) followed by Kolonnawa (1.02 mg L(-1)) and Kahathuduwa (0.25 mg L(-1)) areas. This has exceeded the WHO/FAO guideline (0.2 mg L(-1)). However, Cd and Cu contents in all tested irrigated water samples were well below the detection limits. Significant differences were observed in Ni, Cd, and Cu levels, between both production sites and green leafy vegetables analyzed (P < 0.05). The mean concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight basis) of heavy metals in all green leafy vegetable samples collected from six areas varied as 0.23 ± 0.15 for Cd, 12.60 ± 9.01 for Cu, and 7.62 ± 8.41 for Ni. Maximum Ni, Cd, and Cu contaminations were found in the green leafy vegetables collected from Kolonnawa area. Among the green leafy vegetables analyzed, "Kohila leaves" have the highest tendency to accumulate Ni, Cd, and Cu from the environment. PMID:26911591

  4. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

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    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  5. 北票生态造林树种水分生理因子与立地因子分析%Water Physiological Factors and Site Factors in Species of Ecological Forestation in Beipiao Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘兴

    2015-01-01

    Water physiological factors and site factors of resistant species which are suitable to be planted in semiarid climate of Beipiao area were discussed.Cold resistance of species were determined.Water physiology and quantitative analysis of species were conducted.Result shows that the descending order of resistant species in this area is Ziz-iphusjujuba Mill.var.spinosa,Pinustabulaeformis,Pinussylvestris var.mongolica,Prunussibirica L,Cotinus coggygria ,Sabina chinensis ,Platycladus orientalis ,Lespedeza bicolor ,Amorpha fruticosa ,Robinia pseucdoaca-cia,Hippophae rhamnoides,Caragana microphylla,Populus xiaozhuanica.Multiple regression relationship be-tween average height & site conditions of Pinustabulaeformis based on mathematical calculation method of Quanti-tative theory Ⅰwas discussed ,which provides strong support for this region’s ecological forestation.%为了探讨适宜于北票半干旱气候地区的抗旱树种水分生理因子与立地因子,确定树种抗旱性强弱,进行了树种水分生理测定和数量化分析,结果表明,该地区的抗旱树种由强到弱的顺序为山枣、油松、樟子松、山杏、黄栌、桧柏、侧柏、胡枝子、紫穗槐、刺槐、沙棘、锦鸡儿和小钻杨。依据数量化理论Ⅰ数学计算方法,探讨了油松优势平均高与立地条件多元回归关系式,为这一地区的生态造林提供有力的支撑。

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOME SOIL PARAMETERS AND WEED COMMUNITY (CASE STUDY: WINTER WHEAT FIELDS OF UREMIA-IRAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassannejad, S; Pirouie, M Saleh; Haghi, D Zare

    2015-01-01

    In order to find relationships between weed species distribution and soil pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter percentage (OM %), fields surveys were done in 50 wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) fields of Uremia county (one of the northwest counties of Iran) in 2013. Data sampling of weeds was conducted from the beginning of stem elongation until the end of heading stages of wheat. In each field, 20 quadrates (0.25 m²) were randomly placed along a "W" pattern (5 quadrates in each line of this pattern) and in each quadrat, weed species were coded and recorded (density and cover percentage) for subsequent data entry and analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to find relationships between presence and absence of weeds in wheat fields and some of soil parameters. A total 169 weed species belonging to 35 plant families were recorded. CCA showed that four soil factors including soil pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter percentage (OM %) showed 58.6 percentage of weed species distribution variance. Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, Datura stramonium L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Portulaca oleracea L., Sisymbrium irio L., Atriplex patulum (L.). Aellen., and Heliotropium europaeum L. had maximum correlation with soil's pH. Euphorbia peplus L. and Salvia spinosa L. had negative correlation with pH, so that increasing pH caused reduction in the presence of these weeds. The presence of Chondrilla juncea L., Lepidium perfoliatum L., and Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoff in the center of CCA biplot indicated that these weeds were correlated with all of these soil parameters. PMID:27145592

  7. Development of a female medfly attractant system in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field trials were conducted in Morocco to evaluate food-based attractants according to the FAO/IAEA international network program. Ammonium acetate plus putrescine (FA-2 attractants) were very effective and selective for female medfly attraction. The addition of trimethylamine (FA-3 attractants) increased trap catches. The association of the female attractants with various traps were tested in two medfly host plants, argan (Argania spinosa) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during two seasons (fall and summer). Open bottom dry traps (OBDTs), closed bottom dry traps (CBDTs), dry International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMTs), wet IPMTs, locally made traps and Tephri traps, all baited with the synthetic lures (FA-2 and FA-3), were compared to liquid protein baited IPMTs and Trimedlure baited Jackson traps. Results showed that the new trapping systems were as effective in capturing females as the standard IPMT baited with NuLure + borax. Furthermore, dry Tephri traps were the most effective under certain conditions. Only in one experiment were CBDTs baited with the synthetic two component lure (FA-2) as effective as Trimedlure baited Jackson traps. In most cases the attracted females were immature. Attempts to increase the attractiveness of the synthetic lure by the addition of male medfly synthetic pheromone failed. Based on the results obtained, it is apparent that the three component synthetic female attractant (FA-3) provides an effective system for capturing female medflies and could be used as an alternative to NuLure baited IPMT traps for assessing the efficacy of SIT when sterile males are released. (author)

  8. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SELECTED LESS COMMON FRUIT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRIGITA PAULOVICSOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the anthocyanins, ascorbic acid content and the antiradical activity in less common fruit species native in the territory of Slovakia (black mulberries, cornelian cherries, blackberries, blackthorn, rowanberries and honeyberries (Lonicera kamtschatica originated from Kamtschatka. Anthocyanins were evaluated after extraction from solid materials with acidified ethanol or after direct solution of liquid samples with HCl in ethanol solution by spectrophotometer measurement. To evaluate the antiradical activity, a spectrophotometer method based on the reaction of antioxidants with a stable radical 2,2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyle (DPPH• in methanol solution was used. The reduction properties of ascorbic acid are used in the measurement. The highest value of anthocyanin pigments was found out in honeyberries (Lonicera kamtschatica of all analyzed clones. Black mulberries of the genotype M104 and cornelian cherries of the genotypes 55 a 44 are the most significant sources of ascorbic acid among analysed less common fruit species. It is an interesting fact that blackthorns (Prunus spinosa contenting the lowest value of ascorbic acid (10.31±1.016 mg.100 g-1 and medium value of anthocyanins (1.71±0.08 g.kg-1 shows the highest level of antiradical activity (461.25±3.69 % ≈ EC50= 0.1084 ± 0.0101. A similar phenomenon was observed in honeysuckles, too. According to these results we can suppose that another flavonoids (flavonols, flavons and flavanols can also significantly contributed to antiradical activity of the blackthorns and edible honeysuckles. In summary, analysed less known fruit species are important sources of nutritive compounds, particularly anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and show significant free radical scavenging ability.

