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Sample records for cape town south

  1. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa1

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of di...

  2. Poverty and psychological health among AIDS-orphaned children in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cluver, L.; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems includin...

  3. Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hesseling Anneke C; Whitelaw Andrew; Marais Ben J; Schaaf H Simon; Eley Brian; Hussey Gregory D; Donald Peter R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described. Methods Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from children less than 13 years of age at Tygerberg and Red Cross Children's Hospitals, Cape Town, South Africa, were collected from March 2003 through February 2005. Folder review and chest radiography were performed and drug susceptibility tests done. Results Of 596 children ...

  4. Indicators of substance abuse treatment demand in Cape Town, South Africa (1997-2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, B.; C.D.H. Parry; Plüddemann, A.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the demand for substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This article uses data collected from specialist substance abuse treatment centres to describe substance abuse treatment demand and patterns of service utilisation in Cape Town for the period January 1997 to December 2001. Findings suggest that although treatment demand for alcohol-related problems remains high, treatment demand for substances other than alcohol has increased over time. Patterns of treatme...

  5. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  6. SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND VIOLENCE IN CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Seekings; Kai Thaler

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable debate over the causes of violence around the world, one which goes beyond the analysis of conflict to consider the dynamics of community behavior and the importance of economic and behavioral factors. South Africa competes with Colombia, Venezuela, and a number of Central American countries for the unwelcome distinction of having among the world’s highest homicide rates, and high prevalence of other forms of violence, including domestic and sexual violence, are also app...

  7. Healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Riley

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the health needs and experiences of South African lesbian and bisexual women is imperative for implementing effective and inclusive public health strategies. Such understanding, however, is limited due to the exclusion of these women from most existing research on healthcare access in the region. This paper bridges that gap by investigating the healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town. Data were gathered from 22 interviews with self-identified lesbian and bisexual community members and university students in the Cape Town area. Interviews explored obstacles women face in accessing affirming services, different experiences with public and private healthcare, fear of stigma/discrimination, availability of relevant sexual health information and suggestions to improve existing programmes. Findings suggest that South African lesbians and bisexual women may have a range of both positive and negative experiences in public and private health services, that they use protective strategies when 'coming out' and that they find that sexual health information pertinent to them is largely unavailable. These discussions contribute to a more inclusive understanding of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare and other services and help to inform providers, thereby enabling them to deliver more meaningful care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in South Africa. PMID:25291355

  8. Changing tune in Woodstock: Creative industries and local urban development in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, a plethora of works has been published on the making of the ‘creative city’ and the urban impact of the creative economy. So far, however, limited recognition has been given to how the development of cultural industries and the creative economy as a whole influences urban transformation in the rapidly urbanising Global South, especially in Africa. In Cape Town, a steadily growing number of creative industries and ‘culturepreneurs’ (Lange 2005 are carving out new spaces from the city’s highly contested urban setting. Over the past five years, the mixed-use, inner-city fringe area of Woodstock has seen the incessant arrival of creatives from various sectors. Travelling alongside is a property sector geared towards catering specifically for the creative industries’ spatial demands by turning old industrial structures – the remains of Woodstock’s former capacity as national hub for clothing, food processing and other light manufacturing – into creative centres hosting international film studios, leading galleries and designer ‘theatre retail spaces’. After setting the stage through a comprehensive introduction to the rise of the creative economy in South Africa and Cape Town, this article tunes into the current local development of Woodstock, based on extensive field research in the area. It traces ways and forms of conflict but also new social interfaces between the new creative tenants and the old established community, on the one hand pointing to problematic issues like lingering gentrification, sociospatial polarisation and lopsided cultural representation while also trying to flesh out some of the opportunities for finding the right frequency of engagement between creative industries and spaces of vernacular creativity within Cape Town’s post-apartheid urban realm. Keywords: Creative economy, creative city, Global South, urban regeneration, gentrification, vernacular creativity

  9. Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town…

  10. From Digital Divide to Digital Equity: Learners' ICT Competence in Four Primary Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…

  11. HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Youth in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Kermyt G. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS knowledge is an important component of HIV/AIDS risk prevention strategies that may influence engagement in high risk behavior. This paper examines HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among a representative sample of 4,174 youth living in Cape Town, South Africa. Data come from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS, and include black, coloured, and white respondents ages 14-22. Using an open-ended question, respondents were asked to name ways people can protect themselves from HIV/AIDS infection. Nearly everyone could name at least one method of preventing HIV infection, and respondents named two methods on average. Condoms, abstinence, and limiting the number of sexual partners/having only one sexual partner were the most frequently named prevention methods. Multivariate analysis was used to analyze correlates of specific forms of HIV/AIDS prevention, as well as the total number of prevention methods named by each respondent. Having had sex, highest grade completed, and race were the most commonly significant correlates across models. Race interaction terms were also significant, suggesting that the significance of HIV/AIDS knowledge correlates varies across racial groups. Overall, the results suggest that more depth of knowledge about HIV/AIDS is needed among South African youth to ensure proper protection from the disease, and that HIV/AIDS education might be more successful if tailored to specific racial/ethnic groups.

  12. Correlates of substance abuse treatment completion among disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Pasche Sonja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with treatment completion among poor communities in South Africa. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted on cross-sectional survey data collected from 434 persons residing in poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa who had accessed substance abuse treatment in 2006. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that therapeutic alliance, treatment perceptions, abstinence-specific social support, and depression were significant partial predictors of treatment completion. Conclusions Findings suggest that treatment completion rates of individuals from poor South African communities can be enhanced by i improving perceptions of substance abuse treatment through introducing quality improvement initiatives into substance abuse services, ii strengthening clients' abstinence-oriented social networks and, iii strengthening the counselor-client therapeutic alliance.

  13. The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Henriëtte STEENKAMP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X based in Cape Town. Empirical research was deployed, making use of a mixed methods approach to obtain both quantitative data and qualitative data from respondents. Stemming from the findings it was found that load shedding did have an adverse influence on the productivity of staff in Hotel X, despite the fact that affordable measures were put in place to mitigate the disruptions caused by load shedding. Moreover, the latter dispensation was found to have an inadvertently adverse influence on the overall sustainability of Hotel X on the long run.

  14. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Reed E; Emanuel AN; Myers B; Johnson K; Wechsberg WM

    2013-01-01

    Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Heal...

  15. Coital frequency and condom use in monogamous and concurrent sexual relationships in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Wim Delva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results: The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3, and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively. Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions: We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent

  16. Perceived vulnerability and HIV testing among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-06-01

    The importance of perceived vulnerability to risk-reducing behaviors, including HIV testing, is fairly established, especially among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, the majority of studies that examined this important relationship used cross-sectional data that inherently assume that perceived vulnerability does not change. While these studies have been useful, the assumption of perceived vulnerability as time invariant is a major flaw and has largely limited the practical usefulness of this variable in AIDS prevention and programing. Using longitudinal data and applying random-effects logit models, this study makes a major contribution to scholarship by examining if changes in perceived vulnerability associate with a change to test for HIV among 857 young people in Cape Town, South Africa. Results show that female youth who changed their risk perceptions were more likely to also change to test for HIV, but the effects were completely attenuated after controlling for theoretically relevant variables. No significant relationships were observed for males. Also, females who were virgins at wave 2 but had sex between waves were significantly more likely to have changed to test for HIV. Of most importance was that sexual behavior eliminated the effects of change in risk perceptions suggesting that a change in perception may have occurred as a result of changes in sexual behavior. AIDS prevention programs must pay particular attention to helping youth become aware of their vulnerability to HIV risks, especially as these have implications for risk-reducing behaviors, especially for females who are burdened. PMID:25524472

  17. The psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Cluver Lucie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2 million children are parentally bereaved by AIDS in South Africa. Little is known about mental health outcomes for this group. Methods This study aimed to investigate mental health outcomes for urban children living in deprived settlements in Cape Town. 30 orphaned children and 30 matched controls were compared using standardised questionnaires (SDQ on emotional and behavioural problems, peer and attention difficulties, and prosocial behaviour. The orphan group completed a modified version of a standardised questionnaire (IES-8, measuring Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Group differences were tested using t-tests and Pearson's chi-square. Results Both groups scored highly for peer problems, emotional problems and total scores. However, orphans were more likely to view themselves as having no good friends (p = .002, to have marked concentration difficulties (p = .03, and to report frequent somatic symptoms (p = .05, but were less likely to display anger through loss of temper (p = .03. Orphans were more likely to have constant nightmares (p = .01, and 73% scored above the cut-off for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Conclusion Findings suggest important areas for larger-scale research for parentally-bereaved children.

  18. South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology: 25. Anniversary Congress, 18-22 Mar 1985, Cape Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twenty-fifth anniversary congress of the South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology was held from 18-22 March 1985 in Cape Town. The tremendous growth of nuclear energy and radiation technology in South Africa led to an increasing need for biophysicists, especially health physicists, for the application of radioisotopes and radiation as well as nuclear power, including the uranium industry. Papers delivered on the conference covered subjects like medical physics, radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation protection, the calibration of radiation monitors, radiation detectors, radiation doses and dosimetry

  19. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. → Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. → Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. → Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. → Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  20. The prevalence of refractive error in three communities of Cape Town, South Africa

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    M. Otutu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence, distribution and demographic associations of refractive error in three communities in Cape Town, South Africa were assessed. In this cross-sectional study, a clustered random sampling procedure was used to recruit participants (n=176; age=40.6±14.7 years; males=76, females=96 from Khayelitsha, Milnerton, and Mitchell’s Plain. From March to May 2010, participants underwent autore-fraction and subjective refraction eye examinations.A structured interview was used to collect data on sociodemographics, age, gender, level of education, employment and race. Participants younger than 15 years, non-residents, or residents for less than six months, who declined signing the informed consent forms were excluded from the study. In this study myopia was defined as the spherical equivalent value in the better eye of −1.00D or worse and hyperopia as the spherical equivalent value in the better eye of ≥1.00D. Astigmatism was defined as −0.50 cylinder or worse in the better eye. The prevalence of myopia was 17.4% with a 90% confidence interval (CI of 12.65-22.15, hyperopia was 13.4% (90% CI 9.13-17.67, and astigmatism was 60% (90% CI 53.86-66.14. Myopia was found to be significantly associated with race and age; while hyperopia was significantly associated with age, employment and race. The results of this study may assist in planning for eye care on district level. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(1 32-38

  1. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  2. Pulling teeth for fashion: dental modification in modern day Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedling, L J; Morris, A G

    2007-04-01

    Friedling and Morris (2005) have reported that intentional removal of incisors as a form of dental modification is relatively common in Cape Town. In this paper we further report on the style of modification and the reasons for the modification. A survey of eight adjoining areas in the northern suburbs of the Cape Town Metropole in the Western Cape was done to investigate the current prevalence of this practice. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire. Three groups of study subjects (scholars, working people and retired people) were included to gain a perspective of the community in general. The individual ages ranged from 15 to 83-years-old. A total of 2167 individuals participated in this study. Forty one percent had modified their teeth. More males (44,8%) than females (37,9%) were involved in this practice. Six "styles" of modification were identified. The removal of the upper four incisors was by far the most common modification (93,7%). There were four reported reasons for dental modification i.e. gangsterism, peer pressure, fashion and medical (dental) or accidental. More than two thirds (69,8%) of individuals with modifications also wore dentures. PMID:17612385

  3. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    OpenAIRE

    Bisset, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun') most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The batter...

  4. Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesseling Anneke C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described. Methods Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from children less than 13 years of age at Tygerberg and Red Cross Children's Hospitals, Cape Town, South Africa, were collected from March 2003 through February 2005. Folder review and chest radiography were performed and drug susceptibility tests done. Results Of 596 children (median age 31 months, 330 (55.4% were males. Of all children, 281 (47.1% were HIV-uninfected, 133 (22.3% HIV-infected and 182 (30.5% not tested. Contact with infectious tuberculosis adults was recorded in 295 (49.5% children. Missed opportunities for chemoprophylaxis were present in 117/182 (64.3% children less than 5 years of age. Extrathoracic TB was less common in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected children (49/133 vs. 156/281; odds ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.78. Alveolar opacification (84/126 vs. 128/274; OR 1.85, 95%CI 1.08–3.19 and cavitation (33/126 vs. 44/274; OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.44–3.63 were more common in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected children. Microscopy for acid-fast bacilli on gastric aspirates and sputum was positive in 29/142 (20.4% and 40/125 (32.0% children, respectively. Sixty-seven of 592 (11.3% children's isolates showed resistance to isoniazid and/or rifampicin; 43 (7.3% were isoniazid-monoresistant, 2 (0.3% rifampicin-monoresistant and 22 (3.7% multidrug-resistant. Death in 41 children (6.9% was more common in HIV-infected children and very young infants. Conclusion HIV infection and missed opportunities for chemoprophylaxis were common in children with culture-confirmed TB. With cavitating disease and sputum or gastric aspirates positive for acid-fast bacilli, children may be infectious. Transmission of drug-resistant TB is high in this setting.

  5. “Coming to Town”: The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Chyvette T.; Grier, Sonya A.; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, whi...

  6. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun' most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The battery was built because of fears of war with Russia and had been armed with two 9- inch Rifled Muzzle Loading guns by 1891. Lion Battery was remodelled in 1911.

  7. Infinity in Logic and Computation: International Conference, ILC 2007, Cape Town, South Africa, November 3-5, 2007: Revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Archibald; V. Brattka; V. Goranko; B. Löwe

    2009-01-01

    Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information, this volume constitutes a selection of papers presented at the Internatonal Conference on Infinity in Logic and Computation, ILC 2007, held in Cape Town, South Africa, in November 2007. The 7 revised papers prese

  8. Patient satisfaction with a pilot chronic pain management programme in Cape Town, South Africa

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    R. Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goals of a chronic pain management clinic includeincreasing patient knowledge about pain, developing pain management skillsand increasing patients’ confidence in their pain management abilities.A  Chronic Pain Management Programme (CPMP based on evidence basedguidelines was developed at a chronic pain management clinic to facilitatepatient discharge to a primary healthcare level. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore patient satisfaction with, acceptability of and the perceived success which could be due to the CPMP developed at the Chronic Pain Management Clinic of Groote Schuur Hospital,Cape Town.Methods: Patients (n=14 were referred to the pilot study from the Chronic Pain Management Clinic. A s a pilot, four courses were run over a period ofone year. In order to reach the research aim, an eleven-question, structuredopen-ended interview was conducted with all participants. Results: Fourteen patients enrolled in the CPMP. Responses were favourable with participants emphasising the roleof increased knowledge about pain, the role of exercise and of stress management techniques. Participants also recog-nised a positive change in behaviours and attitudes following participation in the CPMP.Conclusions: Findings suggest that participants found the format of the course acceptable as regards course content,structure and delivery. Participant responses suggest that the course was acceptable and perceived as useful. However,future courses would benefit from refresher courses or structured support groups.

  9. "Coming to town": the impact of urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and network norms on the smoking attitudes of black women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted. PMID:18563573

  10. Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap

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    Roxanne Beauclair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Concurrent partnerships (CPs have been suggested as a risk factor for transmitting HIV, but their impact on the epidemic depends upon how prevalent they are in populations, the average number of CPs an individual has and the length of time they overlap. However, estimates of prevalence of CPs in Southern Africa vary widely, and the duration of overlap in these relationships is poorly documented. We aim to characterize concurrency in a more accurate and complete manner, using data from three disadvantaged communities of Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a sexual behaviour survey (n=878 from June 2011 to February 2012 in Cape Town, using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing to collect sexual relationship histories on partners in the past year. Using the beginning and end dates for the partnerships, we calculated the point prevalence, the cumulative prevalence and the incidence rate of CPs, as well as the duration of overlap for relationships begun in the previous year. Linear and binomial regression models were used to quantify race (black vs. coloured and sex differences in the duration of overlap and relative risk of having CPs in the past year. Results: The overall point prevalence of CPs six months before the survey was 8.4%: 13.4% for black men, 1.9% for coloured men, 7.8% black women and 5.6% for coloured women. The median duration of overlap in CPs was 7.5 weeks. Women had less risk of CPs in the previous year than men (RR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.32–0.57 and black participants were more at risk than coloured participants (RR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.17–2.97. Conclusions: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners.

  11. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. PURPOSE: To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. METHOD: Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. RESULTS: Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  12. Linkage to HIV care and antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Katharina Kranzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been scaled-up rapidly in Africa. Programme reports typically focus on loss to follow-up and mortality among patients receiving ART. However, little is known about linkage and retention in care of individuals prior to starting ART. METHODOLOGY: Data on adult residents from a periurban community in Cape Town were collected at a primary care clinic and hospital. HIV testing registers, CD4 count results provided by the National Health Laboratory System and ART registers were linked. A random sample (n = 885 was drawn from adults testing HIV positive through antenatal care, sexual transmitted disease and voluntary testing and counseling services between January 2004 and March 2009. All adults (n = 103 testing HIV positive through TB services during the same time period were also included in the study. Linkage to HIV care was defined as attending for a CD4 count measurement within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Linkage to ART care was defined as initiating ART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis in individuals with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/µl taken within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. FINDINGS: Only 62.6% of individuals attended for a CD4 count measurement within 6 months of testing HIV positive. Individuals testing through sexually transmitted infection services had the best (84.1% and individuals testing on their own initiative (53.5% the worst linkage to HIV care. One third of individuals with timely CD4 counts were eligible for ART and 66.7% of those were successfully linked to ART care. Linkage to ART care was highest among antenatal care clients. Among individuals not yet eligible for ART only 46.3% had a repeat CD4 count. Linkage to HIV care improved in patients tested in more recent calendar period. CONCLUSION: Linkage to HIV and ART care was low in this poor peri-urban community despite free services available within close proximity. More efforts are needed to link VCT scale-up to subsequent care.

  13. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

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    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  14. The clinical and molecular spectrum of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town region of South Africa

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    Brown Ruth

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory and genetic features of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town metropolitan region. Methods Diagnoses were based on thin layer chromatography for galactosuria/galactosemia and assays of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT and galactokinase activities. Patients were screened for the common S135L and Q188R transferase gene mutations, using PCR-based assays. Screening for the S135L mutation in black newborns was used to estimate the carrier rate for galactosemia in black South Africans. Results A positive diagnosis of galactosemia was made in 17 patients between the years 1980 to 2001. All had very low or absent galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT activity, and normal galactokinase levels. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.1 months (range 4 days to 6.5 months. A review of 9 patients showed that hepatomegaly (9/9, and splenomegaly, failure to thrive, developmental delay, bilateral cataracts (6/9 were the most frequent features at diagnosis. Six had conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Four experienced invasive E. coli infection before diagnosis. Ten patients were submitted to DNA analysis. All 4 black patients and 2 of mixed extraction were homozygous for the S135L allele, while all 3 white patients were homozygous for the Q188R allele. The remaining patient of mixed extraction was heterozygous for the Q188R allele. The estimated carrier frequency of the S135L mutation in 725 healthy black newborns was 1/60. Conclusions In the absence of newborn screening the delay in diagnosis is most often unacceptably long. Also, carrier frequency data predict a galactosemia incidence of approximately 1/14 400 for black newborns in the Cape Metropole, which is much higher than the current detection rate. It is thus likely that many patients go undetected.

  15. Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use Predict HIV Transmission Risks: Prospective Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients, Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Simbayi, Leickness; Jooste, Sean; Vermaak, Redwaan; Cain, Demetria

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is related to HIV risk behaviors in southern Africa and these behaviors are correlated with sensation seeking personality and alcohol outcome expectancies. Here we report for the first time the associations among sensation seeking, substance use, and sexual risks in a prospective study in Africa. Sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town South Africa (157 men and 64 women) completed (a) baseline measures of sensation seeking, sexual enhancement alcohol outcome expect...

  16. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Parry Charles D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36 when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates.

  17. Development of a Compendium of Local, Wild-Harvested Species Used in the Informal Economy Trade, Cape Town, South Africa

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    Marc T. Hockings

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild harvesting has taken place over millennia in Africa. However urbanization and cash economies have effectively altered harvesting from being cultural, traditional, and subsistence activities that are part of a rural norm, to being a subculture of commonly illicit activities located primarily within the urban, cash-based, informal economy. This paper focuses on Cape Town, South Africa where high levels of poverty and extensive population growth have led to a rapidly growing informal industry based on the cultural, subsistence, and entrepreneurial harvesting and consumption of products obtained from the local natural environment. Through a process of literature reviews, database analysis, and key informant interviews, a compendium of harvested species was developed, illustrating the breadth of illicit harvesting of products from nature reserves, public open space, and other commonage within the City. The compendium records 448 locally occurring species (198 animals and 250 plants that are extracted for medicinal, energy, ornamental, sustenance, nursery, and other uses. The sustainability of harvesting is questionable; nearly 70% of all harvested flora and 100% of all collected fauna are either killed or reproductively harmed through the harvesting processes. Furthermore, for the 183 indigenous flora species currently recorded on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List, 28% (51 hold assessments ranging from Declining through to Critically Endangered. With respect to the more poorly assessed fauna (46 spp., approximately 24% (11 have Declining or Threatened status.

  18. "Nothing Is Free": A Qualitative Study of Sex Trading Among Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Kimani, Stephen M; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-05-01

    South Africa is facing an established epidemic of methamphetamine, known locally as "tik." Globally, methamphetamine has been linked to high rates of sexual risk behaviors, including sex trading. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine the experiences of sex trading among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (17 men and 13 women) recruited from the community. Interviews were conducted in local languages using a semi-structured guide that included questions on sex trading experiences and perceptions of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using analytic memos and coding with constant comparison techniques. The data revealed that in a setting of high levels of addiction and poverty, sex was an important commodity for acquiring methamphetamine. Women were more likely to use sex to acquire methamphetamine, but men reported opportunistic cases of trading sex for methamphetamine. Four models of sex trading emerged: negotiated exchange, implicit exchange, relationships based on resources, and facilitating sex exchange for others. The expectation of sex trading created a context in which sexual violence against female methamphetamine users was common. Multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use in acts of sex trading put methamphetamine users at high risk of HIV. Interventions in this setting should address addiction, which is the primary driver of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Harm reduction interventions may include education about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, availability of condoms and HIV testing, and sexual violence prevention. PMID:25567071

  19. The clinical and molecular spectrum of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town region of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brown Ruth; Leisegang Felicity; Henderson Howard; Eley Brian

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory and genetic features of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town metropolitan region. Methods Diagnoses were based on thin layer chromatography for galactosuria/galactosemia and assays of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and galactokinase activities. Patients were screened for the common S135L and Q188R transferase gene mutations, using PCR-based assays. Screening for the S135...

  20. Parental Loss and Schooling: Evidence from Metropolitan Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Cally Ardington; Murray Leibbrandt

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes use of the Cape Area Panel study (CAPS), a longitudinal study of youth and their families in metropolitan Cape Town in order to broaden the empirical body of evidence of the causal impact of parental death on children’s schooling in South Africa in two dimensions. First, analysis of CAPS allows us to examine the extent to which results may generalize across geographically and socioeconomically distinct areas. Second, CAPS allows for an explicit exploration of whether the caus...

  1. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Evalina van Wijk; Sinegugu E. Duma; Pat M. Mayers

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: W...

  2. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  3. Implementation of community-based adherence clubs for stable antiretroviral therapy patients in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Anna Grimsrud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-based models of antiretroviral therapy (ART delivery have been recommended to support ART expansion and retention in resource-limited settings. However, the evidence base for community-based models of care is limited. We describe the implementation of community-based adherence clubs (CACs at a large, public-sector facility in peri-urban Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Starting in May 2012, stable ART patients were down-referred from the primary care community health centre (CHC to CACs. Eligibility was based on self-reported adherence, >12 months on ART and viral suppression. CACs were facilitated by four community health workers and met every eight weeks for group counselling, a brief symptom screen and distribution of pre-packed ART. The CACs met in community venues for all visits including annual blood collection and clinical consultations. CAC patients could send a patient-nominated treatment supporter (“buddy” to collect their ART at alternate CAC visits. Patient outcomes [mortality, loss to follow-up and viral rebound (>1000 copies/ml] during the first 18 months of the programme are described using Kaplan–Meier methods. Results and Discussion: From June 2012 to December 2013, 74 CACs were established, each with 25–30 patients, providing ART to 2133 patients. CAC patients were predominantly female (71% and lived within 3 km of the facility (70%. During the analysis period, 9 patients in a CAC died (<0.1%, 53 were up-referred for clinical complications (0.3% and 573 CAC patients sent a buddy to at least one CAC visit (27%. After 12 months in a CAC, 6% of patients were lost to follow-up and fewer than 2% of patients retained experienced viral rebound. Conclusions: Over a period of 18 months, a community-based model of care was rapidly implemented decentralizing more than 2000 patients in a high-prevalence, resource-limited setting. The fundamental challenge for this out of facility model was ensuring that

  4. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Reed E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; 7Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, NC, USA Objectives: To examine qualitatively how women's social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women's Health CoOp were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women's CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women's social action (eg, educating peers or family members in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women's descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women's substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results: Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants and social action (eg, engaging others in the

  5. The Impact of Densification by Means of Informal Shacks in the Backyards of Low-Cost Houses on the Environment and Service Delivery in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Thashlin Govender; Barnes, Jo M.; Clarissa H. Pieper

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the state-sponsored low cost housing provided to previously disadvantaged communities in the City of Cape Town. The strain imposed on municipal services by informal densification of unofficial backyard shacks was found to create unintended public health risks. Four subsidized low-cost housing communities were selected within the City of Cape Town in this cross-sectional survey. Data was obtained from 1080 persons with a response rate of 100%. Illegal electrical connect...

  6. Outcome of patients with primary immune-complex type mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN in Cape Town South Africa.

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    Ikechi G Okpechi

    Full Text Available Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN is a common cause of chronic kidney disease in developing countries. Data on the renal outcome of patients with idiopathic MCGN is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the outcome of patients with idiopathic MCGN presenting to the Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH Renal Unit in Cape Town.A retrospective study of patients with idiopathic MCGN followed up at our clinic. Seventy-nine patients with no identifiable cause of MCGN were included for analysis. A composite renal outcome of persistent doubling of serum creatinine or end stage renal disease (ESRD was used. Kaplan Meier survival and Cox regression analysis were used to assess survival and identify factors predicting the outcome.The mean age at biopsy was 33.9±13.6 years and 41.8% were black. Mean duration of follow up was 13.5±18.8 months. Twenty-three patients (34.2% reached the composite endpoint. Overall, median renal survival was 38.7±11.7 months (95% CI 15.7-61.8 with 2-year and 5-year renal survival of 61% and 40.3% respectively. No significant difference was found for renal survival between males and females, treatment or non-treatment with immunosuppression, presence or absence of crescents or histological type of MCGN (p>0.05. On univariate Cox-regression analysis, factors found to be associated with the outcome were the estimated glomerular filtration rate at biopsy (OR 0.97 [95%CI: 0.95-0.99], p<0.0001, black race (OR 3.03 [95%CI: 1.27-7.21], p = 0.012 and presence of interstitial fibrosis in the biopsy (OR 2.64 [95%CI: 1.07-6.48], p = 0.034. Age, systolic blood pressure and attaining complete or partial remission approached significant values with the endpoint.The outcome of idiopathic MCGN in Cape Town is poor and requires further prospective studies to improve our understanding of this common disease.

  7. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Nelia P.; Jaffer, Nasreen; Nel, Johanna; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Lombard, Carl; Peer, Nasheeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E)) and women (33.4%E) in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E) while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E) than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E) while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01) in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016), saturated fat (p = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002) and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046). Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001). Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers. PMID:27187459

  8. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

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    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  9. A multi-level analysis of risk perception, poverty and sexual risk-taking among young people in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Rajulton, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have underscored the relevance of community-level factors to sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in Africa. However, there is a paucity of research and theorizing in this area compared to the preponderance of prevention models that focus solely on individual-level factors. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey and hierarchical linear models, this study examines the effects of a combination of individual-level factors and community-level poverty on sexual behaviors. Male and female respondents who perceived themselves to be at great risk of HIV infection were less likely to indulge in risky sexual behaviors. For females, race and community-level poverty were confounded such that race mediated the effects of community-level poverty. Results from this study indicate that multiple rationalities affect sexual behaviors in Cape Town, South Africa and that there is a need to consider both the social embeddedness of sexual behaviors and the rational components of decision making when designing HIV/AIDS prevention programs. PMID:21195013

  10. Living in Low-Cost Housing Settlements in Cape Town, South Africa—The Epidemiological Characteristics Associated with Increased Health Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Govender, Thashlin; Barnes, Jo M.; Clarissa H. Pieper

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a representative sample of subsidized low-cost housing communities in the City of Cape Town in relation to their living conditions and their health status. Four subsidized low-cost housing communities were selected within the City of Cape Town in this cross-sectional survey. Structured interviews were administered in 336 dwellings on 173 plots. Data was obtained from 1,080 persons with a response rate of 100%. Almost a...

  11. Age-disparity, sexual connectedness and HIV infection in disadvantaged communities around Cape Town, South Africa: a study protocol

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    Aerts Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucial connections between sexual network structure and the distribution of HIV remain inadequately understood, especially in regard to the role of concurrency and age disparity in relationships, and how these network characteristics correlate with each other and other risk factors. Social desirability bias and inaccurate recall are obstacles to obtaining valid, detailed information about sexual behaviour and relationship histories. Therefore, this study aims to use novel research methods in order to determine whether HIV status is associated with age-disparity and sexual connectedness as well as establish the primary behavioural and socio-demographic predictors of the egocentric and community sexual network structures. Method/Design We will conduct a cross-sectional survey that uses a questionnaire exploring one-year sexual histories, with a focus on timing and age disparity of relationships, as well as other risk factors such as unprotected intercourse and the use of alcohol and recreational drugs. The questionnaire will be administered in a safe and confidential mobile interview space, using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI technology on touch screen computers. The ACASI features a choice of languages and visual feedback of temporal information. The survey will be administered in three peri-urban disadvantaged communities in the greater Cape Town area with a high burden of HIV. The study communities participated in a previous TB/HIV study, from which HIV test results will be anonymously linked to the survey dataset. Statistical analyses of the data will include descriptive statistics, linear mixed-effects models for the inter- and intra-subject variability in the age difference between sexual partners, survival analysis for correlated event times to model concurrency patterns, and logistic regression for association of HIV status with age disparity and sexual connectedness. Discussion This study design is

  12. A social network typology and sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voux, Alex; Baral, Stefan D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Beyrer, Chris; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Winskell, Kate; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in South Africa, very little is known about their lived realities, including their social and sexual networks. Given the influence of social network structure on sexual risk behaviours, a better understanding of the social contexts of men who have sex with men is essential for informing the design of HIV programming and messaging. This study explored social network connectivity, an understudied network attribute, examining self-reported connectivity between friends, family and sex partners. Data were collected in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa, from 78 men who have sex with men who participated in in-depth interviews that included a social network mapping component. Five social network types emerged from the content analysis of these social network maps based on the level of connectivity between family, friends and sex partners, and ranged from disconnected to densely connected networks. The ways in which participants reported sexual risk-taking differed across the five network types, revealing diversity in social network profiles. HIV programming and messaging for this population can greatly benefit from recognising the diversity in lived realities and social connections between men who have sex with men. PMID:26569376

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Bronwyn Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol and other drug (AOD use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305 met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225 were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83% found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel.

  14. Comanagement at the Fringes: Examining Stakeholder Perspectives at Macassar Dunes, Cape Town, South Africa--at the Intersection of High Biodiversity, Urban Poverty, and Inequality

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    M. Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, co-management provides a fruitful way to engage local residents in efforts to conserve and manage particular spaces of ecological value. However, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation in particular, are faced with novel sets of complexities in the rapidly urbanizing areas of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the nexus between an apartheid past, informal settlements, remnant biodiversity patches, and urban poverty. Departing from such a dynamic social and ecological context, this article first provides an historical account of the decade-long comanagement process at Macassar Dunes, and then considers, through stakeholder perceptions, what are the successes and failures of the contested process. We find that comanagement at Macassar Dunes faces serious legitimacy, trust, and commitment issues, but also that stakeholders find common ground on education and awareness-raising activities. In conclusion we argue that the knowledge generated from case studies like this is useful in challenging and rethinking natural resource management theory generally, but specifically it is useful for the growing cities of the Global South. More case studies and a deeper engagement are needed with geographical theories on the “urban fringe” as “possibility space”, to help build a firm empirical base for theorizing comanagement “at the fringes”, i.e., at the intersection of poverty, socioeconomic inequality, and high biodiversity and ecological values.

  15. Cape Town: Negotiating the Public in the Neoliberal City

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, Sharone

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of apartheid, South Africa’s economic policies and governance models have become increasingly neoliberal. The concern of this paper is how those policies and governmental modalities play out and shape the city of Cape Town. The paper utilizes the analytic of ‘public’ to examine how a formerly apartheid city has been remade – and contested – as a neoliberal city. The analytic of public is employed as a ‘terrain’, across which neoliberal policies, privatizing practices, calls for ...

  16. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...... ‘differentiated citizenship’. Such differentiated citizenship is opposed to the universal inclusivity promised by post-apartheid South Africa. By exploring the specific merging of security and development in the Capetonian war on gangs as compared to counterinsurgency and the subsequent reconfiguration of...... citizenship, I am able to address a central question: How — and with what consequences — does power maintain itself when faced with an onslaught from those that it restricts to the margins of institutions and social life?...

  17. Health promotion services for patients having non-comminicable diseases: Feedback from patients and health care providers in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Parker Whadi-ah; Steyn Nelia P; Levitt Naomi S; Lombard Carl J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to a paucity of data regarding the availability and efficacy of equipment, health promotion methods and materials currently used by health professionals for the management of patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at primary health care (PHC) facilities in Cape Town, an audit was undertaken. Methods A multi-centre cross-sectional study was undertaken to interview patients (n = 580) with NCDs at 30 PHC facilities. A questionnaire was used to obtain information o...

  18. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan G.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  19. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootker, Lisette M; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  20. Constructing Ambiguous Identities: Negotiating Race, Respect and Social Change in 'Coloured' Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hammett, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    South African social relations in the second decade of democracy remain framed by race. Spatial and social lived realities, the continued importance of belonging – to feel part of a community, mean that identifying as ‘coloured’ in South Africa continues to be contested, fluid and often ambiguous. This thesis considers the changing social location of ‘coloured’ teachers through the narratives of former and current teachers and students. Education is used as a site through which to explore the...

  1. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in young children in Cape Town, South Africa, measured by medication return and caregiver self-report: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttall James

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART dramatically improves outcomes for children in Africa; however excellent adherence is required for treatment success. This study describes the utility of different measures of adherence in detecting lapses in infants and young children in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods In a prospective cohort of 122 HIV-infected children commenced on ART, adherence was measured monthly during the first year of treatment by medication return (MR for both syrups and tablets/capsules. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers after 3 months of treatment to assess experience with giving medication and self-reported adherence. Viral and immune response to treatment were assessed at the end of one year and associations with measured adherence determined. Results Medication was returned for 115/122 (94% children with median age (IQR of 37 (16 – 61 months. Ninety-one (79% children achieved annual average MR adherence ≥ 90%. This was an important covariate associated with viral suppression after adjustment for disease severity (OR = 5.5 [95%CI: 0.8–35.6], p = 0.075, however was not associated with immunological response to ART. By 3 months on ART, 13 (10% children had deceased and 11 (10% were lost to follow-up. Questionnaires were completed by 87/98 (90% of caregivers of those who remained in care. Sensitivity of poor reported adherence (missing ≥ 1 dose in the previous 3 days for MR adherence Conclusion Excellent adherence to ART is possible in African infants and young children and the relatively simple low technology measure of adherence by MR strongly predicts viral response. Better socio-economic status and more palatable regimens are associated with better adherence.

  2. Exploring repeat HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Siegler, Aaron J.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; de Voux, Alex; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stefan D Baral; Winskell, Kate; Kose, Zamakayise; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Brown, Ben; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) – and the general adult population – in South Africa, there is little data regarding the extent to which MSM seek repeat testing for HIV. This study explores reported histories of HIV testing, and the rationales for test seeking, among a purposive sample of 34 MSM in two urban areas of South Africa. MSM participated in activity-based in-depth interviews that included a timeline element to facilitate discussion. Repeat HI...