  9. Survey for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hong Kong in native amphibians and in the international amphibian trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Chan, Simon Kin Fung; Tang, Wing Sze; Speare, Richard; Skerratt, Lee F; Alford, Ross A; Cheung, Ka Shing; Ho, Ching Yee; Campbell, Ruth

    2007-12-13

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is responsible for many amphibian declines and has been identified in wild amphibian populations on all continents where they exist, except for Asia. In order to assess whether B. dendrobatidis is present on the native amphibians of Hong Kong, we sampled wild populations of Amolops hongkongensis, Paa exilispinosa, P. spinosa and Rana chloronota during 2005-2006. Amphibians infected with B. dendrobatidis have been found in the international trade, so we also examined the extent and nature of the amphibian trade in Hong Kong during 2005-2006, and assessed whether B. dendrobatidis was present in imported amphibians. All 274 individuals of 4 native amphibian species sampled tested negative for B. dendrobatidis, giving an upper 95% confidence limit for prevalence of 1.3%. Approximately 4.3 million amphibians of 45 species from 11 countries were imported into Hong Kong via air over 12 mo; we did not detect B. dendrobatidis on any of 137 imported amphibians sampled. As B. dendrobatidis generally occurs at greater than 5% prevalence in infected populations during favorable environmental conditions, native amphibians in Hong Kong appear free of B. dendrobatidis, and may be at severe risk of impact if it is introduced. Until it is established that the pathogen is present in Hong Kong, management strategies should focus on preventing it from being imported and decreasing the risk of it escaping into the wild amphibian populations if imported. Further research is needed to determine the status of B. dendrobatidis in Hong Kong with greater certainty.

  10. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco. PMID:24122125

  11. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs. PMID:26336305

  12. Analysis of the Genetic Relationships in Chinese Ziziphus with SRAP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; PENG Jian-ying; BAI Rui-xia

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenic and genetic relationships in germplasm resources of Chinese Ziziphus were studied at molecular levels,for providing new molecular evidences of classification,protection,and utilization of germplasm resources of Ziziphus.The sequence-related amplified polymorphism(SRAP)was assessed to analyse the genetic relationships among 14species of Ziziphus,11 cultivars of Z.jujuba Mill.,and one outgroup.A total of 580 DNA bands were amplified by 19selective primers,570 of which(98.28%)were polymorphic.The average number of polymorphic DNA bands amplified by each primer was 30.The genetic similarities of 26 sample materials were between 0.22 and 0.99.UPGMA method cluster analysis showed that 26 sample materials were classified into six duster groups with the genetic similarity of 0.28.The results showed that SRAP technique is efficient in studying genetic relationships among Ziziphus,Z.jujuba Mill.and Z.acidojujuba C.Y.Cheng et M.J.Liu which should be treated as one species,and further infraspecific classification of Z.jujuba Mill.should be classified into two subspecies; the scientific names of new taxa,Chinese jujube,and wild jujube were Ziziphus jujuba Mill.subsp,jujuba and Ziziphus jujuba Mill.subsp,spinosa(Bunge)J.Y.Peng,X.Y.Li et L.Li,respectively.Z.xiangchengensis Y.L.Chen et P.K.Chou,Z.montana W.W.Smith and Z.mairei Dode might be originated from same ancestry.Z.xiangchengensis Y.L.Chen et P.K.Chou and Z.montana W.W.Smith should be treated as one species.The infrasubspecific taxon of Z.jujuba Mill.was not suitable to set up varieties.

  13. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Mediated by an ABC Transporter Mutation Increases Susceptibility to Toxins from Other Bacteria in an Invasive Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Gong, Lingling; He, Fei; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of pest resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticidal proteins from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used widely in sprays and transgenic crops. Recent efforts to delay pest adaptation to Bt crops focus primarily on combinations of two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest, but this approach is often compromised because resistance to one Bt toxin causes cross-resistance to others. Thus, integration of Bt toxins with alternative controls that do not exhibit such cross-resistance is urgently needed. The ideal scenario of negative cross-resistance, where selection for resistance to a Bt toxin increases susceptibility to alternative controls, has been elusive. Here we discovered that selection of the global crop pest, Helicoverpa armigera, for >1000-fold resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac increased susceptibility to abamectin and spineotram, insecticides derived from the soil bacteria Streptomyces avermitilis and Saccharopolyspora spinosa, respectively. Resistance to Cry1Ac did not affect susceptibility to the cyclodiene, organophospate, or pyrethroid insecticides tested. Whereas previous work demonstrated that the resistance to Cry1Ac in the strain analyzed here is conferred by a mutation disrupting an ATP-binding cassette protein named ABCC2, the new results show that increased susceptibility to abamectin is genetically linked with the same mutation. Moreover, RNAi silencing of HaABCC2 not only decreased susceptibility to Cry1Ac, it also increased susceptibility to abamectin. The mutation disrupting ABCC2 reduced removal of abamectin in live larvae and in transfected Hi5 cells. The results imply that negative cross-resistance occurs because the wild type ABCC2 protein plays a key role in conferring susceptibility to Cry1Ac and in decreasing susceptibility to abamectin. The negative cross-resistance between a Bt toxin and other bacterial insecticides reported here may facilitate more sustainable pest control. PMID:26872031

  14. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose.

  15. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastra Juan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile. The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  16. 香橼与佛手疏肝理气养生饮品的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马育谷; 邓红; 胡梦琪; 刘嘉玉; 赵晶

    2013-01-01

    研制一种以香橼、佛手、葛根、决明子、酸枣仁、蜂蜜等为原料,具有疏肝理气功效的植物养生饮品。通过正交试验和感官鉴评的方法,确定该饮品的最佳配方是香橼、佛手、葛根、决明子、酸枣仁、蜂蜜的配比为0.8∶1.0∶2.0∶1.0∶1.0∶0.5,蔗糖用量为6%,柠檬酸用量为0.03%,原料提取液稀释比为1.0∶1.2。采用该配方制备的饮品清香爽口,酸甜适宜。%A healthy plant drinks for soothing the liver and regulating qi-flowing is developed using medicinal citro, fingered citron, pueraria lobata, cassia semen, Zizphi spinosae and honeybee as raw materials in this paper. The optimal formulas of the beverage are determined through orthogonal test and sensory evaluation. The results are as follows: the ratio of raw materials (medicinal citro∶fingered citron∶pueraria lobata∶cassia semen∶Zizphi spinosae∶honeybee) is 0.8∶1.0∶2.0∶1.0∶1.0∶0.5, sugar content is 6%, citric acid is 0.03%, the dilution ratio of extracting liquid for raw materials is 1.0∶1.2. The drinks have refreshing fragrance, sweet and sour appropriate taste.

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  19. Impact des coopératives féminines sur la préservation et la valorisation de l’arganeraie : cas de la coopérative Tafyoucht (confédération des Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Maroc Impacto das cooperativas de mulheres sobre a preservação e valorização do argan: o caso da cooperativa Tafyoucht (Confederação de AitBaamrane, Anti-Atlas, Marrocos Impact of women’s cooperatives on the conservation and enhancement of the argan tree: case of the Tafyoucht cooperative (confederation of the Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Faouzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available L'arganier (Argania spinosa est un arbre qui pousse principalement au Maroc. Les arganeraies occupent environ 800 000 hectares au sud-ouest du pays. Dans ces zones semi-arides et arides, 1,3 million de personnes sont concernées par l’exploitation de systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels reposant sur l’arganier. L'aire de l’arganier se dégrade d’année en année sous l’effet conjugué de la croissance démographique et du surpâturage. En moins d'un siècle, plus d'un tiers de la forêt a disparu. Depuis une quinzaine d’années, des efforts sont déployés pour définir les conditions d’un développement véritablement durable. L’huile d’argane, est certainement la production sur laquelle pourrait reposer un projet de développement socio-économique. Les populations concernées et les autorités locales ont pris conscience de l’ampleur du problème que représente le développement de l’arganeraie et de sa valeur socioculturelle et économique et de la nécessité d’agir. Cela s’est traduit par la création de coopératives associant l’amélioration de l’extraction et de la commercialisation de l’huile au bénéfice des femmes et la préservation de cette ressource ainsi que la lutte contre la désertification.The Argan tree (Argania spinosa is a tree that grows mainly in Morocco. Argan trees cover approximately 800,000 hectares in the south-west of Morocco. In these arid and semi-arid areas, 1.3 million people are involved on the exploitation of traditional agroforestry systems based on the Argan tree. The area of the Argan tree gets deteriorated year by year due to the combined effect of population growth and overgrazing. In less than a century, more than one third of the forest has disappeared. In the last fifteen years, efforts have been made to define the conditions of a really sustainable development. Argan oil, is undoubtedly the production on which could be based a socio-economic development project

  20. Analysis on Seedling Functional Traits of 7 Wild Fruit Tree Species on the Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains%天山北坡7种野生果树幼苗的功能性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆华; 臧润国; 丁易; 许正; 刁永强; 孙霞

    2012-01-01

    以分布在天山北坡的7种野生果树幼苗为研究对象,测定比叶面积( SLA)、木材密度、叶片厚度、茎皮厚度及根、茎、叶器官的N,P,K含量等功能性状指标,分析影响植物功能性状的环境因子.结果表明:7种野生果树幼苗各项功能性状测定指标均差异显著(P<0.05),新疆野苹果木材密度最小,酸枣木材密度和比叶面积均最大,但叶片厚度和茎皮厚度均最小,胡桃比叶面积最小,但茎皮厚度最大;SLA与叶N含量呈显著正相关(P<0.05);不同树种的根、茎、叶器官的N,P,K含量,除茎P含量差异不显著外(P>0.05),其他均差异显著(P<0.05);酸枣和新疆桃的根、茎、叶器官N,P,K含量均相对较高,辽宁山楂和胡桃各器官养分含量均相对较低.7个树种的叶N含量平均为28.4 mg·g-1,较报道的国内外陆地植物叶片N含量平均水平高,叶P含量平均为2.20 mg·g-1,也相对高于国内陆地植物叶片P含量平均水平,近似于全球平均水平;新疆桃和酸枣的养分利用率较低,辽宁山楂和胡桃的养分利用率较高,其他3个树种居中.%Plant functional traits can reflect their adaptability to environment and their ability of utilizing various resources. The major functional traits of 7 wild fruit tree species in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang were measured and analyzed. The functional traits include specific leaf area (SLA) , wood density, thickness of leaf and bark, and the N, P, K contents in roots, leaves and stems. The results showed that Mains sieversii had the lowest wood density among the 7 tree species, while Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa had the highest wood density and SLA, but the lowest leaf and bark thickness among the 7 tree species. Juglans regia had the smallest SLA, but the highest bark thickness among the 7 tree species. The SLA was significantly and positively correlated with leaf N content ( P < 0. 05 ) . The nutrient contents in leaves, stems

  1. Expression of Plant Sweet Protein Mabinlin Ⅱ in Escherichia coli%植物甜蛋白Mabinlin Ⅱ在大肠杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌博; 黄东彦; 胡文锋; 罗文华; 李雪玲; 颜少帆; 陈永泉

    2011-01-01

    本研究从马槟榔种子中扩增得到天然植物甜蛋白MabinlinⅡ的全长cDNA序列(M1),并通过特异引物PCR去除部分5'端序列得到修饰型的基因序列(M2).将M1与M2分别克隆至表达载体pET43.1a(+),并分别转化表达宿主菌Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)和Rosetta(DE3),成功构建出BL21(DE3)/pET43.1a-M1(缩写B-M1)、BL21(DE3)/pET43.1a-M2 (缩写B-M2)、Rosetta(DE3)/pET43.1a-M1(缩写R-M1)、Rosetta(DE3)/pET43.1a-M2(缩写R-M2)四个表达系统.经IPTG诱导表达后证明,R-M1的重组甜蛋白表达量最高,并可检测到轻微甜味和后甜感.同时利用镍柱对R-M1诱导表达的目的蛋白进行纯化,得到单一条带的重组甜蛋白.%Mabinlin Ⅱ is a safe, low calorie and strong sweet protein found in the seed of Capparis masasaikai Levl grown in Yunnan Province Southern China. We amplified the whole cDNA sequence of Mabinlin Ⅱ(M1) and the modified gene sequence (M2), which without 105bp of the 5'terminal from the seeds, and cloned into the expression plasmid pET43.la (+) respectively. The two recombinant plasmid were then transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and Rosetta (DE3), resulting in 4 recombinant expression system: BL21 (DE3)/pET43.la-M1 (abbr:B-M1), BL2I(DE3)/pET43.la-M2 (abbr: B-M2), Rosetta (DE3)/pET43.la- M1 (abbr: R-M1) and Rosetta/pET43.la-M2 (abbr: R-M2).Recombinant proteins expression was detected by SDS-PAGE, and the results indicated R-M1 yielded the recombinant Mabinlin Ⅱ in highest level, and sweetness was also detected. The R-M1 recombinant protein was then purified using Ni-NTA resin, and single protein band was observed after SDS-PAGE.

  2. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    How can science teachers become more familiar with emerging technology, excite their students and give students a taste of astronomy research? Astronomy teachers do not always have research experience, so it is difficult for them to convey to students how researchers use telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier to providing teachers with insight into the process. Robotic telescopes (operated automatically with queued observing schedules) and remotely controlled telescopes (controlled by the user via the Internet) allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), and middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005). However, teachers need to be trained to use these resources. Responding to this need, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are developing teacher professional development programs using Internet-based telescopes. We conducted an online course in the science education graduate program at the University of Wyoming. This course was designed to sample different types of Internet-based telescopes to evaluate them as resources for teacher professional development. The 10 participants were surveyed at the end of the course to assess their experiences with each activity. In addition, pre-test/post-test data were collected focusing specifically on one of the telescopes (Gershun, Berryhill and Slater 2012). Throughout the course, the participants learned to use a variety of robotic and remote telescopes including SLOOH Space Camera (www.slooh.com), Sky Titan Observatory (www

  3. Improving Early Career Science Teachers' Ability to Teach Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, G. R.; Slater, T. F.; Wierman, T.; Erickson, J. G.; Mendez, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The GEMS Space Science Sequence is a high quality, hands-on curriculum for elementary and middle schools, created by a national team of astronomers and science educators with NASA funding and support. The standards-aligned curriculum includes 24 class sessions for upper elementary grades targeting the scale and nature of Earth's, shape, motion and gravity, and 36 class sessions for middle school grades focusing on the interactions between our Sun and Earth and the nature of the solar system and beyond. These materials feature extensive teacher support materials which results in pre-test to post-test content gains for students averaging 22%. Despite the materials being highly successful, there has been a less than desired uptake by teachers in using these materials, largely due to a lack of professional development training. Responding to the need to improve the quantity and quality of space science education, a collaborative of space scientists and science educators - from the University of California, Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL), the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), the University of Wyoming, and the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education - experimented with a unique professional development model focused on helping master teachers work closely with pre-service teachers during their student teaching internship field experience. Research on the exodus of young teachers from the teaching profession clearly demonstrates that early career teachers often leave teaching because of a lack of mentoring support and classroom ready curriculum materials. The Advancing Mentor and Novice Teachers in Space Science (AMANTISS) team first identified master teachers who supervise novice, student teachers in middle school, and trained these master teachers to use the GEMS Space Science Sequence for Grades 6-8. Then, these master teachers were mentored in how to coach their