  3. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Uimonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public screens, followed by live music performances and narrowcast interaction with the audience. Building on recent research on public screens during global media events, this article addresses the mediated mourning rituals at the Grand Parade in terms of a sacred drama. Focusing on social relationality, the article discusses how digital visuality mediated a sense of global communitas, thus momentarily overcoming historical frictions between the global north and the global south, while expanding the fame of Madiba. Paying attention to the public display of visual memory objects and the emotional agency of images, it argues that digital visuality mediated social frictions between the living and the dead, while recasting a historical subject as a historical object. The article further discusses how digital visuality mediated cultural frictions of apartheid and xenophobia, through the positioning of Mandela in the pantheon of Pan-African icons, thus underlining the African origin of this global icon. The analysis is based on ethnographic observations and experiences in Cape Town.

  4. Does identity shape leadership and management practice? Experiences of PHC facility managers in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Daire, Judith; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere, Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities are managed by professional nurses. Little is known about the dimensions and challenges of their job, or what influences their managerial practice. Drawing on leadership and organizational theory, this study explored what the job of being a PHC manager entails, and what factors influence their managerial practice. We specifically considered whether the appointment of professional nurses as facility managers leads to an identi...

  5. Marine and underwater cultural heritage management, Robben Island, Cape Town, South Africa : current state and future opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, Johanna Louise, 1989-

    2014-01-01

    Defined as “all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water” by UNESCO, Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) sites are often critical for the understanding of local and international history. Increasing interest in UCH calls for more effective solutions to management challenges. These sites can be seen as common assets, with great potential for knowledge sharing and public enjoyment. Robben Island, South Af...

  6. Adherence barriers and facilitators for cervical screening amongst currently disadvantaged women in the greater Cape Town region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle De Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa cervical cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer amongst women, and black African women have the highest risk of developing this disease. Unfortunately, the majority of South African women do not adhere to recommended regular cervical screening.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions, experiences and knowledge regarding cervical screening of disadvantaged women in two informal settlements in South African urban areas.Method: The Health Belief Model (HBM provided a theoretical framework for this study. Four focus groups (n = 21 were conducted, using questions derived from the HBM, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The ages of the women who participated ranged from 21 to 53 years.Results: The analysis revealed lack of knowledge about screening as a key structural barrier to treatment. Other structural barriers were: time, age at which free screening is available, and health education. The psychosocial barriers that were identified included: fear of the screening procedure and of the stigmatisation in attending screening. The presence of physical symptoms, the perception that screening provides symptom relief, HIV status, and the desire to know one’s physical health status were identified as facilitators of cervical screening adherence.Conclusion: This knowledge has the potential to inform healthcare policy and services in South Africa. As globalisation persists and individuals continue to immigrate or seek refugee status in foreign countries, increased understanding and knowledge is required for successful acculturation and integration. Developed countries may therefore also benefit from research findings in developing countries.

  7. Gender-based Violence, Alcohol use, and Sexual Risk Among Female Patrons of Drinking Venues in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim o...

  8. Job Satisfaction among Pharmaceutical Sales force in South Africa – A Case with Special Reference to Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar SINGH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is an attitude that employees have about their work and is based on numerous factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individual. Job satisfaction is important from the perspective of maintaining and retaining the appropriate employees within the organization, it is about fitting the right person to the right job in the right culture and keeping them satisfied. Job satisfaction at salesforce level has become a topic of growing concern since significant proportion of marketing budgets, especially in harmaceutical industry of South Africa, is spent on them to achieve the assigned targets in the circular market. Although a large number of studies have been conducted to investigate job satisfaction in diverse range of the cultures, subjects and occupations yet none has attempted to explore the impact of job content and context factors on the job satisfaction among pharmaceutical salespersons in South Africa. Thus, the current study intends to determine the variance in salespersons’ overall job satisfaction through job content and context factors as a whole. This study also extends the total repercussion on the sales persons and their satisfaction level that cement the good will of the company and personal upliftment.

  9. Socio-economic conditions, young men and violence in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Thaler

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the drivers of male perpetration of violence against adult family members and intimate partners in Cape Town, South Africa. Data on 1,369 young men from the Cape Area Panel Study are analyzed and significant causal pathways are examined for the full sample and for disaggregated samples of African and coloured respondents. Socioeconomic disadvantage plays a role in a culture of patriarchal violence, but its effects are largely mediated by behavioural factors such as routine...

  10. Two remarkable new species of Penicillata (Diplopoda, Polyxenida) from Table Mountain National Park (Cape Town, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy-Jacquemin, Monique Nguyen; Uys, Charmaine; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the families Polyxenidae and Synxenidae, are described from Table Mountain National Park, South Africa. Propolyxenus squamatussp. n. (Polyxenidae) has tergites I-X mostly covered by scale-shaped trichomes directed caudally, a character previously known only in Synxenidae. The structure of scale-shaped dorsal trichomes is different to that of the scales in Phryssonotus and Condexenus species. Phryssonotus brevicapensissp. n. (Synxenidae) is the only known species of the genus Phryssonotus having 11 tergites, (including collum and telson) and 15 pairs of legs, as in Condexenus biramipalpus Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin, 2006. These two species therefore appear to occupy an intermediate position between Phryssonotus (12 tergites) and Polyxenoidea (maximum of 11 tergites). PMID:22303097

  11. Two remarkable new species of Penicillata (Diplopoda, Polyxenida from Table Mountain National Park (Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nguyen Duy - Jacquemin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the families Polyxenidae and Synxenidae, are described from Table Mountain National Park, South Africa. Propolyxenus squamatus sp. n. (Polyxenidae has tergites I–X mostly covered by scale–shaped trichomes directed caudally, a character previously known only in Synxenidae. The structure of scale–shaped dorsal trichomes is different to that of the scales in Phryssonotus and Condexenus species. Phryssonotus brevicapensis sp. n. (Synxenidae is the only known species of the genus Phryssonotus11 tergites, (including collum and telson and 15 pairs of legs, as in Condexenus biramipalpus Nguyen Duy–Jacquemin, 2006. These two species therefore appear to occupy an intermediate position between Phryssonotus (12 tergites and Polyxenoidea (maximum of 11 tergites.

  12. Gender attitudes, sexual violence, and HIV/AIDS risks among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Kaufman, Michelle; Cain, Demetria; Cherry, Chauncey; Jooste, Sean; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2005-11-01

    This study examined gender attitudes and sexual violence-supportive beliefs (rape myths) in a sample of South African men and women at risk for HIV transmission. Over 40% of women and 16% of men had been sexually assaulted, and more than one in five men openly admitted to having perpetrated sexual assault. Traditional attitudes toward women's social and gender roles, as well as rape myths, were endorsed by a significant minority of both men and women. Multivariate analyses showed that for men, sexual assault history and rape myth acceptance, along with alcohol and other drug use history, were significantly related to cumulative risks for HIV infection. In contrast, although we found that women were at substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, women's risks were only related to lower levels of education and alcohol use history. We speculate that women's risks for STI/HIV are the product of partner characteristics and male-dominated relationships, suggesting the critical importance of intervening with men to reduce women's risks for sexual assault and STI/HIV. PMID:19827234

  13. Correlates of emotional and behavioural problems in children with perinatally acquired HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Kerry-Ann; Ipser, Jonathan; Phillips, Nicole; Hoare, Jacqueline

    2016-07-01

    In the antiretroviral era, youth perinatally infected with HIV (PHIV+) are surviving into adulthood and are at risk for emotional and behavioural problems. Few studies of these problems have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries and even fewer in sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to provide a quantitative description of emotional and behavioural problems in a group of PHIV+ youth (n = 78) in South Africa compared with a group of demographically matched HIV-negative controls (n = 30) and to identify correlates of emotional and behavioural problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted employing participants from community and hospital-based clinics. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Several measures were used to assess demographic, biological, cognitive and contextual correlates of problem behaviours. Youth were compared by HIV status on demographic, cognitive and contextual variables as well as the Total Problems and subscale scores of the CBCL. Multivariate comparisons of the influence of contextual and cognitive variables on CBCL Total Problems scores were performed using a stepwise linear regression analytic procedure. In this study, there were no significant differences in between-group comparisons for the prevalence of Internalizing, Externalizing and Total Problems in the PHIV+ youth and control group at the clinical and borderline cut-off ranges of the CBCL. Caregiver depression was the only significant predictor of greater Total Problems scores in the full model, after controlling for age and gender (F = 8.57, df = 5.102, P < .01). An interaction between HIV status and caregiver depression was observed (t = -2.20, P = .03), with follow-up within-group analyses confirming that caregiver depression predicted greater Total Problems scores both in HIV-negative youth (β = 0.61, P < .001), and to a lesser extent, in HIV-positive youth (

  14. Living in low-cost housing settlements in cape town, South Africa-the epidemiological characteristics associated with increased health vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Thashlin; Barnes, Jo M; Pieper, Clarissa H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a representative sample of subsidized low-cost housing communities in the City of Cape Town in relation to their living conditions and their health status. Four subsidized low-cost housing communities were selected within the City of Cape Town in this cross-sectional survey. Structured interviews were administered in 336 dwellings on 173 plots. Data was obtained from 1,080 persons with a response rate of 100%. Almost all of the state-subsidized houses had one or more shacks in the backyard, increasing the occupation density and putting the municipal sanitation infrastructure under pressure. In 40% of main houses, one or more cases of diarrhea were reported during the two weeks preceding the survey, in contrast to 23% of shacks (p cost housing in this study. The health vulnerability of individuals in these communities had considerable implications for the curative health services. Sanitation failures, infectious disease pressure, and environmental pollution in these communities represent a serious public health risk. The densification caused by backyard shacks, in addition, has municipal service implications and needs to be better managed. Urgent intervention is needed to allow the state-funded housing schemes to deliver the improved health that was envisaged at its inception. PMID:21108010

  15. Morphological modelling of the response to a shipwreck - A case study at Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Fredsoe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf;

    2012-01-01

    A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport with a...

  16. Azanian: Zandi Zwane Talks about Being Black, Lesbian, and Activist in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina

    2006-01-01

    Zandi Zwane is a media activist and educator living and working in Cape Town, South Africa. She identifies herself as Black, Nguni, lesbian, female--and "Azanian: a term that was created in pre-colonial times by the members of the Black Consciousness Movement in resistance to colonialism." In this interview, Zwane explores the intersectionality of…

  17. Substance use, gender inequity, violence and sexual risk among couples in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Wendee M. Wechsberg; Myers, Bronwyn; Reed, Elizabeth; Carney, Tara; Emanuel, Andrea; Browne, Felicia A

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug use, gender power inequities, and violence are key contributors to sexual risks for HIV among South African men and women. Little is known about the intersection of these sex-risk behaviours among couples in established heterosexual relationships. We conducted 10 focus groups discussions with men and women in relationships of one year or longer recruited from shebeens (informal taverns)in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants described high levels of alcohol consumption...

  18. The Cape Town science centre : a comprehensive business plan / Christian Rudolph Faure

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Christian Rudolph

    1999-01-01

    This business plan describes the activities and projected financial operation of the Futropolis, a new science and technology centre to be located at Century City, Cape Town. The Futropolis is the first of a network of science and technology centres that will be established by MTN in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa with the aim of increasing the techno-literacy of all South Africans. The Directors and Financial Managers of science centres and theme parks throughout the ...

  19. 'When you visit a man you should prepare yourself': male community care worker approaches to working with men living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Caring is typically constructed as a feminised practice, resulting in women shouldering the burden of care-related work. Health-seeking behaviours are also constructed as feminine and men have poorer health outcomes globally. Employing men as carers may not only improve the health of the men they assist but also be transformative with regards to gendered constructions of caring. Using semi-structured interviews and observational home visits, this study explored the techniques that community care workers employ when working with male clients. The empirical analysis draws on the perspectives of eight care workers and three of their male clients from the Cape Town area. Interviews reveal how care workers and clients perform and negotiate masculinities as they navigate hegemonic masculine norms that require men to act tough, suppress emotions and deny weakness and sickness. Both parties bump up against ideals of what it means to be a man as they strive to provide care and receive support. Community care workers avoid rupturing client performances of hegemonic masculinities which inhibit confession and support. To do this, they use techniques of indirectly broaching sensitive subjects, acting in a friendly way and being clear about the intention of their work. PMID:26967538

  20. Retóricas ambivalentes: ressentimentos e negociações em contextos de sociabilidade juvenil na Cidade do Cabo (África do Sul Ambivalent rhetorics: resentment and negotiation in youth sociability contexts in Cape Town (South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moutinho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre um conjunto de questões relativas ao racismo, à sexualidade e ao contato intercultural na África do Sul, mais especificamente em Cape Town. Esta cidade, que já foi reconhecida como democrática, com expressiva população coloured e gay friendly se apresenta atualmente como uma das mais desiguais da África do Sul pós- apartheid. Percorremos trajetórias de homens e mulheres homo e heterossexuais, de diferentes raças e regiões, no sentido de abrir a escuta para suas experiências, dar inteligibilidade a seus campos de negociação e qualificar formas ressemantizadas de exclusão. Objetiva-se analisar uma nova e relativamente recente sensibilidade social advinda com a "rainbow"nation" - a experiência de mistura em sua articulação com marcadores sociais da diferença.The goal of this article is to reflect upon a series of questions concerning racism, sexuality and intercultural contact in South Africa and, specifically, Cape Town. The city, once acclaimed as democratic, with an expressive colored and gay-friendly population, has recently been (represented as one of the most unequal cities of post-apartheid South Africa. Here, we follow the life trajectories of some men and women, both homo- and heterosexual, of different races and regions, listening to their experiences in order to reveal their fields of negotiation and to thus qualify some re-signified forms of exclusion. Specifically, our objective is to analyze a new and relatively recent social sensibility arising within the "rainbow nation" (the experience of admixture in intersectionality with distinct social difference markers that does not necessarily imply sexual-affective inter-racial dating.

  1. The nature of social integration in post-apartheid Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Lemanski, Charlotte; Dr Tony Lemon

    2006-01-01

    This research considers the nature of social integration between individuals living in desegregated neighbourhoods in post-apartheid Cape Town. Social integration is understood as a dynamic process between individuals from apartheid's different racial classifications as opposed to the common emphasis in the literature on the static outcome of a neighbourhood being integrated. The research was based on both quantitative and qualitative methods. A quantitative analysis of South ...

  2. Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental investment and associational membership with reported condom use at first and most recent sexual intercourse, net of effects of HIV knowledge, age, educatio...

  3. A high burden of hypertension in the urban black population of Cape Town: the cardiovascular risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, associations and management of hypertension in the 25-74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the change between 1990 and 2008/09 in 25-64-year-olds. METHODS: In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined by administered questionnaires, clinical measurements and fasting biochemical analyses. Logistic regression models evaluated the associations with hypertension. RESULTS: There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86% in 2008/09. Age-standardised hypertension prevalence was 38.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 35.6-42.3 with similar rates in men and women. Among 25-64-year-olds, hypertension prevalence was significantly higher in 2008/09 (35.6%, 95% CI: 32.3-39.0 than in 1990 (21.6%, 95% CI: 18.6-24.9. In 2008/09, hypertension odds increased with older age, family history of hypertension, higher body mass index, problematic alcohol intake, physical inactivity and urbanisation. Among hypertensive participants, significantly more women than men were detected (69.5% vs. 32.7%, treated (55.7% vs. 21.9% and controlled (32.4% vs. 10.4% in 2008/09. There were minimal changes from 1990 except for improved control in 25-64-year-old women (1990∶14.1% vs. 2008/09∶31.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high and rising hypertension burden in this population, its association with modifiable risk factors and the sub-optimal care provided highlight the urgent need to prioritise hypertension management. Innovative solutions with efficient and cost-effective healthcare delivery as well as population-based strategies are required.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in landfill leachate in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P; Olujimi, Olanrewaju O

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the concentrations of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners as well as BB 153 in leachate samples collected from three landfill sites within the city of Cape Town was conducted. A liquid-liquid extraction technique was employed for the isolation of all the target compounds from the leachate samples. Extracts obtained were further subjected to multi-layer column chromatography employing different forms of silica gel. The prepared samples were analysed using a high capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-μECD). The overall mean concentrations of the total PBDEs, including BDE 209 ranged between 5.65 and 2,240, 0.28-20.5 and 1.66-1,170 ng/l for Bellville, Coastal Park, and Vissershok landfill sites, respectively. The mean concentrations of BB 153, which were generally low in most of the samples analysed, were 70.4, 7.14 and 8.16 ng/l for Bellville, Coastal Park and Vissershok sites, respectively. The influence of precipitation on the characteristics and quantity of leachate produced from the landfill sites investigated was most pronounced during the August/September sampling regime. Generally, the trend observed in this study clearly indicated a wide variation in the levels of these contaminants in all the landfill sites studied from one sampling period to the other. However, the principal component analysis revealed that the release of these contaminants might be associated with two or three possible sources. This study further confirmed the relevance of landfill leachate as an important source of PBDE contamination of the environment, especially the groundwater and surface water sources. PMID:22350446

  5. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Uimonen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public s...

  6. The first human heart transplant and further advances in cardiac transplantation at Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Johan G; Hassoulas, Joannis

    2009-01-01

    Summary Summary Christiaan (Chris) Barnard was born in 1922 and qualified in medicine at the University of Cape Town in 1946. Following surgical training in South Africa and the USA, Barnard established a successful open-heart surgery programme at Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town in 1958. In 1967, he led the team that performed the world’s first human-to-human heart transplant. The article describing this remarkable achievement was published in the South African Medical ...

  7. A Cross Sectional Analysis of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rebe

    Full Text Available Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI transmission. Asymptomatic STIs are common in MSM and remain undiagnosed and untreated where syndromic management is advocated. Untreated STIs could be contributing to high HIV rates. This study investigated symptomatic (SSTI and asymptomatic STIs (ASTIs in MSM in Cape Town.MSM, 18 years and above, were enrolled into this study. Participants underwent clinical and microbiological screening for STIs. Urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swab specimens were collected for STI analysis, and blood for HIV and syphilis screening. A psychosocial and sexual questionnaire was completed. STI specimens were analysed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection.200 MSM were recruited with a median age of 32 years (IQR 26-39.5. Their median number of sex partners within the last year was 5 (IQR 2-20. 155/200 (78% reported only male sex partners while 45/200 (23% reported sex with men and women. 77/200 (39% reported transactional sex. At enrolment, 88/200 (44% were HIV positive and 8/112 (7% initially HIV-negative participants seroconverted during the study. Overall, 47/200 (24% screened positive for either NG or CT. There were 32 MSM (16% infected with NG and 7 (3.5% of these men had NG infections at two anatomical sites (39 NG positive results in total. Likewise, there were 23 MSM (12% infected with CT and all these men had infections at only one site. Eight of the 47 men (17% were infected with both NG and CT. ASTI was more common than SSTI irrespective of anatomical site, 38 /200 (19% versus 9/200 (5% respectively (p<0.001. The anus was most commonly affected, followed by the oro-pharynx and then urethra. Asymptomatic infection was associated with transgender identity (OR 4.09 CI 1.60-5.62, ≥5 male sex partners in the last year (OR 2.50 CI 1.16-5.62 and transactional sex (OR 2.33 CI 1.13-4.79 but not with HIV infection.Asymptomatic STI was

  8. Health promotion services for patients having non-comminicable diseases: Feedback from patients and health care providers in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Whadi-ah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to a paucity of data regarding the availability and efficacy of equipment, health promotion methods and materials currently used by health professionals for the management of patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs at primary health care (PHC facilities in Cape Town, an audit was undertaken. Methods A multi-centre cross-sectional study was undertaken to interview patients (n = 580 with NCDs at 30 PHC facilities. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on preferences for health promotion methods for lifestyle modification. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with selected health professionals (n = 14 and captured using a digital recorder. Data were transferred to the Atlas ti software programme and analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Blood pressure measurement (97.6% was the most common diagnostic test used, followed by weight measurement (88.3%, urine (85.7% and blood glucose testing (80.9%. Individual lifestyle modification counselling was the preferred health education method of choice for the majority of patients. Of the 64% of patients that selected chronic clubs/support groups as a method of choice, only a third rated this as their first choice. Pamphlets, posters and workshops/group counselling sessions were the least preferred methods with only 9%, 13% and 11% of patients choosing these as their first choice, respectively. In an individual counselling setting 44.7% of patients reported that they would prefer to be counselled by a doctor, followed by a nurse (16.9%, health educator (8.8% and nutrition advisor (4.8%. Health professionals identified numerous barriers to education and counselling. These can be summarised as a lack of resources, including time, space and equipment; staff-related barriers such as staff shortage and staff turnover; and patient-related barriers such as patient load and patient non-compliance. Conclusion The majority of patients

  9. The Saluting Battery at the Castle of Good Hope Cape Town 1910-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the guns of the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town never fired a shot in anger, they often fired salutes in honour of Royalty (the King's Birthday, visiting heads of state and warships, Union Day (a salute of 19 guns in 1931 and on other appropriate occasions. The subject of this article is the Saluting Battery on Katzenellenbogen Bastion at the Castle which was operational from about 1910 until about 1942. In 1912 the Castle was the only authorized saluting station in the Union of South Africa. The battery was manned by personnel of the Royal Garrison Artillery until it was taken over by South Africa in 1921.

  10. Racial Desegregation and the Institutionalisation of "Race" in University Governance: The Case of the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luescher, Thierry M.

    2009-01-01

    The racial desegregation of the student bodies of historically white universities in South Africa has had significant political implications for student politics and university governance. I discuss two key moments in the governance history of the University of Cape Town (UCT) critically. The first involves the experience of racial parallelism in…

  11. E-Powering the People: South Africa's Smart Cape Access Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This document examines the launch of the Smart Cape Access Project in Cape Town, South Africa. In a city where more than 80 percent of the citizens do not have access to computers and fewer still can access the Internet, public officials set out to build a "smart city," where "informed people could connect to the world and to each other by the…

  12. Can Cape Town's unique biodiversity be saved? Balancing conservation imperatives and development needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wood

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is an urban hotspot within the Cape Floristic Region global biodiversity hotspot. This city of 2,460 km² encompasses four local centers of fynbos plant endemism, 19 national terrestrial vegetation types (six endemic to the city, wetland and coastal ecosystems, and 190 endemic plant species. Biodiversity in the lowlands is under threat of extinction as a result of habitat loss to agriculture, urban development, mining, and degradation by invasive alien plants. Cape Town's population is 3.7 million, increasing by an estimated 55,000 people/yr, which puts pressure on biodiversity remnants for development. South Africa is a signatory to international instruments to reduce biodiversity loss and has a good legislative and policy framework to conserve biodiversity, yet implementation actions are slow, with limited national and provincial support to conserve Cape Town's unique and irreplaceable biodiversity. The lack-of-action problem is two-fold: national government is slow to implement the policies developed to realize the international instruments it has signed, with conservation initiatives inadequately funded; and local governments are not yet recognized as important implementation partners. A further problem is created by conflicting policies such as the national housing policy that contributes to urban sprawl and loss of critical biodiversity areas. The City's Biodiversity Management Branch, with partners, is making some headway at implementation, but stronger political commitment is needed at all levels of government. Our objective is to improve the status and management of biodiversity in existing conservation areas through the statutory proclamation process and management effectiveness monitoring, respectively, and to secure priority areas of the BioNet, Cape Town's systematic biodiversity plan. The most important tools for the latter are incorporating the BioNet plan into City spatial plans; communication, education, and public

  13. Factors impacting knowledge and use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods by postpartum HIV positive and negative women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Credé Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women is a neglected strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Women who want to avoid unintended pregnancies can do this by using a modern contraceptive method. Contraceptive choice, in particular the use of long acting and permanent methods (LAPMs, is poorly understood among HIV-positive women. This study aimed to compare factors that influence women's choice in contraception and women's knowledge and attitudes towards the IUD and female sterilization by HIV-status in a high HIV prevalence setting, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire amongst 265 HIV positive and 273 HIV-negative postpartum women in Cape Town. Contraceptive use, reproductive history and the future fertility intentions of postpartum women were compared using chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests where appropriate. Women's knowledge and attitudes towards long acting and permanent methods as well as factors that influence women's choice in contraception were examined. Results The majority of women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unplanned (61.6% HIV positive and 63.2% HIV negative. Current use of contraception was high with no difference by HIV status (89.8% HIV positive and 89% HIV negative. Most women were using short acting methods, primarily the 3-monthly injectable (Depo Provera. Method convenience and health care provider recommendations were found to most commonly influence method choice. A small percentage of women (6.44% were using long acting and permanent methods, all of whom were using sterilization; however, it was found that poor knowledge regarding LAPMs is likely to be contributing to the poor uptake of these methods. Conclusions Improving contraceptive counselling to include LAPM and strengthening services for these methods are warranted in this setting

  14. Survival of children in cape town known to be vertically infected with HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, GD; Reijnhart, RM; Sebens, AM; Burgess, J; Schaaf, S; Potgieter, S

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the survival patterns of children in Cape Town known to be vertically infected with HIV. Design. Retrospective record review of children diagnosed with symptomatic HIV infection during the period 1 December 1990 - 31 May 1995. Setting. Hospitals in the Cape Town metropolitan

  15. The effects of different dimensions of HIV-related stigma on HIV testing uptake among young men and women in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Nyblade, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Although HIV-related stigma is known, in general, to deter HIV-testing, the extent to which different dimensions of stigma independently influence testing behaviour is poorly understood. We used data on young black men (n=553) and women (n=674) from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study to examine the independent effects of stigmatising attitudes, perceived stigma and observed-enacted stigma on HIV-testing. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that stigma had a strong relationship with HIV...

  16. Can Cape Town's unique biodiversity be saved? Balancing conservation imperatives and development needs

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Wood; Rebelo, Anthony G; Clifford Dorse; Patricia M. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    Cape Town is an urban hotspot within the Cape Floristic Region global biodiversity hotspot. This city of 2,460 km² encompasses four local centers of fynbos plant endemism, 19 national terrestrial vegetation types (six endemic to the city), wetland and coastal ecosystems, and 190 endemic plant species. Biodiversity in the lowlands is under threat of extinction as a result of habitat loss to agriculture, urban development, mining, and degradation by invasive alien plants. Cape Town's popul...

  17. Report: National Conference Organised By The South African Association Of Women Graduates (Sawg, Uct Medical School, Cape Town, 2 - 4 February 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia V Monareng

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The South African Association of Women Graduates (SAWG is an international association that is 80 years old and is comprised of women graduates and women researchers. There are branches all over South Africa from universities and technikons.

  18. Performing rap ciphas in late-modern Cape Town: extreme locality and multilingual citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Quentin E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of hip-hop in Cape Town, and indeed South Africa, has traditionally focused on the narratives and poetics of resistance, race and counter-hegemonic agency in the context of apartheid and the early days of post-apartheid. Despite this attention, hip-hop cipha performances remain relatively under-researched. The aim of this paper is to suggest that cipha performances display linguistic and discursive features that not only are of particular interest to rap music and hip-hop on the Cape Flats of Cape Town specifically, but that also engage core issues around multilingualism, agency and voice more generally. It demonstrates how in the process of entextualization a sense of locality, extreme locality, emerges in cipha performances by means of verbal cueing, representing place, expressing disrespect (dissing, and the (deictic reference to local coordinates that is achieved by transposing or recontextualizing transidiomatic phrases, and by incorporating local proxemics and audience reactions through commentary and response. It concludes by suggestingthat competition around acceptable linguistic forms and framings (metalinguistic disputes of extreme locality comprise the very micro-processes behind the formation of new registers. At the same time, these registers create the semiotic space for the exercise of agency and voice through multilingual practices, that is, multilingual citizenship.

  19. Retóricas ambivalentes: ressentimentos e negociações em contextos de sociabilidade juvenil na Cidade do Cabo (África do Sul) Ambivalent rhetorics: resentment and negotiation in youth sociability contexts in Cape Town (South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Moutinho; Pedro Lopes; Marcio Zamboni; Mario Ribas; Elaine Salo

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre um conjunto de questões relativas ao racismo, à sexualidade e ao contato intercultural na África do Sul, mais especificamente em Cape Town. Esta cidade, que já foi reconhecida como democrática, com expressiva população coloured e gay friendly se apresenta atualmente como uma das mais desiguais da África do Sul pós- apartheid. Percorremos trajetórias de homens e mulheres homo e heterossexuais, de diferentes raças e regiões, no sentido de abrir a escuta ...

  20. Narrative Methods and Sociocultural Linguistic Approaches in Facilitating In-depth Understanding of HIV Disclosure in a Cohort of Women and Men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The South African National Department of Health has rapidly extended free public-sector antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV from 2007. Approximately 6 million people are living with HIV in South Africa, with 3.1 million currently on treatment. HIV disclosure stigma has been reduced in high prevalence, generalized epidemic settings, but some remains, including in research interviews. This paper documents the unexpected reactions of people living with HIV to interviewers. It highlights shifts over time from discussing daily events with researchers to later expressing distress and then relief at having an uninvolved, sympathetic person with whom to discuss HIV disclosure. While there are commonalities, women and men had gendered responses to interviewers. These are apparent in men's uncharacteristic emotional responses and women's shyness in revealing gendered aspects of HIV acquisition. Both women and men expressed stress at not being allowed or able to fulfill dominant expected masculine or feminine roles. The findings underline the role of research interviewers in study participants confiding and fully expressing their feelings. This greater confidence occurred in follow-up interviews with researchers in busy health facilities, where time of health-care providers is limited. It underlines the methodological value of narrative inquiries with research cohorts. These allowed richer data than cross-sectional interviews. They shaped the questions asked and the process of interview. They revealed participants' increasing level of agency in expressing feelings that they find important. This research contributes to highlighting pivotal, relational aspects in research between empathetic, experienced researchers and study participants and how participant-researcher relationships progress over time. It highlights ethical dilemmas in roles of researchers as opposed to counselors, raising questions of possible blurring of lines between research and service roles

  1. Narrative methods and socio-cultural linguistic approaches in facilitating in depth understanding of HIV disclosure in a cohort of women and men in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eCooper

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Department of Health has rapidly extended free public sector antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV from 2007. Approximately 6 million people are living with HIV in South Africa, with 3.1 million currently on treatment. HIV disclosure stigma has been reduced in high prevalence, generalized epidemic settings, but some remains, including in research interviews.This paper documents the unexpected reactions of people living with HIV to interviewers, It highlights shifts over time from discussing daily events with researchers to later expressing distress and then relief at having an uninvolved, sympathetic person with whom to discuss HIV disclosure. While there are commonalities, women and men had gendered responses to interviewers. These are apparent in men’s uncharacteristic emotional responses and women’s shyness in revealing gendered aspects of HIV acquisition. Both women and men expressed stress at not being allowed or able to fulfill dominant expected masculine or feminine roles. The findings underline the role of research interviewers in study participants confiding and fully expressing their feelings. This greater confidence occurred in follow up interviews with researchers in busy health facilities where time of health care providers is limited. It underlines the methodological value of narrative inquiries with research cohorts. These allowed richer data than cross-sectional interviews. They shaped the questions asked and the process of interview. They revealed participants’ increasing level of agency in expressing feelings that they find important. This research contributes to highlighting pivotal, relational aspects in research between empathetic, experienced researchers and study participants and how participant-researcher relationships progress over time. It highlights ethical dilemmas in roles of researchers as opposed to counselors, raising questions of possible blurring of lines between

  2. Narrative Methods and Sociocultural Linguistic Approaches in Facilitating In-depth Understanding of HIV Disclosure in a Cohort of Women and Men in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E.; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The South African National Department of Health has rapidly extended free public-sector antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV from 2007. Approximately 6 million people are living with HIV in South Africa, with 3.1 million currently on treatment. HIV disclosure stigma has been reduced in high prevalence, generalized epidemic settings, but some remains, including in research interviews. This paper documents the unexpected reactions of people living with HIV to interviewers. It highlights shifts over time from discussing daily events with researchers to later expressing distress and then relief at having an uninvolved, sympathetic person with whom to discuss HIV disclosure. While there are commonalities, women and men had gendered responses to interviewers. These are apparent in men’s uncharacteristic emotional responses and women’s shyness in revealing gendered aspects of HIV acquisition. Both women and men expressed stress at not being allowed or able to fulfill dominant expected masculine or feminine roles. The findings underline the role of research interviewers in study participants confiding and fully expressing their feelings. This greater confidence occurred in follow-up interviews with researchers in busy health facilities, where time of health-care providers is limited. It underlines the methodological value of narrative inquiries with research cohorts. These allowed richer data than cross-sectional interviews. They shaped the questions asked and the process of interview. They revealed participants’ increasing level of agency in expressing feelings that they find important. This research contributes to highlighting pivotal, relational aspects in research between empathetic, experienced researchers and study participants and how participant–researcher relationships progress over time. It highlights ethical dilemmas in roles of researchers as opposed to counselors, raising questions of possible blurring of lines between research and

  3. Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is seen by many countries as providing a sustainable solution to energy security challenges. In this context, many developing countries are considering the establishment of nuclear power build programmes, while countries with mature nuclear programmes are considering the possibility of further expansion. The challenges facing countries that are embarking on this new venture include, inter alia, the development of policies, legislation as well as the establishment of appropriate institutions such as regulatory bodies with effective independence to take regulatory decisions. Regional and international cooperation and coordination are therefore of critical importance. Accordingly, the establishment of the Forum of Regulatory Bodies in Africa is a welcome initiative. We are pleased that the national nuclear programme in post-apartheid South Africa places us in a position to become active global participants in the safe use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. However, we all have an obligation to ensure that the presence of a plethora of cooperation mechanisms such as this body are as inclusive and as supportive as possible. This will help the global community of nations in reaping maximum benefits that surely should arise from these initiatives to ensure security of energy supply. We do not have the luxury to duplicate such bodies. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in nuclear safety and security cannot be over-emphasized. That alone is the reason that drove the liberation movement of the people of our country, and now the ruling party, fully to conform to all the treaties and conventions that have been drafted by this reputable institution of the peoples of the world. The same goes for the facilitation of cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and experience. The IAEA is invariably trusted to provide independent views and advice in order to strengthen safety and security while preserving the sovereignty, authority and

  4. Growth and weight status in treatment-naïve 12-16 year old adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubscher Ria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption during adolescence has many known harmful health and social consequences and is strongly associated with numerous health risk behaviours. The consequences of heavy alcohol use during adolescence on nutritional status, specifically growth and weight status are largely unknown at this time. Methods Substance use, anthropometric indices of growth and weight, dietary energy intake and physical activity in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol use disorders and matched light/non-drinking control adolescents were assessed. Results Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard drinks of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs compared to controls. The AUDs group was selected to represent relatively 'pure' AUDs, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. The growth and weight status of adolescents with AUDs were generally comparable to that of controls, and is in line with the growth and weight status of the South African adolescent population. A greater proportion of overweight/obese females was found in both groups, with this percentage tending to be greater, although not significantly so, in the AUDs group. Adolescent females with AUDs had increased odds of being overweight/obese compared to controls, after adjustment for smoking, physical activity and energy intake. Conclusion Anthropometric indices of growth and weight status of participants in the Control and AUD groups were generally comparable. Female adolescents with AUDs may have an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to adolescent females without AUDs. The presence of an AUD in our adolescent sample was associated with higher energy intake. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the effects of heavy alcohol use on energy balance, growth and weight status in adolescents as they age. Nonetheless, the current study contributes to our

  5. Peritoneal Dialysis in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ikechi G Okpechi; Rayner, Brian L; Swanepoel, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which encompasses 70% of the least-developed countries in the world. Most people in SSA have no access to any form of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Given its ease of performance and patient independence, peritoneal dialysis (PD) should be an ideal form of RRT in SSA, but several complex and interdependent factors make PD a difficult option in SSA. The present review describes the practice of ...

  6. Stories of Change: e/merge @ the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony

    The Center for Educational Technology (CET) is located at the University of Cape Town, which is a leading South African research and teaching university. This implies great opportunities and challenges since we are poised between the experience of and conditions faced by colleagues in other parts of Africa and those of the colleagues in first-world countries. We have access to the intellectual and professional networks of the first world and our university features on global rankings, yet our resourcing, while generous in terms of most other universities in our continent, is a fraction of that enjoyed by first-world universities of similar size and scope. Both globalization and developmental imperatives require us to rapidly extend the effective use of educational technology in our university for teaching and learning. The received models of e-Learning integration developed mostly in first-world countries need to be adapted for contexts with scarce resources.