  4. Gaining A Geological Perspective Through Active Learning in the Large Lecture Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J. L.; Richardson, R. M.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    more freedom in when and where they complete their work, and we provide instant feedback on their submitted work. The University of Wyoming Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team, who specialize in project evaluation, are leading the evaluation effort. We are comparing pre-test to post-test gains on the Geoscience Concept Inventory and Attitudes Toward Science surveys before and after the redesign, and inductive analysis of student interviews and reflective writing that describe student perceptions of the modified learning environment. The redesign has cut the cost of the class per student by more than half. This was achieved primarily in two ways: 1) by greatly reducing the number of hours spent by faculty and graduate teaching assistants on preparation, class time, and grading; and 2) reducing the number of graduate teaching assistants required for the class and replacing many of them with undergraduate preceptors. Undergraduate preceptors are not paid, but receive academic credit for their teaching service. The savings from the redesign is used to allow faculty more time to work on institutional priorities.

  5. Phenological response of five wild plant shrubs and assessment its sums of effective units in region of the Czech Republic during 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosova, L.; Bauer, Z.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Kucera, J.; Stepanek, P.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Presented study is focused on 50 years of phenological observations (1961-2010) of five wild plant shrubs and its phenological phases that create a continuous phenological sequence covering the whole spring aspect of floodplain forest. The phases were observed for Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas), English hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha), Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and Common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The study was conducted at nature reserve at Vranovice (170 m a.s.l., 48°56´ N, 16°35´ E) with additional data available from three observational sites in the region (15-60 km apart). For each shrub the date of first flower and the date of full flowering were determined. The collected phenological data were analysed together with local meteorological observations for trends and periodicity by software AnClim and PhenoClim developed by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Mendel University respectively. For each shrub and its phenological phases the sum of effective units above the given threshold were calculate by means of PhenoClim. The values of sum of effective units for weather variables parameters (e. g. mean temperature, maximum temperature) and above given threshold (e. g. range of baseline mean temperature values from 1 to 10°C with step of 0.1°C) were assess. Observations of these five wild plant shrubs have been since season 2009 modernized by extremely detail air temperature measurements and phenocameras (taking multiple series of 12 photos during a single day) for three individuals of Common dogwood at three different habitats (insolated, shaded and half-shaded habitat) at plot Vranovice. This detailed observation provide unusual level of detail about the role of particular location of the given species within the particular site and provides a method allowing for precise determination of the individual phenological stages. The mean annual temperature showed a significant increase of 0.33°C per decade, with

  6. Character evolution and branch classification of Brassica juncea(L.)Czern.et Coss.%西藏芥菜型油菜性状演化与分支分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建林; 次仁央金; 大次卓嘎; 王忠红

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, 67 B.juncea germplasm resources were used to determine character evolvement and branch classification based on 52 morphological traits by the maximum synchronization method.In the study, Cleome spinosa Jacq.from Capparidaceae was used as out-group.The results showed unique, homochronous or asnychromous evolution rules of basal leaves, leaves in elongated stems, bolting stem leaves and flowers traits of B.juncea.Sixty-seven B.juncea germplasm resources were classified into two groups, wild and cultivated groups.Regardless of whether the germplasms was wild or cultivated, germplasms of a group always came from one region or different regions with similar climatic conditions.The results indicated similarity in character evolution of B.juncea germplasm resources that was closely related with geographical and climatic backgrounds of the origins.%为明确西藏芥菜型油菜的性状演化与分支分类问题,本文以67份西藏芥菜型油菜为试验对象,52个形态学性状为依据,白花菜科植物醉蝶花为外类群,应用最大同步法,对其进行了研究.结果表明:芥菜型油菜的基生叶、伸长茎叶、薹茎叶和花器的性状,均既有同期演化的,也有非同期演化的,有各自独特的演化规则;西藏芥菜型油菜明显分为野生种和栽培种2大类群,无论是野生类群还是栽培类群中,往往是来自于同一地区或气候相似区的材料聚在一起.表明西藏芥菜型油菜种质资源在形态演化上的相似性与其原产地的地理、气候背景密切相关.

  7. The Effects of Argan Oil in Second-degree Burn Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Umit; Halici, Zekai; Akpinar, Erol; Yayla, Muhammed; Avsar, Ummu; Harun, Un; Harun, Un; Hasan Tarik, Atmaca; Bayraktutan, Zafer

    2016-03-01

    Argan oil, produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa), has been shown to have antioxidant properties. To examine the effect of argan oil in second-degree burn wound healing, an in vivo experiment was conducted among 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups: a sham group, a control group (burned but no topical agent), a group in which argan oil was applied once a day, a group in which argan oil was applied twice a day, and a group treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine once a day. Second-degree burns were created by scalding hot water (85˚ C for 15 seconds). Treatment began 24 hours after the burn injury; in the argan oil groups, 1 mL of argan oil was administered via syringe to the wound. The rate of wound healing was quantified by wound measurements on days 1, 7, and 14 after burn injury. Tissues were analyzed for molecular and histologic changes in TGF-β expression and fibroblast activity. Percent contraction of burned skin tissue was determined using the stereo investigator program, which calculated the burn field to the millimeter. Means (SD) were calculated and compared using Duncan's multiple comparison test. The group receiving argan oil twice daily showed significantly increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 from 39.66- to 58.70-fold compared to the burn control group on day 14 (P less than 0.05). Both argan oil-treated groups showed significantly increased contraction compared to the burn control group at all 3 timepoints; the group receiving argan oil twice daily had a greater contraction rate (31% on day 7, 76% on day 14) than the silver sulfadiazine group (22% on day 7, 69% on day 14), (P less than 0.05). Histopathological assessments on days 3, 7, and 14 showed greater healing/contraction in both argan oil and silver sulfadiazine groups compared to the control group. These results suggest argan oil is effective in healing experimentally created second-degree burns in rats. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are

  8. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański Wojciech M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack, 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves. The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider Nymphon gracile (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braband Anke

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes form units of genetic information replicating indepentently from nuclear genomes. Sequence data (most often from protein-coding genes and other features (gene order, RNA secondary structure of mitochondrial genomes are often used in phylogenetic studies of metazoan animals from population to phylum level. Pycnogonids are primarily marine arthropods, often considered closely related to chelicerates (spiders, scorpions and allies. However, due to their aberrant morphology and to controversial results from molecular studies, their phylogenetic position is still under debate. Results This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a sea spider (Nymphon gracile, class Pycnogonida. Gene order derives from that of other arthropods so that presumably 10 single tRNA gene translocations, a translocation of the mitochondrial control region, and one large inversion affecting protein-coding genes must have happened in the lineage leading to Nymphon gracile. Some of the changes in gene order seem not to be common to all pycnogonids, as those were not found in a partial mitochondrial genome of another species, Endeis spinosa. Four transfer RNAs of Nymphon gracile show derivations from the usual cloverleaf secondary structure (truncation or loss of an arm. Initial phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences placed Pycnogonida as sister group to Acari. However, this is in contrast to the majority of all other studies using nuclear genes and/or morphology and was not recovered in a second analysis where two long-branching acarid species were omitted. Conclusion Extensive gene rearrangement characterizes the mitochondrial genome of Nymphon gracile. At least some of the events leading to this derived gene order happened after the split of pycnogonid subtaxa. Nucleotide and amino acid frequencies show strong differences between chelicerate taxa, presumably biasing