  7. Making unhealthy places: The built environment and non-communicable diseases in Khayelitsha, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Warren; de Lannoy, Ariane; Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V; Levitt, Naomi; Watson, Vanessa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we examine how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs in Khayelitsha (a predominantly low income area in Cape Town, South Africa) through their shaping of the built environment. The paper draws on literature reviews and ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Khayelitsha. The three main pathways through which the built environment of the area impacts on NCDs are through a complex food environment in which it is difficult to achieve food security, an environment that is not conducive to safe physical activity, and high levels of depression and stress (linked to, amongst other factors, poverty, crime and fear of crime). All of these factors are at least partially linked to the isolated, segregated and monofunctional nature of Khayelitsha. The paper highlights that in order to effectively address urban health challenges, we need to understand how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs through the way they shape built environments. PMID:27157313

  8. Emerging Societal Involvement in City Management : the case of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Dewar

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of full participatory democracy in South Africa in April 1994, a fundamental revision of the norms, values and practices of urban management has occurred. A central feature of this is expressed commitment to greater transparency and public participation in decision-making and project execution. Manegerial practice has moved from being essentially technocratic and control-oriented to more pluralistic and development-oriented. The previously disenfranchised and largely impoverished sectors of the community have moved from exclusion and confrontation toward greater involvement and empowerment. This has not been without problems however. The current status of community participation in Cape Town is reviewed and explored against a theoretical model. The conclusion drawn is that, political impediments notwithstanding, a considerable energy and momentum has been generated at local level in civil society towards the goal of improvement in social and living environments in the city.

  9. Disjunct perceptions? Climate change threats in two-low lying South African coastal towns

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn Gijsbert; Grant Bronwyn; Fitchett Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal towns rely heavily on the quality and expanse of their beaches to attract tourists. Climate is an important tourism determinant, controlling the length and timing of peak arrivals. South African tourism is particularly reliant on these factors. Perceptions of tourists and tourist accommodation establishment regarding climate change threats to tourism are explored for the towns of St Francis Bay and Cape St Francis. Tourism accommodation establishments were predominantly concerned with...

  10. Empowering adolescents to engage in healthy behaviours through peer leadership training in the townships of Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Andersson, Mikael; Johansson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    and qualitative interviews and analysed through thematic content analysis. The results showed that peer educators’ self-esteem, confidence and motivation increased, as did their knowledge and skills related to communication, supporting and motivating peers and clients. Additionally the results showed......This paper investigated peer educators’ perceptions of their self-empowerment, learning, and experiences of being a peer educator within the Leadership South Programme (LSP) in Cape Town, South Africa. The data about the peer educators’ perceptions was gathered through open-ended questionnaires...

  11. Bricolage: Re-Discovering History through Intermediality and Performance. A Report on the UCT/CityVarsity Production of "A Day, Across" at the Cape Town Fringe 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftic, Sanjin

    2016-01-01

    "A Day, Across," performed by the CityVarsity School of Creative Arts at the Cape Town Fringe 2014, was a student production that investigated the link between the youth of South Africa and the centennial of the start of World War I. This paper presents a brief analysis of the rehearsal process as well as certain performance sequences in…

  12. A community in trouble? The impact of gentrification on the Bo-Kaap, Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Kotze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bo-Kaap is an older inner-city, working-class neighbourhood in Cape Town, South Africa. By the 1930s, the area had degenerated into an overcrowded and run-down neighbourhood, consisting largely of dilapidated houses, but by 1941 about 150 housing units had been expropriated by the local authority for redevelopment in a comprehensive renewal scheme for the area. However, the process was halted with the formation of the so-called “Group for the Preservation of the Malay Quarter”, which fought against the demolition of the houses. At present, the area with its colourful housing units and 11 mosques is part of Cape Town’s cultural heritage and a very important tourist attraction. As in the case of De Waterkant, a gentrified neighbourhood adjacent to it, the area has seen a large number of housing units renovated and upgraded. Property prices have increased dramatically, although they are still relatively low, while the number of properties sold is also on the rise – so much so that the community leaders and especially the Muslim residents are in a constant battle to preserve the neighbourhood’s cultural identity.

  13. Perceived social context of AIDS in a Black township in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness

    2003-01-01

    AIDS is only one of several life threatening social problems facing people living in poverty. HIV/AIDS prevention messages and prevention programmes should be framed within the context of relevant social problems. The current study examined public perceptions of AIDS as a relative social problem and AIDS-related socio-political beliefs among South African men and women living in a Black township of Cape Town. Participants (224 men and 276 women) completed surveys that assessed perceptions of HIV/AIDS relative to nine other social problems: lack of housing, transportation, poor sanitation, sufficient food, unemployment, discrimination, poor education, violence and crime. Participants also responded to six items assessing socio-political views of AIDS. Results showed that AIDS was perceived as a serious social problem in the township, but was perceived as less serious than crime and not different from violence and unemployment. Principal components factor analyses showed that AIDS was associated with multiple social problems and that AIDS was most closely associated with crime and violence, representing social problems that directly cause death. Although AIDS perceptions were similar to those expressed by the South African government, there was evidence for some mistrust about both what the government was doing and what it was saying about AIDS. HIV prevention messages in South Africa should be tailored to fit the perceived social context of AIDS. PMID:25871937

  14. Silence, blame and AIDS conspiracy theories among the Xhosa people in two townships in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivelä, Jonas Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Conspiratorial expressions about the origins of HIV/AIDS have been recognised as an outcome of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. This article examines the reasons behind AIDS conspiracy theories, which include a reoccurring repertory of themes, motifs and characters. In these expressions, the malevolent antagonist is the replaced apartheid regime, along with other more archetypal adversaries. So far, AIDS conspiracy theories have been interpreted in terms of currently perceived injustices and frustrations related to the complex past of South Africa. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Xhosa people in two townships in Cape Town, this article goes further to examine how AIDS conspiracy theories in South Africa can be ascribed to gender-based communication. Sporadic but pronounced expressions of conspiratorial thinking should be understood as connected to local traditions of avoidance and respect. Moreover, the fact that conspiratorial expressions are more common among men can be seen in terms of a counter-narrative mechanism, which is to some extent due to the blame that is cast on men for being the main culprits behind the spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:25920982

  15. The social and institutional aspects of urban agriculture in the Cape Flats, Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report is concerned with the status of urban agriculture in the Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of the Western Cape, South Africa. It focuses specifically on the nature of urban agriculture in the Cape Flats area and explores the conditions that influence the extent of urban agriculture in low-income township areas situated on the Cape Flats. A primary focus of this research is the socio- political and institutional context that affects the practice of urban and peri-urban farming, specific...

  16. The Tangled Web: Investigating Academics' Views of Plagiarism at the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Karin; Brown, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problematic question of student plagiarism, its causes and manifestations, and how it is addressed in academic environments. A literature survey was conducted to establish how higher education institutions approach these issues, and a twofold investigation was conducted at the University of Cape Town. Data was gathered…

  17. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  18. Introductory Astronomy Course at the University of Cape Town: Probing Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…

  19. Family law and 'the great moral public interests' in Victorian Cape Town, c.1850-1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vertrees C. Malherbe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the mineral revolution, and the Cape Colony's attainment of responsible government, Cape Town's population doubled in the nineteenth century's latter years. Its largely British ruling class, seeing opportunities for wealth and a greater significance in empire and world, sought to construct a social order conducive to those goals. Faced with increasing ethnic heterogeneity, gender imbalance due to the numbers of male immigrants, and frustration in combating the endemic poverty and slums, city fathers and their closest colleagues - doctors, clergy - perceived the way forward in terms not of extending rights but of moral reform. This article carries the ongoing investigation of family life and law in Cape Town through the Victorian period. It examines legal enactments and social developments where they impacted on marriage, divorce, concubinage and related matters, with particular reference to the welfare of children and those born out of wedlock.

  20. Incorporating informal operations in public transport system transformation:the case of Cape Town, South Africa Incorporando operações informais às transformações em sistema de transporte público: o caso da Cidade do Cabo, África do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wilkinson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Efforts in Cape Town to bring about a fundamental transformation of the existing fragmented andrelatively dysfunctional public transport system to a comprehensively planned ‘integrated rapid transit’system, which includes the introduction of bus rapid transit services as a key component, have encounteredcertain institutionally embedded obstacles. This paper briefly outlines the nature of these problems,focusing in particular on the difficulties experienced in engaging with, and effectively incorporating,informal minibus-taxi operations which serve a significant segment of the city’s public transport passengermarket. It seeks to draw out the main policy implications, as well lessons which might be takenup elsewhere, in other initiatives to address the differentiated mobilities and travel patterns which shapethe ‘urban transport divide’ in many cities of the ‘global South’.

  1. Temporal trends in TB notification rates during ART scale-up in Cape Town: an ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hermans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART reduces individual tuberculosis (TB risk by two-thirds, the population-level impact remains uncertain. Cape Town reports high TB notification rates associated with endemic HIV. We examined population trends in TB notification rates during a 10-year period of expanding ART. Methods: Annual Cape Town TB notifications were used as numerators and mid-year Cape Town populations as denominators. HIV-stratified population was calculated using overall HIV prevalence estimates from the Actuarial Society of South Africa AIDS and Demographic model. ART provision numbers from Western Cape government reports were used to calculate overall ART coverage. We calculated rates per 100,000 population over time, overall and stratified by HIV status. Rates per 100,000 total population were also calculated by ART use at treatment initiation. Absolute numbers of notifications were compared by age and sub-district. Changes over time were described related to ART provision in the city as a whole (ART coverage and by sub-district (numbers on ART. Results: From 2003 to 2013, Cape Town's population grew from 3.1 to 3.7 million inhabitants, and estimated HIV prevalence increased from 3.6 to 5.2%. ART coverage increased from 0 to 63% in 2013. TB notification rates declined by 16% (95% confidence interval (CI, 14–17% from a 2008 peak (851/100,000 to a 2013 nadir (713/100,000. Decreases were higher among the HIV-positive (21% (95% CI, 19–23% than the HIV-negative (9% (95% CI, 7–11% population. The number of HIV-positive TB notifications decreased mainly among 0- to 4- and 20- to 34-year-olds. Total population rates on ART at TB treatment initiation increased over time but levelled off in 2013. Overall median CD4 counts increased from 146 cells/µl (interquartile range (IQR, 66, 264 to 178 cells/µl (IQR 75, 330; p<0.001. Sub-district antenatal HIV seroprevalence differed (10–33% as did numbers on ART (9–29 thousand

  2. Enabling disability inclusive practices within the University of Cape Town curriculum: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioma Ohajunwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disability inclusion in the curricula of higher education institutions contributes to socially responsive graduates with a capacity to address the cross-cutting issue of disability in development. This article discusses a study conducted at the University of Cape Town (UCT, South Africa, to explore disability inclusion. Methodology: An instrumental case study approach was adopted and a thematic analysis of data was done. Findings: Academic staff found a variety of ways to include disability, such as discussions in class, practice and service learning, but mainly as part of disciplinary requirements. Including disability as an issue of social justice stems mostly from the personal interest of staff, and is done in an ad hoc manner. Conclusion: Disability should be valued, and integrated into the curriculum in a structured manner as a perspective on diversity with which to interrogate our beliefs about ourselves and society. Theorising on disability is needed, as well as the unique perspectives that emerge across interdisciplinary boundaries, especially within the African context.

  3. Intergration of LiDAR Data with Aerial Imagery for Estimating Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Potentials in City of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, A. K.; Smit, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Apart from the drive to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by carbon-intensive economies like South Africa, the recent spate of electricity load shedding across most part of the country, including Cape Town has left electricity consumers scampering for alternatives, so as to rely less on the national grid. Solar energy, which is adequately available in most part of Africa and regarded as a clean and renewable source of energy, makes it possible to generate electricity by using photovoltaics technology. However, before time and financial resources are invested into rooftop solar photovoltaic systems in urban areas, it is important to evaluate the potential of the building rooftop, intended to be used in harvesting the solar energy. This paper presents methodologies making use of LiDAR data and other ancillary data, such as high-resolution aerial imagery, to automatically extract building rooftops in City of Cape Town and evaluate their potentials for solar photovoltaics systems. Two main processes were involved: (1) automatic extraction of building roofs using the integration of LiDAR data and aerial imagery in order to derive its' outline and areal coverage; and (2) estimating the global solar radiation incidence on each roof surface using an elevation model derived from the LiDAR data, in order to evaluate its solar photovoltaic potential. This resulted in a geodatabase, which can be queried to retrieve salient information about the viability of a particular building roof for solar photovoltaic installation.

  4. The introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: probing student perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and post-tests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which pro...

  5. Living with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Chinyama Ephraim .P

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the lifestyle decisions of people who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. The study was motivated by the ever growing number of people who are now living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore the researcher intended to examine their decisions regarding sexual choices, reproductive health, diet, physical fitness and their coping strategies.The study found that there is very low uptake of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT). Most people only get tested if ...

  6. Our surgical heritage: the role of the Department of Paediatric Surgery in the development of paediatric surgery in Cape Town, in Africa, and around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Heinz; Millar, Alastair J W

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Paediatric Surgery at the University of Cape Town has made a remarkable contribution to the academic body of knowledge of Paediatric Surgery both in South Africa and around the world. It has played a key role in the development of the specialty in South Africa and through the South African diaspora has trained many paediatric surgeons who have made their mark internationally. More recently it has become a major focus of teaching and training for African paediatric surgeons. This article traces this legacy through its origins in the early 1920s to its current prominent position in the world paediatric surgical community. PMID:22668921

  7. The Saluting Battery at the Castle of Good Hope Cape Town 1910-1942

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-01-01

    Although the guns of the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town never fired a shot in anger, they often fired salutes in honour of Royalty (the King's Birthday), visiting heads of state and warships, Union Day (a salute of 19 guns in 1931) and on other appropriate occasions. The subject of this article is the Saluting Battery on Katzenellenbogen Bastion at the Castle which was operational from about 1910 until about 1942. In 1912 the Castle was the only authorized saluting station in the Union of S...

  8. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain.Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data.Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain.Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems.Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  9. Temperature Variability and Occurrence of Diarrhoea in Children under Five-Years-Old in Cape Town Metropolitan Sub-Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musengimana, Gentille; Mukinda, Fidele K; Machekano, Roderick; Mahomed, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between temperature change and diarrhoea in under five-year-old children in the Cape Town Metropolitan Area (CTMA) of South Africa. The study used climatic and aggregated surveillance diarrhoea incidence data of two peak periods of seven months each over two consecutive years. A Poisson regression model and a lagged Poisson model with autocorrelation was performed to test the relationship between climatic parameters (minimum and maximum temperature) and incidence of diarrhoea. In total, 58,617 cases of diarrhoea occurred in the CTMA, which is equivalent to 8.60 cases per 100 population under five years old for the study period. The mixed effect overdispersed Poisson model showed that a cluster adjusted effect of an increase of 5 °C in minimum and maximum temperature results in a 40% (Incidence risk ratio IRR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.31-1.48) and 32% (IRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.41) increase in incident cases of diarrhoea, respectively, for the two periods studied. Autocorrelation of one-week lag (Autocorrelation AC 1) indicated that a 5 °C increase in minimum and maximum temperature led to 15% (IRR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20) and 6% (IRR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12) increase in diarrhoea cases, respectively. In conclusion, there was an association between an increase in minimum and maximum temperature, and the rate at which diarrhoea affected children under the age of five years old in the Cape Town Metropolitan Area. This finding may have implications for the effects of global warming and requires further investigation. PMID:27589772

  10. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  11. Incorporating informal operations in public transport system transformation:the case of Cape Town, South Africa Incorporando operações informais às transformações em sistema de transporte público: o caso da Cidade do Cabo, África do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wilkinson

    2010-01-01

    Efforts in Cape Town to bring about a fundamental transformation of the existing fragmented andrelatively dysfunctional public transport system to a comprehensively planned integrated rapid transitsystem, which includes the introduction of bus rapid transit services as a key component, have encounteredcertain institutionally embedded obstacles. This paper briefly outlines the nature of these problems,focusing in particular on the difficulties experienced in engaging with, and effectively inco...

  12. Creating Regional Advantage: The Emergence of IT-Enabled Services in Nairobi and Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Since the early-to-mid 2000's, South Africa's Western Cape and Kenya's capital city Nairobi have been attracting flows of trade and investments in information technology-enabled services (ITES). The flows are small but significant and growing, with multinational companies like Amazon, Google, IBM, and others locating and developing market niches in these regions. Why have these regions managed to attract IT-enabled services investments, given their regional economic challenges and marginality...

  13. A human rights-based approach to assess disadvantaged mothers' experiences with a nutrition supplementation programme provided at primary health care clinics. : A study from Cape Town, South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Summary A major health problem in South Africa is inadequate nutritional health among infants and young children which contributes to increased childhood morbidity and mortality. The health authorities in South Africa have implemented various health and nutrition programmes addressing this vulnerable group. However, so far there have been few evaluations of these programmes and hence the effectiveness and quality of the programmes are not certain. South Africa has, with its Bill of R...

  14. Compensation for What? An Analysis of the Outcome in Arun Property Development (PTY LTD v Cape Town City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Slade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Arun Property Development (Pty Ltd v Cape Town City the Constitutional Court awarded compensation for land that vested in the City of Cape Town in terms of a regulatory framework. The regulatory framework, sections 25 and 28 of the Cape Land Use Planning Ordinance of 1985 (LUPO, provides that land needed for public streets and places and indicated as such on a subdivision plan should vest in the local authority concerned, but without compensation if that land is based on the normal need of providing the particular development with such public streets and places. The appellant argued that since land in excess of the normal need also vested in the City, it had a right to be compensated for the excess land that vested in the City. The Court, overturning two Supreme Court of Appeal decisions, awarded compensation. The Court hinted that the compensation was for the expropriation of the appellant's land that was excess to the normal need. In the absence of a formal expropriation procedure, this case note investigates whether the compensation could have been awarded for statutory expropriation or constructive expropriation. Therefore, the question that is posed is whether the alleged expropriation for which the Court awarded compensation can be classified as either statutory expropriation or constructive expropriation. It is pointed out that the Court accepted that section 28 of the LUPO constitutes a development contribution for the land based on the normal need. In terms of the notion of development contributions, a developer has to donate land to the local authority concerned if that land is required to provide the particular development with public streets and places. A development contribution, as part of the administrative process of approving developments, is regulatory in nature and its validity is judged in terms of the requirements for a valid deprivation of property. It is argued that since the Court interpreted section 28 of the LUPO to

  15. Introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: Probing student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-12-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and posttests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students' worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in the future be used to identify students requiring special teaching intervention.

  16. The introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: probing student perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and post-tests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students' worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in future be used to identify students requiring spec...

  17. Living with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyama Ephraim .P

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the lifestyle decisions of people who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. The study was motivated by the ever growing number of people who are now living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore the researcher intended to examine their decisions regarding sexual choices, reproductive health, diet, physical fitness and their coping strategies.The study found that there is very low uptake of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT. Most people only get tested if they are compelled by other factors, like illness and pregnancy. It also found that HIV positive people continue to engage in risky sexual behaviour regardless of their positive status. In addition it also found that HIV positive status does not affect sexual activity and social support from family and friends is a very important factor that is helping the respondents to cope with HIV diagnosis.

  18. A phytosociological study of Signal Hill, Cape Town, utilizing both perennial and ephemeral species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Joubert

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological study based on the collection of vegetation and environmental data from 53 randomly stratified sample plots on Signal Hill, Cape Town, was carried out over an area of 124 ha. The survey extended over 12 months to ensure the inclusion of as many plant species as possible, and a list of the vascular plant species was compiled. A total of 81 families, 255 genera and 460 species was identified. The phytosociological method revealed that only one major plant community occurs in the study area and two subcommunities, with a total of five variants correlated mostly with aspect and historic land use, were identified. The perennially and seasonally identifiable species were analysed separately to determine their relative contribution to the phytosociological classification. The two data sets gave similar classifications. A vegetation map as well as a soil map was compiled.

  19. Disjunct perceptions? Climate change threats in two-low lying South African coastal towns

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    Hoogendoorn Gijsbert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal towns rely heavily on the quality and expanse of their beaches to attract tourists. Climate is an important tourism determinant, controlling the length and timing of peak arrivals. South African tourism is particularly reliant on these factors. Perceptions of tourists and tourist accommodation establishment regarding climate change threats to tourism are explored for the towns of St Francis Bay and Cape St Francis. Tourism accommodation establishments were predominantly concerned with day-to-day changes in weather, investing in small-scale infrastructural changes to improve the comfort of their guests. By contrast, tourists demonstrated greater concern for the risk of flooding, sea-level rise and the degeneration of the beaches. This reflects concerning disjunctures between perceptions of tourists and accommodation establishments regarding climate change threats. This may portray to tourists insufficient investment in adaptation at accommodation establishments, resulting in decreased tourist visitations in the short-term in favour of destinations perceived as better prepared.

  20. The enterprise ecology of towns in the Karoo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan F. Toerien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts, (1 companies are ‘living’ entities and (2 ‘company ecology’, stimulated our hypothesis that towns are ‘enterprise ecosystems’. This hypothesis cannot be tested directly. However, if it is correct, application of clustering and ordination techniques used frequently in studies of natural ecosystems, should reveal clusters of towns that are statistically significantly different (p < 0.05. A dataset of 47 towns in the Karoo, South Africa served as study material and their enterprise assemblages were profiled through the use of a simple method based on the examination of telephone directories. Clustering and ordination techniques revealed six different clusters of towns at a correlation coefficient level of 0.65 and the clusters differed significantly (p < 0.05 in some respects. The agricultural products and services, the tourism and hospitality, and the trade sectors were particularly important in defining these clusters. We concluded that enterprise ecology is a valid concept and towns are ‘ecosystems’ that also cluster together in larger groupings. An array of potentially important techniques and approaches for the study of business development in towns now provide support to, and intriguing questions confront, academic and practical researchers of enterprise development in towns.

  1. The production of the city as a white space: representing & restructuring identity and architecture, Cape Town, 1892-1936

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzer, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    English values, architects and architectural ideas played a major role in shaping identities, architecture and power relations in Cape Town between 1892-1936. Driven by an uncompromising belief in the universal desirability of Englishness and Western architecture and culture, they manifested a tension between a romanticised, historical, rural ideal, and an urban dystopia, the compromised resolution of which lay in suburban housing schemes. The discourse, images, public events a...

  2. Cenozoic bottom current sedimentation in the Cape Basin, South Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Wildeboer Schut, E.; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    The Cape Basin is located at a central location with respect to variouswater masses. The coldest and densest of these water masses is theLower Circumpolar Deep Water.The location and topography of the Agulhas Ridge effectively blocks itsnorthward flowing branches and deflects them into a south-westerndirection to follow the bathymetric contours of the Agulhas Ridge wheresuspended sediments accumulate in contourite drifts.Several hundred metres of sediments have accumulated since the onsetof A...

  3. Otter Work in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Michael J

    1994-01-01

    The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis) in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results) and...

  4. Small towns in the South-Moravian Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Šťastná, M.; Vavrouchová, H.; Stonawská, K.; Zapletalová, Jana

    Collection CERAMAC No. 33. Clermont-Ferrand, Francie: Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal, 2014 - (Kwiatek-Soltys, A.; Mainet, H.; Wiedermann, K.; Edouard, J.), s. 215-230 ISBN 978-2-84516-635-6 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : demographic development * small towns * South-Moravian Region * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. Otter Work in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Somers

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results and secondly, to contribute to our understanding of carnivore behavioural ecology.The first stage in determining the distribution and status of spotted-necked otters and Cape clawless otters, in South Africa, and possible effects of environmental variants have, is almost complete. A detailed autecological study of Cape clawless otters in two rivers is now the main focus of the project. Six otters have had radio transmitters implanted: MP/300/L, implantable transmitter, 40g 80 x 20 mm diameter cylinder (Telonics Inc., Arizona, USA. Since implanting, one male has died of unknown causes. A post mortem revealed total healing from the operation. Much new behavioural and ecological information has been gained by the use of the radio tracking. One adult male has a home range of at least 45 km, much more than first expected for the species. Work has also been done in the Eastern Cape Province determining the diet of three coexisting carnivores, spotted-necked otters, Cape clawless otters and water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus. This work is about to be submitted for publication. We thank the Southern African Nature Foundation (WWF, for providing funds, and Mazda Wildlife Fund for providing a vehicle for the project.

  6. Intertwining lives and logics: Household and informal economies in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Oldfield

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enabling households to make ends meet, the practices of small, informal businesses are not simple, but bound up in the struggles of households and the social and economic relationships that weave local economies together. This paper draws on stories of local businesses in an impoverished Cape Town township to situate these diverse logics and strategies, the histories and aspirations that shape small business success and struggle. Drawing on interviews and mapping every informal sector business in the neighbourhood, I reflect on the specific difficulties of running a business in the context of poverty, including unreliable and inadequate incomes, difficulties of credit, as well as the challenges of operating business on a small scale. This material demonstrates the community-based, as well as livelihood, logics that motivate local business owners as well as sustain their livelihoods. The paper concludes with an argument that the neighbourhood economy, instead of a vehicle driven primarily to maximize profit, forms an intimate part of peoples’ lives. This more multifaceted and embedded analysis stretches overly narrow notions of the informal economy, its limits and logics.

  7. MACCSAND (Pty Ltd v CITY OF CAPE TOWN 2012 (4 SA 181 (CC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nic Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Court in Maccsand (Pty Ltd v City of Cape Town (CCT 103/11 2012 ZACC 7 decided that the granting of mining rights or mining permits by the Minister of Mineral Resources in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 does not obviate the obligation on an applicant to obtain authorisations in terms of other legislation that deals with functional domains other than minerals, mining and prospecting. This applies to all other legislation, irrespective of whether the responsible administrator of such other legislation is in the national, provincial or local sphere of government. The effect of the decision is that planning and other authorities which derive their statutory mandate and powers from other legislation retain all their powers as regards planning and rezoning, for instance. In addition, the Minister of Mineral Resources cannot make a decision on behalf of, or for, such functionaries. The judgement also clarified the question of whether or not a national Act can supersede provincial legislation dealing with a distinctly different functional domain. In principle, the decision also indicates that the fact that a range of authorisations are required in terms of separate statutory instruments (each with its own functional domain and administered by its own functionary does not necessarily amount to conflicts between these instruments. An owner of land may now insist that his land may not be used for mining purposes if it is not zoned for such purposes. It is submitted that, in order to provide certainty to land owners, developers and government functionaries, and to promote investor confidence (especially in the mining sector, an intergovernmental system for the consideration of applications by the functionaries responsible for the separate statutory instruments needs to be developed as a high priority.

  8. Staging Queer Temporalities: A Look at Miss Gay Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Bronson, Olivia Fairbanks

    2013-01-01

    Miss Gay Western Cape is a beauty pageant that takes place once a year in Cape Town. Though the event began during apartheid, it is only recently that it has gained visibility and emerged as the largest (recognized) gay pageant in South Africa. This project considers the ways in which different queer communities in Cape Town strive to be seen in spaces that remain governed by the logics of racialized segregation. As evidenced with this event, queer communities in Cape Town bare the wounds of ...

  9. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of the Simon's Town agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Potgieter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the maritime defence of South Africa was a colonial responsibility. First performed by the Dutch, the British took over the task after they wrestled the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch. The Cape was of supreme strategic value to Britain as the link with India and a great part of her empire. Therefore for more than a century and a half (from 1806 to the abrogation of the Simon's Town Agreement the Royal Navy had a constant presence in South African territorial waters. Furthermore when the first flickers of an indigenous maritime defence organisation appeared in South Africa it was British in character. The South African Division of the part-time Royal Naval Voluntary Reserve (RNVR came into being long before the country had a navy. The origin of the South African Navy dates back to 1922, when, the South African Naval Service was created with the arrival of three small ships from Britain. Unfortunately, the budget cuts during the Depression meant that these ships and their crews were paid off (in 1933-4 and only a skeleton staff remained. This was still the position at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6 September 1939, meant that the country's utterly neglected Navy had to suddenly prepare for war. Ships had to be found, and as purpose-build warships were out of the question, ships from the country's fishing fleet and trade had to suffice. A small ocean-going navy was created for the defence of the Union's ports and coastline. Following an urgent request from the British Admiralty in November 1940, South Africa sent four anti-submarine vessels to join the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean. As the war progressed, more ships of the South African Naval Forces arrived in the Mediterranean. They were used for a variety of tasks, ranging from minesweeping to salvage work. South African ships and crews earned themselves quite a reputation, participating in most

  10. Lupus nephritis is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes in pregnant SLE patients in Cape Town: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mbuli, Lindisa; Mapiye, Darlington; Okpechi, Ikechi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system auto-immune disease common in females of child-bearing age. The effect of pregnancy on SLE and vice versa have not been well characterised in Africans. The aim of this study is to describe the pregnancy outcomes of patients with SLE presenting to the maternity department of Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. Methods This study was designed as a retrospective review of records of pregnant women known with SLE and followed-up at ...

  11. "The sun has set even though it is morning": Experiences and explanations of perinatal depression in an urban township, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thandi; Schneider, Marguerite; Nyatsanza, Memory; Lund, Crick

    2016-06-01

    This study examined experiences and explanations of depression amongst Xhosa-speaking pregnant women, mothers, and health workers in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa. The study was conducted as part of formative research for a randomised controlled trial to develop and evaluate a task-sharing counselling intervention for maternal depression in this setting. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 depressed and 9 nondepressed pregnant women and mothers of young babies, and 13 health care providers. We employed an in-depth framework analysis approach to explore the idioms, descriptions, and perceived causes of depression particular to these women, and compared these with the ICD-10 and DSM-5 criteria for major depression. We found that symptoms of major depression are similar in this township to those described in international criteria (withdrawal, sadness, and poor concentration), but that local descriptions of these symptoms vary. In addition, all the symptoms described by participants were directly related to stressors occurring in the women's lives. These stressors included poverty, unemployment, lack of support from partners, abuse, and death of loved ones, and were exacerbated by unwanted or unplanned pregnancies and the discovery of HIV positive status at antenatal appointments. The study calls attention to the need for specifically designed counselling interventions for perinatal depression that are responsive to the lived experiences of these women and grounded in the broader context of poor socioeconomic conditions and living environments in South Africa, all of which have a direct impact on mental health. PMID:26905932

  12. A Comparison of the Motor Ability of 8 and 9 Year Old Primary School Children in Hamburg, Melbourne and Cape Town--An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Jurgen; Saunders, John; Bressan, Liz; Erhorn, Jan; Wirszing, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An increasing worldwide concern about a decline in the quality of the motor ability of children was the motivation for this exploratory comparative study. It involves a comparison of the motor ability of children aged 8 and 9 years from Hamburg (n = 774), Melbourne (n = 141) and Cape Town (n = 81). Since each of these global cities represents a…

  13. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland.Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  14. Two new water beetles from the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Pterosthetops nitidus sp. nov. and Oomtelecopon namaqum sp. nov. are described from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa respectively. Diagnostic notes are provided for each species, together with details of occupied microhabitats. PMID:27470748

  15. 2008 USGS South New Jersey County Project Lidar: Cape May County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South New Jersey County Lidar project is to provide LiDAR data for the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJ-DEP) for Cape May, Cumberland, and...

  16. Alcohol and Other Drug Use during Pregnancy among Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in the Cape Metropole, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petal Petersen Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug (AOD use among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, despite the very high levels of AOD use in this part of the country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used. In total, 5231 pregnant women were screened to assess self-reported prevalence estimates. Of these, 684 (13.1% were intentionally subsampled and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a urine sample for biological screening. Urinalyses showed that 8.8% (95% CI: 6.7–10.9 of the subsample tested positive for at least one illicit drug. This is higher than the self-reported prevalence (3.6%. In addition, 19.6% (95% CI: 16.3–22.8 of the sub-sample tested positive for alcohol which is lower than the self-reported prevalence (36.9%. There are high levels of substance use among pregnant women attending public sector antenatal clinics. There is a need for routine screening for AOD use and appropriate responses depending on the women’s level of risk.

  17. A qualitative evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ feedback of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination

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    Nazlie Beckett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: All medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT rotate through a Family Medicine clerkship during their final year. Students are based at community health centres (CHCs in the Western Cape Metropole, and at a rural site in Vredenburg. At the end of the four week clerkship, students do an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the students’ feedback of the OSCE at the end of the 6th year Family Medicine rotation, and to make recommendations which can be used to improve the OSCE. Methods: This is a structured qualitative study. The study population included final year medical students rotating through the Family Medicine clerkship, over a period of seven months. Each student completed a structured questionnaire immediately after the OSCE. These evaluations were analysed using a “content analysis” method. Results: The majority of students were happy with the structure and content of the OSCE, as well as the fact that it was aligned to what was taught during the clinical rotation. However, the majority of students complained that the time allocated per station was inadequate. Conclusion: Objective ways should be utilized by the Division of Family Medicine to improve the time allocation and the current format of the OSCE.

  18. Understanding Social Responsiveness: Portraits of practice at the University of Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Favish; Sonwabo Ngcelwane

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 the University of Cape (UCT) launched its first annual report on social responsiveness at the university. As a public institution receiving considerable funding from the public purse, it was deemed appropriate that the university should report annually on how it was addressing major development challenges facing the country. The first part of this article describes the process of developing a shared definition of and conceptual clarity about social responsiveness. The second part deve...

  19. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer; Venter, Jan A; Colleen T Downs

    2015-01-01

    Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9) were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mo...

  20. Subtidal understorey algal community structure in kelp beds around the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape, South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Leliaert, F.; Anderson, R J; Bolton, J. J.; Coppejans, E.

    2001-01-01

    The subtidal understorey seaweed communities were studied along a coastal distance of 104 km around the Cape Peninsula, which is situated in an overlap region between two marine provinces and characterized by a considerable temperature gradient. Sampling was carried out at six sites (4 to 10 quadrats per site) around the Cape Peninsula. For each of the quadrats, biomass of each species, grazing, and environmental variables such as temperature, wave exposure and sand cover were determined. The...

  1. Nuclear microanalysis of tooth enamel from a community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Naidoo, S.; Eisa, M. E. M.

    2007-07-01

    Extracted teeth collected from a Black African community living in the Gugulethu suburb of Cape Town, South Africa were studied by nuclear microscopy. Analysis by PIXE (with 3.0 MeV protons) of permanent extracted incisor and molar teeth from males and females of different ages showed a homogeneous elemental profile distribution for iron, zinc and strontium, irrespective of gender and/or age. Fluorine content as determined simultaneously from the 110 keV gamma-ray yield from proton bombardment had a similar mean value (females: 1.8% by mass and males: 1.6% by mass) for both genders. However, the mean content of strontium for females (97 μg g -1) was about 40% lower than that for males (69 μg g -1). In addition, a sub-group of children showed a smaller standard deviation on the distribution of zinc and fluorine. Previous results on the trace elemental concentration of the enamel of molar teeth, showed a depletion of up to 50% by mass for strontium after 20 h of exposure in acidic solution. Although the strontium level for the African female group fits this profile it is not certain what the demineralization observed was due too.

  2. Nuclear microanalysis of tooth enamel from a community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [MRG Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa) and Groote Schuur Hospital, Private Bag, Observatory 7935 (South Africa)]. E-mail: pineda@tlabs.ac.za; Naidoo, S. [Faculty of Dentistry, P/Bag X1, Tygerberg 7505 (South Africa); Eisa, M.E.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-07-15

    Extracted teeth collected from a Black African community living in the Gugulethu suburb of Cape Town, South Africa were studied by nuclear microscopy. Analysis by PIXE (with 3.0 MeV protons) of permanent extracted incisor and molar teeth from males and females of different ages showed a homogeneous elemental profile distribution for iron, zinc and strontium, irrespective of gender and/or age. Fluorine content as determined simultaneously from the 110 keV gamma-ray yield from proton bombardment had a similar mean value (females: 1.8% by mass and males: 1.6% by mass) for both genders. However, the mean content of strontium for females (97 {mu}g g{sup -1}) was about 40% lower than that for males (69 {mu}g g{sup -1}). In addition, a sub-group of children showed a smaller standard deviation on the distribution of zinc and fluorine. Previous results on the trace elemental concentration of the enamel of molar teeth, showed a depletion of up to 50% by mass for strontium after 20 h of exposure in acidic solution. Although the strontium level for the African female group fits this profile it is not certain what the demineralization observed was due too.