  10. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  11. Species composition and correlation of understory woody plants in Chinese fir plantation in the lower subtropical area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Bing; LIU Shirong; CAI Daoxiong; WEN Yuanguang

    2006-01-01

    There are 71 species in the shrub layer of the Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation after natural succession.The species richness and diversity have increased with slight anthropogenic disturbance.The status and function of tmderstory woody species were judged by the analysis of the important value (IV).X2 statistics and r test were used for testing the significance of interspecific association and correlation among 25 main understory woody plants selected from the woody population.The results clearly showed their interspecific relationships and their differences in resource utilization.Species-pairs of positive association were in the majority.Most species were accommodated in the shady habitat.There was a positive correlation between the IV of the species and the interspecific association.The higher the IV of the species,the closer and more significant was the interspecific association.Based on analytical results of interspecitic association and correlation,25 woody plants in the shrub layer could be divided into four ecological species groups:I.Ficus hispida +Antidesma bunius+Mallotus barbatus+Ficus cunia+Saurauia tristyla+Mallotus philippinensis+Maesa japonica +Ficus hirta+Alchornea rugosa+Ficus fulva+Mallotus apelta;II.Cudrania tricuspidata+Schefflera octopylla;III.Cunninghamia lanceolata+Clerodendron cytophyllum +Millettia semicastrata+Randia spinosa+Litsea cubeba +Litsea pungens;IV.Ardisia japonica+Psychotria rubra +Vitex quinata+Cephalanthus occidentalis+ Pithecellobium lucidum+Mycetia sinensis.If species group III or II is the advantaged species in the shrub layer,the community would change from a coniferous forest to a sparse evergreen broad-leaved forest.For group IV,the community would be relatively stable.For group I,the coniferous forest would be mixed with coniferous-broad leaved forest.The classification of ecological species groups would provide a theoretical basis on judging its ecological function,adjusting the stand structure of the plantation and

  12. Determination of Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in 34 Batches of Chinese Herbs by HPLC Associated with Post Column Photochemical Derivatization%免疫亲和柱净化HPLC柱后光化学衍生法测定34批中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文武; 熊凌云; 王瑞芳; 刘岩; 孙启生; 雷雨; 王强

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立HPLC柱后光化学衍生法检测中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1方法.方法 样品经过70%甲醇提取、免疫亲和拄净化后,采用HPLC柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测中药材黄曲霉毒素含量.对疑似成分进行液质确认.结果 黄曲霉毒素G2和B2,G1和B1分别在0.75 ~ 22.5 pg和5~ 75Pg线性关系良好,方法准确稳定.检测的34批次药材中,3批酸枣仁检出黄曲霉毒素,其中1批酸枣仁黄曲霉毒素B1超过5μg·kg-1.结论 该方法简便、准确,适用于中药材黄曲霉毒素的检测.%Objective To establish HPLC methods associated with post column Photochemical Derivatization to determine aflatoxin G2, Gl, B2, Bl in Chinese herbal. Method Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol and purified by an immunoaffinity column. Then the samples were analysed by HPLC fluorescence detector with post column Photochemical derivatization. Confirm the suspected components with LC-MS. Results The method with the great linear concentration range of 0.75-22.5 pg for aflatoxins G2,B2,and 5-75 pg for aflatoxins G1,B1 respectively, was stable and accurate. In the result of 34 batches of Chinese herbs,Aflatoxins were detected in 3 batches of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae among which Aflatoxin Bl of one batch exceed 5 μg·kg-l. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate,which is suitable for the determination of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal.

  13. 酸枣仁皂甙A对青霉素钠诱发大鼠海马CA1区过度兴奋的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of jujuboside A on penicillin sodium induced hyperactivity in rat hippocampal CA1 area in vitro1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿彩华; 王疆; 郑筱祥; 郭殿武

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察中药酸枣仁皂甙A对青霉素钠诱导产生 的大鼠海马脑片CA1区兴奋性放电的抑制作用. 方法:细胞外记录离体大鼠海马脑片CA1区锥体细 胞层群体峰电位.结果:青霉素钠500、1000和2000 kU/L可剂量依赖地诱导海马脑片上CA1区神经元 的兴奋.苯巴比妥钠0.02-0.05 g/L和酸枣仁皂甙 A 0.05-0.10 g/L都可以剂量依赖性地抑制这种青 霉素钠诱发的兴奋反应.结论:高剂量的酸枣仁皂 甙A能够抑制青霉素钠诱导的海马CA1区兴奋性电 位.群峰电位(PS)的个数和第一个峰电位的幅度受 到的抑制较明显,而兴奋性突触后场电位的变化不 大.%AIM: To study the effect of jujuboside A (JuA), one constituent of Chinese herbal medicine Ziziphus jujuba Mill Var spinosa (Bunge) Hu, on the penicillin sodium induced hyperactivity in rat CA1 neurons in vitro. METHODS: Hippocampal slices were obtained from the Sprague-Dawley rat brain and populational signals were measured from CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices using the extracellular recording technique. RESULTS: Penicillin sodium of 500, 1000, and 2000 kU/L were found to excite hippocampal CA1 neurons in a concentra tion-dependent manner in vitro. This excitatory effect of penicillin sodium could be inhibited by phenobarbital sodium of 0.02 - 0.05 g/L and JuA of 0.05 - 0.10 g/ L. CONCLUSION: A high dose of JuA can inhibit the hyperactivity of hippocampal CA1 area induced by peni cillin sodium. The inhibition of the amplitude of the first population spike (PS) and the latency of PS are more pronounced than the slope of the field excitatory post synaptic potential.

  14. The Effects of Argan Oil in Second-degree Burn Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Umit; Halici, Zekai; Akpinar, Erol; Yayla, Muhammed; Avsar, Ummu; Harun, Un; Harun, Un; Hasan Tarik, Atmaca; Bayraktutan, Zafer

    2016-03-01

    Argan oil, produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa), has been shown to have antioxidant properties. To examine the effect of argan oil in second-degree burn wound healing, an in vivo experiment was conducted among 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups: a sham group, a control group (burned but no topical agent), a group in which argan oil was applied once a day, a group in which argan oil was applied twice a day, and a group treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine once a day. Second-degree burns were created by scalding hot water (85˚ C for 15 seconds). Treatment began 24 hours after the burn injury; in the argan oil groups, 1 mL of argan oil was administered via syringe to the wound. The rate of wound healing was quantified by wound measurements on days 1, 7, and 14 after burn injury. Tissues were analyzed for molecular and histologic changes in TGF-β expression and fibroblast activity. Percent contraction of burned skin tissue was determined using the stereo investigator program, which calculated the burn field to the millimeter. Means (SD) were calculated and compared using Duncan's multiple comparison test. The group receiving argan oil twice daily showed significantly increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 from 39.66- to 58.70-fold compared to the burn control group on day 14 (P less than 0.05). Both argan oil-treated groups showed significantly increased contraction compared to the burn control group at all 3 timepoints; the group receiving argan oil twice daily had a greater contraction rate (31% on day 7, 76% on day 14) than the silver sulfadiazine group (22% on day 7, 69% on day 14), (P less than 0.05). Histopathological assessments on days 3, 7, and 14 showed greater healing/contraction in both argan oil and silver sulfadiazine groups compared to the control group. These results suggest argan oil is effective in healing experimentally created second-degree burns in rats. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are

  15. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  16. Efficacy of eco-smart insecticides against certain biological stages of jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb.(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of six eco-smart insecticides, Dipel 2x 6.4% WP (Bacillus thuringensis AI, Biofly 100% WP (Beauvaria bessiana AI, Radiant 12% SC (Saccharopolyspora spinosa AI, Mectin 1.8% EC (Streptomyces avermitilis AI, Nimbecidine 0.03% EC (Azadirachtin AI and Bio-Power 50% EC (Beauvaria bessiana AI, were tested against eggs, larvae and pupae of the jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb. and its parasitoid Apanteles syleptae under laboratory conditions. Data indicated that all tested insecticides had ovicidal activity against P. unionalis. Mectin was the most toxic among the tested insecticides against the egg stage, followed by Radiant or Dipel 2x, and their respective values of LC50 were 0.005 cm/l, 0.006 cm/l and 0.055 g/l. Dipel 2x was the most toxic insecticide to the 1st instar larvae of P. unionalis, whereas Mectin was the most toxic to both the 3rd and 5th instar larvae. Also, the results revealed that Mectin was the most effective against the pupal stage, followed descendingly by Radiant and Dipel 2x. The toxicity index values showed a superior efficiency of Mectin at LC50 (100% against eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupal stage, whereas Dipel 2x showed such superior efficiency at LC50 (100% only against 1st instar larvae. The results showed that the percents of pupation and emergence of moths were significantly different in all treatments compared to control, while deformed pupae and malformed adults were insignificantly different when fifth instar larvae were treated with the tested insecticides. Moreover, the rate of P. unionalis adult emergence from treated pupae was concentration-dependent and significant differences were found between insecticide treatments and control. Generally, Mectin, Radiant and Dipel 2x caused the highest impacts on adult emergence and malformed adults percentages. Regarding the toxicity of insecticides to the endoparasitoid A. syleptae, the treated cocoons developed to adult stages with no significant

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider Achelia bituberculata (Pycnogonida, Ammotheidae: arthropod ground pattern of gene arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yong-Seok

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic position of pycnogonids is a long-standing and controversial issue in arthropod phylogeny. This controversy has recently been rekindled by differences in the conclusions based on neuroanatomical data concerning the chelifore and the patterns of Hox expression. The mitochondrial genome of a sea spider, Nymphon gracile (Pycnogonida, Nymphonidae, was recently reported in an attempt to address this issue. However, N. gracile appears to be a long-branch taxon on the phylogenetic tree and exhibits a number of peculiar features, such as 10 tRNA translocations and even an inversion of several protein-coding genes. Sequences of other pycnogonid mitochondrial genomes are needed if the position of pycnogonids is to be elucidated on this basis. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (15,474 bp of a sea spider (Achelia bituberculata belonging to the family Ammotheidae, which combines a number of anatomical features considered plesiomorphic with respect to other pycnogonids, was sequenced and characterized. The genome organization shows the features typical of most metazoan animal genomes (37 tightly-packed genes. The overall gene arrangement is completely identical to the arthropod ground pattern, with one exception: the position of the trnQ gene between the rrnS gene and the control region. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees inferred from the amino acid sequences of mitochondrial protein-coding genes consistently indicate that the pycnogonids (A. bituberculata and N. gracile may be closely related to the clade of Acari and Araneae. Conclusion The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of A. bituberculata (Family Ammotheidae and the previously-reported partial sequence of Endeis spinosa show the gene arrangement patterns typical of arthropods (Limulus-like, but they differ markedly from that of N. gracile. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that Pycnogonida may be

  18. Ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos em catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stell. ex de Souza - Bignoniaceae, uma planta medicinal do Cerrado em risco de extinção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos, identificar suas espécies, e avaliar a colonização em raízes de plantas de diferentes populações e variedades de Anemopaegma arvense, uma planta medicinal do Cerrado em risco de extinção. As avaliações da colonização micorrízica e identificação de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs foram realizadas no Laboratório de Microbiologia do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. Foram utilizadas raízes de 10 plantas coletadas em diferentes locais juntamente com as amostras de solo próximo ao sistema radicular de populações naturais das variedades: glabra, puberula e petiolata. Os esporos foram extraídos do solo por meio da metodologia de peneiramento úmido e, para a avaliação e observação da colonização radicular, as raízes coradas foram observadas em microscópio estereoscópico (ampliação 10 a 40x. Em todas as amostras analisadas foi possível identificar espécies de FMAs, exceto para a variedade puberula, coletada no município de Mogi Guaçu-SP. O número de esporos variou de maneira significativa entre as amostras e os locais amostrados, não havendo distribuição regular. Acaulospora scrubiculata, A. spinosa, A. longula, Escustelospora heterogama, Paraglomus occultum, Gigaspora margarita, Gigaspora sp., dentre outros, encontram-se entre as espécies identificadas. Quanto à avaliação da colonização micorrízica nas raízes, observou-se que todas as variedades foram colonizadas no sitema radicular, verificada por meio da presença de hifas. No entanto, a colonização não foi constatada em todas as amostras avaliadas e também não foi observada a formação de arbúsculos e/ou vesículas.

  19. Flora and vegetation of Rio Torto area in Brasimone ENEA Centre, Bologna; Flora e vegetazione dell'area Rio Torto nel centro ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mei, M.; Varriale, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The Rio Torto area, on the northern slope of the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine, in the C.R. Enea Brasimone property, has been the object of a research study on flora and vegetation to delineate the vegetal coverage and to evaluate the vegetal population changes. The study on vegetation has been carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method, a flora-statistical approach based on an accurate analysis of the flora and on statistical sampling of the studied object. Data has been analysed using the SYN-TAX-Multivariate Data Analysis software package, in order to get out a classification and, therefore, some syn-taxonomic levels in vegetation. Result is a dendogram with clusters connected by transverse lines and organised in a Hierarchical Clustering system. The dominant species in the Rio Torto area is beech; elements of the Arrhenatheretalia association are well-represented at the lower edge of the wood, while a broad glade characterised by Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, by Prunus spinosa L. and by Crataegus monogyna Jacq is at the upper edge. Grassy undergrowth is dominated by Eurasian and boreal elements and, from a physiognomic-structural point of view, is quite rich. The biological spectrum analysis points up the particularly high value of the hemicryptophytes: this result couldn't be justified by the mountainous nature of the zone but it could be considered a sign of stress. From the vegetation and phytosociological study, a classification of the beech population on the basis of the complex of characteristics is gained; in this classification, the beech population is fitted in the order Fagetalia Pawl, 1928 (Ubaldi and Speranza, 1985) and in the alliance Fagion Sylvaticae medioeuropeo (Luquet 1926) Tx and Diemont 1936. No particular association has been identified within the alliance, because is not possible to detect a species well-defined contingent. Ecologically more demanding species absence and non-characteristic entities intrusion is linked to the general state