  3. Nuclear microanalysis of tooth enamel from a community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracted teeth collected from a Black African community living in the Gugulethu suburb of Cape Town, South Africa were studied by nuclear microscopy. Analysis by PIXE (with 3.0 MeV protons) of permanent extracted incisor and molar teeth from males and females of different ages showed a homogeneous elemental profile distribution for iron, zinc and strontium, irrespective of gender and/or age. Fluorine content as determined simultaneously from the 110 keV gamma-ray yield from proton bombardment had a similar mean value (females: 1.8% by mass and males: 1.6% by mass) for both genders. However, the mean content of strontium for females (97 μg g-1) was about 40% lower than that for males (69 μg g-1). In addition, a sub-group of children showed a smaller standard deviation on the distribution of zinc and fluorine. Previous results on the trace elemental concentration of the enamel of molar teeth, showed a depletion of up to 50% by mass for strontium after 20 h of exposure in acidic solution. Although the strontium level for the African female group fits this profile it is not certain what the demineralization observed was due too

  4. A Multidimensional Analysis of Poverty in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sarel van der Walt

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets out the reasoning behind the fuzzy set approach to poverty measurement as a means to address both vertical and horizontal vagueness of poverty. The linear approach of Cerioli and Zani and the totally fuzzy and relative approach of Cheli and Lemmi are discussed and applied to the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, using data from Census 96. The results indicate different experiences of poverty in the Eastern Cape. It is shown that the traditional money metric approach does no...

  5. 75 FR 48990 - Cape Cod National Seashore; South Wellfleet, MA; Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ..., Wellfleet, Massachusetts. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Commission was reestablished pursuant to Public Law 87-126 as amended by Public Law 105-280. The purpose of the Commission is to consult with the... Alternate Transportation funding Other construction projects Land Protection Cape Wide Bicycle...

  6. The development of a web-based, psycho-educational strategy for safe internet use amongst adolescents in the northern suburbs of Cape Town / Serahni Symington

    OpenAIRE

    Symington, Serahni

    2014-01-01

    Within this study, a psycho-educational strategy was designed to promote online safety practices for adolescents living in the northern suburbs of Cape Town. The study made use of a mixed method methodology, including both quantitative and qualitative research. This enabled access to 183 adolescents, as well as gaining more focused and specific insights from adolescent focus groups with a total of eight focus groups. This psycho-educational strategy was designed in the form of an interacti...

  7. Understanding Social Responsiveness: Portraits of practice at the University of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Favish

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 the University of Cape (UCT launched its first annual report on social responsiveness at the university. As a public institution receiving considerable funding from the public purse, it was deemed appropriate that the university should report annually on how it was addressing major development challenges facing the country. The first part of this article describes the process of developing a shared definition of and conceptual clarity about social responsiveness. The second part develops this further by outlining how practices on the ground helped to inform a conceptual framework defining the links between social responsiveness and the other core processes of the university: research and teaching. The third part of the article describes ways to support and reward social responsiveness. Finally, the article assesses the extent to which UCT has been able to institutionalise social responsiveness. The article outlines progress that has been made and suggests that the participative processes employed in the policy development phase have helped lay the foundations for institutionalisation. Despite this, however, challenges remain with respect to ensuring a consistent implementation of the policy across the institution and maximising the impact of social responsiveness on addressing critical challenges facing the country.

  8. Improving the quality of papers submitted to dental journals: Transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Cape Town on Wednesday, 25 June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Giannobile, William V; Sourgen, Deborah L; Balaji, S M; Honkala, Eino; Lynch, Christopher D

    2015-08-01

    This satellite symposium was the fourth in a series for editors, publishers, reviewers and all those with an interest in scientific publishing. It was held on Wednesday 25th June 2014 at the IADR International meeting in Cape Town, South Africa. The symposium attracted more than 180 attendees. This symposium placed an emphasis on how the quality of papers submitted to dental journals could be improved. The panel included representation from editors, researchers and publishers from North America, India and the Gulf States. The symposium identified a number of challenges for editors and publishers, including the poor quality of many papers submitted to dental and other scientific journals, plagiarism, attempted duplicate publication and sometimes fraudulent results. Where possible speakers are identified by name. A subsequent symposium was held during the IADR meeting in Boston on March 11th 2015. Involvement open to editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. PMID:25748020

  9. Disempowerment and Psychological Distress in the Lives of Young People in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in Butterworth, in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, to explore sources of distress for young people. Semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 men and 24 women aged 16-22 years. The findings revealed interconnections between structural factors such as death, poverty,…

  10. Teacher Unionism and School Management: A Study of (Eastern Cape) Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msila, Vuyisile

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was conducted in 10 urban schools, situated in the city of Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The research explored the perceptions of school stakeholders with regard to the effects of power relations between teacher unions and school managers. It is assumed, within the context of this…

  11. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on ...

  12. A Second Chance: The University of Cape Town's Diploma in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Saldanha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a curriculum that gives men and women from predominantly black working class communities a second chance to acquire a formal qualification at a higher education institution in South Africa. The curriculum provides the space for adult students to think critically about themselves and their practice and to develop a confident voice to express themselves. Through this process they develop both learner and educator identities and begin to see how the two intersect. The paper gives some of the historical background of the course, and shows how lecturers who have taught on the programme at different times have helped shape the curriculum. It goes on to discuss the changing nature of the student intake, the curriculum content and structure and ends with a discussion of the impact of the course, on students, staff and on the university as a whole. One very visible impact of the diploma is to be seen in the students who have gone on to acquire other postgraduate qualifications in adult education studies. On a university-wide level, through the involvement of adult education lecturers in other programmes and curricula, knowledge of and interest in adult learning is shared and encouraged.

  13. A profile of the socio-demographic background of children admitted with acute diarrhoea to the Red Cross Children’s Hospital, Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Huskisson

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available The demographic and health profile and anthropometry of 106 young children hospitalised with acute diarrhoea during winter at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, is reported. Information regarding socio-economic status, feeding practices and mothers' knowledge/perceptions about the aetiology of diarrhoea and the use of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT was collected on a predetermined questionnaire in English or Xhosa. The findings underline the need for an aggressive, well-targeted education programme to reduce the morbidity and mortality of vulnerable children as well as the financial drain on the hospital budget.

  14. Unpacking the geography of tourism innovation in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booyens Irma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the geography of tourism innovation in the Western Cape, South Africa. In particular, innovations by tourism firms are mapped and local tourism innovation networks are analysed. Networking behaviour is examined since it is regarded as indispensable for accessing knowledge and learning for innovation purposes. The analysis draws on a broader investigation of tourism innovation and networking within the Western Cape province. It is revealed that the main tourist regions in the Western Cape are also the most innovative. Whilst external networking relations are observed to be highly significant for tourism innovation, local embeddedness remains critical for stimulating path creation and exploiting local core competencies for the competitiveness and survival of tourism firms and destinations.

  15. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots. PMID:25209153

  16. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Maritha E

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading pr...

  17. Rural growth linkages in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngqangweni, Simphiwe

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the impact of rising smallholder incomes on local non-agricultural development in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. It determines how increased rural incomes are spent on a mix of goods and services, and debates the implications of these spending patterns for growth in rural areas through the alleviation of demand constraints. These results make it possible to identify areas of intervention necessary for sustaining growth originating from stimulus to tradable agriculture...

  18. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Sheona Shackleton; Marty Luckert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that liv...

  19. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  20. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  1. Understanding pathways to breast cancer diagnosis among women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Jennifer; Cairncross, Lydia; Naiker, Thurandrie; Momberg, Mariette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore and understand women's pathways to breast cancer diagnosis and factors influencing this journey. Design and setting Indepth interviews were conducted with clients at a tertiary level breast cancer clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. A thematic analysis was performed underpinned by the theoretical concepts of the Model of Pathways to Treatment framework. Participants 20 women were interviewed within 1 week of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Results The average time between discovery of bodily changes to breast cancer diagnosis was 8.5 months. Deficits in breast self-awareness and knowledge of breast cancer symptoms delayed women's interpretation of bodily changes as being abnormal. All women first noticed breast lumps; however, many did not perceive it as abnormal until additional symptoms were present. General good health, attribution of symptoms to ageing, and past benign breast disease resulted in women being complacent about bodily changes. Disclosure to family members served as a trigger to seek healthcare. The initial type of primary level care services women accessed was influenced by perceptions of care each service provided, finances, structural factors, and personal safety related to the physical location of services. Conclusions Symptom appraisal and interpretation contributed significantly to delayed presentation. To improve timely diagnosis of breast cancer, interventions that increase women's confidence in detecting breast changes, improve knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, address myths, and encourage prompt help-seeking behaviour are required. PMID:26729392

  2. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  3. The use of visual methods to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the "self" within two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Elizabeth; Savahl, Shazly

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the "self" within two urban communities of Cape Town in South Africa. Using a child participation methodological framework data were collected using Photovoice and community maps with 54 participants between the ages of 9 and 12. Feelings of safety, social connectedness, and children's spaces were found to be central to the ways in which the participants constructed and assigned meaning to the "self." The study provides implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving children's well-being to be inclusive of activities aimed at improving children's self-concept, including the construction of safe spaces for children to play, learn, and form meaningful relationships. PMID:27291161

  4. The geology of the area south of Vioolsdrif, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological reconnaissance of an area of 1 500 square km to the South of Vioolsdrif in northern Namaqualand has revealed that this region straddles the boundary between the upper crustal Richtersveld domain and the subjacent Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The Vioolsdrif batholith, which underlies much of the Richtersveld, is a composite body, essentially granodioritic, which was emplaced in a number of epizonal magmatic pulses into an overlying comagmatic canopy of intermediate to felsic lavas and pyroclastics during Bushveld times. It is unlikely that this volcanic carapace exceeded 9 km in thickness. During or following consolidation at about 1 800 Ma, the southern margin of the batholith was affected by a thermotectonic episode of regional extent during which the rocks of the igneous complex were foliated and lineated in sympathy with the dominant tectonic fabric of the contiguous metamorphic complex. Metamorphic mineral parageneses indicate that during the climax of this dynamothermal episode, rocks along the southern margin of the batholith were subjected to temperatures of 620 - 670 degrees and pressures of 0,4 - 0,5 MPa (4 - 5 kbar). During this deformational episode the batholith acted as a tectonic resister which preserved the overlying volcanics from incorporation into the metamorphic complex. More or less coincident with the boundary between the metamorphic complex and the Vioolsdrif batholith is a zone about 10 km in width which is characterised by the development of abundant pegmatites

  5. Response times of ambulances to calls from Midwife Obstetric Units of the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Service (PMNS in Cape Town

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    J.K. Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Response times of ambulances to calls from Midwife Obstetric Units, although varied, are perceived as slow. Delays in transporting women experiencing complications during or after their pregnancies to higher levels of care may have negative consequences such as fetal, neonatal or maternal morbidity or death. An exploratory descriptive study was undertaken to investigate the response times of ambulances of the Western Cape Emergency Medical Services to calls from midwife obstetric units (MOUs in the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Services (PMNS in Cape Town. Response times were calculated from data collected in specific MOUs using a specifically developed instrument. Recorded data included time of call placed requesting transfer, diagnosis or reason for transfer, priority of call and the time of arrival of ambulance to the requesting facility. Mean, median and range of response times, in minutes, to various MOUs and priorities of calls were calculated. These were then compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A comparison was then made between the recorded and analysed response times to national norms and recommendations for ambulance response times and maternal transfer response times respectively.A wide range of response times was noted for the whole sample. Median response times across all priorities of calls and to all MOUs in sample fell short of national norms and recommendations. No statistical differences were noted between various priorities of calls and MOUs.The perception of delayed response times of ambulances to MOUs in the PMNS was confirmed in this pilot study.

  6. Trends in commercial handline catches of Redfishes along the Southern Cape Coast, Republic of South Africa

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    R. J. M Crawford

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1898-1906 red romans Chrysoblephus laticeps dominated redfish landings at Strand and Hermanus, Republic of South Africa, ports subject to cool upwelling conditions. Red stumpnoses C. gibbiceps were the main species along the eastern Cape Peninsula and seventy-fours Polysteganus undulosus at most harbours east of Cape Agulhas. By the late 1970's romans were dominant between Kalk Bay and Arniston and also important contributors else-where, but seventy-fours were only recorded in any significant quantities from Port Alfred. Interpretation of these trends is complicated by a lumping of catches, but the possibility of an environmental change favouring romans (cooler water at the expense of seventy-fours (warmer water cannot be discounted. Other marine forms having a biology associated with cooler waters have also increased along the southern Cape coast in recent years. Redfish resources at Gans Bay and Struts Bay are not currently overexploited, but provide a valuable source of remuneration for local fishermen when preferred target species are absent. Limited data collected in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park indicate that dageraad C. cristiceps populations could deteriorate rapidly if subjected to high fishing pressure. The contribution of dageraads to combined redfish landings is currently highest in areas of low exploitation.

  7. Isolation and identification of species of Alicyclobacillus from orchard soil in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Willem H; Gouws, Pieter A; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2008-01-01

    Alicyclobacilli were isolated from orchard soil collected from an apple and pear farm in Elgin, Western Cape, South Africa. Morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of the isolates were used to presumptively classify them as belonging to the genus Alicyclobacillus. Strains were identified to species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with genus-specific primers, and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. To our knowledge this is the first report on the isolation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius from orchard soil. The presence of these organisms in the soil suggests a possible source of contamination for the final fruit juice, concentrate or pulp. PMID:17938854

  8. Floristic and structural features of the coastal foreland vegetation south of the Berg River, western Cape Province, South Africa

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    C. Boucher

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Floristic and structural features of the three main vegetation types found in the coastal foreland of the western Cape Province, south of the Berg River, are outlined. Coastal Renosterveld. which occupies 6% of its former extent, is the most threatened type, followed by Coastal Fynbos (14% and West Coast Strandveld (41%. Coastal Renosterveld is closely related to Mountain Fynbos vegetation found on clay-rich soils together with West Coast Strandveld inclusions in specific habitats. Coastal Renosterveld is the product of recent regular disturbance by a short interval burning regime and overgrazing.

  9. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

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    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  10. A Critical Appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability V Government of the Republic of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petronell Kruger.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal acce...

  11. Plant communities along the Eerste River, Western Cape, South Africa: Community descriptions and implications for restoration

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    Clifton S. Meek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Riparian plant communities fulfil many functions, including the provision of corridors linking protected areas and other zones of high conservation value. These habitats across much of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region, especially in the lowlands, have been heavily impacted and degraded by human activities. There is increasing interest in the restoration of degraded riparian zones and the ecosystem services they provide to enhance the conservation value of landscapes. Previous studies of riparian vegetation in the Cape Floristic Region focused on pristine headwater systems, and little is known about human-impacted communities that make up most of the riparian vegetation in downstream areas. More information is needed on the composition of these plant communities to establish a baseline for management intervention. The riparian zone of the Eerste River in South Africa’s Western Cape province provides a good opportunity to study the features of riparian vegetation along the entire gradient, from pristine vegetation in a protected area through different levels of human-mediated degradation. Riparian vegetation was surveyed in 150 plots along the entire length of the Eerste River (ca. 40 km. Data were analysed using the vegetation classification and analysis software package JUICE. Final groupings were plotted onto a two-dimensional detrended correspondence analysis plane to check the position of the communities in the reduced multidimensional space. Ten distinct plant communities were identified, including several novel communities dominated by alien plant species. Descriptions of each plant community are presented. Diagnostic, constant and dominant species are listed and the major structural and ecological characteristics of each community are described.Conservation implications: Major changes to hydrological and soil properties, nutrient dynamics and disturbance regimes and plant species composition along sections of the riparian zone mean

  12. Health risk behaviours of stroke patients in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    D. Biggs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  13. Correlates of substance abuse treatment completion among disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche Sonja; Myers Bronwyn J; Adam Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with ...

  14. Evaluating Truck Empty Running in Construction: A Case Study from Cape Town, South Africa

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    Winston Shakantu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of any transport operation isdependent on the degree to which vehiclecapacity is utilised on the forward and returntrips. Efficiency requirements create thelogistical challenges of finding backloads forreturning vehicles. In the absence ofbackloads, vehicles travel empty on the returnjourney. Construction is fundamentallydifferent from other freight services in thatapart from requiring large quantities of materialinputs, it also generates appreciable levels ofwaste. There is therefore, potential forreducing empty running by construction trucksthrough back-loading waste to points ofdisposal, reuse, recycling or reclamation.Back-loading, which is one of the reverselogistics processes is important for returningproducts that are damaged, obsolete or wornout and those unacceptable to buyers. Backloadingis also associated with utilising sparecapacity in the supply chain to increase returnon truck investment. This paper examines theoperations and processes associated withconstruction materials and waste logistics andassesses the potential for reduction in truckempty running through utilisation of thereverse logistics concept.

  15. Leisure Boredom and High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Lisa; Flisher, Alan J.; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl; King, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated whether leisure boredom predicts high school dropout. Leisure boredom is the perception that leisure experiences do not satisfy the need for optimal arousal. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Leisure Boredom Scale. The original cohort of grade 8 students (n=303) was…

  16. Three new species of Lachenalia (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae from Western and Northern Cape, South Africa

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    G. D. Duncan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the sixth in a series of papers on Lachenalia, towards a revision of the genus. Three new species are described. L. lutea from the southwestern part of the Western Cape, L. cernua from the southern Cape Peninsula and the Worcester Valley of the Western Cape, and L. nardousbergensis from the Bokkeveld Plateau of the Northern Cape, and the Nardousberge and Middelburg Plateaus of the Western Cape.

  17. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  18. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  19. Trend and seasonal variation of atmospheric mercury concentrations at the Cape Point GAW observatory, South Africa

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    Brunke E.-G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM has been measured at the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station at Cape Point, South Africa since September 1995. Two techniques were used: a low resolution manual technique till the end of 2004 and a high resolution automated technique since March 2007. The GEM measurements at Cape Point constitute only one component of the GAW monitoring program consisting of continuous measurements of CO, CH4, CO2, O3, N2O, and since March 1999 also of 222Rn. The seasonality and trend of GEM concentrations from the low resolution data was analyzed by Slemr et al. (2008 and the trend of the combined low and high resolution data until the end of 2009 by Slemr et al. (2011. In this paper we will present an updated analysis of the trend and seasonality of GEM data until the end of 2011 and compare these to measurements made at Troll, a Norwegian research station in Antarctica (Pfaffhuber et al., 2012.

  20. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

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    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  1. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  2. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

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    Maritha E. Snyman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading promotion project was responsible for positive changes in the lives of the beneficiaries of the intervention. It especially points to the positive role access to appropriate reading material and prolonged and enthusiastic reading motivation can play in the lives of a developing community with little means.Keywords: reading; reading promotion; reader development; longitudinal

  3. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in two tertiary centres in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Weakley Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a disease that shows wide variations between differing populations. Since the recent international consensus on classification criteria, JIA has been widely described in many countries and population groups. There has been almost no data that describes JIA in an African, specifically Sub-Saharan African, setting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe disease characteristics, disease course, and functional disability in two tertiary centres in the Western Cape, South Africa and compare the findings to other JIA populations. Methods Eighty-six children were recruited during random clinic visits to rheumatology clinics at Tygerberg and Groote Schuur Hospital between April 2010 and April 2011. Children were diagnosed using International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR 2001 classification criteria. Consent was obtained and medical records examined. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaires (CHAQ and visual analogue scales (VAS for pain and general well-being were completed and all children were examined by a researcher in conjunction with a paediatric rheumatologist. HIV status as well as tuberculosis disease and treatment were investigated. Results A total of 86 children were enrolled. Eight children were excluded (2 HIV arthropathy, 1 TB arthritis, 1 SLE, 4 with insufficient data, leaving a total of 78 patients. There was an equal female to male ratio-39 males and 39 females. There were 6 systemic JIA patients (7.69%, 17 persistent oligoarthritis (21.79%, 4 extended oligoarthritis (5.12%, 11 polyarthritis rheumatoid factor (RF positive (14.10%, 21 polyarthritis RF negative (26.9%, 1 psoriatic arthritis (1.28%, and 18 enthesitis-related arthritis (23%. The median CHAQ for the group was 0.5 (IQR 0.1-1.25, the median VAS for pain was 18 mm (IQR 4–42 and median VAS for general well-being was 25 mm (IQR 3–49. Enthesitis-related arthritis and polyarthritis disease

  5. Deaths Rates in Public Hospitals of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    A Nge Okwe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa (SA is experiencing a rapid epidemiologic transition as a consequence of political, economic and social changes. In this study we described, based on hospital data, the mortality patterns of Non communicable Diseases (NCD, Communicable Diseases (CD, the NCD/CD ratios, and the trends of deaths.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all deaths occurring in several public hospitals in the Eastern Cape Province of SA between 2002 and 2006. Causes of deaths were coded according to the ICD 10 Edition.Results: A total of 107380 admissions responded to the inclusion criteria between 2002 and 2006. The crude death rate was 4.3% (n=4566 with a mean age of 46±21 years and a sex ratio of 3.1 men (n=3453: 1 woman (n=1113. Out of all deaths, there were 62.9% NCD (n=2872 vs. 37.1% CD (n=1694 with NCD/CD ratio of 1.7. The ratio NCD/CD deaths in men was 1.3 (n=1951/1502 vs. NCD/CD deaths in women of 1.9 (n=735/378. The peak of deaths was observed in winter season. The majority of NCD deaths were at age of 30-64 years, whereas the highest rate of CD deaths was at age< 30 years. The trend of deaths including the majority of NCD, increased from 2002 to 2006. There was a tendency of increase in tuberculosis deaths, but a tendency of decrease in HIV/AIDS deaths was from 2002 to 2006.Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of deaths in rural Eastern Cape province of SA facing Post-epidemiologic transition stages. We recommend overarching priority actions for the response to the Non-communicable Diseases: policy change, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, research, monitoring, accountability, and re-orientation of health systems.

  6. Three new species of Diascia (Scrophulariaceae from the Western Cape, South Africa

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    K. E. Steiner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new annual species of Diascia Link & Otto are described from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. D. collina is characterized by greyish magenta flowers with two divergent yellow sacs containing oil-secreting trichomes. It is restricted to granite outcrops in the vicinity of Saldanha Bay, from the West Coast National Park and Langebaan north to Vredenburg. D. pusilla is closely related to D. collina. but differs from that species in having smaller flowers with shorter, ± parallel sacs, and posticous filaments that lack a protuberance where they bend sharply backwards towards the upper lip. It occurs in grey to whitish sands usually near seasonally moist or wet areas. It has not been found more than 35 km from the coast and ranges from Modderrivier, south o f Darling, north to Lambert’s Bay. D. appendiculata is related to D. diffusa (Thunb. Benth. and is characterized by having small, mainly reddish lilac to greyish magenta flowers, two shallow depressions in the corolla tube at the base of the upper lip, and posticous filaments with sterile appendages. It is known from only six localities in the general vicinity of Citrusdal and occurs in fynbos vegetation on lower mountain slopes or flats, in loose alluvial sands derived from Table Mountain Sandstone.

  7. Implementation of the biomass gasification project for community empowerment at Melani village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni S.; Meyer, Edson L. [University of Fort Hare, Institute of Technology, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Eskom and the University of Fort Hare are engaged in a biomass gasification project using the System Johansson Biomass gasifier (SJBG). The SJBG installed at Melani village in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa is used to assess the viability and affordability of biomass gasification in South Africa. A community needs assessment study was undertaken at the village before the installation of the plant. The study revealed the need for low-cost electricity for small businesses including growing of crops, chicken broilers, manufacturing of windows and door frames, sewing of clothing, bakery etc. It was also found that the community had a problem with the socio-environmental aspects of burning biomass waste from the sawmill furnace as a means of waste management. The SJBG uses the excess biomass materials (waste) to generate low-cost electricity to drive community economic development initiatives. A study on the properties and suitability of the biomass materials resulting from sawmill operation and their suitability for gasification using the SJBG was undertaken. The study established that the biomass materials meet the requirements for the SJBG. A 300 Nm{sup 3}/h SJBG was then manufactured and installed at the village. (author)

  8. Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of the vegetation layer of the Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pondoland region of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa is very poorly studied with regard to invertebrate diversity, particularly in the case of arachnids. Accordingly, and in view of proposed infrastructural and mining developments in this ecologically sensitive area of high plant endemism, baseline data are provided on spiders (Araneae of the vegetation layer (i.e. excluding the ground-dwelling fauna of the Mkambati Nature Reserve (MNR. Spiders were collected at 26 sites (six forest and 20 grassland sites in the MNR over an eight-day period, using sweep sampling and active searching of flowers in grassland and tree beating in forests, as part of a broader biodiversity survey. Additional specimens were collected with Malaise and pan traps. A total of 1275 specimens were sampled, representing 132 species (6.6% of the total number recorded in South Africa in 103 genera and 29 families. Theridiidae and Araneidae were the most diverse spider families in the reserve, represented by 22 species each (16.7% of the total, followed by Thomisidae with 19 species (14.4% and Salticidae with 18 species (13.6%. Grassland and forest had distinct spider faunas, with only 24.2% of species being recorded from both biomes. The average number of species sampled per site in grassland and forest was 26 species for both habitats, although values for the two biomes are not directly comparable because different sampling methods were used. All 132 species are new records for the reserve, of which 20 were new records for the Eastern Cape and at least eight spider species may be new to science. The spider diversity captured despite temporal and methodological limits indicates that many additional species are likely to occur in the reserve. Conservation implications: If the MNR is not adequately conserved at least five new species, which may be confined to the area, would be at high risk of extinction and 15 other species endemic to the Pondoland and Kwa

  9. Changing land- and seascape environments at Cape Sable, a coastal wetland complex in south florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaswinkel, B.; Wanless, H.; Rankey, E.

    2003-04-01

    Cape Sable, a large coastal wetland complex at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula (U.S.), is currently undergoing dramatic changes in land- and seascape in response to historical sea level rise. The rise in sea level is progressively inundating a low marl ridge that has separated interior freshwater marshes of the Everglades from marine waters, leading to rapid widening of both natural tidal creeks and constructed canals. The linear rate of widening (0.7 to 1.2 meter per year since 1922) reflects a system out of equilibrium, in which the channels are seeking to accommodate the volume of water in the tidal prism. Rising sea level has enlarged the tidal prism by expanding the intertidal zone into former low-lying uplands. Opening of the channels has resulted in the creation and erosive widening of secondary channels into adjacent wetlands, further enlarging the tidal prism and tendency to widening. In the vicinity of some tidal inlets, the shoreline has eroded over 310 meters (since 1922; an overall rate of 4.6 m/yr), although erosion occur in steps in response to hurricanes (category 5 hurricanes in 1935, 1960 and 1992). In addition to changing channel morphology and beach erosion, rising sea level has shifted the mangrove/ freshwater marsh ecotone boundary inland significantly. Continued sea-level rise will inundate the marl ridge and accelerate erosion and breakup of the Cape Sable beach shoreline. The coastal red mangrove wetland could possibly keep pace with accelerated sea level rise, but hurricane setbacks negate this effect in south Florida. Category 4 and 5 hurricanes devastate the red mangrove forests and set into motion a phase of root-peat substrate decay and subsidence which has caused stepwise loss of both coastal and interior forests during the past 70 years of rapidly rising sea level. Changes in the coastal wetland environments of south Florida, in which critical habitats are imminently threatened, are driven by nonlinear processes that

  10. Upstream Ecological Risks for Overweight and Obesity Among African American Youth in a Rural Town in the Deep South, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alison J Scott; Wilson, Rebecca F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have focused on overweight and obesity among rural African American youth in the Deep South, despite disproportionately high rates in this group. In addition, few studies have been conducted to elucidate how these disparities are created and perpetuated within rural communities in this region. This descriptive study explores community-based risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South. Methods We used ecological theor...

  11. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Tempelhoff; Dewald van Niekerk; Elize van Eeden; Ina Gouws; Karin Botha; Rabson Wurige

    2009-01-01

    The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding ...

  12. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Service in the Northern Cape / Marietha de Wet

    OpenAIRE

    De Wet, Margaretha

    2003-01-01

    Suicide is a complex phenomenon, which can be prevented if intensive and continuous research is being done to determine tendencies and to compile profiles of high-risk cases. Suicide prevention is currently a high priority in the South African Police Service (SAPS). In the Northern Cape various potential stressors, such as a high crime level, lack of resources and vast distances to travel are some of the challenges members of the police service face. Increased rates of post-tra...

  13. Aeolianite and barrier dune construction spanning the last two glacial-interglacial cycles from the southern Cape coast, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, M.D.; Holmes, P.J.; Carr, A. S.; Horton, B. P.; M. K. Jaiswal

    2004-01-01

    The southern Cape region of South Africa has extensive coastal aeolianites and barrier dunes. Whilst previously reported, limited knowledge of their age has precluded an understanding of their relationship with the climatic and sea-level fluctuations that have taken place during the Late Quaternary. Sedimentological and geomorphological studies combined with an optical dating programme reveal aeolianite development and barrier dune construction spanning at least the last two glacial–interglac...

  14. Keeping cattle? The politics of value in the communal areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Ainslie, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the cultural politics and economics of the ownership, exchange and consumption of cattle in Peddie District in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Specifically, the question for which I sought an explanation is why - given a long history of government attempts to limit and channel cattle ownership by rural Xhosa people, as well as what appeared to be entrenched processes of de-agrarianisation, economic decline and considerble circular migration between tow...

  15. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Swanepoel; Bob Mash; Tracey Naledi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS) of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with ...

  16. Analysis of seventeen Y-chromosome STR loci in the Cape Muslim population of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Kevin; Ehrenreich, Liezle; D'Amato, María Eugenia; Leat, Neil; Davison, Sean; Benjeddou, Mongi

    2010-01-01

    Two Y-STR genotyping systems were evaluated for usefulness in forensic casework in the Cape Muslim population of South Africa. Samples were collected from 105 males, and genotyped for 17 loci amplified in two multiplexes. Allele and haplotype frequencies were determined for nine Y-STR loci used to define the minimal haplotype (DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and the duplicated locus DYS385) amplified in one multiplex, as well as for eight widely used loci amplified in a second multiplex and consisting of DYS449, DYS481, DYS518, DYS557, DYS570, DYS607, DYS612 and DYS614. When analysing the samples for all the loci, 104 unique haplotypes were obtained, and the discrimination capacity was 0.990. When considering only the nine Y-STRs included in the minimal haplotype, 91 unique haplotypes were obtained, and the discrimination capacity was 0.866. In the case of the remaining eight Y-STR loci, values of 97 and 0.924 were obtained, respectively. PMID:19962930

  17. Host specificity and co-speciation in avian haemosporidia in the Western Cape, South Africa.

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    Sharon Okanga

    Full Text Available Host and pathogen ecology are often closely linked, with evolutionary processes often leading to the development of host specificity traits in some pathogens. Host specificity may range from 'generalist', where pathogens infect any available competent host; to 'specialist', where pathogens repeatedly infect specific host species or families. Avian malaria ecology in the region remains largely unexplored, despite the presence of vulnerable endemic avian species. We analysed the expression of host specificity in avian haemosporidia, by applying a previously developed host specificity index to lineages isolated from wetland passerines in the Western Cape, South Africa. Parasite lineages were isolated using PCR and identified when possible using matching lineages deposited in GenBank and in MalAvi. Parasitic clades were constructed from phylogenetic trees consisting of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus lineages. Isolated lineages matched some strains of Plasmodium relictum, P. elongatum, Haemoproteus sylvae and H. lanii. Plasmodium lineages infected a wide range of hosts from several avian families in a generalist pattern of infection. Plasmodium spp. also exhibited an infection trend according to host abundance rather than host species. By contrast, Haemoproteus lineages were typically restricted to one or two host species or families, and displayed higher host fidelity than Plasmodium spp. The findings confirm that a range of host specificity traits are exhibited by avian haemosporidia in the region. The traits show the potential to not only impact infection prevalence within specific host species, but also to affect patterns of infection at the community level.

  18. Rabies in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - where are we going wrong?

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    S.J. Van Sittert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a growing problem in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study investigated dog ecology, vaccination coverage and rabies neutralising antibody levels in 203 randomly selected dogs within a local municipality in the former Transkei area. Responses to vaccination were also evaluated in 80 of these dogs. The population was remarkably uniform in size, breed and condition. Slightly over 1/5th of the population was between 6 weeks and 1 year of age, while very few dogs reached 10 years or older. According to owner responses, the Animal Health Technicians achieved a total vaccination coverage of 65 % of owned dogs over several years, but only 56 % within the previous 12 months. Only 32%of dogs had adequate circulating rabies virus neutralisation antibodies (≥0.5IU/ℓ. After vaccination, 83 % had seroconverted to this level. The magnitude of seroconversion was independent of body condition or age. This study proposes a different approach to vaccination strategies than those currently employed in certain areas of the province.

  19. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf south of Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (shatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Phaswana-Mafuya Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART. The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. Methods In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Results Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66% classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Conclusion Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  1. Notes on the Vegetation of the Cape Flats

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    H. C. Taylor

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Though the Cape Flats, adjoining Cape Town, were among the first explored parts o f South Africa, their vegetation, rapidly being altered by encroachment o f alien plants, has not been described before. In these notes, five inland and four coastal plant communities, delineated by habitat, are described; their relationships with one another and with coast-flats vegetation elsewhere are suggested. Observations on means of regeneration after fire show that the woody, tropical-derived element regenerates rapidly from coppice, while the “fynbos” or temperate sclerophyll element contains many seed-regenerating species. Succession in the fynbos is thus more complex and prolonged.

  2. Interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and synoptic type association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Christien J.; Landman, Willem A.

    2016-07-01

    The link between interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and different synoptic types as well as selected teleconnections is explored. Synoptic circulation over the region is classified into different synoptic types by employing a clustering technique, the self-organizing map (SOM), on daily circulation data for the 33-year period from 1979 to 2011. Daily rainfall data are used to investigate interannual variability of seasonal rainfall within the context of the identified synoptic types. The anomalous frequency of occurrence of the different synoptic types for wet and for dry seasons differs significantly within the SOM space, except for austral spring. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types are to a large extent consistent for wet and dry seasons. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types have a notable larger contribution to seasonal rainfall totals during wet seasons than during dry seasons, consistent with a higher frequency of occurrence of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types during wet seasons compared to dry seasons. Dry seasons are characterized by a smaller contribution to seasonal rainfall totals by all the different synoptic types, but with the largest negative anomalies associated with low frequencies of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types. The frequencies of occurrence of specific configurations of ridging high pressure systems, cut-off lows and tropical-temperate troughs associated with rainfall are positively linked to interannual variability of seasonal rainfall. It is also shown that the distribution of synoptic types within the SOM space is linked to the Southern Annular Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation, implying some predictability of intraseasonal variability at the seasonal time scale.

  3. Three new species of Tritoniopsis (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the Cape Region of South Africa

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    J. C. Manning

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the largely Western Cape genus Tritoniopsis L.Bolus are described, bringing the number of species in the genus to 24.  Tritoniopsis bicolor and  T. flava are newly discovered, narrow endemics of the Bredasdorp Mountains and the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, respectively, in the southwestern Cape. Both of these are areas of high local endemism.  T. toximontana, known since at least 1465 but misunderstood, is restricted to the Gifberg-Matsikamma Mountain complex of northern Western Cape. Notes on the pollination biology of the species are provided.

  4. Through the Fear: A Study of Xenophobia in South Africa’s Refugee System

    OpenAIRE

    Janet McKnight

    2008-01-01

    In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in con...

  5. Vegetation and vegetation-environment relationships at Grootbos Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

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    M. Mergili

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The private Grootbos Nature Reserve is located at the Western edge of the Agulhas Plain in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, an area characterized by high habitat and floristic diversity. The Reserve is covered in near-natural fynbos shrublands with a few patches of forest and wetland. The main objective of this study was to classify the vegetation into discrete units and relate them to the prevailing environmental conditions. The vegetation was analysed by numerical means (TWINSPAN, DC A, CCA and mapped on GIS. At the vegetation type level. Forest & Thicket and Fynbos formed distinctive clusters, whereas the wetland releves were intermixed, but without relationships to one of these units. Fire incidence served as the major determinant of the forest-fynbos boundary. The Forest & Thicket grouping was separated into Thicket (as transitional to fynbos, Afromontane Forest and Milkwood Scrub Forest. Two broad complexes were distinguished within the Fynbos grouping, the Alkaline Sand Fynbos Complex corresponding to Coastal Fynbos. and the Acid Sand Fynbos Complex corresponding to Mountain Fynbos. They discriminated along gradients of pH. soil depth and rock cover. The complexes were further subdivided into formations by using one or a few subjectively chosen dominant species as indicators. The transitions between these formations were rather continuous than discrete. The vegetation type and complex levels correspond well to existing fynbos-wide classifications. Comparing the formations to the results of other vegetation studies is problematic even on the scale of the Agulhas Plain, due to the high regional plant diversity in the Fynbos Biome.

  6. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

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    M.J. Sengwana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management

  7. Virgilia divaricata may facilitate forest expansion in the afrotemperate forests of the southern Cape, South Africa

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    Corli Coetsee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Virgilia divaricata is a fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree species often found on the margins of forest in the southern Cape of South Africa and is particularly abundant after fire. However, V. divaricatamay invade fynbos even in the absence of fire and it has been described as a forest precursor. We investigated whether V. divaricata enriches soil fertility after its invasion into fynbos areas adjacent to forests. We measured soil organic carbon and soil nutrients at four sites. At each site, three vegetation types (forest, V. divaricata and fynbos were examined on the same soil type and at the same elevation. Our results showed that, on average, soils taken from V. divaricata stands had higher nitrogen and phosphorus values than the adjacent fynbos soils, with either lower or similar values to the adjacent forest soils. Higher soil fertility under V. divaricata, together with their shading effect, may create conditions favourable for shade-loving forest species dependent on an efficient nutrient cycle in the topsoil layers, and less favourable for shade-hating fynbos species, which are generally adapted to low soil fertility. We suggest that the restoration of the nutrient cycle found in association with forest may be accelerated under V. divaricata compared with other forest precursor species, which has important consequences for the use of V. divaricata in ecosystem restoration.Conservation implications: Alien plantations in the Outeniqua Mountains are being phased out and the areas are being incorporated into the Garden Route National Park. Fynbos areas are increasingly being invaded by forest and thicket species owing to fire suppression in lower-lying areas. An improved understanding of the fynbos–forest boundary dynamics will aid in efficient management and restoration of these ecosystems.

  8. Late-Pleistocene avifaunas from Cape Wanbrow, Otago, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil avifaunas from the Hillgrove Formation at Boatmans Harbour, Ruby Gully, and Old Rifle Butts, all on Cape Wanbrow, Oamaru, north-east Otago, are listed. The marine beach sands and gravels at Old Rifle Butts that form the lowest part of the Hillgrove Formation and overlie the palaeo-wave platform were deposited during the last interglacial ∼ 130-110 kyr BP (Oxygen Isotope Stage 5). There are a few small avifaunas (totalling 11 spp.) from these beach sediments (J41/f8710, f8214, f8227). The colluvial, valley-fill deposits in Ruby Gully and at its mouth are the youngest in the sequence. Radiocarbon dating indicates their emplacement between 27 and 34 kyr BP, or the later part of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3. If these ages are representative of the true age of the samples and not the limitations of radiocarbon technology, they indicate that these deposits in Ruby Gully are much younger than the beach deposits. Radiocarbon ages on a pitfall fauna from a small cave 3-4 m above the base of the Hillgrove Formation indicate that the cave fauna has a similar age as that in Ruby Gully. The dune and interdune waterlaid deposits at Old Rifle Butts (>2 m above the wave platform) may date from an unknown time between 100 and 35 kyr BP or be coeval with those in Ruby Gully. Fifty-three species of bird (32 land and freshwater taxa) are represented in the combined avifaunas making this the richest Pleistocene avifauna known from New Zealand. All bird taxa are known from Late Holocene avifaunas in the eastern South Island. Key taxa (Pachyornis elephantopus, Emeus crassus, Euryapteryx geranoides, Coturnix, Chenonetta, Cnemiornis, Harpagornis, Fulica, Porphyrio, Gallinula) indicate that the habitat was mainly grassland and shrubland. Tuatara, indeterminate skinks, and seals are also present. (author). 57 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Ultrastructural micromorphology of bulbine abyssinica A. rich. growing in the eastern cape province, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Bulbine (Asphodelaceae) comprises about 40 species in South Africa. Bulbine abyssinica is a succulent member of the genus that occurs from the Eastern Cape, through Swaziland, Lesotho, and further north to Ethiopia. The species is often used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism dysentery, bilharzia and diabetes. Inspite of its ethno medicinal value, not much data concerning the micro-morphological features is available in literature. The present study was undertaken to examine the ultra-morphological features of the leaf, stem and root of the plant using light and scanning electron microscopes and the elemental composition. The elemental compositions of the plant parts were done using energy dispersive x- ray spectroscopy. The mean length and width of the guard cells in the abaxial surface are 0.15 ± 0.002 mm and 0.14 ± 0.002 mm, respectively while those of the adaxial surface are 0.14 ± 0.001 mm and 0.12 ± 0.001 mm, respectively. The electron microscopy revealed the presence of crystals in the leaves, stems and roots. The EDXS microanalysis of the crystals revealed the presence of sodium, silicon, potassium and calcium as the major constituents. The leaf also showed the presence of iron and magnesium, while the stem had aluminium, phosphorous and magnesium. The X-ray analysis of the roots also revealed the presence of sulphur and aluminium. The presence of these elements, which are vital in maintaining good health status, suggests the potential role of B. abyssinica in the treatment of infections and some chronic diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. (author)

  10. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  11. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. – a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jaeger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of P. kreutzmanni sp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875.

  12. A comparison of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus line probe assay and Xpert® MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting in Cape Town.

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    Pren Naidoo

    Full Text Available Xpert MTB/RIF was introduced as a screening test for all presumptive tuberculosis cases in primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa.To compare multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus Line Probe Assay and Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting.The study was undertaken in 10 of 29 high tuberculosis burden primary health facilities, selected through stratified random sampling. An observational study was undertaken as facilities transitioned to the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. MDR-TB diagnostic data were collected from electronic laboratory records and treatment data from clinical records and registers. Kaplan Meier time-to-event analysis was used to compare treatment commencement time, laboratory turnaround time and action delay between algorithms. A facility-level paired analysis was done: the median time-to-event was estimated per facility in each algorithm and mean differences between algorithms compared using a paired t-test. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the effect of patient-level variables on treatment commencement time. The difference between algorithms was compared using the hazard ratio.The median treatment commencement time in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm was 17 days (95% CI 13 to 22 days, with a median laboratory turnaround time (to result available in the laboratory of <1 day (95% CI<1 to 1 day. There was a decrease of 25 days (95% CI 17 to 32 days, p<0.001 in median MDR-TB treatment commencement time in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. We found no significant effect on treatment commencement times for the patient-level variables assessed.MDR-TB treatment commencement time was significantly reduced in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. Changes in the health system may have contributed. However, an unacceptable level of delay remains. Health system and patient factors contributing to delay need to be evaluated and addressed to

  13. The Compilation of Multilingual Concept Literacy Glossaries at the University of Cape Town: A Lexicographical Function Theoretical Approach Die samestelling van veeltaligekonsep-geletterheidswoordelyste by die Universiteit van Kaapstad: 'n Leksikografiesefunksieteoretiese benadering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Nkomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article proposes a lexicographical approach to the compilation of multilingual concept literacy glossaries which may play a very important role in supporting students at institutions of higher education. In order to support concept literacy, especially for students for whom English is not the native language, a number of universities in South Africa are compiling multilingual glossaries through which the use of languages other than English may be employed as auxiliary media. Terminologies in languages other than English are developed by translating English terms or coining new terms in these languages to exploit the native language competence of most students. The glossary project at the University of Cape Town (UCT which was conceived under the auspices of the Multilingualism Education Project (MEP is discussed. It is shown that the UCT glossaries are compiled using methods consistent with those employed in modern lexicography or proffered in lexicographical theory. The lexicographical function theory is specifically used to account for the glossaries and their production. It is suggested that modern lexicography can provide useful guidance for the production of glossaries, given that the earliest glossaries constitute the humble beginnings of lexicography.

    Hierdie artikel stel 'n leksikografiese benadering tot die samestelling van meertaligekonsep-geletterheidswoordelyste voor wat 'n baie belangrike rol kan speel by die ondersteuning van studente by instellings vir hoër onderwys. Om konsepgeletterdheid te ondersteun, veral vir studente vir wie Engels nie die moedertaal is nie, stel 'n aantal universiteite in Suid-Afrika meertalige woordelyste saam waardeur die gebruik van ander tale as Engels as hulpmedia aangewend kan word. Terminologieë in ander tale as Engels word ontwikkel deur Engelse terme te vertaal of nuwe terme in hierdie tale te skep om die moedertaalvaardigheid van die meeste

  14. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  15. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  16. 222Rn calibrated mercury fluxes from terrestrial surfaces of southern Africa derived from observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Slemr F.; Brunke E.-G.; Whittlestone S.; Zahorowski W.; Ebinghaus R.; Kock H. H.; Labuschagne C.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and 222Rn, a radioactive gas of primarily terrestrial origin with a half-life of 3.8 days, have been measured simultaneously at Cape Point, South Africa, since March 2007. Between March 2007 and December 2009 altogether 59 events with high 222Rn concentrations were identified. GEM correlated with 222Rn in 41 of the events and was constant during the remaining events without significant correlation. The average GEM/222Rn emission ratio of all events was −0.0047 ...

  17. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit production (deciduous fruit, table and wine grapes, and citrus) is a major export-based industry in the Western Cape, with more than 200,000 ha under cultivation. The gross value of these fruits (excluding wine) exceeds US$400 million per annum. Deciduous fruit and table grapes make up the major portion of the industry, with approximately 110,000 ha under production. The Western Cape is host to two species of fruit flies, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch. One or both of these species attack at least 19 species of fruits in this area. Both species have very similar life cycles and habits, and can cause enormous crop losses especially to fruits, but also to some vegetables. Both commercial and resource-limited farmers are affected by fruit flies. Control of fruit flies is currently based on ground applications of insecticides, either as full-cover foliar sprays or low-volume bait sprays. Control costs and crop losses for deciduous fruit and table grapes alone are estimated at US$4 million annually. South Africa is the only southern hemisphere deciduous fruit-exporting country that is not fruit fly-free or is not currently engaged in a project to eradicate fruit flies. Unless similar steps are taken, this situation is likely to threaten the competitiveness of the Western Cape's industry. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the United Nations recently approved funding for the INFRUITEC Centre of the ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch to undertake a study to determine the feasibility of eradicating fruit flies from the Western Cape by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Most fruits in the Western Cape are produced in valley systems, and many valleys are isolated from one another to a greater or lesser extent. The Western Cape is itself well isolated from other areas with fruit fly hosts: by the ocean on the eastern, southern and

  18. A new culture plant in Söke Plain (Aydın): Cape Gooseberry/Golden Strawberry (Physalis peruviana)

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Yasemin; GÜNAL, NURTEN

    2012-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an economically valuable species of Physalis in the family of Solanaceae. Native to the tropical South America, Cape Gooseberry then spread to tropical, subtropical, and sometimes mild climate zones. Physalis peruviana is a plant that highly needs heat, sun light and moisture, and that does not withstand low temperature and strong winds. It is not so much selective in terms of soil.Cape Gooseberry/Golden Strawberry was first grown in the town Bağarası i...

  19. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of the Republic of South Africa 2011 5 SA 87 (WCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Petronell

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal acce...

  20. New species and taxonomic changes within Pentaschistis (Danthonioideae, Poaceae from Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Galley

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Pentaschistis (Nees Stapf are described from the Cape Floristic Region. P. trifida. P clavata and P. horrida. The former has been collected from inland ranges of the Cape Fold Belt, from the Cederberg to the Groot Swartberg. the last two each from single sites in the Koue Bokkeveld:  P. clavata on the wetter western border, and P. horrida on the Baviaansberg. Pentaschistis juncifolia Stapf is re-instated, a species from the coastal plains (Hardeveld between Bredasdorp and Riversdale, which had been included in P. eriostoma (Nees Stapf.

  1. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  2. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar δ15N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha-1 a-1 since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa

  3. Preliminary list of Xhosa plant names from Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Dold; Cocks, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    1 990 Xhosa names for 1 065 taxa that have been identified in the Selmar Schonland Herbarium and have had names confirmed by more than one source, are listed alphabetically as a further addition to the knowledge of vernacular names of plants for Eastern Cape. Ecological terms are given at the end of the list.

  4. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. PMID:24001677

  5. Simulations of atmospheric methane for Cape Grim, Tasmania, to constrain South East Australian methane emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Z. M. Loh; R. M. Law; Haynes, K. D.; P. B. Krummel; Steele, L. P.; P. J. Fraser; Chambers, S; Williams, A

    2014-01-01

    This study uses two climate models and six scenarios of prescribed methane emissions to compare modelled and observed atmospheric methane between 1994 and 2007, for Cape Grim, Australia (40.7° S, 144.7° E). The model simulations follow the TransCom-CH4 protocol and use the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) and the CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM). Radon is also simulated and used to reduce the i...

  6. State of Biodiversity: Western Cape Province, South Africa. Amphibians and Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Baard, E.H.W; de Villiers, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The six floristic biomes in the Western Cape Province (W.C.P.), namely the Fynbos, Afromontane Forest, Thicket, Grassland, Nama and Succulent Karoo Biomes (Low and Rebelo, 1996), are not only diverse with regard to the variety of plant species and communities occurring there, but also contain a wide diversity of animal species, biogeographical zones, landscapes and natural features, both within the terrestrial and aquatic (freshwater and marine) context. In addition to...

  7. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  8. Multibeam collection for RC2710: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1986-11-14 to 1986-11-30, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for EW9308: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1993-10-24 to 1993-11-11, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for MV1203: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2012-02-11 to 2012-03-30, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for VANC08MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2003-02-14 to 2003-03-17, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for MV1202: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2012-01-23 to 2012-02-08, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for VANC06MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2003-01-02 to 2003-01-16, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for NBP0405: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2004-07-22 to 2004-07-26, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for KN162L07: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2000-12-09 to 2001-01-05, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for KN210-02: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2013-02-13 to 2013-03-03, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for KN197-06: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2010-04-04 to 2010-04-23, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Duchenne muscular dystrophy in the Western Cape, South Africa: Where do we come from and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen, A I; Greenberg, L J; Ballo, R; Goliath, R G; Wilmshurst, J M

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common and severe of the inherited dystrophies, with an incidence of 1 in 3 500 live, male births worldwide. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) has a lower incidence of 1:14 000 - 18 000 boys and a milder progression and longer life expectancy. Over the last two decades, better understanding of the underlying disease aetiology as well as major advances in medical technology have brought about significantly improved genetic diagnosis and clinical care for B/DMD patients. Exciting developments in the field of gene-based therapies have once again put B/DMD in the limelight, with renewed focus on the importance of comprehensive genetic testing protocols. We present a historical overview of the medical and molecular service for B/DMD offered over the last three decades in South Africa, specifically in the Western Cape, from a clinical as well as a laboratory perspective. PMID:27245531

  19. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.;

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given of the...... been verified by comparing observed and modelled vertical wind profiles at the 10 sites. WAsP generally works well, but modelling of the wind profiles can be improved by using project-specific wind atlas heights and by changing the heat flux parameters of WAsP....

  20. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.;

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given of the...... been verified by comparing observed and modelled vertical wind profiles at the 10 sites. WAsP generally works well, but modelling of the wind profiles can be improved by using project-specific wind atlas heights and by changing the heat flux parameters of WAsP....

  1. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.;

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 10). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given of the...... comparing observed and modelled vertical wind profiles at the 10 sites. WAsP generally works well, but modelling of the wind profiles can be improved by using project-specific wind atlas heights and by changing the heat flux parameters of WAsP....

  2. Dust and smoke transport from Africa to South America: Lidar profiling over Cape Verde and the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Tesche, Matthias; Müller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2009-06-01

    Quasi-simultaneous vertically resolved multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar observations were conducted in the near field (Praia, Cape Verde, 15°N, 23.5°W) and in the far field (Manaus, Amazon basin, Brazil, 2.5°S, 60°W) of the long-range transport regime between West Africa and South America. Based on a unique data set (case study) of spectrally resolved backscatter and extinction coefficients, and of the depolarization ratio a detailed characterization of aerosol properties, vertical stratification, mixing, and aging behavior during the long-distance travel in February 2008 (dry season in western Africa, wet season in the Amazon basin) is presented. While highly stratified aerosol layers of dust and smoke up to 5.5 km height were found close to Africa, the aerosol over Manaus was almost well-mixed, reached up to 3.5 km, and mainly consisted of aged biomass burning smoke.

  3. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    ASTRACT The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system. PMID:26789552

  4. Kuřim–the largest small town in the South-Moravian Region (Czechia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2015), s. 135-147. ISSN 2084-5456 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : small town * suburbanization * Kuřim Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://annalesgeo.up.krakow.pl/article/view/2839/2502

  5. Initial review and analysis of the direct environmental impacts of CSP in the northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Justine; Gauché, Paul; Esler, Karen J.

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2010 and the IRP Update provide the most recent guidance to the electricity generation future of South Africa (SA) and both plans include an increased proportion of renewable energy generation capacity. Given that SA has abundant renewable energy resource potential, this inclusion is welcome. Only 600 MW of the capacity allocated to concentrating solar power (CSP) has been committed to projects in the Northern Cape and represents roughly a fifth of the capacity that has been included in the IRP. Although CSP is particularly new in the electricity generation system of the country, the abundant solar resources of the region with annual DNI values of above 2900 kWh/m2 across the arid Savannah and Nama-Karoo biomes offer a promising future for the development of CSP in South Africa. These areas have largely been left untouched by technological development activities and thus renewable energy projects present a variety of possible direct and indirect environmental, social and economic impacts. Environmental Impact Assessments do focus on local impacts, but given that ecological processes often extend to regional- and landscape scales, understanding this scaled context is important to the alignment of development- and conservation priorities. Given the capacities allocated to CSP for the future of SA's electricity generation system, impacts on land, air, water and biodiversity which are associated with CSP are expected to increase in distribution and the understanding thereof deems valuable already from this early point in CSP's future in SA. We provide a review of direct impacts of CSP on the natural environment and an overview of the anticipated specific significance thereof in the Northern Cape.

  6. A Critical Appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability V Government of the Republic of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronell Kruger.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal access to education, the author argues that certain holes in the judgment hinders the existence of judicial finding truly infused with concerns of substantive equality. An example of this short-coming is the court's consideration of reasonableness when the right to basic education is an immediately realisable right. The author also argues that the South African developments in education policy for persons with disability, while positive, is insufficient to truly give effect to substantive equality – the claim to equality being made in the new constitutional dispensation. There is still an attitude that is too permissive of separating students based on abilism. The social model of thinking about requires a complete transformation of the education system that would not require a classification of learners by abilities but have a different constitution so as to accommodate all students and not unduly enable one group over another. The author considers the approaches from Canada and India to explore its responses to education for students with varying levels of ability. Canada's similar conception of equality and India's influence on South African constitutionalism and shared experience with massive equality gaps make these jurisdictions instructive.

  7. Age-disparity, sexual connectedness and HIV infection in disadvantaged communities around Cape Town, South Africa: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts Marc; Hens Niel; Vansteelandt Stijn; Welte Alex; Beauclair Roxanne; Delva Wim; du Toit Elizabeth; Beyers Nulda; Temmerman Marleen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Crucial connections between sexual network structure and the distribution of HIV remain inadequately understood, especially in regard to the role of concurrency and age disparity in relationships, and how these network characteristics correlate with each other and other risk factors. Social desirability bias and inaccurate recall are obstacles to obtaining valid, detailed information about sexual behaviour and relationship histories. Therefore, this study aims to use novel...

  8. The Sustainability and Challenges of Business Incubators in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the growing interest in business incubation programmes and the benefits derived from such programmes, the path is beset by numerous challenges. This paper investigates the challenges faced by business incubators (BIs as they strive to support their clients. The study utilized a qualitative approach to collect data by way of interviews to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the concept and challenges of business incubators. The data were collected using structured and unstructured in-depth personal interviews, which were carried out with the respondents of business incubators in the Western Cape. The research participants for this study were limited to the business incubators on the database of a local organization that promotes small and medium enterprises (SMEs development strategy and programmes in the Western Cape Province. All five business incubators on the database were deemed suitable for the study. The results indicated that an average of twenty-five entrepreneurs graduated from the incubation programme in the last five years. Furthermore, lack of sponsorship, production space, advanced technological facilities (prototype and expansion to different areas were found to be among the challenges hindering incubators.

  9. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  10. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

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    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive psychological and subjective wellbeing indicators have proven to be protective against certain physical illnesses but have been rarely assessed in teacher stress.Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools.Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress.Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention.Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  11. Baseline air mass selection at Cape Point, South Africa: application of 222Rn and other filter criteria to CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 222Rn (March 1999-August 2002) from a recently installed analyser at the station Cape Point (34oS, 18oE), South Africa, were analysed statistically. The combination of 222Rn with information on wind direction and carbon monoxide (CO) permitted a classification of air masses into continental, marine, and mixtures of both. The ability to select trace gas data representing purely maritime conditions is shown through application to carbon dioxide (CO2) data. 222Rn levels at Cape Point ranged from near zero to above 5000 mBq m-3. Monthly percentiles show practically no seasonal dependence for values up to the 25th percentile (P25), corresponding to 222Rn -3 which is considered typical for marine air. In contrast, 222Rn percentiles exceeding P50 reveal an austral winter maximum, related to a higher incidence of continental air at that time of the year. The wind sector pattern for 222Rn concentrations largely coincides with that observed for CO, but covers a wider sector to the east, reflecting continental source areas. Air masses with 222Rn levels between 100 and 250 mBq m-3 were found to be still affected by terrestrial sources. Our routinely used percentile-based statistical filter applied to CO2 accepted 222Rn -3), which only yielded 18%, but is more stringent in excluding terrestrial influences. CO2 data filtered by using a combination of various selection parameters agreed well with data obtained for 222Rn -3, confirming that this 222Rn threshold is a suitable criterion for purely maritime data. Nonetheless, for CO2 the statistical filter, which does not depend on other species and has better data coverage, still retains its applicability for routine trace gas filtering with respect to baseline concentrations. (author)

  12. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

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    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  13. Studies on the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chigor, Vincent N.; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its dams are major surface water sources used for fresh produce irrigation, raw water abstraction and recreation in parts of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Over a 12-month period (August 2010 to July 2011), we assessed the bacteriological qualities of water from the river and 3 source water dams along its course. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (ENT) counts, were high and ranged as follows: ...

  14. Patient Views on Determinants of Compliance with Tuberculosis Treatment in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: An Application of Q-Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Murray Cramm; Job van Exel; Valerie Mller; Harry Finkenflgel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) constitutes one-quarter of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. In the Eastern Cape, South Africa, TB is a public health problem of epidemic proportion. Poor compliance and frequent interruption to treatment are associated with increased transmission rates, morbidity, and costs to TB control programs. This study explored determinants of (non-)compliance from the patients' perspective. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (33 t...

  15. Cattle and rural development in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Nguni project revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, P.G.M.; Faku, N.

    2013-01-01

    Notions of land and agrarian reform are now well entrenched in post-apartheid South Africa. But what this reform actually means for everyday life is not clearly understood, nor the way it will impact on the political economy. In the Shadow of Policy explores the interface between the policy of land

  16. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob; de Neergaard, Andreas; van Deventer, Ross; Bruun, Sander; Hill, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii, De Wild.) is a fast growing tree species introduced into South Africa in the nineteenth century for commercial purposes. While being an important source of timber and firewood for local communities, black wattle is an aggressive invasive species and has pervasive...

  17. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  18. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Violet L. van den Berg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers need to be equipped to deal with the increasing obesity and obesity-related morbidity occurring in developing countries.Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured intervieweradministered questionnaires.Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives.Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  19. Thirty years of change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    S. D. J. Privett

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used permanently marked 50 m: sites, surveyed at a 30 year interval, to provide a descriptive account of the temporal change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. South Africa. Management records were used to examine the role of post-fire age. fire frequency and intensity, as well as biotic interactions (competition from overstorey proteoids and alien plants in influencing vegetation composition over this time period. The mean similarity in species composition of sites between surveys was 62%, indicating an average of nearly 40% turnover in species over the 30 year period. The main causes of this change included differences resulting from different stages in the post-fire succession as well as the impact of differential fire regimes (especially frequency effects. Competition from serotinous Proteaceae. which proved highly mobile after fire, as well as invasive Australian acacias also impacted on the composition of the vegetation over time. The study demonstrated that fynbos communities are temporally dynamic and that the changes over time in species composition are caused by a variety of processes. The study also provided evidence for the role of temporal diversity in contributing to the high species diversity in fynbos systems.

  20. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

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    Johan Tempelhoff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding events of December 2004/January 2005 along the Garden Route, as well as the manner in which emergency/disaster management personnel responded to the crisis. The effect of the floods on the tourism sector along the Garden Route was researched in general and the effects of the floods on tourists, local residents, and particularly communities in disadvantaged areas were specifically determined. The research reflects on the disaster risk management strategies that were in place at the time of the floods to determine what local authorities could have done to cope with the potential conditions of crisis. The research found that although some tourism products were severely affected, the 2004/2005 floods did not have a significant impact on the number of tourists frequenting the area. In terms of disaster risk management, concerns remain regarding the lack of the following factors: capacity, adequate early warning systems, proper infrastructure maintenance, local institutions, and an in-depth understanding of the disaster risk profile of the area.

  1. African Women and Apartheid: Migration and Settlement in Urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Set within the changing political geography of Cape Town, South Africa, this study constructs a social history of African women through an examination of the complex process and consequences of settlement during the apartheid (1948-1994) and post-apartheid years. Africans began flowing into the city in increasing numbers at mid-twentieth century. However, they encountered coercive and effective resistance to their settlement endeavors, in part due to Cape Town’s historical association as th...

  2. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC

  3. The association between childhood environmental exposures and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease in the Western Cape, South Africa.

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    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD. However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown.A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables.This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6-10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73-13.53 and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98 significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11-18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17-6.10 and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.35.This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD.

  4. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  5. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  6. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  7. Identification and antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains from treated wastewater effluents in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefisoye, Martins A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem impeding the effective prevention/treatment of an ever-growing array of infections caused by pathogens; a huge challenge threatening the achievements of modern medicine. In this paper, we report the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from discharged final effluents of two wastewater treatment facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Standard disk diffusion method was employed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of 223 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed E. coli isolates against 17 common antibiotics in human therapy and veterinary medicine. Seven virulence associated and fourteen antibiotic resistance genes were also evaluated by molecular methods. Molecular characterization revealed five pathotypes of E. coli in the following proportions: enterotoxigenic ETEC (1.4%), enteropathogenic EPEC (7.6%), enteroaggregative EAEC (7.6%), neonatal meningitis (NMEC) (14.8%), uropathogenic (41.7%), and others (26.9%). Isolates showed varying (1.7-70.6%) degrees of resistance to 15 of the test antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was exhibited by 32.7% of the isolates, with the commonest multiple antibiotic-resistant phenotype (MARP) being AP-T-CFX (12 isolates), while multiple antibiotic-resistant indices (MARI) estimated are 0.23 (Site 1) and 0.24 (Site 2). Associated antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates include: strA (88.2%), aadA (52.9%), cat I (15%), cmlA1 (4.6%), blaTEM (56.4%), tetA (30.4%), tetB (28.4%), tetC (42.2%), tetD (50%), tetK (11.8%), and tetM (68.6%). We conclude that municipal wastewater effluents are important reservoirs for the dissemination of potentially pathogenic E. coli (and possibly other pathogens) and antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape and a risk to public health. PMID:26758686

  8. SMME MODEL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AN EMPIRICAL CASE FOR THE NORTHERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Venditto

    2004-01-01

    South Africa has been facing the double challenge of integrating into global markets as a competitive economy and of overcoming the internal problems created and constantly reinforced by the previous regime. To realize the objective of economic growth through competitiveness on the one hand and employment generation and income distribution on the other, the small business sector assumes a critical role. In order to be conducive to economic growth and employment creation, small business develo...

  9. Recognizing Intimate Partner Violence in Primary Care: Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Joyner; Robert Mash

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal violence in South Africa is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease after HIV/AIDS and 62% is estimated to be from intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed to evaluate how women experiencing IPV present in primary care, how often IPV is recognized by health care practitioners and what other diagnoses are made. METHODS: At two urban and three rural community health centres, health practitioners were trained to screen all women for IPV over a...

  10. The Personal Politics of Disaster: Narratives of Survivors of a South African Shanty Town Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jackie; Swartz, Leslie; Ward, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that natural disasters occur more commonly in low and middle income countries than in wealthier countries, we know relatively little about how these disasters are experienced in such contexts. South Africa presents an especially telling example in which it is clear that natural events are affected profoundly by sociopolitical…

  11. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future ...

  12. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Serbo town, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Birhanu Tarekegn; Bacha Ketema; Ketema Tsige; Petros Beyene

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethiopia has the highest proportion of vivax malaria, approximately 40% of all malaria infections, in contrast to African countries. Chloroquine (CQ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) has started to challenge the efficacy of the drug. The present study was conducted to assess the current status of CRPv at Serbo, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. Methods A 28-day in vivo therapeutic eff...

  13. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Christofides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger; later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years; and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Results: HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50–6.09 for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64–1.84. Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Conclusions: Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a

  14. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  15. Prevalence of calves coccidiosis in Jimma town dairy farms, South-Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Kabeta Yadeessa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross- sectional study was conducted from October 2009 to March 2010 on Jimma town dairy farms to determine the prevalence of Calves coccidian and assess associated risk factors. Faecal samples were collected once from a total of 385 calves range from 5-365 days old and examined for the oocysts of Eimeria species by centrifugal faecal flotation technique using concentrated sucrose solution. Out result revealed that overall prevalence of 198(51.42% Eimeria species. Of the 53 dairies sampled, almost all of the farms had calves shedding Eimeria oocysts. The species of Eimeria circulating in the farms was presumed to be based on morphology of the oocysts and certain epidemiological features of the Eimeria, a total of 8 species were identified namely Eimeria bovis 94(24.4%, Eimeria zuernii 58(15.1%, Eimeria auburnensis 56(14.6%, Eimeria Canadensis 53(13.8%, Eimeria ellipsoidalis 28(7.3%, Eimeria subspherica 22(5.7%, Eimeria cylindrical 20(5.2% and Eimeria alabamensis 16(4.2% in descending order of their relative prevalence. Eimeria species were not found to be statistically associated with faecal consistency, breed and sex (P>0.05. Among the risk factors studied, hygiene status and age of the calves were the most important factors associated with the possibility of infection with diseases. The mean and maximum Eimeria oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG determined by using McMaster technique was 100 and 24,000, respectively. Coccidiosis is a common and important cause of morbidity and economical loss in calves in study areas. Hence appropriate disease prevention and control measure is paramount importance to reduce these impacts.

  16. Recognizing intimate partner violence in primary care: Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Joyner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal violence in South Africa is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease after HIV/AIDS and 62% is estimated to be from intimate partner violence (IPV. This study aimed to evaluate how women experiencing IPV present in primary care, how often IPV is recognized by health care practitioners and what other diagnoses are made. METHODS: At two urban and three rural community health centres, health practitioners were trained to screen all women for IPV over a period of up to 8 weeks. Medical records of 114 thus identified women were then examined and their reasons for encounter (RFE and diagnoses over the previous 2-years were coded using the International Classification of Primary Care. Three focus group interviews were held with the practitioners and interviews with the facility managers to explore their experience of screening. RESULTS: IPV was previously recognized in 11 women (9.6%. Women presented with a variety of RFE that should raise the index of suspicion for IPV- headache, request for psychiatric medication, sleep disturbance, tiredness, assault, feeling anxious and depressed. Depression was the commonest diagnosis. Interviews identified key issues that prevented health practitioners from screening. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that recognition of women with IPV is very low in South African primary care and adds useful new information on how women present to ambulatory health services. These findings offer key cues that can be used to improve selective case finding for IPV in resource-poor settings. Universal screening was not supported by this study.

  17. Town, village and bush: war and cultural landscapes in south-eastern Angola (1966-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinkman, Inge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In most of the literature on the subject, urban and rural areas are presented as real physical entities that are geographically determined. Obviously such an approach is important and necessary, but in this contribution I want to draw attention to ‘the urban’ and ‘the rural’ as ideas, as items of cultural landscape rather than as physical facts. This will result both in a history of ideas and a social history of the war in Angola as experienced by civilians from the south-eastern part of the country. The article is based on a case-study that deals with the history of south-east Angola, an area that was in a state of war from 1966 to 2002. In the course of the 1990s I spoke with immigrants from this region who were resident in Rundu, Northern Namibia, mostly as illegal refugees. In our conversations the immigrants explained how the categories ‘town’ and ‘country’ came into being during colonialism and what changes occurred after the war started. They argued that during the war agriculture in the countryside became well-nigh impossible and an opposition between ‘town’ and ‘bush’ came into being that could have lethal consequences for the civilian population living in the region. This case-study on south-east Angola shows the importance of a historical approach to categories such as ‘urbanity’ and ‘rurality’ as such categories may undergo relatively rapid change – in both discourse and practice.

  18. Town, village and bush: war and cultural landscapes in south-eastern Angola (1966-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Inge

    2012-01-01

    In most of the literature on the subject, urban and rural areas are presented as real physical entities that are geographically determined. Obviously such an approach is important and necessary, but in this contribution I want to draw attention to ‘the urban’ and ‘the rural’ as ideas, as items of cultural landscape rather than as physical facts. This will result both in a history of ideas and a social history of the war in Angola as experienced by civilians from the south-eastern part of the ...