  20. Flora and vegetation of Rio Torto area in Brasimone ENEA Centre, Bologna; Flora e vegetazione dell'area Rio Torto nel centro ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mei, M.; Varriale, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The Rio Torto area, on the northern slope of the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine, in the C.R. Enea Brasimone property, has been the object of a research study on flora and vegetation to delineate the vegetal coverage and to evaluate the vegetal population changes. The study on vegetation has been carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method, a flora-statistical approach based on an accurate analysis of the flora and on statistical sampling of the studied object. Data has been analysed using the SYN-TAX-Multivariate Data Analysis software package, in order to get out a classification and, therefore, some syn-taxonomic levels in vegetation. Result is a dendogram with clusters connected by transverse lines and organised in a Hierarchical Clustering system. The dominant species in the Rio Torto area is beech; elements of the Arrhenatheretalia association are well-represented at the lower edge of the wood, while a broad glade characterised by Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, by Prunus spinosa L. and by Crataegus monogyna Jacq is at the upper edge. Grassy undergrowth is dominated by Eurasian and boreal elements and, from a physiognomic-structural point of view, is quite rich. The biological spectrum analysis points up the particularly high value of the hemicryptophytes: this result couldn't be justified by the mountainous nature of the zone but it could be considered a sign of stress. From the vegetation and phytosociological study, a classification of the beech population on the basis of the complex of characteristics is gained; in this classification, the beech population is fitted in the order Fagetalia Pawl, 1928 (Ubaldi and Speranza, 1985) and in the alliance Fagion Sylvaticae medioeuropeo (Luquet 1926) Tx and Diemont 1936. No particular association has been identified within the alliance, because is not possible to detect a species well-defined contingent. Ecologically more demanding species absence and non-characteristic entities intrusion is linked to the general state

  1. 黄连温胆汤加减临证治验%Clinical experience on modified Huanglian Wendan Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹秀琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the clinical experience of treating the diseases caused by emotional disorders with modified Huanglian Wendan Decoction. Methods: Sweet, nourishing and greasy drugs such as Licorice root (Radix Glycyrrhizae) and Chinese dates (Fructus Ziziphi Jujubae) are excluded from Huanglian Wendan Decoction so as to remove heat-phlegm and Bupleurum root (Radix Bupleuri), Curcuma root (Radix Curcumae) and Silk tree bark (Albizziae Cortex) are added to soothe the liver and relieve the depressed qi; at the same time, we also flexibly modify the recipe according to syndromes and adopt psychological counseling as a adjusting measure in the treatment of many emotional disorders. In case of predawn diarrhea, the drugs for strengthening the spleen, resolving dampness, astringing and arresting diarrhea [e.g. Atractylodes rhizome(Rhizoma Atractylodis), Bighead atractylodes rhizotne(Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Oriental water plantain rhizomclRhizoma Alismatis), Gordon euryale(Semen Euryales), Dark Plum fruit(Fructus Mume),etc] should be added to this recipe; in case of anxiety, the drugs for tranquilizing the mind [e.g. Dragon's bone(Fossilia Ossis Mastodi), Oyster shell(Concha Ostieae), Magnetite (Magnetium), fried Wild or spiny jujube seed(Semen Ziziphi Spinosae Praeparata), Fleece-flower stem(Caulis Polygoni Multiflori),etc.] should be added to this recipe; in case of low fever, the drugs for clearing away heart-heat, purging fire, nourishing yin and clearing away heat, combined with the drugs for purging fu-organs and expelling pathogenic heat [e.g. Capejasmuie fruit (Fructus Gardeniae), Gypsum (Gypsum Fibrosum), Wind-weed rhizome [Rhizoma Anemarrhenae], Phellodendron bark (Cortex Phellodendri) and Rhubarb root (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei)] so as to remove pathogenic heat. Results: The above-mentioned recipes have satisfactory curative effect in predawn diarrhea, anxiety and low fever. Conclusion: Huanglian Wendan Decoction is effective for the diseases

  2. Los trabajos de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrovsky Jauneau, Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the purpose of showing the identity between science and technology from within scientific language. The traditional philosophical argument in favour of this identity is briefly examined, through the work of Heidegger. Then, following Henri Atlan (“Ordres et Significations”, 1979. Le crystal et la fumée. Essai sur l’organisation du vivant. Paris: Éd. Du Seuil the scientific definitions of order and disorder are reviewed; then Boltzmann’s statistical formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is discussed, to show that such a law could only appear in the context of Modernity and the Industrial Revolution. In fact, the concept of “mechanical work” would be the “missing link” assimilating science to techno-science, to technology. The paper also discusses the consequences of such an assimilation, and the resistance with which it is usually received by the scientific community. This resistance arises from the loss of the unconditional character of scientific truth. The concept of the “unconditional”, its genealogy and ethic relevance within Modern philosophical thought, from Spinosa to Kant and Wittgenstein, are discussed. Finally, Emmanuel Lévinas’ Ethics is introduced: for Lévinas, in fact, the recovery of the unconditional character of the ethical (and also, of cognitive truth requires that the dialogic character of all kind of statements be taken into account.Esta comunicación pretende mostrar la identidad ciencia/ técnica desde el interior del lenguaje tecnocientífico. Se revisa brevemente la argumentación filosófica tradicional al respecto, cuyo exponente paradigmático es Heidegger. Luego, siguiendo a Henri Atlan (“Ordres et Significations”, Le cristal et la fumée. Essai sur l’organisation du vivant, Éd. Du Seuil, Paris, 1979 se analiza la definición científica de orden y desorden; enseguida se discute la formulación estadística de Boltzmann de la 2.ª Ley de la Termodin

  3. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    purple willow (Salix purpurea). Only the 25% of the interventions was accomplished by the use of secondary plant species, as tamarisk (Tamarix spp.,) blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) , whitethorn (Crataegus spp.), sea-buckthorn (Hipphopae rhamnoides), wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), cottonwood (Populus nigra), eglantine (Rosa spp.), goat-willow (Salix caprea) and cornel (Cornus sanguinea). Better results were achieved with Spanish Broom, a very rural plant that can effectively colonise even poor soils like badlands; as a matter of fact, more than the 75% of the interventions had positive outcomes The efficacy of the consolidation work by the presence of living structures point out an increase of the stability of those interventions older than 4 years, with taking root species present from 54% to 78%. So far, the construction and the reliability of the works have been monitored, in order to capture critical aspects for the success of works and to build a geo-referenced data base of the existing works and their status.