  19. Vegetation of high-altitude fens and restio marshlands of the Hottentots Holland Mountains, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. J. Sieben

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seepages occurring at high altitudes in the Hottentots Holland Mountains (HHM (Western Cape Province. South Africa were subject to a phytosociological survey. Relevé sampling method and classification procedures of the floristic-sociological (Braun-Blanquet approach as well as numerical data analyses (numerical classification and ordination were used to reveal syn- taxonomic patterns and characterize the position of the syntaxa along major environmental gradients. Nine plant communities were recognized, three of which were classified as associations, following formal syntaxonomic and nomenclatural rules of the floristic-sociological approach Most of the studied mire communities were dominated by low-growing clonal restios (Restionaceae. whereas some consisted of other types of graminoids. The most important species determining the structure (and function of the mire communities on sandstones of the HHM include restios Anthochortus crinalis, Chondropetalum deustum.C. mucronatum, Elegia intermedia. E. thyrsifera. Restio subtilis. R. purpurascens. cyperoids Epischoenus villosus. Ficinia argy-ropa, grasses Ehrharta setacea subsp. setacea. Pentameris hirtiglumis as well as shrubs Berzelia squarrosa. Cliffortia tricuspi- data. Erica intenallaris and Grubbia rosmarinifolia. Protea lacticolor and Restio perplexus dominate a rare shale band seep­age community. There are two major groups of communities—the fens (dominated by carpets of Anthochortus crinalis and other low-growing species and the restio marshlands (mosaics of low tussocks of Restio subtilis and tall Chondropetalum mucrona­tum. The degree of soil (and water minerotrophy was found to be the most important differentiating feature between the mire (fen and restio marshland communities studied. The soils in the centre of mires were found to have high contents of peat and showed very little influence from the underlying sandstone. The soils along the mire margins had a greater admixture of

  20. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape.Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method.Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers.Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Isolates from Swine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Basson, Albertus Kotze; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-07-01

    The exposure of farm animals to antimicrobials for treatment, prophylaxis, or growth promotion can select for resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to humans, and Salmonella as an important zoonotic pathogen can act as a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. We assessed the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella species isolated from pig herds in two commercial farms in South Africa. Two hundred fifty-eight presumptive Salmonella isolates were recovered from the fecal samples of 500 adult pigs. Specific primers targeting Salmonella serogroups A, B, C1, C2, and D were used to determine the prevalence of different serogroups. Only serogroup A (n = 48) was detected, while others were not. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the confirmed Salmonella serogroup A isolates was performed by using the disk diffusion method against a panel of 18 antibiotics. All the 48 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and oxytetracycline, while 75% were resistant to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin. All the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the predominant phenotype being against 11 antibiotics, and multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged between 0.3 and 0.6. The incidence of genes encoding resistance against ampicillin (ampC), tetracycline (tetA), and streptomycin (strA) were 54, 61, and 44%, respectively. We conclude that healthy pigs are potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant Salmonella that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain and, hence, a significant public health threat. PMID:27357044

  2. Health-related quality of life of patients six months poststroke living in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea J. Rhoda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of individuals report a decline in health-related quality of life following a stroke. Quality of life and factors predicting quality of life could differ in individuals from lower income countries. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the quality of life and factors influencing quality of life of community-dwelling stroke patients living in low-income, peri-urban areas in the Western Cape, South Africa.Method: An observational, longitudinal study was used to collect data from a conveniently selected sample of first-ever stroke patients. The Rivermead Motor Assessment Scale and the Barthel Index were used to determine functional outcome and the EQ-5D was used to collect information relating to quality of life at two months and six months poststroke. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: The total sample of 100 participants consisted of 50% men and 50% women with a mean age of 61 and a standard deviation of 10.55 years. Six-month quality of life datawas analysed for 73 of the 100 participants. Of the 27 who were lost to follow-up, nine participants died, four withdrew from the study after baseline data was collected and eleven could not be followed up as they had either moved or no follow-up telephone numbers were available. A further three participants were excluded from the analysis of the EQ-5D as they were aphasic. Of these, approximately 35% had problems with mobility and self-care, whilst 42% had severe problems with everyday activities and 37.8% expressed having anxiety and depression. Quality of life at two months (p = 0.010 and urinary incontinence (p = 0.002 were significant predictors of quality of life at six months.Conclusion: Health-related quality of life was decreased in the South African stroke sample. Functional ability and urinary incontinence were the factors affecting quality of life in the sample. These factors should be considered in the

  3. Substance Abuse, Suicidality, and Self-Esteem in South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116)…

  4. Exploring Peace Education in South African Settings. Peace Education Miniprints No. 68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Valerie

    This paper provides a synopsis of a research report done by the Youth Project of the Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR), an autonomous institute with the University of Cape Town. In 1992 the Human Sciences Research Council initiated a cooperative research programme into South African youth and the problems and challenges they face. CCR was…

  5. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-06-01

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Alternatively, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times. In this study, we assess ungulate movement patterns with inter- and intra-tooth enamel samples for strontium isotopes in fossil fauna from Pinnacle Point sites PP13B and PP30. To accomplish our goals we created a bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr isoscape for the region by collecting plants at 171 sampling sites and developing a geospatial model. The strontium isotope results indicate that ungulates spent most of their time on the Paleo-Agulhas Plain and avoided dissected plain, foothill, and mountain habitats located more than about 15 km north of the modern coastline. The results clearly exclude a north-south (coastal-interior) movement or migration pattern, and cannot falsify the east-west movements hypothesized in the south coast migration ecosystem hypothesis.

  6. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  7. Lidar Bathymetry Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  8. Color coded bathmetry map of Cape Canaveral, Florida, derived from boat based sounding data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  9. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Bob; Naledi, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS) of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, non-communicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes. Evaluation de l'impact des médecins de famille dans le système de santé du district du Western Cape, en Afrique du Sud. Contexte: En 2007, l'Afrique du Sud a institué une nouvelle spécialité, la médecine de famille. Les médecins de famille qui se sont sp

  10. Complications of traditional circumcision amongst young Xhosa males seen at St Lucy’s Hospital, Tsolo, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu Anike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional circumcision of males is common amongst many societies in sub-Saharan Africa. Circumcision amongst the Xhosa people of South Africa represents a rite of passage to manhood. Traditional male circumcision has an increased risk for complications that include sepsis, genitalmutilation, gangrenous penis, excessive bleeding, dehydration, renal failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the complications of traditional circumcisions amongst Xhosa men as seen at St. Lucy’s Hospital in the Eastern Cape Province.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was conducted in 2008. Records of 105 malesadmitted to St. Lucy’s Hospital with complications following traditional circumcision were reviewed. Data collected included age, education level, race, reasons for circumcision, complications, the period of circumcision, duration of hospital stay and the outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS 17.0.Results: The ages ranged from 15–35 years with 68 (64.8% between 15–19 years. 83 (79% had a secondarylevel of education, 16 (15.2% primary, 5 (4.8% tertiary and 1% had no education. 60 (57% werecircumcised as initiation to manhood, 21 (20.0% due to peer pressure, 20 (19.0% for cultural reasons, and 1(1.0% was forced. The complications were sepsis (59 [56.2%], genital mutilation (28 [26.7%], dehydration(12 [11.4%] and amputation of genitalia (6 [5.7%].Fifty-nine (56.2% patients were circumcised in winter.79 (75.2% were circumcised in the forest, and 25 (23.8% in initiation centres. Fifty-eight (55.2% werecircumcised by traditionalists, and 47 (44.8% by tribal elders (initiators. Hospital stays ranged from 8 to28 days. 66% were healed and discharged, and 29 (27.6% were referred to higher centres of care.Conclusion: Genital sepsis was the most common complication of traditional male circumcision.Complications were related to the circumciser, advanced age of the patient

  11. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities

  12. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

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    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  13. Mosibudi Mangena, South Africa's Minister for Science and Technology, was welcomed by CERN's Chief Scientific Officer, Jos Engelen

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    Pictures 5 to 11 : He spent time at the ALICE experiment, in which physicists from the University of Cape Town participate. The ALICE spokesperson, Jürgen Schukraft accompanies the minister and Glaudine Mtshali, ambassador for South Africa to the UN in Geneva.

  14. IN and CCN Measurements on RV Polarstern and Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, André; Herenz, Paul; Henning, Silvia; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Two field campaigns, one situated on RV Polarstern (Oct. - Dec. 2015) and one on the Cape Verde islands (Jan. - Feb. 2016) measuring ice nuclei (IN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations as a function of supersaturation and temperature are presented. The Polarstern cruise from Bremerhaven to Cape Town yields a cross section of IN and CCN concentrations from 54°N to 35°S and passes the Cape Verde Islands at 15°N. Measurements were conducted using the commercial CCNC and SPIN instruments from DMT. During both campaigns, a comprehensive set of aerosol characterization data including size distribution, optical properties and chemical information were measured in parallel. The ship based measurements provide a measure of variability in IN/CCN concentration with geographic position. As an example a clear influence on IN and CCN number concentration of the Saharan desert dust outflow between the Canary Islands and Cape Verde or the continental aerosol from Europe and South Africa was observed. The measurements on Cape Verde provide information on the temporal variability at a fixed position varying between clean marine and dust influenced conditions. Both datasets are related to auxiliary data of aerosol size distribution and chemical composition. The datasets are used to distinguish the influence of local sources and background concentration of IN/CCN. By combining of the geographically fix measurements with the geographical cross section, typical ranges of IN and CCN concentration are derived. The datasets will be part of the BACCHUS database thereby providing valuable input for future climate modeling activities.

  15. Rumba From Congo To Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Salter, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The spread of Congolese music and musicians across the African continent since the 1960s is a phenomenon without parallel. How this was achieved has not been given the academic attention it is due. The welcome Congolese musicians received to perform at Independence Day celebrations all over Africa in the early 1960s was a testament to the Pan-African appeal of their music. The perceived modernity, the national coherence, and the danceable quality of their music all contributed ...

  16. Post break-up tectonic inversion across the southwestern cape of South Africa: New insights from apatite and zircon fission track thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Watkins, Ron; Carter, Andrew; Gleadow, Andrew; Summerfield, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The south-west African margin is regarded as an example of a passive continental margin formed by continental rifting following a phase of lithospheric extension and thinning. Recent attention focused on this margin has included theoretical modelling studies of rift processes, plate kinematic studies of the opening geometry and timing, and empirical studies focused on documenting the crustal structure and offshore sedimentary record. Here, we examine the onshore geomorphic and tectonic response to rifting and breakup, with a specific focus on the SW Cape of South Africa. We present 75 new apatite and 8 new zircon fission track analyses from outcrop samples and onshore borehole profiles along the western margin of South Africa. The data are used to derive robust thermal histories that record two discrete phases of accelerated erosional cooling during the Early Cretaceous (150-130 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (100-80 Ma), respectively. Both periods of enhanced erosion are regional in extent, involved km-scale erosion, and extend well inland of the current escarpment zone, albeit with spatially variable intensity and style. The Late Cretaceous episode is also expressed more locally by tectonic reactivation and inversion of major faults causing km-scale differential displacement and erosion. The new AFT data do not exclude the possibility of modest surface uplift occurring during the Cenozoic, but they restrict the depth of regional Cenozoic erosion on the western margin to less than c. 1 km. The inferred pattern and chronology of erosion onshore is consistent with the key features and sediment accumulation patterns within the offshore Orange and Bredasdorp basins. It is suggested that the Late Cretaceous event was triggered by a combination of regional dynamic uplift augmented along the western margin and in the SW Cape by local tectonic forces arising from dextral displacement of the Falkland Plateau along the Falkland-Agulhas Fracture Zone.

  17. Carbon sequestration and environmental effects of afforestation with Pinus radiata D. Don in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Quijano, J.F.; Van Orshoven, J.; Muys, B. [Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Peters, J. [Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Management, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cockx, L. [Department of Soil Management and Soil Care, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Wyk, G. [Department of Forest and Wood Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, 7602 Matieland (South Africa); Rosanov, A. [Department of Soil Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602 Matieland, (South Africa); Deckmyn, G.; Ceulemans, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Ward, S.M. [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Holden, N.M. [Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2007-08-15

    A three-step methodology to assess the carbon sequestration and the environmental impact of afforestation projects in the framework of the Flexible Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism) was developed and tested using a dataset collected from the Jonkershoek forest plantation, Western Cape, South Africa, which was established with Pinus radiata in former native fynbos vegetation and indigenous forest. The impact of a change in land use was evaluated for a multifunctional, a production and a non-conversion scenario. First, the carbon balance was modelled with GORCAM and was expressed as (1) C sequestration in tC ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in soil, litter, and living biomass according to the rules of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, and (2) CO2 emission reductions in tC ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, which includes carbon sequestered in the above-mentioned pools and additionally in wood products, as well as emission reductions due to fossil fuel substitution. To estimate forest growth, three data sources were used: (1) inventory data, (2) growth simulation with a process-based model, and (3) yield tables. Second, the effects of land use change were assessed for different project scenarios using a method related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The method uses 17 quantitative indicators to describe the impact of project activities on water, soil, vegetation cover and biodiversity. Indicator scores were calculated by comparing indicator values with reference values, estimated for the climax vegetation. The climax vegetation is the site-specific ecosystem phase with the highest exergy content and the highest exergy flow dissipation capacity. Third, the land use impact per functional unit of 1 tC sequestered was calculated by combining the results of step 1 and step 2. The average baselines to obtain carbon additionality are 476 tC ha{sup -1} for indigenous forest and 32 tC ha{sup -1} for fynbos. Results show that

  18. Carbon sequestration and environmental effects of afforestation with Pinus radiata D. Don in the Western Cape, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-step methodology to assess the carbon sequestration and the environmental impact of afforestation projects in the framework of the Flexible Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism) was developed and tested using a dataset collected from the Jonkershoek forest plantation, Western Cape, South Africa, which was established with Pinus radiata in former native fynbos vegetation and indigenous forest. The impact of a change in land use was evaluated for a multifunctional, a production and a non-conversion scenario. First, the carbon balance was modelled with GORCAM and was expressed as (1) C sequestration in tC ha-1 year-1 in soil, litter, and living biomass according to the rules of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, and (2) CO2 emission reductions in tC ha-1 year-1, which includes carbon sequestered in the above-mentioned pools and additionally in wood products, as well as emission reductions due to fossil fuel substitution. To estimate forest growth, three data sources were used: (1) inventory data, (2) growth simulation with a process-based model, and (3) yield tables. Second, the effects of land use change were assessed for different project scenarios using a method related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The method uses 17 quantitative indicators to describe the impact of project activities on water, soil, vegetation cover and biodiversity. Indicator scores were calculated by comparing indicator values with reference values, estimated for the climax vegetation. The climax vegetation is the site-specific ecosystem phase with the highest exergy content and the highest exergy flow dissipation capacity. Third, the land use impact per functional unit of 1 tC sequestered was calculated by combining the results of step 1 and step 2. The average baselines to obtain carbon additionality are 476 tC ha-1 for indigenous forest and 32 tC ha-1 for fynbos. Results show that the influence of the growth

  19. ZHOUZHUANG, A "TOWN IN LAKES"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Zhouzhuang Town islocated in thesouthwestern part ofKunshan City,neighboring WujiangCity, Suzhou City andQingpu District ofShanghai City, andsurrounded by ChengLake, Changbai Lake,Dianshan Lake, BaiyiLake and South Lake, asknown as a "town in lakes".

  20. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  1. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa’s constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. Methods With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Results Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication – from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Conclusions Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting

  2. A Dél-Dunántúli kisvárosok a fejlesztési tervek tükrében (The South-Transdanubien Small Towns in the Light of the Development Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka Horeczki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The South Transdanubien region is among the 20 most disadvantaged region of the European Union, that shows a significant decrease compared to previous years. I think any professional research can we rationale, that to change this situation, do some substantive attept. I intend to shed light on the prospects/possibilities that this small town can have in the future; and I also want to find out whether it has developmental possibilities originated in the past yet adaptable to the current situation. When the development plans have been realized these town and neighborhoods has a decreasing migration and stabilized small towns culture. The aim of the present study is to present the long-term developmental laws and characteristic features that heavily influence the economic, social and political life of the South Transdanubian region via the developments plan of the small towns. In addition to the urban development plans I analyzed the statistical data and the associations scheme.

  3. The root rot fungus Armillaria mellea introduced into South Africa by early Dutch settlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, M P; Wingfield, B D; Harrington, T C; Steimel, J; Coutinho, T A; Wingfield, M J

    2001-02-01

    Dead and dying oak (Quercus) and numerous other woody ornamental trees and shrubs showing signs and symptoms of Armillaria root rot were identified in the Company Gardens, Cape Town, South Africa, which were established in the mid-1600s by the Dutch East Indies Trading Company. Nineteen isolates from dying trees or from mushrooms were collected and analysed to identify and characterize the Armillaria sp. responsible for the disease. The AluI digestion of the amplified product of the first intergenic spacer region (IGS-1) of the rRNA operon of 19 isolates from the Company Gardens was identical to that of some of the European isolates of A. mellea s. s. The IGS-1 region and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) were sequenced for some of the Cape Town isolates. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Cape Town isolates in the European clade of A. mellea, which is distinct from the Asian and North American clades of this species. Identification based on sexual compatibility was conducted using A. mellea tester strains in diploid-haploid pairings, which showed some compatibility between the Cape Town isolates and testers from Europe. Somatic compatibility tests (diploid-diploid pairings) and DNA fingerprinting with multilocus, microsatellite probes indicated that the Cape Town isolates were genetically identical and may have resulted from vegetative (clonal) spread from a single focus in the centre of the original Company Gardens (c. 1652). The colonized area is at least 345 m in diameter. Assuming a linear spread rate underground of 0.3 m/year to 1.6 m/year, the genet (clone) was estimated to be between 108 and 575 years old. These data suggest that A. mellea was introduced into Cape Town from Europe, perhaps on potted plants, such as grapes or citrus, planted in the Company Gardens more than 300 years ago. PMID:11298953

  4. Monkey Management: Using Spatial Ecology to Understand the Extent and Severity of Human-Baboon Conflict in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Justin. O'Riain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Conflict with humans poses one of the greatest threats to the persistence and survival of all wildlife. In the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, human-baboon conflict levels remain high despite substantial investment by conservation authorities in a variety of mitigation measures. Here we explore how spatial ecology can inform wildlife managers on the extent and severity of both current and projected human-baboon conflict. We apply conservative and generous densities--2.3 and 5.9 baboons/km2--to hypothetical landscape management scenarios to estimate whether the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus population in the Cape Peninsula is currently overabundant. We correlate conflict indices with spatial variables to explain intertroop differences in conflict levels. We investigate how an understanding of key elements of baboon ecology, including sleeping-site characteristics and intertroop territoriality, can direct management efforts and mitigate conflict. Our findings suggest that the current population of 475 baboons is below even the most conservative density estimate and that the area could potentially sustain up to 799 baboons. Conflict levels correlated positively with the loss of access to low-lying land through habitat transformation (Pearson r = 0.77, p = 0.015, n = 9 troops, and negatively with the distance of sleeping sites from the urban edge (Pearson r = 0.81, p = 0.001, n = 9 troops. Despite the availability of suitable sleeping sites elsewhere, more than half of all troops slept

  5. Cape Verde Frontal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Walter; Klein, Birgit; Schröder, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The term Cape Verde Frontal Zone is introduced to characterize the southeastern corner of the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean far west of the upwelling area off the Mauretanean shelf. Two water mass fronts, one overlying the other, are identified with a quasi-synoptic set of CTD-OZ and nutrient data from November 1986. In the warm water sphere we encounter North and South Atlantic Central Water (NACWISACW) superimposed on extensions of Mediterranean outflow and Antarc...

  6. Institutional ethnography of race and gender equity matters in three South African universties

    OpenAIRE

    Matsau, Liapeng

    2013-01-01

    Almost two decades after the end of apartheid, the higher education system in South Africa remains marked by inequity at both staff and student levels. Current research in this area focuses on measuring inequity but does little to explain why and how it persists. This research explores gender and race equity in South African universities using three critical case studies of the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, the University of Pretoria, and the University of Cape Town. Using Doro...

  7. Teaching medical students on the ethical dimensions of human rights: meeting the challenge in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    London, L.; G. McCarthy

    1998-01-01

    SETTING: Previous health policies in South Africa neglected the teaching of ethics and human rights to health professionals. In April 1995, a pilot course was run at the University of Cape Town in which the ethical dimensions of human rights issues in South Africa were explored. OBJECTIVES: To compare knowledge and attitudes of participating students with a group of control students. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Seventeen fourth-year medical students who participated in the c...

  8. Multiple benefits and values of trees in urban landscapes in two small towns in northern South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shackleton, S.; Chinyimba, A.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Shackleton, C.; Kaoma, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cities and towns can be conceptualised as complex social-ecological systems or landscapes that are composed of different spatial elements. Trees in urban landscapes provide a variety of tangible and intangible benefits (ecosystem services) that may be valued differently across diverse households and

  9. Protozoan Fauna and Abundance in Aeration Tanks of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibewu, M.; Momba, M. N. B.; Okoh, A. L.

    This study focuses on the assessment of the protozoan fauna and abundance in the mixed liquors of aeration tanks of the three municipal wastewater treatment plants located in Fort Beaufort, Dimbaza and East London in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and their implication to the production of effluents of good quality. The samples were collected between September and December 2005 and protozoa species were identified by direct microscopic observations at x400 magnification by comparison with existing protozoa gallery collections. A total of 68 protozoan genera made up of 44 ciliates, 16 flagellates and 8 others were identified in wastewater treatment plants. Although in all aerobic zones the average density of ciliates was 104 cells mL-1, which indicated that these plants were able to produce clear effluent of good quality, a better performance was found in Dimbaza and East London, which had total protozoan genera of 27 and 26, respectively.

  10. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  11. Characterisation of airborne particulates in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, South Ural Mountains of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Udachin, V.; Purvis, O. W.; Spiro, B.; Cressey, G.; Jones, G. C.

    2003-04-01

    Atmospheric airborne total suspended particulates (TSP) have been characterised in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, south Ural mountains of Russia. TSP was collected on filters using air-pump apparatus at sampling sites up- and down-wind of the smelter and large waste dumps and tailings. Particle size, mineralogy and elemental compositions have been determined using a combination of SEM/EDX, image analysis, XRD and ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The results have been compared with those for dusts collected from the smelter blast furnace and converter stacks and filtrates of snow melt waters. TSP concentrations in samples downwind from the smelter were 90 and 156 ug/m3, well below the Russian recommended maximum (500 ug/m3, 24 hr average). However, with a mean equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) of 0.5 um (s.d. = 0.2), the particles are respirable, and therefore able to penetrate into the unciliated (alveolar) airways of the lung. Such particles fall within the size class known as PM10, for which the EU target maximum is 50 ug/m3 (24-h mean value). Pb concentrations (16-30 ug/m3) were well above Russian maximum permitted levels in air (1 ug/m3, averaged over any time period) and the samples contain elevated Cd, As, S, Sn and Zn. Individual particulates downwind from the smelter consist of complex aggregates mainly made up of anglesite (PbSO4), Zn2SnO4 and poorly ordered or amorphous Zn sulphates. A smelter source for these phases is likely as anglesite and Zn2SnO4 form a major component of converter dusts, along with gunningite (ZnSO4(H2O)), zincite (ZnO), sphalerite and galena, and with anglesite also being contained in the blast furnace dust, along with hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. Also, samples taken upwind of the smelter, but downwind of large waste dumps and tailings, have very different particle size (mean ESD > 1.3 um) and compositions, being dominated by silicates and Fe-rich phases. With the exception of gunningite, which is

  12. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI ASCII GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  13. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline, and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  14. Demand for long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives and factors for non-use among married women of Goba Town, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Abulie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive use including short acting, long acting and permanent methods positively influence the socio-economic development of a nation by allowing families to space and limit their family size to their economic capacity. Demand for LAPMs of contraception as detrmined by utilization and unmet need for LAPMs of contraception can provide realiable information for providers. Objective To determine the utilization of long acting and permanent contraception and its associated factors among married women of Goba town, South East Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional community based study was conducted among 734 systematically selected married women of reproductive age in Goba town in September/ 2009. A structured and pretested, interview questionaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, behavioral factors and data related to demand for LAPMs of contraception. Data were analyzed using EPI INFO and SPSS version 16. Result The demand for Long Acting and Permanent Methods (LAPMs of contraception was 18.1%. Utilization of LAPMs of contraception in the town was 64 (8.7% and the unmet need for LAPMs was 69 (9.4%. Information on LAPMs in the town was 636 (86.6%. Media (radio and television was the major sources of information 641 (87.3%. The use of LAPMs was significatly associated with ever use AOR[17.43, 95% CI:9.19, 33.03], number of times discussions made on methods AOR[4.6, 95% CI: 1.72,12.17] and main decider of using methods AOR[ 2.2, 95% CI:1.03, 4.65]. It was not associated with socio-demographic variables. Conclusion and recommendation The utilization of LAPMs in the town was less although higher than the Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2005 result. Moreover, there was a considerable unmet need. Increase the method mix of LAPMs by incorporating varaies of implnats in order to increase utilization. Proper counseling of client and partners discussion were some of the recommendation forwarded.

  15. Cape Cod, Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  16. The 500 Windows Campaign: A Case Study of a Youth Movement for Educational Resources in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Angara, Harini

    2011-01-01

    This case study seeks to examine what organizing methods and ethos helped Equal Education (EE), a community-based youth organization, convince government officials to repair 500 broken windows at Luhlaza School in Khayelitsha, an impoverished township near Cape Town, South Africa. Through various methods, including petitions, op-ed articles, and a rally, the group succeeded in its campaign. EE takes inspiration from apartheid-era youth movements. In the burgeoning democracy of the "New" South...

  17. Multiple Temporalities of Policy Circulation: Gradual, Repetitive and Delayed Processes of BRT Adoption in South African Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, bus rapid transit (BRT) swept across South African cities. Within three years of learning of the Bogotá model of BRT, Johannesburg's Rea Vaya opened, followed shortly by Cape Town's MyCiTi, while several other cities are at various stages of planning and implementation. This article traces the circulation of BRT across the South African urban context to expose the multiple and varied temporalities through which BRT came to appear as the only available solution. These earlier encounte...

  18. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  19. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendse Najuwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic

  20. Combining floristic and growth form composition in a gradient- directed vegetation survey of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lechmere-Oertel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristically complex vegetation of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve (MNR. which spans the ecotone between the Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes in the eastern Cederberg Mountains, Western Cape, was surveyed using a gradient-directed transect (gradsect. The gradsect was aligned with a topo-ciimatic aridity gradient across MNR. The vegetation was classified using TWINSPAN. based on a combination of floristic and growth form characteristics, and an understanding of the main ecological gradients controlling vegetation distribution. The final classification described seven robust and eco­logically meaningful communities that represented a trade-off between statistical rigour and practicality for management. The seven communities were mapped using a geographical information system (GIS.

  1. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  2. The association between healed skeletal fractures indicative of interpersonal violence and alcoholic liver disease in a cadaver cohort from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie H; Alblas, Amanda; Greyling, Linda M; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) and heavy alcohol consumption are major problems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Cranio-maxillofacial fractures, particularly nasal and zygomatic bone fractures, as well as isolated radial fractures (Colles fractures) and ulnar shaft fractures (parry fractures), are indicative of IPV, while alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. We therefore aim to investigate whether a significant association exists between the prevalence of cranio-maxillofacial fractures and parry fractures and ALD in a Western Cape population. Embalmed cadavers (n = 124) used for medical students' anatomy training at the Division of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University were studied. The cadavers were dissected according to departmental protocol. The liver of each cadaver was investigated for macroscopic pathology lesions. Tissue samples were removed, processed to wax, and sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All soft tissue was removed from the skulls, radii, and ulnae, which were then investigated for healed skeletal trauma. The results showed 37/124 (29.8%) cadavers had healed cranio-maxillofacial fractures and 24/124 (19.4%) cadavers had morphologic features of ALD. A total of 12/124 (9.7%) cadavers showed signs of both ALD and healed cranio-maxillofacial trauma. More males were affected than females, and left-sided facial fractures were statistically more common compared to the right side. This study illustrated a significant trend between alcohol abuse and cranio-maxillofacial fractures in individuals from communities with a low socio-economic status (SES) where IPV is a major problem. PMID:27139236

  3. TRMM-retrieved Cloud Structure and Evolution of MCSs over the Northern South China Sea and Impacts of CAPE and Vertical Wind Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiangshu; GUO Xueliang; FU Danhong

    2013-01-01

    Cloud structure and evolution of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) retrieved from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TRMM TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) were investigated and compared with some pioneer studies based on soundings and models over the northern South China Sea (SCS).The impacts of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and environmental vertical wind shear on MCSs were also explored.The main features of MCSs over the SCS were captured well by both TRMM PR and TMI.However,the PR-retrieved surface rainfall in May was less than that in June,and the reverse for TMI.TRMM-retrieved rainfall amounts were generally consistent with those estimated from sounding and models.However,rainfall amounts from sounding-based and PR-based estimates were relatively higher than those retrieved from TRMM-TMI data.The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling simulation underestimated the maximum rain rate by 22% compared to that derived from TRMM-PR,and underestimated mean rainfall by 10.4% compared to the TRMM-TMI estimate,and by 12.5% compared to the sounding-based estimate.The warm microphysical processes modeled from both the WRF and the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) models were quite close to those based on TMI,but the ice water contents in the models were relatively less compared to that derived from TMI.The CAPE and wind shear induced by the monsoon circulation were found to play critical roles in maintaining and developing the intense convective clouds over SCS.The latent heating rate increased more than twofold during the monsoon period and provided favorable conditions for the upward transportation of energy from the ocean,giving rise to the possibility of inducing large-scale interactions.

  4. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the De Hoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA in conserved areas, arachnids were collected in the De Hoop Nature Reserve in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The survey was carried out between 1999 and 2007, and consisted of five intensive surveys between two and 12 days in duration. Arachnids were sampled in five broad habitat types, namely fynbos, wetlands, i.e. De Hoop Vlei, Eucalyptus plantations at Potberg and Cupido’s Kraal, coastal dunes near Koppie Alleen and the intertidal zone at Koppie Alleen. A total of 274 species representing five orders, 65 families and 191 determined genera were collected, of which spiders (Araneae were the dominant taxon (252 spp., 174 genera, 53 families. The most species rich families collected were the Salticidae (32 spp., Thomisidae (26 spp., Gnaphosidae (21 spp., Araneidae (18 spp., Theridiidae (16 spp. and Corinnidae (15 spp.. Notes are provided on the most commonly collected arachnids in each habitat.Conservation implications: This study provides valuable baseline data on arachnids conserved in De Hoop Nature Reserve, which can be used for future assessments of habitat transformation, alien invasive species and climate change on arachnid biodiversity.

  5. Knowledge and perceptions of risk for cardiovascular disease: Findings of a qualitative investigation from a low-income peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Surka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease. Although referred to clinics after community screening initiatives, few individuals who are identified to be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease attend. Low health literacy and risk perception have been identified as possible causes. We investigated the knowledge and perceptions about risk for cardiovascular disease in a community.Method: We conducted a series of focus group discussions with individuals from a low incomeperi-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa. Different methods of presenting risk were explored. The data were organised into themes and analysed to find associations between themes to provide explanations for our findings.Results: Respondents’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors varied, but most were familiar with the terms used to describe cardiovascular disease. In contrast, understanding of the concept of risk was poor. Risk was perceived as a binary concept and evaluation of different narrative and visual methods of presenting risk was not possible.Conclusion: Understanding cardiovascular disease and its risk factors requires a different set of skills from that needed to understand uncertainty and risk. The former requires knowledge of facts, whereas understanding of risk requires numerical and computational skills. Without a better understanding of risk, risk assessments for cardiovascular disease may fail in this community.

  6. The impact of an increase in wine industry exports on the South African economy, focusing on the Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott; Punt, Cecilia; Bhanisi, Sipho

    2006-01-01

    A marketing strategy undertaken by role players in the wine industry is expected to lead to increases in South African wine exports. A multi-sector analysis, which takes into account the linkage effects in an economy, was conducted to estimate the impact of an increase in wine exports on the South African economy. The increase in wine exports will be the result of changed perceptions and hence increases in the export price faced by South African wine producers. Results of a 10% increase in th...

  7. Results of a cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce risky use of alcohol, alcohol-related HIV risks and improve help-seeking behaviour among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie; Laubscher, Ria; Nel, Elmarie; Parry, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a programme aimed at reducing the risky use of alcohol and alcohol-related HIV risk and increase help-seeking behaviour among a sample of municipal employees in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Methods A clustered randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2011–2012 among 325 employees. The eight hour intervention, Team Awareness (TA), addressing behavioural risk among employees was administered to 168 employees in the intervention arm and the ...

  8. Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Moscow conference, the global nuclear regulatory community, with the support of the IAEA, has made good progress on the findings and conclusions from the conference. For instance, during the conference, the top regulators of the G8 countries agreed to host Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) missions to share experience and mutual learning. Actually, all the G8 member countries except Italy, which has no ongoing nuclear power programme, have invited IRRS missions, and many other IAEA Member States have participated in or have invited IRRS missions. There is also now increased government participation in international instruments such as conventions and codes of conduct. And today, there is broader and further application of the IAEA Safety Standards, security guidelines, peer reviews and advisory services by regulatory bodies. The IAEA follows with keen interest the developments of the European Commission in establishing a nuclear safety framework based on the IAEA's Safety Fundamentals and peer reviews. Furthermore, many Member States have helped the IAEA to issue new nuclear security guidance documents and further develop programmes for human resource development. So, where do we stand today? The safety performance of the nuclear industry has remained at a high level. Various safety performance indicators, such as unplanned reactor shutdowns, safety equipment availability, radiation exposures to the public and workers, radioactive waste volumes and radiation releases to the environment have shown steady improvement over the last two decades, with some levelling off in recent years. Good safety and security performance is a direct indication of corresponding high levels of regulatory effectiveness. Nevertheless, it is necessary to avoid complacency and to continuously improve and strengthen the existing global nuclear safety and security regime so that the use of nuclear technologies can be introduced or expanded in a safe and credible manner to meet the world's needs for human well-being, growth and development. The IAEA continues to support and promote continuous improvements in the global nuclear safety and security regime as a framework for achieving high levels of safety and security in nuclear activities worldwide and to overcome the inertia of the levelling off of performance. Examples of continuous improvements in this sense include the development of more comprehensive and user friendly safety guides, better safety and security performance indicators, more useful analytical tools for evaluation of regulatory performance, enhanced self-assessment and peer review mechanisms, and more sharing of experience and lessons learned

  9. Water demand and the urban poor. A study of the factors influencing water consumption among housholds in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Ada; Schulz, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Water demand management is a key focus area for most water managers and even more so in developing countries. Improved access to water is important to the poor. Water scarcity makes efficient management even more urgent and it creates more conflicts in water distribution. Different policies have been introduced to ensure a water management system that cares for the poor, among them the Increasing Block Tariff (IBT) structure. Studies demonstrate that it is very important to know t...

  10. Women and Management in Higher Education. Final Report. CHESS Workshop (2nd, Cape Town, South Africa, May 27-31, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, June

    The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1996 workshop was designed to facilitate the development of women managers and leaders in the universities of the British Commonwealth. The management of change by women leaders in higher education was especially emphasized. The 36 participants represented 16 countries and were senior…

  11. ‘‘It is always HIV/AIDS and TB’’: Home-based carers’ perspectives on epilepsy in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Keikelame, Mpoe Johannah; Swartz, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The study highlights the complex cultural religious factors affecting epilepsy and a need for integrated home-based care services. Two focus group discussions exploring home-based carers’ (HBCs) perspectives on epilepsy were conducted using a semi-structured focus group interview guide, which was based on Kleinman’s explanatory model framework. The audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was done. The three main themes were epilepsy names and metaphors, religiou...

  12. “It is always HIV/AIDS and TB”: Home-based carers’ perspectives on epilepsy in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mpoe Johannah Keikelame; Leslie Swartz

    2016-01-01

    The study highlights the complex cultural religious factors affecting epilepsy and a need for integrated home-based care services. Two focus group discussions exploring home-based carers’ (HBCs) perspectives on epilepsy were conducted using a semi-structured focus group interview guide, which was based on Kleinman's explanatory model framework. The audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was done. The three main themes were epilepsy names and metaphors, religiou...

  13. Analysis of readymade readers and near–inter-pupillary distance for presbyopic patients in optometric practice in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monet A. Butler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and background: This study has particular significance in ophthalmic dispensing as well as for optometry when considering the use of readymade readers (RMRs both in private practice and in the public health sector. This study investigated firstly whether the optical centre (OC distance for a sample of RMRs correlates with the near–inter-pupillary distance (near-IPD for presbyopic patients, whether induced prism occurs with convergence when reading and whether RMR lenses are free of optical strain. Methods: Near-IPDs (measured by a single individual were obtained from record cards of 1080 patients (540 male patients and 540 female patients. The OC distances were determined for 60 RMRs using a Nikon PL-2 screen vertometer, and induced prismatic effects were calculated for vertical and horizontal meridians. The presence of optical strain was analysed and graded using crossed polarised filters (within a polariscope. Results: The measured average near-IPD was 59.04 mm (s.d. ±2.87 for the 540 female patients and 61.59 mm (s.d. ±3.08 for the 540 male patients. The measured average RMR OC distance was 64.49 mm (s.d. ±3.74 for female patients and 62.77 mm (s.d. ±1.57 for male patients. Based on the mean near-IPD and the corresponding RMR OC distance, the average horizontal prismatic effect found in RMRs designed for female patients with induced prism was 0.11 pd base-out (5.06 mm outwards and 0.04 pd base-in (1.26 mm inwards. For male RMRs, this was 0.03 pd base-out (1.32 mm outwards and 0.02 pd base-in (1.28 mm inwards. When comparing RMR distances with near-IPDs, t = -7.87, p < 0.001 for female patients and t = -3.69, p < 0.001 for male patients. The average vertical differential prismatic effect for female patients was 0.67 pd and it was 0.68 pd for male patients. Optical strain was observed in 66.67% and 56.67% of RMR lenses for female and male patients, respectively. The strain pattern was found to be most severe in the inferior temporal periphery for 34 RMRs for female patients and for 20 RMRs for male patients, followed by the inferior nasal periphery for 27 and 18 lenses (RMRs for male and female patients, respectively. Conclusion: Most RMRs were found to be within international standard tolerances for horizontally induced prismatic effects, but 10% of female and 36.67% of male RMRs had vertical prismatic effects, which exceeded international standards. Significant optical strain was found in the inferior nasal reading portion of the RMRs. Keywords: Readymade readers (RMR’s; prismatic effect; strain; interpupillary distance; presbyopia; reading

  14. Growth and weight status in treatment-naïve 12-16 year old adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Laubscher Ria; Senekal Marjanne; Naude Celeste E; Carey Paul D; Fein George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption during adolescence has many known harmful health and social consequences and is strongly associated with numerous health risk behaviours. The consequences of heavy alcohol use during adolescence on nutritional status, specifically growth and weight status are largely unknown at this time. Methods Substance use, anthropometric indices of growth and weight, dietary energy intake and physical activity in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV cri...

  15. “It is always HIV/AIDS and TB”: Home-based carers’ perspectives on epilepsy in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikelame, Mpoe Johannah; Swartz, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The study highlights the complex cultural religious factors affecting epilepsy and a need for integrated home-based care services. Two focus group discussions exploring home-based carers’ (HBCs) perspectives on epilepsy were conducted using a semi-structured focus group interview guide, which was based on Kleinman's explanatory model framework. The audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was done. The three main themes were epilepsy names and metaphors, religious beliefs about the cause and treatment of epilepsy, and HBCs’ perceived roles and strategies for engaging in epilepsy care. Findings provide some insights for research, policy, and practice. PMID:27258583

  16. Royden McIntosh Muir and His Anesthetic Links Between South Africa, London, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Peter Crichton

    2016-07-01

    New Zealand born, Dr. Royden McIntosh Muir, MBChB(Edin), DA(RCS&RCP), emigrated to Cape Town in 1921 having specialized in anesthesia in London after World War 1 and became one of South Africa's earliest and leading anesthesiologists. He was appointed honorary anesthetist and clinical teacher by the University of Cape Town at South Africa's first medical school in 1922, and lecturer in 1927. Aware of Cape Town's isolation at the southern tip of Africa, he undertook extensive tours studying anesthetic practice at major hospitals in London, the United States and Canada in 1933 and 1938. He became a lifelong friend of Ralph Waters in Madison, who coached him in the use of cyclopropane, and he subsequently introduced cyclopropane into England and South Africa. In the United States, he met Richard von Foregger, founder of the New York based Foregger Company, from whom he later commissioned a purpose-built anesthetic machine marketed by Foregger as "The Muir Midget." Muir was a founder member of the South African Society of Anaesthetists in 1943 and was elected as its second president the following year. Based on what he had seen in academic hospitals in the United States and England, he fought until his retirement for the improved recognition of the specialty in South Africa and the establishment of adequately staffed departments of anesthesia at teaching hospitals in that country. PMID:27480475

  17. Terrace Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The "Terrace Town" program brings architecture and city planning curriculum to elementary schools in Madison, Wisconsin, and surrounding areas. Over eight weeks, classrooms discuss what makes a community livable, sustainable, and kid-friendly. Throughout the process, students gain a better understanding of their own city environments and propose…

  18. Comparison and validation of full-scale data from wind measurements in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andries C.; Goliger, Adam M.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo;

    2014-01-01

    . These differences between the wind at the different locations are further complicated by the main strong wind mechanisms prevailing in the region, i.e. north-westerly winds from passing extratropical cyclones, mainly in the austral winter, and south-easterlies from ridging high-pressure systems, mainly...

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Chuks Iweriebor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus

  20. An epidemiological investigation of the African horsesickness outbreak in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in 2004 and its relevance to the current equine export protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinclair

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available African Horsesickness (AHS is a controlled disease in South Africa. The country is divided into an infected area and a control area. An outbreak of AHS in the control area can result in a ban of exports for at least 2 years. A retrospective epidemiological study was carried out on data collected during the 2004 AHS outbreak in the surveillance zone of the AHS control area in the Western Cape Province. The objective of this study was to describe the 2004 outbreak and compare it with the 1999 AHS outbreak in the same area. As part of the investigation, a questionnaire survey was conducted in the 30 km radius surrounding the index case. Spatial, temporal and population patterns for the outbreak are described. The investigation found that the outbreak occurred before any significant rainfall and that the main AHS vector (Culicoides imicola was present in abundance during the outbreak. Furthermore, 63% of cases occurred at temperatures < 15 oC, the Eerste River Valley was a high risk area, only 17% of owners used vector protection as a control measure and 70% of horses in the outbreak area were protected by means of vaccination at the start of the outbreak. The study revealed that the current AHS control measures do not function optimally because of the high percentage of vaccinated horses in the surveillance zone, which results in insufficient sentinel animals and the consequent failure of the early warning system. Alternative options for control that allow continued export are discussed in the paper.

  1. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Ganjifrockwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54 and diabetes with retinopathy (44. Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03, P=0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy.

  2. HIV- and AIDS-related (mis)perceptions and (non)responses of school principals in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; Webb, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Despite various HIV and AIDS training programmes offered for educators by the South African Department of Education, little has been achieved at the level of management in terms of creating a wider understanding of the social and cultural complexities of the condition and its impact on the quality of teaching and learning. Specifically, there is a lack of developmental programmes to help school principals provide leadership that can ensure that teachers and children who live in a context affected by the disease will still find themselves in a school environment of quality, care and compassion. With this in mind, we conducted a qualitative research enquiry among a sample of 12 school principals in the Eastern Cape Province in order to discover their perceptions about the impacts of HIV and AIDS on their schools and to learn how they have responded to the corresponding challenges. Our intention was to use the findings primarily to inform the development of an academic programme and short courses to empower school principals and leadership in this regard, but the findings may also be relevant as a guide for research on a larger scale. PMID:25871276

  3. Supporting Teacher Professional Development to Use Tablets in Resource Constrained Schools: A Case Study of Cofimvaba Schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Botha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.

  4. Sedimentology of granite boulder conglomerates and associated clastics in the onshore section of the late Mesozoic Pletmos Basin (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; America, Travis

    2016-07-01

    Along the southern margin of South Africa, intermountain rift successions, which comprise unusually large, rounded granite boulders and other coarse clastics, reveal an important geological history about the mid-Mesozoic extensional tectonics that lead to the break-up of Gondwana. These strata, mapped as part of the Mid to Upper Jurassic Enon Formation, allow the assessment of the nature, intensity and mode of sediment transport in onshore section of the Pletmos Basin, which is one of the late Mesozoic basins in southern Africa. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, palaeocurrent measurements and semi-quantitative palaeohydraulic calculations, the results suggest that the abundant coarse sediment was deposited by debris-flows and stream-flow floods on a proximal alluvial fan with high gradient alluvial channels. The floods were intense with mean flow velocity of ∼6 m3/s and peak discharge of ∼450 m3/s. While the role of climate in the sedimentation dynamics remains unknown, syn-sedimentary rift tectonics were likely significant and caused, north of the major boundary fault, the unroofing and denudation of the uplifted mountainous source areas, including the Late Ediacaran-Cambrian Maalgaten Granite Suite and the Siluro-Ordovician Table Mountain Group (Cape Supergroup).

  5. Pyrosequencing analysis of roof-harvested rainwater and river water used for domestic purposes in Luthengele village in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2015-02-01

    Pyrosequencing targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable of the 16S rDNA was used to investigate the bacterial diversity in river and roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) used for potable purposes by rural households in Luthengele village in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The phylum Proteobacteria dominated the data set (80.5 % of all reads), while 4.2 % of the reads could not be classified to any of the known phyla at a probability of 0.8 or higher (unclassified bacteria). At class level, the classes; Betaproteobacteria (50.4 % of all reads), Alphaproteobacteria (16.2 %), Verrucomicrobiae (6.6 %), Planctomycetacia (5.7 %), and Sphingobacteria (3 %) dominated the data set in all the samples. Although the class Verrucomicrobiae constituted 6.6 % of all sequences, 88.6 % of the sequences were from the river sample where the class represented 43.7 % of the observed sequences in the sample. The bacteria community structure clearly showed significant similarities between RHRW and differences with the river water control sample, suggesting different levels of contamination and environmental factors affecting the various water sources. Moreover, signatures of potential pathogens including Legionella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Clostridia, Chromobacterium, Yersinia, and Serratia were detected, and the proportions of Legionella were relatively higher suggesting a potential health risk to households using RHRW. This work provides guidance for prioritizing subsequent culturable and quantitative analysis to ensure that potentially significant pathogens are not left out of risk estimations. PMID:25637385

  6. Insights on Structural, Petrographical, Mineralogical and Geochemical Approach on the Grahamstown Kaolin Deposit Genesis in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakaba Madi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The town of Grahamstown is known on the geological and mineralogical point of view mainly because of its kaolin deposit, which derived from the intense weathering of the Dwyka tillite of the Karoo Supergroup. The weathering is favoured by the occurrence of brittle structures and breccias of granites that contains considerable amount of feldspar. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of structural control in the weathering process leading to the formation of kaolin, to check the petrographical data by comparing breccias found in the fresh tillite and those in the kaolin, to highlight the mineralogical composition in some samples. The methods used in this study include: a comprehensive literature review, field observations, fault and fracture measurements to produce a general orientation, microscopic study, XRD and XRF analysis. Muscovite, albite, orthoclase, plagioclase, smectite, illite and quartz are some of the minerals present; smectization and illitization precede kaolinization in the Grahamstown area from k-feldspar and feldspar by leaching of elements such as K, Na and Ca and concentration of Al that later combines with Si to produce kaolin. A fresh tillite has higher intensity in peak diffraction analysis than a less and more weathered rock at a certain angle 2 theta. It is concluded that the primary source rock that is the parent rock in the genesis of kaolin is the Dwyka tillite, this tillite comprises breccias of granite and quartzite having microfractures that contribute to the alteration of feldspathic materials into kaolin.

  7. An Economic Valuation Of The Water Footprint: A Case Study Of The Citrus Sector In The Lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, S. A.; Fraser, G. C. G.; Snowball, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    With the implementation of the South African National Water Act (NWA) currently underway, water intensive sectors, such as the irrigated agriculture sector, can expect reduced water allocations and an increase in water prices. Water footprints (WFs) are increasingly being recognised as a meaningful way by which to represent human appropriation of water resources. This study examines the green and blue WFs of a variety of citrus cultivars in the lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa. WFs were calculated across dry, humid and long-term average climates and comparisons were made to available global average benchmark WFs. An number of indicators were also explored including; water productivity (ton/m3), economic land productivity (R/ha) and economic water productivity (R/m3) across all three climatic years. Most applications of WF sustainability assessments have focused on examining physical water scarcity as a measure for determining environmental hotspots. This study, therefore, also calculates the marginal product value for the irrigation water using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Marginal product value of irrigation water is not only useful in assisting with water-allocation decision making, but also useful in demonstrating the effects of resource depletion and degradation, and is therefore a useful measure for determining economic water scarcity. The study highlights that both farmers and governments could reduce blue WF's through adopting measures to increase water efficiency and considering economic water and land productivity. It also demonstrates the importance of including both environmental and economic scarcity indicators into water management and planning strategies, and the importance of conducting WF assessments using more accurate, site specific data.

  8. Socioeconomic status and self-reported tuberculosis: a multilevel analysis in a low-income township in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Murray Cramm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the interplay of multiple factors affecting the prevalence of tuberculosis in developing countries. The compositional and contextual factors that affect health and disease patterns must be fully understood to successfully control tuberculosis. Experience with tuberculosis in South Africa was examined at the household level (overcrowding, a leaky roof, social capital, unemployment, income and at the neighbourhood level (Gini coefficient of inequality, unemployment rate, headcount poverty rate. A hierarchical random-effects model was used to assess household-level and neighbourhood-level effects on self-reported tuberculosis experience. Every tenth household in each of the 20 Rhini neighbourhoods was selected for inclusion in the sample. Eligible respondents were at least 18 years of age and had been residents of Rhini for at least six months of the previous year. A Kish grid was used to select one respondent from each targeted household, to ensure that all eligible persons in the household stood an equal chance of being included in the survey. We included 1020 households within 20 neighbourhoods of Rhini, a suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. About one-third of respondents (n=329; 32% reported that there had been a tuberculosis case within the household. Analyses revealed that overcrowding (P≤0.05 and roof leakage (P≤ 0.05 contributed significantly to the probability of a household TB experience, whereas higher social capital (P≤0.01 significantly reduced this probability. Overcrowding, roof leakage and the social environment affected tuberculosis prevalence in this economically disadvantaged community. Policy makers should consider the possible benefits of programs that deal with housing and social environments when addressing the spread of tuberculosis in economically poor districts.

  9. Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR and extremely drug resistant (XDR bacteria Pseudomonas species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor environments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR based technique was used to identify the isolates and screen for antibiotic resistant genes. The result shows occurrence of Pseudomonas spp. in freshwater and mixed liquor as follows: 71.42% and 37.5% (P. putida, 14.28% and 31.25% (P. flourescens, 7.14% and 6.25% (P. aeruginosa and 7.14% and 25% for other Pseudomonas species respectively. Disk diffusion antibiogram of the Pseudomonas isolates from the two locations showed 100% resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, rifampicin and 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin with varied percentage resistances to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and ampicillin. The blaTEM antibiotic resistant gene was detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% P. aeruginosa and 40% in other Pseudomonas species. Similarly, Integrons conserved segment were detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% of P. aeruginosa and 40% of other Pseudomonas species. The presence of blaTEM gene and integrons conserved segment in some of the isolates is worrisome and suggest Pseudomonas species as important reservoirs of multidrug resistance genes in the Eastern Cape Province environment.

  10. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope

  11. Facilities at ARIES for the Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Sagar; David L. Mary

    2005-06-01

    A collaborative programme searching for mmag pulsations in chemically peculiar stars in the northern hemisphere was initiated in 1997 between Nainital, India, and Cape Town, South Africa. It was therefore named as the Nainital–Cape Survey programme. The detection limits imposed by the observing conditions (including atmospheric noise and telescope size) at both Manora Peak and Devasthal sites are described. The scintillation noise on the best photometric nights is ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 mmag for these sites. Both places allow one to detect few mmag variation in bright stars ( ≤ 12 mag), and are therefore particularly well-suited for carrying out the proposed surveywork. The main characteristics of the three-channel photometer developed at ARIES for carrying out the observations are also presented. This excellent instrument has been used extensively since 1999 at the f/13 Cassegrain focus of ARIES’ 104 cm telescope. In particular, it allowed the survey to result in the discovery of Scuti like pulsations in four Am stars, in one rapidly oscillating Ap star, and in a number of probable variables so far. The future prospects are then presented, which regard the acquisition of a high speed time series CCD photometer, a project to build a 3-metre class telescope at Devasthal, and collaborative observations with Indian and foreign astronomical sites.

  12. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin L.; Mzikazi Nduna; Nwabisa Jama Shai; Claire Sterk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger) increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunt...

  13. Collaborative action research to reduce persistently long patient wait times in two public clinics in Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A Sastry, PhD; K N G Long, MSPH; A de Sa, MBChB; H Salie, MBChB; S Topp, PhD; S Sanghvi, MBA; L van Niekerk, MBChB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lengthy waiting times are problematic for patients and health-care workers alike. In clinics and hospitals across Africa, persistently long wait times have been linked to poor medication compliance, skipped appointments, delayed implementation of clinical programmes, and low healthcare worker morale. This collabortiave action research study explores practical methods to reduce patient waiting time in high-volume urban primary care public health facilities in South Africa. Metho...

  14. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  15. Techno economic viability of desalination processes in South Africa / Laubscher, L.J.

    OpenAIRE

    Laubscher, Louis Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    The provision of fresh water to sustain current economic development and the ever increasing population is one of the world?s greatest challenges and will become increasingly acute in the immediate future. South Africa is currently utilizing 98% of its available fresh water and with the current growth in population and economy fresh water will rapidly become a limited resource. Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Durban have been identified by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry as coastal...

  16. Influencing Adolescent Leisure Motivation: Intervention Effects of HealthWise South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Linda L.; Patrick, Megan E.; SMITH, EDWARD A.; Palen, Lori-Ann; WEGNER, LISA

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates changes in self-reported motivation for leisure due to participation in HealthWise, a high school curriculum aimed at decreasing risk behavior and promoting health behavior. Participants were 2,193 mixed race adolescents (M = 14 years old) from 9 schools (4 intervention, 5 control) near Cape Town, South Africa. Students in the HealthWise school with the greatest involvement in teacher training and implementation fidelity reported increased intrinsic and identified moti...

  17. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were...

  18. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in South Africa: Cross-Sectional Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pillay, A; Liu, H; Ebrahim, S; Chen, C Y; Lai, W.; Fehler, G; Ballard, R C; Steiner, B.; Sturm, A W; Morse, S A

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated a molecular subtyping system for Treponema pallidum for its ability to differentiate between strains obtained from male patients with primary syphilis in South Africa. Of 201 T. pallidum-positive specimens, 161 were typeable, revealing 35 subtypes. The unique subtypes identified in Durban, Cape Town, and Carletonville and the total number of subtypes suggested that the strain population was very diverse and varied geographically.

  19. Revolutionaries, barbarians or war machines?; gangs in Nicaragua and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Dennis; Jensen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    The view of gangs as proto-revolutionary vanguards has continued to inform the analyses of many gang researchers over the past few decades. During the course of our own research on gangs in respectively a poor neighbourhood in Managua, the capital city of Nicaragua, and a coloured township in Cape Town, South Africa, we have found considerable empirical resonance between Fanon's vision and the real-life discourses of many of the gangsters that we have interviewed and spent time with. Although...

  20. John Herschel and the Cape flora, 1834 - 1839.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, J. P.

    John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.

  1. Religious research as kingpin in the fight against poverty and AIDS in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes C. Erasmus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the researchers’ efforts to apply the principles of Participatory Action Research (PAR, specifically participation, through the direct involvement of church members in the research. It includes involving them in the design of questionnaires, training and utilizing them as fieldworkers, and finally disseminating the results of the research via workshops aimed at strategizing for change. The research is based on two hypotheses, the first being that, churches and their members are intensely involved in serving both the needs of their own members, as well as the needs of the larger community; and secondly, that churches do not work alone, but are part of networks with other agencies to accomplish their goals. At the outset the article outlines the challenges and points of departure, followed by a chronological account of how this approach was applied in Paarl, a South African community. Finally, an overview of the results of the project is provided.

  2. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities. PMID:27609458

  3. The diets of ungulates from the hominid fossil-bearing site of Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynder, Deano D.

    2009-01-01

    The dietary regimes of 15 ungulate species from the middle Pleistocene levels of the hominid-bearing locality of Elandsfontein, South Africa, are investigated using the mesowear technique. Previous studies, using taxonomic analogy, classified twelve of the studied species as grazers ( Redunca arundinum, Hippotragus gigas, Hippotragus leucophaeus, Antidorcas recki, Homoiceras antiquus, Damaliscus aff. lunatus, Connochaetes gnou laticornutus, Rabaticerus arambourgi, Damaliscus niro, Damaliscus sp. nov., an unnamed "spiral horn" antelope and Equus capensis), one as a mixed feeder ( Taurotragus oryx) and two as browsers ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros and Raphicerus melanotis). Although results from mesowear analysis sustain previous dietary classifications in the majority of cases, five species were reclassified. Three species previously classified as grazers, were reclassified as mixed feeders ( H. gigas, D. aff. lunatus and R. arambourgi), one previously classified as a grazer, was reclassified as a browser (the "spiral horn" antelope), and one previously classified as a mixed feeder, was reclassified as a browser ( T. oryx). While current results broadly support previous reconstructions of the Elandsfontein middle Pleistocene environment as one which included a substantial C 3 grassy component, the reclassifications suggest that trees, broad-leaved bush and fynbos were probably more prominent than what was previously thought.

  4. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Geiger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Associated Factors among Pre-School Children in Butajira Town, South-Central Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teha Shumbej

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH remain a major public health problem, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Though infections are prevalent among all age groups, the world health organization (WHO considers Pre-school age children (PSAC, school-aged children, and pregnant women as segments of population at high risk of STH morbidities.This study aimed at determining the prevalence and infection intensity of STH and associated factors among PSAC in Butajira Town, south-central Ethiopia.A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June, 2014 in Butajira Town. The PSAC were selected by systematic sampling technique and invited to participate in the present study. McMaster technique was employed for parasitological analysis of stool samples. Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed where appropriate to identify any association between STH infection and independent factors. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify independent predictors of STH among the PSAC. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.A total of 377 (with 96% compliance rate PSAC were able to provide complete data (socio-demographic information and stool sample. The study showed that 23.3% (88/377 PSAC were infected with one or more species of STH. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent STH (14.9% followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.4%. The overall infection intensity, expressed as geometric mean for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworms were 229, 178, and 154 eggs per gram of stool, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model estimated that being in the age group of 36-47 months (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2-5.3, P = 0.016, untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.5, P < 0.001, and not washing hands before a meal (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.4, P < 0.001 were independent predictors of STH infections among the children.The present study showed that STH was a

  6. Alcohol Use, Partner Violence, and Depression: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Among Urban South African Mothers Over 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Tomlinson, M.; Roux, IL; Stein, JA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Introduction Pregnant South African women with histories of drinking alcohol, abuse by violent partners, depression, and living with HIV are likely to have their post-birth trajectories over 36 months significantly influenced by these risks. Design All pregnant women in 24 Cape Town neighborhoods were recruited into a cluster RCT by neighborhood to either: (1) a standard care condition (n=12 neighborhoods, n=594 mothers); or (2) a home-visiting ...

  7. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater on the aspect of metals in an old town, Foshan, south China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guanxing Huang; Zongyu Chen; Jichao Sun

    2014-02-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the water quality and discussing the hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal variation of shallow groundwater on the aspect of metals in the eastern Chancheng district of Foshan city, south China. Multivariate analytical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used in this study. The results show that 45% of groundwater in the east-central of study area is not suitable for drinking purpose due to high concentrations of Fe, Pb and Mn. The mean concentrations of Fe, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Mn in dry season are higher than that in wet season. On the contrary, the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Zn, Ba, Cr, Mo, Ni and Al in wet season are higher than that in dry season. PCA results show that four PCs are responsible for the 78.6% of the total hydrochemical variables in groundwater. Three groups were generated from HCA method. Group 1 reflects the characteristic of wet season and the low ion exchange capacity; group 2 is mainly influenced by the dry season. Reducing environment and high ion exchange capacity are responsible for group 3. The results are useful in addressing future measures in groundwater resource management for local government.

  8. Switching on After Nine: Black gay-identified men's perceptions of sexual identities and partnerships in South African towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men. PMID:26878380

  9. Food marketing towards children: brand logo recognition, food-related behavior and BMI among 3-13-year-olds in a south Indian town.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ueda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3-13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. METHODS: Child-parent pairs (n=306 were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. RESULTS: Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001 and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups. Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p=0.022 and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001 but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. CONCLUSIONS: Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India.

  10. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villiers Anniza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  11. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  12. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How and why wealthy suburban congregations are responding to poverty and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine F. Bowers Du Toit; Grace Nkomo

    2014-01-01

    South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church’s response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, ‘majority white’ suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and inequality. This is attempted through the lense of restorative justice, which is broadly explored and defined through a threefold perspective of reconciliation, reparations and res...

  13. SOUTH AFRICA AND THE WAR AGAINST JAPAN 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although South Africa was never attacked by Japan during the Second World War, the threat was considered to be so great that one of our most distinguished soldiers, Brigadier (later Major General W.H. Evered Poole was recalled from the Western Desert on 26 May 1942 and appointed Fortress Commander at The Castle in Cape Town. South Africa's published Official Histories of the Second World War contain few details of South Africans who served in the Far East. Commander H.R. Gordon-Cumming's unpublished Official History of the SA Naval Forces in the Second World War 1939-1945 includes narratives of the two South African ships which served in the Far East, HMSAS BARBRAKE and HMSAS NATAL, and HMS TEVIOT and HMS SALVESTOR which were manned by the South African Naval Force (SANF.

  14. South Africa calls Italy: effective exchange activity through costless (Skype like) connections in the framework of the EU UNAWE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, A.; Albanese, L.; Naidoo, T.

    2014-10-01

    In summer 2012 the Italian EU-UNAWE team joined with the South African team in Cape Town, working with the township schools organizing activities at school and also a teachers' training event at the SAAO Observatory. In order to involve in the exchange not only the project's experts but also to the teachers and the children, we organized Skype connections between the Cape town teachers participating in the project and the teachers in Sicily (South Italy) that also participated in one of the Italian training sessions and later between the children of the Italian school and those in Zanemfundo School (Cape Town). Thanks to this chance of seeing each other and talking directly, children have - with huge interest and participation - shared and learned methods, experiences, curiosities. They shared their prepared actual science researches, in order to understand why an equal gnomon cast different shadows at the same time in the two countries. The teachers confronted on curricula, didactic methodologies such as working with a background story during the whole school year, interdisciplinary uses of astronomy, languages etc. The EU-UNAWE project and International or Regional conferences such as LARIM are perfect chances to create exchanges between countries all around the World, and this simple communication model between children and teachers appears like an enormous resource yet to be fully exploited.

  15. Ten years of democracy: attitudes and identity among some South African school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlyn Dyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten years into South Africa’s democracy, how do school children feel about themselves as part of specific groups, and what is the role of language in their socio-cultural identities? This paper looks at the ways in which two groups of fourteen-year-old Xhosa-speaking and mixed-race ‘Coloured’ South African secondary school learners in a new housing area near Cape Town negotiate their identities through language in a context of rapid social change. It analyses their beliefs and attitudes about the languages and speech communities to which they are exposed.

  16. Last mile delivery in low income communities: The Sekulula spaza express experiment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzer, Pierre; Pascarel, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article is a description of Sekulula Spaza Express, a business model to deliver goods to informal traders piloted in Khayelitsha and Nyanga in Cape Town, South Africa by Reciprocity, a consultancy based in South Africa. The Sekulula Spaza Express model was established by Reciprocity, with funding from PepsiCo, and tested and tracked over a period of 3 months from January to March 2010. The results allowed to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of last mile delivery in low income ...

  17. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Victoire Ticha; Lorraine P. Fakude

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE) of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape inc...

  18. Dietary variation in chick-feeding and self-provisioning Cape Petrel Daption capense and Snow Petrel Pagodroma nivea at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Fijn, R.C.; Franeker, van, J.A.; Trathan, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Food web knowledge is a prerequisite for adequate resource management in the Antarctic ecosystem. Accurate dietary specifications for the major consumers within the Antarctic ecosystem are needed. Procellariid species are the most numerous avian species in Antarctica and account for 20% to 40% of the overall consumption by seabirds in the area. Diet composition of two important procellariids, Cape and Snow Petrels, was studied at Signy Island during the breeding season 2005–2006. Food samples...

  19. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, L L; Kleynhans, Theo E.

    2009-01-01

    Purchases of agricultural land for diverse reasons, such as recreation or aesthetic appeal (collectively referred to as lifestyle purposes), has implications for agricultural land valuations, commercial agriculture and the acquisition of land for redistribution purposes. This paper reports on the extent of purchases of agricultural land for diverse reasons within an intensive and extensive agricultural farming area in the Western Cape, gathered through a survey of land buyers between January ...

  20. ANGLO-SOUTH AFRICAN RELATIONS AND THE EREBUS SCHEME, 1936-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the Commonwealth, South Africa aligned its defence policy closely with that of Great Britain in the years between the two World Wars. Apart from taking responsibility for its own defence, the Union of South Africa was also expected, at its discretion, to support Britain in the case of a European war. By the mid-1930s South Africa faced a possible external threat as the aggressive, imperialist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan began to take shape. South African Defence Minister, Oswald Pirow, endeavoured to obtain 15-inch guns from Britain to bolster Cape Town’s defences against sea-raiders. Despite her strategic interest in safeguarding the Cape sea route, Britain’s own efforts at rearmament, however, made her unwilling to part with guns of that calibre. Instead, in June 1936, the British government agreed to lend the monitor HMS Erebus, carrying two 15-inch guns, to the Union of South Africa. Redesignated Erebus Heavy Battery, South African Garrison Artillery, it was to serve as a floating artillery battery in Cape Town harbour. Two detachments of South Africans were trained in Britain to man the Erebus, but war broke out before the Erebus could sail for the Cape. Some of the South African crew on the Erebus allegedly ‘refused duty’ and were put ashore. The Erebus scheme was subsequently cancelled and the South Africans sent home. The aim of this article is to determine the origins of the Erebus scheme and the reasons for its demise against the background of Anglo-South African relations immediately before and after the commencement of the Second World War. This entails an investigation of Anglo-South African relations both at interstate and popular level. The article outlines the birth of the scheme amidst the diverging views of the British Admiralty and the South African Minister for Defence, Oswald Pirow, on Cape Town’s defence needs. It highlights the political division in South African society over participation

  1. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population. PMID:25193072

  2. Multibeam collection for KN145L16: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 1996-02-10 to 1996-03-26, departing from Durban, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for KNOX14RR: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2008-02-04 to 2008-03-17, departing from Durban, South Africa and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for KN162L09: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2001-01-07 to 2001-01-31, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Durban, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. THE HERSCHEL OBELISK, CLASSICS, AND EGYPTOMANIA AT THE CAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Hilton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Immediately prior to his departure from Cape Town to England in 1838, Sir John Herschel sold the estate, ‘Feldhausen’,1 on which he had erected his telescope and had conducted his astronomical observations, to Mr. R. J. Jones, an auctioneer. The property was sold with a servitude: a circular patch of ground 63 feet in diameter bounded by newly planted fir trees was to be kept in Sir John’s possession in perpetuity.2 This area marked the spot on which the telescope had actually stood. At the centre of the circle Herschel placed a small cylindrical column of granite engraved ‘I. H. 1838’ representing his initials in Latin (for Ioannes Herschelius and the year in which he had completed his work and was leaving the colony.3 Subsequently, the members of the South African Literary and Scientific Institution, of which Herschel had been President,4 decided to commemorate his scientific achievements and his contributions to education in the Cape. At first they had the idea of devising a series of six gold medallions inscribed with the details of his scientific achievements.5 These had been paid for by a voluntary subscription and were designed by Herschel’s assistant, Charles Piazzi Smyth, whose father Rear-Admiral William Henry Smyth had recently (1834 published a catalogue of Roman Imperial medals.6 However, more had been collected than was expended and so the members decided to widen the scope of the exercise and to erect a more suitable memorial on the ground on which the telescope had stood. A meeting of the subscribers chaired by the Governor, Sir George Napier, was held in November 1838 to decide on the form the memorial should take. The resolutions taken at the gathering stated that it was to be ‘a permanent memorial’ and, although no further information about its exact architectural form was given is given in the resolutions, it must be assumed from subsequent references that it was to be an obelisk.7 The committee requested

  6. Profiling participants of the Cape Argus Cycle Tour / Helga Streicher

    OpenAIRE

    Streicher, Helga

    2009-01-01

    Sport tourism, as a segment of tourism, is one of the fastest growing industries. Sport events have grown enormously over the last two decades and, as a part of sport tourism, they are a very powerful tool that is used to market a country. Sport tourism also creates an internationally recognised image and attracts tourists from all over the world. One of the internationally recognised sport events held annually in Cape Town is the Pick In Pay Cape Argus Cycle Tour (ACT). Originally starte...

  7. Panorama from 'Cape Verde'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006). The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers. The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast. This approximately true-color view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  8. The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Grewar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is a controlled animal disease in South Africa, and as a result of the high mortality rates experienced, outbreaks in the AHS controlled area in the Western Cape Province have a significant impact on affected properties as well as on the exportation of live horses from the AHS free zone in metropolitan Cape Town. An outbreak of AHS serotype 1 occurred in the surveillance zone of the AHS controlled area of the Western Cape during the summer of 2011. The epicentre of the outbreak was the town of Mamre in the magisterial district of Malmesbury and the outbreak was confined to a defined containment zone within this area by movement control of all equids and a blanket vaccination campaign. A total of 73 cases of AHS were confirmed during this outbreak, which included four confirmed subclinical cases. The morbidity rate for the outbreak was 16%with a mortality rate of 14%and a case fatality rate of 88%. Outbreak disease surveillance relied on agent identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assays, which is novel for an AHS outbreak in South Africa. The source of this outbreak was never confirmed although it is believed to be associated with the illegal movement of an infected animal into the Mamre area. This detailed description of the outbreak provides a sound scientific basis to assist decision making in future AHS outbreaks in the AHS controlled area of South Africa and in countries where AHS is an exotic or emerging disease.

  9. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae from the Cape region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767, requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833 as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775 and is, consequently, synonymised with this species.

  10. Diversity and species turnover on an altitudinal gradient in Western Cape, South Africa: baseline data for monitoring range shifts in response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Agenbag

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A temperature and moisture gradient on the equator-facing slope of Jonaskop on the Riviersonderend Mountain. Westem Cape has been selected as an important gradient for monitoring the effects of climate change on fynbos and the Fynbos- Succulent Karoo ecotone. This study provides a description of plant diversity patterns, growth form composition and species turnover across the gradient and the results of four years of climate monitoring at selected points along the altitudinal gradient.The aim o f this study is to provide data for a focused monitoring strategy for the early detection of climate change-related shifts in species’ ranges, as well as gaining a better understanding of the role of climate variability in shaping species growth responses, their distributions, and other ecosystem processes.

  11. Ethical Sustainability in Iranian New Towns: Case Study of Shushtar New Town

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Hamzenazhad; Mohadeseh Mahmoudi; Bushra Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Shushtar is ancient city in Khuzestan Province at south west of Iran and is considered as a world heritage. In the early 70’s, Shushtar New Town was decided to be constructed in order to answer the residential needs on new employers of Karun Agro-Industries Corporation. The project was located across the river from the old city and Kamran Diba, an Iranian well-known architect, designed this New Town for 30,000 residents. Shushtar New Town was designed in relevant with the cultural values of I...

  12. Mobile Library Service at UNISA Western Cape: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cele, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this poster is to describe the mobile library as a method of library service delivery in Open Distance Learning (ODL). In the context of this presentation the mobile library is a vehicle that carries library material and services to UNISA students. The mobile library is considered as one of the dynamic strategies of providing library and information service to students residing in outlying areas of Cape Town. It reaches out to students who would under normal circumstances not b...

  13. Kaposi’s Sarcoma in HIV-infected patients in South Africa: multi-cohort study in the antiretroviral therapy era

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlius, Julia; VALERI, Fabio; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Garone, Daniela; Sengayi, Mazvita; Matthew P Fox; Davies, Mary-Ann; Egger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) is high in South Africa but the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined. We examined incidence and survival of KS in HIV-infected patients enrolled in South African ART programs. We analyzed data of three ART programs: Khayelitsha township and Tygerberg Hospital programs in Cape Town and Themba Lethu program in Johannesburg. We included patients aged >16 years. ART was defined as a regimen of at least three drugs. We estimated incidenc...

  14. Founding a Green Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING XIAOLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Awalk inside the Guangzhou Asian Games Town,where the event's prized Asian Games Town Gymnasium,Athletes' Village and Media Village can be lound,will have any visitor marveling at the structures and architectural styles within.What's most impressive about this part of Guangzhou,Guangdong Province,is not what's in the town,but what's missing from it.Even the most observant visitor will be hard pressed to find a single garbage truck,or garbage can for that matter,inside the town's perimeter.

  15. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Meier Benjamin; Pardue Caitlin; London Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa’s constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of commun...