  4. Peculiarities of vegetation restoration of low mountain massif 'Degelen' of Semipalatinsk Test Sites after nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches in low mountain massif 'Degelen' Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000 in the frames of INTAS 93-1422 and INTAS 96-2072 projects. 209 underground nuclear explosions were conducted out in horizontal adits in granite low mountain massif in 1968-1989. At present PED γ-irradiation reaches 100-500 μR/h in 14 adits, 500-1000 μR/h - in 8 adits, 1000-5000 μR/h - in 5 adits. Crests of the main mountain ridges and their lateral spurs were destroyed by multiple influence of blasts of nuclear explosions. 'Zones of split' appeared at the tops of the mountain ridges. Technogene screens appeared on the slopes of the mountain ridges. Radioactive springs appeared as a result of opening of water-bearing horizons under nuclear explosions. 'Zones of split' consist of granite fragments measuring 0.1-3.0 meters. Higher plants were not revealed on ground with big rock fragments. Single individuals of Urtica wens, Setaria viridis are found on ground with small rock fragments. Rarefied aggregations constituted by Artemisia frigida, Festuca valesiaca, Agropyron cristatum develop in small depressions with accumulation of fine earth. Single individuals of petrophytes (Orostachys spinosa, Sedum hybridum, S. purpureum, Patrinia intermedia) appeared on small plots of slightly damaged areas of crests of the mountain ridges. Technogene screens are constituted by granite fragments measuring 0.03-1.0 meter. Higher plants were not found here. Only lower part of the screens sometimes is covered by shrubs - Rosa spinosissima, R. laxa, Spiraea trilobata, Lonicera microphylla, Berberis sibirica are found more rarely. Aggregations of weed plants (Artemisia scoparia, A. sieversiana, Amaranthus retroflexus) develop on orifice-side areas of the adits. We revealed development of adaptation signs of Melilotus albus and Kochia sieversiana growing in conditions of radiation pollution (PED of γ-irradiation 200-700 μR/h). Shape and dimensions of blade

  5. Classification of Ecological Twin Species and Plant Functional Type for Natural Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Middle Part of Qinling Mountains%秦岭中段天然油松林生态种对和功能群划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺雨阳; 王得祥; 雷瑞德; 雍小华

    2009-01-01

    利用20个野外调查的样地资料,分析了油松天然林主要种群种间联结及其生态位重叠特征,结果表明,秦岭中段油松天然林生态种对有8个:山杨-栓皮栎、秦岭木姜子-黄连木、光皮桦-青杄、色木槭-刺叶栎、色木槭-铁杉、盐肤木-槲栎、梾木-少脉椴、桦叶四蕊槭-青榨槭.在此基础上,利用聚类分析结果结合种群的生态位特征,将该区油松天然林划分为4个生态种组,其中油松独立成为了生态关键种的种组.结合生态种对,把第4个生态种组近一步划分为4个功能群:"广泛伴生种"、"嗜热物种"、"嗜湿物种"和"潜在建群种",各功能群都具有明显的生态过程(主要是物理过程和生物过程),能帮助解释物种对生态系统过程影响的机理.生态种对和生态种组两者结合分析植物功能群得出的结果合理,功能群之间的界定也比较清晰,符合各种群的生物学等的特征.%The interspecific association of main populations of natural Pinus tabulaeformis forests in the middle part of Qinling Mountains and the characteristics of niche overlap were analysed base on field investigation. Results show that there are eight preliminary ecological twin species, namely Populus davidiana Dode-Quercus variabilis Blume, Litsea tsinlingensis Yang et P. H. Huang-Pistacia chinensis Bunge, Betula luminifera-Picea wilsonii Mast, Acer mono Maxim-Quercus spinosa David, Acer mono Meaim-Tsuga chinensis ( Franch. ) Pritz, Rhus chinensis WXL-Quercus aliena Blume, Swida macrophylla ( Wall. ) Sojak-Tilia amurensis, and Acer tetramerum Pax var. betulifolium ( Maxim. ) Rehd-Acer davidii Franch. Natural P. tabulaeformis forests in this area are classified into four ecological species groups according to the cluster analysis re-sults , in which Chinese pine become an independent species group of the ecological keystone species. The fourth ecological species group is divided into four plant functional types, all that

  6. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Domingos Brescovit

    1996-12-01

    Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia

  7. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    records vary from station to station. In some cases records were given in details including geographical details regarding the position of observed individual plant (orientation of the slopes) and the damages caused by frosts but this was not a general feature. All phenological observations were done on a voluntary basis. Moreover, even the stations that performed the observations for more than ten years changed the observed species from year to year. This makes the data sets quite fragmented with many gaps and the standard statistical characteristics of any station can be hardly obtained and their statistical significance is very low. As the standard statistical processing of the data sets was not possible, we tried to elaborate some descriptions that can characterize the distribution of phenological manifestation in space and time. Climatologic records available in the yearbooks were expressed as monthly mean values and totals. There are also gaps and missing data in the climatologic records. Nevertheless, these data sets enable us to get general characteristics of months and seasons. Next possible evaluation can follow the local phenological calendar. This was done also in 1874. As only three phenological phases were recorded, it was difficult to follow the development and growth of a particular plant. That is why only flowering of the plants characterizing start of early spring /Corylus Avellana/, full spring /Cornus mas, Salix alba and Prunus spinosa/, late spring /Syringa vulgaris, Aesculus Hippocastanum and Crataegus laevigata/ and early summer /Robinia Pseudoacacia and Sambucus nigra/ were considered. The full start of summer is indicated usually by flowering of Tilia platyphyllos. Three stations from the lowlands in northern region with relatively good data sets were selected in order to get this course of flowering. The northern most positioned station showed the delay in the beginning of flowering at the plants which flower in full spring and early summer while

  8. Divisão do gênero Distenia Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, notas sobre a venação alar em Disteniini, Homonímias, Sinonímia e Redescrições (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Disteniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Divisão do gênero Distenia Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, notas sobre a venação alar em Disteniini, homonímias, sinonímia e redescrições (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Disteniinae. O gênero Distenia é dividido em cinco gêneros: Hovorestenia Santos-Silva gen. nov. [H. humeralis (Waterhouse, 1880 comb. nov.] Oculipetilus gen. nov. [O. brunneorufus (Thomson, 1860 comb. nov.; O. pulcher (Melzer, 1926 comb. nov.] Elytrimitatrix gen. nov., Novantinoe nom. nov., gen. rev. [N. agriloides (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. bicolora (Thomson, 1864; N. cribristernis (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. darlingtoni (Fisher, 1942 comb. nov.; N. denticornis (Bates, 1870 comb. nov.; N. equatoriensis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. fulvopicta (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. germaini (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. guyanensis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. mathani (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. pegnai (Hüdepohl, 1989 comb. nov.; N. peruviensis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. puertoricensis (Lingafelter & Micheli, 2004 comb. nov.; N. rufa (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. spinosa (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; N. striatiscapis (Villiers, 1885 comb. nov.; N. tumidicollis (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; N. unidentata (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.] Disteniazteca gen. nov. [D. pilati (Chevrolat, 1857 comb. nov.; D. fimbriata (Lacordaire, 1869 comb. nov.] e Distenia sensu stricto. Elytrimitatrix e Distenia são compostos de dois subgêneros: E. (Elytrimitatrix [E. (E. undata (Fabricius, 1775 comb. nov.] e E. (Grossifemora subgen. nov. [E. (G. batesi (Villiers, 1959 comb. nov.; E. (G. brevicornis (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. chrysostigma (Bates, 1872 comb. nov.; E. (G. fuscula (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. geniculata (Bates, 1872 comb. nov.; E. (G. hoegei (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. irregularis (Linsley, 1935 comb. nov.; E. (G. lineatopora (Bates, 1880 comb. nov.; E. (G. nigrella (Bates, 1880 comb. nov.; E. (G. pictipes (Bates, 1885 comb. nov.; E. (G. punctiventris (Bates, 1885 comb. nov