  16. Shopping for Mathematics in Consumer Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ann L.; Wimer, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Justin and Jenny, grade 12 math students, walk with their preschool friends Sean and Meg to the local grocery store. There, two classmates are tending the cash registers. The six of them, along with others, are participating in an in-school "field trip" to Consumer Town, located in the South Windsor High School front lobby. The field trip is part…

  17. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  18. Marine and terrestrial foods as a source of brain-selective nutrients for early modern humans in the southwestern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, K; Blackhurst, D M; Parkington, J E; Marais, A D

    2016-08-01

    Many attempts have been made to define and reconstruct the most plausible ecological and dietary niche of the earliest members of the human species. While earlier models emphasise big-game hunting in terrestrial, largely savannah environments, more recent scenarios consider the role of marine and aquatic foods as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other brain-selective nutrients. Along the coast of southern Africa, there appears to be an association between the emergence of anatomically modern humans and accumulation of some of the earliest shell middens during the Middle Stone Age (200-40 ka). Fragmentary fossil remains classified as those of anatomically modern humans, along with marine food residues and numerous material cultural indicators of increased social and behavioural complexity have been recovered from coastal sites. In this paper, new information on the nutrient content of marine and terrestrial foods available to early modern humans in the southwestern Cape is presented and compared with existing data on the nutritional value of some wild plant and animal foods in Africa. The results suggest that coastal foraging, particularly the collection of abundant and predictable marine molluscs, would have allowed early modern humans to exploit some of the richest and most accessible sources of protein, micronutrients and longer-chain omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Reliable and accessible sources of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid are considerably more restricted in terrestrial foods. PMID:27457547

  19. Through the Fear: A Study of Xenophobia in South Africa’s Refugee System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McKnight

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in conformity with international treaties and the South African Constitution. However, these rights are seldom realized due to a delay processing of asylum applications by the Department of Home Affairs, corruption in immigration enforcement, and a lack of education in civil society as to the difference between refugees and voluntary migrants. Refugees are left vulnerable to the violence of those South African citizens that believe all immigrants are illegally present to take advantage of employment and social opportunities. In an attempt to eliminate the fearfulness towards foreigners and bring the plight of refugees further to the forefront of international dialogue, general recommendations are made to the South African Government, its departments, and the citizens of South Africa.

  20. ‘One Man Can’: shifts in fatherhood beliefs and parenting practices following a gender-transformative programme in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Wessel; Hendricks, Lynn; Hatcher, Abigail; Peacock, Dean; Godana, Patrick; Dworkin, Shari

    2013-01-01

    ‘One Man Can’ (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health programme implemented by Sonke Gender Justice in South Africa. It has been featured as an example of best practice by the World Health Organization, UNAIDS, and the UN Population Fund, and translated into nearly a dozen languages and implemented all across Africa. South Africa has strong gender and HIV-related policies, but the highest documented level of men’s violence against women in the world, and the largest number of peopl...

  1. Studies of osteoporosis in South Africa using isotope-related and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were made with a Hologic (Model 1000) osteodensitometer to determine the Bone Mineral Density. It is located in the Department. of Nuclear Medicine at the Groote Schuur Academic Hospital of the University of Cape Town. These data are bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in 2236 normal, urbanised female subjects and 264 similar males of various ethnic groups, who live in the greater Cape Town area. They represent the three main enic groups who live in and near to Cape Town in the Western Cape. These groups contain persons of European origin, the so-called coloured, of mixed racial origin and persons of indigenous African descent. Of them 2061 females and 264 males are aged between 16 and 55 years. Details of the height, mass and of relevant social and medical history were recorded for each subject. Ethnic groups, sex, age range and total number of the subjects are given. BMD in g/cm 2 was determined at the following sites: a) In the lumbar vertebral bodies, numbers 1 2 3 4 (denoted LI, L2, L3, LA) and the mean BMD value was obtained. b) The left greater trochanter. c) The left intertrochanteric region. d) The left femoral neck. e) The left triangle of Ward. Daily dietary intake information for calcium, copper, fluorine, magnesium, protein, manganese and zinc, was sought for those subjects for whom BMD was obtained. These are urban Africans, those of mixed racial origin and European, both males and females, a within the same age range of 16-55 years. Relevant South African literature was also studied, in particular two review documents'

  2. Everyday hazards and vulnerabilities amongst backyard dwellers: A case study of Vredendal North, Matzikama Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Zweig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.

  3. Medieval town - fortress of Zvecan

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Ružica

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with phenomenon of medieval town- fortress of Zvecan through examining (1) the town planning and spatial organization within the town, (2) its physical structure, (3) conception of medieval design and construction of Zvecan, (4) medieval instinct for correlation of shapes within the town and correlation of Zvecan and its surrounding, (5) comparison of Zvecan with medieval towns in the region and beyond. This medieval town as a whole ...

  4. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nutrition Therapeutic Programme (NTP involves the provision of food supplements at primary health clinics (PHCs to correct nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable groups. Although previous studies have identified problems with implementing the programme at PHCs, assessments of its efficiency have been scarce.Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data.Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme.Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  5. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoire Ticha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape includes evidence of students’ clinical learning which they present in a portfolio. The students are expected to reflect on their clinical learning experiences and include these reflections in their portfolios.Objective: To describe the perceptions of fourth-year nursing students regarding reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs.Method: A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions of registered fourth-year nursing students with regard to their reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Purposive sampling was used for selection of participants. Three focus group discussions were held, each consisting of six to eight participants. Data saturation was reached during the third meeting. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used.Results: Findings revealed that reflection enabled the learners to gain experience and identify challenges related to the expected events and tasks carried out at the hospitals and in the classroom whilst developing their PoE.Conclusion: The compilation of a PoE was a good teaching and learning strategy, and the skills, experience and knowledge that the participants in this study acquired boosted their self-esteem, confidence and critical thinking. Reflection also assisted in self-directed learning.

  6. Knowledge and perceptions of risk for cardiovascular disease: Findings of a qualitative investigation from a low-income peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Surka; Krisela Steyn; Katherine Everett-Murphy; Gaziano, Thomas A.; Naomi Levitt

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Africa currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease. Although referred to clinics after community screening initiatives, few individuals who are identified to be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease attend. Low health literacy and risk perception have been identified as possible causes. We investigated the knowledge and perceptions about risk for cardiovascular disease in a community.Method: We conducted a series of focus group discussions wit...

  7. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-01-01

    Background Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal he...

  8. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  9. Exploration of the articulation of African traditional medicine and Western biomedicine in hospital spaces in the town of Barberton, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andreadis, Petros Isidoros

    2015-01-01

    Whilst hospitals are the dominant institutions through which Western biomedical treatment is delivered, it is also argued that these institutions do not reproduce a distinct notion of a biomedical model, but instead assume different configurations, reflecting and replicating wider socio-cultural processes. In South Africa, this includes a reflection and replication of challenges arising from an eclectic therapeutic landscape in which biomedicine is but one avenue. The challe...

  10. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  11. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Scholtz; S.W.P. Cloete; DU Toit, E.; J. B. van Wyk; T. C. de K van der Linde

    2011-01-01

    Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951) with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech), presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical tre...

  12. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  13. Intracardiac thrombosis in the Cape Mountain Zebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Bath

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra is one of the rarest species of mammals in South Africa, and is threatened with extinction. At present there are less than 200 in existence, of which approximately 160 occur in the Mountain Zebra National Park near Cradock. Because of the rarity of the species and the undesirable concentration of the majority in an area of only 6 536 ha, a post-mortem examination is performed, if possible, on all animals to establish cause of death with the purpose of preventing large-scale mortalities. This is done even if the carcass is in a fairly advanced state of decomposition. Amongst the examinations so performed were two zebra which were believed to have died as a result of intraventricular thrombosis. The rarity of this condition and of the Cape mountain zebra makes a report on these cases necessary.

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa Etinosa O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18, V. metschnikovii (3, V. fluvialis (19 and V. parahaemolyticus (12 strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets. Results The Vibrio strains showed the typical multidrug-resistance phenotype of an SXT element. They were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Sul, trimethoprim (Tmp, cotrimoxazole (Cot, chloramphenicol (Chl, streptomycin (Str, ampicillin (Amp, tetracycline (Tet nalidixic acid (Nal, and gentamicin (Gen. The antibiotic resistance genes detected includes dfr18 and dfrA1 for trimethoprim; floR, tetA, strB, sul2 for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and environmental Vibrio species. Conclusions These results demonstrate that final effluents from wastewater treatment plants are potential reservoirs of various antibiotics resistance genes. Moreover, detection of resistance genes in Vibrio strains obtained from the wastewater final effluents suggests that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant, thus constituting a serious health risk to the communities reliant on the receiving waterbodies.

  15. Environmental change at the southern Cape coast of South Africa as inferred from a high-resolution Holocene sediment record from Eilandvlei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Meadows, Michael E.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Meschner, Stephanie; Frenzel, Peter; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland; Kasper, Thomas; Quick, Lynne J.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Zabel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The RAIN project (Regional Archives for Integrated iNvestigations), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focuses on closely integrated investigations of terrestrial and marine geoarchives from southern Africa in order to assess environmental changes during the late Quaternary. For this purpose, various marine and terrestrial sediment records from the three major rainfall zones of South Africa (winter-, summer- and year-round rainfall zone) were recovered and analysed applying a wide range of methods (e.g., sedimentology, seismic stratigraphy, geochronology, organic and inorganic geochemistry, mineralogy, stable isotopes, micropalaeontology, palynology). In this contribution, we present results and interpretations obtained from a 30.5 m sediment core retrieved from the coastal lake Eilandvlei located within the year-round rainfall zone. Geochemical investigations (Ca, Sr, total inorganic carbon) indicate major changes in the sediment carbonate contents which were linked to variations in the marine influence received at the site throughout the covered period. The interpretation of carbonates reflecting a varying marine influence is corroborated by micropalaeontological analyses (viz. ostracod and diatom assemblages) which reveal strong similarities with the geochemical data. In order to establish a reliable radiocarbon (14C) chronology for this record, it is of particular importance to consider the impact of 14C-depleted ("old") marine carbon contained in the measured samples causing reservoir effects. Therefore, two marine molluscan shells collected alive before AD 1950 ("pre-bomb") were analysed to determine the regional marine reservoir offset (ΔR). The obtained ΔR values of 134 ± 38 and 161 ± 38 14C yrs represent the first data available for the south coast of South Africa. However, the application of the resulting average ΔR = 148 ± 54 14C yrs for the calibration of the entire Eilandvlei record underestimates the

  16. A narrative analysis positioning HIV relative to personal (sexual) relationship challenges in an agony aunt column in the Western Cape, South Africa - Aunty Mona's "love advice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions. PMID:27421055

  17. A Phytosociological Study of the Cape Fynbos and other Vegetation at Jonkershoek, Stellenbosch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The Braun-Blanquet phytosociological method was tested in the complex Fynbos vegetation of the South-western Cape Region o f South Africa. In the Swartboschkloof Nature Reserve, Jonkers- hoek, the Fynbos, riverine scrub and forest vegetation was classified preliminarily into eight com­munities, which are described floristically and related to habitat. The results hold promise, and the possibilities of classifying the Cape Fynbos in a formal phytosociological system are discussed.

  18. Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement. Paper presented at the VIth International Road Safety Organisation PRI World Congress on `Marketing traffic safety', 3-6 October 1994, Cape Town, South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are consider

  19. Multibeam collection for KN210-03: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2013-03-04 to 2013-03-24, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Montevideo, Uruguay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for KNOX15RR: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2008-03-20 to 2008-04-17, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Port Everglades, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. Multibeam collection for VANC10MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2003-05-15 to 2003-06-12, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Port Hedland, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for RR0903: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2009-03-20 to 2009-05-13, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Fremantle, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for KN145L17: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 1996-04-04 to 1996-05-08, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Montevideo, Uruguay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for RR0902: Multibeam data collected aboard Roger Revelle from 2009-02-27 to 2009-03-14, departing from Punta Arenas, Chile and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for VANC05MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2002-12-08 to 2002-12-28, departing from Valparaiso, Chile and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for RC2709: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1986-10-02 to 1986-11-15, departing from Port Louis, Mauritius and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for MV1204: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2012-04-03 to 2012-04-18, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Multibeam collection for NBP0406: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2004-07-29 to 2004-08-27, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Lyttelton, New Zealand

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for MRTN13WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1985-04-01 to 1985-05-01, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Recife, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for KN210-01: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2013-01-15 to 2013-02-09, departing from Woods Hole, MA and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for RC2711: Multibeam data collected aboard Robert Conrad from 1986-12-03 to 1987-01-02, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for KN197-05: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2010-03-14 to 2010-03-28, departing from Fortaleza, Brazil and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for MRTN10WT: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas Washington from 1984-12-15 to 1985-01-16, departing from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for NBP0101: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2001-01-30 to 2001-03-28, departing from Hobart, Tasmania and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for MV1102: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2011-02-20 to 2011-03-14, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Valparaiso, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for RB1101: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald Brown from 2011-07-29 to 2011-08-14, departing from Charleston, SC and returning to Cape Town, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for NBP0102: Multibeam data collected aboard Nathaniel B. Palmer from 2001-04-01 to 2001-04-15, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for SOJN04MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 1997-01-09 to 1997-02-13, departing from Cape Town, South Africa and returning to Fremantle, Australia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol. PMID:26280530

  20. Opening Address by the Conference President [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years ago, the IAEA sponsored the first conference of government regulators to share their common perspectives and experience in addressing challenges of nuclear safety and security. The goal of the conference was to develop a global vision and to promote international cooperation. Representatives from more than 50 countries participated in that important gathering. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, providing regulators a forum for exclusive focus on regulatory issues without limits of time, membership or subject matter. The conference discussed key cornerstones of effective regulation: the independence of the regulatory body, a firm foundation of adequate financial resources, skilled staff, quality management practices, and public confidence in the regulatory body and its decision making processes. Additionally, several key safety and security challenges were identified. We have a significant challenge to meet this week, and that is to use this unique regulatory forum to continue the progress that we made three years ago. I hope to see us converge around the four major themes of this conference and establish a concrete plan of action by the time we close on Thursday. Our four themes include: - Emerging regulatory challenges; - Regulatory independence and effectiveness; - Impact of multinational activities on the national responsibility for nuclear safety and security; - International safety and security communication and cooperation. A renewed interest in nuclear power worldwide has brought with it an increased focus on these regulatory issues, and I believe we all agree that a strong and effective regulatory program must be a prerequisite to any nuclear power programmes. At the conference this week, we will examine and discuss our priorities as regulators and work to identify and address the challenges we face - both individually and together - around safety and security. The work we do is critical for each of our countries and for the international community as a whole. I want to just touch briefly on the four themes for this week to set the stage. A robust regulatory programme has three essential components: legislation and the rules and regulations to ensure safety and security; adequate resources; and technical capability. One of the critical challenges for regulators of mature industries is the need to resist complacency. We must remain vigilant at all times about the safety and security of the existing fleet and nuclear materials. For those countries that are newcomers to nuclear power development, your greatest challenge may be to establish the infrastructure necessary for an effective and efficient regulatory programme. This is where the assistance of organizations such as this can be invaluable, in helping many of you to identify your regulatory needs and build your capacity; sharing experience, expertise, and lessons learned; and providing a foundation for international coordination and cooperati

  1. Foodborne pathogens recovered from ready-to-eat foods from roadside cafeterias and retail outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Mirriam E; Odjadjare, Collins E; Tanih, Nicoline F; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections. PMID:23066386

  2. Local Wood Demand, Land Cover Change and the State of Albany Thicket on an Urban Commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, M. M.; Shackleton, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients.

  3. Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland N. Ndip

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24. Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%, Enterobacter spp. (18%, Aeromonas hydrophila (12%, Klebsiella oxytoca (8%, Proteus mirabilis (6.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.2% and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%. Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.

  4. The impact of health service variables on healthcare access in a low resourced urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje Scheffler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care access is complex and multi-faceted and, as a basic right, equitable access and services should be available to all user groups.Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore how service delivery impacts on access to healthcare for vulnerable groups in an urban primary health care setting in South Africa.Methods: A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled participants and analysed through thematic content analysis.Results: Service delivery factors are presented against five dimensions of access according to the ACCESS Framework. From a supplier perspective, the organisation of care in the study setting resulted in available, accessible, affordable and adequate services as measured against the DistrictHealth System policies and guidelines. However, service providers experienced significant barriers in provision of services, which impacted on the quality of care, resulting in poor client and provider satisfaction and ultimately compromising acceptability of service delivery. Although users found services to be accessible, the organisation of services presented them with challenges in the domains of availability, affordability and adequacy, resulting in unmet needs, low levels of satisfaction and loss of trust. These challenges fuelled perceptions of unacceptable services.Conclusion: Well developed systems and organisation of services can create accessible, affordable and available primary healthcare services, but do not automatically translate into adequate and acceptable services. Focussing attention on how services are delivered might restore the balance between supply (services and demand (user needs and promote universal and equitable access.

  5. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  6. Preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line-fish species of the Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line fish was carried out in the DwesaCwebe Marine Protected Area (MPA, on the Wild Coast, South Africa. The purpose was to provide baseline data on inshore line-fish stocks in the MPA. A total of 28 species was recorded, of which 53% have a conservation status reflecting some concern and 43% are endemic to southern Africa. This highlights the value of the MPA for protection of important line-fish species. Within the MPA, localised differences were detected in species diversity, size frequency and catch per unit effort between unexploited and illegally exploited areas. These differences were more prominent in slow growing, long-lived species. It thus appears that illegal exploitation is negatively affecting fish populations within the MPA, which counteract and potentially could eliminate the benefits of fish protection typically associated with no-take MPAs. These results highlight the need for improved law enforcement and better communication with neighbouring communities to increase awareness. It is further recommended that the current no-take status of the MPA should be maintained. In addition, baseline fisheries information was collected on certain fish species that could be used to inform future conservation management of the MPA.Conservation implications: The Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area is unique and important for the conservation of key surf zone and estuarine fish species. However there is a significant risk to the fish populations due to illegal exploitation. Key interventions should include enhanced law enforcement but, more important, the creation of alternative livelihoods and long term sustainable benefits to local communities.

  7. Danish Towns during Absolutism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    crisis for the Danish urban community, mainly caused by the devastating effects of the seventeenth century warfare. Some few towns, however, stood out with positive development, first and foremost Copenhagen which flourished in its function as the centre of the Absolutist regime. The book traces both the...

  8. MASSACHUSETTS TOWNS WITH COASTLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The political boundary datalayer is a 1:25,000 scale datalayer containing the boundaries of the 351 communities in Massachusetts. The seaward boundary of coastal communities has been defined at mean high water in this datalayer. The datalayer is named TOWNS, and it is stored as ...

  9. Out on the town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Kjeldskov, Jesper; Howard, Steve;

    2009-01-01

    paper prototyping. Following the approach we are able to provide empirically grounded representations of the socio-physical context of use, in this case people socializing in urban spaces. We then use this understanding to influence the design of a context aware system to be used while out on the town...

  10. Medieval town - fortress of Zvecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Ružica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with phenomenon of medieval town- fortress of Zvecan through examining (1 the town planning and spatial organization within the town, (2 its physical structure, (3 conception of medieval design and construction of Zvecan, (4 medieval instinct for correlation of shapes within the town and correlation of Zvecan and its surrounding, (5 comparison of Zvecan with medieval towns in the region and beyond. This medieval town as a whole was the expression of medieval characteristics with its spatial organization and with its own individuality. Zvecan emerged from the then contemporary circumstances and necessities. This research is focused toward finding construction principles of medieval town Zvecan which are timeless and unique to all town constructions.

  11. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Caliph Omar's Garrison Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Çil, Halit

    2009-01-01

    In the time of the Caliph Omar, the maneuvers of conquest were carried out on three wide main fronts, these being Iraq/Iran, Syria and Egypt. The two superpowers of that age were the Sassanid Empire, controlling the Iraq/ Iran region, and the Byzantine Empire, the provinces of which included Syria and Egypt. As the main factor accelerating and facilitating the conquests, we see the widespread presence of the military garrisons, which ranged from temporary to permanent. In these garrison towns...

  13. The impact of HIV status and antiretroviral treatment on TB treatment outcomes of new tuberculosis patients attending co-located TB and ART services in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Nglazi, Mweete D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin; Kaplan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of collaborative TB-HIV services is challenging. We, therefore, assessed TB treatment outcomes in relation to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) among TB patients attending a primary care service with co-located ART and TB clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, all new TB patients aged ≥ 15 years who registered and initiated TB treatment between 1 October 2009 and 30 June 2011 were identified from an electronic...

  14. Vulnerability of children to gunshot trauma in violence-prone environment: The case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo Sudeshni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidemic of firearm-related injuries and deaths among children and adolescents in Cape Town, like in many other parts of the world, calls for concern. Further research is needed to understand firearm-related injuries among children and adolescents in South Africa, and to develop policies and programmes for effective prevention of situations such as this.

  15. Misconceptions regarding direct-current resistive theory in an engineering course for N2 students at a Northern Cape FET college / Christiaan Beukes

    OpenAIRE

    Beukes, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain what misconceptions N2 students have about DC resistive circuits and how screencasts could effect on the rectification of these misconceptions. This study was conducted at the Kathu Campus of the Northern Cape Rural Further Education and Training College in the town Kathu in the arid Northern Cape. The empirical part of this study was conducted during the first six months of 2013. A design-based research (DBR) method consisting of four phases ...

  16. Orphanhood and fertility in young adults: Evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzoli, Carlos G

    2016-09-01

    I study the relation between orphanhood and fertility patterns in young adults using a longitudinal survey from the city of Cape Town, South Africa. The data set combines two survey waves with a year-by-year life history calendar that records key outcomes (e.g., schooling, work, fertility). It also provides information on so-called 'parental investments' (time and material support), family background, and literacy and numeracy test scores. I find that orphans exhibit significantly higher rates of teenage pregnancy. In particular, teenage motherhood is 19% points more likely among (female) orphans. These results suggest that orphanhood may leave a long-lasting 'imprint' in terms of premature fertility, especially in teenage females. PMID:27239730

  17. 苏南典型城镇耕地景观动态变化及其影响因素%Changes of paddy field landscape and its influence factors in a typical town of south Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锐; 胡远满; 苏海龙; 李月辉; 许博涵; 武占云; 张凤娥

    2011-01-01

    -environment.Based on three periods land-use historical data extracted from high-resolution remote sensing images of Xinzhuang Town in south Jiangsu Province, integrated with GIS spatial analysis and statistical method, we selected landscape dynamic degree and shrinking intensity index to analyze the decreasing speed and intensity of paddy field in each village, utilized transfer matrix and GIS map overlay to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics of paddy landscape change, and took advantage of redundancy analysis to directly clarify the correlation between environmental variables ( Socio-economic and neighborhood factors) and the major paddy-related land use transformation. The results showed that 30. 5% of the total paddy field lost during 1991-2009 in Xinzhuang Town, with an accelerated decreasing trend; the losing size, speed and intensity of paddy field of different village varied considerably. During the period of 1991-2001, the paddy fields were mainly invaded by fishpond and residential land, and the invasion usually occurred along with rivers and main roads. During the period of 2001-2009, the paddy fields were mainly occupied by industrial land, fishpond and residential land, and the occupation of industrial and residential land usually occurred along the main roads, and the occupation of fishpond usually occurred near the rivers. In the periods of 1991-2001 and 2001-2009, the influence factors are applied separately to explain the main spatial variation of paddy field landscape change as 50. 31% and 69. 27%. It also found that each factor has significant difference for explaining the spatial variation of the paddy field change in different periods. In the period of 1991-2001, the density of population, the per capita income of farmers, and the distance to roads and rivers are supposed to be extremely significant factors which could affect the change process (from paddy field to residential land). Further, the distance to residential area, local councils and rivers are

  18. Retroflection of part of the east Greenland current at Cape Farewell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, N. Penny; Meyer, Amélie; Bacon, Sheldon; Alderson, Steven G.; de Cuevas, Beverly

    2007-04-01

    The east Greenland current (EGC) and the smaller east Greenland coastal current (EGCC) provide the major conduit for cold fresh polar water to enter the lower latitudes of the North Atlantic. They flow equatorward through the western Irminger Basin and around Cape Farewell into the Labrador Sea. The surface circulation and transport of the Cape Farewell boundary current region in summer 2005 is described. The EGCC merges with Arctic waters of the EGC to the south of Cape Farewell, forming the west Greenland current. The EGC transport decreases from 15.5 Sv south of Cape Farewell to 11.7 Sv in the eastern Labrador Sea (where the water becomes known as Irminger Sea Water). The decrease in EGC transport is balanced by the retroflection of a substantial proportion of the boundary current (5.1 Sv) into the central Irminger Basin; a new pathway for fresh water into the interior of the subpolar gyre.

  19. Legacy in Major Sport Events: Empirical Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bason Tom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The awarding of the 2010 FIFA World Cup to South Africa was an historic moment for all of Africa as football’s biggest event travelled to the continent for the first time. This study, set five years on, seeks to identify the legacies left by the construction of two new stadiums in Durban and Cape Town. As part of the EU-funded CARNiVAL project, which seeks to investigate the legacies and impacts of hosting such events, interviews were conducted with key stakeholders involved in the planning of legacies in the two cities. Using Chappelet and Junod’s (2006 framework to analyse the legacies, this study found that Durban and Cape Town have used different strategies to leverage the legacies with differing results. Yet, both stadiums have suffered from the same issue; a seeming lack of need for two stadiums with capacities over 54,000, for domestic sport leagues which average fewer than 10,000 spectators.

  20. Town Centre Redevelopment Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    After many years of urban growth Danish downtowns are facing some important choices. Shall the stake one-sidedly be on the town centres as driving forces for growth and 'city marketing', or do they still have a role to play in a broader socio-economic context? In the paper we look back on eight...... slum clearence and urban renewal. To a certain extent parallels are drawn to international experiences, especially where these are of such a nature that they can be assumed transferred to Danish connctions. Conclusively, the strategies are discussed in the light of the turn of Danish urban planning...

  1. Sights of our town

    OpenAIRE

    Praznik, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Topic of diploma thesis in front of you is the research of a problem that we encounter when working with inquiry. It consists of a plan and realization of project of active learning in kindergarten. Main focus of a project is exploring the sights of a home town, Novo mesto. Project was carried out in kindergarten group age 4 – 5 years old. Children were solving the problem or trying to find the answers to the research question. They were looking and gathering information and from later an...

  2. Exploring the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Open Source Software in Western Cape Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin; Begg, Shameemah; Tanner, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) presents many benefits to both the private and the public sectors, and has proven to be a viable solution in schools. Although a policy mandating the use of OSS exists in the Western Cape province of South Africa, very few schools in the province have adopted OSS. The education system in South Africa is currently facing…

  3. Cape Cod Aquifer Management Project (CCAMP): demonstration of a geographic information system for ground water protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steppacher, L.

    1988-09-01

    This publication summarizes the application of GIS Technology to the project. Geographic Information systems (GIS) technology has the capability of overlaying various mapped data layers, determining distances from fixed points, automatic changing of map scales, and preparing maps from tabular point data to better understand the complex issues involved in decision making. GIS was used for a series of pilot analyses for Cape Cod. The work concentrated on the development of a digital data base and assessment at three different geographic levels of analysis: (1) the zone of contribution to nine public water-supply wells in a highly urbanized area; (2) a rural, seasonally populated, summer tourist town; and (3) the Cape Cod peninsula. The project was designed to raise issues and answer the types of ground water management questions being asked on Cape Cod, but also those faced by ground water managers in other areas of the country as well.

  4. Peer-to-peer psychological contracts in the South African wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Penfold

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Very few studies examine the impact of peer relationships on the psychological contract.Research purpose: Using the backdrop of wine farm workers in the Western Cape, South Africa, the aim of our study was to explore the nature of peer relationships shaping the psychological contract. Motivation for the study: The agricultural sector of South Africa, in particular the wine farms in the Western Cape, has undergone radical change in the past decades as a result of labour legislation and changing government structures. It was therefore expected that these changes would influence the psychological contracts held by wine farm workers.Research approach, design and method: This qualitative study sampled all 24 full-time employees and 2 managers on the Constantia Hills Wine Estate in Cape Town, South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the critical incident technique in combination with a series of open questions.Main findings: Our findings showed support for the existence of peer-to-peer psychological contracts and noted the valuable influence of a suitable conduit individual on the relationship between employees and their employer.Practical and/or managerial implications: Wine farm workers in South Africa have a strong need to be consulted after a lifetime of having no voice. In addition to ensuring suitable levels of two-way communication, management must understand the inter-peer contract and the nature of the relationships sustaining it.Contribution: Whilst literature has suggested that management of the psychological contract lies firmly within the domain of the employer, our findings indicated that ensuring harmonious peer-to-peer contracts was also central to good working relationships.

  5. Selection criteria for a radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program commenced in 1978 to select a suitable site for the disposal of nuclear waste in South Africa. This entailed the examination of a variety of socio-economic and earthscience related parameters over large parts of South Africa. The site selection program, for which the Geology Department of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) (previously the Nuclear Development Corporation (NUCOR)) accepted responsibility, commenced with an initial screening phase and led to the identification of potentially suitable areas by mid 1980. A site suitability phase involving regional, and subsequently detailed socio-economic, geological, geohydrological and geophysical studies in the areas identified by the screening phase was completed in December 1982. As a result of very positive indications that the district of Namaqualand was the most suitable candidate area it was possible, after further detailed investigations, to identify and purchase a site judged to be suitable for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste by February 1983. The area acquired measures some 10 000ha in extent and is situated 100km southeast of Springbok in the northwestern Cape and 600km north of the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town

  6. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae and T. hartigii. To resolve generic affiliations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on ITS (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and part of 28S rDNA. DNA data support the original generic concept of Truncatella,...

  7. Collaborative Work: Negotiations between Music Therapists and Community Musicians in the Development of a South African Community Music Therapy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Oosthuizen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy in South Africa is slowly negotiating a practice that takes into account our continent's musical vibrancy, as well as contextual understandings of "health" and "illness." Although music therapy in the (so-called developed world is situated within the paradigms of medicine, education, psychology and research - in the formal and often scientific sense - in South Africa, this practice needs to be re-defined to make it relevant to the contexts in which we work. The Music Therapy Community Clinic (MTCC is a non-profit organisation whose aim is to provide music therapy services to previously disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Socio-political problems such as poverty, unemployment, gang violence and HIV and Aids have lead to the fragmentation and disintegration of many of these communities. The MTCC's Music for Life project emerged out of a need to provide after-school music activities and to reach a wider group of children than those seen for clinical music therapy sessions. As the project has developed and expanded, the music therapists have drawn in community musicians to offer an increasing range of musical activities to children. The collaboration between music therapists and community musicians has led to many questions about the roles and identities of each. This article is based on a presentation given by the MTCC at a Symposium for South African Arts Therapists held in Cape Town in June 2007. The article discusses the merits and challenges of the Music for Life Project and offers reflections from both community musicians and music therapists pertaining to our negotiated and changing roles as we continue to develop the project together.

  8. Appendix II: Adding PBMRs to a PWR site (ESKOM) - South Africa (Case study of human resource issues faced by NPP operating organizations, and how they were (or are being) addressed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESKOM Holding Limited, the South African Government owned utility, operates over 10 power stations. The total installed capacity is about 40 GW, and nuclear contributes only 6 percent. The existing nuclear power station, Koeberg NPP, is comprised of two 900 MW(e) units at the South African west coast near Cape Town. The Koeberg NPP units are Framatome PWR designs. The South African government has a policy to increase the share of nuclear in the generation mix from 6 percent to 15 percent before 2020. In this regard, the government has approved the design and demonstration of the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). The PBMR is a high temperature helium cooled reactor design with a direct cycle. The thermal rating of the reactor is 400 MW(e) with the electrical output of 165 MW(e). The key characteristics of the PBMR design are: - inherent safety, - load following, - modularity and - simple systems

  9. City and Town Halls; townHalls13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Locations of city and town halls in Rhode Island. Derived using information originally compiled by the State of Rhode Island (http://www.ri.gov), and built upon...

  10. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson JE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Johnson1, Tara Carney2, Tracy Kline3, Felicia A Browne4, Wendee M Wechsberg41Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Statistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system

  11. Dance Drama The Border Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    THE large-scale dance drama The Border Town performed by the Hunan Provincial Troupe attracted a large audience with its natural human touch, strong local flavour and elegant literature, provoking reverie from the people. The Border Town dance drama was adapted from the novel of the same name by Shen Congwen, an influential writer on Chinese modern literature. The Border Town, written in 1934, was his masterpiece, which gives a delicate account of the young love between the orphan girl Cuicui (who was a...

  12. Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachega JB

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean B Nachega,1,2 Donald Skinner,3 Larissa Jennings,4 Jessica F Magidson,5 Frederick L Altice,6 Jessica G Burke,7 Richard T Lester,8 Olalekan A Uthman,9,10 Amy R Knowlton,11 Mark F Cotton,12 Jean R Anderson,13 Gerhard B Theron14 1Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Centre for Infectious Diseases, and ACTG Clinical Trial Unit (CTU/Family Clinical Research Unit (FAMCRU, 3Research on Health and Society, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Studies, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Social and Behavioral Interventions Program, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 5Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 6Division of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 7Department of Behavioral and Community Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 9Warwick Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD, Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; 10Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 11Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 12Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 13Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 14Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch

  13. Client perspective assessment of women’s satisfaction towards labour and delivery care service in public health facilities at Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, south Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dewana, Zeritu; Fikadu, Teshale; G/ Mariam, Abebe; Abdulahi, Misra

    2016-01-01

    Background A woman’s satisfaction with labour and delivery care service has a good effect on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Thus knowledge about women’s satisfaction on labour and delivery care used to enhances the services utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction of women’s towards labour and delivery care service and identify factors associated it at public health facilities in Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zon...

  14. Uncovering and negotiating barriers to intercultural communication at Greenmarket Square, Cape Town’s ‘world in miniature’: An insider’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foncha J Wankah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication (ICC is one of the most relevant fields for investigation in post-colonial Africa and post-apartheid South Africa, given the freedom of movement between African countries and the wide range of attractions, both economic and social, that South Africa holds for people from other African countries. This article is based on research conducted at Greenmarket Square in the heart of Cape Town, well-known as a hub for informal traders (mainly from other parts of Africa, local people and tourists from all over the world. It discusses three of the major barriers to ICC in this space which emerged from our research. These three major ‘intercultural fault-lines’ (Olahan, 2000 are identified as non-verbal communication, ethnocentrism/xenophobia and the contrasting communication styles of people from High Context Cultures and Low Context Cultures (Katan, 2004. The paper concludes with some suggestions on how such barriers can be overcome if people in this space learn to become more ‘interculturally competent’ (Jandt, 2004.

  15. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  16. Biology and host range of the moth Digitivalva delaireae as one of two candidate agents for biological control of Cape-ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata, Asteraceae), native to coastal floodplains and mountains in eastern South Africa, is an invasive vine in coastal riparian, woodland and scrub habitats in California and southern Oregon, as well as mid-elevation regions on some of the Hawaiian Islands. Cape-ivy smothers na...

  17. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Naomi F Walker,1–3 James Scriven,2–4 Graeme Meintjes,1–3 Robert J Wilkinson1,2,5 1Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 5MRC National Institute of Medical Re...

  18. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Walker NF; Scriven J; Meintjes G; Wilkinson RJ

    2015-01-01

    Naomi F Walker,1–3 James Scriven,2–4 Graeme Meintjes,1–3 Robert J Wilkinson1,2,5 1Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 5MRC National Institute of Medical Research, Lond...

  19. 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  20. Regional development of Saldanha Bay region, South Africa: The role of Saldanha Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welman Lesley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 the Saldanha Bay region on the West Coast of the Western Cape Province has been high on South Africa’s national development agenda. The region has been struggling for years to meet the preconditions for economic take-off. In this analysis the Saldanha Bay region is positioned in the contexts of global competition among steel-producing countries, South Africa’s national development plan and the Greater Cape Town functional region. The aim is to explain the nature and extent of the relationship between a single secondary industry - ArcelorMittal Saldanha - and the economic development of the larger Saldanha region. Following a brief introduction and background to the Saldanha Bay region, the evolutionary economic geography (EEG approach and the role of institutions in the development of regions are reviewed. Saldanha Steel (ArcelorMittal, the pioneer industrial firm, is analysed by using a mixed-method approached, where semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey are the main research instruments. The contribution of Saldanha Steel to regional development is explored.